Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies
Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies
The current study examined the relationships between the specific strategies that preschool children use to regulate their emotions and childhood weight status to see if emotion regulation strategies would predict childhood weight status over and above measures of eating self-regulation. 185 4- to 5...
Power, Thomas G; Olivera, Yadira A; Hill, Rachael A; Beck, Ashley D; Hopwood, Veronica; Garcia, Karina Silva; Ramos, Guadalupe G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O
The current study examined the relationships between the specific strategies that preschool children use to regulate their emotions and childhood weight status to see if emotion regulation strategies would predict childhood weight status over and above measures of eating self-regulation. 185 4- to 5-year-old Latino children were recruited through Head Start centers in a large city in the southeastern U.S. Children completed both a delay of gratification task (emotion regulation) and an eating in the absence of hunger task (eating regulation). Eating regulation also was assessed by maternal reports. Four emotion regulation strategies were examined in the delay of gratification task: shut out stimuli, prevent movement, distraction, and attention to reward. Hierarchical linear regressions predicting children's weight status showed that both measures of eating regulation negatively predicted child obesity, and the use of prevent movement negatively predicted child obesity. Total wait time during the delay of gratification tasks was not a significant predictor. The current findings are consistent with studies showing that for preschool children, summary measures of emotion regulation (e.g., wait time) are not concurrently associated with child obesity. In contrast, the use of emotion regulation strategies was a significant predictor of lower child weight status. These findings help identify emotion regulation strategies that prevention programs can target for helping children regulate their emotions and decrease their obesity risk.
Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Moriyama, Tais Silveira; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade; Tamanaha, Ana Carina; Alvarenga, Pedro; Valle Krieger, Fernanda; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Jackowski, Andrea; Sato, João Ricardo; Brietzke, Elisa; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Brentani, Helena; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Do Rosário, Maria Conceição; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Mercadante, Marcos Tomanik; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto
The objective of this study is to present the rationale, methods, design and preliminary results from the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders. We describe the sample selection and the components of each phases of the study, its instruments, tasks and procedures. Preliminary results are limited to the baseline phase and encompass: (i) the efficacy of the oversampling procedure used to increase the frequency of both child and family psychopathology; (ii) interrater reliability and (iii) the role of differential participation rate. A total of 9937 children from 57 schools participated in the screening procedures. From those 2512 (random = 958; high risk = 1554) were further evaluated with diagnostic instruments. The prevalence of any child mental disorder in the random strata and high-risk strata was 19.9% and 29.7%. The oversampling procedure was successful in selecting a sample with higher family rates of any mental disorders according to diagnostic instruments. Interrater reliability (kappa) for the main diagnostic instrument range from 0.72 (hyperkinetic disorders) to 0.84 (emotional disorders). The screening instrument was successful in selecting a sub-sample with "high risk" for developing mental disorders. This study may help advance the field of child psychiatry and ultimately provide useful clinical information.
Treosulfan, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Renn, Tanya; Golder, Seana; Higgins, George; Logan, T K; Winham, Katherine M
The purpose of this study was to develop and test a conceptual model of the pathways through which childhood victimization influences adult health outcomes. Specifically, measures of high-risk behaviors, tobacco use, alcohol use, illegal substance use, and HIV risk behaviors were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between childhood victimization and adult physical health. The sample consisted of 406 women on probation and parole with a history of childhood victimization in Jefferson County, Kentucky. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between childhood victimization, high-risk behaviors, and physical health outcomes. The findings indicate partial mediation, with health risk behaviors accounting for 12.5% of the variance in the relationship between childhood victimization and health outcomes. Implications for policy and treatment practice in the health and criminal justice arena are discussed.
Zhang, L; Samad, A; Pombo-de-Oliveira, MS; Scelo, G; Smith, MT; Feusner, J; Wiemels, JL; Metayer, C
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) comprises approximately 5–10% of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases in the US. While variation in this percentage among other populations was noted previously, global patterns of childhood APL have not been thoroughly characterized. In this comprehensive review of childhood APL, we examined its geographic pattern and the potential contribution of environmental factors to observed variation. In 142 studies (spanning >60 countries) identified, variation was apparent—de novo APL represented from 2% (Switzerland) to >50% (Nicaragua) of childhood AML in different geographic regions. Because a limited number of previous studies addressed specific environmental exposures that potentially underlie childhood APL development, we gathered 28 childhood cases of therapy-related APL, which exemplified associations between prior exposures to chemotherapeutic drugs/radiation and APL diagnosis. Future population-based studies examining childhood APL patterns and the potential association with specific environmental exposures and other risk factors are needed. PMID:25445717
Campbell, Jennifer A.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Egede, Leonard E.
Introduction Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with early mortality and morbidity. This study evaluated the association among ACEs, high-risk health behaviors, and comorbid conditions, as well as the independent effect of ACE components. Methods Data were analyzed on 48,526 U.S. adults from five states in the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Exposures included psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse as well as household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, violence, and incarceration. Main outcome measures included risky behaviors and morbidity measures, including binge drinking, heavy drinking, current smoking, high-risk HIV behavior, obesity, diabetes, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, stroke, depression, disability due to poor health, and use of special equipment due to disability. Multiple logistic regression assessed the independent relationship between ACE score categories and risky behaviors/comorbidities in adulthood, and assessed the independent relationship between individual ACE components and risky behaviors/comorbid conditions in adulthood controlling for covariates. Results A total of 55.4% of respondents reported at least one ACE and 13.7% reported four or more ACEs. ACE score of ≥ 4 was associated with increased odds for binge drinking, heavy drinking, smoking, risky HIV behavior, diabetes, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, stroke, depression, disability due to health, and use of special equipment due to disability. In addition, the individual components had different effects on risky behavior and comorbidities. Conclusions In addition to having a cumulative effect, individual ACE components have differential relationships with risky behaviors, morbidity, and disability in adulthood after controlling for important confounders. PMID:26474668
Berthelot, Nicolas; Paccalet, Thomas; Gilbert, Elsa; Moreau, Isabel; Mérette, Chantal; Gingras, Nathalie; Rouleau, Nancie; Maziade, Michel
Background Millions of children are born to parents affected by major psychoses. Cognitive dysfunctions seen in patients are already detectable in these children. In parallel, childhood maltreatment increases the risk of adult psychoses through unknown mechanisms. We investigated whether high-risk offspring exposed to abuse/neglect displayed more cognitive precursors of adult psychoses in childhood and adolescence than nonexposed offspring. Methods We used a stepwise selection strategy from a 25-year follow-up of 48 densely affected kindreds including 1500 adults (405 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) to select high-risk offspring aged 6–22 years for inclusion in our study. All offspring were assessed for childhood trauma from direct interviews with the offspring, parents and relatives and from the review of lifetime medical records of parents and children and administered a neuropsychological battery including IQ and 4 of the most impaired neuropsychological domains in psychoses. Results Our study included 66 high-risk offspring. Those who were exposed to abuse/neglect had significantly lower IQ (effect size [ES] = 0.61) than nonexposed offspring and displayed poorer cognitive performance in visual episodic memory (ES = 0.67) and in executive functions of initiation (ES = 1.01). Moreover, exposed offspring presented more combinations of cognitive deficits that were associated with lower Global Assessment of Functioning scores. Limitations Exposure to abuse/neglect was not assessed in the control group, thus the study could not test whether the effect of childhood maltreatment occured only in a high-risk setting and not in the general population. Conclusion In high-risk youths, maltreatment in childhood/adolescence may negatively impact cognitive domains known to be impaired in adults with psychoses, suggesting an early mediating effect in the association between abuse/neglect and adult psychoses. This finding provides a target for future
Kuratsubo, Izumi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Kondo, Naomi
The purpose of this study was to assess mental health in parents of patients with the childhood cerebral form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (CCALD) and to investigate factors relating to psychological problems in order to improve clinical management and quality of life. Sixteen fathers and 21 mothers of patients with CCALD completed a battery of psychological examinations including the Beck Depression Inventory second edition (BDI-II), the General Health Questionnaire 60 (GHQ60), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Three fathers and 11 mothers showed high scores on the BDI-II, suggesting that they were in a depressive state. Depression in the mothers was serious as compared with previous reports. Six fathers and 11 mothers were considered to be in a state of neurosis, according to the results of the GHQ60. Four fathers and 8 mothers showed high levels of anxiety on the STAI. Health and social status of the mothers correlated with their mental health, and younger mothers with young patients tended to be more depressed. Thus, parents of patients with CCALD have a high risk of depression and neurosis. Understanding the mental state of these parents and improvements in the social support system including mental counseling, home nursing care, supports in workplace and community are necessary to prevent and treat psychological problems. Especially, early intervention for mental health problems should be provided for younger mothers with few years since the child's diagnosis.
Mosleh, Wassim; Adib, Keenan; Natdanai, Punnanithinont; Carmona-Rubio, Andres; Karki, Roshan; Paily, Jacienta; Ahmed, Mohamed Abdel-Aal; Vakkalanka, Sujit; Madam, Narasa; Gudleski, Gregory D; Chung, Charles; Sharma, Umesh C
Prior studies identified the incremental value of non-invasive imaging by CT-angiogram (CTA) to detect high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques. Due to their superficial locations, larger calibers and motion-free imaging, the carotid arteries provide the best anatomic access for the non-invasive characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. We aim to assess the ability of predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) or acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-risk carotid plaque features identified by CTA. We retrospectively examined carotid CTAs of 492 patients that presented with acute stroke to characterize the atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid arteries and examined development of acute MI and obstructive CAD within 12-months. Carotid lesions were defined in terms of calcifications (large or speckled), presence of low-attenuation plaques, positive remodeling, and presence of napkin ring sign. Adjusted relative risks were calculated for each plaque features. Patients with speckled (<3 mm) calcifications and/or larger calcifications on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year compared to patients without (adjusted RR of 7.51, 95%CI 1.26-73.42, P = 0.001). Patients with low-attenuation plaques on CTA had a higher risk of developing an MI and/or obstructive CAD within 1 year than patients without (adjusted RR of 2.73, 95%CI 1.19-8.50, P = 0.021). Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques also portended higher sensitivity (100 and 79.17%, respectively) for the development of acute MI. Presence of carotid calcifications and low-attenuation plaques can predict the risk of developing acute MI and/or obstructive CAD within 12-months. Given their high sensitivity, their absence can reliably exclude 12-month events.
Andrechuk, Carla Renata Silva; Ceolim, Maria Filomena
Objectives: to stratify the risk for obstructive sleep apnea in patients with acute myocardial infarction, treated at a public, tertiary, teaching hospital of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify related sociodemographic and clinical factors. Method: cross-sectional analytical study with 113 patients (mean age 59.57 years, 70.8% male). A specific questionnaire was used for the sociodemographic and clinical characterization and the Berlin Questionnaire for the stratification of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Results: the prevalence of high risk was 60.2% and the outcome of clinical worsening during hospitalization was more frequent among these patients. The factors related to high risk were body mass index over 30 kg/m2, arterial hypertension and waist circumference indicative of cardiovascular risk, while older age (60 years and over) constituted a protective factor. Conclusion: considering the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and its relation to clinical worsening, it is suggested that nurses should monitor, in their clinical practice, people at high risk for this syndrome, guiding control measures of modifiable factors and aiming to prevent the associated complications, including worsening of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26487128
Shephard, Elizabeth; Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Pasco, Greg; Jones, Emily J H; Gliga, Teodora; Happé, Francesca; Johnson, Mark H; Charman, Tony
Almost one-in-five infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), due to having an older sibling with an ASD diagnosis, develop ASD themselves by age 3 years. Less is known about the longer-term outcomes of high-risk infants. To address this issue, we examined symptoms of ASD and associated developmental conditions (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); anxiety), language, IQ, and adaptive behaviour at age 7 years in high- and low-risk children studied from infancy. We compared outcomes between high-risk children who met criteria for ASD at age 7, high-risk children without ASD, and low-risk control children. Diagnostic stability between 3 and 7 years was moderate. High-risk siblings with ASD showed elevated levels of ADHD and anxiety symptoms and lower adaptive behaviour than low-risk control children. High-risk siblings without ASD had higher repetitive behaviours, lower adaptive functioning, and elevated scores on one anxiety subscale (Separation Anxiety) compared to low-risk controls. The findings indicate that the difficulties experienced by high-risk siblings at school age extend beyond ASD symptoms. Better understanding of these difficulties may improve models of the development of co-occurring problems seen in children with ASD. Autism Res 2016. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pinto, Ricardo José; Fernandes, Ana Isabel; Mesquita, Cristina; Maia, Ângela Costa
The literature has shown that delinquent adolescents report high rates of childhood adversity and family dysfunction. However, it is important to know both the degree of adversity among delinquent adolescents in comparison with other high-risk samples and the contribution of each single form of adversity to this comparison. The purpose of this study was to evaluate childhood adversity, psychopathology, and risk behaviors among 4 high-risk groups, including incarcerated delinquent youths. The participants were 120 male youths between 13 and 19 years old (M = 16.18, SD = 1.26), including 30 youths who were arrested and held in detention centers as a consequence of violent crimes; 30 youths who were identified by Child Protective Services (CPS) and remained with their families; 30 youths who were identified by CPS, removed from their homes, and placed in child and youth residential care; and 30 youths who were randomly selected from schools. The incarcerated youths reported significantly more adversity, global psychopathology, and global index of risk behaviors. When considering each risk behavior, the incarcerated youths reported higher percentages of alcohol abuse, drug use, early smoking initiation, physical assault, carrying weapons, early initiation of sexual intercourse, sexual intercourse under the influence of drugs, and sexual intercourse without condom use. The logistic regression analyses showed that only emotional neglect was significantly associated with delinquency. This study suggests that delinquent youths are exposed to a great magnitude of adversities in childhood, with emotional neglect as an independent risk factor for delinquency. In addition, these youths have higher rates of psychopathology and risk behaviors compared to other high-risk samples.
Mazzoni, Paola; Kimhy, David; Khan, Shamir; Posner, Kelly; Maayan, Lawrence; Eilenberg, Mara; Messinger, Julie; Kestenbaum, Clarice
Abstract Reasons Schizophrenia is typically an adult neurodevelopmental disorder that has its antecedents in childhood and adolescence. Little is known about disorders “usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood and adolescence” (e.g., childhood-onset disorders) in “prodromal” teens at heightened clinical risk for psychotic disorder. Main Findings Childhood-onset disorders were prevalent in putatively prodromal teens, including anxiety and disruptive disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and, surprisingly, elimination disorders. These may reflect developmental antecedents in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Key Data and Statistics A case series of 9 teens (ages 13–17) identified as prodromal to psychosis were evaluated with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia–Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). Childhood-onset diagnoses commonly endorsed (threshold or subthreshold) included ADHD (5/9), oppositional defiant disorder (5/9), enuresis or encopresis (4/9), conduct disorder (2/9), separation anxiety (3/9), and transient tic disorder (2/9). Enuresis was identified in 3 of the 4 older teens (ages 15–17). Major Conclusions An understanding of the childhood-onset disorders that occur in teens at risk for psychotic illnesses, such as schizophrenia, can shed light on the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and potentially inform early identification and intervention. PMID:20035596
Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.
This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…
Aversa, Franco; Reisner, Yair; Martelli, Massimo F
Since 75% of patients with high-risk acute leukemia do not have a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling, alternative sources for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are matched unrelated donors (MUD), unrelated umbilical cord blood (UD-UCB) and one HLA haplotype mismatched family members (haploidentical). The chance of finding a suitable donor in the international voluntary donor registries is limited by frequency of the HLA phenotype and the time required to identify the right donor from a potential panel, to establish eligibility and to harvest the cells. In adult MUD recipients, event-free survival ranges up to 50% and refers only to patients who undergo transplant, without taking into account those who do not find a donor. Umbilical cord blood offers the advantages of easy procurement, the absence of risks to donors, the reduced risk of transmitting infections, immediate availability of cryopreserved samples and acceptance of mismatches at two of the six antigens. Although UD-UCB transplantation is a viable option for children, it is seldom considered for adults. The great divergency between body weight and the number of hematopoietic cells in a standard cord blood unit, particularly if associated with a two-antigen mismatch, increases the risk of graft failure and delays hematopoietic reconstitution. Work on full-haplotype mismatched transplants has been proceeding for over 20 years. Originally, outcome in leukemia patients was disappointing because of high incidence of severe graft-vs.-host disease in T-replete transplants and high rejection rates in T-cell-depleted transplants. The breakthrough came with the use of a megadose of T-cell-depleted progenitor cells after a high-intensity conditioning regimen. Treating end-stage patients inevitably confounded clinical outcome in the early pilot studies. Today, high-risk acute leukemia patients are treated at less advanced stages of disease, receive a reasonably well tolerated conditioning
Salina, Thais Ditolvo da Costa; Ferreira, Yvelise Antunes; Alves, Eliana Brasil; Ferreira, Cristina Motta; De Paula, Erich Vinícius; Mira, Marcelo Távora; Passos, Leny da Mota
Risk stratification and treatment intensification, based on minimal residual disease (MRD) mensurement, changed the prognosis of pediatric patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). The main aim of this study was to investigate whether peripheral blood (PB) MRD measurement at day 8 (D8) could predict the risk stratification category determined by bone marrow (BM) MRD at day 15 (D15). The study was performed prospectively, in a cohort of 40 children with B-lineage ALL, adopting the protocol of the Brazilian Cooperative Group of the Treatment Childhood Leukemia (GBTLI-2009). MRD was detected by flow cytometry (FC) using a simplifed panel that can reliably identify MRD at early phases of induction therapy. Upon diagnosis, the proportion of low and high-risk patients, was 24:16 (60%:40%). The main result of our study demonstrated the potential of D8 MRD in anticipating of week the risk stratification of high-risk patients as determined by D15 BM MRD. In these patients D8 MRD level of 1% was able to segregate high risk fast responders from high risk slow responders (p = 0.0097). This result could represent an opportunity for early treatment intensification, as already performed in some protocols. PMID:27526794
Chiba, Y.; Hikita, K.; Matuba, T.; Chosa, T.; Kyogoku, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Z.
OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis, including 2 of wild poliomyelitis. Import of poliomyelitis was thus considered to have occurred frequently until 1996 in this border area of Yunnan. These data were important for the outbreak response immunization carried out in 1996 in the border prefectures of Yunnan. CONCLUSION: Our investigation confirmed a high level of AFP surveillance in poliomyelitis high-risk areas of the five provinces and provided valuable information on the interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in southern China that will be of use to countries in other regions that have
Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Chen-Wang; Chu, Cheng-Hsin
Emergency cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (AC) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in elderly patients with significant comorbidities. The aim of this study was to evaluate percutaneous cholecystostomy for AC in elderly patients with various coexisting diseases. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 4311 patients with AC treated in Mackay Memorial Hospital between the years 2000 and 2015. The clinical course of AC was compared between nonelderly (age ≤70 years) and elderly patients (age>70 years). In total, 67 elderly patients and 32 nonelderly patients received percutaneous cholecystostomy. The rate of percutaneous cholecystostomy increased between the years 2011 and 2015 (from 2.5% to 12.2%) and this procedure was more common in the elderly group (p=0.009). In addition, the comorbidities of ischemic heart disease and chronic kidney disease were higher in elderly than in nonelderly patients (p=0.014 and p=0.015, respectively). The American Society of Anesthesiologists' classification was higher in the elderly patients (p=0.001). The overall survival-free rate of recurrent cholecystitis in patients who did not receive cholecystectomy was not significantly different in the two groups. When compared with emergent cholecystectomy in high-risk elderly patients, percutaneous cholecystostomy resulted in reduced hospital stay and morbidity (p=0.002 and p=0.013, respectively). Our results demonstrate that percutaneous cholecystostomy has become a common and early treatment for AC in high-risk elderly patients with ischemic heart disease or chronic kidney disease. Identifying such patients will possibly improve clinical outcomes, reduce hospital stay and morbidity, and facilitate delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Piquet, Jacques; Chavaillon, Jean-Michel; David, Philippe; Martin, Francis; Blanchon, François; Roche, Nicolas
The aim of this study was to assess long-term mortality and predictive factors of death after hospital admission for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 1824 patients (23.2% female; mean age 70.3±11.3 years) consecutively admitted for acute exacerbation of COPD in the respiratory medicine departments of 68 general hospitals between October 2006 and June 2007 were prospectively enrolled in a follow-up cohort. Their vital status was documented between October 2010 and April 2011. Vital status was available for 1750 patients (95.9%), among whom 787 (45%) died during follow-up. Multivariate analysis found that age (60-80 years and ≥80 years versus <60 years, relative risk 2.99, 95% CI 2.31-3.89), lower body mass index (25-30 kg·m(-2) versus ≤20 kg·m(-2), relative risk 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.97), lung cancer (relative risk 2.08, 95% CI 1.43-3.01), cardiovascular comorbidity (relative risk 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.58), previous hospital admissions for acute exacerbation of COPD (four or more versus none, relative risk 1.91, 95% CI 1.44-2.53), use of accessory respiratory muscles (relative risk 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40) or lower-limb oedema (relative risk 1.74, 95% CI (1.44-2.12)) at admission and treatment by long-term oxygen therapy at discharge (relative risk 2.09, 95% CI 1.79-2.45) were independent risk factors of death. Mortality rate during the 4 years following hospital admission for acute exacerbation of COPD was high (45%). Simple clinical information relating to respiratory and general status can help in identifying high-risk patients and targeting more intensive follow-up and care. Interestingly, cardiovascular comorbidities and past hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of COPD, but not forced expiratory volume in 1 s, independently predicted the risk of death.
Carroll, William L.; Hunger, Stephen P.
Purpose of the review The prognosis for children with the most common childhood malignancy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved dramatically. However the burden of therapy can be substantial with long term side effects and certain subgroups continue to have a poor outcome. Recent Advances The recent discovery of new genetic alterations in high risk subsets provide targets for precision medicine-based interventions using existing FDA approved agents. Novel immunotherapeutic approaches are being deployed in relapsed ALL, one of the leading causes of cancer cell death in children. Moreover genomic analysis has charted the evolution of tumor subclones and relapse specific alterations now provide a mechanistic explanation for drug resistance setting the stage for targeted therapy. There is greater recognition that host factors, genetic polymorphisms, influence cancer risk, response to therapy and toxicity. In the future it is anticipated that they will be integrated into clinical decision making to maximize cure and minimize side effects. Recent efforts to limit prophylactic central nervous system irradiation have been successful thereby sparing many children late neurocognitive impairments. Summary Integration of advances in precision medicine approaches and novel agents will continue to increase the cure rate and decrease the burden of therapy for childhood ALL. PMID:26576011
Beliavsky, Alina; Perry, Jeffrey J.; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Wasserman, Jason; Sivilotti, Marco L.A.; Sutherland, Jane; Worster, Andrew; Émond, Marcel; Stotts, Grant; Jin, Albert Y.; Oczkowski, Wieslaw J.; Sahlas, Demetrios J.; Murray, Heather E.; MacKey, Ariane; Verreault, Steve; Wells, George A.; Stiell, Ian G.; Sharma, Mukul
median ABCD2 score of 5 for the isolated dysarthria cohort). After adjusting for covariates, isolated dysarthria independently predicted stroke within 90 days (aOR: 3.96; 95% CI: 1.3-11.9; p = 0.014). Conclusions The isolated dysarthria cohort carried a recurrent stroke risk comparable to that predicted by the median ABCD2 scores. Although isolated dysarthria is a nonspecific and uncommon clinical presentation of TIA, these findings support the need to view it first and foremost as a vascular presentation until proven otherwise and to manage such patients as if they were at high risk of stroke in accordance with established high-risk TIA guidelines. PMID:25298772
B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Bone Necrosis; Central Nervous System Leukemia; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Pain; Testicular Leukemia; Therapy-Related Toxicity; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Background Worldwide, acute leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer. It is particularly common in the Hispanic populations residing in the United States, Costa Rica, and Mexico City. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of acute leukemia in children who were diagnosed and treated in public hospitals in Mexico City. Methods Included in this study were those children, under 15 years of age and residents of Mexico City, who were diagnosed in 2006 and 2007 with leukemia, as determined by using the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. The average annual incidence rates (AAIR), and the standardized average annual incidence rates (SAAIR) per million children were calculated. We calculated crude, age- and sex-specific incidence rates and adjusted for age by the direct method with the world population as standard. We determined if there were a correlation between the incidence of acute leukemias in the various boroughs of Mexico City and either the number of agricultural hectares, the average number of persons per household, or the municipal human development index for Mexico (used as a reference of socio-economic level). Results Although a total of 610 new cases of leukemia were registered during 2006-2007, only 228 fit the criteria for inclusion in this study. The overall SAAIR was 57.6 per million children (95% CI, 46.9-68.3); acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was the most frequent type of leukemia, constituting 85.1% of the cases (SAAIR: 49.5 per million), followed by acute myeloblastic leukemia at 12.3% (SAAIR: 6.9 per million), and chronic myeloid leukemia at 1.7% (SAAIR: 0.9 per million). The 1-4 years age group had the highest SAAIR for ALL (77.7 per million). For cases of ALL, 73.2% had precursor B-cell immunophenotype (SAAIR: 35.8 per million) and 12.4% had T-cell immunophenotype (SAAIR 6.3 per million). The peak ages for ALL were 2-6 years and 8-10 years. More than half the children (58.8%) were classified as high
Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Jain, Nitin; Roberts, Kathryn G; Jabbour, Elias; Patel, Keyur; Eterovic, Agda Karina; Chen, Ken; Zweidler-McKay, Patrick; Lu, Xinyan; Fawcett, Gloria; Wang, Sa A; Konoplev, Sergej; Harvey, Richard C; Chen, I-Ming; Payne-Turner, Debbie; Valentine, Marcus; Thomas, Deborah; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Ravandi, Farhad; Cortes, Jorge; Kornblau, Steven; O'Brien, Susan; Pierce, Sherry; Jorgensen, Jeffrey; Shaw, Kenna R Mills; Willman, Cheryl L; Mullighan, Charles G; Kantarjian, Hagop; Konopleva, Marina
Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a high-risk subtype of ALL in children. There are conflicting data on the incidence and prognosis of Ph-like ALL in adults. Patients with newly diagnosed B-cell ALL (B-ALL) who received frontline chemotherapy at MD Anderson Cancer Center underwent gene expression profiling of leukemic cells. Of 148 patients, 33.1% had Ph-like, 31.1% had Ph(+), and 35.8% had other B-ALL subtypes (B-other). Within the Ph-like ALL cohort, 61% had cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2) overexpression. Patients with Ph-like ALL had significantly worse overall survival (OS), and event-free survival compared with B-other with a 5-year survival of 23% (vs 59% for B-other, P = .006). Sixty-eight percent of patients with Ph-like ALL were of Hispanic ethnicity. The following were associated with inferior OS on multivariable analysis: age (hazard ratio [HR], 3.299; P < .001), white blood cell count (HR, 1.910; P = .017), platelet count (HR, 7.437; P = .005), and Ph-like ALL (HR, 1.818; P = .03). Next-generation sequencing of the CRLF2(+) group identified mutations in the JAK-STAT and Ras pathway in 85% of patients, and 20% had a CRLF2 mutation. Within the CRLF2(+) group, JAK2 mutation was associated with inferior outcomes. Our findings show high frequency of Ph-like ALL in adults, an increased frequency of Ph-like ALL in adults of Hispanic ethnicity, significantly inferior outcomes of adult patients with Ph-like ALL, and significantly worse outcomes in the CRLF2(+) subset of Ph-like ALL. Novel strategies are needed to improve the outcome of these patients.
Causadias, Jose M.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Sroufe, L. Alan
The present study examines two childhood markers of self-regulation, ego control and ego resiliency, as promotive factors for the development of global adjustment and as risk factors for the development of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in a high-risk sample. Teachers and observers rated ego control and ego resiliency when…
Rivera-Luna, R; Cárdenas-Cardos, R; Martínez-Guerra, G; Ayón, A; Leal, C; Rivera-Ortegón, F
Infectious complications are the leading cause of mortality in children with acute leukemia. Despite the fact that intestinal parasitosis is a rather frequent finding and a health problem in underdeveloped countries, in our experience the incidence of helminthic and protozoan infections among children with leukemia is uncommon. We analyzed 54 consecutive patients with leukemia in a period of 5 years, and only seven (12.9%) had intestinal parasites, four of whom died because of the infection or complication by the parasites. One hundred children without any malignancy were the control group, 26 (26%) of whom had intestinal parasitosis. When we compared the frequency of parasitosis in the control group with the children with leukemia and parasitosis, we found a statistical difference (p less than 0.05). We speculate that parasitic infections may reduce the risk of childhood leukemia.
Mosack, Katie E; Randolph, Mary E; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R
This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by being intoxicated during sex and engaging in sex work, whereas the association between relational control and unprotected sex was not mediated by contextual factors for the childhood sexual abuse group. The mechanisms of risk are different for those with divergent childhood sexual abuse histories and thus interventions should be developed to educate women with a history of childhood sexual abuse about ways to avoid revictimization, particularly within a context of poverty, prostitution, and drug use.
Ishii, Kentaro; Ogino, Ryo; Hosokawa, Yukinari; Fujioka, Chiaki; Okada, Wataru; Nakahara, Ryota; Kawamorita, Ryu; Tada, Takuhito; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Nakajima, Toshifumi
The objectives of this study were to evaluate dosimetric quality and acute toxicity of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and daily image guidance in high-risk prostate cancer patients. A total of 100 consecutive high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with definitive VMAT with prophylactic whole-pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) were enrolled. All patients were treated with a double-arc VMAT plan delivering 52 Gy to the prostate planning target volume (PTV), while simultaneously delivering 46.8 Gy to the pelvic nodal PTV in 26 fractions, followed by a single-arc VMAT plan delivering 26 Gy to the prostate PTV in 13 fractions. Image-guided RT was performed with daily cone-beam computed tomography. Dose–volume parameters for the PTV and the organs at risk (OARs), total number of monitor units (MUs) and treatment time were evaluated. Acute toxicity was assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. All dosimetric parameters met the present plan acceptance criteria. Mean MU and treatment time were 471 and 146 s for double-arc VMAT, respectively, and were 520 and 76 s for single-arc VMAT, respectively. No Grade 3 or higher acute toxicity was reported. Acute Grade 2 proctitis, diarrhea, and genitourinary toxicity occurred in 12 patients (12%), 6 patients (6%) and 13 patients (13%), respectively. The present study demonstrated that VMAT for WPRT in prostate cancer results in favorable PTV coverage and OAR sparing with short treatment time and an acceptable rate of acute toxicity. These findings support the use of VMAT for delivering WPRT to high-risk prostate cancer patients. PMID:25304328
Yang, Jun J.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Pieters, Rob; Schrappe, Martin; Biondi, Andrea; Vora, Ajay; Baruchel, André; Silverman, Lewis B.; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Escherich, Gabriele; Horibe, Keizo; Benoit, Yves C.M.; Izraeli, Shai; Yeoh, Allen Eng Juh; Liang, Der-Cherng; Downing, James R.; Evans, William E.; Relling, Mary V.; Mullighan, Charles G.
Purpose To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. Methods A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was reviewed and revised by the committee chairs of the major ALL study groups. Results With long-term survival rates for ALL approaching 90% and the advent of high-resolution genome-wide analyses, several international study groups or consortia were established to conduct collaborative research to further improve outcome. As a result, treatment strategies have been improved for several subtypes of ALL, such as infant, MLL-rearranged, Philadelphia chromosome–positive, and Philadelphia chromosome–like ALL. Many recurrent genetic abnormalities that respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and multiple genetic determinants of drug resistance and toxicities have been identified to help develop targeted therapy. Several genetic polymorphisms have been recognized that show susceptibility to developing ALL and that help explain the racial/ethnic differences in the incidence of ALL. Conclusion The information gained from collaborative studies has helped decipher the heterogeneity of ALL to help improve personalized treatment, which will further advance the current high cure rate and the quality of life for children and adolescents with ALL. PMID:26304874
Kraan, Tamar C; Ising, Helga K; Fokkema, Marjolein; Velthorst, Eva; van den Berg, David P G; Kerkhoven, Margot; Veling, Wim; Smit, Filip; Linszen, Don H; Nieman, Dorien H; Wunderink, Lex; Boonstra, Nynke; Klaassen, Rianne M C; Dragt, Sara; Rietdijk, Judith; de Haan, Lieuwe; van der Gaag, Mark
Childhood adversity is associated with a range of mental disorders, functional impairment and higher health care costs in adulthood. In this study we evaluated if childhood adversity was predictive of adverse clinical and functional outcomes and health care costs in a sample of patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for developing a psychosis. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the effect of childhood adversity on depression, anxiety, transition to psychosis and overall functioning at 4-year follow-up. In addition, we evaluated economic costs of childhood adversity in terms of health care use and productivity loss. Data pertain to 105 UHR participants of the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL). Physical abuse was associated with higher depression rates (b=0.381, p=0.012) and lower social functional outcome (b=-0.219, p=0.017) at 4-year follow-up. In addition, emotional neglect was negatively associated with social functioning (b=-0.313, p=0.018). We did not find evidence that childhood adversity was associated with transition to psychosis, but the experience of childhood adversity was associated with excess health care costs at follow-up. The data indicate long-term negative effects of childhood adversity on depression, social functioning and health care costs at follow-up in a sample of UHR patients.
Maia, Flavia C; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Drager, Luciano F.; Staniak, Henrique L.; Santos, Itamar de Souza; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Bensenor, Isabela M.
Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a very often clinical condition that can be associated with high mortality risk, particularly in coronary heart disease (CHD). The diagnosis of OSA is not always accessible via the gold-standard method polysomnography. Objective To evaluate long-term influence of the high risk for OSA on fatal and non-fatal outcomes after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Registry Strategy (ERICO) Study using the Berlin questionnaire as a surrogate. Methods Berlin questionnaire, a screening questionnaire for OSA, was applied in 639 cases of ACS 30 days after the index event. Cox regression proportional-hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause, cardiovascular and CHD (myocardial infarction) mortality, as well as, the combined endpoint of fatal or recurrent non-fatal CHD. Results The high-risk group for OSA had higher frequencies of previous personal/family history of CHD and diabetes, in addition to a poorer event-free survival, as compared to the low-risk group (p-log-rank=0.03). The HR for fatal or recurrent non-fatal CHD was 4.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.18 - 15.36) in patients at high risk for OSA compared to those at low risk for OSA after a 2.6-year mean follow-up. Conclusions Using Berlin questionnaire, we were able to identify high risk for OSA as an independent predictor of non-fatal reinfarction or CHD mortality in post-ACS individuals in a long-term follow-up. PMID:28146212
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with translocation t(4;11) is a high-risk leukemia found in 60-85% of infants with ALL and is often refractory to conventional chemotherapeutics after relapse. Although resveratrol is able to kill high-risk leukemia in vitro, this agent has not been evaluated agai...
Pervez, Nadeem; Small, Cormac; MacKenzie, Marc; Yee, Don; Parliament, Matthew; Ghosh, Sunita; Mihai, Alina; Amanie, John; Murtha, Albert; Field, Colin; Murray, David; Fallone, Gino; Pearcey, Robert
Purpose: To report acute toxicity resulting from radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation and hypofractionation using intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) treatment combined with androgen suppression in high-risk prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients with a histological diagnosis of high-risk prostatic adenocarcinoma (having either a clinical Stage of >=T3a or an initial prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of >=20 ng/ml or a Gleason score of 8 to 10 or a combination of a PSA concentration of >15 ng/ml and a Gleason score of 7) were enrolled. RT prescription was 68 Gy in 25 fractions (2.72 Gy/fraction) over 5 weeks to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles. The pelvic lymph nodes and distal seminal vesicles concurrently received 45 Gy in 25 fractions. The patients were treated with helical TomoTherapy-based IMRT and underwent daily megavoltage CT image-guided verification prior to each treatment. Acute toxicity scores were recorded weekly during RT and at 3 months post-RT, using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity scales. Results: All patients completed RT and follow up for 3 months. The maximum acute toxicity scores were as follows: 21 (35%) patients had Grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity; 4 (6.67%) patients had Grade 3 genitourinary (GU) toxicity; and 30 (33.33%) patients had Grade 2 GU toxicity. These toxicity scores were reduced after RT; there were only 8 (13.6%) patients with Grade 1 GI toxicity, 11 (18.97%) with Grade 1 GU toxicity, and 5 (8.62%) with Grade 2 GU toxicity at 3 months follow up. Only the V60 to the rectum correlated with the GI toxicity. Conclusion: Dose escalation using a hypofractionated schedule to the prostate with concurrent pelvic lymph node RT and long-term androgen suppression therapy is well tolerated acutely. Longer follow up for outcome and late toxicity is required.
Catania, Joseph A.; Paul, Jay; Osmond, Dennis; Folkman, Susan; Pollack, Lance; Canchola, Jesse; Chang, Jason; Neilands, Torsten
Objective Mediators of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behavior were examined for men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Method Data from a dual frame survey of urban MSM (N = 1078) provided prevalence estimates of CSA, and a test of two latent variable models (defined by partner type) of CSA-risk behavior mediators. Results A 20% prevalence of CSA was reported. For MSM in secondary sexual relationships, our modeling work identified two over-arching but inter-related pathways (e.g., both pathways include effects on interpersonal skills) linking CSA and high-risk behavior: 1) CSA-Motivation-Scripts-Skills-Risk Behavior, and 2) CSA-Motivation-Coping-Risk Appraisal-Skills-Risk Behavior. For men in primary relationships, there was one over-arching pathway including CSA-Motivation-Coping-Risk Appraisal- Risk Behavior processes. Exploratory analyses indicated that men with a history of CSA in only primary relationships vs only secondary relationships had, for example, fewer motivational problems, and better coping and interpersonal skills. Conclusions CSA contributes to the ongoing HIV epidemic among MSM by distorting or undermining critical motivational, coping, and interpersonal factors that, in turn, influence adult sexual risk behavior. Further, the type of adult relationships men engage serve as markers for adult CSA-related problems. The findings are discussed in the context of current theory and HIV prevention strategies. Practice Implications Direct extrapolation from our findings to practice is limited. However, there are general implications that may be drawn. First, the complex challenges faced by men with severe CSA experiences may limit the effectiveness of typical short-term HIV risk reduction programs; more intensive treatment may be needed. Secondly, Clinical Psychologists and Psychiatrists with MSM patients with CSA histories should, if not already, routinely consider issues of sexual health; patterns and types of sexual partners may be useful
Harrison, Christine J
Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21) defines a distinct cytogenetic subgroup of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Breakage-fusion-bridge cycles followed by chromothripsis and other complex structural rearrangements of chromosome 21 underlie the mechanism giving rise to iAMP21. Patients with iAMP21 are older (median age 9 years), with a low white cell count. They have a high relapse rate when treated as standard risk. Recent studies have shown improved outcome on intensive therapy. Molecular targets for therapy are being sought.
Raby, K Lee; Labella, Madelyn H; Martin, Jodi; Carlson, Elizabeth A; Roisman, Glenn I
The present report used data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation to investigate the factor structure and childhood abuse and/or neglect related antecedents of adults' attachment states of mind in a high-risk sample. Adult Attachment Interviews (AAIs) were collected when participants were age 26 years (N = 164) and Current Relationship Interviews (CRIs) were collected from participants (N = 116) and their romantic partners when target participants were between ages 20 and 28 years (M = 25.3 years). For both the AAI and the CRI, exploratory factor analyses revealed that (a) attachment state of mind scales loaded on two weakly correlated dimensions reflecting dismissing and preoccupied states of mind and (b) ratings of unresolved discourse loaded on the same factor as indicators of preoccupied states of mind. Experiencing any subtype of abuse and/or neglect, especially during multiple developmental periods, and experiencing multiple subtypes of abuse and/or neglect during childhood were associated with risk for preoccupied (but not dismissing) AAI states of mind regarding childhood relationships with caregivers. Analyses focused on the particular subtypes, and perpetrators indicated that the predictive significance of childhood abuse/neglect for adult's AAI preoccupied states of mind was specific to experiences of abuse (but not neglect) perpetrated by primary caregivers. In addition, experiencing chronic or multiple subtypes of childhood abuse and/or neglect increased risk for dismissing (but not preoccupied) CRI states of mind regarding adult romantic partners.
Zhao, Hai-Zhao; Jia, Ming; Luo, Ze-Bin; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Li, Si-Si; Zhang, Jing-Ying; Guo, Xiao-Ping; Tang, Yong-Min
The ETS-related gene (ERG) has been demonstrated to be associated with overall survival in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia and acute T cell-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in adult patients. However, there are no data available regarding the impact of ERG expression on childhood ALL. In the present study, ERG expression levels were analyzed in bone marrow samples from 119 ALL pediatric patients. ALL patients demonstrated higher ERG expression compared with the controls (P<0.0001). In addition, low ERG expression identified a group of patients with higher white blood cell counts (P=0.011), higher percentages of T-ALL immunophenotype (P=0.027), and higher relapse rates (P=0.009). Survival analyses demonstrated that low ERG expression was associated with inferior relapse-free survival (RFS) in childhood ALL (P=0.036) and was an independent prognostic factor in multivariable analyses for RFS. In conclusion, low ERG expression is associated with poor outcomes and may be used to serve as a molecular prognostic marker to identify patients with a high risk of relapse in childhood ALL.
Vézina, Johanne; Hébert, Martine; Poulin, François; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E
This study aims to document the prevalence of repeated patterns of dating victimization and to examine, within the frameworks of an ecological model and lifestyle/routine activities theories, associations between such patterns and family, peer, and individual factors. Dating victimization in adolescence (age 15) and early adulthood (age 21) was evaluated in 443 female participants. Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that history of family violence, childhood behavior problems, and adolescent high-risk behaviors were associated with an increased risk for girls of being victimized (psychologically and/or physically/sexually) in their dating relationships, either in adolescence or early adulthood, or at both developmental periods.
Acute childhood malnutrition affects about a tenth of the world's children under 5 years of age, particularly those living in circumstances of extreme poverty in the developing world. Malnutrition is typically the result of an inadequate diet and is one of the most common diagnoses in children in he...
Nysom, K.; Holm, K.; Olsen, J. H.; Hertz, H.; Hesse, B.
The aim of this study was to examine pulmonary function after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood and identify risk factors for reduced pulmonary function. We studied a population-based cohort of 94 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood who were in first remission after treatment without spinal irradiation or bone marrow transplantation. Pulmonary function test results were compared with reference values for our laboratory, based on 348 healthy subjects who had never smoked from a local population study. A median of 8 years after cessation of therapy (range 1-18 years) the participants had a slight, subclinical, restrictive ventilatory insufficiency and reduced transfer factor and transfer coefficient. The changes in lung function were related to younger age at treatment and to more dose-intensive treatment protocols that specified more use of cranial irradiation and higher cumulative doses of anthracyclines, cytosine arabinoside and intravenous cyclophosphamide than previous protocols. We conclude that, 8 years after treatment without bone marrow transplantation or spinal irradiation, survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first remission were without pulmonary symptoms but had signs of slight restrictive pulmonary disease including reduced transfer factor. The increased dose intensity of many recent protocols for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia may lead to increased late pulmonary toxicity. PMID:9662245
Laboratory-Treated T Cells in Treating Patients With High-Risk Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Previously Treated With Donor Stem Cell Transplant
Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Rahim, Mohd Aizat Abdul; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Ahmad, Wan Azman Wan; Hashim, Onn Haji
Human saliva plays a pivotal role in digesting food and maintaining oral hygiene. The presence of electrolytes, mucus, glycoproteins, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and gingival crevicular fluid in saliva ensures the optimum condition of oral cavity and general health condition. Saliva collection has been proven non-invasive, convenient, and inexpensive compared to conventional venipuncture procedure. These distinctive advantages provide a promising potential of saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Through comprehensive analysis, an array of salivary proteins and peptides may be beneficial as biomarkers in oral and systemic diseases. In this review, we discuss the utility of human salivary proteomes and tabulate the recent salivary biomarkers found in subjects with acute myocardial infarction as well as respective methods employed. In a clinical setting, since acute myocardial infarction contributes to large cases of mortality worldwide, an early intervention using these biomarkers will provide an effective solution to reduce global heart attack incidence particularly among its high-risk group of type-2 diabetes mellitus patients. The utility of salivary biomarkers will make the prediction of this cardiac event possible due to its reliability hence improve the quality of life of the patients. Current challenges in saliva collection are also addressed to improve the quality of saliva samples and produce robust biomarkers for future use in clinical applications. PMID:25897294
Brian, Jessica; Bryson, Susan E; Smith, Isabel M; Roberts, Wendy; Roncadin, Caroline; Szatmari, Peter; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
Considerable evidence on autism spectrum disorder emergence comes from longitudinal high-risk samples (i.e. younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder). Diagnostic stability to age 3 is very good when diagnosed as early as 18-24 months, but sensitivity is weaker, and relatively little is known beyond toddlerhood. We examined stability and change in blinded, clinical best-estimate diagnosis from age 3 to middle childhood (mean age = 9.5 years) in 67 high-risk siblings enrolled in infancy. Good agreement emerged for clinical best-estimate diagnoses (89.6% overall; kappa = 0.76, p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval = 0.59-0.93). At age 3, 18 cases (26.9%) were classified with "autism spectrum disorder": 17 retained their autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (94.4%; 13 boys, 4 girls) and 1 no longer met autism spectrum disorder criteria at follow-up. Among "non-autism spectrum disorder" cases at age 3, 43/49 remained non-autism spectrum disorder at follow-up (87.8%; 22 boys, 21 girls) and 6/49 met lower autism symptomatology criteria ("Later-Diagnosed"; 3 boys, 3 girls). Later-diagnosed cases had significantly lower autism spectrum disorder symptomatology and higher receptive language at age 3 and trends toward lower autism symptoms and higher cognitive abilities at follow-up. Emerging developmental concerns were noted in all later-diagnosed cases, by age 3 or 5. High-risk children need to be followed up into middle childhood, particularly when showing differences in autism-related domains.
Tan, P; Wei, A; Mithraprabhu, S; Cummings, N; Liu, H B; Perugini, M; Reed, K; Avery, S; Patil, S; Walker, P; Mollee, P; Grigg, A; D'Andrea, R; Dear, A; Spencer, A
Therapeutic options are limited for elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A phase Ib/II study was undertaken to evaluate the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and preliminary efficacy of the pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) in combination with azacitidine in patients with AML or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) naïve to intensive chemotherapy. Thirty-nine patients (AML=29, MDS=10) received azacitidine 75 mg/m2 subcutaneously (days 1–5) and oral panobinostat (starting on day 5, thrice weekly for seven doses) in 28-day cycles until toxicity or disease progression. Dose-limiting toxicities during the phase Ib stage were observed in 0/4 patients receiving 10 mg panobinostat, in 1/7 patients (fatigue) receiving 20 mg, in 1/6 patients (fatigue) receiving 30 mg and in 4/5 patients (fatigue, syncope, hyponatremia and somnolence) receiving 40 mg. In phase II, an additional 17 patients received panobinostat at a MTD of 30 mg. The overall response rate (ORR=CR+CRi+PR) in patients with AML was 31% (9/29) and that in patients with MDS was 50% (5/10). After a median follow-up of 13 months, the median overall survival was 8 and 16 months in patients with AML and MDS, respectively. Increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation was a useful early biomarker of clinical response. Combining panobinostat with azacitidine was tolerable and clinically active in high-risk MDS/AML patients, warranting further exploration. PMID:24413064
Tasian, Sarah K; Loh, Mignon L; Hunger, Stephen P
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common malignancy of childhood, is a genetically complex entity that remains a major cause of childhood cancer-related mortality. Major advances in genomic and epigenomic profiling during the past decade have appreciably enhanced knowledge of the biology of de novo and relapsed ALL and have facilitated more precise risk stratification of patients. These achievements have also provided critical insights regarding potentially targetable lesions for development of new therapeutic approaches in the era of precision medicine. This review delineates the current genetic landscape of childhood ALL with emphasis upon patient outcomes with contemporary treatment regimens, as well as therapeutic implications of newly identified genomic alterations in specific subsets of ALL. PMID:26194091
Bleckmann, Kirsten; Schrappe, Martin
The presence of the BCR/ABL1 fusion gene in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a rare finding and has been an adverse prognostic factor associated with a high risk of therapeutic failure. The current key components of treatment are intensive polychemotherapy and a BCR/ABL1 kinase domain inhibitor. This treatment approach has been applied in a few clinical trials by paediatric leukaemia study groups. Thus, this subtype of ALL serves as the first model system for truly targeted treatment. The role of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is increasingly called into question, at least in a favourable, though not yet clearly defined, subset of patients. Currently, the choice of the most effective tyrosine kinase inhibitor is not yet settled, in particular, in view of potential reduction of overall treatment intensity.
Gerrard, Mary; Sposto, Richard; Auperin, Anne; Pinkerton, C. Ross; Michon, Jean; Weston, Claire; Perkins, Sherrie L.; Raphael, Martine; McCarthy, Keith; Patte, Catherine
The prognosis for higher risk childhood B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma has improved over the past 20 years but the optimal intensity of treatment has yet to be determined. Children 21 years old or younger with newly diagnosed B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma/B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-NHL/B-ALL) with higher risk factors (bone marrow [BM] with or without CNS involvement) were randomized to standard intensity French-American-British/Lymphoma Malignancy B (FAB/LMB) therapy or reduced intensity (reduced cytarabine plus etoposide and deletion of 3 maintenance courses M2, M3, M4). All patients with CNS disease had additional high-dose methotrexate (8 g/m2) plus extra intrathecal therapy. Fifty-one percent had BM involvement, 20% had CNS involvement, and 29% had BM and CNS involvement. One hundred ninety patients were randomized. The probabilities of 4-year event-free survival (EFS) and survival (S) were 79% ± 2.7% and 82% ± 2.6%, respectively. In patients in remission after 3 cycles who were randomized to standard versus reduced-intensity therapy, the 4-year EFS after randomization was 90% ± 3.1% versus 80% ± 4.2% (one-sided P = .064) and S was 93% ± 2.7% versus 83% ± 4.0% (one-sided P = .032). Patients with either combined BM/CNS disease at diagnosis or poor response to cyclophosphamide, Oncovin [vincristine], prednisone (COP) reduction therapy had a significantly inferior EFS and S (P < .001). Standard-intensity FAB/LMB therapy is recommended for children with high-risk B-NHL (B-ALL with or without CNS involvement). PMID:17138821
HASSANZADEH RAD, Afagh; AMINZADEH, Vahid
Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC) is a specific type of encephalopathy. After viral infection, it can be diagnosed by bilateral symmetrical lesions predominantly observed in thalami & brainstem of infants & children. Although, it is commonly occurred in Japanese and Taiwanese population. The goal of this article is to report a rare case of ANEC in a 15 months old girl infant from Thaleghani Hospital, Ramian, Gorgan, northern Iran. PMID:28277560
Belisário, André Rolim; Sales, Rahyssa Rodrigues; Toledo, Nayara Evelin; Muniz, Maristela Braga de Sousa Rodrigues; Velloso-Rodrigues, Cibele; Silva, Célia Maria; Viana, Marcos Borato
Stroke is a severe clinical manifestation of sickle cell anemia (SCA). Despite the prognostic relevance of transcranial Doppler (TCD), more accurate tools to assess stroke risk in children with SCA are required. Here, we describe the effect of clinical, laboratory, and molecular features on the risk of stroke and high-risk TCD in children from the newborn cohort of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Outcomes studied were acute cerebral ischemia and high-risk TCD. Clinical and hematological data were retrieved from children's records. Genetic markers, which were known for their association with stroke risk, were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing. The cumulative incidence of acute cerebral ischemia by the age of 8 years was 7.4 % and that of high-risk TCD by the age of 11.5 years was 14.2 %. The final multivariate model for acute cerebral ischemia risk included high white blood cell count and reticulocyte count, acute chest syndrome rate, and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) TEK rs489347 and TNF-α rs1800629. The model for high-risk TCD included high reticulocyte count and the SNPs TEK rs489347 and TGFBR3 rs284875. Children with risk factors should be considered for intensive risk monitoring and for intervention therapy.
Ding, Bingjie; Wang, Zhixiang; Jiang, Xuejie; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Chunli; Zhong, Qingxiu; Jiang, Ling; Dai, Min; Zhang, Y U; Wei, Q I; Meng, Fanyi
Decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine; DAC) is a well-tolerated alternative to aggressive chemotherapy for leukemia, which induces differentiation and apoptosis of leukemic cells as a DNA hypomethylating agent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of DAC sequentially combined with chemotherapy to reverse drug resistance. HL-60/ADR multidrug-resistant leukemia cells cultured in 96-well plates were pretreated with DAC for 72 h; varying concentrations of aclacinomycin (ACLA) were then added to the wells, cell proliferation was tested using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) protein expression was detected by western blot analysis. Furthermore, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy in 7 patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) receiving induction therapy with DAC sequentially combined with cytarabine, ACLA and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (CAG regimen). The proliferation inhibition rate of HL-60/ADR cells treated with DAC at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 µmol/l sequentially combined with ACLA was significantly higher compared with that with ACLA alone (P<0.001 for both). DNMT1 expression was significantly repressed following treatment with 1.0 µmol/l DAC. Of the 11 patients, 8 (72.7%) received induction therapy with DAC sequentially combined with CAG agents and achieved complete remission (CR) after 2 cycles of treatment; however, 3 (27.3%) patients did not achieve remission. Myelosuppression was observed in all 11 patients and pulmonary infections developed in 9 patients (81.8%) during the course of the study. At the last follow-up, 7 of the 8 patients who achieved CR remained in remission. The median follow-up was 6 months (range, 3-18 months). Therefore, pretreatment with DAC may increase the sensitivity of HL-60/ADR cells to ACLA via the epigenetic modulation of demethylation and the sequential administration of DAC and CAG regimen appears to be safe and effective for the treatment of
Lopez-Lopez, Elixabet; Gutierrez-Camino, Angela; Bilbao-Aldaiturriaga, Nerea; Pombar-Gomez, Maria; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Garcia-Orad, Africa
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the major pediatric cancer in developed countries. Although treatment outcome has improved owing to advances in chemotherapy, there is still a group of patients for which therapy fails while some patients experience severe toxicity. In the last few years, several pharmacogenetic studies have been performed to search for markers of outcome and toxicity in pediatric ALL. However, to date, TPMT is the only pharmacogenetic marker in ALL with clinical guidelines for drug dosing. In this article, we will provide an overview of the most important findings carried out in pharmacogenetics for pediatric ALL, such as the interest drawn by methotrexate transporters in the context of methotrexate treatment. Even if most of the studies are centered on coding genes, we will also point to new approaches focusing on noncoding regions and epigenetic variation that could be interesting for consideration in the near future.
A requirement for preventive child protection is an early and systematic access to high-risk families. Actors of the health care system, in particular doctors in private practice and midwives, are highly accepted within the population and therefore offer perfect requirements to provide this access. For this reason the aim in the context of early childhood intervention is a close cooperation of the Child and Youth Services with doctors and midwives. To what extent can these service providers of the health care system fulfill these expectations? The National Centre on Early Prevention tried to find an answer to this question with the support of 10 pilot projects which were set up within the framework of the action program "Early Prevention and Intervention for Parents and Children and Social Warning Systems". The comprehensive project presentation of selected results, insights and experiences concerning cooperation between agents of the Child and Youth Services and doctors in private practice and midwives is based on explorative written questioning of the 10 projects. The study shows from the point of view of the pilot projects that the cooperation with freelance midwives is promising. In contrast, the cooperation with doctors in private practice does not yet meet the hopes and expectations. To achieve an improvement of this situation, conditions have to be supported which promote a stronger commitment of the medical profession to early childhood intervention.
Boissel, Nicolas; Renneville, Aline; Leguay, Thibaut; Lefebvre, Pascale Cornillet; Recher, Christian; Lecerf, Thibaud; Delabesse, Eric; Berthon, Céline; Blanchet, Odile; Prebet, Thomas; Pautas, Cécile; Chevallier, Patrice; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Girault, Stéphane; Bonmati, Caroline; Guièze, Romain; Himberlin, Chantal; Randriamalala, Edouard; Preudhomme, Claude; Jourdan, Eric; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert
Core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia is a favorable acute myeloid leukemia subset cytogenetically defined by t(8;21) or inv(16)/t(16;16) rearrangements, disrupting RUNX1 (previously CBFA/AML1) or CBFB transcription factor functions. The receptor tyrosine kinase KIT is expressed in the vast majority of these acute myeloid leukemias and frequent activating KIT gene mutations have been associated with a higher risk of relapse. This phase II study aimed to evaluate dasatinib as maintenance therapy in patients with core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia in first hematologic complete remission, but at higher risk of relapse due to molecular disease persistence or recurrence. A total of 26 patients aged 18–60 years old previously included in the CBF-2006 trial were eligible to receive dasatinib 140 mg daily if they had a poor initial molecular response (n=18) or a molecular recurrence (n=8). The tolerance of dasatinib as maintenance therapy was satisfactory. The 2-year disease-free survival in this high-risk population of patients was 25.7%. All but one patient with molecular recurrence presented subsequent hematologic relapse. Patients with slow initial molecular response had a similar disease-free survival when treated with dasatinib (40.2% at 2 years) or without any maintenance (50.0% at 2 years). The disappearance of KIT gene mutations at relapse suggests that clonal devolution may in part explain the absence of efficacy observed with single-agent dasatinib in these patients (n. EudraCT: 2006-006555-12). PMID:25715404
Boissel, Nicolas; Renneville, Aline; Leguay, Thibaut; Lefebvre, Pascale Cornillet; Recher, Christian; Lecerf, Thibaud; Delabesse, Eric; Berthon, Céline; Blanchet, Odile; Prebet, Thomas; Pautas, Cécile; Chevallier, Patrice; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Girault, Stéphane; Bonmati, Caroline; Guièze, Romain; Himberlin, Chantal; Randriamalala, Edouard; Preudhomme, Claude; Jourdan, Eric; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert
Core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia is a favorable acute myeloid leukemia subset cytogenetically defined by t(8;21) or inv(16)/t(16;16) rearrangements, disrupting RUNX1 (previously CBFA/AML1) or CBFB transcription factor functions. The receptor tyrosine kinase KIT is expressed in the vast majority of these acute myeloid leukemias and frequent activating KIT gene mutations have been associated with a higher risk of relapse. This phase II study aimed to evaluate dasatinib as maintenance therapy in patients with core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia in first hematologic complete remission, but at higher risk of relapse due to molecular disease persistence or recurrence. A total of 26 patients aged 18-60 years old previously included in the CBF-2006 trial were eligible to receive dasatinib 140 mg daily if they had a poor initial molecular response (n=18) or a molecular recurrence (n=8). The tolerance of dasatinib as maintenance therapy was satisfactory. The 2-year disease-free survival in this high-risk population of patients was 25.7%. All but one patient with molecular recurrence presented subsequent hematologic relapse. Patients with slow initial molecular response had a similar disease-free survival when treated with dasatinib (40.2% at 2 years) or without any maintenance (50.0% at 2 years). The disappearance of KIT gene mutations at relapse suggests that clonal devolution may in part explain the absence of efficacy observed with single-agent dasatinib in these patients (n. EudraCT: 2006-006555-12).
Wiemels, Joseph L; Kang, Michelle; Chang, Jeffrey S; Zheng, Lily; Kouyoumji, Carina; Zhang, Luoping; Smith, Martyn T; Scelo, Ghislaine; Metayer, Catherine; Buffler, Patricia; Wiencke, John K
High hyperdiploidy is the single largest subtype of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and is defined by the presence of 51-68 chromosomes in a karyotype. The 5 or more extra chromosomes characterizing this subtype are known to occur in a single mitotic event, prenatally. We screened for RAS mutations among 517 acute childhood leukemias (including 437 lymphocytic, of which 393 were B-cell subtypes) and found mutations in 30% of high hyperdiploids compared to only 10% of leukemias of other subtypes (P<0.0001). We assessed whether KRAS mutations occurred before birth using a PCR-restriction enzyme-mediated Taqman quantitative PCR reaction, and found no evidence for prenatal KRAS mutations in 14 patients tested. While RAS mutations were previously associated with prior chemical exposures in childhood and adult leukemias, in this study RAS-mutated cases were not significantly associated with parental smoking when compared to study controls. IGH rearrangements were backtracked in three RAS-positive patients (which were negative for KRAS mutation at birth) and found to be evident before birth, confirming a prenatal origin for the leukemia clone. We posit a natural history for hyperdiploid leukemia in which prenatal mitotic catastrophe is followed by a postnatal RAS mutation to produce the leukemic cell phenotype.
Rakhshan, Pamela; Sørensen, Holger; DeVylder, Jordan; Mittal, Vijay; Mortensen, Erik L; Michelsen, Niels M; Ekstrøm, Morten; Pitts, Steven C; Mednick, Sarnoff A; Schiffman, Jason
Motor abnormalities have been established as a core aspect of psychosis-spectrum disorders, with numerous studies identifying deficits prior to clinical symptom presentation. Additional research is needed to pinpoint standardized motor assessments associated with psychosis-spectrum disorders prior to illness onset to enhance prediction and understanding of etiology. With a long history of findings among people with diagnosable psychosis-spectrum disorders, but little research conducted during the premorbid phase, pegboard tasks are a viable and understudied measure of premorbid for psychosis motor functioning. In the current study, examining data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, the Simultaneous Pegs Test was performed with children (n=244, aged 10-13) at genetic high risk for psychosis (n=94) and controls (n=150). Findings suggest that children who eventually developed a psychosis-spectrum disorder (n=33) were less likely to successfully complete the task within time limit relative to controls (χ(2)(2, N=244)=6.94, p=0.03, ϕ=0.17). Additionally, children who eventually developed a psychosis-spectrum disorder took significantly longer to complete the task relative to controls (χ(2)(2, N=244)=7.06, p=0.03, ϕ=0.17). As pegboard performance is thought to tap both diffuse and specific brain networks, findings suggest that pegboard tests may be useful premorbid measures of motor functioning among those on a trajectory towards a psychosis-spectrum disorder.
Reynolds, C; Roderick, J E; LaBelle, J L; Bird, G; Mathieu, R; Bodaar, K; Colon, D; Pyati, U; Stevenson, K E; Qi, J; Harris, M; Silverman, L B; Sallan, S E; Bradner, J E; Neuberg, D S; Look, A T; Walensky, L D; Kelliher, M A; Gutierrez, A
Treatment resistance in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is associated with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletions and resultant phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway activation, as well as MYC overexpression, and these pathways repress mitochondrial apoptosis in established T-lymphoblasts through poorly defined mechanisms. Normal T-cell progenitors are hypersensitive to mitochondrial apoptosis, a phenotype that is dependent on the expression of proapoptotic BIM. In a conditional zebrafish model, MYC downregulation induced BIM expression in T-lymphoblasts, an effect that was blunted by expression of constitutively active AKT. In human T-ALL cell lines and treatment-resistant patient samples, treatment with MYC or PI3K-AKT pathway inhibitors each induced BIM upregulation and apoptosis, indicating that BIM is repressed downstream of MYC and PI3K-AKT in high-risk T-ALL. Restoring BIM function in human T-ALL cells using a stapled peptide mimetic of the BIM BH3 domain had therapeutic activity, indicating that BIM repression is required for T-ALL viability. In the zebrafish model, where MYC downregulation induces T-ALL regression via mitochondrial apoptosis, T-ALL persisted despite MYC downregulation in 10% of bim wild-type zebrafish, 18% of bim heterozygotes and in 33% of bim homozygous mutants (P=0.017). We conclude that downregulation of BIM represents a key survival signal downstream of oncogenic MYC and PI3K-AKT signaling in treatment-resistant T-ALL.
Rocha, Juliana Maria Camargos; Xavier, Sandra Guerra; de Lima Souza, Marcelo Eduardo; Assumpção, Juliana Godoy; Murao, Mitiko; de Oliveira, Benigna Maria
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children. Current treatment strategies for childhood ALL result in long-term remission for approximately 90% of patients. However, the therapeutic response is worse among those who relapse. Several risk stratification approaches based on clinical and biological aspects have been proposed to intensify treatment in patients with high risk of relapse and reduce toxicity on those with a greater probability of cure. The detection of residual leukemic cells (minimal residual disease, MRD) is the most important prognostic factor to identify high-risk patients, allowing redefinition of chemotherapy. In the last decades, several standardized research protocols evaluated MRD using immunophenotyping by flow cytometry and/or real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction at different time points during treatment. Both methods are highly sensitive (10−3 a 10−5), but expensive, complex, and, because of that, require qualified staff and frequently are restricted to reference centers. The aim of this article was to review technical aspects of immunophenotyping by flow cytometry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate MRD in ALL. PMID:27158437
Satake, Noriko; Lee, Joyce; Xiao, Kai; Luo, Juntao; Sarangi, Susmita; Chang, Astra; McLaughlin, Bridget; Zhou, Ping; Kenney, Elaina; Kraynov, Liliya; Arnott, Sarah; McGee, Jeannine; Nolta, Jan; Lam, Kit
The goal of our project is to develop a unique ligand-conjugated nanoparticle (NP) therapy against childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). LLP2A, discovered by Dr. Kit Lam, is a high-affinity and high-specificity peptidomimetic ligand against an activated α4β1 integrin. Our study using 11 fresh primary ALL samples (10 precursor B ALL and 1 T ALL) showed that childhood ALL cells expressed activated α4β1 integrin and bound to LLP2A. Normal hematopoietic cells such as activated lymphocytes and monocytes expressed activated α4β1 integrin; however, normal hematopoietic stem cells showed low expression of α4β1 integrin. Therefore, we believe that LLP2A can be used as a targeted therapy for childhood ALL. The Lam lab has developed novel telodendrimer-based nanoparticles (NPs) which can carry drugs efficiently. We have also developed a human leukemia mouse model using immunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ null mice engrafted with primary childhood ALL cells from our patients. LLP2A-conjugated NPs will be evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using primary leukemia cells and this mouse model. NPs will be loaded first with DiD near infra-red dye, and then with the chemotherapeutic agents daunorubicin or vincristine. Both drugs are mainstays of current chemotherapy for childhood ALL. Targeting properties of LLP2A-conjugated NPs will be evaluated by fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry, MTS assay, and mouse survival after treatment. We expect that LLP2A-conjugated NPs will be preferentially delivered and endocytosed to leukemia cells as an effective targeted therapy.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome
Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute calculous cholecystitis in high risk patients can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Percutaneous cholecystostomy may be an alternative treatment option but the current literature does not provide the surgical community with evidence based advice. Methods/Design The CHOCOLATE trial is a randomised controlled, parallel-group, superiority multicenter trial. High risk patients, defined as APACHE-II score 7-14, with acute calculous cholecystitis will be randomised to laparoscopic cholecystectomy or percutaneous cholecystostomy. During a two year period 284 patients will be enrolled from 30 high volume teaching hospitals. The primary endpoint is a composite endpoint of major complications within three months following randomization and need for re-intervention and mortality during the follow-up period of one year. Secondary endpoints include all other complications, duration of hospital admission, difficulty of procedures and total costs. Discussion The CHOCOLATE trial is designed to provide the surgical community with an evidence based guideline in the treatment of acute calculous cholecystitis in high risk patients. Trial Registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2666 PMID:22236534
Pui, Ching-Hon; Evans, William E.
The 50th anniversary of Seminars in Hematology coincides with the 50th of St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, and both milestones are inexorably linked to studies contributing to the cure of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We thought it fitting, therefore, to mark these events by traveling back in time to point out some of the achievements, institutions, study groups and individuals that have made cure of childhood ALL a reality. In many instances, progress was driven by new ideas, while in others it was driven by new experimental tools that allowed more precise assessment of the biology of leukemic blasts and their utility in selecting therapy. We also discuss a number of contemporary advances that point the way to exciting future directions. Whatever pathways are taken, a clear challenge will be to use emerging genome-based or immunologic-based treatment options in ways that will enhance, rather than duplicate or compromise, recent gains in outcome with classic cytotoxic chemotherapy. The theme of this journey serves as a reminder of the chief ingredient of any research directed to a catastrophic disease such as ALL. It is the audacity of a small group of investigators who confronted a childhood cancer with the goal of cure, not palliation, as their mindset. PMID:23953334
Lipshultz, Steven E.; Anderson, Lynn M.; Miller, Tracie L.; Gerschenson, Mariana; Stevenson, Kristen E.; Neuberg, Donna S.; Franco, Vivian I.; LiButti, Daniel E.; Silverman, Lewis B.; Vrooman, Lynda M.; Sallan, Stephen E.
BACKGROUND Impaired cardiac function in doxorubicin-treated childhood cancer survivors is partly mediated by disruption of mitochondrial energy production. Doxorubicin intercalates into mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) disrupting genes encoding for polypeptides that make ATP. METHODS This cross-sectional study examined mtDNA copy numbers/cell and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in 64 childhood survivors of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Childhood ALL protocols who had received doxorubicin alone (42%) or with dexrazoxane (58%), a cardioprotectant. Mitochondrial DNA copies per cell and OXPHOS enzyme activities of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase (Complex I, CI) and cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV, CIV) were measured by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) immunoassay and thin layer chromatography, respectively. RESULTS At a median follow-up of 7.8 years after treatment, the median number of mtDNA copies per cell for patients treated with doxorubicin alone was significantly higher than for those who also received dexrazoxane (medians, 1106.3 and 310.5; P=0.001). No significant differences were detected between groups for CI or CIV activities. CONCLUSIONS Doxorubicin-treated survivors had increased PBMC mtDNA copies/cell and concomitant use of dexrazoxane was associated with lower mtDNA copies/cell. Due to a possible compensatory increase in mtDNA copies/cell to maintain mitochondrial function in the setting of mitochondrial dysfunction, overall OXPHOS activity was not different between groups. The long-term sustainability of this compensatory response in these survivors at risk for cardiac dysfunction over their lifespan is concerning. PMID:26762648
Fagioli, Franca; Quarello, Paola; Zecca, Marco; Lanino, Edoardo; Rognoni, Carla; Balduzzi, Adriana; Messina, Chiara; Favre, Claudio; Foà, Roberto; Ripaldi, Mimmo; Rutella, Sergio; Basso, Giuseppe; Prete, Arcangelo; Locatelli, Franco
Children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission can benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We analyzed the outcome of 211 children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission who were given an allogeneic transplant between 1990 and 2008; the outcome of patients who, despite having an indication for transplantation and a suitable donor, did not receive the allograft for different reasons in the same time period was not analyzed. Sixty-nine patients (33%) were transplanted between 1990 and 1999, 58 (27%) between 2000 and 2005, and 84 (40%) between 2005 and 2008. A matched family donor was employed in 138 patients (65%) and an unrelated donor in 73 (35%). The 10-year probabilities of overall and disease-free survival were 63.4% and 61%, respectively. The 10-year cumulative incidences of transplantation-related mortality and relapse were 15% and 24%, respectively. After 1999, no differences in either disease-free survival or transplant-related mortality were observed in patients transplanted from unrelated or matched family donors. In multivariate analysis, grade IV acute graft-versus-host disease was an independent factor associated with worse disease-free survival. By contrast, grade I acute graft-versus-host disease and age at diagnosis between 1 and 9 years were favorable prognostic variables. Our study, not intended to evaluate whether transplantation is superior to chemotherapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission and high-risk features, shows that the allograft cured more than 60% of these patients; in the most recent period, the outcome of recipients of grafts from matched family and unrelated donors was comparable.
Fagioli, Franca; Quarello, Paola; Zecca, Marco; Lanino, Edoardo; Rognoni, Carla; Balduzzi, Adriana; Messina, Chiara; Favre, Claudio; Foà, Roberto; Ripaldi, Mimmo; Rutella, Sergio; Basso, Giuseppe; Prete, Arcangelo; Locatelli, Franco
Children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission can benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We analyzed the outcome of 211 children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission who were given an allogeneic transplant between 1990 and 2008; the outcome of patients who, despite having an indication for transplantation and a suitable donor, did not receive the allograft for different reasons in the same time period was not analyzed. Sixty-nine patients (33%) were transplanted between 1990 and 1999, 58 (27%) between 2000 and 2005, and 84 (40%) between 2005 and 2008. A matched family donor was employed in 138 patients (65%) and an unrelated donor in 73 (35%). The 10-year probabilities of overall and disease-free survival were 63.4% and 61%, respectively. The 10-year cumulative incidences of transplantation-related mortality and relapse were 15% and 24%, respectively. After 1999, no differences in either disease-free survival or transplant-related mortality were observed in patients transplanted from unrelated or matched family donors. In multivariate analysis, grade IV acute graft-versus-host disease was an independent factor associated with worse disease-free survival. By contrast, grade I acute graft-versus-host disease and age at diagnosis between 1 and 9 years were favorable prognostic variables. Our study, not intended to evaluate whether transplantation is superior to chemotherapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission and high-risk features, shows that the allograft cured more than 60% of these patients; in the most recent period, the outcome of recipients of grafts from matched family and unrelated donors was comparable. PMID:23445874
Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Reinhardt, Dirk; Zimmermann, Martin; Kremens, Bernhard; Vormoor, Josef; Dworzak, Michael; Creutzig, Ursula; Klingebiel, Thomas
Background The role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in post-remission management of children with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia remains controversial. In the multi-center AML-BFM 98 study we prospectively evaluated the impact of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in children with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission. Design and Methods HLA-typed patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia, who achieved first complete remission (n=247), were included in this analysis. All patients received double induction and consolidation. Based on the availability of a matched-sibling donor, patients were allocated by genetic chance to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (n=61) or chemotherapy-only (i.e. intensification and maintenance therapy; n=186). The main analysis was done on an intention-to-treat basis according to this allocation. Results Intention-to-treat analysis did not show a significantly different 5-year disease-free survival (49±6% versus 45±4%, Plog rank=0.44) or overall survival (68±6% versus 57±4%, Plog rank=0.17) between the matched-sibling donor and no-matched-sibling donor groups, whereas late adverse effects occurred more frequently after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (72.5% versus 31.8%, PFischer<0.01). These results were confirmed by as-treated analysis corrected for the time until transplantation (5-year overall survival: 72±8% versus 60±4%, PMantel-Byar 0.21). Subgroup analysis demonstrated improved survival rates for patients with 11q23 aberrations allocated to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (5-year overall survival: 94±6% versus 52±7%, Plog-rank=0.01; n=18 versus 49) in contrast to patients without 11q23 aberrations (5-year overall survival: 58±8% versus 55±5%, Plog-rank=0.66). Conclusions Our analyses defined a genetic subgroup of children with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia who benefited from allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the prospective multi-center AML-BFM 98 study. For
Kobayashi, S; Ito, M; Sano, H; Mochizuki, K; Akaihata, M; Waragai, T; Ohara, Y; Hosoya, M; Ohto, H; Kikuta, A
Background Despite improvements in first-line therapies, the outcomes of relapsed or refractory childhood acute leukaemia that has not achieved complete remission after relapse, has relapsed after stem cell transplantation (SCT), has primary induction failure and has relapsed with a very unfavourable cytogenetic risk profile, are dismal. Objectives and Methods We evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of T-cell-replete haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) with low-dose anti-human thymocyte immunoglobulin (ATG), tacrolimus, methotrexate and prednisolone (PSL) in 14 paediatric patients with high-risk childhood acute leukaemia. Results All patients achieved complete engraftment. The median time to reaching an absolute neutrophil count of more than 0.5 × 109 L−1 was 14 days. Acute graft-vs-host disease (aGVHD) of grades II–IV and III–IV developed in 10 (71%) and 2 (14%) patients, respectively. Treatment-related mortality and relapse occurred in one (7%) patient and six (43%) patients, respectively. Eleven patients were alive and seven of them were disease-free with a median follow-up of 36 months (range: 30–159 months). The probability of event-free survival after 2 years was 50%. Conclusion These findings indicate that T-cell-replete haplo-SCT, with low-dose ATG and PSL, provides sustained remission with an acceptable risk of GVHD in paediatric patients with advanced haematologic malignancies. PMID:25224311
Milne, Elizabeth; Greenop, Kathryn R; Metayer, Catherine; Schüz, Joachim; Petridou, Eleni; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Roman, Eve; Dockerty, John D; Spector, Logan G; Koifman, Sérgio; Orsi, Laurent; Rudant, Jérémie; Dessypris, Nick; Simpson, Jill; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kaatsch, Peter; Baka, Margarita; Faro, Alessandra; Armstrong, Bruce K; Clavel, Jacqueline; Buffler, Patricia A
Positive associations have been reported between the measures of accelerated fetal growth and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We investigated this association by pooling individual-level data from 12 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Two measures of fetal growth-weight-for-gestational-age and proportion of optimal birth weight (POBW)-were analysed. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, and combined in fixed effects meta-analyses. Pooled analyses of all data were also undertaken using multivariable logistic regression. Subgroup analyses were undertaken when possible. Data on weight for gestational age were available for 7,348 cases and 12,489 controls from all 12 studies and POBW data were available for 1,680 cases and 3,139 controls from three studies. The summary ORs from the meta-analyses were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.36) for children who were large for gestational age relative to appropriate for gestational age, and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.24) for a one-standard deviation increase in POBW. The pooled analyses produced similar results. The summary and pooled ORs for small-for-gestational-age children were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.92) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.95), respectively. Results were consistent across subgroups defined by sex, ethnicity and immunophenotype, and when the analysis was restricted to children who did not have high birth weight. The evidence that accelerated fetal growth is associated with a modest increased risk of childhood ALL is strong and consistent with known biological mechanisms involving insulin-like growth factors. © 2013 UICC.
Milne, Elizabeth; Greenop, Kathryn R.; Metayer, Catherine; Schüz, Joachim; Petridou, Eleni; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Roman, Eve; Dockerty, John D.; Spector, Logan G.; Koifman, Sérgio; Orsi, Laurent; Rudant, Jérémie; Dessypris, Nick; Simpson, Jill; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kaatsch, Peter; Baka, Margarita; Faro, Alessandra; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Clavel, Jacqueline; Buffler, Patricia A.
Positive associations have been reported between measures of accelerated fetal growth and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We investigated this association by pooling individual-level data from 12 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Two measures of fetal growth – weight-for-gestational-age and proportion of optimal birth weight (POBW) – were analysed. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, and combined in fixed effects meta-analyses. Pooled analyses of all data were also undertaken using multivariable logistic regression. Subgroup analyses were undertaken when possible. Data on weight for gestational age were available for 7,348 cases and 12,489 controls from all 12 studies and POBW data were available for 1,680 cases and 3,139 controls from three studies. The summary ORs from the meta-analyses were 1.24 (95% CI 1.13, 1.36) for children who were large for gestational age relative to appropriate for gestational age, and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.24) for a one standard deviation increase in POBW. The pooled analyses produced similar results. The summary and pooled ORs for small-for-gestational-age children were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.92) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.77, 0.95) respectively. Results were consistent across subgroups defined by sex, ethnicity and immunophenotype, and when the analysis was restricted to children who did not have high birth weight. The evidence that accelerated fetal growth is associated with a modest increased risk of childhood ALL is strong and consistent with known biological mechanisms involving insulin like growth factors. PMID:23754574
Rudant, Jérémie; Lightfoot, Tracy; Urayama, Kevin Y; Petridou, Eleni; Dockerty, John D; Magnani, Corrado; Milne, Elizabeth; Spector, Logan G; Ashton, Lesley J; Dessypris, Nikolaos; Kang, Alice Y; Miller, Margaret; Rondelli, Roberto; Simpson, Jill; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Orsi, Laurent; Roman, Eve; Metayer, Catherine; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline
The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several proxies of early stimulation of the immune system, that is, day-care center attendance, birth order, maternally reported common infections in infancy, and breastfeeding, were investigated by using data from 11 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980-2010). The sample included 7,399 ALL cases and 11,181 controls aged 2-14 years. The data were collected by questionnaires administered to the parents. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Day-care center attendance in the first year of life was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.84), with a marked inverse trend with earlier age at start (P < 0.0001). An inverse association was also observed with breastfeeding duration of 6 months or more (odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.94). No significant relationship with a history of common infections in infancy was observed even though the odds ratio was less than 1 for more than 3 infections. The findings of this large pooled analysis reinforce the hypothesis that day-care center attendance in infancy and prolonged breastfeeding are associated with a decreased risk of ALL.
Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Astori, Audrey; Fredly, Hanne; Aloysius, Thomas Aquinas; Bullinger, Lars; Mas, Véronique Mansat-De; de la Grange, Pierre; Delhommeau, François; Hagen, Karen Marie; Récher, Christian; Dusanter-Fourt, Isabelle; Knappskog, Stian; Lillehaug, Johan Richard
The retinoid-responsive gene CXXC5 localizes to the 5q31.2 chromosomal region and encodes a retinoid-inducible nuclear factor (RINF) that seems important during normal myelopoiesis. We investigated CXXC5/RINF expression in primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells derived from 594 patients, and a wide variation in CXXC5/RINF mRNA levels was observed both in the immature leukemic myeloblasts and in immature acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Furthermore, patients with low-risk cytogenetic abnormalities showed significantly lower levels compared to patients with high-risk abnormalities, and high RINF/CXXC5/ mRNA levels were associated with decreased overall survival for patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for newly diagnosed AML. This association with prognosis was seen both when investigating (i) an unselected patient population as well as for patients with (ii) normal cytogenetic and (iii) core-binding factor AML. CXXC5/RINF knockdown in AML cell lines caused increased susceptibility to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, and regulation of apoptosis also seemed to differ between primary human AML cells with high and low RINF expression. The association with adverse prognosis together with the antiapoptotic effect of CXXC5/RINF suggests that targeting of CXXC5/RINF should be considered as a possible therapeutic strategy, especially in high-risk patients who show increased expression in AML cells compared with normal hematopoietic cells. PMID:23988457
Yang, Wei-Shun; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Meng-Kan; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Likwang; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Wu, Vin-Cent
The risk for herpes zoster (HZ) in acute kidney injury (AKI) survivors was never explored. We identified 2,387 adults in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who recovered from dialysis-requiring AKI and matched them with non-recovery and non-AKI patients by propensity score. During a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, the incidences of HZ were 6.9, 8.2 and 4.8 episodes per 1,000 person-years in AKI-non-recovery, AKI-recovery and non-AKI group, respectively. The recovery group was more likely to develop herpes zoster than those without acute kidney injury [incidence-rate ratios 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.52; p = 0.007]. Patients without acute kidney injury were less likely to develop herpes zoster than those AKI, recovered from dialysis or not (hazard ratio HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.95). Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury poses a long-term risk of herpes zoster after hospital discharge. Even patients who have recovered from dialysis still carry a significantly higher risk of developing herpes zoster.
Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant and Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Treating Patients With High-Risk Advanced Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome
Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia and Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Siddiqui, Ali A.; Shahid, Haroon; Shah, Apeksha; Khurana, Tanvi; Huntington, William; Ghumman, Saad S.; Loren, David E.; Kowalski, Thomas E.; Laique, Sobia; Hayat, Umar; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.
Background and Objectives: Data on the risk of acute pancreatitis following endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of pancreatic cystic lesions are limited. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of acute pancreatitis after EUS-FNA of pancreatic cysts and solid lesions, and determine whether there was a difference in pancreatitis risk in patients with side branch intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (SB-IPMN). Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent EUS-FNA of pancreatic cysts and solid lesions was performed. The primary outcome measure was development of acute pancreatitis after EUS-FNA. Factors associated with acute pancreatitis were examined by statistical analysis to determine independent predictors of acute pancreatitis. Statistical significance was determined at a P ≤ 0.05. Results: We identified 186 patients with pancreatic cystic lesions and 557 with solid lesions in which EUS-FNA was performed. The median size of the cysts was 19 mm (range: 10-66 mm). There were 37 IPMNs, 33 mucinous cystic neoplasms, 58 serous cysts and 46 pseudocysts and 12 solid-cystic ductal carcinomas. The majority of patients (75%) with solid lesions were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma. Patients with pancreatic cysts had a statistically greater frequency of developing pancreatitis after EUS-FNA when compared to those with solid lesions (2.6% vs. 0.36% respectively; P = 0.13). In patients with cysts, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (with and without pancreatitis) with regard to a cyst location, size of the cyst, and number of needle passes or trainee involvement. Patients with SB-IPMN had a statistically higher frequency of pancreatitis after EUS-FNA compared to those with other cyst types (8% vs. 1.3% respectively; odds ratio = 6.4, 95% confidence intervals = 1.0-40.3, P = 0.05). Discussion: Patients with SB-IPMN are at a higher risk of developing acute pancreatitis after
Aydin, Kursad; Sert, Ahmet; Ati Güzeş, Eylem; Kireşi, Demet A
Chickenpox is a common infection of childhood. Central nervous system complications, such as cerebellar ataxia and meningoencephalitis, are estimated to occur in less than 1% of cases of chickenpox. Although transverse myelitis and hemiplegia have also, although rarely, been reported, hemiplegia associated with chickenpox and elevated anticardiolipin antibody has not been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 2.5-year-old boy who developed a right hemiplegia 3 weeks after the onset of a primary varicella infection. The serum level of anticardiolipin antibody IgG was markedly elevated. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an infarction involving the left globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, and posterior leg of the internal capsule. Laboratory studies ruled out all known causes of stroke. Neurologic signs and symptoms slowly improved with supportive treatment. Varicella infection should be considered one of the possible causes of acute ischemic strokes in children. Usually, two or more risk factors are detected in children with ischemic strokes, and we suggest that all possible causes of strokes be investigated in children with ischemic strokes.
Jackson, Rosanna K; Irving, Julie A E; Veal, Gareth J
Dexamethasone is a key component in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Despite playing a key role in the improved survival of ALL over several decades, intensification of dexamethasone therapy has also contributed to the increased toxicity associated with treatment, which is now seen to be at unacceptable levels given the favourable disease prognosis. Therefore the focus for treatment is now shifting towards reducing toxicity whilst maintaining current survival rates. As approximately 50% of patients were successfully treated on less intensive protocols of the 1980s, it has been questioned whether therapy intensification is necessary in all patients. Furthermore, there remains a subset of children who are still not cured of their disease. New strategies are therefore needed to identify patients who could benefit from dose reduction or intensification. However, adjusting a potentially life threatening therapy is a challenging task, particularly given the heterogeneous nature of ALL. This review focuses on the potential for patient stratification based on our current knowledge of dexamethasone pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics and the action of dexamethasone at the cellular level. A carefully designed, combined approach is needed if we are to achieve the aim of improved personalization of dexamethasone therapy for future patients.
Teachey, David T; Hunger, Stephen P
Intensive multi-agent chemotherapy regimens and the introduction of risk-stratified therapy have substantially improved cure rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Current risk allocation schemas are imperfect, as some children are classified as lower-risk and treated with less intensive therapy relapse, while others deemed higher-risk are probably over-treated. Most cooperative groups previously used morphological clearance of blasts in blood and marrow during the initial phases of chemotherapy as a primary factor for risk group allocation; however, this has largely been replaced by the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD). Other than age and white blood cell count (WBC) at presentation, many clinical variables previously used for risk group allocation are no longer prognostic, as MRD and the presence of sentinel genetic lesions are more reliable at predicting outcome. Currently, a number of sentinel genetic lesions are used by most cooperative groups for risk stratification; however, in the near future patients will probably be risk-stratified using genomic signatures and clustering algorithms, rather than individual genetic alterations. This review will describe the clinical, biological, and response-based features known to predict relapse risk in childhood ALL, including those currently used and those likely to be used in the near future to risk-stratify therapy.
Ge, Zheng; Gu, Yan; Xiao, Lichan; Han, Qi; Li, Jianyong; Chen, Baoan; Yu, James; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Payne, Kimberly J.; Dovat, Sinisa; Song, Chunhua
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in children and young adults. Compared to ALL in children, adult ALL has a much lower cure rate. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying high-risk ALL and to develop therapeutic strategies that specifically target genes or pathways in ALL. Here, we explored the IL7R and SH2B3 expression in adult ALL and found that IL7R is significantly higher and Sh2B3 lower expressed in B-ALL compared to normal bone marrow control, and the IL7RhighSH2B3low is associated with high-risk factors, and with high relapse rate and low disease-free survival rate in the patients. We also found that Ikaros deletion was associated with the IL7RhighSH2B3low expression pattern and Ikaros directly binds the IL7R and SH2B3 promoter, and suppresses IL7R and promotes SH2B3 expression. On the other hand, casein kinase inhibitor, which increases Ikaros function, inhibits IL7R and stimulates SH2B3 expression in an Ikaros dependent manner. Our data indicate that IL7RhighSH2B3low expression distinguishes a novel subset of high-risk B-ALL associated with Ikaros dysfunction, and also suggest the therapeutic potential for treatment that combines casein kinase inhibitor, as an Ikaros activator, with drugs that target the IL7R signaling pathway. PMID:27322554
Tigges, Eike; Kalbacher, Daniel; Thomas, Christina; Appelbaum, Sebastian; Deuschl, Florian; Schofer, Niklas; Schlüter, Michael; Conradi, Lenard; Schirmer, Johannes; Treede, Hendrik; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Blankenberg, Stefan; Schäfer, Ulrich; Lubos, Edith
Background. Analyses emphasizing gender-related differences in acute and long-term outcomes following MitraClip therapy for significant mitral regurgitation (MR) are rare. Methods. 592 consecutive patients (75 ± 8.7 years, 362 men, 230 women) underwent clinical and echocardiographic follow-up for a median of 2.13 (0.99–4.02) years. Results. Significantly higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, renal failure, and adverse echocardiographic parameters in men resulted in longer device time (p = 0.007) and higher numbers of implanted clips (p = 0.0075), with equal procedural success (p = 1.0). Rehospitalization for heart failure did not differ (p[logrank] = 0.288) while survival was higher in women (p[logrank] = 0.0317). Logarithmic increase of NT-proBNP was a common independent predictor of death. Hypercholesterolemia and peripheral artery disease were predictors of death only in men while ischemic and dilative cardiomyopathy (CM) and age were predictors in women. Independent predictors of rehospitalization for heart failure were severely reduced ejection fraction and success in men while both ischemic and dilative CM, logistic EuroSCORE, and MR severity were predictive in women. Conclusions. Higher numbers of implanted clips and longer device time are likely related to more comorbidities in men. Procedural success and acute and mid-term clinical outcomes were equal. Superior survival for women in long-term analysis is presumably attributable to a comparatively better preprocedural health. PMID:27042662
Powers, Benjamin; Persons, Diane; Rao, Deepthi; Woodroof, Janet; Lin, Tara L
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is classically characterized by chromosomal translocation (15;17), resulting in the PML-RARA fusion protein leading to disease. Here, we present a case of a 50-year-old man who presented with signs and symptoms of acute leukemia with concern for APL. Therapy was immediately initiated with all-trans retinoic acid. The morphology of his leukemic blasts was consistent with the hypogranular variant of APL. Subsequent FISH and cytogenetic analysis revealed a unique translocation involving five chromosomal regions: 9q34, 17q21, 15q24, 12q13, and 15q26.1. Molecular testing demonstrated PML/RARA fusion transcripts. Treatment with conventional chemotherapy was added and he went into a complete remission. Given his elevated white blood cell count at presentation, intrathecal chemotherapy for central nervous system prophylaxis was also given. The patient remains on maintenance therapy and remains in remission. This is the first such report of a 5-way chromosomal translocation leading to APL. Similar to APL with chromosomal translocations other than classical t(15;17) which result in the typical PML-RARA fusion, our patient responded promptly to an ATRA-containing regimen and remains in complete remission.
Mattison, Ryan; Jumonville, Alcee; Flynn, Patrick James; Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro; Erlichman, Charles; LaPlant, Betsy; Juckett, Mark B
Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) not fit for intensive treatment need novel therapy options. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibition is one potential mechanism by which AML and MDS could be treated. The receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor AZD2171 (cediranib) has activity against VEGF receptors KDR and FLT-1. This multicenter phase II study was designed to test cediranib's activity in patients with AML or high-risk MDS. The primary endpoint was confirmed disease response defined as a composite of complete remission, partial remission or hematologic improvement. The study enrolled 23 subjects in the AML cohort and 16 subjects in the MDS cohort. There were no confirmed responses in either group. Since the study met the stopping rule after the first stage of enrollment, the trial was closed to further accrual. Common adverse events in both cohorts included thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, fatigue, dyspnea, diarrhea, nausea and dehydration.
Hsieh, Sue; Dai, Hong; Bestard, Oriol; Metes, Diana; Zeevi, Andrea; Gritsch, Albin; Cheeseman, Jennifer; Macedo, Camila; Peddy, Ram; Medeiros, Mara; Vincenti, Flavio; Asher, Nancy; Salvatierra, Oscar; Shapiro, Ron; Kirk, Allan; Reed, Elaine; Sarwal, Minnie M.
Background Development of noninvasive molecular assays to improve disease diagnosis and patient monitoring is a critical need. In renal transplantation, acute rejection (AR) increases the risk for chronic graft injury and failure. Noninvasive diagnostic assays to improve current late and nonspecific diagnosis of rejection are needed. We sought to develop a test using a simple blood gene expression assay to detect patients at high risk for AR. Methods and Findings We developed a novel correlation-based algorithm by step-wise analysis of gene expression data in 558 blood samples from 436 renal transplant patients collected across eight transplant centers in the US, Mexico, and Spain between 5 February 2005 and 15 December 2012 in the Assessment of Acute Rejection in Renal Transplantation (AART) study. Gene expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) in one center. A 17-gene set—the Kidney Solid Organ Response Test (kSORT)—was selected in 143 samples for AR classification using discriminant analysis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.94; 95% CI 0.91–0.98), validated in 124 independent samples (AUC = 0.95; 95% CI 0.88–1.0) and evaluated for AR prediction in 191 serial samples, where it predicted AR up to 3 mo prior to detection by the current gold standard (biopsy). A novel reference-based algorithm (using 13 12-gene models) was developed in 100 independent samples to provide a numerical AR risk score, to classify patients as high risk versus low risk for AR. kSORT was able to detect AR in blood independent of age, time post-transplantation, and sample source without additional data normalization; AUC = 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–0.99). Further validation of kSORT is planned in prospective clinical observational and interventional trials. Conclusions The kSORT blood QPCR assay is a noninvasive tool to detect high risk of AR of renal transplants. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID
Middeke, Jan M; Herold, Sylvia; Rücker-Braun, Elke; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Stelljes, Matthias; Kaufmann, Martin; Schäfer-Eckart, Kerstin; Baldus, Claudia D; Stuhlmann, Reingard; Ho, Anthony D; Einsele, Hermann; Rösler, Wolf; Serve, Hubert; Hänel, Mathias; Sohlbach, Kristina; Klesse, Christian; Mohr, Brigitte; Heidenreich, Falk; Stölzel, Friedrich; Röllig, Christoph; Platzbecker, Uwe; Ehninger, Gerhard; Bornhäuser, Martin; Thiede, Christian; Schetelig, Johannes
Treatment success in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is heterogeneous. Cytogenetic and molecular alterations are strong prognostic factors, which have been used to individualize treatment. Here, we studied the impact of TP53 mutations on the outcome of AML patients with adverse cytogenetic risk treated with allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Samples of 97 patients with AML and adverse-risk cytogenetics who had received a HSCT within three randomized trials were analysed. Complete sequencing of the TP53 coding region was performed using next generation sequencing. The median age was 51 years. Overall, TP53 mutations were found in 40 patients (41%). With a median follow up of 67 months, the three-year probabilities of overall survival (OS) and event-free survival for patients with TP53 wild type were 33% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21% to 45%] and 24% (95% CI, 13% to 35%) compared to 10% (95% CI, 0% to 19%) and 8% (95% CI, 0% to 16%) (P = 0·002 and P = 0·007) for those with mutated TP53, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the TP53-mutation status had a negative impact on OS (Hazard Ratio = 1·7; P = 0·066). Mutational analysis of TP53 might be an important additional tool to predict outcome after HSCT in patients with adverse karyotype AML.
Kunadian, Vijay; Neely, R Dermot G; Sinclair, Hannah; Batty, Jonathan A; Veerasamy, Murugapathy; Ford, Gary A; Qiu, Weiliang
Introduction The ICON1 study (a study to Improve Cardiovascular Outcomes in high-risk older patieNts with acute coronary syndrome) is a prospective observational study of older patients (≥75 years old) with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome managed by contemporary treatment (pharmacological and invasive). The aim of the study was to determine the predictors of poor cardiovascular outcomes in this age group and to generate a risk prediction tool. Methods and analysis Participants are recruited from 2 tertiary hospitals in the UK. Baseline evaluation includes frailty, comorbidity, cognition and quality-of-life measures, inflammatory status assessed by a biomarker panel, including microRNAs, senescence assessed by telomere length and telomerase activity, cardiovascular status assessed by arterial stiffness, endothelial function, carotid intima media thickness and left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and coronary plaque assessed by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography. The patients are followed-up at 30 days and at 1 year for primary outcome measures of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, unplanned revascularisation, bleeding and rehospitalisation. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the regional ethics committee (REC 12/NE/016). Findings of the study will be presented in scientific sessions and will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT01933581: Pre-results. PMID:27554105
PAVLINAC, PB; JOHN-STEWART, GC; NAULIKHA, JM; ONCHIRI, FM; DENNO, DM; ODUNDO, EA; SINGA, BO; RICHARDSON, BA; WALSON, JL
Objective HIV-infection is an established risk for diarrheal severity, less is known about specific enteric pathogens associated with HIV status. We determined associations of selected enteric pathogens with HIV-infection and HIV-exposure among Kenyan children. Design Cross-sectional study among 6 months to 15 year olds presenting to two Western Kenya District hospitals with acute diarrhea between 2011–2013. Methods Stool was tested using standard bacterial culture and microscopy for ova and parasites. HIV testing was obtained on children and mothers. Enteric pathogen prevalence was compared between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and between HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for selected pathogens by HIV-status were estimated using relative risk (RR) regression and P-values. Age, site, income, household crowding, water source/treatment, anthropometrics, cotrimoxazole use, and breastfeeding history were accounted for in multivariable models. Results Among 1,076 children, median age was 22 months (interquartile range: 11–42), 56 (5.2%) were HIV-infected, and 10.3%(105/1020) of HIV-uninfected children were HIV-exposed. The following organisms were most frequently isolated from stool: enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (13.3%), Giardia spp. (11.1%) Campylobacter (6.3%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (6.1%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (3.7%). Accounting for age, HIV-infection was associated with EPEC infection (PR: 3.70, P=0.002) while HIV-exposure was associated with Cryptosporidium among HIV-uninfected children (PR: 2.81, P=0.005). Conclusion EPEC and Cryptosporidium infections were more common in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children, respectively. This could explain the increased mortality attributed to these pathogens in other studies. Interventions targeting EPEC and Cryptosporidium may reduce morbidity and mortality in high HIV-prevalence settings. PMID:25028987
Gunnerson, Kyle J.; Shaw, Andrew D.; Chawla, Lakhmir S.; Bihorac, Azra; Al-Khafaji, Ali; Kashani, Kianoush; Lissauer, Matthew; Shi, Jing; Walker, Michael G.; Kellum, John A.
BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication in surgical patients. Existing biomarkers and clinical prediction models underestimate the risk for developing AKI. We recently reported data from two trials of 728 and 408 critically ill adult patients in whom urinary TIMP2•IGFBP7 (NephroCheck, Astute Medical) was used to identify patients at risk of developing AKI. Here we report a preplanned analysis of surgical patients from both trials to assess whether urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor–binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) accurately identify surgical patients at risk of developing AKI. STUDY DESIGN We enrolled adult surgical patients at risk for AKI who were admitted to one of 39 intensive care units across Europe and North America. The primary end point was moderate-severe AKI (equivalent to KDIGO [Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes] stages 2–3) within 12 hours of enrollment. Biomarker performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, integrated discrimination improvement, and category-free net reclassification improvement. RESULTS A total of 375 patients were included in the final analysis of whom 35 (9%) developed moderate-severe AKI within 12 hours. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for [TIMP-2]•[IGFBP7] alone was 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.90; p < 0.0001). Biomarker performance was robust in sensitivity analysis across predefined subgroups (urgency and type of surgery). CONCLUSION For postoperative surgical intensive care unit patients, a single urinary TIMP2•IGFBP7 test accurately identified patients at risk for developing AKI within the ensuing 12 hours and its inclusion in clinical risk prediction models significantly enhances their performance. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Prognostic study, level I. PMID:26816218
Children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) are at high risk for developing hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemic adult ALL patients have shorter remissions, more infections, and increased mortality. No corresponding data are available in children. We hypothesized that children with ALL who become hypergl...
Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Brian, Jessica; Bryson, Susan E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Roberts, Wendy; Roncadin, Caroline; Szatmari, Peter; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie
Considerable evidence on autism spectrum disorder emergence comes from longitudinal high-risk samples (i.e. younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder). Diagnostic stability to age 3 is very good when diagnosed as early as 18-24 months, but sensitivity is weaker, and relatively little is known beyond toddlerhood. We examined…
Rogerson, Mark D; Gatchel, Robert J; Bierner, Samuel M
Chronic pain is a costly and debilitating condition that has proven difficult to treat, solely with medical interventions, due to the complex interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors in its onset and persistence. Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of interdisciplinary treatment that includes psychosocial interventions for low back pain. Nevertheless, these interventions continue to be under-utilized due to concerns of cost and applicability. The present study utilized a cost utility analysis to evaluate effectiveness and associated costs of interdisciplinary early intervention for individuals with acute low back pain that was identified as high-risk for becoming chronic. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated using a standard pain measure and quality-adjusted life years, and associated medical and employment costs were gathered for 1 year. Results indicated that subjects improved significantly from pretreatment to 1-year follow-up, and that the early intervention group reported fewer health-care visits and missed workdays than the treatment as usual group. The majority of 1,000 bootstrapped samples demonstrated the dominance of the early intervention program as being both more effective and less costly from a societal perspective. The early intervention treatment was the preferred option in over 85% of samples within an established range of acceptable costs. These results are encouraging evidence for the cost-effectiveness of interdisciplinary intervention and the benefits of targeted early treatment.
Grövdal, Michael; Karimi, Mohsen; Khan, Rasheed; Aggerholm, Anni; Antunovic, Petar; Astermark, Jan; Bernell, Per; Engström, Lena-Maria; Kjeldsen, Lars; Linder, Olle; Nilsson, Lars; Olsson, Anna; Holm, Mette S; Tangen, Jon M; Wallvik, Jonas; Oberg, Gunnar; Hokland, Peter; Jacobsen, Sten E; Porwit, Anna; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva
This prospective Phase II study is the first to assess the feasibility and efficacy of maintenance 5-azacytidine for older patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia and MDS-acute myeloid leukaemia syndromes in complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy. Sixty patients were enrolled and treated by standard induction chemotherapy. Patients that reached CR started maintenance therapy with subcutaneous azacytidine, 5/28 d until relapse. Promoter-methylation status of CDKN2B (P15 ink4b), CDH1 and HIC1 was examined pre-induction, in CR and 6, 12 and 24 months post CR. Twenty-four (40%) patients achieved CR after induction chemotherapy and 23 started maintenance treatment with azacytidine. Median CR duration was 13.5 months, >24 months in 17% of the patients, and 18-30.5 months in the four patients with trisomy 8. CR duration was not associated with CDKN2B methylation status or karyotype. Median overall survival was 20 months. Hypermethylation of CDH1 was significantly associated with low CR rate, early relapse, and short overall survival (P = 0.003). 5-azacytidine treatment, at a dose of 60 mg/m(2) was well tolerated. Grade III-IV thrombocytopenia and neutropenia occurred after 9.5 and 30% of the cycles, respectively, while haemoglobin levels increased during treatment. 5-azacytidine treatment is safe, feasible and may be of benefit in a subset of patients.
Wurr, Catherine J.; Partridge, Ian M.
In a survey of 120 inpatients admitted to a United Kingdom acute psychiatric ward, 46% reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. Only 14%, however, had disclosed the abuse previously to psychiatrists. The patterns of abuse were found to correspond with those causing problems with adjustment in adult life. (CR)
Fotter, R; Höllwarth, M
Bone scanning with 99m-Tc-MDP is generally used for the early diagnosis of acute haematogenic childhood osteomyelitis. The combination of this method with radionuclide osteoscintimetry and the evaluation of the relative uptake ratio supply objective criteria for assessing the development of the disease. They permit statements as to the morphological and functional aspects of the disease and thus facilitate clinical assessment.
Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Zeharia, Avraham; Shaag, Avraham; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Hindi, Tareq; de Lonlay, Pascale; Erez, Gilli; Hubert, Laurence; Saada, Ann; de Keyzer, Yves; Eshel, Gideon; Vaz, Frédéric M; Pines, Ophry; Elpeleg, Orly
Recurrent episodes of life-threatening myoglobinuria in childhood are caused by inborn errors of glycogenolysis, mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. Nonetheless, approximately half of the patients do not suffer from a defect in any of these pathways. Using homozygosity mapping, we identified six deleterious mutations in the LPIN1 gene in patients who presented at 2-7 years of age with recurrent, massive rhabdomyolysis. The LPIN1 gene encodes the muscle-specific phosphatidic acid phosphatase, a key enzyme in triglyceride and membrane phospholipid biosynthesis. Of six individuals who developed statin-induced myopathy, one was a carrier for Glu769Gly, a pathogenic mutation in the LPIN1 gene. Analysis of phospholipid content disclosed accumulation of phosphatidic acid and lysophospholipids in muscle tissue of the more severe genotype. Mutations in the LPIN1 gene cause recurrent rhabdomyolysis in childhood, and a carrier state may predispose for statin-induced myopathy.
Mawad, Raya; Becker, Pamela S; Hendrie, Paul; Scott, Bart; Wood, Brent L; Dean, Carol; Sandhu, Vicky; Deeg, Hans Joachim; Walter, Roland; Wang, Lixia; Myint, Han; Singer, Jack W; Estey, Elihu; Pagel, John M
Tosedostat, an oral aminopeptidase inhibitor, has synergy with cytarabine and hypomethylating agents. We performed a Phase II trial to determine rates of complete remission (CR) and survival using tosedostat with cytarabine or decitabine in older patients with untreated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Thirty-four patients ≥60 years old (median age 70 years; range, 60-83) were randomized to receive tosedostat (120 mg on days 1-21 or 180 mg continuously) with 5 d of either cytarabine (1 g/m2 /d) or decitabine (20 mg/m2 /d) every 35 d. Twenty-nine patients (85%) had AML, including 15 (44%) with secondary AML/MDS, and 5 (15%) had MDS-refractory anaemia with excess blasts type 2. The CR/CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) rate was 53% [9 in each arm; 14 CR (41%) and 4 CRi (12%)], attained in 6 of 14 patients with adverse cytogenetics and 4 of 7 with FLT3-internal tandem duplication mutations. Median follow-up was 11.2 months (range, 0.5-22.3), and median survival was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval, 5.2-16.7). Twenty-three patients (67.6%) were treated as outpatients and 10 of these patients required hospitalization for febrile neutropenia. No Grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicities required withdrawal from study. Tosedostat with cytarabine or decitabine is tolerated in older patients with untreated AML/MDS, results in a CR/CRi rate of >50%, and warrants further study in larger trials.
Torisu, Hiroyuki; Kira, Ryutaro; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Yamaguchi, Yui; Yasumoto, Sawa; Murakami, Yoshihiko; Shimono, Masayuki; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Masuzaki, Mayumi; Amamoto, Masano; Kondo, Rikako; Uozumi, Tomohiko; Aibe, Miyuki; Gondo, Kenjiro; Hanai, Toshio; Hirose, Sinichi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Shirahata, Akira; Mitsudome, Akihisa; Hara, Toshiro
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has recently been studied in several countries owing to the development and wide spread use of imaging technology, but few epidemiological studies of childhood ADEM have been undertaken in Asian countries. To perform a comprehensive survey of ADEM and related diseases in Japanese children, we conducted a multicenter, population-based study on childhood ADEM, multiple sclerosis, and acute isolated transverse myelitis in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. We identified 26 children with ADEM, 8 with multiple sclerosis, and 4 with acute transverse myelitis during 5 years between September 1998 and August 2003. The incidence of childhood ADEM under the age of 15 years was 0.64 per 100,000 person-years, mean age at onset was 5.7 years, and male-female ratio was 2.3:1. The prevalence of childhood multiple sclerosis was 1.3 per 100,000 persons. The mean age at onset of multiple sclerosis, 9.3 years, was significantly higher than that of ADEM. Nineteen (73%) and four (15%) patients with ADEM experienced antecedent infectious illnesses and vaccinations, respectively, within 1 month before the onset. Clinical and radiological findings of ADEM revealed that the frequency of seizures, mean white blood cell counts in cerebrospinal fluid, and the frequency of subcortical lesions in Fukuoka study, seemed to be higher than those in previous non-Asian studies. These findings suggest that there are ethnic or geographical differences in the incidence and clinical features of ADEM, and that there might be potent genetic or environmental risk factors for ADEM distinct from those for multiple sclerosis.
Pérez-Martínez, A; González-Vicent, M; Valentín, J; Aleo, E; Lassaletta, A; Sevilla, J; Vicario, J L; Ramírez, M; Díaz, M A
Graft engineering procedures for hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) may improve the chance of success in matched unrelated donor (MUD) and haploidentical donor transplantations. Successful donor immune reconstitution is important to mediate GVL effects in reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) HSCT. We prospectively investigated early immune reconstitution and clinical outcome in 30 CD3/CD19-depleted MUD (n=15) or HP (n=15) HSCTs for high-risk childhood leukemia using a fludarabine-based RIC without serotherapy. The graft consisted of a mean of 10.5 × 10(6)/kg CD34+, 77 × 10(3)/kg CD3+ and 39 × 10(6)/kg CD56+ cells. After transplantation, 86% of the patients engrafted. In all, 13% of patients had >grade 3 acute GVHD. Natural killer (NK) cell, DC and T-cell recovery achieved normal values within the first 60 days after transplantation. DC recovery was dominated by the DC2(-) subset. NK-cell phenotype was altered and cytotoxicity was lower compared with their donors. EFS was 50±9% (73±11% for those in CR1 and 26±11% for those with advanced disease). Faster DC2(-) recovery was associated with better outcome, especially in the MUD setting. In summary, CD3/CD19-depleted HSCT with fludarabine-based RIC without serotherapy resulted in favorable patient survival, and rapid NK, DC and T-cell recovery.
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Isolated Del(5q); Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Nousome, Darryl; Lupo, Philip J.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Scheurer, Michael E.
Discovering genetic predictors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) necessitates the evaluation of novel factors including maternal genetic effects, which are a proxy for the intrauterine environment, and robust epidemiologic study designs. Therefore, we evaluated five maternal and offspring xenobiotic metabolism haplotypes and the risk of childhood ALL among 120 case-parent triads. Two of the five haplotypes were significantly associated with risk: GSTM3/GSTM4 (P=0.01) and GSTP1 (P=0.02). The EPHX1 haplotype was marginally associated with risk (P=0.05), whereas haplotypes in CYP1B1 and GSTA4 were not. Our results suggest genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolism is important in childhood ALL etiology. PMID:23433810
Hutchison, Patricia A.; Kovacs, Michael C.
Of a series of 122 children suffering from acute purulent meningitis at the Children's Hospital, Winnipeg, in the years 1952-56, 12 (9.8%) succumbed, all deaths occurring in those 12 months of age or less. Fortyone of the survivors were re-studied 2.5 to 7.5 years after their acute illness to assess the nature and incidence of sequelae, the relationship of sequelae to the severity of the acute illness, and the correlation between the various methods of identifying sequelae. Five children exhibited psychiatric evidence of organic brain damage; seven, neurological abnormality; 11, electroencephalographic abnormality. Three had defective intelligence and nine psychological test evidence of organic brain damage. Children with sequelae tended to have several abnormal test results, the total number with neuropsychiatric and/or psychological sequelae being 11 (26%). There was a positive correlation between the severity of the acute illness and the presence of neuropsychiatric sequelae; also between neuropsychiatric sequelae, defective intelligence and psychological evidence of brain damage. No correlation existed between the electroencephalographic abnormality and neuropsychiatric defect. PMID:13955939
Jea, Andrew; Bradshaw, Tina J; Whitehead, William E; Curry, Daniel J; Dauser, Robert C; Luerssen, Thomas G
Little to no pediatric or neurosurgical literature has been published about the complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedures for hydrocephalus associated with vein of Galen malformations in childhood. The interventional neuroradiology literature, however, suggests that ventriculoperitoneal shunting as first-line treatment for hydrocephalus in children with vein of Galen malformations is fraught with short- and long-term dangers, including status epilepticus, intraventricular hemorrhage, subdural hematoma and hygroma, venous infarction, malignant dystrophic calcification, and worsening developmental delay. We present a single pediatric case where a ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure for symptomatic hydrocephalus seemed to be the major contributing factor to the rapid neurological deterioration and eventual death of an infant with a vein of Galen malformation. Based on this experience and our review of the literature, we suggest the use of endovascular embolization of the vein of Galen malformation to reestablish a balance in hydrovenous dynamics as first-line treatment rather than directly addressing hydrocephalus with CSF diversion. The ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure should be reserved for cases with symptomatic hydrocephalus in which the patient is a poor candidate for embolization, or for cases where endovascular therapy has already been maximized. The role of endoscopy in the treatment of hydrocephalus associated with vein of Galen malformations is not clear.
Masetti, Riccardo; Serravalle, Salvatore; Biagi, Carlotta; Pession, Andrea
Acute leukemia is the most common type of childhood and adolescence cancer, characterized by clonal proliferation of variably differentiated myeloid or lymphoid precursors. Recent insights into the molecular pathogenesis of leukemia have shown that epigenetic modifications, such as deacetylation of histones and DNA methylation, play crucial roles in leukemogenesis, by transcriptional silencing of critical genes. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are potential targets in the treatment of leukaemia, and, as a consequence, inhibitors of HDACs (HDIs) are being studied for therapeutic purposes. HDIs promote or enhance several different anticancer mechanisms, such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and cellular differentiation and, therefore, are in evidence as promising treatment for children and adolescents with acute leukemia, in monotherapy or in association with other anticancer drugs. Here we review the main preclinical and clinical studies regarding the use of HDIs in treating childhood and adolescence leukemia. PMID:21318168
Xia, Jia; Wang, Yadan; Zhang, Hang; Hu, Yu
Abstract To date, many studies on the association between methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have provided either controversial or inconclusive results. To clarify the effect of MTR A2756G on the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a meta-analysis of all relevant studies was performed. The fixed effects model showed that the 2756A allele was associated with a decreased risk of childhood ALL compared with the G allele (ORA vs. G = 0.872; 95% CI 0.782-0.974; p = 0.015, I(2) = 46.9%). Additionally, when comparing subjects with ALL and controls with AA vs. AG or AA vs. AG + GG (dominant model), significant differences were found in the fixed effects model (ORAA vs. AG = 0.869; 95% CI 0.760-0.994; p = 0.040, I(2) = 26.4%; ORAA vs. AG+ GG = 0.858; 95% CI 0.754-0.976; p = 0.020, I(2) = 39.6%). In a subgroup analysis in a population with the same background, individuals with the AA genotype had a reduced risk of developing ALL compared to individuals with the AG genotype. In conclusion, our study provides evidence suggesting that MTR A2756G is associated with a reduced risk of developing childhood ALL.
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Isolated Del(5q); Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Yoon, Sang-In; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Park, Jung-Yul; Chung, Yong-Gu
When treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), secondary neoplasms are a significant long term problem. Radiation is generally accepted to be a major cause of the development of secondary neoplasms. Following treatment for ALL, a variety of secondary tumors, including brain tumors, hematologic malignancies, sarcomas, thyroid cancers, and skin cancers have been reported. However, oligodendroglioma as a secondary neoplasm is extremely rare. Herein we present a case of secondary oligodendroglioma occurring 13 years after the end of ALL treatment. PMID:27867928
Karawajew, Leonid; Dworzak, Michael; Ratei, Richard; Rhein, Peter; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Buldini, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Hrusak, Ondrej; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Henze, Günter; Seeger, Karl; von Stackelberg, Arend; Mejstrikova, Ester; Eckert, Cornelia
Multiparametric flow cytometry is an alternative approach to the polymerase chain reaction method for evaluating minimal residual disease in treatment protocols for primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Given considerable differences between primary and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment regimens, flow cytometric assessment of minimal residual disease in relapsed leukemia requires an independent comprehensive investigation. In the present study we addressed evaluation of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry in the clinical trial for childhood relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia using eight-color flow cytometry. The major challenge of the study was to reliably identify low amounts of residual leukemic cells against the complex background of regeneration, characteristic of follow-up samples during relapse treatment. In a prospective study of 263 follow-up bone marrow samples from 122 patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, we tested various B-cell markers, adapted the antibody panel to the treatment protocol, and evaluated its performance by a blinded parallel comparison with the polymerase chain reaction data. The resulting eight-color single-tube panel showed a consistently high overall concordance (P<0.001) and, under optimal conditions, sensitivity similar to that of the reference polymerase chain reaction method. Overall, evaluation of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry can be successfully integrated into the clinical management of relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia either as complementary to the polymerase chain reaction or as an independent risk stratification tool. ALL-REZ BFM 2002 clinical trial information: NCT00114348.
de Vasconcelos, Gisele Moledo; Azevedo-Silva, Fernanda; dos Santos Thuler, Luiz Claudio; Pina, Eugênia Terra Granado; Souza, Celeste S.F.; Calabrese, Katia; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.
Objective This study investigated the co-existence of Leishmania chagasi infection and childhood leukemia in patients naïve to treatment; this has serious clinical and epidemiological implications. Methods The seroprevalence of L. chagasi antibodies prior to any treatment was investigated in children with clinical features of acute leukemia. Serological tests were performed in 470 samples drawn from under 14-year-old children from different regions of Brazil with clinical suspicion of acute leukemia. Acute leukemia subtypes were characterized by immunophenotyping using flow cytometry. Morphological analyses of bone marrow aspirates were systematically performed to visualize blast cells and/or the formation of L. chagasi amastigotes. Data analysis used a standard univariate procedure and the Pearson's chi-square test. Results The plasma of 437 children (93%) displayed antibodies against L. chagasi by indirect immunofluorescence assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests. Of the 437 patients diagnosed from 2002 to 2006, 254 had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 92 had acute myeloid leukemia, and 91 did not have acute leukemia. The seroprevalence of L. chagasi antibodies according to the indirect immunofluorescence assay test (22.5%) was similar in children with or without acute leukemia (p-value = 0.76). The co-existence of visceral leishmanasis and acute leukemia was confirmed in 24 children. The overall survival of these children was poor with a high death rate during the first year of leukemia treatment. Conclusion In the differential diagnosis of childhood leukemia, visceral leishmanasis should be considered as a potential concurrent disease in regions where L. chagasi is endemic. PMID:25305169
Chessells, J M; Breatnach, F
Thirty children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had a recurrence in the bone marrow after treatment was stopped electively. A second haematological remission was achieved in 27 (90%), and the median duration of remission was shortest (six months) in those relapsing within six months of stopping treatment. Four of six children relapsing over one year after stopping treatment remained in second haematological remission. Leukaemic infiltration of the central nervous system developed in four patients remaining in marrow remission. It is concluded that conventional chemotherapy is unlikely to be effective in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who relapse soon after stopping treatment, that "reprophylaxis" of the central nervous system probably with long-term intrathecal chemotherapy is essential, and that some patients relapsing after prolonged unmaintained remission may achieve long-term leukaemia-free survival. PMID:6791733
Liu, Ruiling; Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M.; Hammond, S. Katharine
Objective. To investigate the association between paternal smoking and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Method. We identified 18 published epidemiologic studies that reported data on both paternal smoking and childhood ALL risk. We performed a meta-analysis and analyzed dose-response relationships on ALL risk for smoking during preconception, during pregnancy, after birth, and ever smoking. Results. The summary odds ratio (OR) of childhood ALL associated with paternal smoking was 1.11 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.05–1.18, I2 = 18%) during any time period, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.08–1.46, I2 = 53%) preconception; 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07–1.43, I2 = 54%) during pregnancy, and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.96–1.60, I2 = 64%) after birth, with a dose-response relationship between childhood ALL and paternal smoking preconception or after birth. Conclusion. The evidence supports a positive association between childhood ALL and paternal ever smoking and at each exposure time period examined. Future epidemiologic studies should assess paternal smoking during well-defined exposure windows and should include biomarkers to assess smoking exposure and toxicological mechanisms. PMID:21765828
Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J
Uncertainty and anxiety surround parents' decisions to seek medical help for an acutely ill child. Consultation rates for children are rising, yet little is known about factors that influence parents' help-seeking behaviours. We used focus groups and interviews to examine how 27 parents of children under five years, from a range of socioeconomic groups in the East Midlands of England, use information to make decisions during acute childhood illness at home. This article reports findings elucidating factors that influence help-seeking behaviours. Parents reported that decision-making during acute childhood illness was influenced by a range of personal, social and health service factors. Principal among these was parents' concern to do the right thing for their child. Their ability to assess the severity of the illness was influenced by knowledge and experience of childhood illness. When parents were unable to access their general practitioner (GP), feared criticism from or had lost trust in their GP, some parents reported using services elsewhere such as Accident and Emergency. These findings contribute to explanatory theory concerning parents' help-seeking behaviours. Professional and political solutions have not reduced demand; therefore, collaborative approaches involving the public and professionals are now needed to improve parents' access to information.
Bailey, Helen D; Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Petridou, Eleni; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Spector, Logan G; Clavel, Jacqueline; Dockerty, John D; Zhang, Luoping; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Fritschi, Lin; Amigou, Alicia; Hatzipantelis, Emmanouel; Kang, Alice Y; Stiakaki, Eftychia; Schüz, Joachim
Purpose It has been suggested that home paint exposure increases the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods We obtained individual level data from eight case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. All studies had home paint exposure data (sometimes including lacquers and varnishes) for the pregnancy period with additional data for the 1–3 month period before conception in five, the year before conception in two, and the period after birth in four studies respectively. Cytogenetic subtype data were available for some studies. Data were harmonized to a compatible format. Pooled analyses of individual data were undertaken using unconditional logistic regression. Results Based on 3,002 cases and 3,836 controls, the pooled odds ratio (OR) for home paint exposure in the 1–3 months before conception and risk of ALL was 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28, 1.85), while based on 1160 cases and 1641 controls for exposure in the year before conception it was 1.00 (95% CI 0.86, 1.17). For exposure during pregnancy, using 4,382 cases and 5,747 controls, the pooled OR was 1.14 (95% CI 1.04, 1.25) and for exposure after birth, the OR was 1.22 (95% CI 1.07, 1.39), based on data from 1,962 cases and 2,973 controls. The risk was greater for certain cytogenetic subtypes and if someone other than the parents did the painting. Conclusions Home paint exposure shortly before conception, during pregnancy and/or after birth appeared to increase the risk of childhood ALL. It may be prudent to limit exposure during these periods. PMID:26134047
Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21); (q22; q22.1); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22.3;q23.3); MLLT3-KMT2A; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Essential Thrombocythemia; Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Cell Neoplasm; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative, BCR-ABL1 Positive Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Disease; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome
Blumer, J.L.; Dunn, R.; Esterhay, M.D.; Yamashita, T.S.; Gross, S.
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity and inducibility were examined in mitogen-stimulated cultured lymphocytes from children with acute leukemia in remission, with nonleukemic malignancies, and with no family or personal history of malignant disease. Neither morphological differences nor differences in mitogen responsivelness were observed among the three sources of cells studied. Levels of constitutive and dibenzanthracene-induced AHH activity were found to be similar among the three groups by analysis of variance. However, when results were analyzed in terms of inducibility ratios, it was found that cells from leukemic children were significantly less inducible (p < 0.005) than cells from unaffected children or children with nonleukemic malignancies. The reason for this difference became apparent when statistical criteria were employed for the phenotypic separation of individuals who were highly aromatic hydrocarbon responsive and minimally responsive. A significantly larger proportion (p < 0.001) of leukemic children than unaffected children or children with nonleukemic malignancy were found to be minimally aromatic hydrocarbon responsive. Moreover, in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapsing while on therapy, longer durations of the first remission were correlated (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) with the highly inducible AHH phenotype.
Brown, Patrick; Hunger, Stephen P; Smith, Franklin O; Carroll, William L; Reaman, Gregory H
The cure rates for childhood acute leukemia have dramatically improved to approximately 70% overal, with treatments that include intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy and, in some cases, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, many children still die of their disease or of treatment-related toxicities. Even in patients that are cured, there can be significant and, not uncommonly debilitating, acute and late complications of treatment. Improved understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of leukemia and the increasing availability of high-throughput genomic techniques have facilitated the development of molecularly targeted therapies that have the potential to be more effective and less toxic than the standard approaches. In this article, we review the progress to date with agents that are showing promise in the treatment of childhood acute leukemia, including monoclonal antibodies, inhibitors of kinases and other signaling molecules (e.g., BCR–ABL, FLT3, farnesyltransferase, mTOR and γ-secretase), agents that target epigenetic regulation of gene expression (DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors) and proteasome inhibitors. For the specific agents in each of these classes, we summarize the published preclinical data and the clinical trials that have been completed, are in progress or are being planned for children with acute leukemia. Finally, we discuss potential challenges to the success of molecularly targeted therapy, including proper target identification, adequate targeting of leukemia stem cells, developing synergistic and tolerable combinations of agents and designing adequately powered clinical trials to test efficacy in molecularly defined subsets of patients. PMID:20126514
Whitt, J.K.; Wells, R.J.; Lauria, M.M.; Wilhelm, C.L.; McMillan, C.W.
A battery of neuropsychologic tests was administered ''blindly'' to 18 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who had been randomly assigned to treatment regimens with or without cranial radiation. These children were all in complete continuous remission for more than 3 1/2 years and were no longer receiving therapy. The results indicated no substantial differences between groups as a function of radiation therapy. However, decreased neuropsychologic performance was found when the entire sample was compared with population norms. These data do not support the hypothesis that cranial radiation therapy is responsible for the neuropsychologic sequelae seen in these survivors of ALL. Post hoc multiple regression analysis indicated that parental education levels accounted for more of the neuropsychologic variability seen in these children than other factors such as age at diagnosis, type of therapy, or sex of child.
Ataxia refers to motor incoordination that is usually most prominent during movement or when a child is attempting to maintain a sitting posture. The first part of the review focuses on the anatomic localization of ataxia--both within the nervous system and without--using a combination of historical features and physical findings. The remainder of the review discusses etiological considerations that vary depending on the age group under consideration. In infancy, certain specific diseases, such as opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome, must receive special mention because the underlying disease process may be amenable to surgical intervention. In the toddler- and school-age groups, certain conditions (such as stroke and acute cerebellitis) require immediate recognition and imaging, whereas others (such as post-infectious ataxia and concussion) require close follow-up. Finally, mention must be made of diseases outside of the central nervous system that can present with ataxia, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Zhang, Yan; Gao, Yu; Shi, Rong; Chen, Didi; Wang, Xiaojin; Kamijima, Michihiro; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Nakajima, Tamie; Khalequzzaman, Md; Zhou, Yijun; Zheng, Ying; Bao, Pingping; Tian, Ying
Childhood acute leukemia (AL) is the most common malignant tumor in children, but its etiology remains largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between household exposure to pesticides and childhood AL. Between 2009 and 2010 in Shanghai, a total of 248 newly diagnosed cases of AL and 111 gender-, age-, and hospital-matched controls were included. Five nonspecific dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) [including dimethyl phosphate (DMP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), dimethyl thiophosphate (DMTP), diethyl thiophosphate (DETP), and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP)] in the urine were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results showed that the median DMP, DEP, DMTP, DETP, and DEDEP levels adjusted for creatinine (Cr) in cases (13.2, 10.0, 31.3, 8.5, and 6.1 μg g(-1), respectively) were all significantly elevated compared with those in controls (3.6, 3.6, 13.3, 2.7, and 1.7 μg g(-1), respectively) (P < 0.05). The household use of mosquito repellent was significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood AL (odds ratio (OR) = 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.1). Moreover, higher exposures were significantly associated with an elevated risk of childhood AL for DMs, DEs, and DAPs. Our findings support the notion that the household use of pesticides may play a role in the etiology of childhood AL and provide some evidence to warrant further investigation of the link between household pesticide exposures and childhood AL in Shanghai.
Risk-adapted treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia based on all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline with addition of cytarabine in consolidation therapy for high-risk patients: further improvements in treatment outcome.
Sanz, Miguel A; Montesinos, Pau; Rayón, Chelo; Holowiecka, Alexandra; de la Serna, Javier; Milone, Gustavo; de Lisa, Elena; Brunet, Salut; Rubio, Vicente; Ribera, José M; Rivas, Concha; Krsnik, Isabel; Bergua, Juan; González, José; Díaz-Mediavilla, Joaquín; Rojas, Rafael; Manso, Félix; Ossenkoppele, Gert; González, José D; Lowenberg, Bob
A risk-adapted strategy based on all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline monochemotherapy (PETHEMA LPA99 trial) has demonstrated a high antileukemic efficacy in acute promyelocytic leukemia. We designed a new trial (LPA2005) with the objective of achieving stepwise improvements in outcome. Between July 2005 and April 2009, low- and intermediate-risk patients (leukocytes < 10 x 10(9)/L) received a reduced dose of mitoxantrone for the second consolidation course, whereas high- risk patients younger than 60 years of age received cytarabine combined with ATRA and idarubicin in the first and third consolidation courses. Of 372 patients attaining complete remission after ATRA plus idarubicin (92.5%), 368 proceeded to consolidation therapy. For low- and intermediate-risk patients, duration of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia and hospital stay were significantly reduced without sacrificing antileukemic efficacy, compared with the previous LPA99 trial. For high-risk patients, the 3-year relapse rate was significantly lower in the LPA2005 trial (11%) than in the LPA99 (26%; P = .03). Overall disease-free survival was also better in the LPA2005 trial (P = .04). In conclusion, the lower dose of mitoxantrone resulted in a significant reduction of toxicity and hospital stay while maintaining the antileukemic activity, and the combination of ATRA, idarubicin, and cytarabine for high-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia significantly reduced the relapse rate in this setting. Registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00408278.
Francis, Stephen Starko; Wallace, Amelia D; Wendt, George A; Li, Linlin; Liu, Fenyong; Riley, Lee W; Kogan, Scott; Walsh, Kyle M; de Smith, Adam J; Dahl, Gary V; Ma, Xiaomei; Delwart, Eric; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L
It is widely suspected, yet controversial, that infection plays an etiologic role in the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common childhood cancer and a disease with a confirmed prenatal origin in most cases. We investigated infections at diagnosis and then assessed the timing of infection at birth in children with ALL and age, gender, and ethnicity matched controls to identify potential causal initiating infections. Comprehensive untargeted virome and bacterial analyses of pretreatment bone marrow specimens (n = 127 ALL in comparison with 38 acute myeloid leukemia cases in a comparison group) revealed prevalent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection at diagnosis in childhood ALL, demonstrating active viral transcription in leukemia blasts as well as intact virions in serum. Screening of newborn blood samples revealed a significantly higher prevalence of in utero CMV infection in ALL cases (n = 268) than healthy controls (n = 270) (odds ratio [OR], 3.71, confidence interval [CI], 1.56-7.92, P = .0016). Risk was more pronounced in Hispanics (OR=5.90, CI=1.89-25.96) than in non-Hispanic whites (OR=2.10 CI= 0.69-7.13). This is the first study to suggest that congenital CMV infection is a risk factor for childhood ALL and is more prominent in Hispanic children. Further investigation of CMV as an etiologic agent for ALL is warranted.
Hatch, E E; Linet, M S; Kleinerman, R A; Tarone, R E; Severson, R K; Hartsock, C T; Haines, C; Kaune, W T; Friedman, D; Robison, L L; Wacholder, S
As part of a comprehensive study of residential magnetic field exposure in nine midwestern and mid-Atlantic states, we evaluated the use of appliances by 640 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 0-14 years of age, diagnosed between 1989 and 1993, and 640 matched control children. Mothers were interviewed regarding use of electrical appliances during their pregnancy with the subject and the child's postnatal use. The risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was elevated in children whose mothers reported use of an electric blanket or mattress pad during pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) = 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-2.29] but was reduced for use of sewing machines during pregnancy (OR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.59-0.98). The risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia was increased with children's use of electric blankets or mattress pads (OR = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.52-4.98) and three other electrical appliances (hair dryers, video machines in arcades, and video games connected to a television), but the patterns of risk for duration in years of use and frequency of use were inconsistent for most appliances used by children. Risks rose with increasing number of hours per day children spent watching television, but risks were similar regardless of the usual distance from the television. The inconsistency in the dose-response patterns for many appliances, reporting and selection bias, and the lack of an effect for measured 60 Hertz magnetic fields or wire codes in our companion study must be considered before ascribing these associations to exposures from magnetic fields.
Chu, Ming; Yin, Kailin; Dong, Yujun; Wang, Pingzhang; Xue, Yun; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Yuqi; Wang, Yuedan
Acquired drug resistance in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) remains a significant clinical problem. In this study, a novel gene therapy target for childhood T-ALL to overcome chemoresistance was discovered: TFDP3 increased in the minimal residual disease (MRD) positive childhood T-ALL patients. Then, we established a preclinical model of resistance to induction therapy to examine the functional relevance of TFDP3 to chemoresistance in MRD derived from Jurkat/E6-1. Jurkat xenografts in NOD/SCID mice were exposed to a four drug combination (VXLD) of vincristine (VCR), dexamethasone (DEX), L-asparaginase (L-asp) and daunorubicin (DNR). During the 4-week VXLD treatment, the level of TFDP3 increased 4-fold. High expression of TFDP3 was identified in the re-emerging lines (Jurkat/MRD) with increased chemoresistance, which is correlated with partially promoter demethylation of TFDP3. Downregulation of TFDP3 by RNA interference reversed chemoresistance in Jurkat/MRD accompanied by reinstated E2F1 activity that coincided with increased levels of p53, p73, and associated proapoptotic target genes. Importantly, TFDP3 silencing in vivo induced apparent benefit to overcome chemoresistance in combination with VXLD treatment. Collectively, TFDP3 confers chemoresistance in MRD within childhood T-ALL, indicating that TFDP3 is a potential gene therapy target for residual cancer. PMID:27902457
... acute. Acute childhood leukemias are also divided into acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) , depending on ... Bone Marrow Childhood Cancer Neutropenia Stem Cell Transplants Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) ...
Halevy, Raphael; Smolkin, Vladislav; Bykov, Sergey; Chervinsky, Leonid; Sakran, Waheeb; Koren, Ariel
In the absence of specific symptomatology in children, the early diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) is a challenge, particularly during infancy. In an attempt to differentiate APN from lower urinary tract infection (UTI), we evaluated the ability of power Doppler ultrasonography (PDU) to predict renal parenchymal involvement, as assessed by dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m )Tc-DMSA) scintigraphy. The study comprised 62 patients, 46 girls and 16 boys, aged 2 weeks to 5 years, admitted to the pediatric department with febrile UTI. All children were examined by PDU and DMSA scintigraphy within the first 3 days of admission. In the group of 31 patients with one or more DMSA scan abnormalities, the PDU showed a matching perfusion defect in 27 (87%). Of 26 children with normal DMSA scintigraphy, the PDU evaluation was also normal in 24. The sensitivity and specificity of PDU for the detection of affected kidneys were 87% and 92.3%, and the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 93.1% and 85.7%, respectively. These data indicate the PDU has a high sensitivity and specificity for differentiating APN from lower UTI and may be a useful and practical tool for the diagnosis of APN in infants and children.
Chessells, J.; Leiper, A.; Rogers, D.
Thirty-four children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed bone marrow relapse after treatment was electively stopped, received reinduction, consolidation, continuing therapy, and intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX). Sixteen children who relapsed within six months of stopping treatment had a median second-remission duration of 26 weeks; all next relapses occurred in the bone marrow. In 18 children who relapsed later, the median duration of second remission was in excess of two years, but after a minimum of four years follow-up, 16 patients have so far relapsed again (six in the CNS). CNS relapse occurred as a next event in four of 17 children who received five IT MTX injections only and in two of 14 children who received additional regular IT MTX. Although children with late marrow relapses may achieve long second remissions, their long-term out-look is poor, and regular IT MTX does not afford adequate CNS prophylaxis. It remains to be seen whether more intensive chemotherapy, including high-dose chemoradiotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, will improve the prognosis in this group of patients.
Edelmann, Michelle N; Krull, Kevin R
The survival rate for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is greater than 80%. However, many of these survivors develop long-term chronic health conditions, with a relatively common late effect being neurocognitive dysfunction. Although neurocognitive impairments have decreased in frequency and severity as treatment has evolved, there is a subset of survivors in the current treatment era that are especially vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of ALL and its treatment. Additionally, little is known about long-term brain development as survivors mature into adulthood. A recent study by Zeller et al. compared neurocognitive function and brain volume in 130 adult survivors of childhood ALL to 130 healthy adults matched on age and sex. They identified the caudate as particularly sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy. We discuss the implications and limitations of this study, including how their findings support the concept of individual vulnerability to ALL and its treatment.
Koganti, S; Patel, N; Seraphim, A; Kotecha, T; Whitbread, M; Rakhit, R D
Objective To assess whether a novel ‘direct access pathway’ (DAP) for the management of high-risk non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) is safe, results in ‘shorter time to intervention and shorter admission times’. This pathway was developed locally to enable London Ambulance Service to rapidly transfer suspected high-risk NSTEACS from the community to our regional heart attack centre for consideration of early angiography. Methods This is a retrospective case–control analysis of 289 patients comparing patients with high-risk NSTEACS admitted via DAP with age-matched controls from the standard pan-London high-risk ACS pathway (PLP) and the conventional pathway (CP). The primary end point of the study was time from admission to coronary angiography/intervention. Secondary end point was total length of hospital stay. Results Over a period of 43 months, 101 patients were admitted by DAP, 109 matched patients by PLP and 79 matched patients through CP. Median times from admission to coronary angiography for DAP, PLP and CP were 2.8 (1.5–9), 16.6 (6–50) and 60 (33–116) hours, respectively (p<0.001). Median length of hospital stay for DAP and PLP was similar at 3.0 (2.0–5.0) days in comparison to 5 (3–7) days for CP (p<0.001). Conclusions DAP resulted in a significant reduction in time to angiography for patients with high-risk NSTEACS when compared to existing pathways. PMID:27324709
Bender, A.P.; Robison, L.L.; Kashmiri, S.V.; McClain, K.L.; Woods, W.G.; Smithson, W.A.; Heyn, R.; Finlay, J.; Schuman, L.M.; Renier, C.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine lymphosarcoma. Much speculation continues to be directed at the role of BLV in human leukemia. To test this hypothesis rigorously, a case-control study of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was conducted between December 1983 and February 1986. Cases (less than or equal to 16 years at diagnosis) derived from patients diagnosed at the primary institutions and affiliated hospitals were matched (age, sex, and race) with regional population controls. DNA samples from bone marrow or peripheral blood from 157 cases (131 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 26 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) and peripheral blood from 136 controls were analyzed by Southern blot technique, under highly stringent conditions, using cloned BLV DNA as a probe. None of the 157 case or 136 control DNA samples hybridized with the probe. The high statistical power and specificity of this study provide the best evidence to date that genomic integration of BLV is not a factor in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia/non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Yttrium Y 90 Anti-CD45 Monoclonal Antibody BC8 Followed by Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome
Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Weaver, R.G. Jr.; Chauvenet, A.R.; Smith, T.J.; Schwartz, A.C.
Thirty-four long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations to detect retinopathy or other ocular sequelae. Sixteen of the 34 patients received whole brain radiation (greater than or equal to 2400 rad). All 18 patients in the non-radiated group had normal eye examinations, while 4 of 16 in the radiated group had ocular abnormalities. None of the ocular abnormalities could be definitely attributed to radiation and all patients had normal visual acuity. No radiation retinopathy was found in either group.
Caudle, R.J.; Crawford, A.H.; Gelfand, M.J.; Gruppo, R.A.
''Cold'' lesions on bone scan have been reported in a variety of disease processes, including infection, avascular necrosis, and cysts. We present two cases of children who presented with large ''cold'' areas on technetium bone scans and were treated initially for septic processes. Acute childhood leukemia frequently presents with bone or joint pain, fever, and elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Although the diagnosis may be difficult if the characteristic clinical signs and laboratory findings are absent, the presence of anemia should alert the physician to the possibility of malignancy. Bone scanning provides a sensitive method of localizing pathology, but diagnosis requires biopsy or marrow aspiration.
Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester
Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment.
Metayer, Catherine; Petridou, Eleni; Aranguré, Juan Manuel Mejía; Roman, Eve; Schüz, Joachim; Magnani, Corrado; Mora, Ana Maria; Mueller, Beth A; de Oliveira, Maria S Pombo; Dockerty, John D; McCauley, Kathryn; Lightfoot, Tracy; Hatzipantelis, Emmanouel; Rudant, Jérémie; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Kaatsch, Peter; Miligi, Lucia; Wesseling, Catharina; Doody, David R; Moschovi, Maria; Orsi, Laurent; Mattioli, Stefano; Selvin, Steve; Kang, Alice Y; Clavel, Jacqueline
The association between tobacco smoke and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is well established in adults but not in children. Individual-level data on parental cigarette smoking were obtained from 12 case-control studies from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC, 1974-2012), including 1,330 AML cases diagnosed at age <15 years and 13,169 controls. We conducted pooled analyses of CLIC studies, as well as meta-analyses of CLIC and non-CLIC studies. Overall, maternal smoking before, during, or after pregnancy was not associated with childhood AML; there was a suggestion, however, that smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk in Hispanics (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 3.61) but not in other ethnic groups. By contrast, the odds ratios for paternal lifetime smoking were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.62) and 1.18 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.51) in pooled and meta-analyses, respectively. Overall, increased risks from 1.2- to 1.3-fold were observed for pre- and postnatal smoking (P < 0.05), with higher risks reported for heavy smokers. Associations with paternal smoking varied by histological type. Our analyses suggest an association between paternal smoking and childhood AML. The association with maternal smoking appears limited to Hispanic children, raising questions about ethnic differences in tobacco-related exposures and biological mechanisms, as well as study-specific biases.
Rull, Rudolph P.; Gunier, Robert; Von Behren, Julie; Hertz, Andrew; Crouse, Vonda; Buffler, Patricia A.; Reynolds, Peggy
Ambient exposure from residential proximity to applications of agricultural pesticides may contribute to the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using residential histories collected from the families of 213 ALL cases and 268 matched controls enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study, the authors assessed residential proximity within a half-mile (804.5 meters) of pesticide applications by linking address histories with reports of agricultural pesticide use. Proximity was ascertained during different time windows of exposure, including the first year of life and the child’s lifetime through the date of diagnosis for cases or reference for controls. Agricultural pesticides were categorized a priori into groups based on similarities in toxicological effects, physicochemical properties, and target pests or uses. The effects of moderate and high exposure for each group of pesticides were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Elevated ALL risk was associated with lifetime moderate exposure, but not high exposure, to certain physicochemical categories of pesticides, including organophosphates, cholorinated phenols, and triazines, and with pesticides classified as insecticides or fumigants. A similar pattern was also observed for several toxicological groups of pesticides. These findings suggest future directions for the identification of specific pesticides that may play a role in the etiology of childhood leukemia. PMID:19700145
Robien, Kim; Ness, Kirsten K; Klesges, Lisa M; Baker, K Scott; Gurney, James G
Recent studies indicate that survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease, conditions that healthy dietary patterns may help ameliorate or prevent. To evaluate the usual dietary intake of adult survivors of childhood ALL, food frequency questionnaire data were collected from 72 participants, and compared with the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Cancer Prevention recommendations, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and the 2005 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide. Mean daily energy intake was consistent with estimated requirements; however, mean body mass index was 27.1 kg/m2 (overweight). Dietary index scores averaged fewer than half the possible number of points on all 3 scales, indicating poor adherence to recommended guidelines. No study participant reported complete adherence to any set of guidelines. Although half the participants met minimal daily goals for 5 servings of fruits and vegetables (WCRF/AICR recommendations) and
Iijima, Kazutoshi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka
The 5-year survival rate of patients with childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) now exceeds 90%, though there are still patients who fail to achieve remission or relapse early. To improve the outcomes of these cases, new diagnostic markers for stratification of those with unfavorable outcomes and novel targets for treatment have been investigated based on data from the OMICs analysis. We performed gene expression analysis of leukemic cells from 91 near-diploid BCP-ALL cases without specific fusion genes enrolled in Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group (TCCSG)-L0416 & L0616 clinical trials employing the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. Among them, DNA methylation status was analyzed in 24 cases by using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Herein, initially, the current situations of gene expression analysis and DNA methylation analysis of childhood BCP-ALL are reviewed. Then, our analyses of gene expressions and DNA methylation related to the prognosis of childhood ALL without fusion genes are presented.
Hassan, Basheir A.; Siam, Mohamed G.
Background. Acute poisoning represents one of the most common medical emergencies in childhood. In view of paucity of literature on accidental poisoning among children in Egypt, this study was designed to describe the pattern of childhood poisoning in Zagazig University Hospitals. Patients and Methods. This retrospective study included 300 children up to 12 years with acute poisoning admitted to the Pediatric Department and Poisoning Treatment Unit, Zagazig University Hospitals, from January 2011 to August 2012. Complete epidemiological and clinical data were recorded and analyzed. Results. Three hundred of poisoned children were enrolled in this study. Children from 1 to 6 years were more liable to poisoning (81%). More boys than girls were poisoned at all age groups. The majority of all cases (99%) were due to accidental poisoning. Overall, 32% of the poisoned cases were living in Zagazig city while 68% were living in the rural areas. The presenting symptoms were classic in 60% of the cases. Pesticides, therapeutic drugs, and cleaning and disinfectant agents were the most frequent poisoning agents (28.7%, 22.7%, and 17.0%, resp.). In 86.0% of cases, observation with or without supportive measures together with decontamination and specific antidote therapy whenever needed was sufficient. Conclusion. Most of the poisonings were due to accidental ingestions by infants and young children. Pesticides and medications were the most commonly involved agents. PMID:27351009
Fludarabine and cytosine are less effective than standard ADE chemotherapy in high-risk acute myeloid leukemia, and addition of G-CSF and ATRA are not beneficial: results of the MRC AML-HR randomized trial.
Milligan, Donald W; Wheatley, Keith; Littlewood, Timothy; Craig, Jenny I O; Burnett, Alan K
The optimum chemotherapy schedule for reinduction of patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (relapsed, resistant/refractory, or adverse genetic disease) is uncertain. The MRC AML (Medical Research Council Acute Myeloid Leukemia) Working Group designed a trial comparing fludarabine and high-dose cytosine (FLA) with standard chemotherapy comprising cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin, and etoposide (ADE). Patients were also randomly assigned to receive filgrastim (G-CSF) from day 0 until neutrophil count was greater than 0.5 x 10(9)/L (or for a maximum of 28 days) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 90 days. Between 1998 and 2003, 405 patients were entered: 250 were randomly assigned between FLA and ADE; 356 to G-CSF versus no G-CSF; 362 to ATRA versus no ATRA. The complete remission rate was 61% with 4-year disease-free survival of 29%. There were no significant differences in the CR rate, deaths in CR, relapse rate, or DFS between ADE and FLA, although survival at 4 years was worse with FLA (16% versus 27%, P = .05). Neither the addition of ATRA nor G-CSF demonstrated any differences in the CR rate, relapse rate, DFS, or overall survival between the groups. In conclusion these findings indicate that FLA may be inferior to standard chemotherapy in high-risk AML and that the outcome is not improved with the addition of either G-CSF or ATRA.
Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Tracey A; Catchpoole, Sarah E; Brunsdon, Ruth K
The long-term neurocognitive prognosis of childhood onset acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is unclear. This review and quantitative synthesis of the available literature examined whether there are long-term impacts of childhood ADEM on neurocognitive functioning. A search of online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) from their inception to October 2015 and reference lists identified 13 papers eligible for inclusion in the systematic review; seven of these were eligible for inclusion in meta-analyses. The systematic review indicated that, at a group level there is a positive long-term neuropsychological outcome from childhood onset ADEM. However, despite the apparent absence of long-term negative impacts of ADEM at a group level, at an individual level impairments in the areas of IQ, attention, executive functioning, processing speed, learning and memory, visuospatial skills and internalising symptoms were found in up to 43% of patients when aggregated across the studies. No significant negative effect of ADEM for any of the neuropsychological domains examined was found in meta-analyses. However, the effects for Processing Speed (r mean = -0.296 (CI 95% = -0.605-0.013)) and Internalising symptoms (r mean = 0.242 (CI 95% = -0.014-0.564)) approached significance (p = 0.06), suggesting a trend towards ADEM leading to long-term reduced processing speed and elevated internalising symptoms. Together, our findings suggest that despite a generally positive neurocognitive outcome post childhood ADEM there are a subset of individuals who can suffer from ongoing specific cognitive impairments. Clinical implications and research priorities are discussed.
Edelmann, Michelle N; Krull, Kevin R; Liu, Wei; Glass, John O; Ji, Qing; Ogg, Robert J; Sabin, Noah D; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Reddick, Wilburn E
Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, though little information is available on its association with brain integrity, particularly for survivors treated without cranial radiation therapy. This study compares neurocognitive function and brain morphology in long-term adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with chemotherapy alone (n = 36) to those treated with cranial radiation therapy (n = 39) and to healthy control subjects (n = 23). Mean (standard deviation) age at evaluation was 24.9 (3.6) years for the chemotherapy group and 26.7 (3.4) years for the cranial radiation therapy group, while time since diagnosis was 15.0 (1.7) and 23.9 (3.1) years, respectively. Brain grey and white matter volume and diffusion tensor imaging was compared between survivor groups and to 23 healthy controls with a mean (standard deviation) age of 23.1 (2.6) years. Survivors treated with chemotherapy alone had higher fractional anisotropy in fibre tracts within the left (P < 0.05), but not in the right, hemisphere when compared to controls. Survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, regardless of treatment, had a lower ratio of white matter to intracranial volume in frontal and temporal lobes (P < 0.05) compared with control subjects. Survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with chemotherapy alone performed worse in processing speed (P < 0.001), verbal selective reminding (P = 0.01), and academics (P < 0.05) compared to population norms and performed better than survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy on verbal selective reminding (P = 0.02), processing speed (P = 0.05) and memory span (P = 0.009). There were significant associations between neurocognitive performance and brain imaging, particularly for frontal and temporal white and grey matter volume. Survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated with chemotherapy alone demonstrated significant long-term differences in
The efficacy of the phytochemical resveratrol as a preventive agent against the growth of t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was evaluated in NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice engrafted with the human t(4;11) ALL line SEM. SEM cells were injected into the tail vein and engraftment was monitored by ...
Lilford, Richard J.
Objective To examine the independent contribution of individual, community and state-level factors to health care service utilization for children with acute childhood illnesses in Nigeria. Materials and methods The study was based on secondary analyses of cross-sectional population-based data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to the data on 6,427 under-five children who used or did not use health care service when they were sick (level 1), nested within 896 communities (level 2) from 37 states (level 3). Results About one-quarter of the mothers were between 15 and 24 years old and almost half of them did not have formal education (47%). While only 30% of the children utilized health service when they were sick, close to 67% lived in the rural area. In the fully adjusted model, mothers with higher education attainment (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.63; 95% credible interval [CrI] = 1.31–2.03), from rich households (aOR = 1.76; 95% CrI = 1.35–2.25), with access to media (radio, television or magazine) (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.08–1.29), and engaging in employment (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.02–1.37) were significantly more likely to have used healthcare services for acute childhood illnesses. On the other hand, women who experienced difficulty getting to health facilities (aOR = 0.87; 95% CrI = 0.75–0.99) were less likely to have used health service for their children. Conclusions Our findings highlight that utilization of healthcare service for acute childhood illnesses was influenced by not only maternal factors but also community-level factors, suggesting that public health strategies should recognise this complex web of individual composition and contextual composition factors to guide provision of healthcare services. Such interventions could include: increase in female school enrolment, provision of interest-free loans for small and medium scale enterprises, introduction of
Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4)
Locatelli, F; Masetti, R; Rondelli, R; Zecca, M; Fagioli, F; Rovelli, A; Messina, C; Lanino, E; Bertaina, A; Favre, C; Giorgiani, G; Ripaldi, M; Ziino, O; Palumbo, G; Pillon, M; Pession, A; Rutella, S; Prete, A
We analyzed the outcome of 243 children with high-risk (HR) AML in first CR1 enrolled in the AIEOP-2002/01 protocol, who were given either allogeneic (ALLO; n=141) or autologous (AUTO; n=102) hematopoietic SCT (HSCT), depending on the availability of a HLA-compatible sibling. Infants, patients with AML-M7, or complex karyotype or those with FLT3-ITD, were eligible to be transplanted also from alternative donors. All patients received a myeloablative regimen combining busulfan, cyclophosphamide and melphalan; [corrected] AUTO-HSCT patients received BM cells in most cases, while in children given ALLO-HSCT stem cell source was BM in 96, peripheral blood in 19 and cord blood in 26. With a median follow-up of 57 months (range 12-130), the probability of disease-free survival (DFS) was 73% and 63% in patients given either ALLO- or AUTO-HSCT, respectively (P=NS). Although the cumulative incidence (CI) of relapse was lower in ALLO- than in AUTO-HSCT recipients (17% vs 28%, respectively; P=0.043), the CI of TRM was 7% in both groups. Patients transplanted with unrelated donor cord blood had a remarkable 92.3% 8-year DFS probability. Altogether, these data confirm that HSCT is a suitable option for preventing leukemia recurrence in HR children with CR1 AML.
Farah, Roula A.; Horkos, Jessy G.; Bustros, Youssef D.; Farhat, Hussein Z.; Abla, Oussama
, including faster ATRA administration and, aggressive transfusions, easy access to stem cell transplant for high-risk AML patients and the need for a national homogenous treatment strategy for children with AML. PMID:25574371
Whitehead, Todd P.; Ward, Mary H.; Colt, Joanne S.; Dahl, Gary; Ducore, Jonathan; Reinier, Kyndaron; Gunier, Robert B.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Metayer, Catherine
We evaluated the relationship between the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and levels of metals in carpet dust. A dust sample was collected from the homes of 142 ALL cases and 187 controls participating in the California Childhood Leukemia Study using a high volume small surface sampler (2001–2006). Samples were analyzed using microwave-assisted acid digestion in combination with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Eight metals were detected in at least 85% of the case and control homes; tungsten was detected in less than 15% of homes. Relationships between dust-metal loadings (μg metal per m2 carpet) and ALL risk were modeled using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for the child’s age, sex, and race/ethnicity and confounders, including household annual income. A doubling of dust-metal loadings was not associated with significant changes in ALL risk [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): arsenic: 0.94 (0.83, 1.05), cadmium: 0.91 (0.80, 1.04), chromium: 0.99 (0.87, 1.12), copper: 0.96 (0.90, 1.03), lead: 1.01 (0.93, 1.10), nickel: 0.92 (0.80, 1.07), tin: 0.93 (0.82, 1.05), and zinc: 0.91 (0.81, 1.02)]. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that metals in carpet dust are risk factors for childhood ALL. PMID:25736162
Whitehead, Todd P; Ward, Mary H; Colt, Joanne S; Dahl, Gary; Ducore, Jonathan; Reinier, Kyndaron; Gunier, Robert B; Katharine Hammond, S; Rappaport, Stephen M; Metayer, Catherine
We evaluated the relationship between the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the levels of metals in carpet dust. A dust sample was collected from the homes of 142 ALL cases and 187 controls participating in the California Childhood Leukemia Study using a high volume small surface sampler (2001-2006). Samples were analyzed using microwave-assisted acid digestion in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Eight metals were detected in at least 85% of the case and control homes; tungsten was detected in <15% of homes. Relationships between dust metal loadings (μg metal per m(2) carpet) and ALL risk were modeled using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for the child's age, sex, and race/ethnicity and confounders, including household annual income. A doubling of dust metal loadings was not associated with significant changes in ALL risk (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): arsenic: 0.96 (0.86, 1.07), cadmium: 0.92 (0.81, 1.05), chromium: 1.01 (0.90, 1.14), copper: 0.97 (0.91, 1.03), lead: 1.01 (0.93, 1.10), nickel: 0.95 (0.82, 1.09), tin: 0.96 (0.86, 1.08), and zinc: 0.94 (0.84, 1.05)). Our findings do not support the hypothesis that metals in carpet dust are risk factors for childhood ALL.
Hicks, Chindo; Sitthi-Amorn, Jitsuda; Douglas, Jessica; Ramani, Ritika; Miele, Lucio; Vijayakumar, Vani; Karlson, Cynthia; Chipeta, James; Megason, Gail
Treatment of the central nervous system (CNS) is an essential therapeutic component in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The goal of this study was to identify molecular signatures distinguishing patients with CNS disease from those without the disease in pediatric patients with ALL. We analyzed gene expression data from 207 pediatric patients with ALL. Patients without CNS were classified as CNS1, while those with mild and advanced CNS disease were classified as CNS2 and CNS3, respectively. We compared gene expression levels among the three disease classes. We identified gene signatures distinguishing the three disease classes. Pathway analysis revealed molecular networks and biological pathways dysregulated in response to CNS disease involvement. The identified pathways included the ILK, WNT, B-cell receptor, AMPK, ERK5, and JAK signaling pathways. The results demonstrate that transcription profiling could be used to stratify patients to guide therapeutic decision-making in pediatric ALL. PMID:26997880
Umerez, Maitane; Gutierrez-Camino, Ángela; Muñoz-Maldonado, Carmen; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Garcia-Orad, Africa
Methotrexate (MTX) is an important component in the therapy used to treat childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme for MTX pharmacokinetics. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR gene, C677T and A1298C, affecting MTHFR activity, have been widely studied as potential markers of MTX toxicity and/or outcome in pediatric ALL. In this review, we show that the majority of published reports do not find association or present opposite effect. Therefore, MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms do not seem to be good markers of MTX-related toxicity and/or outcome in pediatric ALL. The efforts should be focused on other genes, such as transporter genes or microRNA-related genes. PMID:28392709
Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Iijima, Kazutoshi; Tomita, Osamu; Miharu, Masashi; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Kenichiro; Okita, Hajime; Kajiwara, Michiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Inukai, Takeshi; Makimoto, Atsushi; Fukushima, Takashi; Nanmoku, Toru; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Manabe, Atsushi; Kikuchi, Akira; Sugita, Kanji; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Ohara, Akira
Upon analyzing 696 childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cases, we identified the characteristics of CD66c expression. In addition to the confirmation of strong correlation with BCR-ABL positivity and hyperdiploid, we further observed that CD66c is frequently expressed in CRLF2-positive (11/15, p<0.01 against chimeric gene-negative) as well as hypodiploid cases (3/4), whereas it is never expressed in ETV6-RUNX1, MLL-AF4, MLL-AF9, MLL-ENL, and E2A-PBX1-positive cases. Although the expression of CD66c itself is not directly linked to the prognosis, the accompanying genetic abnormalities are important prognostic factors for BCP-ALL, indicating the importance of CD66c expression in the initial diagnosis of BCP-ALL.
Ladner, Travis R; He, Lucy; Jordan, Lori C; Cooper, Calvin; Froehler, Michael T; Mocco, J
Mechanical thrombectomy holds promise for children with large cerebral arterial occlusions, although there are few reports in this population. We report a case of retrievable stent-assisted mechanical thrombectomy in a 5-year-old with basilar artery occlusion, despite late presentation and extensive initial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) restriction. This resulted in successful Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2B reperfusion and excellent clinical outcome. At 6-week follow-up he was completely back to baseline with no residual deficits (pediatric stroke outcome measure=0, modified Rankin scale=0). At 3-month follow-up the patient has not had any recurrent stroke or concern for stroke-like symptoms. We review the literature on mechanical thrombectomy and DWI changes in acute stroke in early to middle childhood (<12 years old).
Sallan, S E; Camitta, B M; Chan, D M; Traggis, D; Jaffe, N
Three groups of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were treated with intermittent cyclophosphamide, vincristine, cytosine arabinoside, and prednisone (COAP). Group A (no prior relapse) and Group B (prior single-agent relapse) received COAP after 12 months on another chemotherapy regimen. Children in Group C (prior relapse on multiagent regimens) received COAP following A-COAP (asparaginase plus COAP) reinduction. Median disease-free survival after beginning COAP was not reached for Group A, but was only 7 months for Groups B and C. As of November 1976, there were 8 of 15 Group A patients, 1 of 12 Group B patients, and 1 of 28 Group C patients who had remained disease-free from 38 to 60 (median 54.5) months and were off chemotherapy. COAP has activity in childhood ALL. However, effectiveness is markedly diminished in patients with prior bone marrow relapse.
Pui, C H; Raskind, W H; Kitchingman, G R; Raimondi, S C; Behm, F G; Murphy, S B; Crist, W M; Fialkow, P J; Williams, D L
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is generally regarded as a clonal disease in which a single abnormal progenitor cell gives rise to neoplastic progeny. Five of 463 cases of childhood ALL with adequately banded leukemic cells were found to have two cytogenetically independent cell populations. In addition, two of the four cases tested had more than two rearranged immunoglobulin genes and (or) T cell receptor genes. To investigate the clonality of these unusual leukemias, we examined the neoplastic cells for X-linked markers extrinsic to the disease. Leukemic cells from each of the three patients heterozygous for an X-linked, restriction fragment length polymorphism showed a single active parental allele, suggesting that both apparently independent cell populations developed from a common progenitor. These cases provide evidence that leukemogenesis involves a multistep process of mutation and suggest that karyotypic abnormalities may be a late event of malignant transformation. Images PMID:2566623
Bernal, Teresa; Diez-Campelo, María; Godoy, Vicky; Rojas, Silvia; Colado, Enrique; Alcoceba, Miguel; González, Marcos; Vidriales, Belén; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín M; López-Corral, Lucía; Luño, Elisa; del Cañizo, Consuelo
We evaluated the impact of detection of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry (FCMRD) and CD3 chimerism in relapse in a cohort of 87 patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing stem cell transplantation. Patients with a positive FCMRD at day +100 after transplantation showed higher relapse rates and worse overall survival. In multivariate analysis, a positive FCMRD after transplantation was a significant predictor of relapse. Mixed chimerism showed a trend to statistical signification. We conclude that FCMRD at day 100 after SCT is the best predictor of relapse after SCT in patients with aggressive myeloid malignancies.
Rizk, Sherif R Y; El Said, Galal; Daniels, Lori B; Burns, Jane C; El Said, Howaida; Sorour, Khaled A; Gharib, Soliman; Gordon, John B
Coronary artery aneurysms that occur in 25% of untreated Kawasaki disease (KD) patients may remain clinically silent for decades and then thrombose resulting in myocardial infarction. Although KD is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in Asia, the United States, and Western Europe, the incidence of KD in Egypt is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that young adults in Egypt presenting with acute myocardial ischemia may have coronary artery lesions because of KD in childhood. We reviewed a total of 580 angiograms of patients ≤40 years presenting with symptoms of myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery aneurysms were noted in 46 patients (7.9%), of whom 9 presented with myocardial infarction. The likelihood of antecedent KD as the cause of the aneurysms was classified as definite (n = 10), probable (n = 29), or equivocal (n = 7). Compared with the definite and probable groups, the equivocal group had more traditional cardiovascular risk factors, smaller sized aneurysms, and fewer coronary arteries affected. In conclusion, in a major metropolitan center in Egypt, 6.7% of adults aged ≤40 years who underwent angiography for evaluation of possible myocardial ischemia had lesions consistent with antecedent KD. Because of the unique therapeutic challenges associated with these lesions, adult cardiologists should be aware that coronary artery aneurysms in young adults may be because of missed KD in childhood.
Rizk, Sherif RY; El Said, Galal; Daniels, Lori B; Burns, Jane C; El Said, Howaida; Sorour, Khaled A; Gharib, Soliman; Gordon, John B
Coronary artery aneurysms that occur in 25% of untreated Kawasaki disease (KD) patients may remain clinically silent for decades and then thrombose resulting in myocardial infarction. Although KD is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in Asia, the United States, and Western Europe, the incidence of KD in Egypt is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that young adults in Egypt presenting with acute myocardial ischemia may have coronary artery lesions due Kawasaki disease (KD) in childhood. We reviewed a total of 580 angiograms of patients ≤ 40 years of age presenting with symptoms of myocardial ischemia. Coronary artery aneurysms were noted in 46 patients (7.9 %) of whom nine presented with myocardial infarction. The likelihood of antecedent KD as the cause of the aneurysms was classified as definite (n=10), probable (n=29), or equivocal (n=7). Compared to the definite and probable groups, the equivocal group had more traditional cardiovascular risk factors, smaller sized aneurysms, and fewer coronary arteries affected. In conclusion, in a major metropolitan center in Egypt, 6.7% of adults age 40 years or younger undergoing angiography for evaluation of possible myocardial ischemia had lesions consistent with antecedent KD. Because of the unique therapeutic challenges associated with these lesions, adult cardiologists should be aware that coronary artery aneurysms in young adults may be due to missed KD in childhood. PMID:25555655
Steinbuch, M; Weinberg, C R; Buckley, J D; Robison, L L; Sandler, D P
Exposure to radon has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in uranium miners, but evidence of adverse health effects due to indoor radon exposure is inconsistent. Ecological studies have suggested a correlation between indoor radon levels and leukaemia incidence. We evaluated the risk associated with indoor residential radon exposure within a larger interview-based case–control study of risk factors for childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). A total of 173 cases and 254 controls met the eligibility criteria, and information was collected through telephone interviews with parents and analysis of alpha-track radon detectors placed in the home for a period of 1 year. No association was observed between radon exposure and risk of AML, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7–1.8) for 37–100 Bq m–3 and 1.1 (95% CI 0.6–2.0) for > 100 Bq m–3 compared with < 37 Bq m–3. Although there was an inverse association between radon level and AML risk among children < 2 years at diagnosis, among children ≥2 years, AML risk was increased among those with higher radon exposure. The observed association after age 2 is most likely due to chance. Overall, there was no association between residential radon and risk of childhood AML. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10555766
Oliveira, Elen; Bacelar, Thiago S.; Ciudad, Juana; Ribeiro, Maria Cecília M.; Garcia, Daniela R.N.; Sedek, Lukasz; Maia, Simone F.; Aranha, Daniel B.; Machado, Indyara C.; Ikeda, Arissa; Baglioli, Bianca F.; Lopez-Duarte, Nathalia; Teixeira, Lisandra A. C.; Szczepanski, Tomasz; Silva, Maria Luiza M.; Land, Marcelo G.P.
An increasing number of evidences suggest a genetic predisposition in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that might favor the occurrence of the driver genetic alterations. Such genetic background might also translate into phenotypic alterations of residual hematopoietic cells. Whether such phenotypic alterations are present in bone marrow (BM) cells from childhood B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL remains to be investigated. Here we analyzed the immunophenotypic profile of BM and peripheral blood (PB) maturing/matured neutrophils from 118 children with BCP-ALL and their relationship with the features of the disease. Our results showed altered neutrophil phenotypes in most (77%) BCP-ALL cases. The most frequently altered marker was CD10 (53%), followed by CD33 (34%), CD13 (15%), CD15/CD65 (10%) and CD123 (7%). Of note, patients with altered neutrophil phenotypes had younger age (p = 0.03) and lower percentages of BM maturing neutrophils (p = 0.004) together with greater BM lymphocyte (p = 0.04), and mature B-cell (p = 0.03) counts. No significant association was found between an altered neutrophil phenotype and other disease features. These findings point out the potential existence of an altered residual hematopoiesis in most childhood BCP-ALL cases. PMID:27028865
Palmi, Chiara; Savino, Angela M.; Silvestri, Daniela; Bronzini, Ilaria; Cario, Gunnar; Paganin, Maddalena; Buldini, Barbara; Galbiati, Marta; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Bugarin, Cristina; Mina, Pamela Della; Nagel, Stefan; Barisone, Elena; Casale, Fiorina; Locatelli, Franco; Nigro, Luca Lo; Micalizzi, Concetta; Parasole, Rosanna; Pession, Andrea; Putti, Maria C.; Santoro, Nicola; Testi, Anna M.; Ziino, Ottavio; Kulozik, Andreas E.; Zimmermann, Martin; Schrappe, Martin; Villa, Antonello; Gaipa, Giuseppe; Basso, Giuseppe; Biondi, Andrea; Valsecchi, Maria G.; Stanulla, Martin; Conter, Valentino; te Kronnie, Geertruy; Cazzaniga, Giovanni
Pediatric T-ALL patients have a worse outcome compared to BCP-ALL patients and they could benefit from new prognostic marker identification. Alteration of CRLF2 gene, a hallmark correlated with poor outcome in BCP-ALL, has not been reported in T-ALL. We analyzed CRLF2 expression in 212 T-ALL pediatric patients enrolled in AIEOP-BFM ALL2000 study in Italian and German centers. Seventeen out of 120 (14.2%) Italian patients presented CRLF2 mRNA expression 5 times higher than the median (CRLF2-high); they had a significantly inferior event-free survival (41.2%±11.9 vs. 68.9%±4.6, p=0.006) and overall survival (47.1%±12.1 vs. 73.8%±4.3, p=0.009) and an increased cumulative incidence of relapse/resistance (52.9%±12.1 vs. 26.2%±4.3, p=0.007) compared to CRLF2-low patients. The prognostic value of CRLF2 over-expression was validated in the German cohort. Of note, CRLF2 over-expression was associated with poor prognosis in the high risk (HR) subgroup where CRLF2-high patients were more frequently allocated. Interestingly, although in T-ALL CRLF2 protein was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, in CRLF2-high blasts we found a trend towards a stronger TSLP-induced pSTAT5 response, sensitive to the JAK inhibitor Ruxolitinib. In conclusion, CRLF2 over-expression is a poor prognostic marker identifying a subset of HR T-ALL patients that could benefit from alternative therapy, potentially targeting the CRLF2 pathway. PMID:27449287
Oudin, Claire; Auquier, Pascal; Bertrand, Yves; Chastagner, Philippe; Kanold, Justyna; Poirée, Maryline; Thouvenin, Sandrine; Ducassou, Stephane; Plantaz, Dominique; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Sirvent, Anne; Villes, Virginie; Barlogis, Vincent; Baruchel, André; Leverger, Guy; Berbis, Julie; Michel, Gérard
Thyroid complications are known side effects of irradiation. However, the risk of such complications in childhood acute leukemia survivors who received either central nervous system irradiation or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is less described. We prospectively evaluated the incidence and risk factors for thyroid dysfunction and tumors in survivors of childhood acute myeloid or lymphoid leukemia. A total of 588 patients were evaluated for thyroid function, and 502 individuals were assessed for thyroid tumors (median follow-up duration: 12.6 and 12.5 years, respectively). The cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism was 17.3% (95% CI: 14.1–21.1) and 24.6% (95% CI: 20.4–29.6) at 10 and 20 years from leukemia diagnosis, respectively. Patients who received total body irradiation (with or without prior central nervous system irradiation) were at higher risk of hypothyroidism (adjusted HR: 2.87; P=0.04 and 2.79, P=0.01, respectively) as compared with transplanted patients who never received any irradiation. Patients transplanted without total body irradiation who received central nervous system irradiation were also at higher risk (adjusted HR: 3.39; P=0.02). Patients irradiated or transplanted at older than 10 years of age had a lower risk (adjusted HR: 0.61; P=0.02). Thyroid malignancy was found in 26 patients (5.2%). Among them, two patients had never received any type of irradiation: alkylating agents could also promote thyroid cancer. The cumulative incidence of thyroid malignancy was 9.6% (95% CI: 6.0–15.0) at 20 years. Women were at higher risk than men (adjusted HR: 4.74; P=0.002). In conclusion, thyroid complications are frequent among patients who undergo transplantation after total body irradiation and those who received prior central nervous system irradiation. Close monitoring is thus warranted for these patients. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT 01756599. PMID:26969082
Coordinated series of studies to evaluate characteristics and mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes in high-risk patients randomly assigned to enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin: design and rationale of the SYNERGY Library.
Petersen, John L; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Becker, Richard C; Goodman, Shaun G; Kleiman, Neal S; Marian, A J; Stone, Gregg W; Lansky, Alexandra J; Lincoff, A Michael; Hazen, Stanley L; Nessel, Christopher C; Toro-Figueroa, Luis; Tate, Lynn; Reist, Craig J; Cohen, Marc; Califf, Robert M; Ferguson, James J
Clinical trials and accompanying substudies in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have over the last several years yielded a wealth of knowledge about the pathophysiology and management of this high-risk condition. The Superior Yield of the New strategy of Enoxaparin, Revascularization, and GlYcoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (SYNERGY) trial is a large-scale, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effect of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin on death and myocardial infarction in high-risk patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation ACS. The SYNERGY Library has been designed as a coordinated series of investigations with simultaneous data acquisition on the same cohort of approximately 500 SYNERGY patients at 60 centers in North America. Specifically, electrocardiograms, coronary arteriograms, inflammatory markers, coagulation studies, and genetic samples will be collected and processed at core laboratory facilities, and the results will be stored in a central repository. This novel strategy for substudy investigation is unprecedented in cardiovascular clinical trials. The goal is to gain significant understanding about this patient population, discover new principles of pathophysiology, identify novel pharmacologic targets, and streamline further drug development. It is hoped that the SYNERGY Library will serve as a model for future substudy design to maximize academic insight within the framework of a large-scale, multicenter trial.
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with I-131-anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
Pagel, John M.; Gooley, T. A.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Wilson, Wendy A.; Sandmaier, B. M.; Matthews, D. C.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, P. J.; Storb, R.; Press, Oliver W.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.
We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of I-131-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with (131)I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3(+) and CD33(+) cells in the blood by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of I-131-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177.
Cytoreductive treatment with clofarabine/ara-C combined with reduced-intensity conditioning and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk, relapsed, or refractory acute myeloid leukemia and advanced myelodysplastic syndrome.
Buchholz, Stefanie; Dammann, Elke; Stadler, Michael; Krauter, Juergen; Beutel, Gernot; Trummer, Arne; Eder, Matthias; Ganser, Arnold
The combination of cytoreductive chemotherapy with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) is a highly effective antileukemic therapy. Purpose of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the antileukemic efficacy and toxicity of clofarabine-based chemotherapy followed by RIC and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) for high-risk, relapsed, or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). From May 2007 until October 2009, a total of 27 patients underwent allogeneic SCT after treatment with clofarabine and ara-C for 5d and RIC (4Gy TBI/cyclophosphamide/ATG). Prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) consisted of cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. Unmanipulated G-CSF mobilized PBSC (n=26) or bone marrow cells (n=1) were transplanted from unrelated (n=21) or matched related (n=6) donors. Non-hematological toxicities of this regimen mainly affected liver and skin and were all reversible. Seven patients relapsed within a median time of 5.7 months. The overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival rates were 56% and 52% at 2 yr, respectively. In this cohort of patients, cytoreduction with clofarabine/ara-C (ClAraC) followed by RIC allogeneic SCT was well tolerated and showed good antileukemic efficacy even in patients with high-risk AML or MDS, with engraftment and GvHD-incidence comparable to other RIC regimens.
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with 131I-anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
Pagel, John M; Gooley, Theodore A; Rajendran, Joseph; Fisher, Darrell R; Wilson, Wendy A; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Matthews, Dana C; Deeg, H Joachim; Gopal, Ajay K; Martin, Paul J; Storb, Rainer F; Press, Oliver W; Appelbaum, Frederick R
We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of (131)I-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with (131)I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3(+) and CD33(+) cells in the blood by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of (131)I-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177.
Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal
Antenatal care is aiming to reduce maternal land foetal mortality and morbidity. Maternal and foetal mortality can be due to different causes. Their knowledge allows identifying pregnancy (high risk pregnancy) with factors associated with an increased risk for maternal and/or foetal mortality and serious morbidity. Identification of high risk pregnancies and initiation of appropriate treatment and/or surveillance should improve maternal and/or foetal outcome. New risk factors are continuously described thanks to improvement in antenatal care and development in biology and cytopathology, increasing complexity in identifying high risk pregnancies. Level of risk can change all over the pregnancy. Ideally, it should be evaluated prior to the pregnancy and at each antenatal visit. Clinical examination is able to screen for intra-uterin growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, threatened for preterm labour; ultrasounds help in the diagnosis of foetal morphological anomalies, foetal chromosomal anomalies, placenta praevia and abnormal foetal growth; biological exams are used to screen for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, trisomy 21 (for which screening method just changed), rhesus immunisation, seroconversion for toxoplasmosis or rubeola, unknown infectious disease (syphilis, hepatitis B, VIH). During pregnancy, most of the preventive strategies have to be initiated during the first trimester or even before conception. Prevention for neural-tube defects, neonatal hypocalcemia and listeriosis should be performed for all women. On the opposite, some measures are concerning only women with risk factors such as prevention for toxoplasmosis, rhesus immunization (which recently changed), tobacco complications and pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth factor restriction.
Gojo, Ivana; Perl, Alexander; Luger, Selina; Baer, Maria R.; Norsworthy, Kelly J.; Bauer, Kenneth S.; Tidwell, Michael; Fleckinger, Stephanie; Carroll, Martin; Sausville, Edward A.
Summary Background The PI3K-Akt pathway is frequently activated in acute leukemias and represents an important therapeutic target. UCN-01 and perifosine are known to inhibit Akt activation. Methods The primary objective of this phase I study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of UCN-01 given in combination with perifosine in patients with advanced acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndrome. Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy. Perifosine 150 mg every 6 hours was given orally on day 1 followed by 100 mg once a day continuously in 28-day cycles. UCN-01 was given intravenously over 3 hours on day 4 at three dose levels (DL1=40 mg/m2; DL2=65 mg/m2; DL3=90 mg/m2). Results Thirteen patients were treated (DL1, n=6; DL2, n=4; DL3, n=3) according to a traditional “3+3” design. Two patients at the DL3 experienced dose-limiting toxicity including grade 3-4 pericardial effusion, hypotension, hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, constitutional symptoms and grade 5 pneumonitis. Other frequent toxicities were grade 1-2 nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue and hyperglycemia. The MTD was determined to be UCN-01 65 mg/m2 with perifosine 100 mg a day. No appreciable direct Akt inhibition could be demonstrated in patients’ mononuclear cells using Western blot, however, reduced phosphorylation of the downstream target ribosomal protein S6 in leukemic blasts was noted by intracellular flow cytometry. No objective responses were observed on this study. Conclusion UCN-01 and perifosine can be safely administered, but this regimen lacked clinical efficacy. This approach may have failed because of insufficient Akt inhibition in vivo. PMID:23443507
Iodine I 131 Monoclonal Antibody BC8, Fludarabine Phosphate, Cyclophosphamide, Total-Body Irradiation and Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Patients With Advanced Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome
Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; CD45-Positive Neoplastic Cells Present; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ring Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia and Ring Sideroblasts
Upfront allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or secondary acute myeloid leukemia using a FLAMSA-based high-dose sequential conditioning regimen.
Saure, Christian; Schroeder, Thomas; Zohren, Fabian; Groten, Anke; Bruns, Ingmar; Czibere, Akos; Galonska, Lars; Kondakci, Mustafa; Weigelt, Christian; Fenk, Roland; Germing, Ulrich; Haas, Rainer; Kobbe, Guido
Patients suffering from high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) secondary to MDS (sAML) are characterized by poor response to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. The purpose of our prospective single-center study was to examine the safety and efficacy of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) following a sequential conditioning regimen as first-line therapy for previously untreated patients with high-risk MDS or sAML. Between November 2003 and June 2010, 30 patients (20 high-risk MDS, 10 sAML) received fludarabine (4 × 30 mg/m(2)), amsacrine (4 × 100 mg/m(2)), and Ara-C (4 × 2 g/m(2), FLAMSA). After 2 to 3 days of rest, patients received high-dose melphalan alone (200 mg/m(2) for patients with an age <50 years, 150 mg/m(2) for patients with an age between 50 and 60 years, and 100 mg/m(2) for patients with an age >60 years; n = 24) or melphalan and thiotepa (10 mg/kg, Mel/Thio, n = 6). Following these high-dose conditioning regimens, a median number of 7.7 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg body weight (range: 2.9 × 10(6)-17.2 × 10(6)) were transplanted from 13 related or 17 unrelated donors. Antithymocyte globulin (Fresenius 30-60 mg/kg) as well as tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. All patients except 1 with primary graft failure achieved complete remission after HSCT. After a median follow-up time of 28 months (range: 7-81), 21 patients (70%) were alive and free of disease. Overall, 4 patients relapsed. At 2 years, overall survival, event-free survival, and treatment-related mortality were 70%, 63%, and 30%, respectively. Because of undue toxicity, thiotepa is no longer part of the conditioning regimen. Our results add to the body of evidence that a FLAMSA-based sequential conditioning therapy is effective for previously untreated patients with high-risk MDS or sAML.
Bentley, M E; Elder, J; Fukumoto, M; Stallings, R H; Jacoby, E; Brown, K
Interventions to improve child health depend, at least implicitly, on changing maternal knowledge and behaviour and a reallocation of maternal time. There have been few studies, however, of the time cost involved in the adoption of new health technologies and even fewer that examine changes in maternal activities in response to child illness. The present study examines maternal daytime activities and investigates changes that occur when children are ill. We examine the impact of acute childhood diarrhoea episodes on the activity patterns of the mother/caretaker in this setting. The results show that mothers alter their usual activity patterns only slightly in response to acute diarrhoea episodes in their children. They continue to perform the same variety of activities as when the children are healthy, although they are more likely to perform them with the child 'carried' on their back. There is some indication that diarrhoea perceived to be more severe did result in the mother acting as caretaker more frequently. These findings have important implications for health interventions that depend on changing the amount of maternal or caretaker time spent for child health technologies, but the implications may vary depending on the reasons for the observed lack of changes in caretaker activities.
Chillón, María Carmen; Santamaría, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Balanzategui, Ana; María Eugenia, Sarasquete; Alcoceba, Miguel; Marín, Luis; Caballero, María Dolores; Vidriales, María Belén; Ramos, Fernando; Bernal, Teresa; Díaz-Mediavilla, Joaquín; de Coca, Alfonso García; Peñarrubia, María Jesús; Queizán, José Antonio; Giraldo, Pilar; San Miguel, Jesús F.; González, Marcos
Background Internal tandem duplications of the FLT3 gene (FLT3-ITDs) are frequent in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), however its clinical impact remains controversial. Design and Methods We analyzed the prognostic significance of FLT3-ITD mutant level and size, as well as FLT3-D835 point mutations, PML-RARα expression and other predictive factors in 129 APL patients at diagnosis enrolled on the Spanish LPA96 (n=43) or LPA99 (n=86) PETHEMA trials. Results FLT3-ITDs and D835 mutations were detected in 21% and 9% of patients, respectively. Patients with increased ITD mutant/wild-type ratio or longer ITD size displayed shorter 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) (P=0.048 and P<0.0001, respectively). However, patients with D835 mutations did not show differences in RFS or overall survival (OS). Moreover, patients with initial normalized copy number (NCN) of PML-RARα transcripts less than the 25th percentile had adverse clinical features and shorter 5-year RFS (P<0.0001) and OS (P=0.004) compared to patients with higher NCN. Patients with low NCN showed increased incidence of ITDs (P=0.001), with higher ratios (P<0.0001) and/or longer sizes (P=0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that long FLT3-ITD (P=0.001), low PML-RARα levels (P=0.004) and elevated WBC counts (>10×109/L) (P=0.018) were independent predictors for shorter RFS. We identified a subgroup of patients with high WBC, long FLT3-ITD and low NCN of transcripts that showed an extremely bad prognosis (5-year RFS 23.4%, P<0.0001). Conclusions In conclusion, FLT3-ITD size and PML-RARα transcript levels at diagnosis could contribute to improve the risk stratification in APL. PMID:20133893
Fedeli, Ugo; Cestari, Laura; Ferroni, Eliana; Avossa, Francesco; Saugo, Mario; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo
The knowledge of ethnic-specific health needs is now essential to design effective health services and population-based prevention strategies. However, data on migrant populations living in Southern Europe are limited. The study is designed to investigate ethnic inequalities in hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Veneto region (Italy). Hospital admissions for AMI in Veneto for the whole resident population aged 20-59 years during 2008-2013 were studied. Age and gender-specific AMI hospitalization rates for immigrant groups (classified by country of origin according to the United Nations geoscheme) and Italians were calculated. The indirect standardization method was used to estimate standardized hospitalization ratios (SHR) for each immigrant group, with rates of Italian residents as a reference. Overall, 8200 AMI events were retrieved, 648 among immigrants. The highest risk of AMI is seen in South Asians males (SHR 4.2, 95% CI 3.6-4.9) and females (SHR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.5). AMI rates in South Asian males sharply increase in the 30-39 years age class. Other immigrant subgroups (Eastern Europe, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, other Asian countries, Central-South America, high-income countries) displayed age- and gender-adjusted hospitalization rates similar to the native population. Present findings stress the urgent need for implementation of ethnic-specific health policies in Italy. The awareness about the high cardiovascular risk in subjects from South Asia must be increased among general practitioners and immigrant communities.
Metayer, Catherine; Zhang, Luoping; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Bartley, Karen; Schiffman, Joshua; Ma, Xiaomei; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Chang, Jeffrey S.; Selvin, Steve; Fu, Cecilia H.; Ducore, Jonathan; Smith, Martyn T.; Buffler, Patricia A.
Background Tobacco smoke contains carcinogens known to damage somatic and germ cells. We investigated the effect tobacco smoke on the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and myeloid leukemia (AML), especially subtypes of pre-natal origin like ALL with translocation t(12;21) or high-hyperdiploidy (51–67 chromosomes). Methods We collected information on exposures to tobacco smoking before conception, during pregnancy, and after birth in 767 ALL cases, 135 AML cases, and 1,139 controls (1996–2008). Among cases, chromosome translocations, deletions, or aneuploidy were identified by conventional karyotype and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Results Multivariable regression analyses for ALL and AML overall showed no definite evidence of associations with self-reported (yes/no) parental prenatal active smoking and child's passive smoking. However, children with history of paternal prenatal smoking combined with postnatal passive smoking had a 1.5-fold increased risk of ALL (95% CI: 1.01–2.23), compared to those without smoking history (ORs for pre- or postnatal smoking only were close to one). This joint effect was seen for B-cell precursor ALL with t(12;21) (OR=2.08; 95% CI: 1.04–4.16), but not high hyperdiploid B-cell ALL. Similarly, child's passive smoking was associated with an elevated risk of AML with chromosome structural changes (OR=2.76; 95% CI: 1.01–7.58), but not aneuploidy. Conclusions our data suggest that exposure to tobacco smoking before were associated with increased risks of childhood ALL and AML; and risks varied by timing of exposure (before and/or after birth) and cytogenetic subtype, based on imprecise estimates. Impact Parents should limit exposures to tobacco smoke before and after the child's birth. PMID:23853208
Jamil, A; Theil, K S; Kahwash, S; Ruymann, F B; Klopfenstein, K J
TEL gene rearrangement due to the 12;21 chromosome translocation is believed to be the most common molecular genetic abnormality in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A study was conducted to investigate the frequency and prognostic significance of TEL/AML-1 fusion gene resulting from a cryptic t(12;21)(p13;q22). Bone marrow samples from 86 patients diagnosed over the past 5 years at Columbus Children's Hospital were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for TEL/AML-1 fusion gene, using LSI((R)) DNA probes. The positive cases were analyzed for clinical outcome. Patients in this study received treatment according to Children's Cancer Group (CCG) protocols. Fifteen of the 86 cases (17%) were positive for the fusion gene. All were B-cell lineage and except for one, all were CD10 positive. TEL/AML-1 was not found in any T-cell ALL. The mean overall survival (OS) following diagnosis for the TEL/AML-1-positive group was significantly longer than for the TEL/AML-1-negative group by log-rank = 7.84, P = 0.005. Similarly, the event-free survival (EFS) after remission for the positive group (median 94.5 months) was longer than the negative group (median 57 months) by log-rank = 7.19, P = 0.007. This study confirms that the TEL/AML-1 fusion gene may be the most common genetic event in childhood ALL, occurring in 17% of the patients. It appears restricted to the B-cell lineage. In this study, the presence of a TEL/AML-1 fusion gene was statistically significant in predicting both OS and EFS, indicating a favorable clinical outcome for these patients. Screening for TEL/AML-1 should become routine at diagnosis and a useful biological variable for risk stratification in future clinical trials.
Krull, Kevin R.; Bhojwani, Deepa; Conklin, Heather M.; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Sandlund, John T.; Pui, Ching-Hon
Purpose Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk for neurocognitive problems, with significant interindividual variability in outcome. This study examined genetic polymorphisms associated with variability in neurocognitive outcome. Patients and Methods Neurocognitive outcomes were evaluated at the end of therapy in 243 survivors treated on an institutional protocol featuring risk-adapted chemotherapy without prophylactic cranial irradiation. Polymorphisms in genes related to pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of antileukemic agents, drug metabolism, oxidative stress, and attention problems in noncancer populations were examined as predictors of outcome, using multiple general linear models and controlling for age at diagnosis, sex, race, and treatment intensity. Results Compared with national norms, the cohort demonstrated significantly higher rates of problems on direct assessment of sustained attention (P = .01) and on parent ratings of attention problems (P = .02). Children with the A2756G polymorphism in methionine synthase (MS) were more likely to demonstrate deficits in attentiveness (P = .03) and response speed (P = .02), whereas those with various polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase demonstrated increased performance variability (P = .01) and reduced attentiveness (P = .003). Polymorphisms in monoamine oxidase (T1460CA) were associated with increased attention variability (P = .03). Parent-reported attention problems were more common in children with the Cys112Arg polymorphism in apoliopoprotein E4 (P = .01). Conclusion These results are consistent with our previous report of association between attention problems and MS in an independent cohort of long-term survivors of childhood ALL treated with chemotherapy only. The results also raise the possibility of an impact from genetic predispositions related to oxidative stress and CNS integrity. PMID:23650422
Trerè, D.; Pession, A.; Basso, G.; Rondelli, R.; Masera, G.; Paolucci, G.; Derenzini, M.
Cell proliferation rate is a well-established prognostic factor in cancer, but it has not been considered to identify the risk group of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) at presentation. We carried out a study to demonstrate the prognostic importance of the rapidity of cell proliferation in patients with ALL. To measure the rapidity of cell proliferation we used the parameter relative to the area of silver-stained nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORs) as evaluated by morphometric analysis on smeared marrow blast cells. The mean AgNOR area of leukaemic marrow cells was measured in 119 children. By using a cut-off value of 3 microns2, we identified a group of 91 children with low proliferating blast activity (mean AgNOR value 2.11 microns2) and a group of 28 children with high proliferating activity (mean AgNOR value 3.29 microns2). The group of patients with a mean AgNOR value > 3 microns2 was characterised by a higher number of deaths, more frequent relapse and shorter time interval to relapse than the group of patients with mean AgNOR value < 3 microns2 (P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis performed to include T-cell immunophenotype, FAB morphology, leucocyte count and presence of mediastinal mass showed that the mean AgNOR value was the only independent predictor of unfavourable event-free survival probability (P > 0.01). Our results indicate that the rapidity of marrow blast cell proliferation is an important prognostic parameter in childhood ALL and should be routinely introduced in the group risk definition. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7981077
Schaink, Alexis; Higgins, Caroline
Background Leukemia accounts for nearly a third of childhood cancers in Canada, with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) comprising nearly 80% of cases. Identification of prognostic factors that allow risk stratification and tailored treatment have improved overall survival. However, nearly a quarter of patients considered standard risk on the basis of conventional prognostic factors still relapse, and relapse is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Relapse is thought to result from extremely low levels of leukemic cells left over once complete remission is reached, termed minimal residual disease (MRD). Poor event-free survival (EFS) as well as overall survival for those who are classified as MRD-positive have been substantiated in seminal studies demonstrating the prognostic value of MRD for EFS in the past few decades. This review sought to further elucidate the relationship between MRD and EFS by looking at relapse, the primary determinant of EFS and the biological mechanism through which MRD is thought to act. This evidence review aimed to ascertain whether MRD is an independent prognostic factor for relapse and to assess the effect of MRD-directed treatment on patient-important outcomes in childhood ALL. Methods Large prospective cohort studies with a priori multivariable analysis that includes potential confounders are required to draw confirmatory conclusions about the independence of a prognostic factor. Data on the prognostic value of MRD for relapse measured by molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] of immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor rearrangements) or flow cytometry for leukemia-associated immunophenotypes or difference-from-normal approach were abstracted from included studies. Relevant data on relapse, EFS, and overall survival were abstracted from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of MRD-directed treatment. Results A total of 2,832 citations were reviewed, of which 12 studies were included in this
Colt, Joanne S.; Deziel, Nicole C.; Whitehead, Todd P.; Reynolds, Peggy; Gunier, Robert B.; Nishioka, Marcia; Dahl, Gary V.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Metayer, Catherine
Background: House dust is a major source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are found at high levels in U.S. homes. Methods: We studied 167 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases 0–7 years of age and 214 birth certificate controls matched on date of birth, sex, and race/ethnicity from the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. In 2001–2007, we sampled carpets in the room where the child spent the most time while awake; we used a high-volume small-surface sampler or we took dust from the home vacuum. We measured concentrations of 14 PBDE congeners including penta (28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154), octa (183, 196, 197, 203), and decaBDEs (206–209). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for demographics, income, year of dust collection, and sampling method. Results: BDE-47, BDE-99, and BDE-209 were found at the highest concentrations (medians, 1,173, 1,579, and 938 ng/g, respectively). Comparing the highest to lowest quartile, we found no association with ALL for summed pentaBDEs (OR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4, 1.3), octaBDEs (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.7, 2.3), or decaBDEs (OR = 1.0; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.8). Comparing homes in the highest concentration (nanograms per gram) tertile to those with no detections, we observed significantly increased ALL risk for BDE-196 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.8), BDE-203 (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.6), BDE-206 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.9), and BDE-207 (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.8). Conclusion: We found no association with ALL for common PBDEs, but we observed positive associations for specific octa and nonaBDEs. Additional studies with repeated sampling and biological measures would be informative. Citation: Ward MH, Colt JS, Deziel NC, Whitehead TP, Reynolds P, Gunier RB, Nishioka M, Dahl GV, Rappaport SM, Buffler PA, Metayer C. 2014. Residential levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in California. Environ Health Perspect 122:1110–1116
Przychodzień, Joanna; Pańczyk-Tomaszewska, Małgorzata
Introduction Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is an acute complication of an infection characterized by calf pain, limitation of lower limb mobility, an increase in serum creatine kinase, and a self-limiting course. No reports of BACM in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) can be found in the literature. Case report A 5-year-old boy with steroid-sensitive INS presented with fever, leg pain, and problems with walking. Physical examination showed pharyngeal erythema, preserved movements in all joints, and weakness of leg muscles. Laboratory tests showed white blood cell count 3900/µl, albumin 2.3 g/dl, urea 25 mg/dl, creatinine 0.3 mg/dl, increased transaminases (AspAT 440 U/l, AlAT 100 U/l) and creatine kinase (10 817 U/l), and proteinuria 3500 mg/dl. The boy was diagnosed with an INS bout and BACM. Testing for infective causes of myositis showed evidence of an influenza B virus infection. Treatment included prednisone and oseltamivir. A rapid improvement of motor function was observed, with normalization of serum creatine kinase and transaminases, and resolution of proteinuria. Conclusions 1. As influenza virus infection in a child with INS is a risk factor for complications and a disease bout, these patients should be vaccinated against influenza. 2. Differential diagnosis of leg pain and mobility limitation in a child with INS should include lower limb deep venous thrombosis, arthritis, post-infectious neurological complications (including Guillain-Barré syndrome), and BACM. 3. Serum creatine kinase level should be measured in all cases of motor disturbances in a child with symptoms of respiratory tract infection. PMID:27833453
Robberstad, Bjarne; Strand, Tor; Black, Robert E.; Sommerfelt, Halvor
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the incremental costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of zinc used as adjunct therapy to standard treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea, including dysentery, and to reassess the cost-effectiveness of standard case management with oral rehydration salt (ORS). METHODS: A decision tree was used to model expected clinical outcomes and expected costs under four alternative treatment strategies. The best available epidemiological, clinical and economic evidence was used in the calculations, and the United Republic of Tanzania was the reference setting. Probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using a Monte-Carlo simulation technique and the potential impacts of uncertainty in single parameters were explored in one-way sensitivity analyses. FINDINGS: ORS was found to be less cost-effective than previously thought. The use of zinc as adjunct therapy significantly improved the cost-effectiveness of standard management of diarrhoea for dysenteric as well as non-dysenteric illness. The results were particularly sensitive to mortality rates in non-dysenteric diarrhoea, but the alternative interventions can be defined as highly cost-effective even in pessimistic scenarios. CONCLUSION: There is sufficient evidence to recommend the inclusion of zinc into standard case management of both dysenteric and non-dysenteric acute diarrhoea.A direct transfer of our findings from the United Republic of Tanzania to other settings is not justified, but there are no indications of large geographical differences in the efficacy of zinc. It is therefore plausible that our findings are also applicable to other developing countries. PMID:15500284
Pääkkönen, M; Peltola, H
Acute haematogenous osteomyelitis (AHOM) of childhood usually affects the long bones of the lower limbs. Although almost any agent may cause AHOM, Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterium, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and, in some countries, Salmonella spp. and Kingella kingae. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has improved the diagnostic accuracy of traditional radiography and scintigraphy. Except for the pre-treatment diagnostic sample from bone before the institution of antibiotic therapy, no other surgery is usually required. Traditionally, non-neonatal AHOM has been treated with a 1-3-month course of antibiotics, including an intravenous (i.v.) phase for the first weeks, but recent prospective randomised studies challenge this approach. For most uncomplicated cases, a course of 20 days including an i.v. period of 2-4 days suffices, provided large enough doses of a well-absorbed agent (clindamycin or a first-generation cephalosporin, local resistance permitting) are used, administration is four times daily and most symptoms and signs subside within a few days. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is a good guide in monitoring the course of illness, and the antimicrobial can usually be discontinued if CRP has decreased to <20 mg/L. Newer and costly agents, such as linezolid, should be reserved for cases due to resistant S. aureus strains. AHOM in neonates and immunocompromised patients probably requires a different approach. Because sequelae may develop slowly, follow-up for at least 1 year post hospitalisation is recommended.
Januszkiewicz, D A; Nowak, J S
DNA-based PCR with various sets of primers for TCR gamma/delta, and Ig heavy chain (IgH) genes were used to study clonality in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Amplification of the IgH CDR-III was observed in 75 of 120 analyzed cases (62.5%). From all analyzed groups, the IgH gene rearrangement was most often observed in pre-B ALL (85.7%) and was rather rare in null-ALL (34.5%). TCR delta gene rearrangement was the most common, and was observed in 77 patients (64.2%). The typical pattern of rearrangements was defined as an incomplete V delta 2 to D delta 3, V delta 2 to D delta 2, or D delta 3 to D delta 2 recombination product. Rearrangements of TCR gamma gene we observed in 61 cases (50.8%). TCR gamma gene rearrangements were detected predominantly in null-ALL and early B-ALL (55.2% and 60%, respectively) and were rather rare in other groups. Of all eight V segments of V gamma I group, the most frequent gene usage concerns regions V gamma 2, V gamma 4, and psi V gamma 7. We have confirmed that IgH gene amplification, together with TCR gamma and delta gene amplification, provides a rapid, sensitive approach to assessing clonality in ALL almost in 100% of cases.
Meyer, Julia A.; Wang, Jinhua; Hogan, Laura E.; Yang, Jun J.; Dandekar, Smita; Patel, Jay P.; Tang, Zuojian; Zumbo, Paul; Li, Sheng; Zavadil, Jiri; Levine, Ross L.; Cardozo, Timothy; Hunger, Stephen P.; Raetz, Elizabeth A.; Evans, William E.; Morrison, Debra J.; Mason, Christopher E.; Carroll, William L.
Relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) carries a poor prognosis despite intensive retreatment, due to intrinsic drug resistance1-2. The biological pathways that mediate resistance are unknown. Here we report the transcriptome profiles of matched diagnosis and relapse bone marrow specimens from ten pediatric B lymphoblastic leukemia patients using RNA-sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing identified 20 newly acquired novel non-synonymous mutations not present at initial diagnosis, of which two patients harbored relapse specific mutations in the same gene, NT5C2, a 5′-nucleotidase. Full exon sequencing of NT5C2 was completed in 61 additional relapse specimens, identifying five additional cases. Enzymatic analysis of mutant proteins revealed that base substitutions conferred increased enzymatic activity and resistance to treatment with nucleoside analogue therapies. Clinically, all patients who harbored NT5C2 mutations relapsed early, or within 36 months of initial diagnosis (p=0.03). These results suggest that mutations in NT5C2 are associated with the outgrowth of drug resistant clones in ALL. PMID:23377183
Meyer, Julia A; Wang, Jinhua; Hogan, Laura E; Yang, Jun J; Dandekar, Smita; Patel, Jay P; Tang, Zuojian; Zumbo, Paul; Li, Sheng; Zavadil, Jiri; Levine, Ross L; Cardozo, Timothy; Hunger, Stephen P; Raetz, Elizabeth A; Evans, William E; Morrison, Debra J; Mason, Christopher E; Carroll, William L
Relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) carries a poor prognosis, despite intensive retreatment, owing to intrinsic drug resistance. The biological pathways that mediate resistance are unknown. Here, we report the transcriptome profiles of matched diagnosis and relapse bone marrow specimens from ten individuals with pediatric B-lymphoblastic leukemia using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing identified 20 newly acquired, novel nonsynonymous mutations not present at initial diagnosis, with 2 individuals harboring relapse-specific mutations in the same gene, NT5C2, encoding a 5'-nucleotidase. Full-exon sequencing of NT5C2 was completed in 61 further relapse specimens, identifying additional mutations in 5 cases. Enzymatic analysis of mutant proteins showed that base substitutions conferred increased enzymatic activity and resistance to treatment with nucleoside analog therapies. Clinically, all individuals who harbored NT5C2 mutations relapsed early, within 36 months of initial diagnosis (P = 0.03). These results suggest that mutations in NT5C2 are associated with the outgrowth of drug-resistant clones in ALL.
Reid, A; Glass, D C; Bailey, H D; Milne, E; de Klerk, N H; Downie, P; Fritschi, L
Background: Earlier studies have reported moderate increases in the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) among children whose mothers have been occupationally exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. Other studies examining parental occupational exposure to ELF and ALL have reported mixed results. Methods: In an Australian case–control study of ALL in children aged <15 years, parents were asked about tasks they undertook in each job. Exposure variables were created for any occupational exposure before the birth of the child, in jobs 2 years before birth, in jobs 1 year before birth and up to 1 year after birth. Results: In all, 379 case and 854 control mothers and 328 case and 748 control fathers completed an occupational history. Exposure to ELF in all time periods was similar in case and control mothers. There was no difference in exposure between case and control fathers. There was no association between maternal (odds ratio (OR)=0.96; 95% CI=0.74–1.25) or paternal (OR=0.78; 95% CI=0.56–1.09) exposure to ELF any time before the birth and risk of childhood ALL. Conclusion: We did not find an increased risk of ALL in offspring of parents with occupational exposure to ELF. PMID:21915123
Said, J.A.; Waters, B.G.; Cousens, P.; Stevens, M.M.
We assessed neuropsychologically 106 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who had all received cranial irradiation for the prevention of central nervous system (CNS) leukemia 1-13 years previously. Children were assessed for adverse late effects of their therapy, using age-appropriate Wechsler measures of overall intellectual ability and supplementary tests. Forty-five siblings near in age to the patients were tested as controls. The patients who had had the most intensive central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis were found to have a WISC-R Full Scale IQ 17 points lower than the sibling control group. Performance IQ was more affected than verbal IQ. The patients were more easily distracted and less able to concentrate. The severity of the aftereffects was related to younger age at the time of CNS prophylaxis and to a higher dose of cranial irradiation but not to time since CNS prophylaxis. CNS prophylaxis using a combination of cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate has lowered the incidence of CNS relapse in childhood ALL but is associated with considerable long-term morbidity in survivors.
Kupa, A; Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Moore, H; Thomas, M; Zola, H; Cheney, K; Rice, M; Toogood, I
A 4-year-old girl presenting with vomiting, abdominal pain, and renal failure was found to have gross hepatosplenomegaly, a renal mass, and bilateral pleural effusions. A diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was suggested by a peripheral white cell count (WCC) of 119,000 x 10(6)mm3, 57% blasts, 22% lymphocytes, and confirmed by bone marrow examination. Lymphocyte surface marker studies at diagnosis enabled classification as a T-ALL, with a significant proportion of the T cells also bearing receptors for the third component of complement (C3). Seventy-two percent of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells reacted with anti-Ia monoclonal antibody (FMC44), and a smaller proportion (25%) carried receptors for the Fc portion of IgG. The T-classification of this ALL was verified at central nervous system (CNS) relapse and at a subsequent nodal relapse. Double-marker studies on cells from the infiltrated lymph node prepared in suspension confirmed the presence of Ia-positive T cells. The Ia marker is usually a useful discriminant between T and non-T cells in normal and ALL cell populations. The case described here highlights the need for a panel of markers to be used in classification of childhood ALL and supports the suggestion that there is a distinct subtype of Ia-positive T-ALL.
Kaspers, G J; Veerman, A J; Pieters, R; Van Zantwijk, C H; Smets, L A; Van Wering, E R; Van Der Does-Van Den Berg, A
As an important determinant of the response to chemotherapy, measurements of cellular drug resistance may provide prognostically significant information, which could be useful for optimal risk-group stratification. The objective of this report is to determine the relation between in vitro resistance to 12 drugs, measured with the colorimetric methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and long-term clinical response to chemotherapy in 152 children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. At risk-group stratified analyses, in vitro resistance to prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and vincristine were each significantly (P < .01) related to the probability of disease-free survival (pDFS) after combination chemotherapy. The combination of data for prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and vincristine provided a drug-resistance profile with prognostic independent significance superior to that of any single drug or any other factor. The 3-years pDFS was 100% for the group with the most sensitive profile, 20% of all patients, 84% (SE 6%) for the group with an intermediately sensitive profile, 40% of all patients, and 43% (SE 8%) for the remaining group with the most resistant profile (P < .001). In conclusion, the extent of in vitro cellular resistance to prednisolone, L-asparaginase, and vincristine, measured using the MTT assay, was significantly related to the clinical response to combination chemotherapy. Treatment failure in newly diagnosed childhood ALL can be predicted based on cellular drug resistance data.
Rivero, Mariana Alejandra; Passucci, Juan Antonio; Rodriguez, Edgardo Mario; Parma, Alberto Ernesto
The aim of this study was to investigate the role and clinical course of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) infections in children with acute diarrhoea from Argentina, the country with the highest worldwide incidence of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). To accomplish this objective, 437 samples from children up to 6 years old with acute diarrhoea were collected and processed. More than 60 % of the children studied presented watery or mucous diarrhoea without blood, and in 25.2 % of the cases the samples contained blood. In a first screening, a multiplex PCR was performed to detect the presence of the vt(1), vt(2), eae, ehxA and saa virulence genes. The strains were then isolated and analysed to characterize their serotypes, virulence genes, antibiotic susceptibility profiles and verotoxin (VT) production. Forty-four of the 437 samples (10.1 %) were positive for VTEC virulence genes. VTEC-infected patients presented different types of diarrhoea (27.3 % belonged to the non-bloody type). Several serotypes and virulence genotypes were found. Isolates belonged to the serotypes O157 : H7, O145 : H(-), O26 : H11, O121 : H19, O111 : H2 and O118 : H2. HUS developed in 16 (36.4 %) patients positive for VTEC virulence genes. All of the VTEC isolates produced a cytopathic effect on Vero cell monolayers, confirming the ability to express VT. Despite most strains being sensitive to all of the antimicrobials studied, a positive association between clinical progression to HUS and antibiotic therapy was observed for the total number of patients studied, as well as for the VTEC(+) group. In conclusion, the data obtained in this study increase our knowledge of the role and clinical course of VTEC infection in childhood acute diarrhoea beyond bloody diarrhoea, and might be considered for the prevention, diagnosis and management of this disease. It is possible that the optimal approach for VTEC diagnosis could be using multiplex PCR to search for the presence of the vt(1), vt(2
Phase II study of targeted therapy with temozolomide in acute myeloid leukaemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients pre-screened for low O(6) -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase expression.
Brandwein, Joseph M; Kassis, Jeannine; Leber, Brian; Hogge, Donna; Howson-Jan, Kang; Minden, Mark D; Galarneau, André; Pouliot, Jean-François
Resistance to temozolomide is largely mediated by the DNA repair enzyme O(6) -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). We conducted a prospective multicentre study of patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who were not candidates for intensive therapy. Patient selection was based on MGMT expression by Western blot. Patients with MGMT:ACTB (β-actin) ratio <0·2 were eligible to receive temozolomide 200 mg/m(2) /d ×7 d. Patients achieving a complete response (CR) could receive up to 12 monthly cycles of temozolomide ×5/28 d. Of 166 patients screened, 81 (49%) demonstrated low MGMT expression; 45 of these were treated with temozolomide. The overall response rate was 53%; 36% achieved complete clearance of blasts, with 27% achieving a CR/CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). Factors associated with a trend toward a higher response rate included MDS, methylated MGMT promoter and standard cytogenetic risk group. Induction and post-remission cycles were well-tolerated and most patients were treated on an outpatient basis. Patient who achieved CR/CRp had a superior overall survival compared to partial or non-responders. In conclusion, targeted therapy based on pre-selection for low MGMT expression was associated with a higher response rate to temozolomide compared to previous reports of unselected patients.
Status of minimal residual disease after induction predicts outcome in both standard and high-risk Ph-negative adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The Polish Adult Leukemia Group ALL 4-2002 MRD Study.
Holowiecki, Jerzy; Krawczyk-Kulis, Malgorzata; Giebel, Sebastian; Jagoda, Krystyna; Stella-Holowiecka, Beata; Piatkowska-Jakubas, Beata; Paluszewska, Monika; Seferynska, Ilona; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Kielbinski, Marek; Czyz, Anna; Balana-Nowak, Agnieszka; Król, Maria; Skotnicki, Aleksander B; Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw W; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Lange, Andrzej; Hellmann, Andrzej
The treatment of adults with Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) depends on the presence of risk factors including age, white blood cell count, immunophenotype and time to complete remission. In recent years, status of minimal residual disease (MRD) has been postulated as an additional risk criterion. This study prospectively evaluated the significance of MRD. Patients were treated with a uniform Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG) 4-2002 protocol. MRD status was assessed after induction and consolidation by multiparametric flow cytometry. Out of 132 patients included (age, 17-60 years), 116 patients were suitable for analysis. MRD level >/=0.1% of bone marrow cells after induction was found to be a strong and independent predictor for relapse in the whole study population (P < 0.0001), as well as in the standard risk (SR, P = 0.0003) and high-risk (P = 0.008) groups. The impact of MRD after consolidation on outcome was not significant. The combination of MRD status with conventional risk stratification system identified a subgroup of patients allocated to the SR group with MRD <0.1% after induction who had a very low risk of relapse of 9% at 3 years as opposed to 71% in the remaining subjects (P = 0.001). We conclude that MRD evaluation after induction should be considered with conventional risk criteria for treatment decisions in adult ALL.
Buckley, Sarah A; Mawad, Raya; Gooley, Ted A; Becker, Pamela S; Sandhu, Vicky; Hendrie, Paul; Scott, Bart L; Wood, Brent L; Walter, Roland B; Smith, Kelly; Dean, Carol; Estey, Elihu H; Pagel, John M
Outcomes for older adults with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are generally poor, and new effective therapies are needed. We investigated oral clofarabine combined with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) in patients aged 60 years and above with relapsed or refractory AML or high-risk MDS in a phase I/II trial. A 3 + 3 dose escalation of oral clofarabine was followed by a phase II expansion with the aim of obtaining a complete response (CR) rate ≥30%. We identified 20 mg/d for 5 d as the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral clofarabine. A total of 35 patients, with a median age of 72 years, were treated. Of 26 patients enrolled at the MTD, 4 had treatment-related grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicities, but none died within 28 d. The observed CR rate and median survival were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 18-50%] and 6.8 months overall and 38% [95% CI, 19-57%] and 7.2 months at the MTD. The median disease-free survival was 7.4 months. Fifty-two percent (23/44) of cycles administered at the MTD were done without hospital admission. This combination of oral clofarabine and LDAC demonstrated efficacy with a CR rate of >30% and acceptable toxicity in older patients.
[Clinical efficacy of decitabine plus improved CAG chemotherapy and haplo-identical donor peripheral lymphocyte infusion regimen on elderly patients with high risk myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia].
Dou, Li-Ping; Jing, Yu; Wang, Quan-Shun; Mei, Jun-Hui; Yu, Li
This study was aimed to observe the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of decitabine plus improved CAG chemotherapy and haploid-identical donor peripheral lymphocyte infusion regimen on elderly patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five elderly patients with MDS and AML were treated with decitabine plus improved CAG chemotherapy and donor peripheral lymphocyte infusion regimen. Examinations on liver and renal function, electrocardiogram and bone marrow analysis were performed before and after treatment, and adverse effects were observed. The results indicated that after a course of treatment by decitabine plus improved CAG chemotherapy and haplo-identical donor peripheral lymphocyte infusion regimen, the total effective rate was 100%, and 4 patients (80%) achieved complete remission, 1 patient achieved partial remission. The dominant clinical adverse effect was bone marrow depression, the median time of neutrophil>0.5×10(9)/L and platelet>20×10(9)/L was 15 d and 16 d respectively for patients without previous MDS. It is concluded that decitabine plus improved CAG chemotherapy and haploid-identical donor peripheral lymphocyte infusion regimen may be effective with less adverse effects for elderly primary AML and high risk MDS patients, it is a promising therapeutic methods and worthy to deeply study.
Specific scoring systems to predict survival of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after intensive antileukemic treatment based on results of the EORTC-GIMEMA AML-10 and intergroup CRIANT studies.
Oosterveld, Margriet; Suciu, Stefan; Muus, Petra; Germing, Ulrich; Delforge, Michel; Belhabri, Amin; Aul, Carlo; Selleslag, Dominik; Ferrant, Augustin; Marie, Jean-Pierre; Amadori, Sergio; Jehn, Ulrich; Mandelli, Franco; Hess, Uwe; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Cakmak-Wollgast, Songuel; Vignetti, Marco; Labar, Boris; Willemze, Roel; de Witte, Theo
High-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients have usually a less favorable outcome after intensive treatment compared with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. This may reflect different disease-related and patient-related factors. The purpose of this analysis is to identify disease-specific prognostic factors and to develop prognostic scores for both patient groups. A total of 692 patients in the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-10 study and 289 patients in the CRIANT study received identical remission-induction and consolidation treatment. Estimated 5-year survival rate was 34 % in the AML-10 versus 27 % in the CRIANT study, and estimated disease-free survival was 40 % versus 28 %, respectively. In multivariate analysis, cytogenetic characteristics, white blood count, and age appeared prognostic for survival in both studies. French-American-British (FAB) subtype and performance status were prognostic in the AML-10 study only, whereas number of cytopenias and duration of antecedent hematologic disorder >6 months were prognostic in the CRIANT study only. The prognostic scores distinguish three groups with a 5-year survival rate of 54, 38, and 19 % in the AML-10 study versus 69, 37, and 5 % in the CRIANT study. The prognostic value of these scores has been validated on two external series. The new scoring systems form a practical tool to predict the outcome of individual MDS and AML patients treated with intensive antileukemic therapy.
Cui, Wei; Sun, Jianlan; Cotta, Claudiu V; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Lin, Pei
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with inv(3) (q21q26.2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) is a distinct subtype in the World Health Organization classification. The natural history of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with these cytogenetic aberrations is poorly understood. We studied 17 MDS (11 de novo and 6 therapy related) and 3 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) cases associated with inv(3) (q21q26.2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26.2). The de novo cases were further classified as refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (n = 8) and refractory anemia with excess blasts (n = 3). Isolated inv(3)/t(3;3) was identified in 4 cases, whereas -7/7q (n = 13) and -5/5q (n = 6) were common additional aberrations. Nineteen patients died, including 13 in whom the disease progressed to AML after a median of 7 months. Median survival for patients with de novo disease was similar to that for patients with therapy-related MDS (13 vs 17.5 months). MDS or CMML with inv(3)/t(3;3) are aggressive diseases with a high risk of progression to AML.
Foresto, Steven A; Youlden, Danny R; Baade, Peter D; Hallahan, Andrew R; Aitken, Joanne F; Moore, Andrew S
Childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) requires intensive therapy and is associated with survival rates that are substantially inferior to many other childhood malignancies. We undertook a retrospective analysis of Australian Paediatric Cancer Registry data from 1997 to 2008 together with a single-centre audit during the same period assessing burden on service delivery at a tertiary children's hospital (Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane). Although survival improved from 54.3% (1997-2002) to 69.2% (2003-2008), childhood AML caused a disproportionate number of childhood cancer deaths, accounting for 5.5% of all childhood cancer diagnoses yet 7.9% of all childhood cancer mortality. Furthermore, treatment was associated with significant toxicity requiring intensive use of local health resources. Novel therapeutic strategies aimed at improving survival and reducing toxicity are urgently required.
Chan, Jason Yong-Sheng; Ugrasena, Dewa G; Lum, Danny Wai-Kiong; Lu, Yi; Yeoh, Allen Eng-Juh
Xenobiotic and folate metabolic pathways are important for the maintenance of genetic stability and may influence susceptibility to the development of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). In this study, we investigated 10 polymorphisms in 6 genes (GSTM1-present/null, GSTT1-present/null, GSTP1 1578A > G, NQO1 609C > T, MTHFR 677C > T, MTHFR 1298A > C, MTHFD1 1958G > A, 3'-TYMS 1494 6bp-deletion/insertion, 5'-TYMS 28bp-tandem repeats, and SLC19A1 80G > A) in a cohort of 185 Javanese children with ALL and 177 healthy controls. In ALL patients, none of the polymorphisms demonstrated a statistically significant association with ALL after correcting for multiple comparisons. Gender-stratified analysis showed that in girls, GSTT1-null genotype was associated with increased ALL risk (OR = 2.20; p = 0.027), while GSTP1 1578AG genotype was associated with reduced risk (OR = 0.43; p = 0.031). Strong linkage disequilibrium between the MTHFR 677C > T and 1298A > C polymorphisms was observed (D' = 1.0; r(2) = 0.072). The haplotypes 677C-1298C and 677T-1298A were associated with a reduced risk of ALL (OR = 0.68 and 0.64, respectively; gender-adjusted global p = 0.028). Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was employed to identify potential high-order gene-gene interactions and cluster subjects into susceptibility groups. SLC19A1 80G > A emerged as the predominant polymorphism associated with risk of ALL. Individuals simultaneously carrying MTHFR 1298AA, 3'-TYMS 6bp deletion(s) and SLC19A1 80A-allele(s) were at higher disease risk (OR = 2.21; p < 0.001). On the contrary, simultaneous possession of MTHFR 1298CC, 3'-TYMS 6bp homozygosity and SLC19A1 80A-allele(s) conferred lower risk (OR = 0.25; p = 0.004). Carriage of NQO1 609C-allele amongst SLC19A1 80GG genotype was associated with lower risk (OR = 0.47; p = 0.003). In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the importance of gender and gene-gene interaction within the xenobiotic and folate pathways in
Lopez, Vera; Corona, Rosalie
This qualitative study explored 18 high-risk adolescent Latinas' perceptions of their relationships with nonresident fathers. A number of interrelated factors--early childhood memories, mothers' interpretations, and fathers' behaviors--shaped girls' perceptions, which in turn, influenced how they interacted with fathers. Some girls struggled to…
Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.
This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…
Swellam, Menha; El-Khazragy, Nashwa
Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression participates in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study aimed to investigate the expression of miRNA-100, miRNA-196a, and miRNA-146a among childhood ALL and study their correlation with other hematological parameters and different phenotypes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) were obtained from 85 childhood ALL and 25 healthy children for the detection of miRNA expression using quantitative real-time PCR. Significant higher median levels were reported for ALL compared to control children. The diagnostic efficacy for miRNA-146a was superior as both sensitivity and specificity were absolute. A significant correlation was observed between higher expression of miRNA-100 and lower platelet and lymphocyte counts; high expression of miRNA-146a showed significant correlation with low total leukocyte count (TLC) and lymphocyte counts. Significant relation was reported between studied miRNAs and different phenotyping. miRNA-100, miRNA-196a, and miRNA-146a have significant role in childhood ALL leukemogenesis, and they may be useful as biological diagnostic molecular markers.
Shen, Hong-Qiang; Feng, Jian-Hua; Tang, Yong-Min; Song, Hua; Yang, Shi-Long; Shi, Shu-Wen; Xu, Wei-Qun
The prognostic value of absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) has been a recent matter of debate in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In the current study, ALCs at the time of diagnosis (ALC-0), after 7 days of initial therapy (ALC-8) and at interim of the induction therapy (ALC-22) were examined in Chinese children with B-cell precursor (BCP) ALL and correlated with the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) at day 22 of induction therapy. Medical and laboratory records of 140 patients diagnosed with childhood BCP ALL were retrieved and analyzed. ALC-22 is significantly correlated with MRD level at day 22 of therapy and can be a good prognostic factor for childhood BCP-ALL. Furthermore, lymphocyte count at initial diagnosis is correlated with MRD level at day 22 in childhood BCP-ALL with the immnunophenotype of CD19(pos)/CD10(pos)/CD34(pos)/CD45(neg) and role as a new prognostic factor was determined.
Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies
Mattioli, Stefano; Farioli, Andrea; Legittimo, Patrizia; Miligi, Lucia; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Ranucci, Alessandra; Salvan, Alberto; Rondelli, Roberto; Magnani, Corrado
Background Parental smoking and exposure of the mother or the child to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as risk factors for Acute non-Lymphocytic Leukemia (AnLL) were investigated. Methods Incident cases of childhood AnLL were enrolled in 14 Italian Regions during 1998–2001. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) conducting logistic regression models including 82 cases of AnLL and 1,044 controls. Inverse probability weighting was applied adjusting for: age; sex; provenience; birth order; birth weight; breastfeeding; parental educational level age, birth year, and occupational exposure to benzene. Results Paternal smoke in the conception period was associated with AnLL (OR for ≥11 cigarettes/day = 1.79, 95% CI 1.01–3.15; P trend 0.05). An apparent effect modification by maternal age was identified: only children of mothers aged below 30 presented increased risks. We found weak statistical evidence of an association of AnLL with maternal exposure to ETS (OR for exposure>3 hours/day = 1.85, 95%CI 0.97–3.52; P trend 0.07). No association was observed between AnLL and either maternal smoking during pregnancy or child exposure to ETS. Conclusions This study is consistent with the hypothesis that paternal smoke is associated with AnLL. We observed statistical evidence of an association between maternal exposure to ETS and AnLL, but believe bias might have inflated our estimates. PMID:25401754
Lopes, Bruno Almeida; Meyer, Claus; Barbosa, Thayana Conceição; zur Stadt, Udo; Horstmann, Martin; Venn, Nicola C.; Heatley, Susan; White, Deborah L.; Sutton, Rosemary; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Marschalek, Rolf; Emerenciano, Mariana
IKZF1 deletion (ΔIKZF1) is an important predictor of relapse in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Because of its clinical importance, we previously mapped breakpoints of intragenic deletions and developed a multiplex PCR assay to detect recurrent intragenic ΔIKZF1. Since the multiplex PCR was not able to detect complete deletions (IKZF1 Δ1-8), which account for ~30% of all ΔIKZF1, we aimed at investigating the genomic scenery of IKZF1 Δ1-8. Six samples of cases with IKZF1 Δ1-8 were analyzed by microarray assay, which identified monosomy 7, isochromosome 7q, and large interstitial deletions presenting breakpoints within COBL gene. Then, we established a multiplex ligation-probe amplification (MLPA) assay and screened copy number alterations within chromosome 7 in 43 diagnostic samples with IKZF1 Δ1-8. Our results revealed that monosomy and large interstitial deletions within chromosome 7 are the main causes of IKZF1 Δ1-8. Detailed analysis using long distance inverse PCR showed that six patients (16%) had large interstitial deletions starting within intronic regions of COBL at diagnosis, which is ~611 Kb downstream of IKZF1, suggesting that COBL is a hotspot for ΔIKZF1. We also investigated a series of 25 intragenic deletions (Δ2–8, Δ3–8 or Δ4–8) and 24 relapsed samples, and found one IKZF1-COBL tail-to-tail fusion, thus supporting that COBL is a novel hotspot for ΔIKZF1. Finally, using RIC score methodology, we show that breakpoint sequences of IKZF1 Δ1-8 are not analog to RAG-recognition sites, suggesting a different mechanism of error promotion than that suggested for intragenic ΔIKZF1. PMID:27419633
DeLany, James P.; Kaste, Sue C.; Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Karlage, Robyn E.; Lanctot, Jennifer Q.; Howell, Carrie R.; Lu, Lu; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.
There is limited information on body composition, energy balance, and fitness among survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially those treated without cranial radiation therapy (CRT). This analysis compares these metrics among 365 ALL survivors with a mean age of 28.6 ± 5.9 years (149 treated with and 216 without CRT) and 365 age-, sex-, and race-matched peers. We also report risk factors for outcomes among survivors treated without CRT. Male survivors not exposed to CRT had abnormal body composition when compared with peers (% body fat, 26.2 ± 8.2 vs 22.7 ± 7.1). Survivors without CRT had similar energy balance but had significantly impaired quadriceps strength (−21.9 ± 6.0 Newton-meters [Nm]/kg, 60°/s) and endurance (−11.4 ± 4.6 Nm/kg, 300°/s), exercise capacity (−2.0 ± 2.1 ml/kg per minute), low-back and hamstring flexibility (−4.7 ± 1.6 cm), and dorsiflexion range of motion (−3.1 ± 0.9°) and higher modified total neuropathy scores (+1.6 ± 1.1) than peers. Cumulative asparaginase dose ≥120 000 IU/m2 was associated with impaired flexibility, vincristine dose ≥39 mg/m2 with peripheral neuropathy, glucocorticoid (prednisone equivalent) dose ≥8000 mg/m2 with hand weakness, and intrathecal methotrexate dose ≥225 mg with dorsiflexion weakness. Physical inactivity was associated with hand weakness and decreased exercise capacity. Smoking was associated with peripheral neuropathy. Elimination of CRT from ALL therapy has improved, but not eliminated, body-composition outcomes. Survivors remain at risk for impaired fitness. PMID:25814529
Busulfan, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Followed By Donor Stem Cell Transplant and Azacitidine in Treating Patients With High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21); (q22; q22.1); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22.3;q23.3); MLLT3-KMT2A; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myelodysplastic Syndrome With Excess Blasts; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Li, Zhen; Zhu, Jie; Bi, Yongyi; Bai, YuE; Wang, Hong
Background The prevalence of childhood leukemia is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, studies on maternal benzene exposure during pregnancy and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have not been systematically assessed. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between maternal solvent, paint, petroleum exposure, and smoking during pregnancy and risk of childhood ALL. Methods Relevant studies up to September 1st, 2013 were identified by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library and the Web of Science databases. The effects were pooled using either fixed or random effect models based on the heterogeneity of the studies. Results Twenty-eight case-control studies and one cohort study were included for analysis, with a total of 16,695 cases and 1,472,786 controls involved. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for ALL was 1.25 (1.09, 1.45) for solvent, 1.23 (1.02, 1.47) for paint, 1.42 (1.10, 1.84) for petroleum exposure, and 0.99 (0.93, 1.06) for maternal smoking during pregnancy. No publication bias was found in this meta-analysis and consistent results were observed for subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Childhood ALL was associated with maternal solvent, paint, and petroleum exposure during pregnancy. No association was found between ALL and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Avoidance of maternal occupational and environmental benzene exposure during pregnancy could contribute to a decrease in the risk of childhood ALL. PMID:25333868
Tierens, Anne; Bjørklund, Elizabeth; Siitonen, Sanna; Marquart, Hanne Vibeke; Wulff-Juergensen, Gitte; Pelliniemi, Tarja-Terttu; Forestier, Erik; Hasle, Henrik; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Lausen, Birgitte; Jonsson, Olafur G; Palle, Josefine; Zeller, Bem; Fogelstrand, Linda; Abrahamsson, Jonas
Early response after induction is a prognostic factor for disease outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Residual disease (RD) detection by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) was performed at day 15 and before consolidation therapy in 101 patients enrolled in the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haemato-Oncology AML 2004 study. A multicentre laboratory approach to RD analysis was used. Event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) was significantly different in patients with and without RD at both time points, using a 0·1% RD cut-off level. RD-negative and -positive patients after first induction showed a 5-year EFS of 65 ± 7% and 22 ± 7%, respectively (P < 0·001) and an OS of 77 ± 6% (P = 0·025) and 51 ± 8%. RD-negative and -positive patients at start of consolidation therapy had a 5-year EFS of 57 ± 7% and 11 ± 7%, respectively (P < 0·001) and an OS of 78 ± 6% and 28 ± 11%) (P < 0·001). In multivariate analysis only RD was significantly correlated with survival. RD before consolidation therapy was the strongest independent prognostic factor for EFS [hazard ratio (HR):5·0; 95% confidence interval (CI):1·9-13·3] and OS (HR:7·0; 95%CI:2·0-24·5). In conclusion, RD before consolidation therapy identifies patients at high risk of relapse in need of intensified treatment. In addition, RD detection can be performed in a multicentre setting and can be implemented in future trials.
Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim; Hashemi, Mohammad; Hasani, Seyed-Shahab-Adin; Naderi, Majid; Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin; Taheri, Mohsen
We examined the possible relationship between three RAGE polymorphisms, -429C/T, -374 T/A, and 63-bp deletion, and susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in an Iranian population. This study included 75 ALL patients and 115 healthy subjects. Genotyping was performed using HEXA-ARMS-polymerase chain reaction. We found no significant association among RAGE gene polymorphisms and the risk for ALL at genotype, allelic and haplotype levels (P > 0.05). The hemoglobin levels were higher in patients with RAGE -374 TT than in the TA carriers (P = 0.019). Our results demonstrated that the RAGE gene variations were not associated with risk of pediatrics ALL.
Thomson, Jennifer A; Widjaja, Constance; Darmaputra, Abbi A P; Lowe, Adrian; Matheson, Melanie C; Bennett, Catherine M; Allen, Katrina; Abramson, Michael J; Hosking, Cliff; Hill, David; Dharmage, Shyamali C
The role of early childhood infections and immunisation in the development of allergic diseases remains controversial. To examine these associations, six hundred and twenty infants with first-degree relatives with allergic diseases were recruited into the Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study. Information on risk factors and outcomes was collected by interviewer administered questionnaire and was based on parental report and/or a physician's diagnosis. Risk factors examined included early childhood infections (including gastroenteritis, otitis media and lower respiratory tract infections) and immunisations in the first 2 yr of life. Outcomes were current asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema at 6 yr of age. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were used to estimate relative risk (RR) and assess confounding. By 6 yr, 79% of the original cohort remained in the study. Those with at least three episodes of gastroenteritis showed an increased risk (crude RR 2.36, 95%CI 1.41 3.95; adjusted RR 2.03 95%CI 1.50 2.75) for the later development of asthma at age 6. Of the scheduled immunisations, Sabin immunisation in the second year had a reduced risk of asthma at 6 yr (crude RR 0.60, 95%CI 0.37 0.98; adjusted RR 0.63 95%CI 0.39 1.02). Combined diphtheria and tetanus (CDT) immunisation in the first year had an increased risk of asthma at 6 yr (RR 1.76, 95%CI 1.11 2.78; adjusted RR 1.88 95%CI 1.28 2.77). Recurrent gastroenteritis in early childhood is associated with a later risk of asthma. This may reflect a cause and effect relationship, or exposure to common risk factors. In contrast, Sabin immunisation in the second year is associated with a decreased risk of asthma in later childhood. CDT immunisation in the first year may be a risk factor for asthma, but the need for CDT immunisation may also be a marker of increased risk of asthma in later childhood.
Acute Leukemia of Ambiguous Lineage; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Merten, Sonja; Schaetti, Christian; Manianga, Cele; Lapika, Bruno; Hutubessy, Raymond; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Weiss, Mitchell
Rotavirus and oral cholera vaccines have the potential to reduce diarrhea-related child mortality in low-income settings and are recommended by the World Health Organization. Uptake of vaccination depends on community support, and is based on local priorities. This study investigates local perceptions of acute watery diarrhea in childhood and anticipated vaccine acceptance in two sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2010, 360 randomly selected non-affected adults were interviewed by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Witchcraft and breastfeeding were perceived as potential cause of acute watery diarrhea by 51% and 48% of respondents. Despite misperceptions, anticipated vaccine acceptance at no cost was 99%. The strongest predictor of anticipated vaccine acceptance if costs were assumed was the educational level of the respondents. Results suggest that the introduction of vaccines is a local priority and local (mis)perceptions of illness do not compromise vaccine acceptability if the vaccine is affordable. PMID:23878187
Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Gajic-Veljanoski, O.; Pham, B.; Pechlivanoglou, P.; Krahn, M.; Higgins, Caroline; Bielecki, Joanna
Background Minimal residual disease (MRD) testing by higher performance techniques such as flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to detect the proportion of remaining leukemic cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood during and after the first phases of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The results of MRD testing are used to reclassify these patients and guide changes in treatment according to their future risk of relapse. We conducted a systematic review of the economic literature, cost-effectiveness analysis, and budget-impact analysis to ascertain the cost-effectiveness and economic impact of MRD testing by flow cytometry for management of childhood precursor B-cell ALL in Ontario. Methods A systematic literature search (1998–2014) identified studies that examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing by either flow cytometry or PCR. We developed a lifetime state-transition (Markov) microsimulation model to quantify the cost-effectiveness of MRD testing followed by risk-directed therapy to no MRD testing and to estimate its marginal effect on health outcomes and on costs. Model input parameters were based on the literature, expert opinion, and data from the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario Networked Information System. Using predictions from our Markov model, we estimated the 1-year cost burden of MRD testing versus no testing and forecasted its economic impact over 3 and 5 years. Results In a base-case cost-effectiveness analysis, compared with no testing, MRD testing by flow cytometry at the end of induction and consolidation was associated with an increased discounted survival of 0.0958 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and increased discounted costs of $4,180, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $43,613/QALY gained. After accounting for parameter uncertainty, incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing was associated with an ICER of $50,249/QALY gained. In
Ripert, Mahaut; Menegaux, Florence; Perel, Yves; Méchinaud, Françoise; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Lamagnére, Jean-Pierre; Margueritte, Geneviève; Boutard, Patrick; Robert, Alain; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Munzer, Martine; Millot, Frédéric; de Lumley, Lionel; Berthou, Christian; Rialland, Xavier; Pautard, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline
Objective A case-control study was conducted to investigate the role of a familial history of cancer in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (AL). Methods The history of cancer in the relatives of 472 cases was compared to that of 567 population-based controls. Recruitment was frequency matched on age, gender and region. The familial history of cancer in each child’s relatives was reported by the mother in response to a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Results A familial history of solid tumor in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of ALL (OR=1.6 [1.2–2.1]), while a familial history of hematopoietic malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of AML (OR=4.3 [1.4–13]). The ORs for the histories of cancer increased with the number of relatives with cancer (OR=1.5 [1.1–2.0] for one relative and OR=2.3 [1.3–3.8] for two relatives or more; ptrend<0.0001). Significant associations between childhood AL and familial history of genital cancers and brain tumor were also observed (OR=2.7 [1.2–5.8], OR=10.7 [1.3–86], respectively). Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that a familial history of cancer may play a role in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia. It also evidences some specific associations that require further investigation. PMID:17923819
Activated partial thromboplastin time measurement is not associated with clinical outcomes in patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes treated with unfractionated heparin.
Thomas, Michael P; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Chiswell, Karen; Cohen, Marc; Kontos, Michael C; Antman, Elliott M; Ferguson, James J; Califf, Robert M; Goodman, Shaun G; Becker, Richard C
Our objective was to determine the association of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) with recurrent ischemic events and non-coronary artery bypass surgery-related thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major bleeding. We studied 4,985 patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) participating in SYNERGY, a prospective, randomized, international trial designed to emulate contemporary practice wherein unfractionated heparin (UFH) is given intravenously and titrated according to a weight-adjusted dosing nomogram to a target aPTT of 1.5-2 times the upper limit of normal (approximately 50-70 s). Aspirin was administered to 95% of patients, clopidogrel to 63%, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitors to 58%. More than 90% of patients underwent early coronary angiography, and 69% were revascularized. Used as a time-dependent covariate, aPTT was evaluated as a predictor of time to ischemic or major hemorrhagic events in proportional hazards regression models. Using discrete variable analysis, aPTT was categorized as persistently below a lower threshold of anticoagulation (<50 vs. ≥50 s) for recurrent ischemic events and above an upper threshold (>70 vs. ≤70 s) for major hemorrhagic events. UFH treatment lasted a median of 42 (30, 78) h. At >6-12 (n = 3,021), >12-24 (n = 3,406), and >24-48 (n = 2,497) h, 34, 41, and 46% of patients achieved the target aPTT range, respectively. Both before and after adjusting for baseline predictors of anticoagulant response and risk score (age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, ST depression, and renal function), no significant relationship between aPTT values and recurrent ischemic events or major bleeding was found. No relationship was observed between clinical outcomes and aPTT values persistently above or below the designated thresholds. Measurements of aPTT were not associated with clinical outcomes among patients with NSTE ACS treated with UFH. The required intensity of
Tsurusawa, M; Shimomura, Y; Asami, K; Kikuta, A; Watanabe, A; Horikoshi, Y; Matsushita, T; Kanegane, H; Ohta, S; Iwai, A; Mugishima, H; Koizumi, S
We analyzed the long-term outcomes of 1021 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), enrolled in four successive clinical trials (ALL811, ALL841, ALL874 and ALL911) between 1981 and 1993. All patients received risk-adopted therapy according to leukocyte count and age at the time of diagnosis. The median follow-up durations of the four studies were 17.8 years in ALL811, 15.5 years in ALL841, 11.9 years in ALL874 and 15.8 years in ALL911. Patients' event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates at 12 years were 41.0 and 54.3% in ALL811, 50.2 and 60.2% in ALL841, 57.3 and 64.7% in ALL874, and 63.4 and 71.7% in ALL911, respectively. Thus, cure can become a reality for about 70% of children with ALL. There is, however, still a significant difference in survival outcomes according to risk group. Late effects were observed in 70 patients out of 834 (8.4%); hepatitis and short stature were most commonly reported. Reduction of late adverse effects for all patients and development of new treatment strategies for very-high-risk patients are major issues for upcoming trials to address.
Effects of priming with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on conditioning regimen for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing human leukocyte antigen-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a multicenter randomized controlled study in southwest China.
Gao, Lei; Wen, Qin; Chen, Xinghua; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Li; Kong, Peiyan; Zhang, Yanqi; Li, Yunlong; Liu, Jia; Wang, Qingyu; Su, Yi; Wang, Chunsen; Wang, Sanbin; Zeng, Yun; Sun, Aihua; Du, Xin; Zeng, Dongfeng; Liu, Hong; Peng, Xiangui; Zhang, Xi
HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is an effective and immediate treatment for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (HR-AML) patients lacking matched donors. Relapse remains the leading cause of death for HR-AML patients after haplo-HSCT. Accordingly, the prevention of relapse remains a challenge in the treatment of HR-AML. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial in southwestern China, 178 HR-AML patients received haplo-HSCT with conditioning regimens involving recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) or non-rhG-CSF. The cumulative incidences of relapse and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), 2-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. HR-AML patients who underwent the priming conditioning regimen with rhG-CSF had a lower relapse rate than those who were treated with non-rhG-CSF (38.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.1% to 48.3% versus 60.7%, 95% CI, 50.5% to 70.8%; P < .01). The cumulative incidences of acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, transplantation-related toxicity, and infectious complications appeared to be equivalent. In total, 53 patients in the rhG-CSF-priming group and 31 patients in the non-rhG-CSF-priming group were still alive at the median follow-up time of 42 months (range, 24 to 80 months). The 2-year probabilities of LFS and OS in the rhG-CSF-priming and non-rhG-CSF-priming groups were 55.1% (95% CI, 44.7% to 65.4%) versus 32.6% (95% CI, 22.8% to 42.3%) (P < .01) and 59.6% (95% CI, 49.4% to 69.7%) versus 34.8% (95% CI, 24.9% to 44.7%) (P < .01), respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that the 2-year probability of LFS of patients who achieved complete remission (CR) before transplantation was better than that of patients who did not achieve CR. The 2-year probability of LFS of patients with no M4/M5/M6 subtype was better than that of patients with the M4/M5/M6 subtype in the G-CSF-priming group (67.4%; 95% CI, 53.8% to 80.9% versus 41.9%; 95% CI, 27
Oyewumi, L K
A critical review of various high risk situations in which neuroleptics could be used and have been used in clinical practice is presented. These high risk situations include: women of child bearing age (pregnant women, lactating and/or nursing mothers), the two extremes of life (children and the elderly), patients with sexual dysfunction, patients with tardive dyskinesia, non-psychotic psychiatric patients, physically ill and suicidal patients. The extraordinary applications of these drugs, such as for rapid tranquilization and megadose regimens are examined. The author provides guidelines for the use of neuroleptics in these clinical situations.
Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibody Therapy, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Low-Dose Total-Body Irradiation Followed by Donor Stem Cell Transplant and Immunosuppression Therapy in Treating Older Patients With Advanced Acute Myeloid Leukemia or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Singh, Sandeep K.; Lupo, Philip J.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Saxena, Anshul; Kennedy, Amy E.; Ibrahimou, Boubakari; Barbieri, Manuel Alejandro; Mills, Ken I.; McCauley, Jacob L.; Okcu, Mehmet Fatih; Dorak, Mehmet Tevfik
Abstract Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occurs more frequently in males. Reasons behind sex differences in childhood ALL risk are unknown. In the present genome-wide association study (GWAS), we explored the genetic basis of sex differences by comparing genotype frequencies between male and female cases in a case-only study to assess effect-modification by sex. The case-only design included 236 incident cases of childhood ALL consecutively recruited at the Texas Children's Cancer Center in Houston, Texas from 2007 to 2012. All cases were non-Hispanic whites, aged 1 to 10 years, and diagnosed with confirmed B-cell precursor ALL. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina HumanCoreExome BeadChip on the Illumina Infinium platform. Besides the top 100 statistically most significant results, results were also analyzed by the top 100 highest effect size with a nominal statistical significance (P <0.05). The statistically most significant sex-specific association (P = 4 × 10−6) was with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4813720 (RASSF2), an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) for RASSF2 in peripheral blood. rs4813720 is also a strong methylation QTL (meQTL) for a CpG site (cg22485289) within RASSF2 in pregnancy, at birth, childhood, and adolescence. cg22485289 is one of the hypomethylated CpG sites in ALL compared with pre-B cells. Two missense SNPs, rs12722042 and 12722039, in the HLA-DQA1 gene yielded the highest effect sizes (odds ratio [OR] ∼ 14; P <0.01) for sex-specific results. The HLA-DQA1 SNPs belong to DQA1∗01 and confirmed the previously reported male-specific association with DQA1∗01. This finding supports the proposed infection-related etiology in childhood ALL risk for males. Further analyses revealed that most SNPs (either direct effect or through linkage disequilibrium) were within active enhancers or active promoter regions and had regulatory effects on gene expression levels. Cumulative data suggested that
Singh, Sandeep K; Lupo, Philip J; Scheurer, Michael E; Saxena, Anshul; Kennedy, Amy E; Ibrahimou, Boubakari; Barbieri, Manuel Alejandro; Mills, Ken I; McCauley, Jacob L; Okcu, Mehmet Fatih; Dorak, Mehmet Tevfik
Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) occurs more frequently in males. Reasons behind sex differences in childhood ALL risk are unknown. In the present genome-wide association study (GWAS), we explored the genetic basis of sex differences by comparing genotype frequencies between male and female cases in a case-only study to assess effect-modification by sex.The case-only design included 236 incident cases of childhood ALL consecutively recruited at the Texas Children's Cancer Center in Houston, Texas from 2007 to 2012. All cases were non-Hispanic whites, aged 1 to 10 years, and diagnosed with confirmed B-cell precursor ALL. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina HumanCoreExome BeadChip on the Illumina Infinium platform. Besides the top 100 statistically most significant results, results were also analyzed by the top 100 highest effect size with a nominal statistical significance (P <0.05).The statistically most significant sex-specific association (P = 4 × 10) was with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4813720 (RASSF2), an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) for RASSF2 in peripheral blood. rs4813720 is also a strong methylation QTL (meQTL) for a CpG site (cg22485289) within RASSF2 in pregnancy, at birth, childhood, and adolescence. cg22485289 is one of the hypomethylated CpG sites in ALL compared with pre-B cells. Two missense SNPs, rs12722042 and 12722039, in the HLA-DQA1 gene yielded the highest effect sizes (odds ratio [OR] ∼ 14; P <0.01) for sex-specific results. The HLA-DQA1 SNPs belong to DQA1*01 and confirmed the previously reported male-specific association with DQA1*01. This finding supports the proposed infection-related etiology in childhood ALL risk for males. Further analyses revealed that most SNPs (either direct effect or through linkage disequilibrium) were within active enhancers or active promoter regions and had regulatory effects on gene expression levels.Cumulative data suggested that RASSF2 rs4813720
Bujko, Mateusz; Musialik, Ewa; Olbromski, Rafał; Przestrzelska, Marta; Libura, Marta; Pastwińska, Anna; Juszczyński, Przemysław; Zwierzchowski, Lech; Baranowski, Paweł; Siedlecki, Janusz Aleksander
Aberrant epigenetic regulation is a hallmark of neoplastic cells. Increased DNA methylation of individual genes' promoter regions and decreases in overall DNA methylation level are both generally observed in cancer. In solid tumors, this global DNA hypomethylation is related to reduced methylation of repeated DNA elements (REs) and contributes to genome instability. The aim of the present study was to assess methylation level of LINE-1 and ALU REs and total 5-methylcytosine (5metC) content in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n = 58), childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (n = 32), as the most frequent acute leukemias in two age categories and in normal adult bone marrow and children's blood samples. DNA pyrosequencing and ELISA assays were used, respectively. Global DNA hypomethylation was not observed in leukemia patients. Results revealed higher DNA methylation of LINE-1 in AML and ALL samples compared to corresponding normal controls. Elevated methylation of ALU and overall 5metC level were also observed in B-cell ALL patients. Differences of REs and global DNA methylation between AML cytogenetic-risk groups were observed, with the lowest methylation levels in intermediate-risk/cytogenetically normal patients. B-cell ALL is characterized by the highest DNA methylation level compared to AML and controls and overall DNA methylation is correlated with leukocyte count.
Pedersen, D M
High risk sports were rated as to risk, appeal, and likelihood of participation by 282 men and 162 women. Ascending order of perceived risk was skiing, scuba diving, bungee jumping, rock climbing, motorcycle racing, hang gliding, cliff jumping, and skydiving. Profile analysis showed stated likelihood of participation to be directly related to appeal and inversely related to perceived risk.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
This report provides an overview of efforts undertaken by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) in 1990 to review and report on federal program areas its work identified as high risk because of vulnerabilities to waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement. It reviews the current status of efforts to address these concerns. The six categories of…
Abiri, Behnaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Sadeghi, Homa; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of leukemia in children that can be affected by maternal diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal dietary risk factors of ALL. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Springer Link, Wiley Online, Science Direct, Mosby, ISI Web of Science, OVID, ProQuest, and Scopus from database inception until February 2, 2016. Two reviewers scanned titles, abstracts, and keywords of articles after excluding duplicates. We included case-control studies evaluating the relationship between maternal diet during pregnancy and childhood ALL. The search resulted in 2,940 papers, of which 11 full-text articles met the criteria for inclusion in the review and were analyzed. The finding of these studies suggest that maternal diet composed largely of vegetables, fruits, and protein sources before and during pregnancy can reduce the risk of ALL in offspring. Maternal alcohol intake had no effect. Nevertheless, inherent limitations of case-control studies like measurement error, random error, recall bias, and selection bias preclude conclusive evidence. Persuading pregnant women to follow a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and protein may reduce the risk of childhood ALL. Avoiding alcohol intake seems prudent.
Cheung, Yin Ting; Krull, Kevin R.
The intensified administration of chemotherapeutic drugs has gradually replaced cranial radiation therapy (CRT) for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). While CRT is often implicated in neurocognitive impairment in ALL survivors, there is a paucity of literature that evaluates the persistence of neurocognitive deficits in long-term survivors of pediatric ALL who were treated with contemporary chemotherapy-only protocols. Results from this systematic review concurred to the probable cognitive-sparing effect of chemotherapy-based protocols over CRT in long-term survivors. However, coupled with multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors, survivors who received chemotherapy treatment still suffered from apparent cognitive impairment, particularly in the attention and executive function domains. Notably, there is evidence to suggest that the late neurotoxic effect of methotrexate on survivors’ neurocognitive performance may be dose-related. This review also recommends future pharmacokinetic, neuroimaging and genetic studies to illuminate the multifactorial nature of this subject matter and discusses the potential value of neurochemical, physiological, inflammatory and genetic markers for the prediction of susceptibility to neurocognitive impairment in long-term survivors of childhood ALL. PMID:25857254
Löder, S; Fakler, M; Schoeneberger, H; Cristofanon, S; Leibacher, J; Vanlangenakker, N; Bertrand, M J M; Vandenabeele, P; Jeremias, I; Debatin, K-M; Fulda, S
Evasion of apoptosis may contribute to poor treatment response in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), calling for novel treatment strategies. Here, we report that inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) at subtoxic concentrations cooperate with various anticancer drugs (that is, AraC, Gemcitabine, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Etoposide, Vincristine and Taxol) to induce apoptosis in ALL cells in a synergistic manner as calculated by combination index and to reduce long-term clonogenic survival. Importantly, we identify RIP1 as a critical regulator of this synergism of IAP inhibitors and AraC that mediates the formation of a RIP1/FADD/caspase-8 complex via an autocrine/paracrine loop of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Knockdown of RIP1 abolishes formation of this complex and subsequent activation of caspase-8 and -3, mitochondrial perturbations and apoptosis. Similarly, inhibition of RIP1 kinase activity by Necrostatin-1 or blockage of TNFα by Enbrel inhibits IAP inhibitor- and AraC-triggered interaction of RIP1, FADD and caspase-8 and apoptosis. In contrast to malignant cells, IAP inhibitors and AraC at equimolar concentrations are non-toxic to normal peripheral blood lymphocytes or mesenchymal stromal cells. Thus, our findings provide first evidence that IAP inhibitors present a promising strategy to prime childhood ALL cells for chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in a RIP1-dependent manner. These data have important implications for developing apoptosis-targeted therapies in childhood leukemia.
Greenop, Kathryn R; Bailey, Helen D; Miller, Margaret; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Downie, Peter; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and childhood brain tumors (CBT) are 2 of the most common forms of childhood cancer, but little is known of their etiology. In 2 nationwide case-control studies we investigated whether breastfeeding, age of food introduction, or early diet are associated with the risk of these cancers. Cases aged 0-14 years were identified from Australian pediatric oncology units between 2003 and 2007 (ALL) and 2005 and 2010 (CBT) and population-based controls through nationwide random-digit dialing. Mothers completed questionnaires giving details of infant feeding up to the age of 2 yr. Data from 322 ALL cases, 679 ALL controls, 299 CBT cases, and 733 CBT controls were analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Breastfeeding was associated with a reduced risk of ALL [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32, 0.84), regardless of duration. Introduction of artificial formula within 14 days of birth was positively associated with ALL (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.37), as was exclusive formula feeding to 6 mo (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.05). No associations were seen between breastfeeding or formula use and risk of CBT. Our results suggest that breastfeeding and delayed introduction of artificial formula may reduce the risk of ALL but not CBT.
Bonapace, Laura; Bornhauser, Beat C.; Schmitz, Maike; Cario, Gunnar; Ziegler, Urs; Niggli, Felix K.; Schäfer, Beat W.; Schrappe, Martin; Stanulla, Martin; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre
In vivo resistance to first-line chemotherapy, including to glucocorticoids, is a strong predictor of poor outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Modulation of cell death regulators represents an attractive strategy for subverting such drug resistance. Here we report complete resensitization of multidrug-resistant childhood ALL cells to glucocorticoids and other cytotoxic agents with subcytotoxic concentrations of obatoclax, a putative antagonist of BCL-2 family members. The reversal of glucocorticoid resistance occurred through rapid activation of autophagy-dependent necroptosis, which bypassed the block in mitochondrial apoptosis. This effect was associated with dissociation of the autophagy inducer beclin-1 from the antiapoptotic BCL-2 family member myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL-1) and with a marked decrease in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity. Consistent with a protective role for mTOR in glucocorticoid resistance in childhood ALL, combination of rapamycin with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone triggered autophagy-dependent cell death, with characteristic features of necroptosis. Execution of cell death, but not induction of autophagy, was strictly dependent on expression of receptor-interacting protein (RIP-1) kinase and cylindromatosis (turban tumor syndrome) (CYLD), two key regulators of necroptosis. Accordingly, both inhibition of RIP-1 and interference with CYLD restored glucocorticoid resistance completely. Together with evidence for a chemosensitizing activity of obatoclax in vivo, our data provide a compelling rationale for clinical translation of this pharmacological approach into treatments for patients with refractory ALL. PMID:20200450
Cheung, Yin Ting; Liu, Wei; Fellah, Slim; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Brinkman, Tara M.; Kimberg, Cara; Ogg, Robert; Srivastava, Deokumar; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.
Purpose To examine associations among methotrexate pharmacodynamics, neuroimaging, and neurocognitive outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated on a contemporary chemotherapy-only protocol. Patients and Methods This longitudinal study linked pharmacokinetic assays collected during therapy to neurocognitive and brain imaging outcomes during long-term follow-up. A total of 218 (72.2%) of 302 eligible long-term survivors were recruited for outcome studies when they were more than 5 years post-diagnosis and older than 8 years of age. At long-term follow-up, survivors were an average of 13.8 years old and 7.7 years from diagnosis, and 51% were male. Neurocognitive testing, functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during an executive function task, and structural MRI with diffusion tensor imaging were conducted. Generalized linear models were developed to identify predictors, and models were adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, and parent education. Results Intelligence was within normal limits (mean, 98; standard deviation, 14) compared with population expectations (mean, 100; standard deviation, 15), though measures of executive function, processing speed, and memory were less than population means (all P < .02 after correction for false discovery rates). Higher plasma concentration of methotrexate was associated with a poorer executive function score (P < .02). Higher plasma methotrexate was also associated with higher functional MRI activity, with thicker cortices in dorsolateral prefrontal brain regions, and with white matter microstructure in the frontostriatal tact. Neurocognitive impairment was associated with these imaging findings as well. Associations did not change after adjustment for age or dose of leucovorin rescue. Conclusion Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated on contemporary chemotherapy-only protocols demonstrate executive dysfunction. A higher plasma concentration of methotrexate was
Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Gleeson, J G; duPlessis, A J; Barnes, P D; Riviello, J J
Cyclosporin A is associated with an acute encephalopathy including seizures and alterations in mental status, herein referred to as cyclosporin A acute encephalopathy and seizure syndrome. The clinical history, electroencephalogram (EEG), and neuroimaging findings in 19 children with cyclosporin A acute encephalopathy and seizure syndrome over a 10-year period were reviewed in order to delineate clinical characteristics, imaging features, and to determine the risk of seizure recurrence in this population. All 19 had motor seizures associated with other features of cortical and subcortical dysfunction. The acute mean cyclosporin A level was 342 microg/L, but was within the "therapeutic" range in five cases. Brain imaging by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute or subacute phase revealed lesions characteristic of cyclosporin A toxicity in 14 cases. Acute EEG abnormalities were present in all and included epileptiform discharges or focal slowing. Patients were followed for a median of 49 months (1-9 years). Follow-up imaging (n = 10) showed lesion resolution or improvement in the majority while EEG (n = 10) had normalized in only three. Seizures recurred in six patients and only in those with persistent EEG or imaging abnormalities. No patient had a second episode of cyclosporin A associated neurotoxicity or seizure. It appears that a significant risk of seizure recurrence exists following cyclosporin A acute encephalopathy and seizure syndrome and primarily in those children with persistent EEG or imaging abnormalities.
B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; L3 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma
Handrick, W; Tischer, W; Braun, W; Hörmann, D; Spencker, F B; Springer, W; Schneider, G
This is an overview of modern aspects concerning diagnostics and therapy in children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. A close cooperation of pediatricians, pediatric surgeons, microbiologists and radiologists in this field is essential.
Moriyama, Takaya; Metzger, Monika L.; Wu, Gang; Nishii, Rina; Qian, Maoxiang; Devidas, Meenakshi; Yang, Wenjian; Cheng, Cheng; Cao; Emily, Quinn; Raimondi, Susana; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Raetz, Elizabeth; Larsen, Eric; Martin, Paul L.; Bowman, W. Paul; Winick, Naomi; Komada, Yoshihiro; Wang, Shuoguo; Edmonson, Michael; Xu, Heng; Mardis, Elaine; Fulton, Robert; Pui; Mullighan, Charles; Evans, William E.; Zhang, Jinghui; Hunger, Stephen P.; Relling, Mary V.; Nichols, Kim E.; Loh, Mignon L.; Yang, Jun J.
Background Hereditary predisposition is rarely suspected for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Recent studies identified germline ETV6 variations associated with marked familial clustering of hematologic malignancies, pointing to this gene as a potentially important genetic determinant for ALL susceptibility. The aims of the current study are to comprehensively identify ALL predisposition variants in ETV6 and to determine the extent to which they contribute to the overall risk of childhood ALL. Methods Whole-exome sequencing of an index family with multiple cases of ALL was performed to identify causal variants for ALL predisposition. Targeted sequencing of ETV6 was done in 4,405 children from the Children's Oncology Group (COG) and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital frontline ALL trials. Patients were included in this study on the basis of their enrollment in these clinical trials and the availability of germline DNA. ETV6 variant genotypes were compared with non-ALL controls to define ALL-related germline risk variants. ETV6 variant function was characterized bioinformatically and correlated with clinical and demographic features in 2,021 children with ALL. Findings We identified a novel nonsense ETV6 variant (p.R359X) with a high penetrance of familial ALL. Subsequent targeted sequencing of ETV6 in 4,405 childhood ALL cases discovered 31 exonic variants (4 nonsense, 21 missense, 1 splice site, and 5 frame shift variants) that are potentially related to ALL risk in 35 cases (0.79%). Fifteen (48%) of the 31 ALL-related ETV6 variants clustered in the ETS domain and predicted to be highly deleterious. Children with ALL-related ETV6 variants were significantly older at leukemia diagnosis than others (10.2 years [IQR 5.3-13.8] vs 4.7 years [IQR 3.0-8.7], P=0.017). The hyperdiploid leukemia karyotype was strikingly overrepresented in ALL cases harboring germline ETV6 risk variants compared to the wildtype group (9 of 14 cases [64.3%] vs 538 of 2
Hillman, Charles H.; Kamijo, Keita; Scudder, Mark
Background A growing body of research has detailed the beneficial relation of chronic participation in- and acute responses to- physical activity on aspects of cognition that underlie scholastic achievement. Here, we review the relevant neuroelectric findings on this beneficial relation in children, providing support for the influence of physical activity on specific cognitive processes that comprise academic performance. Method A review of studies examining physical activity and neuroelectric concomitants of cognition during childhood is described. When applicable, research involving adult populations is also described to better inform on this relationship in children. Results Collectively, the data support a beneficial relation of chronic and acute participation in physical activity to brain health and cognition. The results suggest more effective allocation of cognitive processes involved in stimulus engagement and action monitoring during tasks requiring variable amounts of cognitive control in children. Conclusion Physical activity may influence brain health and cognition in children, leading to enhanced scholastic performance and greater overall effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:21281669
Kuti, Bankole Peter; Bello, Emmanuel Olasehinde; Jegede, Tolulope Opeoluwa; Olubosede, Omolayo
Background: Childhood bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency that continues to kill and maims children particularly in developing countries with poor immunization coverage. Objective: This study set out to assess the hospital incidence, pattern of presentation, etiologic agents, outcome and determinants of mortality among the children admitted with bacterial meningitis at the Wesley Guild Hospital (WGH), Ilesa. Patients and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of admitted cases of bacterial meningitis in children aged one month to 15 years at the WGH, Ilesa over a three year period by looking at the hospital records. Factors in the history and examinations were compared among survivors and those that died to determine factors significantly associated with mortality in these children. Results: Eighty-one (5.5%) of the 1470 childhood admissions during the study period had bacterial meningitis. Male preponderance was observed and two-thirds of the children were infants. More cases were admitted during the wet rainy season than during the dry harmattan season. Haemophilus influenzae type B and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the leading etiologic agents and ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone adequately cover for these organisms. Twenty-two (27.2%) of the 81 children died, while 34 (42.0%) survived with neurologic deficits. Children with multiple seizures, coma, neck retraction, hyponatremia, hypoglycorrhachia, turbid CSF as well as Gram positive meningitis at presentation were found to more likely to die (P < 0.05). None of these factors however independently predict mortality. Conclusion: Childhood bacterial meningitis often results in death and neurologic deficit among infants and young children admitted at the WGH, Ilesa. Children diagnosed with meningitis who in addition had multiple seizures, neck retraction and coma at presentation are at increased risk of dying. PMID:26752902
Aldana Vergara, Ruth Saraí; Olivar Lòpez, Victor; Sienra Monge, Juan José Luis; Lezana Fernández, José Luis; Zepeda Ortega, Benjamin
Acute asthma is characterized by acute air way obstruction episodes presented as short breath, increased coughing, wheezing and difficult breathing, reversible with bronchodilator. It constitutes one of the most frequent causes of pediatric ER visits whose diagnosis and treatment is not always adequate. It is necessary to carry out a complete medical history searching for the number of previous attacks, risk factors, associated illnesses, triggers, prior hospitalizations, preventive and maintenance treatment used, along with a complete physical examination. During the management of moderate-severe attacks frequent systematic assessments are required to ensure treatment response. In children above 5 years old, monitoring of expiratory peak flow (EPF) during mild-moderate attacks is recommended. In general, a national consensus to classify and treat acute asthma in emergency services does not exist for which the need to develop a clinical practice guide of diagnosis and management arises.
Dauger, S; Le Bourgeois, F; Guichoux, J; Brissaud, O
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapidly progressive hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency induced by alveolar filling mainly caused by alveolocapillary wall disruption, following direct or indirect pulmonary injury. Much less frequent in children than in adults, pediatric intensivists had long applied adult guidelines to their daily practice. In 2015, experts from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference (PALICC) published the first international guidelines specifically dedicated to pediatric ARDS. After a short summary of the history of the ARDS definition since its first report in 1967, we describe the main diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for PALICC.
Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies
Ingelfinger, Julie R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Schaefer, Franz
World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood. PMID:28031959
Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Schaefer, Franz
World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group amongst children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for-date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely to help to detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, whilst only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policymakers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood. PMID:27247150
Ingelfinger, J.R.; Kalantar-Zadeh, K.; Schaefer, F.
World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood differs from that in adults, in that the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease as a consequence of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for-date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, although only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that the World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood. PMID:27096201
Ingelfinger, Julie R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Schaefer, Franz
World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.
Ingelfinger, Julie R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Schaefer, Franz
World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and chronic kidney disease in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for-date newborns have a relatively increased risk for the development of chronic kidney disease later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced chronic kidney disease in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplant, whereas only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers, and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.
Hoare, S; Poppitt, S D; Prentice, A M; Weaver, L T
Diarrhoea is a major cause of short-term growth faltering in children of the developing world. If catch-up weight gain is delayed by inadequate dietary intake, or by further bouts of diarrhoea, progressive growth failure occurs. To test the hypothesis that early refeeding is as effective as later feeding after acute diarrhoea with weight loss, we measured the effects of a timed dietary intervention on weight gain after acute diarrhoea in underweight Gambian children. Thirty-four children aged 4-22 months with weight loss following acute diarrhoea were given a high-energy-protein supplement for 14 d beginning either immediately after rehydration or a fortnight later. With a 50% increase in energy intake and a 100% increase in protein intake there was a rapid and highly significant (P < 0.001) gain in weight within a fortnight whether the supplement was given immediately or 2 weeks after presentation. Rates of weight increase were similar whether supplementation was provided early or late, but over the full 28 d (of intervention and non-intervention) children who received late supplementation had greater overall weight gain (P < 0.02) than those supplemented early. Vigorous and early feeding with a high-energy-protein supplement should be central to the management of malnourished children with acute diarrhoea in developing countries, and may be as important as control of diarrhoea in preventing malnutrition and growth failure. This may be achieved in the community using locally available foods, in the face of continuing diarrhoea.
Famularo, Richard; And Others
Twenty-four child abuse victims, age 5-13, were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children with the acute form of PTSD exhibited such symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, hypervigilance, nightmares, and generalized anxiety. Children exhibiting chronic PTSD exhibited increased detachment, restricted range of affect,…
Maynes, Lynn C.; Feinauer, Leslie L.
Examined relationship between effects of four sexual abuse variables (identity of perpetrator, frequency of abuse, duration of abuse experiences, and severity of sexual abuse) and survivor symptomatology of acute dissociation, chronic dissociation, and somatized anxiety. Data from 226 respondents showed that severity of sexual abuse experience was…
Aberuyi, N; Rahgozar, S; Moafi, A
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most prevalent hematologic malignancies in children. Although the cure rate of ALL has improved over the past decades, the most important reason for ALL treatment failure is multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon. The current study aims to explain the mechanisms involved in multidrug resistance of childhood ALL, and introduces ATP-binding cassette transporterA2 (ABCA2) as an ABC transporter gene which may have a high impact on MDR. Benefiting from articles published inreputable journals from1994 to date and experiments newly performed by our group, a comprehensive review is written about ABCA2 and its role in MDR regarding childhood ALL. ABCA2 transports drugs from the cytoplasm into the lysosomal compartment, where they may become degraded and exported from the cell. The aforementioned mechanism may contribute to MDR. It has been reported that ABCA2 may induce resistance to mitoxantrone, estrogen derivatives and estramustine. It is resistant to the aforementioned compounds. Furthermore, the overexpression ofABCA2 in methotrexate, vinblastine and/or doxorubicin treated Jurkat cells are observed in several publications. The recent study of our group showsthatthe overexpression ofABCA2 gene in children with ALL increases the risk of MDR by 15 times. ABCA2 is the second identified member of the ABCA; ABC transporters' subfamily. ABCA2 gene expression profile is suggested to be an unfavorable prognostic factor in ALL treatment. Better understanding of the MDR mechanisms and the factors involved may improve the therapeutic outcome of ALL by modifying the treatment protocols.
Aberuyi, N; Rahgozar, S; Moafi, A
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most prevalent hematologic malignancies in children. Although the cure rate of ALL has improved over the past decades, the most important reason for ALL treatment failure is multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon. The current study aims to explain the mechanisms involved in multidrug resistance of childhood ALL, and introduces ATP-binding cassette transporterA2 (ABCA2) as an ABC transporter gene which may have a high impact on MDR. Benefiting from articles published inreputable journals from1994 to date and experiments newly performed by our group, a comprehensive review is written about ABCA2 and its role in MDR regarding childhood ALL. ABCA2 transports drugs from the cytoplasm into the lysosomal compartment, where they may become degraded and exported from the cell. The aforementioned mechanism may contribute to MDR. It has been reported that ABCA2 may induce resistance to mitoxantrone, estrogen derivatives and estramustine. It is resistant to the aforementioned compounds. Furthermore, the overexpression ofABCA2 in methotrexate, vinblastine and/or doxorubicin treated Jurkat cells are observed in several publications. The recent study of our group showsthatthe overexpression ofABCA2 gene in children with ALL increases the risk of MDR by 15 times. ABCA2 is the second identified member of the ABCA; ABC transporters' subfamily. ABCA2 gene expression profile is suggested to be an unfavorable prognostic factor in ALL treatment. Better understanding of the MDR mechanisms and the factors involved may improve the therapeutic outcome of ALL by modifying the treatment protocols. PMID:25254091
Krull, Kevin R.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Conklin, Heather M.
Purpose Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with CNS-directed chemotherapy are at risk for neurocognitive deficits. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the neurodevelopmental trajectory in this vulnerable population. Methods Patients enrolled in the St. Jude Total Therapy Study XV, which omitted prophylactic cranial radiation therapy in all patients, completed comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at induction (n = 142), end of maintenance (n = 243), and 2 years after completion of therapy (n = 211). We report on longitudinal change in neurocognitive function and predictors of neurocognitive outcomes 2 years after completing therapy. Results Neurocognitive function was largely age appropriate 2 years after completing therapy; however, the overall group demonstrated significant attention deficits and a significantly greater frequency of learning problems as compared with national normative data (all P ≤ .005). Higher-intensity CNS-directed chemotherapy conferred elevated risk for difficulties in attention, processing speed, and academics (all P ≤ .01). The rate and direction of change in performance and caregiver-reported attention difficulties differed significantly by age at diagnosis and sex. End-of-therapy attention problems predicted lower academic scores 2 years later, with small to moderate effect sizes (│r│= 0.17 to 0.25, all P ≤ .05). Conclusion Two years after chemotherapy-only treatment, neurocognitive function is largely age appropriate. Nonetheless, survivors remain at elevated risk for attention problems that impact real-world functioning. Attention problems at the end of therapy predicted decreased academics 2 years later, suggesting an amplified functional impact of discrete neurocognitive difficulties. Age at diagnosis and patient sex may alter neurocognitive development in survivors of childhood ALL treated with chemotherapy-only protocols. PMID:26858334
Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Victor, Ronald G.; Church, Timothy S.; Snell, Peter G.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Eshelman-Kent, Debra A.; Ross, Robert; Janiszewski, Peter M.; Turoff, Alicia J.; Brooks, Sandra; Vega, Gloria Lena
Purpose To determine the prevalence of insulin resistance and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional evaluation of 118 survivors of childhood ALL (median age, 23.0 years; range, 18 to 37 years), insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Sex-specific comparisons were made with a cohort of 30- to 37-year-old individuals from the same region participating in the Dallas Heart Study (DHS, N = 782). ALL survivors were stratified by treatment with and without cranial radiotherapy (CRT). Results Female ALL survivors had a significantly higher HOMA-IR (CRT, mean 4.6, 95% CI, 3.6 to 5.7; no CRT, mean 3.3, 95% CI, 2.8 to 3.8) in comparison with DHS women (mean 2.4, 95% CI, 2.2 to 2.7). Eighty percent of women treated with CRT had at least three of six CVD risk factors, and they were significantly more likely to have three or more risk factors compared with DHS women (odds ratio [OR], 5.96; 95% CI, 2.15 to 16.47). Male ALL survivors had a significantly higher HOMA-IR (CRT, mean 4.0, 95% CI, 2.8 to 5.6; no CRT, mean 3.4, 95% CI, 2.9 to 3.9) in comparison with DHS men (mean 2.3, 95% CI, 2.1 to 2.6), but were not more likely to have multiple CVD risk factors. Conclusion ALL survivors had an increased prevalence of insulin resistance in comparison with a cohort of older individuals from the same community. Importantly, women treated with CRT seem to have an increased prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors, warranting close monitoring and risk-reducing strategies. PMID:19564534
Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Bacterial Infection; Diarrhea; Fungal Infection; Musculoskeletal Complications; Neutropenia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies
Reisi, Nahid; Azhir, Afshin; Hashemipour, Mahin; Raeissi, Pouran; Amini, Abasgholi; Moafi, Alireza
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood leukemia in Isfahan, Iran. METHODS: During a 4-year period (2003 to 2007), 55 children (33 male and 22 female) diagnosed with ALL at Unit of Hematology/ Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Isfahan University of Medical Science, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified version of Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) crite-ria. Insulin resistance was defined based on the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: The mean age of participates was 10.4 years (range 6-19 years) and the mean interval since completion of chemotherapy was 35 months. Twenty percent (11/55) of survivors (10 male, 1 female) met criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Obesity was observed in one forth of patients and nearly 3/4 of obese patients had metabolic syndrome. High serum insulin levels were found in 16% of participants and in 63% of obese survivors. The mean insulin levels in survivors with metabolic syndrome was three-times more than those without (28.3 mu/l vs. 9.57 mu/l, p = 0.004). Insulin resistance was detected in 72.7% of survivors with metabolic syndrome and it was positively correlated with serum triglycerides (0.543, p ≤ 0.001), systolic and diastolic BP (0.348, p = 0.01 and 0.368, p = 006 respectively), insulin levels (0.914, p < 0.001) and blood sugar (0.398, p = 003). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood leukemia in Iran is higher than developed countries. Nearly all of the obese patients had metabolic syndrome. Weight control and regular physical exercise are recommended to the survivors. PMID:21772869
Aggarwal, Sunny; Upadhyay, Amit; Shah, Dheeraj; Teotia, Neeraj; Agarwal, Astha; Jaiswal, Vijay
Background & objectives: Randomized controlled trials in developed countries have reported benefits of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea, but there is paucity of such data from India. The study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus GG in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children from a semi-urban city in north India. Methods: In this open labelled, randomized controlled trial 200 children with acute watery diarrhoea, aged between 6 months to 5 years visiting outpatient department and emergency room of a teaching hospital in north India were enrolled. The children were randomized into receiving either Lactobacillus GG in dose of 10 billion cfu/day for five days or no probiotic medication in addition to standard WHO management of diarrhoea. Primary outcomes were duration of diarrhoea and time to change in consistency of stools. Results: Median (inter quartile range) duration of diarrhoea was significantly shorter in children in LGG group [60 (54-72) h vs. 78 (72-90) h; P<0.001]. Also, there was faster improvement in stool consistency in children receiving Lactobacillus GG than control group [36 (30-36) h vs. 42 (36-48) h; P<0.001]. There was significant reduction in average number of stools per day in LGG group (P<0.001) compared to the control group. These benefits were seen irrespective of rotavirus positivity in stool tests. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the use of Lactobacillus GG in children with acute diarrhoea resulted in shorter duration and faster improvement in stool consistency as compared to the control group. PMID:24820831
Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Fanconi Anemia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies
Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Houlston, Richard S.
To evaluate the contribution of candidate gene association studies to the understanding of genetic susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies (January 1996–July 2009). Studies had to meet the following criteria: be case-control design, be studied by two or more studies, not be focused on HLA antigen genetic markers and be published in English. We identified 47 studies of polymorphic variation in 16 genes and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. To clarify the impact of individual polymorphisms on risk, pooled analyses were performed. Of the 25 polymorphic variants studied, significant associations (P<0.05) were seen in pooled analyses for eight variants: GSTM1 (OR =1.16; 95%CI: 1.04–1.30), MTRR A66G (OR=0.73, 95%CI:0.59–0.91), SHMT1 C1420T (OR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.65–0.98), RFC1 G80A (OR=1.37, 95%CI: 1.11–1.69), CYP1A1*2A (OR=1.36, 95%CI:1.11–1.66), CYP2E1*5B (OR=1.99, 95%CI:1.32–3.00) NQO1 C609T (OR=1.24, 95%CI:1.02–1.50) and XRCC1 G28152A (OR=1.78, 95%CI:1.32–2.42). These findings should, however, be interpreted with caution as the estimated false-positive report probabilities (FPRP) for each association were not noteworthy (i.e. FPRP>0.2). While candidate gene analyses are complementary to genome-wide association studies, future analyses should be based on sample sizes commensurate with the detection of small effects and attention needs to be paid to study design. PMID:20511665
... Home Current Issue Past Issues Good News About Childhood Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... 85 percent for the most common form of childhood cancer (acute lymphoblastic leukemia or ALL). During the ...
Birmaher, Boris; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Brent, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.
Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at high risk of major depressive disorder with youths with acute major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Method: High-risk (n = 57), major depressive disorder (n = 71), and healthy control (n = 48) youths and their families were recruited from 1987 to 1996 and…
Gómez, Ana M; Martínez, Carolina; González, Miguel; Luque, Alfonso; Melen, Gustavo J; Martínez, Jesús; Hortelano, Sonsoles; Lassaletta, Álvaro; Madero, Luís; Ramírez, Manuel
We studied whether chemokines may have a role in relapses in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We compared the levels of chemokine receptors in marrow samples from 82 children with ALL at diagnosis versus 15 at relapses, and quantified the levels of chemokines in central system fluid (CSF) samples. The functional role of specific chemokines was studied in vitro and in vivo. The expression of some chemokine receptors was upregulated upon leukemic relapse, both in B- and in T-ALL, and in cases of medullary and extramedullary involvement. CXCL10 induced chemotaxis in leukemic cell lines and in primary leukemic cells, depending upon the levels of CXCR3 expression. CXCL10 specifically diminished chemotherapy-induced apoptosis on ALL cells expressing CXCR3, partially inhibiting caspase activation and maintaining the levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. Finally, immunodeficient mice engrafted with CXCR3-expressing human leukemic cells showed decreased infiltration of marrow, spleen, and CNS after receiving a CXCR3-antagonist molecule. CXCR3 signaling in ALL may have a dual function: chemotactic for the localisation of leukemic blasts in specific niches, and it may also confer resistance to chemotherapy, enhancing the chances for relapses.
Pépin, A J; Cloutier-Bergeron, A; Malboeuf-Hurtubise, C; Achille, M; Krajinovic, M; Laverdière, C; Lippé, S; Marcoux, S; Sinnett, D; Sultan, S
Corticosteroids (CS) are an essential component of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatments (cALL). Although there is evidence that daily doses of CS can have neuropsychological effects, few studies have investigated the role of cumulative doses of CS in short- and long-term neuropsychological effects in cALL. The aims of this review were to identify the measures used for documenting adverse neuropsychological effects (ANEs) of CS treatment and to study the association between cumulative doses of CS and the presence of ANEs. Twenty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. A variety of measures were used to evaluate outcomes in the domains of emotion, behaviour, neurocognition, and fatigue/sleep. The results suggest that we cannot conclude in favour of an association between the cumulative dosage of CS and ANEs. Yet, several factors including the heterogeneity of measures used to evaluate outcomes and reporting biases may limit the scope of the results. We offer several recommendations that could help improve the future published evidence on ANEs in relation to CS treatment in cALL.
Hirase, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Takahashi, Hironobu; Moriwaki, Kensuke; Saito, Atsuro; Kozaki, Aiko; Ishida, Toshiaki; Yanai, Tomoko; Kawasaki, Keiichiro; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kubokawa, Ikuko; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Nishio, Hisahide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki
Recent studies have reported that the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) during induction therapy is predictive of treatment outcome in de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); however, the significance of ALC on outcomes remains controversial. In the present study, we assessed the significance of ALC at day 29 (ALC-29), the end of induction therapy, on outcomes in our Japanese cohort. The outcomes of 141 patients aged ≤18 years with newly diagnosed ALL who were enrolled on the JACLS ALL-02 at our hospitals were analyzed in terms of ALC-29. Patients with ALC-29 ≥750/μL (n = 81) had a superior 5-year EFS (95.2 ± 2.7 vs 84.3 ± 4.8 %, P = 0.016) and OS (100 vs 87.0 ± 4.7 %, P = 0.0062). A multivariate analysis identified ALC-29 ≥750/μL as a significant predictor of improved EFS and OS after controlling for confounding factors. A multiple linear regression model revealed a significant inverse relationship between the percentage of blasts in bone marrow on day 15 and ALC-29 (P = 0.005). These results indicate that ALC is a simple prognostic factor in childhood ALL, and, thus, has the potential to refine current risk algorithms.
Kerst, Gunter; Kreyenberg, Hermann; Roth, Carmen; Well, Catrin; Dietz, Klaus; Coustan-Smith, Elaine; Campana, Dario; Koscielniak, Ewa; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Schlegel, Paul G; Müller, Ingo; Niethammer, Dietrich; Bader, Peter
Minimal (i.e. submicroscopic) residual disease (MRD) predicts outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). To be used clinically, MRD assays must be reliable and accurate. Two well-established techniques, flow cytometry (FC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), can detect leukaemic cells with a sensitivity of 0.01% (10(-4)). We analysed diagnostic samples of 45 ALL-patients (37 B-lineage ALL, eight T-lineage ALL) by four-colour FC and real-time PCR. Leukaemia-associated immunophenotypes, at a sensitivity of MRD detection by FC at the 0.01% level, were identified in 41 cases (91%); antigen-receptor gene rearrangements suitable for MRD detection with a sensitivity of 0.01% or better by PCR were identified in 38 cases (84%). The combined use of FC and PCR allowed MRD monitoring in all 45 patients. In 105 follow-up samples, MRD estimates by both methods were highly concordant, with a deviation factor of <5 by Bland-Altman analysis. Importantly, the concordance between FC and PCR was also observed in regenerating bone marrow samples containing high proportions of CD19(+) cells, and in samples studied 24 h after collection. We conclude that both MRD assays yield generally concordant results. Their combined use should enable MRD monitoring in virtually all patients and prevent false-negative results due to clonal evolution or phenotypic shifts.
Meleshko, Alexander N; Savva, Natalia N; Fedasenka, Uladzimir U; Romancova, Alexandra S; Krasko, Olga V; Eckert, Cornelia; von Stackelberg, Arend; Aleinikova, Olga V
Detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) during the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by RQ-PCR analysis of clonal Ig/TCR rearrangements is used for risk group stratification in European treatment protocols. In Belarus patients with childhood ALL are treated according to ALL-MB protocols, which do not use MRD-based risk stratification. To evaluate the prognostic significance of MRD for ALL-MB-2002/2008 protocols, MRD was quantified by RQ-PCR in 68 ALL patients at four time points: on day 15, on day 36, before and after maintenance therapy (MT). MRD positivity, as well as quantitative level of MRD were analyzed and compared between patients who stayed in remission and relapsed. Relapse-free survival revealed to be significantly associated with MRD levels at different time points. Unfavorable prognosis was shown for MRD≥10(-3) on day 36 (p<0.001), and any positive MRD before (p<0.001) and after (p=0.001) MT. Multivariate Cox regression analysis proved MRD as independent significant prognosis factor at day 36 (p=0.005) and before MT (p=0.001). We conclude, that MRD quantified by RQ-PCR in children with ALL treated with ALL-MB protocols is feasible and independently associated with outcome. MRD may be a suitable parameter for treatment stratification in MB protocols in future.
Malinowska-Ozdowy, K; Frech, C; Schönegger, A; Eckert, C; Cazzaniga, G; Stanulla, M; zur Stadt, U; Mecklenbräuker, A; Schuster, M; Kneidinger, D; von Stackelberg, A; Locatelli, F; Schrappe, M; Horstmann, M A; Attarbaschi, A; Bock, C; Mann, G; Haas, O A; Panzer-Grümayer, R
High hyperdiploidy defines the largest genetic entity of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Despite its relatively low recurrence risk, this subgroup generates a high proportion of relapses. The cause and origin of these relapses remains obscure. We therefore explored the mutational landscape in high hyperdiploid (HD) ALL with whole-exome (n=19) and subsequent targeted deep sequencing of 60 genes in 100 relapsing and 51 non-relapsing cases. We identified multiple clones at diagnosis that were primarily defined by a variety of mutations in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras pathway and chromatin-modifying genes. The relapse clones consisted of reappearing as well as new mutations, and overall contained more mutations. Although RTK/Ras pathway mutations were similarly frequent between diagnosis and relapse, both intergenic and intragenic heterogeneity was essentially lost at relapse. CREBBP mutations, however, increased from initially 18-30% at relapse, then commonly co-occurred with KRAS mutations (P<0.001) and these relapses appeared primarily early (P=0.012). Our results confirm the exceptional susceptibility of HD ALL to RTK/Ras pathway and CREBBP mutations, but, more importantly, suggest that mutant KRAS and CREBBP might cooperate and equip cells with the necessary capacity to evolve into a relapse-generating clone.
Lajoie, Mathieu; Drouin, Simon; Caron, Maxime; St-Onge, Pascal; Ouimet, Manon; Gioia, Romain; Lafond, Marie-Hélène; Vidal, Ramon; Richer, Chantal; Oualkacha, Karim; Droit, Arnaud; Sinnett, Daniel
Pre-B cell childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B cALL) is a heterogeneous disease involving many subtypes typically stratified using a combination of cytogenetic and molecular-based assays. These methods, although widely used, rely on the presence of known chromosomal translocations, which is a limiting factor. There is therefore a need for robust, sensitive, and specific molecular biomarkers unaffected by such limitations that would allow better risk stratification and consequently better clinical outcome. In this study we performed a transcriptome analysis of 56 pre-B cALL patients to identify expression signatures in different subtypes. In both protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), we identified subtype-specific gene signatures distinguishing pre-B cALL subtypes, particularly in t(12;21) and hyperdiploid cases. The genes up-regulated in pre-B cALL subtypes were enriched in bivalent chromatin marks in their promoters. LncRNAs is a new and under-studied class of transcripts. The subtype-specific nature of lncRNAs suggests they may be suitable clinical biomarkers to guide risk stratification and targeted therapies in pre-B cALL patients.
Drouin, Simon; Caron, Maxime; St-Onge, Pascal; Gioia, Romain; Richer, Chantal; Oualkacha, Karim; Droit, Arnaud; Sinnett, Daniel
Pre-B cell childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B cALL) is a heterogeneous disease involving many subtypes typically stratified using a combination of cytogenetic and molecular-based assays. These methods, although widely used, rely on the presence of known chromosomal translocations, which is a limiting factor. There is therefore a need for robust, sensitive, and specific molecular biomarkers unaffected by such limitations that would allow better risk stratification and consequently better clinical outcome. In this study we performed a transcriptome analysis of 56 pre-B cALL patients to identify expression signatures in different subtypes. In both protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), we identified subtype-specific gene signatures distinguishing pre-B cALL subtypes, particularly in t(12;21) and hyperdiploid cases. The genes up-regulated in pre-B cALL subtypes were enriched in bivalent chromatin marks in their promoters. LncRNAs is a new and under-studied class of transcripts. The subtype-specific nature of lncRNAs suggests they may be suitable clinical biomarkers to guide risk stratification and targeted therapies in pre-B cALL patients. PMID:28346506
Priest, J R; Ramsay, N K; Latchaw, R E; Lockman, L A; Hasegawa, D K; Coates, T D; Coccia, P F; Edson, J R; Nesbit, M E; Krivit, W
Sudden cerebrovascular insults occurred during or immediately following remission induction therapy in 4 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In 3, cerebral infarction was due to thrombosis. In the fourth, an intracerebral hematoma developed representing either frank hemorrhaging or a hemorrhagic infarction. None of the patients had central nervous system leukemia or extreme leukocytosis at the time of diagnosis. Symptoms were obtundation, hemiparesis, seizures, and headache. The induction chemotherapy included L-asparaginase which causes deficiencies of antithrombin, plasminogen, fibrinogen, and factors IX and XI. These hemostatic abnormalities may explain the thromboses and bleeding observed in these children.
Castillo, L.A.; Craft, A.W.; Kernahan, J.; Evans, R.G.; Aynsley-Green, A. )
Gonadal function was assessed in 15 boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who had received testicular irradiation. The dose to the testes was 12 Gy in 12, 15 Gy in 1, and 24 Gy in 2 cases. All of those who had received 12 or 15 Gy had normal Leydig cell function, although high levels of gonadotropins suggest subclinical Leydig cell damage. The 2 who had 24 Gy had Leydig cell failure. All who were old enough to produce a semen specimen were azoospermic.
Dabscheck, Gabriel; Silverman, Lewis; Ullrich, Nicole J
A 5-year-old boy with standard-risk B-cell acute lymphoblastic anemia developed fever during induction chemotherapy. The patient had no neurological symptoms. Blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus and neuroimaging studies demonstrated a cerebral abscess. Imaging changes resolved after completion of antibiotics. Bacillus cereus bacteremia is increasingly implicated as the cause of life-threatening infections, including cerebral abscesses, in compromised patients. Positive blood cultures for this organism should prompt neuroimaging and consideration of cerebrospinal fluid sampling, as well as catheter removal. Given the worse outcome with central nervous system involvement, there is a need for increased awareness and early diagnosis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals.
Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Rossi, M R; Masera, G; Zurlo, M G; Amadori, S; Mandelli, F; Bagnulo, S; Carli, M; Zanesco, L; Dini, G; Guazzelli, C
This paper reports the results of a multicentric randomized clinical trial on the treatment of first hematological relapse in childhood ALL. Induction treatment consisted of vincristine, adriamycin, L-asparaginase, and prednisone. Patients achieving complete remission were randomized to two maintenance regimens (A and B). Regimen A consisted of five different drug associations including VM26 and IDMTX in a sequential schedule; Regimen B was essentially classical Spiers schedule for the first year, followed by a milder treatment. Eighty-four of 102 evaluable patients (82%) achieved second complete remission. The two maintenance regimens were similar as regards duration of second complete remission (median duration A, 32 weeks; B, 37 weeks) and toxicity. Better results were obtained in patients relapsing after 12 months from suspension of treatment in first complete remission than in those relapsing within the first year off therapy (82.8% vs. 31.4%). In group A fewer CNS relapses were reported. The two regimens produced results similar to those reported by other authors. The good prognosis in patients relapsing at least 1 year after treatment suspension in first complete remission must be emphasized.
Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kiekel, Preston A.
Objective Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men’s perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions. Method After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. Results Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. Conclusions Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication. PMID:22754720
Zaidi, Saira H; Smith-Morris, Carolyn
This article considers ethnomedical knowledge and practices among parents related to contraction of acute gastroenteritis among children in Peshawar, Pakistan. Research methods included analysis of the Emergency Pediatric Services' admission register, a structured interview administered to 47 parents of patients seen in the Khyber Medical College Teaching Hospital, semi-structured interviews of 12 staff, and four home visits among families with children treated at the hospital. The use of native research assistants and participant observation contributed to the reliability of the findings, though the ethnographic, home-visit sample is small. Our research indicated that infection rates are exacerbated in homes through two culturally salient practices and one socioeconomic condition. Various misconceptions propagate the recurrence or perserverance of acute gastroenteritis including assumptions about teething leading to poor knowledge of disease etiology, rehydration solutions leading to increased severity of disease, and diaper usage leading to the spread of disease. In our Discussion, we suggest how hospital structures of authority and gender hierarchy may impact hospital interactions, the flow of information, and its respective importance to the patient's parents leading to possible propagation of disease. These ethnographic data offer a relatively brief but targeted course of action to improve the effectiveness of prevention and treatment efforts.
Zaidi, Saira H.; Smith-Morris, Carolyn
This article considers ethnomedical knowledge and practices among parents related to contraction of acute gastroenteritis among children in Peshawar, Pakistan. Research methods included analysis of the Emergency Pediatric Services’ admission register, a structured interview administered to 47 parents of patients seen in the Khyber Medical College Teaching Hospital, semi-structured interviews of 12 staff, and four home visits among families with children treated at the hospital. The use of native research assistants and participant observation contributed to the reliability of the findings, though the ethnographic, home-visit sample is small. Our research indicated that infection rates are exacerbated in homes through two culturally salient practices and one socioeconomic condition. Various misconceptions propagate the recurrence or perserverance of acute gastroenteritis including assumptions about teething leading to poor knowledge of disease etiology, rehydration solutions leading to increased severity of disease, and diaper usage leading to the spread of disease. In our Discussion, we suggest how hospital structures of authority and gender hierarchy may impact hospital interactions, the flow of information, and its respective importance to the patient’s parents leading to possible propagation of disease. These ethnographic data offer a relatively brief but targeted course of action to improve the effectiveness of prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:25768117
Yildirim, Serhan; Adviye, Rahşan; Gül, Hakan Levent; Türk Börü, Ülkü
Objective Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), characterized with decreased compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) and absence of demyelinating findings in electrophysiological studies, is a subtype of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS). A 4 yr-old male patient presented with ascending weakness, dysarthria and dysphagia to İstanbul Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Training and Research Hospital Neurology outpatient for three days to in 2012. Dysphonia, restricted eye movements, flaccid tetraplegia and areflexia were found in neurological examination. There were motor conduction blocks in all peripheral nerves in electrophysiological studies.According to these findings the patient was diagnosed as Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP). Reduction of CMAP amplitudes in posterior tibial nerve, absence of CMAPs in median, ulnar and peroneal nerves and loss of motor conduction blocks were found in following electrophysiological studies. According to these findings, patient was diagnosed as AMAN. Motor conduction blocks may appear in early stage of AMAN and they disappear in later examinations. That’s why electrophysiological studies must be repeated in patients with GBS. PMID:27057191
The efficacy of orally and parenterally administered curcumin was evaluated in NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice engrafted with the human t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia line SEM. SEM cells were injected into the tail vein and engraftment was monitored by flow cytometry. Once engraftment was observed...
Magaud, Emilie; Nyman, Karissa; Addington, Jean
Aim Several studies suggest an association between experiences of childhood trauma including bullying and the development of psychotic symptoms. The use of communications technology has created a new media for bullying called ‘cyberbullying’. Research has demonstrated associations between traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Negative effects of cyberbullying appear similar in nature and severity to the reported effects of traditional bullying. Our aim was to examine the prevalence and correlates of cyberbullying in those at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. Methods Fifty young people at CHR for psychosis were administered the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire with added questions about cyberbullying. Results Cyberbullying was reported in 38% of the sample. Those who experienced cyberbullying also reported experiencing previous trauma. Conclusion It is possible that cyberbullying may be a problem for those at CHR of psychosis and due to the vulnerable nature of these young people, may have longitudinal implications. PMID:23343259
van Dongen, H R; Paquier, P F; Creten, W L; van Borsel, J; Catsman-Berrevoets, C E
Traditional neurologic tenets claim that the clinical picture of acquired childhood aphasia is nonfluent irrespective of lesion location. In the past 20 years, however, several case studies have shown that fluent aphasic patterns can be observed in children with acquired childhood aphasia. But the question remains open as to whether the pattern of their speech characteristics is similar to the one described in adult aphasics as studies addressing spontaneous speech fluency characteristics in larger series of children with acquired childhood aphasia are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an analysis of spontaneous speech fluency as has previously been performed in adult aphasics by other investigators would also yield two distinct groups of aphasic children and, if so, whether the distribution of the different speech characteristics in both groups would reflect the rank order found in adults, that is, whether nonfluent verbal output characteristics would predominate in one group and fluent features in the other. Audiotaped and videotaped recordings of 24 cooperative children with acute acquired childhood aphasia unselected for age, gender, etiology, and aphasia severity ratings were analyzed according to 10 different speech characteristics. A cluster analysis (two-means clustering) was performed to seek the existence of two distinct groups of aphasic children. Results were confirmed, and exact P values were computed with Mann-Whitney U-tests. A two-means clustering created two distinct classes. Mann-Whitney U-tests ranked the speech characteristics according to their discriminating power between clusters. Comparing this rank order with the one previously found in adults revealed a high correlation (Spearman's rank correlation: r = .915, P < .005), thus indicating that the clusters we found were highly similar to the adult clusters. Thus, the use of the speech variables proposed to evaluate adult aphasic spontaneous speech enabled us to
Tsuchida, M; Ohara, A; Manabe, A; Kumagai, M; Shimada, H; Kikuchi, A; Mori, T; Saito, M; Akiyama, M; Fukushima, T; Koike, K; Shiobara, M; Ogawa, C; Kanazawa, T; Noguchi, Y; Oota, S; Okimoto, Y; Yabe, H; Kajiwara, M; Tomizawa, D; Ko, K; Sugita, K; Kaneko, T; Maeda, M; Inukai, T; Goto, H; Takahashi, H; Isoyama, K; Hayashi, Y; Hosoya, R; Hanada, R
We report the long-term results of Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group's studies L84-11, L89-12, L92-13, and L95-14 for 1846 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which were conducted between 1984 and 1999. The value of event-free survival (EFS)+/-s.e. was 67.2+/-2.2% at 10 years in L84-11, which was not improved in the following two studies, and eventually improved to 75.0+/-1.8% at 10 years in L95-14 study. The lower EFS of the L89-12 reflected a high rate of induction failure because of infection and delayed remission in very high-risk patients. The L92-13 study was characterized by short maintenance therapy; it resulted in poor EFS, particularly in the standard-risk (SR) group and boys. Females did significantly better than males in EFS in the early three studies. The gender difference was not significant in overall survival, partly because >60% of the males survived after the testicular relapse. Randomized studies in the former three protocols revealed that intermediate- or high-dose methotrexate therapy significantly reduced the testicular relapse rate. In the L95-14 study, gender difference disappeared in EFS. Contrary to the results of larger-scale studies, the randomized control study in the L95-14 reconfirmed with updated data that dexamethasone 8 mg/m(2) had no advantage over prednisolone 60 mg/m(2) in the SR and intermediate-risk groups. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was assigned to 100, 80, 44, and 44% of the patients in the studies, respectively. Isolated central nervous system relapse rates decreased to <2% in the last two trials. Secondary brain tumors developed in 12 patients at 8-22 years after cranial irradiation. Improvement of the remission induction rates and the complete omission of irradiation are currently main objectives in our studies.
Edwin, Claire; Dean, Joanne; Bonnett, Laura; Phillips, Kate
Abstract Composition of tumour immune cell infiltrates correlates with response to treatment and overall survival (OS) in several cancer settings. We retrospectively examined immune cells present in diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from paediatric patients with B‐cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Our analysis identified a sub‐group (∼30% of patients) with >2.37% CD20 and >6.05% CD7 expression, which had 100% OS, and a sub‐group (∼30% of patients) with ≤2.37% CD20 and ≤6.05% CD7 expression at increased risk of treatment failure (66.7% OS, P < 0.05). Immune cell infiltrate at diagnosis may predict treatment response and could provide a means to enhance immediate treatment risk stratification. PMID:27348401
Khan, Raja B.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Ledet, Davonna S.; Morris, E. Brannon; Pui, Ching-Hon; Howard, Scott C.; Krull, Kevin R.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Crom, Debbie; Browne, Emily; Zhu, Liang; Rai, Shesh; Srivastava, Deokumar; Ness, Kirsten K.
Purpose Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is treated with potentially neurotoxic drugs and neurologic complications in long-term survivors are inadequately studied. This study investigated neurologic morbidity and its effect on quality of life in long-term survivors of childhood ALL. Methods Prospective, single institution, cross-sectional, institutional review board-approved study of long-term ALL survivors. Participants were recruited from institutional clinics. Participants answered an investigator-administered questionnaire followed by evaluation by a neurologist. Quality of life (QOL) was also assessed. Results Of the 162 participants recruited over a 3-year period, 83.3 % reported at least one neurologic symptom of interest, 16.7 % had single symptom, 11.1 % had two symptoms, and 55.6 % had three or more symptoms. Symptoms were mild and disability was low in the majority of participants with neurologic symptoms. Median age at ALL diagnosis was 3.9 years (0.4–18.6), median age at study enrollment was 15.7 years (6.9–28.9), and median time from completion of ALL therapy was 7.4 years (1.9–20.3). On multivariable analyses, female sex correlated with presence of dizziness, urinary incontinence, constipation, and neuropathy; use of≥10 doses of triple intrathecal chemotherapy correlated with uri-nary incontinence, back pain, and neuropathy; cranial radiation with ataxia; history of ALL relapse with fatigue; and CNS leukemia at diagnosis with seizures. Decline in mental QOL was associated with migraine and tension type headaches, while physical QOL was impaired by presence of dizziness and falls. Overall, good QOL and physical function was maintained by a majority of participants. Conclusions Neurologic symptoms were present in 83 % long-term ALL survivors. Symptoms related morbidity and QOL impairment is low in majority of survivors. Female sex, ≥10 doses of intrathecal chemotherapy, and history of ALL relapse predispose to impaired QOL
Metz, O.; Stoll, W.; Plenert, W.
Since 1972, telecobalt irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate (ITMTX) has been successfully replaced in Jena by intrathecal colloidal radioactive gold (/sup 198/Au) plus ITMTX for meningosis prophylaxis in leukemia. Seventy-three children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) were given 1.24-4.89 mCi (45.8-181 MBq) of colloidal 198Au IT after successful initiation of remission. During cytostatic therapy, the following relapses occurred: meningosis leucaemica, five patients (6.8%); bone-marrow relapse and the meningosis leucaemica, one patient; and bone-marrow relapse, 20 patients (27.4%). In 18 children, combination chemotherapy was terminated after two and a half or three years of treatment. After that time, one meningeal relapse and six bone-marrow relapses occurred. Within the first 24 hours after application of radioactive gold, headaches, vomiting, and fever occurred in less than 10% of the children. An apathy syndrome, leukecephalopathy, or severe infections, were not observed in a single case. Radioactive gold spreads in the subarachnoid space and is phagocytized by the arachnoidea. The tumoricide effect extends selectively over the space of distribution of the latent meningosis leucaemia. The cerebral parenchyma remains unaffected by radiation. Thus, radioactive gold may be preferable to telecobalt irradiation in preventing central nervous system leukemia.
Siddiqui, Rubina; Nancy, Nirmala; Naing, Win P; Ali, Sarah; Dar, Lalit; Khan, Baldip K; Padua, Rose A; Carr, Robert
An international project was conducted to identify the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-specific fusion genes (ETV6-RUNX1,MLL-AF4,TCF3-PBX1, and BCR-ABL1) in developing countries to provide additional prognostic information at diagnosis. A total of 181 children with newly diagnosed ALL were tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction at laboratories in India, Pakistan, Myanmar, and Sudan, following a common protocol. To our knowledge, this report is novel in its report from these countries, except India. Across the four countries, the ETV6-RUNX1 (TEL-AML1) fusion gene was present in only 5% of cases. All the positive samples were from children aged 1 to 10 years, in whom the prevalence of this fusion gene, which is associated with good prognosis, was 7.4% (9 out of 121 samples), a much lower rate than reported from Western populations. In the 18 ALL cases tested in Sudan, a notable excess of MLL-AF4 (17%) and BCR-ABL1 (22%) fusion genes was found. This study highlights the need for wider international surveys of the molecular epidemiology of ALL.
Borssén, Magnus; Palmqvist, Lars; Karrman, Kristina; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Behrendtz, Mikael; Heldrup, Jesper; Forestier, Erik; Roos, Göran; Degerman, Sofie
Background Treatment of pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) has improved, but there is a considerable fraction of patients experiencing a poor outcome. There is a need for better prognostic markers and aberrant DNA methylation is a candidate in other malignancies, but its potential prognostic significance in T-ALL is hitherto undecided. Design and Methods Genome wide promoter DNA methylation analysis was performed in pediatric T-ALL samples (n = 43) using arrays covering >27000 CpG sites. Clinical outcome was evaluated in relation to methylation status and compared with a contemporary T-ALL group not tested for methylation (n = 32). Results Based on CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), T-ALL samples were subgrouped as CIMP+ (high methylation) and CIMP− (low methylation). CIMP− T-ALL patients had significantly worse overall and event free survival (p = 0.02 and p = 0.001, respectively) compared to CIMP+ cases. CIMP status was an independent factor for survival in multivariate analysis including age, gender and white blood cell count. Analysis of differently methylated genes in the CIMP subgroups showed an overrepresentation of transcription factors, ligands and polycomb target genes. Conclusions We identified global promoter methylation profiling as being of relevance for subgrouping and prognostication of pediatric T-ALL. PMID:23762353
The immunophenotyping of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells is based on staining the cells with monoclonal antibodies against surface and cytoplasmic determinants followed with flow cytometry analysis. The problems of immuno-phenotyping are associated with technical difficulties, changes in expression of determinants and the rare types of leukaemia and haematological disorders typical for newborns and infants. The lack of blast cells within cell suspension obtained for test may be the result of bone marrow disorder (aplastic anaemia, preleukaemic cytopenia) or technical pitfall. The changed expression of determinants on blastic cells observed as weak expression or overexpression or atypical combination of determinants requires a careful interpretation. In the diagnosis of rare types of acute leukaemia (e.g. erythroleukaemia, megakaryoblastic leukaemia, mixed lineage or undifferentiated leukaemia) the additional monoclonal antibodies beyond routine set are needed. A special concern is necessary in diagnosis of newborns and infants leukaemia or bone marrow disorders like myelodisplastic syndrome particularly in children with other systemic diseases e.g. congenital immunological deficiencies, Down's syndrome. The problems of immunophenotyping in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are frequently associated with obtaining a representative material e.g. surgical tumour biopsy, lymph node. In some case the differential diagnosis including small round cell tumours and anaplastic type of lymphoma is necessary what requires an additional set of monoclonal antibodies. Despite of modern technology, morphology, immunophenotyping and histopathology remain the standard of complex diagnosis of lymphoproliferative diseases and haematopoietic disorders in children.
Buompadre, Maria Celeste; Andres, Kathleen; Slater, Lee-Anne; Mohseni-Bod, Hadi; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Branson, Helen; Laughlin, Suzanne; Armstrong, Derek; Moharir, Mahendranath; deVeber, Gabrielle; Humpl, Tilman; Honjo, Osami; Keshavjee, Shaf; Ichord, Rebecca; Pereira, Vitor; Dlamini, Nomazulu
The updated American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines include recommendation for thrombectomy in certain adult stroke cases. The safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in children are unknown. An 8-year-old girl experienced acute stroke symptoms on two occasions while therapeutically anticoagulated on Novalung. Computed tomography scans showed proximal vessel thrombi, which were retrieved using a Trevo device without hemorrhagic complications. Postprocedural assessment found respective decreases in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score from 10 to 4 and 12 to 7. The indications for treatment and early benefits observed in our case are consistent with other pediatric thrombectomy cases reported. However, publication bias and the heterogeneity of reported cases prevent drawing conclusions about the safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in children. Anticipating that updates to adult stroke guidelines would likely incite stroke providers to consider thrombectomy in children, our institution developed guidelines for thrombectomy before the index patient. Establishing institutional guidelines before considering thrombectomy in children may optimize patient safety.
Busche, Stephan; Ge, Bing; Vidal, Ramon; Spinella, Jean-François; Saillour, Virginie; Richer, Chantal; Healy, Jasmine; Chen, Shu-Huang; Droit, Arnaud; Sinnett, Daniel; Pastinen, Tomi
B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer. Although the genetic determinants underlying disease onset remain unclear, epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation are suggested to contribute significantly to leukemogenesis. Using the Illumina 450K array, we assessed DNA methylation in matched tumor-normal samples of 46 childhood patients with pre-B ALL, extending single CpG-site resolution analysis of the pre-B ALL methylome beyond CpG-islands (CGI). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of CpG-site neighborhood, gene, or microRNA (miRNA) gene-associated methylation levels separated the tumor cohort according to major pre-B ALL subtypes, and methylation in CGIs, CGI shores, and in regions around the transcription start site was found to significantly correlate with transcript expression. Focusing on samples carrying the t(12;21) ETV6-RUNX1 fusion, we identified 119 subtype-specific high-confidence marker CpG-loci. Pathway analyses linked the CpG-loci-associated genes with hematopoiesis and cancer. Further integration with whole-transcriptome data showed the effects of methylation on expression of 17 potential drivers of leukemogenesis. Independent validation of array methylation and sequencing-derived transcript expression with Sequenom Epityper technology and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, respectively, indicates more than 80% empirical accuracy of our genome-wide findings. In summary, genome-wide DNA methylation profiling enabled us to separate pre-B ALL according to major subtypes, to map epigenetic biomarkers specific for the t(12;21) subtype, and through a combined methylome and transcriptome approach to identify downstream effects on candidate drivers of leukemogenesis.
Bury, Jonathan; Hurt, Chris; Roy, Anindita; Cheesman, Louise; Bradburn, Mike; Cross, Simon; Fox, John; Saha, Vaskar
Continuation chemotherapy is a key component of the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. During this treatment phase, weekly dose adjustments are carried out based on current and historical full blood counts (FBCs). The dose decision pathway is complex and suboptimal therapy may result if information on FBC results is not readily available and/or the prescriber is inexperienced. A web-based decision-support system (Leukaemia Intervention Scheduling and Advice, 'LISA') was designed to facilitate access to FBC information across geographical locations and to assist with dosage adjustments. A balanced-block crossover analysis was performed to evaluate the system. Thirty-six clinicians with varying degrees of experience were each asked to decide on appropriate oral chemotherapy dosages for eight simulated cases: four using LISA and four without. LISA significantly reduced the number of erroneous prescriptions (zero of 144 with LISA vs. 54 of 144 without; P < 0.0001) without affecting the number of times subjects deliberately overrode the protocol (seven of 144 times using LISA and six of 144 without). Using LISA reduced the time taken by novices to reach a decision for each case but increased the time taken by experts. Thirty-five of 36 subjects said they would be likely to use the system if it were available. A system like LISA is likely to be acceptable to clinicians, and has the potential to increase protocol compliance and decrease prescribing errors while allowing clinicians to override the protocol in specific cases where sound reasons exist for doing so.
Bates, Michael N.; Chandyo, Ram K.; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Pokhrel, Amod K.; Mathisen, Maria; Basnet, Sudha; Shrestha, Prakash S.; Strand, Tor A.
Background: Globally, solid fuels are used by about 3 billion people for cooking. These fuels have been associated with many health effects, including acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in young children. Nepal has a high prevalence of use of biomass for cooking and heating. Objective: This case–control study was conducted among a population in the Bhaktapur municipality, Nepal, to investigate the relationship of cookfuel type to ALRI in young children. Methods: Cases with ALRI and age-matched controls were enrolled from an open cohort of children 2–35 months old, under active monthly surveillance for ALRI. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on family characteristics, including household cooking and heating appliances and fuels. The main analysis was carried out using conditional logistic regression. Population-attributable fractions (PAF) for stove types were calculated. Results: A total of 917 children (452 cases and 465 controls) were recruited into the study. Relative to use of electricity for cooking, ALRI was increased in association with any use of biomass stoves [odds ratio (OR) = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.98], kerosene stoves (OR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.83), and gas stoves (OR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.50). Use of wood, kerosene, or coal heating was also associated with ALRI (OR = 1.45; 95% CI: 0.97, 2.14), compared with no heating or electricity or gas heating. PAFs for ALRI were 18.0% (95% CI: 8.1, 26.9%) and 18.7% (95% CI: 8.4%–27.8%), for biomass and kerosene stoves, respectively. Conclusions: The study supports previous reports indicating that use of biomass as a household fuel is a risk factor for ALRI, and provides new evidence that use of kerosene for cooking may also be a risk factor for ALRI in young children. PMID:23512278
Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nielsen, Stine N; Frandsen, Thomas L; Nersting, Jacob
The antileukemic mechanisms of 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) maintenance therapy are poorly understood, but the benefits of several years of myelosuppressive maintenance therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia are well proven. Currently, there is no international consensus on drug dosing. Because of significant interindividual and intraindividual variations in drug disposition and pharmacodynamics, vigorous dose adjustments are needed to obtain a target degree of myelosuppression. As the normal white blood cell counts vary by patients' ages and ethnicity, and also within age groups, identical white blood cell levels for 2 patients may not reflect the same treatment intensity. Measurements of intracellular levels of cytotoxic metabolites of 6MP and MTX can identify nonadherent patients, but therapeutic target levels remains to be established. A rise in serum aminotransferase levels during maintenance therapy is common and often related to high levels of methylated 6MP metabolites. However, except for episodes of hypoglycemia, serious liver dysfunction is rare, the risk of permanent liver damage is low, and aminotransferase levels usually normalize within a few weeks after discontinuation of therapy. 6MP and MTX dose increments should lead to either leukopenia or a rise in aminotransferases, and if neither is experienced, poor treatment adherence should be considered. The many genetic polymorphisms that determine 6MP and MTX disposition, efficacy, and toxicity have precluded implementation of pharmacogenomics into treatment, the sole exception being dramatic 6MP dose reductions in patients who are homozygous deficient for thiopurine methyltransferase, the enzyme that methylates 6MP and several of its metabolites. In conclusion, maintenance therapy is as important as the more intensive and toxic earlier treatment phases, and often more challenging. Ongoing research address the applicability of drug metabolite measurements for dose adjustments
von Lintig, F C; Huvar, I; Law, P; Diccianni, M B; Yu, A L; Boss, G R
Ras is an important cellular switch, relaying growth-promoting signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. In cultured cells, Ras is activated by various hematopoietic cytokines and growth factors, but the activation state of Ras in peripheral WBCs and bone marrow cells has not been studied nor has Ras activation been assessed in cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using an enzyme-based method, we assessed Ras activation in peripheral WBCs, lymphocytes, and bone marrow cells from normal subjects and from children with T-cell ALL (T-ALL) and B-lineage ALL (B-ALL). In normal subjects, we found mean Ras activations of 14.3, 12.5, and 17.2% for peripheral blood WBCs, lymphocytes, and bone marrow cells, respectively. All three of these values are higher than we have found in other normal human cells, compatible with constitutive activation of Ras by cytokines and growth factors present in serum and bone marrow. In 9 of 18 children with T-ALL, Ras activation exceeded two SDs above the mean of the corresponding cells from normal subjects, whereas in none of 11 patients with B-ALL did Ras show increased activation; activating genetic mutations in ras occur in less than 10% of ALL patients. Thus, Ras is relatively activated in peripheral blood WBCs, lymphocytes, and bone marrow cells compared with other normal human cells, and Ras is activated frequently in T-ALL but not in B-ALL. Increased Ras activation in T-ALL compared with B-ALL may contribute to the more aggressive nature of the former disease.
Molecular profiling of gene copy number abnormalities in key regulatory genes in high-risk B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia: frequency and their association with clinicopathological findings in Indian patients.
Bhandari, Prerana; Ahmad, Firoz; Das, Bibhu Ranjan
Genes related to key cellular pathways are frequently altered in B cell ALL and are associated with poor survival especially in high-risk (HR) subgroups. We examined gene copy number abnormalities (CNA) in 101 Indian HR B cell ALL patients and their correlation with clinicopathological features by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Overall, CNA were detected in 59 (59%) cases, with 26, 10 and 23% of cases harboring 1, 2 or +3 CNA. CNA were more prevalent in BCR-ABL1 (60%), pediatric (64%) and high WCC (WBC count) (63%) patients. Frequent genes deletions included CDNK2A/B (26%), IKZF1 (25%), PAX5 (14%), JAK2 (7%), BTG1 (6%), RB1 (5%), EBF1 (4%), ETV6 (4%), while PAR1 region genes were predominantly duplicated (20%). EBF1 deletions selectively associated with adults, IKZF1 deletions occurred frequently in high WCC and BCR-ABL1 cases, while PAR1 region gains significantly associated with MLL-AF4 cases. IKZF1 haploinsufficiency group was predominant, especially in adults (65%), high WCC (60%) patients and BCR-ABL1-negative (78%) patients. Most cases harbored multiple concurrent CNA, with IKZF1 concomitantly occurring with CDNK2A/B, PAX5 and BTG1, while JAK2 occurred with CDNK2A/B and PAX5. Mutually exclusive CNA included ETV6 and IKZF1/RB1, and EBF1 and JAK2. Our results corroborate with global reports, aggregating molecular markers in Indian HR B-ALL cases. Integration of CNA data from rapid methods like MLPA, onto background of existing gold-standard methods detecting significant chromosomal abnormalities, provides a comprehensive genetic profile in B-ALL.
Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L1 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L1 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Zhou, Yinmei; Abla, Oussama; Adachi, Souichi; Auvrignon, Anne; Beverloo, H. Berna; de Bont, Eveline; Chang, Tai-Tsung; Creutzig, Ursula; Dworzak, Michael; Elitzur, Sarah; Fynn, Alcira; Forestier, Erik; Hasle, Henrik; Liang, Der-Cherng; Lee, Vincent; Locatelli, Franco; Masetti, Riccardo; De Moerloose, Barbara; Reinhardt, Dirk; Rodriguez, Laura; Van Roy, Nadine; Shen, Shuhong; Taga, Takashi; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Yeoh, Allen E. J.; Zimmermann, Martin; Raimondi, Susana C.
Comprehensive clinical studies of patients with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) are lacking. We performed an international retrospective study on 490 patients (age ≤18 years) with non–Down syndrome de novo AMKL diagnosed from 1989 to 2009. Patients with AMKL (median age 1.53 years) comprised 7.8% of pediatric AML. Five-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 43.7% ± 2.7% and 49.0% ± 2.7%, respectively. Patients diagnosed in 2000 to 2009 were treated with higher cytarabine doses and had better EFS (P = .037) and OS (P = .003) than those diagnosed in 1989 to 1999. Transplantation in first remission did not improve survival. Cytogenetic data were available for 372 (75.9%) patients: hypodiploid (n = 18, 4.8%), normal karyotype (n = 49, 13.2%), pseudodiploid (n = 119, 32.0%), 47 to 50 chromosomes (n = 142, 38.2%), and >50 chromosomes (n = 44, 11.8%). Chromosome gain occurred in 195 of 372 (52.4%) patients: +21 (n = 106, 28.5%), +19 (n = 93, 25.0%), +8 (n = 77, 20.7%). Losses occurred in 65 patients (17.5%): –7 (n = 13, 3.5%). Common structural chromosomal aberrations were t(1;22)(p13;q13) (n = 51, 13.7%) and 11q23 rearrangements (n = 38, 10.2%); t(9;11)(p22;q23) occurred in 21 patients. On the basis of frequency and prognosis, AMKL can be classified to 3 risk groups: good risk—7p abnormalities; poor risk—normal karyotypes, –7, 9p abnormalities including t(9;11)(p22;q23)/MLL-MLLT3, –13/13q-, and –15; and intermediate risk—others including t(1;22)(p13;q13)/OTT-MAL (RBM15-MKL1) and 11q23/MLL except t(9;11). Risk-based innovative therapy is needed to improve patient outcomes. PMID:26215111
Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma
B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Kuras, Yuliya I; McInnis, Christine M; Thoma, Myriam V; Chen, Xuejie; Hanlin, Luke; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas
Childhood adversity is highly prevalent and linked to lasting psychological and physiological consequences. A potential mechanism for negative health outcomes is altered stress reactivity. While previous research has addressed associations of childhood adversity with stress system reactivity, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress reactivity is understudied. We therefore set out here to examining salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) reactivity in relation with childhood adversity. Forty-one healthy adult subjects (n = 24 male; n = 17 female) aged 18-34 years underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Saliva for measurement of sAA was collected at three time points; before the TSST, immediately after, and 10 min post-TSST. We found that those with childhood trauma had a higher overall sAA response to the TSST, as seen in a repeated measures ANOVA (CTQ by time interaction: F(1.8,71.5) = 6.46, p = .01) and an independent samples t-test indicating higher sAA baseline to peak response (t = 3.22, p = .003). There was also a positive correlation between sAA reactivity and the CTQ subscales of childhood physical abuse (r = .46, p = .005) and emotional abuse (r = .37, p = .024). Healthy adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity had a heightened sAA response immediately following the stressor. Higher SNS reactivity could be a link to negative health outcomes in adults with early adversity. Future research should address whether altered sAA reactivity is predictive of negative health outcomes in those with childhood adversity.
Ingelfinger, Julie R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Schaefer, Franz
World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.
Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Long-Term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Children; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Improved Outcomes With Retinoic Acid and Arsenic Trioxide Compared With Retinoic Acid and Chemotherapy in Non-High-Risk Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: Final Results of the Randomized Italian-German APL0406 Trial.
Platzbecker, Uwe; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Cicconi, Laura; Thiede, Christian; Paoloni, Francesca; Vignetti, Marco; Ferrara, Felicetto; Divona, Mariadomenica; Albano, Francesco; Efficace, Fabio; Fazi, Paola; Sborgia, Marco; Di Bona, Eros; Breccia, Massimo; Borlenghi, Erika; Cairoli, Roberto; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Melillo, Lorella; La Nasa, Giorgio; Fiedler, Walter; Brossart, Peter; Hertenstein, Bernd; Salih, Helmut R; Wattad, Mohammed; Lübbert, Michael; Brandts, Christian H; Hänel, Mathias; Röllig, Christoph; Schmitz, Norbert; Link, Hartmut; Frairia, Chiara; Pogliani, Enrico Maria; Fozza, Claudio; D'Arco, Alfonso Maria; Di Renzo, Nicola; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Fabbiano, Francesco; Döhner, Konstanze; Ganser, Arnold; Döhner, Hartmut; Amadori, Sergio; Mandelli, Franco; Ehninger, Gerhard; Schlenk, Richard F; Lo-Coco, Francesco
Purpose The initial results of the APL0406 trial showed that the combination of all- trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) is at least not inferior to standard ATRA and chemotherapy (CHT) in first-line therapy of low- or intermediate-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). We herein report the final analysis on the complete series of patients enrolled onto this trial. Patients and Methods The APL0406 study was a prospective, randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase III noninferiority trial. Eligible patients were adults between 18 and 71 years of age with newly diagnosed, low- or intermediate-risk APL (WBC at diagnosis ≤ 10 × 10(9)/L). Overall, 276 patients were randomly assigned to receive ATRA-ATO or ATRA-CHT between October 2007 and January 2013. Results Of 263 patients evaluable for response to induction, 127 (100%) of 127 patients and 132 (97%) of 136 patients achieved complete remission (CR) in the ATRA-ATO and ATRA-CHT arms, respectively ( P = .12). After a median follow-up of 40.6 months, the event-free survival, cumulative incidence of relapse, and overall survival at 50 months for patients in the ATRA-ATO versus ATRA-CHT arms were 97.3% v 80%, 1.9% v 13.9%, and 99.2% v 92.6%, respectively ( P < .001, P = .0013, and P = .0073, respectively). Postinduction events included two relapses and one death in CR in the ATRA-ATO arm and two instances of molecular resistance after third consolidation, 15 relapses, and five deaths in CR in the ATRA-CHT arm. Two patients in the ATRA-CHT arm developed a therapy-related myeloid neoplasm. Conclusion These results show that the advantages of ATRA-ATO over ATRA-CHT increase over time and that there is significantly greater and more sustained antileukemic efficacy of ATO-ATRA compared with ATRA-CHT in low- and intermediate-risk APL.
... Childhood Leukemia Treatment of Children With Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), the ... With Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) More In Childhood Leukemia About Childhood Leukemia Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...
Irving, Julie A. E.; Enshaei, Amir; Parker, Catriona A.; Sutton, Rosemary; Kuiper, Roland P.; Erhorn, Amy; Minto, Lynne; Venn, Nicola C.; Law, Tamara; Yu, Jiangyan; Schwab, Claire; Davies, Rosanna; Matheson, Elizabeth; Davies, Alysia; Sonneveld, Edwin; den Boer, Monique L.; Love, Sharon B.; Harrison, Christine J.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Revesz, Tamas; Saha, Vaskar
Somatic genetic abnormalities are initiators and drivers of disease and have proven clinical utility at initial diagnosis. However, the genetic landscape and its clinical utility at relapse are less well understood and have not been studied comprehensively. We analyzed cytogenetic data from 427 children with relapsed B-cell precursor ALL treated on the international trial, ALLR3. Also we screened 238 patients with a marrow relapse for selected copy number alterations (CNAs) and mutations. Cytogenetic risk groups were predictive of outcome postrelapse and survival rates at 5 years for patients with good, intermediate-, and high-risk cytogenetics were 68%, 47%, and 26%, respectively (P < .001). TP53 alterations and NR3C1/BTG1 deletions were associated with a higher risk of progression: hazard ratio 2.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-3.70, P < .001) and 2.15 (1.32-3.48, P = .002). NRAS mutations were associated with an increased risk of progression among standard-risk patients with high hyperdiploidy: 3.17 (1.15-8.71, P = .026). Patients classified clinically as standard and high risk had distinct genetic profiles. The outcome of clinical standard-risk patients with high-risk cytogenetics was equivalent to clinical high-risk patients. Screening patients at relapse for key genetic abnormalities will enable the integration of genetic and clinical risk factors to improve patient stratification and outcome. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.org as #ISCRTN45724312. PMID:27229005
Dai, Q Y; Souillet, G; Bertrand, Y; Galambrun, C; Bleyzac, N; Manel, A M; Bruno, B; Souillet, A L; Homole, E; Pages, M P; Berlier, P; David, M; Berthier, J C; Massenavette, B; Contamin, B; Philippe, N
Between September 1986 and June 1997, 24 children with high-risk ALL in CR1 were allografted after TAM (fractionated TBI, high-dose Ara-C, and melphalan; n = 10) or BAM protocol (busulfan, high-dose Ara-C, and melphalan; n = 14). The EFS for transplants from sibling donors was 33% with TAM and 62% with BAM (P = 0.148). The probability of acute GvHD was 70% with TAM and 15% with BAM (P = 0.003). Four of 17 evaluable patients relapsed: one after TAM and three after BAM. In all, 46 other children transplanted in CR beyond CR1 were studied for sequelae. Long-term side effects were more frequent in TAM vs BAM. In children with ALL, busulfan may be a good alternative to TBI to improve the quality of life.
Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies
Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Oda, Keiko; Sato, Taku; Watanabe, Tadashi; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Ito, Eiji; Matsumoto, Yuka; Ando, Hitoshi; Sakuma, Jun; Kikuta, Atsushi; Hojo, Hiroshi; Saito, Kiyoshi
Current chemotherapeutic regimens have been used to successfully treat many children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but have resulted in an increased risk of late central nervous system tumors, most commonly meningioma, particularly in patients who have received cranial irradiation. We treated 3 young patients with World Health Organization grade II meningiomas who had previously received cranial irradiation for the treatment of childhood ALL: a cerebellopontine angle tumor in a 19-year-old woman, a petroclival tumor in a 28-year-old man, and a frontal parasagittal tumor in a 19-year-old woman. These cases were difficult to treat due to the aggressive and invasive biology of the tumors. Therefore, we recommend systematic cranial imaging and long follow-up periods for leukemia survivors to detect brain tumors before progression.
Walsh, Kyle M.; de Smith, Adam J.; Hansen, Helen M.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; Gonseth, Semira; Endicott, Alyson A.; Xiao, Jianqiao; Rice, Terri; Fu, Cecilia H.; McCoy, Lucie S.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Wiencke, John K.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Ma, Xiaomei; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes that are associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A lead SNP was found to occur on chromosome 9p21.3, a region that is deleted in 30% of childhood ALLs, suggesting the presence of causal polymorphisms linked to ALL risk. We used SNP genotyping and imputation-based fine-mapping of a multiethnic ALL case-control population (Ncases=1464, Ncontrols=3279) to identify variants of large effect within 9p21.3. We identified a CDKN2A missense variant (rs3731249) with 2% allele frequency in controls that confers three-fold increased risk of ALL in children of European-ancestry (OR=2.99; P=1.51×10−9) and Hispanic children (OR=2.77; P=3.78×10−4). Moreover, of 17 patients whose tumors displayed allelic imbalance at CDKN2A, 14 preferentially retained the risk allele and lost the protective allele (PBinomial=0.006), suggesting that the risk allele provides a selective advantage during tumor growth. Notably, the CDKN2A variant was not significantly associated with melanoma, glioblastoma, or pancreatic cancer risk, implying that this polymorphism specifically confers ALL risk but not general cancer risk. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that coding polymorphisms of large effect can underlie GWAS “hits” and that inherited polymorphisms may undergo directional selection during clonal expansion of tumors. PMID:26527286
Nayiager, Trishana; Barr, Ronald D; Anderson, Loretta; Cranston, Amy; Hay, John
Inadequate physical activity (PA) and elevated overweight/obesity (OW/OB) rates are common in survivors of cancer in childhood, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Bony morbidity, including fractures, is also prevalent among survivors of ALL. This study examined the interrelationships of PA, measured in hours by the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale; OW/OG, defined by body mass index; and fractures (yes/no) in survivors of ALL (n=75) more than 10 years after diagnosis. All had been treated using protocols of the Dana Farber Cancer Institute Childhood ALL Consortium. The median age was 21.15 years and time from diagnosis 15.07 years, and 27 subjects had experienced fractures. More than 30% of the total sample were OW/OB. There was no correlation of body mass index with present PA. There were no significant differences between those with/without fractures in terms of age, sex, time from diagnosis, and the prevalence of OW/OB. Subjects with fractures during treatment reported more total activity on typical weekend days than those without fractures (mean 8.8 vs. 6.9 h, P<0.01). There was no significant difference on weekdays. Higher activity on weekends suggests that fractures may have occurred more commonly in those who had a more active lifestyle before, during, and after treatment.
Parasole, Rosanna; Petruzziello, Fara; De Matteo, Antonia; Maisto, Giovanna; Castelli, Luisa; Errico, Maria Elena; Menna, Giuseppe; Poggi, Vincenzo
Hypereosinophilia as first clinical presentation has rarely been reported in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. It is commonly associated with specific cytogenetic abnormalities. Although eosinophilia is considered a reactive, non-neoplastic epiphenomenon, it adversely affects patient outcomes, both in children and adults. We describe herewith two paediatric patients who had marked eosinophilia at onset of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. We point out the importance of a correct differential diagnosis in persistent, unexplained peripheral hypereosinophilia. Clinicians should keep in mind that eosinophilia can be part of the overall pattern of acute leukaemia and therefore needs to be properly investigated. We also provide some recommendations for an appropriate approach to hypereosinophilia - related morbidities.
Nearly 75% of childhood cancer survivors will experience an adverse late effect from previous therapy. In patients previously treated with cranial irradiation, the late effect can manifest as secondary central nervous system tumors. Presented is a case of a 20 year man with a history of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia diagnosed at age 22 months, treated with chemotherapy and cranial irradiation. He had developed increasing prominence of the top of his head over several months. Plain radiograph showed frontal calvarium thickening with focal "hair-on-end" periosteal reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an enhancing dural-based mass with transcalvarial extension, confirmed after resection to be meningioma (World Health Organization Grade I). This case illustrates an atypical presentation of a late effect of childhood cancer treatment and highlights the need to be informed about prior treatments received and potential attendant complications.
Morris, Leo A.; Smith, Douglas E.; Khan, Siraj M.
The approach and methodology used in the determination of the type of cargo containing concealments of commercial quantities of narcotics such as cocaine and heroin is described. This high-risk cargo enters the United States through border crossings at land, seaports and airports. The volume and variety of cargos make it a complex and challenging task for the U.S. Customs Service.
Barber, Kirk A.
The hand is the most commonly involved site in occupation — related skin disease, and contact eczema is the most common diagnosis. The identification of workers at high risk for this condition is possible and will help in their management and assessment. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:21248925
The role of art therapy is considered in working with such high risk groups as the institutionalized, mentally retarded, elderly, visually impaired, physically handicapped, asthmatic, hyper- and hypo-active children, hearing impaired, and patients on mind altering drugs. The special risks of infectious diseases (such as serum hepatitis), and…
Micronutrient requirements are well-established for healthy full-term infants. However, few such recommendations exist for high-risk infants, including full-term infants with a variety of medical disorders or very preterm infants. Key micronutrients considered in this review are calcium, phosphorus,...
Connett, Dian; Rathburn, Rene
This resource book contains innovative group activities, units of instruction, writing packets, and math activities that were developed to serve high-risk adult basic education (ABE) students. Included in the first section are units of study dealing with the following topics: Oregon history, personal health issues, controversial issues in science,…
ALL, Childhood; Leukemia, Lymphoblastic; Leukemia, Lymphoblastic, Acute; Leukemia, Lymphoblastic, Acute, L1; Leukemia, Lymphoblastic, Acute, L2; Leukemia, Lymphoblastic, Acute, Philadelphia-Positive; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, L1; Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Acute, L2; Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute; Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute, Childhood; Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute, L1; Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute, L2; Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Lymphocytic Leukemia, Acute; Lymphocytic Leukemia, L1; Lymphocytic Leukemia, L2; Brain Tumors; Cancer of the Brain; Cancer of Brain; Malignant Primary Brain Tumors; Brain Neoplasms, Malignant
Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies
Gentzler, Amy L; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J; Morey, Jennifer N
Compromised respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, i.e., low cardiac vagal control) frequently characterizes clinically depressed adults and also has been detected in infants of depressed mothers; however, its existence has not been established in older at-risk offspring. We investigated developmental patterns of RSA in a sample of 163 5- to 14-year-old children, who were either at high risk for depression (due to having a parent with a childhood-onset mood disorder) or low-risk for depression. We hypothesized that high-risk children have lower resting RSA than do low-risk children, which could reflect atypical developmental trajectories. Children's RSA was assessed during resting baseline periods on multiple occasions, typically 1-year apart. Linear growth modeling indicated a group by age interaction. Low-risk children (but not the high-risk children) exhibited a significantly increasing trajectory in resting RSA with age. Mood disorders in offspring did not account for the Group X Age interaction effect. Our study provides new evidence that children at high risk for depression have an atypical developmental trajectory of RSA across late childhood.
Tretinoin, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride With or Without Arsenic Trioxide Followed by Tretinoin With or Without Mercaptopurine and Methotrexate in Treating Patients With Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies
Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Complete Remission; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Complete Remission
Coniglio, Susan J.; Blackman, James A.
Literature on developmental and psychosocial outcomes of childhood leukemia is reviewed, focusing on preschool-age children. Studies are categorized in terms of outcome measures: intelligence/achievement, neuropsychological, memory/attention, and psychosocial tests. Evidence suggests that preschool children with leukemia are at high risk for…
Geller, James I
'High risk' renal tumors of childhood generally includes anaplastic Wilms tumor, rhabdoid tumor, and metastatic renal sarcomas and carcinomas. In this review, the epidemiology, biology, treatment and prognosis of anaplastic Wilms tumor and rhabdoid tumor are presented. Future directions related to management of such cancers are discussed, with insights provided into possible clinical trials in development that consider integration of novel targeted therapies.
de Souza, Clélia Marta Casellato; Cristofani, Lilian Maria; Cornacchioni, Ana Lucia Beltrati; Odone, Vicente; Kuczynski, Evelyn
Abstract Objective To analyze and compare the health-related quality of life of adult survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia and Wilms’ tumor amongst themselves and in relation to healthy participants. Methods Ninety participants aged above 18 years were selected and divided into three groups, each comprising 30 individuals. The Control Group was composed of physically healthy subjects, with no cancer history; and there were two experimental groups: those diagnosed as acute lymphocytic leukemia, and those as Wilms’ Tumor. Quality of life was assessed over the telephone, using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Results Male survivors presented with better results as compared to female survivors and controls in the Vitality domain, for acute lymphocytic leukemia (p=0.042) and Wilms’ tumor (p=0.013). For acute lymphocytic leukemia survivors, in Social aspects (p=0.031), Mental health (p=0.041), and Emotional aspects (p=0.040), the latter also for survivors of Wilms’ tumor (p=0.040). The best results related to the Functional capacity domain were recorded for the experimental group that had a late diagnosis of acute lymphocytic leukemia. There were significant differences between groups except for the Social and Emotional domains for self-perceived health, with positive responses that characterized their health as good, very good, and excellent. Conclusion Survivors of acute lymphocytic leukemia showed no evidence of relevant impairment of health-related quality of life. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (via telephone) can be a resource to access and evaluate survivors. PMID:26537509
Interests a • Improving Federal Oversight of Food Safety a • Protecting Public Health through Enhanced Oversight of Medical Products a • Transforming...255 Improving Federal Oversight of Food Safety 262 Protecting Public Health through Enhanced Oversight of Medical Products 268 Contents...has been sufficient for us to narrow the scope of the high-risk issue. Specifically, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made progress by
A Phase II Study Of The Farnesyltransferase Inhibitor ZANESTRA (R115777, NSC #702818, IND #58,359) In Complete Remission Following Induction And/Or Consolidation Chemotherapy In Adults With Poor-Risk Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) And High-Risk Myelodysplasia (MDS)
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma
Coco, L; Giannone, T T; Zarbo, G
Today, 88% of pregnancies has a physiological course during which just basic care, while in 12% of cases there is a high-risk pregnancy that requires additional assistance and specific. The approach that should be used is that of supervision in all pregnant women considering their potential to have a normal pregnancy until there is no clear evidence to the contrary. Pregnancy is considered at risk if there are medical conditions that may affect maternal or fetal health or life of the mother, fetus or both. Among the risk factors for pregnancy there is first the woman's age, in fact the increase in high-risk pregnancies in the last 20 years is attributable to the increase in the average age of women who face pregnancy. In addition, the diet is very important during pregnancy and diabetes or autoimmune diseases often lead to the failure of a pregnancy. Risk factors for pregnancy, also, are the complications that occur during its course as hypertension during pregnancy, and infectious diseases. Fears and anxieties typical of a high-risk pregnancy prevent the couple to live happily in the months of gestation. Effective communication, control and early detection are important tools that doctors must be able to ensure that women in order to plan the best treatment strategies and to minimize the risks of maternal and / or fetal.
Walker, R; Swartz, C M
Pregnancy increases the risk of injury associated with mental illness. The varieties of malnutrition, substance abuse, and aggression that may accompany mental illness can injure the unborn child in more severe ways than the patient herself. Dangers associated with illness-related behavior can outweight the risks of pharmacotherapy, but no psychotropic drug is approved for use during pregnancy. Failure to produce a prompt or lasting remission of psychiatric symptoms also is a significant possibility with medication. The morbidity from continued illness and the incompletely described adverse effects of psychotropic drugs increases the attractiveness of ECT for severely depressed pregnant patients, especially with associated high-risk conditions. This paper discusses physiologic changes occurring during pregnancy and ECT and reviews contemporary monitors of maternal and fetal well-being. Guidelines are suggested for ECT during regular and high-risk pregnancies. The authors conclude that using additional precautions with high-risk pregnant patients permits ECT to be given with relative safety; medical and obstetric risk factors need not prevent its use.
Christ, Winifred R.; And Others
Tested ability of 16-item high-risk screening list to accurately predict high-risk status by comparing admission and discharge high-risk scores for 448 patients with range of psychiatric disorders. Sixty-six percent of patients rated high risk at admission were identically rated at discharge. (Author/NB)
Jedrychowski, Wiesław A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Spengler, John D.; Mroz, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Flak, Elżbieta; Majewska, Renata; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Jacek, Ryszard
Over the last decades many epidemiologic studies considered the morbidity patterns for respiratory diseases and lung function of children in the context of ambient air pollution usually measured in the postnatal period. The main purpose of this study is to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the recurrent broncho-pulmonary infections in early childhood. The study included 214 children who had measurements of personal prenatal PM2.5 exposure and regularly collected data on the occurrence of acute bronchitis and pneumonia diagnosed by a physician from birth over the seven-year follow-up. The effect of prenatal exposure to PM2.5 was adjusted in the multivariable logistic models for potential confounders, such as prenatal and postnatal ETS (environmental tobacco smoke), city residence area as a proxy of postnatal urban exposure, children’s sensitization to domestic aeroallergens, and asthma. In the subgroup of children with available PM2.5 indoor levels, the effect of prenatal exposure was additionally adjusted for indoor exposure as well. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for incidence of recurrent broncho-pulmonary infections (five or more spells of bronchitis and/or pneumonia) recorded in the follow-up significantly correlated in a dose-response manner with the prenatal PM2.5 level (OR = 2.44, 95%CI: 1.12 – 5.36). In conclusion, the study suggests that prenatal exposure to PM2.5 increases susceptibility to respiratory infections and may program respiratory morbidity in early childhood. The study also provides evidence that the target value of 20 μg/m3 for the 24-hour mean level of PM2.5 protects unborn babies better than earlier established EPA guidelines. PMID:23333083
Leonardi, Daiana B; Abbate, Mercedes; Riccheri, María C; Nuñez, Myriam; Alfonso, Graciela; Gueron, Geraldine; De Siervi, Adriana; Vazquez, Elba; Cotignola, Javier
The inclusion of genotype at Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) diagnosis as a genetic predictor of disease outcome is under constant study. However, results are inconclusive and seem to be population specific. We analyzed the predictive value of germline polymorphisms for childhood ALL relapse and survival. We retrospectively recruited 140 Argentine patients with de novo ALL. Genotypes were analyzed using PCR-RFLP (GSTP1 c.313A > G, MDR1 c.3435T > C, and MTHFR c.665C > T) and multiplex PCR (GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null). Patients with the GSTP1 c.313GG genotype had an increased risk for relapse in univariate (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.03-6.82, p = 0.04) and multivariate (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.17-8.83, p = 0.02) models. The combined genotype slightly increased risk for relapse in the univariate (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.09-7.32, p = 0.03) and multivariate (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.14-7.79, p = 0.03) models for patients with 2/3-risk-genotypes (GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null, GSTP1 c.313GG). The Recurrence-Free Survival (RFS) was shorter for GSTP1 c.313GG (p = 0.025) and 2/3-risk-genotypes (p = 0.021). GST polymorphisms increased the risk of relapse and RFS of patients with childhood ALL. The inclusion of these genetic markers in ALL treatment protocols might improve risk stratification and reduce the number of relapses and deaths.
Knops, J.F.; Han, J.; Finley, W.H.
Genomic imprinting (the functional difference between homologous alleles dependent upon parent of origin) seems to play an important role in some forms of recessive tumors as well as in the genetic predisposition to cancer. Recently, this phenomenon has been implicated in reciprocal translocations found in hematological malignancies. Cytogenetic polymorphism studies on the t(9;22) chromosome in chronic myelogenous leukemia have shown chromosome 9 to be paternal in origin while chromosome 22 is maternally derived in all the cases studied. We developed a molecular technique using chromosome microdissection and polymerase chain reaction (CMPCR) to study the possible involvement of genomic imprinting in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with the t(1;19). This technique has an advantage over conventional molecular techniques because it can distinguish the translocated chromosome from the normal homologue. Amplification of highly polymorphic microsatellite loci was performed on the microdissected translocated chromosomes and compared with parental alleles to assess the parent of origin of the chromosome 1 and chromosome 19 involved in the translocation. Parental origin of the derivative chromosomes 1 and 19 has been evaluated in six children with pre-B cell ALL and t(1;19)(q23;p13). The ratio of maternal:paternal:uncertain origin was 3:2:1 for chromosome 1 and 1:3:2 for chromosome 19. Thus far, the data do not indicate a strong parent of origin bias for this specific ALL associated translocation. Although genomic imprinting does not appear to be involved in this subgroup of childhood ALL patients, this technique can be used to determine parental origin of aberrant chromosomes in other hematological malignancies.
Riccheri, María C.; Nuñez, Myriam; Alfonso, Graciela; Gueron, Geraldine; De Siervi, Adriana; Vazquez, Elba; Cotignola, Javier
The inclusion of genotype at Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) diagnosis as a genetic predictor of disease outcome is under constant study. However, results are inconclusive and seem to be population specific. We analyzed the predictive value of germline polymorphisms for childhood ALL relapse and survival. We retrospectively recruited 140 Argentine patients with de novo ALL. Genotypes were analyzed using PCR-RFLP (GSTP1 c.313A > G, MDR1 c.3435T > C, and MTHFR c.665C > T) and multiplex PCR (GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null). Patients with the GSTP1 c.313GG genotype had an increased risk for relapse in univariate (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.03–6.82, p = 0.04) and multivariate (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.17–8.83, p = 0.02) models. The combined genotype slightly increased risk for relapse in the univariate (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.09–7.32, p = 0.03) and multivariate (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.14–7.79, p = 0.03) models for patients with 2/3-risk-genotypes (GSTT1 null, GSTM1 null, GSTP1 c.313GG). The Recurrence-Free Survival (RFS) was shorter for GSTP1 c.313GG (p = 0.025) and 2/3-risk-genotypes (p = 0.021). GST polymorphisms increased the risk of relapse and RFS of patients with childhood ALL. The inclusion of these genetic markers in ALL treatment protocols might improve risk stratification and reduce the number of relapses and deaths. PMID:27058755
Christiansen, Jon R; Massey, Richard; Dalen, Håvard; Kanellopoulos, Adriani; Hamre, Hanne; Fosså, Sophie D; Ruud, Ellen; Kiserud, Cecilie E; Aakhus, Svend
Measuring left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) is recommended in screening of long-term cancer survivors for cardiotoxicity. However, there are limited data on GLS in this setting, in particular in survivors with apparently normal LV function without risk factors of impaired GLS. In the present study, we measured GLS in 191 adult survivors of childhood lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with normal LV ejection fraction and fractional shortening (FS) and without known hypertension, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, or stroke. We compared GLS in the survivors with 180 controls. Mean GLS was -19.0 ± 2.2% in the survivor group and -21.4 ± 2.0% in the controls (p <0.001). Impaired GLS, defined as mean - 1.96 SDs in the control group, occurred in 53 of 191 survivors (28%). We included survivors with impaired LV ejection fraction and/or FS or traditional risk factors (n = 231 in all) in multiple regression analyses to explore associations with previous cancer treatment. Survivors treated with mediastinal radiotherapy had an odds ratio of impaired GLS of 5.2 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 12) compared with other survivors. Survivors treated with cumulative anthracycline doses >300 mg/m(2) had an odds ratio of 4.8 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 14) of impaired GLS. In conclusion, this study demonstrates a high proportion of LV dysfunction assessed by GLS in apparently healthy adult survivors of childhood cancer. Impaired GLS was associated with previous exposure to mediastinal radiotherapy and high doses of anthracyclines. The prognostic role of measuring GLS in this specific patient population should be examined in prospective studies.
Boland, Alexandra M.; Gibson, Todd M.; Lu, Lu; Kaste, Sue C.; DeLany, James P.; Partin, Robyn E.; Lanctot, Jennifer Q.; Howell, Carrie R.; Nelson, Heather H.; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L.; Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Hudson, Melissa M.
Background Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for low lean muscle mass and muscle weakness, which may contribute to inactivity and early development of chronic diseases typically seen in older adults. Although increasing protein intake, in combination with resistance training, improves lean muscle mass in other populations, it is not known whether muscular tissue among survivors of ALL, whose impairments are treatment-related, will respond similarly. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate associations among dietary protein intake, resistance training, and lean muscle mass in survivors of ALL and age-, sex-, and race-matched controls. Design This was a cross-sectional study. Methods Lean muscle mass was determined with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dietary information with 24-hour recalls, and participation in resistance training with a questionnaire. Participants were 365 survivors of ALL (52% male; 87% white; median age=28.5 years, range=23.6–31.7) and 365 controls with no previous cancer. Results Compared with controls, survivors of ALL had lower lean muscle mass (55.0 versus 57.2 kg, respectively) and lower percentage of lean muscle mass (68.6% versus 71.4%, respectively) than controls. Similar proportions of survivors (71.1%) and controls (69.7%) met recommended dietary protein intake (0.8 g/kg/d). Survivors (45.4%) were less likely to report resistance training than controls (53.8%). In adjusted models, 1-g higher protein intake per kilogram of body mass per day was associated with a 7.9% increase and resistance training ≥1×wk, with a 2.8% increase in lean muscle mass. Limitations The cross-sectional study design limits temporal evaluation of the association between protein intake and lean muscle mass. Conclusions The findings suggest that survivors of childhood ALL with low lean muscle mass may benefit from optimizing dietary protein intake in combination with resistance training. Research is needed to
Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non
Nizami, S Q; Bhutta, Z A; Molla, A M
Secondary lactose intolerance is often a cause of prolongation of diarrhoeal episodes. As appropriate management of lactose intolerance is elimination of lactose from diet, expansive lactose free formulae are often prescribed in acute childhood diarrhoea without establishing diagnosis of lactose intolerance. Since cheap weaning diets made from locally available cereals have been found effective in management of persistent diarrhoea, we postulated that same weaning diet made of rice lentil and yogurt (K-Y diet) could be effectively used in management of acute childhood diarrhoea associated with secondary lactose intolerance. We compared this K-Y diet with milk protein-based lactose free and soy-protein formula. Thirty children between 3-18 months of age completed dietary trial for 72 h. Of these nine children received K-Y diet (Group A), four children received milk protein-based formula (Group B) and 11 children received soy protein formula (Group C). Stool frequency was significantly reduced in children in Group A (13 +/- 6 on day 1 to 6 +/- 5 on day 3) and in Group B (13 +/- 5 on day 1 to 7 +/- 4 on day 3), but not in Group C (13 +/- 4 on day 1 to 10 +/- 8 on day 3). No significant difference was observed in intake of diet, total calories intake, and fluid intake among the three groups. It is concluded that cheap weaning diet made of locally available cereals and yogurt can be used effectively in management of secondary lactose intolerance associated with acute childhood diarrhoea.
Hossain, Md Jobayer; Xie, Li; Caywood, Emi H
Growing insight into prognosis of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) survival has led to improved outcome over time and could be further enhanced through investigation using a large number of patients. To characterize the extent of the association of pediatric AML survival with its identified prognostic factors, we analyzed the United States population-based Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) large dataset of 3442 pediatric AML patients diagnosed and followed between 1973 and 2011 using a Cox proportional hazards model stratified by year of diagnosis. Patients diagnosed between 10 and 19 years of age were at a higher risk of death compared to those diagnosed before age 10 (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-1.44). African Americans (1.27, 1.09-1.48) and Hispanics (1.15, 1.00-1.32) had an elevated risk of mortality than Caucasians. Compared to the subtype acute promyelocytic leukemia, AML with minimal differentiation (2.44, 1.78-3.35); acute erythroid leukemia (2.34, 1.60-3.40); AML without maturation (1.87, 1.35-2.59); and most other AML subtypes had a higher risk of mortality, whereas AML with inv(16) had a substantially lower risk. Age at diagnosis, race-ethnicity, AML subtype, county level poverty and geographic region appeared as significant prognostic factors of pediatric AML survival in the US. Contrary to previous findings, the subtypes of AML with t(9;11)(p22;q23)MLLT3-MLL, AML without maturation and acute myelomonocytic leukemia emerged to be indicative of poor outcome.
Houfflin-Debarge, V; Closset, E; Deruelle, P
Intrapartum asphyxia is increased in several situations such as intrauterine growth retardation, preterm labor, postdate pregnancy or maternal diabetes. In all these cases, fetal heart rate monitoring should be preferred to intermittent auscultation. Fetal scalp blood pH or lactates can be used to identify fetuses at risk of intrapartum asphyxia. However, fetal scalp blood sampling should not delay delivery in case of severe abnormal fetal heart rate as fetal asphyxia could occur rapidly in theses high-risk pregnancies. Data is insufficient to recommend fetal pulse oximetry or ECG analysis. Research should be undertaken to evaluate their performance in these situations.
Drug efficacy might differ from clinical trial results when performed in clinical daily conditions. Therefore, it is mandatory to conduct trials about effectiveness to improve external validity. This post-authorization, open-label, noncontrolled, prospective, multicenter, observational, and naturalistic trial was designed to search for factors influencing the racecadotril overall effect on childhood acute watery diarrhea in a real-world setting of Venezuela. There were 3,873 children with acute watery diarrhea treated with racecadotril, an enkephalin breakdown blocker plus oral rehydration therapy by 97 pediatricians. Evaluations were carried out daily until emission of two consecutive formed stools or absence of watery bowel movements for 24 hours. The primary end-point was time-to-relief, defined as the time from first racecadotril dose to the last watery bowel movement time. Age, gender, nursing type, nursing status during diarrhea, diarrhea severity, and co-medication were considered as factors in the statistical analysis. The primary end-point was evaluated by factors using UNIANOVA, and post-hoc tests were done. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to identify factors affecting drug performance, racecadotril effectiveness and tolerability overall assessment was searched by physicians and patients, and inter-observer agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. The mean time-to-relief was 18.5 +/- 12.5 hours [95% confidence interval 17.9-19.0] and the diarrhea severity was the only variable with significant and independent weight on racecadotril effectiveness explaining 23% of time-to-relief variance, but even in severe diarrhea cases this time was less than 24 hours. High agreement about satisfactory perception on effectiveness and tolerability was reached among physicians and patients. In conclusion, the racecadotril overall effect, evaluated in a real-world setting of Venezuela, was in agreement with results of some earlier controlled trials. It
Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Fungal Infection; Neutropenia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies
Lafeber, Melvin; Spiering, Wilko; Bots, Michiel L; de Valk, Vincent; Visseren, Frank L J; Grobbee, Diederick E
The initial theoretical concept of a polypill was a fixed-dosed combination pill containing an antiplatelet agent, a cholesterol-lowering agent and multiple blood pressure-lowering agents aimed at the prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease in the population aged 55 years and up. The reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease does not depend on the cholesterol level and blood pressure at the start of treatment. The pharmacological reduction in risk factors in individuals with a high risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease is often suboptimal, partly due to the complexity of the guidelines and low adherence to the therapy. A polypill may offer opportunities for improvement. Research has shown that the use of combination products leads to a greater reduction in risk factors than the use of separate substances, possibly through improved adherence to the therapy. The use of a polypill in the prevention of vascular disease in high-risk patients may lead to a more effective reduction in risk, a decrease in costs and a reduction in pharmacological expenditure.
Vijayakrishnan, J; Kumar, R; Henrion, M Y R; Moorman, A V; Rachakonda, P S; Hosen, I; da Silva Filho, M I; Holroyd, A; Dobbins, S E; Koehler, R; Thomsen, H; Irving, J A; Allan, J M; Lightfoot, T; Roman, E; Kinsey, S E; Sheridan, E; Thompson, P D; Hoffmann, P; Nöthen, M M; Heilmann-Heimbach, S; Jöckel, K H; Greaves, M; Harrison, C J; Bartram, C R; Schrappe, M; Stanulla, M; Hemminki, K; Houlston, R S
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To identify new susceptibility loci for the largest subtype of ALL, B-cell precursor ALL (BCP-ALL), we conducted a meta-analysis of two GWASs with imputation using 1000 Genomes and UK10K Project data as reference (totaling 1658 cases and 7224 controls). After genotyping an additional 2525 cases and 3575 controls, we identify new susceptibility loci for BCP-ALL mapping to 10q26.13 (rs35837782, LHPP, P=1.38 × 10−11) and 12q23.1 (rs4762284, ELK3, P=8.41 × 10−9). We also provide confirmatory evidence for the existence of independent risk loci at 9p21.3, but show that the association marked by rs77728904 can be accounted for by linkage disequilibrium with the rare high-impact CDKN2A p.Ala148Thr variant rs3731249. Our data provide further insights into genetic susceptibility to ALL and its biology. PMID:27694927
Rouce, R H; Shaim, H; Sekine, T; Weber, G; Ballard, B; Ku, S; Barese, C; Murali, V; Wu, M-F; Liu, H; Shpall, E J; Bollard, C M; Rabin, K R; Rezvani, K
Natural killer (NK) cells are key components of the innate immune system, providing potent antitumor immunity. Here, we show that the tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β)/SMAD signaling pathway is an important mechanism for NK cell immune evasion in childhood B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We characterized NK cells in 50 consecutive children with B-ALL at diagnosis, end induction and during maintenance therapy compared with age-matched controls. ALL-NK cells at diagnosis had an inhibitory phenotype associated with impaired function, most notably interferon-γ production and cytotoxicity. By maintenance therapy, these phenotypic and functional abnormalities partially normalized; however, cytotoxicity against autologous blasts remained impaired. We identified ALL-derived TGF-β1 to be an important mediator of leukemia-induced NK cell dysfunction. The TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway was constitutively activated in ALL-NK cells at diagnosis and end induction when compared with healthy controls and patients during maintenance therapy. Culture of ALL blasts with healthy NK cells induced NK dysfunction and an inhibitory phenotype, mediated by activation of the TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathway, and abrogated by blocking TGF-β. These data indicate that by regulating the TGF-β/SMAD pathway, ALL blasts induce changes in NK cells to evade innate immune surveillance, thus highlighting the importance of developing novel therapies to target this inhibitory pathway and restore antileukemic cytotoxicity.
Purizaca, Jessica; Contreras-Quiroz, Adriana; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa; Vadillo, Eduardo; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Fuentes-Figueroa, Silvestre; Villagomez-Barragán, Horacio; Flores-Guzmán, Patricia; Alvarado-Moreno, Antonio; Mayani, Hector; Meza, Isaura; Hernandez, Rosaura; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Pelayo, Rosana
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most frequent malignancy of childhood. Substantial progress on understanding the cell hierarchy within ALL bone marrow (BM) has been recorded in the last few years, suggesting that both primitive cell fractions and committed lymphoid blasts with immature stem cell-like properties contain leukemia-initiating cells. Nevertheless, the biology of the early progenitors that initiate the lymphoid program remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of lymphoid progenitors from B-cell precursor ALL BM to proliferate and undergo multilineage differentiation. By phenotype analyses, in vitro proliferation assays, and controlled culture systems, the lymphoid differentiation potentials were evaluated in BM primitive populations from B-cell precursor ALL pediatric patients. When compared to their normal counterparts, functional stem and progenitor cell contents were substantially reduced in ALL BM. Moreover, neither B nor NK or dendritic lymphoid-cell populations developed recurrently from highly purified ALL-lymphoid progenitors, and their proliferation and cell cycle status revealed limited proliferative capacity. Interestingly, a number of quiescence-associated transcription factors were elevated, including the transcriptional repressor Gfi-1, which was highly expressed in primitive CD34⁺ cells. Together, our findings reveal major functional defects in the primitive hematopoietic component of ALL BM. A possible contribution of high levels of Gfi-1 expression in the regulation of the stem/progenitor cell biology is suggested.
Sklar, C.A.; Robison, L.L.; Nesbit, M.E.; Sather, H.N.; Meadows, A.T.; Ortega, J.A.; Kim, T.H.; Hammond, G.D. )
Testicular function was evaluated in 60 long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). All the patients were treated on two consecutive Children Cancer Study Group protocols and received identical chemotherapy and either 18 or 24 Gy radiation therapy (RT) to one of the following fields: craniospinal plus 12 Gy abdominal RT including the gonads (group 1); craniospinal (group 2); or cranial (group 3). The median age at the time of their last evaluation was 14.5 years (range, 10.5 to 25.7), which took place a median of 5.0 years (range, 1 to 10.3) after discontinuing therapy. The incidence of primary germ cell dysfunction as judged by raised levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and/or reduced testicular volume was significantly associated with field of RT; 55% of group 1, 17% of group 2, and 0% of group 3 were abnormal (P = .002). Leydig cell function, as assessed by plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone, and pubertal development, was unaffected in the majority of subjects regardless of RT field. These data indicate that in boys undergoing therapy for ALL, germ cell dysfunction is common following testicular irradiation and can occur following exposure to scattered irradiation from craniospinal RT. In contrast, Leydig cell function appears resistant to direct irradiation with doses as high as 12 Gy.
Schunior, A.; Zengel, A.E.; Mullenix, P.J.; Tarbell, N.J.; Howes, A.; Tassinari, M.S. )
Many long term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have short stature, as well as craniofacial and dental abnormalities, as side effects of central nervous system prophylactic therapy. An animal model is presented to assess these adverse effects on growth. Cranial irradiation (1000 cGy) with and without prednisolone (18 mg/kg i.p.) and methotrexate (2 mg/kg i.p.) was administered to 17- and 18-day-old Sprague-Dawley male and female rats. Animals were weighed 3 times/week. Final body weight and body length were measured at 150 days of age. Femur length and craniofacial dimensions were measured directly from the bones, using calipers. For all exposed groups there was a permanent suppression of weight gain with no catch-up growth or normal adolescent growth spurt. Body length was reduced for all treated groups, as were the ratios of body weight to body length and cranial length to body length. Animals subjected to cranial irradiation exhibited microcephaly, whereas those who received a combination of radiation and chemotherapy demonstrated altered craniofacial proportions in addition to microcephaly. Changes in growth patterns and skeletal proportions exhibited sexually dimorphic characteristics. The results indicate that cranial irradiation is a major factor in the growth failure in exposed rats, but chemotherapeutic agents contribute significantly to the outcome of growth and craniofacial dimensions.
Alloin, Anne-Lise; Barlogis, Vincent; Auquier, Pascal; Contet, Audrey; Poiree, Maryline; Demeocq, François; Herrmann, Iris; Villes, Virginie; Bertrand, Yves; Plantaz, Dominique; Kanold, Justyna; Chastagner, Pascal; Chambost, Hervé; Sirvent, Nicolas; Michel, Gérard
Corticosteroid and central nervous system (CNS) irradiation can induce cataract in childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia survivors. Few prospective studies with systematic ophthalmological evaluation have been published. Cataract was prospectively assessed by serial slip lamp tests in 517 patients. All had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, all had been treated by chemotherapy with or without CNS irradiation, and none had received haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Median ages at last evaluation and follow-up duration from leukaemia diagnosis were 16·8 and 10·9 years, respectively. Cataract was observed in 21/517 patients (4·1%). Cumulative incidence was 4·5 ± 1·2% at 15 years and reached 26 ± 8·1% at 25 years. CNS irradiation was the only risk factor: prevalence was 11·1% in patients who had received irradiation and 2·8% in those who did not. We did not detect any steroid dose effect: cumulative dose was 5133 and 5190 mg/m(2) in patients with and without cataract, respectively. Cataract occurrence did not significantly impact quality of life. We conclude that, in the range of steroid dose reported here, the cataract risk proves very low 15 years after treatment without CNS irradiation but an even more prolonged follow-up is required because of potential very late occurrence.
Hossain, Md Jobayer; Xie, Li
Sex variation has been persistently investigated in studies concerning acute myeloid leukemia (AML) survival outcomes but has not been fully explored among pediatric and young adult AML patients. We detected sex difference in the survival of AML patients diagnosed at ages 0-24 years and explored distinct effects of sex across subgroups of age at diagnosis, race-ethnicity and AML subtypes utilizing the United States Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) population based dataset of 4865 patients diagnosed with AML between 1973 and 2012. Kaplan-Meier survival function, propensity scores and stratified Cox proportional hazards regression were used for data analyses. After controlling for other prognostic factors, females showed a significant survival advantage over their male counterparts, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.00-1.18). Compared to females, male patients had substantially increased risk of mortality in the following subgroups of: ages 20-24 years at diagnosis (aHR1.30), Caucasian (1.14), acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) (1.35), acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) (1.39), AML with inv(16)(p13.1q22) (2.57), AML with minimum differentiation (1.47); and had substantially decreased aHR in AML t(9;11)(p22;q23) (0.57) and AML with maturation (0.82). Overall, females demonstrated increased survival over males and this disparity was considerably large in patients ages 20-24 years at diagnosis, Caucasians, and in AML subtypes of AML inv(16), APL and AEL. In contrast, males with AML t(9;11)(p22;q23), AML with maturation and age at diagnosis of 10-14 years showed survival benefit. Further investigations are needed to detect the biological processes influencing the mechanisms of these interactions.
Amarasiri de Silva, M W; Wijekoon, A; Hornik, R; Martines, J
This paper examines care-seeking practices of mother caretakers with children less than five years of age in a rural district of Sri Lanka. The study was carried out from June to September 1998, documenting care-seeking practices of mother caretakers in a population of 2248 children in 60 villages. Of the five targeted diseases in the IMCI programme (Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses) that were the focus of the study, acute respiratory infections (82.0%) and diarrhoea (14.8%) were predominant. Although malnutrition was highly prevalent it was not recognised by mother caretakers as an illness. Findings show that in 65.0% of illness episodes in children the mother caretakers sought outside care and treatment. Caretakers sought treatment from both private and public sectors with the majority seeking care in the private sector. Care seeking of mother caretakers was driven by symptomology. Young children with higher perceived severity and high-risk symptoms were brought to provider care more frequently, although a large percentage of episodes with low-risk symptoms were also brought for outside care. Care seeking was similar across socio-economic groups. The study points out that high care seeking of mother caretakers in Sri Lanka, particularly for illnesses with acute high-risk symptoms and signs, is a plausible explanation for the low level of childhood mortality despite the prevalence of a high rate of malnutrition.
Mullenix, P.J.; Kernan, W.J.; Tassinari, M.S.; Schunior, A.; Waber, D.P.; Howes, A.; Tarbell, N.J. )
Central nervous system prophylactic therapy used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia can reduce intelligence quotient scores and impair memory and attention in children. Cranial irradiation, intrathecal methotrexate, and steroids are commonly utilized in acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. How they induce neurotoxicity is unknown. This study employs an animal model to explore the induction of neurotoxicity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at 17 and 18 days of age were administered 18 mg/kg prednisolone, 2 mg/kg methotrexate, and 1000 cGy cranial irradiation. Another 18-day-old group was administered 1000 cGy cranial irradiation but no drugs. Matching controls received saline and/or a sham exposure to radiation. All animals at 6 weeks and 4 months of age were tested for alterations in spontaneous behavior. A computer pattern recognition system automatically recorded and classified individual behavioral acts displayed during exploration of a novel environment. Measures of behavioral initiations, total time, and time structure were used to compare treated and control animals. A permanent sex-specific change in the time structure of behavior was induced by the prednisolone, methotrexate, and radiation treatment but not by radiation alone. Unlike hyperactivity, the effect consisted of abnormal clustering and dispersion of acts in a pattern indicative of disrupted development of sexually dimorphic behavior. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an animal model delineating the agent/agents responsible for the neurotoxicity of central nervous system prophylactic therapy.
Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Marjanovic, Irena; Kostic, Jelena; Stanic, Bojana; Pejanovic, Nadja; Lucic, Bojana; Karan-Djurasevic, Teodora; Janic, Dragana; Dokmanovic, Lidija; Jankovic, Srdja; Vukovic, Nada Suvajdzic; Tomin, Dragica; Perisic, Ognjen; Rakocevic, Goran; Popovic, Milos; Pavlovic, Sonja; Tosic, Natasa
The age-specific differences in the genetic mechanisms of myeloid leukemogenesis have been observed and studied previously. However, NGS technology has provided a possibility to obtain a large amount of mutation data. We analyzed DNA samples from 20 childhood (cAML) and 20 adult AML (aAML) patients, using NGS targeted sequencing. The average coverage of high-quality sequences was 2981 × per amplicon. A total of 412 (207 cAML, 205 aAML) variants in the coding regions were detected; out of which, only 122 (62 cAML and 60 aAML) were potentially protein-changing. Our results confirmed that AML contains small number of genetic alterations (median 3 mutations/patient in both groups). The prevalence of the most frequent single gene AML associated mutations differed in cAML and aAML patient cohorts: IDH1 (0 % cAML, 5 % aAML), IDH2 (0 % cAML, 10 % aAML), NPM1 (10 % cAML, 35 % aAML). Additionally, potentially protein-changing variants were found in tyrosine kinase genes or genes encoding tyrosine kinase associated proteins (JAK3, ABL1, GNAQ, and EGFR) in cAML, while among aAML, the prevalence is directed towards variants in the methylation and histone modifying genes (IDH1, IDH2, and SMARCB1). Besides uniform genomic profile of AML, specific genetic characteristic was exclusively detected in cAML and aAML.
Takata, Kohei; Zhang, Bo; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Saku, Keijiro
The prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) is increasing globally and they have become the leading cause of death in most countries. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have been conducted to identify major risk factors and effective control strategies for ASCVDs. The development of imaging modalities with the ability to determine the plaque composition enables us to further identify high-risk plaque and evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment strategies. While intensive lipid-lowering by statins can stabilize or even regress plaque by various mechanisms, such as the reduction of lipid accumulation in a necrotic lipid core, the reduction of inflammation, and improvement of endothelial function, there are still considerable residual risks that need to be understood. We reviewed important findings regarding plaque vulnerability and some encouraging emerging approaches for plaque stabilization. PMID:27500090
Appleyard, Karen; Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L Alan
This study is unique in addressing developmental correlates of direct social support for young children in a high risk sample, in contrast to previous studies addressing social support for caregivers. Participants were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of at-risk children. Social support was rated from maternal interviews throughout early childhood. Support from the mother was assessed from mother-child observations. Outcomes included internalizing and externalizing behavior problems measured from first through tenth grades. The most common support providers were biological fathers, followed by grandparents and other providers. Using multilevel modeling, higher quantity, higher quality, and lower disruption of support predicted lower starting levels of behavior problems, controlling for support from the mother. Disruption was associated with change in slope. Gender differences were found for externalizing behavior intercepts. Social support provides a promotive factor for young high risk children. Implications include involving children's social support providers in prevention and intervention programs.
Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Eshtehardi, Parham; Brown, Adam J; Bhargava, Ankit; Costopoulos, Charis; Hung, Olivia Y; Corban, Michel T; Hosseini, Hossein; Gogas, Bill D; Giddens, Don P; Samady, Habib
In recent years, there has been a significant effort to identify high-risk plaques in vivo prior to acute events. While number of imaging modalities have been developed to identify morphologic characteristics of high-risk plaques, prospective natural-history observational studies suggest that vulnerability is not solely dependent on plaque morphology and likely involves additional contributing mechanisms. High wall shear stress (WSS) has recently been proposed as one possible causative factor, promoting the development of high-risk plaques. High WSS has been shown to induce specific changes in endothelial cell behavior, exacerbating inflammation and stimulating progression of the atherosclerotic lipid core. In line with experimental and autopsy studies, several human studies have shown associations between high WSS and known morphological features of high-risk plaques. However, despite increasing evidence, there is still no longitudinal data linking high WSS to clinical events. As the interplay between atherosclerotic plaque, artery, and WSS is highly dynamic, large natural history studies of atherosclerosis that include WSS measurements are now warranted. This review will summarize the available clinical evidence on high WSS as a possible etiological mechanism underlying high-risk plaque development.
Hunger, Stephen P; Sung, Lillian; Howard, Scott C
Cure rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are 80-85% in high-income countries (HICs) in North America and Western Europe. However, cure rates are much lower in many low-income countries (LICs), where most cases of ALL occur. Over the past several decades partnerships ("twinning") between HIC and LIC pediatric oncology programs have led to major improvements in outcome for children with ALL in some LICs, often by developing time and resource intensive relationships that allow LIC centers to treat children with regimens similar or identical to those used in HICs. However, the resources are not available in most LICs to allow immediate introduction of intensive ALL treatment regimens similar to those used in HICs. With these thoughts in mind, we present a proposal for a systematic and graduated approach to ALL diagnosis, risk classification, and treatment in LICs. We have based the strategy and the proposed regimens on those developed by the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and Children's Oncology Group (COG) over the past several decades, beginning with a first level regimen similar to CCG therapy of the early 1980s and then layering on successive treatment intensifications proven effective in randomized clinical trials. Simple monitoring rules are included to help centers decide when they are ready to add new treatment components. This proposal provides a framework that LIC centers can use to provide effective ALL therapy, particularly in regions of the world where few children are currently being cured.
Rajić, Vladan; Debeljak, Maruša; Goričar, Katja; Jazbec, Janez
l-asparaginase is an effective antineoplastic agent used in chemotherapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The drug effect may be compromised by an elicited immune response, resulting in the production of anti-asparaginase antibodies causing an anaphylactic reaction or silent inactivation of the enzyme. To elucidate possible genetic predisposition for inter-individual differences in asparaginase hypersensitivity, we studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GRIA1 gene in 146 pediatric patients treated with l-asparaginase. Allergic reaction to l-asparaginase occurred in 49.3% of patients. We observed a statistically significant association between SNPs in the GRIA1 gene and the occurrence of asparaginase allergy: rs4958351 with p = 0.003, rs4958676 with p = 0.005, rs6889909 with p = 0.005, rs6890057 with p = 0.005 and rs10070447 with p = 0.006. We found a statistically significant correlation between asparaginase allergy and event-free survival (p-value 0.005).
Perez-Saldivar, Maria Luisa; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel Carlos; Fajardo-Gutierrez, Arturo; Bernaldez-Rios, Roberto; del Campo-Martinez, Maria de los Angeles; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Palomo-Colli, Miguel Angel; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Martínez-Avalos, Armando; Borja-Aburto, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Rivera, Maria de Jesus; Vargas-Garcia, Victor Manuel; Zarco-Contreras, Jesus; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Mejia-Arangure, Juan Manuel
Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL) in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR) of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s). In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI) was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an expert's opinion. Results The
Richter, Darko; Anca, Ioana; André, Francis E; Bakir, Mustafa; Chlibek, Roman; Čižman, Milan; Mangarov, Atanas; Mészner, Zsófia; Pokorn, Marko; Prymula, Roman; Salman, Nuran; Simurka, Pavol; Tamm, Eda; Tešović, Goran; Urbančíková, Ingrid; Usonis, Vytautas; Wysocki, Jacek; Zavadska, Dace; Central European Vaccination Awareness Group
Over the last decade, childhood immunization has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases. However, particular paediatric risk groups, such as those with comorbidities, may not be adequately vaccinated despite being more susceptible to complications and death from certain infectious diseases. This may be due to lack of immunization recommendations, lack of awareness, or incomplete adherence to existing guidelines. Furthermore, recommendations for immunization can be inconsistent across Europe. An expanded initiative from the Central European Vaccination Awareness Group aims to raise awareness of the different high-risk paediatric groups, differentiate them according to their specific risk, and formalise a guidance statement for the immunization of each population.
Drug efficacy might differ from clinical trial results when performed in clinical daily conditions. Therefore, it is mandatory to conduct trials about effectiveness to improve external validity. This post-authorization, open-label, noncontrolled, prospective, multicenter, observational, and naturalistic trial was designed to search for factors influencing the racecadotril overall effect on childhood acute watery diarrhea in a real-world setting of Venezuela. There were 3,873 children with acute watery diarrhea treated with racecadotril, an enkephalin breakdown blocker plus oral rehydration therapy by 97 pediatricians. Evaluations were carried out daily until emission of two consecutive formed stools or absence of watery bowel movements for 24 hours. The primary end-point was time-to-relief, defined as the time from first racecadotril dose to the last watery bowel movement time. Age, gender, nursing type, nursing status during diarrhea, diarrhea severity, and co-medication were considered as factors in the statistical analysis. The primary end-point was evaluated by factors using UNIANOVA, and post-hoc tests were done. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to identify factors affecting drug performance, racecadotril effectiveness and tolerability overall assessment was searched by physicians and patients, and inter-observer agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. The mean time-to-relief was 18.5 ± 12.5 hours [95% confidence interval 17.9–19.0] and the diarrhea severity was the only variable with significant and independent weight on racecadotril effectiveness explaining 23% of time-to-relief variance, but even in severe diarrhea cases this time was less than 24 hours. High agreement about satisfactory perception on effectiveness and tolerability was reached among physicians and patients. In conclusion, the racecadotril overall effect, evaluated in a real-world setting of Venezuela, was in agreement with results of some earlier controlled trials. It
Jones, Caroline H D; Neill, Sarah; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian; Singlehurst-Mooney, Hayley; Thompson, Matthew
Objective To explore the views of parents and clinicians regarding the optimal content, format and delivery of safety netting information for acute childhood illness. Design Qualitative study including semistructured focus groups and interviews. Setting First contact care settings, community centres, children's centres and nurseries in the Midlands, UK. Participants 27 parents from a travelling community, Asian British community and white British community. Sixteen clinicians including 10 doctors and 6 nurses from a general practice surgery, an out-of-hours service and two emergency departments (paediatric and combined adult and paediatric). Results Participants described a need for safety netting to contain information on signs and symptoms of serious and common illnesses, illness management and where and when to seek help. Resources should be basic, simple to use and contain simple symbols. A key criterion was professional endorsement of resources. Internet-based information was desired which is reliable, consistent and up-to-date. Participants described a need for different types of information: that which could be delivered during consultations, as well as more general information for parents to access before consulting a healthcare professional. Face-to-face education, written materials and digital media were suggested delivery mechanisms. Audiovisual material was preferred by families with low literacy. Participants commonly suggested internet-based and phone-based resources, but the travelling community was less comfortable with these approaches. Conclusions A multifaceted and tailored approach to safety netting is needed so that effective resources are available for parents with varying information needs, literacy levels and ability to use information technology. We have identified key aspects of content, quality criteria, format and delivery mechanisms for safety netting information from the perspectives of clinicians and parents. Resources should be
Reed, David M.; Daye, S. S.; Lincer, R. M.
Cholecystostomy is frequently performed to obtain control of sepsis in high risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Retained stones in the gallbladder may cause future clinical problems. We present two patients with cholecystostomy tubes managed non-operatively. A review of other reported methods for stone extraction or destruction is also presented. Knowledge of safe and effective techniques for removal of these stones, using minimally invasive techniques is useful to the general surgeon.
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Levinsen, Mette; Harila-Saari, Arja; Grell, Kathrine; Jonsson, Olafur Gisli; Taskinen, Mervi; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Vettenranta, Kim; Åsberg, Ann; Risteli, Juha; Heldrup, Jesper; Schmiegelow, Kjeld
We investigated efficacy and toxicity of replacing conventional triple (cytarabine, methotrexate, and hydrocortisone) intrathecal therapy (TIT) with liposomal cytarabine during maintenance therapy among 40 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Twenty-eight of 29 patients in the TIT arm received TIT and 9/11 in the liposomal cytarabine arm received liposomal cytarabine. Arachnoiditis occurred in all initial 5 patients given liposomal cytarabine and intrathecal prednisolone succinate. Subsequently liposomal cytarabine was given with systemic dexamethasone. Neurotoxicity occurred at 6/27 liposomal cytarabine administrations with concomitant dexamethasone (22%). More liposomal cytarabine-treated patients experienced neurotoxicity in relation to intrathecal therapy during at least 1 cycle compared with TIT-treated patients (6/9 [67%] vs. 3/28 [11%], P=0.002). Apart from intermittent lower extremity sensory pain in 1 liposomal cytarabine-treated patient, no permanent adverse neurological sequelae were observed. In intention-to-treat analysis, projected 5-year event-free survival (pEFS-5y) was borderline higher for patients in the liposomal cytarabine arm compared with the TIT arm (1.0 vs. 0.69, P=0.046). However, pEFS-5y and projected 5-year relapse-free survival did not differ signficantly between patients treated with liposomal cytarabine or TIT (1.0 vs. 0.73, P=0.10; 1.0 vs. 0.76, P=0.12). Larger prospective trials are needed to explore whether liposomal cytarabine should be used as first-line prevention of relapse.
Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You
Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists.
United States General Accounting Office GAO Information for House MajorityLeader Richard Armey and Representative Pete Sessions May 1997 GH-RISK ID...Information on Selected High-Risk Areas Corporate Author Or Publisher: General Accounting Office, GAO, Washington, DC 20548 Report Number: GAO/IHR-97-30 Report...Library: 000001 Record ID: 45053 GAO United States General Accounting OfficeWashington, D.C. 20548 Accounting and Information Management Division May
Hanson, R Karl; Harris, Andrew J R; Helmus, Leslie; Thornton, David
This study examined the extent to which sexual offenders present an enduring risk for sexual recidivism over a 20-year follow-up period. Using an aggregated sample of 7,740 sexual offenders from 21 samples, the yearly recidivism rates were calculated using survival analysis. Overall, the risk of sexual recidivism was highest during the first few years after release, and decreased substantially the longer individuals remained sex offense-free in the community. This pattern was particularly strong for the high-risk sexual offenders (defined by Static-99R scores). Whereas the 5-year sexual recidivism rate for high-risk sex offenders was 22% from the time of release, this rate decreased to 4.2% for the offenders in the same static risk category who remained offense-free in the community for 10 years. The recidivism rates of the low-risk offenders were consistently low (1%-5%) for all time periods. The results suggest that offense history is a valid, but time-dependent, indicator of the propensity to sexually reoffend. Further research is needed to explain the substantial rate of desistance by high-risk sexual offenders.
Balduzzi, Adriana; Di Maio, Lucia; Silvestri, Daniela; Songia, Simona; Bonanomi, Sonia; Rovelli, Attilio; Conter, Valentino; Biondi, Andrea; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Valsecchi, Maria G
Eighty-two children and adolescents who underwent allogeneic transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in remission (period 2001-2011, median follow-up 4·9 years) had been assessed for minimal residual disease (MRD) by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction before and at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after transplantation. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) and cumulative incidence of relapse were 77·7% [standard error (SE) 5·7] and 11·4% (SE 4·4), respectively, for patients with pre-transplant MRD <1 × 10(-4) (68%), versus 30·8% (SE 9·1; P < 0·001) and 61·5% (SE 9·5; P < 0·001), respectively, for those with MRD ≥1 × 10(-4) (32%). Pre-transplant MRD ≥1 × 10(-4) was associated with a 9·2-fold risk of relapse [95% confidence interval (CI) 3·54-23·88; P < 0·001] compared with patients with MRD <1 × 10(-4). Patients who received additional chemotherapy pre-transplant to reduce MRD had a fivefold reduction of risk of failure (hazard ratio 0·19, CI 0·05-0·70, P = 0·01). Patients who experienced MRD positivity post-transplant did not necessarily relapse (5-year EFS 40·3%, SE 9·3), but had a 2·5-fold risk of failure (CI 1·05-5·75; P = 0·04) if any MRD was detected in the first 100 d, which increased to 7·8-fold (CI 2·2-27·78; P = 0·002) if detected after 6 months. Anticipated immunosuppression-tapering according to MRD may have improved outcome, nevertheless all patients with post-transplant MRD ≥1 × 10(-3) ultimately relapsed, regardless of immunosuppression discontinuation or donor-lymphocyte-infusion. In conclusion, MRD before transplantation had the strongest impact on relapse and MRD positivity after transplantation, mostly if detected early and at low levels, did not necessarily imply relapse. Additional intensified chemotherapy and modulation of immunosuppression may reduce relapse risk and improve ultimate outcome.
Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan; Bechdolf, Andreas; Addington, Jean; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Keshavan, Matcheri; Wood, Stephen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Seidman, Larry J.; Valmaggia, Lucia; Cannon, Tyrone; Velthorst, Eva; De Haan, Lieuwe; Cornblatt, Barbara; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Birchwood, Max; McGlashan, Thomas; Carpenter, William; McGorry, Patrick; Klosterkötter, Joachim; McGuire, Philip; Yung, Alison
Context During the past 2 decades, a major transition in the clinical characterization of psychotic disorders has occurred. The construct of a clinical high-risk (HR) state for psychosis has evolved to capture the prepsychotic phase, describing people presenting with potentially prodromal symptoms. The importance of this HR state has been increasingly recognized to such an extent that a new syndrome is being considered as a diagnostic category in the DSM-5. Objective To reframe the HR state in a comprehensive state-of-the-art review on the progress that has been made while also recognizing the challenges that remain. Data Sources Available HR research of the past 20 years from PubMed, books, meetings, abstracts, and international conferences. Study Selection and Data Extraction Critical review of HR studies addressing historical development, inclusion criteria, epidemiologic research, transition criteria, outcomes, clinical and functional characteristics, neurocognition, neuroimaging, predictors of psychosis development, treatment trials, socioeconomic aspects, nosography, and future challenges in the field. Data Synthesis Relevant articles retrieved in the literature search were discussed by a large group of leading worldwide experts in the field. The core results are presented after consensus and are summarized in illustrative tables and figures. Conclusions The relatively new field of HR research in psychosis is exciting. It has the potential to shed light on the development of major psychotic disorders and to alter their course. It also provides a rationale for service provision to those in need of help who could not previously access it and the possibility of changing trajectories for those with vulnerability to psychotic illnesses. PMID:23165428
... SUBSCRIBE Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Childhood Emergencies Keeping children healthy and safe is every ... and tools to prevent, recognize and address a childhood emergency is the first step in keeping your ...
Childhood schizophrenia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Childhood schizophrenia is an uncommon but severe mental disorder in which children interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognitive), ...
... Library ▸ Asthma Library ▸ Childhood asthma TTR Share | Childhood Asthma Children with recurrent cough, wheezing, chest tightness or ... breath may have one or more forms of asthma. Left untreated, asthmatic children often have less stamina ...
Adult B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1; Childhood B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Down Syndrome; Stage I B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II B Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Núñez-Enríquez, J C; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, A; Buchán-Durán, E P; Bernáldez-Ríos, R; Medina-Sansón, A; Jiménez-Hernández, E; Amador-Sanchez, R; Peñaloza-Gonzalez, J G; Paredes-Aguilera, R; Alvarez-Rodriguez, F J; Bolea-Murga, V; de Diego Flores-Chapa, J; Flores-Lujano, J; Bekker-Mendez, V C; Rivera-Luna, R; del Carmen Rodriguez-Zepeda, M; Rangel-López, A; Dorantes-Acosta, E M; Núñez-Villegas, N; Velazquez-Aviña, M M; Torres-Nava, J R; Reyes-Zepeda, N C; Cárdenas-Cardos, R; Flores-Villegas, L V; Martinez-Avalos, A; Salamanca-Gómez, F; Gorodezky, C; Arellano-Galindo, J; Mejía-Aranguré, J M
Background: Allergies have been described as protective factors against the development of childhood acute leukaemia (AL). Our objective was to investigate the associations between allergy history and the development of AL and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: A case–control study was performed in Mexico City. The cases (n=97) were diagnosed at nine public hospitals, and the controls (n=222) were recruited at institutions for children with DS. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Results: Asthma was positively associated with AL development (OR=4.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–11.87), whereas skin allergies were negatively associated (OR=0.42; 95% CI: 0.20–0.91). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that allergies and AL in children with DS share biological and immune mechanisms. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting associations between allergies and AL in children with DS. PMID:23695017
Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Rudant, Jérémie; Orsi, Laurent; Bonaventure, Audrey; Goujon-Bellec, Stéphanie; Baruchel, André; Petit, Arnaud; Bertrand, Yves; Nelken, Brigitte; Pasquet, Marlène; Michel, Gérard; Saumet, Laure; Chastagner, Pascal; Ducassou, Stéphane; Réguerre, Yves; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified that frequent polymorphisms in ARID5B and IKZF1, two genes involved in lymphoid differentiation, increase the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These findings markedly modified the current field of research on the etiology of ALL. In this new context, the present exploratory study investigated the possible interactions between these at-risk alleles and the non-genetic suspected ALL risk factors that were of sufficient prevalence in the French ESCALE study: maternal use of home insecticides during pregnancy, preconception paternal smoking, and some proxies for early immune modulation, i.e. breastfeeding, history of common infections before age one year, and birth order. The analyses were based on 434 ALL cases and 442 controls of European origin, drawn from the nationwide population-based case-control study ESCALE. Information on non-genetic factors was obtained by standardized telephone interview. Interactions between rs10740055 in ARID5B or rs4132601 in IKZF1 and each of the suspected non-genetic factors were tested, with the SNPs coded as counts of minor alleles (trend variable). Statistical interactions were observed between rs4132601 and maternal insecticide use (p = 0.012), breastfeeding p = 0.017) and repeated early common infections (p = 0.0070), with allelic odds ratios (OR) which were only increased among the children not exposed to insecticides (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.3, 2.4), those who had been breastfed (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.3, 2.5) and those who had had repeated early common infections (OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.5, 3.8). The allelic ORs were close to one among children exposed to insecticides, who had not been breastfed and who had had no or few common infections. Repeated early common infections interacted with rs10740055 (p = 0.018) in the case-only design. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether these observations of a modification of the effect of the at-risk alleles by non
Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Chimiklis, Alyssa; Wymbs, Frances A.; Pelham, William E.
Behavioral parent training (BPT) is an evidence-based intervention for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and related disruptive behavioral disorders of childhood. Despite convincing data on effectiveness, engagement to BPT, particularly for high-risk families, has been a long standing, yet understudied, issue. Data…
Homaira, Nusrat; Rawlinson, William; Snelling, Thomas L; Jaffe, Adam
Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.
Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Jodiery, Behzad; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Heidarabadi, Seifollah; HabibeLahi, Abbas
Abstract Background Intervention in early childhood development as one of the social determinants of health, is important for reducing social gap and inequity. In spite of increasingly developing intensive neonatal care wards and decreasing neonatal mortality rate, there is no follow up program in Iran. This study was carreid out to design high risk infants follow up care program with the practical aim of creating an model action for whole country, in 2012. Methods This qualitative study has been done by the Neonatal Department of the Deputy of Public Health in cooperation with Pediatrics Health Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. After study of international documents, consensus agreement about adapted program for Iran has been accomplished by focus group discussion and attended Delphi agreement technique. After compiling primary draft included evidence based guidelines and executive plan, 14 sessions including expert panels were hold to finalize the program. Results After finalizing the program, high risk infants follow up care service package has been designed in 3 chapters: Evidence based clinical guidelines; eighteen main clinical guidelines and thirteen subsidiaries clinical guidelines, executive plan; 6 general, 6 following up and 5 backup processes. Education program including general and especial courses for care givers and follow up team, and family education processes. Conclusion We designed and finalized high risk infants follow up care service package. It seems to open a way to extend it to whole country. PMID:26171344
Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Drum, Melinda L.; Gaumer, Elyzabeth; Surawska, Hanna; Jordan, Jeanne A.
Objective To estimate the prevalence, genotypes, and individual-level correlates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women aged 57–85. Methods Community-residing women (n=1550), aged 57–85, were drawn from a nationally-representative probability sample. In-home interviews and biomeasures, including a self-collected vaginal specimen, were obtained between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were analyzed for high-risk HPV DNA using probe hybridization and signal amplification (hc2); of 1,028 specimens provided, 1,010 were adequate for analysis. All samples testing positive were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Results The overall population-based weighted estimate of high-risk HPV prevalence by hc2 was 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5 to 7.9). Current marital and smoking status, frequency of sexual activity, history of cancer, and hysterectomy were associated with high-risk HPV positivity. Among high-risk HPV+ women, 63% had multiple type infections. HPV 16 or 18 was present in 17.4% of all high-risk HPV+ women. The most common high-risk genotypes among high-risk HPV+ women were HPV 61 (19.1%), 31 (13.1%), 52 (12.9%), 58 (12.5%), 83 (12.3%), 66(12.0%), 51 (11.7%), 45 (11.2%), 56 (10.3%), 53 (10.2%), 16 (9.7%), and 62 (9.2%). Being married and having an intact uterus were independently associated with lower prevalence of high-risk HPV. Among unmarried women, current sexual activity and smoking were independently and positively associated with high-risk HPV infection. Conclusions In this nationally representative population, nearly 1 in 16 women aged 57–85 were found to have high-risk HPV and prevalence was stable across older age groups. PMID:18978096
Gittman, Elizabeth; Cassata, Marian
A 5-year federally funded substance abuse prevention program targeted 426 high risk middle-school youth from 4 school districts in Nassau County, New York. Combining a child-centered model with a systemic approach, the program's goal was to prevent or delay the onset of alcohol and other drug use. High-risk youth were identified by school…
Levenson, Phyllis; And Others
Describes the program of the Demonstration and Training Center for High Risk or Mentally Retarded Infants of Teenage Mothers (ITAM), which aims at providing stimulation to the high-risk infant in order to enhance his/her development, and to offer educational and supportive programs for the teenage mother. (CM)
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High risk recipients. 35.6790 Section 35.6790 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6790 High risk recipients....
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High risk special award conditions. 14.14 Section 14.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.14 High risk special award...
Smiri, Zahreddine; Lahidheb, Dhaker; Hajlaoui, Néjib; Barakett, Nadia; Rahal, Néjib; Azzouzi, Foued; Fehri, Wafa; Mhenni, Hédi; Haouala, Habib
The treatment of acute coronary syndromes knows today revolution, with the clinical use of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. The benefit of these agents as adjunctive treatment for percutaneous coronary intervention has been substantial and consistently proved among trials; however patients undergoing revascularization after drug discontinuation demonstrated a moderate event reduction. In this analysis, including the entire large-scale trial experience of intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, we try to evaluate this therapeutic class in the high risk coronary intervention, in patients with acute coronary syndromes primarily medically managed, and in combination therapy with thrombolytics in the acute myocardial infarction. The purpose was to demonstrate the reduction of cardiac events after administration of this drug in the different indications and to precise their different adverse effects.
Abud, Tulio B.; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Dana, Reza
The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in the body. Although corneal grafts generally have high success rates, transplantation onto inflamed and vascularized host beds, or so-called high-risk corneal transplantation, has a high rate of graft rejection. The management of this high-risk corneal transplantation is challenging and involves numerous measures. One of the key measures to prevent graft rejection in these cases is the use of systemic immunosuppressive agents. In this article, we will review the systemic immunosuppressive agents most commonly used for high-risk corneal transplantation, which include corticosteroids, cysclosporine A, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin. Benefits, risks, and published data on the use of these medications for high-risk corneal transplantation will be detailed. We will also summarize novel immunoregulatory approaches that may be used to prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplantation. PMID:28299010
Abud, Tulio B; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Dana, Reza
The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in the body. Although corneal grafts generally have high success rates, transplantation onto inflamed and vascularized host beds, or so-called high-risk corneal transplantation, has a high rate of graft rejection. The management of this high-risk corneal transplantation is challenging and involves numerous measures. One of the key measures to prevent graft rejection in these cases is the use of systemic immunosuppressive agents. In this article, we will review the systemic immunosuppressive agents most commonly used for high-risk corneal transplantation, which include corticosteroids, cysclosporine A, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin. Benefits, risks, and published data on the use of these medications for high-risk corneal transplantation will be detailed. We will also summarize novel immunoregulatory approaches that may be used to prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplantation.
Sundi, Debasish; Wang, Vinson M.; Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Han, Misop; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Ball, Mark W.; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Partin, Alan W.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Ross, Ashley E.
Purpose Outcomes in men with NCCN high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) can vary substantially--some will have excellent cancer-specific survival, whereas others will experience early metastasis even after aggressive local treatments. Current nomograms, which yield continuous risk probabilities, do not separate high-risk PCa into distinct sub-strata. Here we derive a binary definition of very-high-risk (VHR) localized PCa to aid in risk stratification at diagnosis and selection of therapy. Materials and Methods We queried the Johns Hopkins radical prostatectomy database to identify 753 men with NCCN high-risk localized PCa (Gleason sum 8–10, PSA >20 ng/ml, or clinical stage ≥T3). 28 alternate permutations of adverse grade, stage, and cancer volume were compared by their hazard ratios for metastasis and cancer-specific mortality. VHR criteria with top-ranking hazard ratios were further evaluated by multivariable analyses and inclusion of a clinically meaningful proportion of the high-risk cohort. Results The VHR cohort was best defined by primary pattern 5 present on biopsy, or ≥5 cores with Gleason sum 8–10, or multiple NCCN high-risk features. These criteria encompassed 15.1% of the NCCN high-risk cohort. Compared to other high-risk men, VHR men were at significantly higher risk for metastasis (H.R. 2.75) and cancer-specific mortality (H.R. 3.44) (p <0.001 for both). Among high-risk men, VHR men also had significantly worse 10-year metastasis-free survival (37% vs 78%) and cancer-specific survival (62% vs 90%). Conclusions Men who meet VHR criteria form a subgroup within the current NCCN high-risk classification who have particularly poor oncologic outcomes. Use of these characteristics to distinguish VHR localized PCa may help in counseling and selection optimal candidates for multimodal treatments or clinical trials. PMID:24189998
Turner, Michael C
The increased use of cardiac computed tomography angiography in the emergency room to triage patients who present with chest pain syndrome has led to the identification of individuals with coronary plaques with high-risk characteristics in the absence of significant stenoses. Anecdotal observations have suggested that the presence of coronary high-risk plaque results in an increased risk of acute coronary syndrome over time. This case presentation represents an example of this subgroup of patients. Intuitively, it would seem that high-dose statin therapy would be the treatment of choice, with percutaneous intervention reserved for the development of flow-limiting lesions; however, a prospective trial to determine outcomes to our knowledge has not been performed.
Sulieman, Lina; Fabbri, Daniel; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Malin, Bradley A
Predicting negative outcomes, such as readmission or death, and detecting high-risk patients are important yet challenging problems in medical informatics. Various models have been proposed to detect high-risk patients; however, the state of the art relies on patient information collected before or at the time of discharge to predict future outcomes. In this paper, we investigate the effect of including data generated post discharge to predict negative outcomes. Specifically, we focus on two types of patients admitted to the Vanderbilt University Medical Center between 2010-2013: i) those with an acute event - 704 hip fractures and ii) those with chronic problems — 5250 congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. We show that the post-discharge model improved the AUC of the LACE index, a standard readmission scoring function, by 20 - 30%. Moreover, the new model resulted in higher AUCs by 15 - 27% for hip fracture and 10 - 12% for CHF compared to standard models. PMID:28269914
Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia That Has Responded to Treatment With Imatinib Mesylate, Dasatinib, or Nilotinib
Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Hardie, Claire; Green, Kile; Jopson, Laura; Millar, Ben; Innes, Barbara; Pagan, Sarah; Tiniakos, Dina; Dyson, Jessica; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Bigley, Venetia; Jones, David E; Brain, John; Walker, Lucy J
High-risk primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), defined by inadequate response at one year to Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is associated with disease progression and liver transplantation. Stratifying high-risk patients early would facilitate improved approaches to care. Using long-term follow-up data to define risk at presentation, 6 high-risk PBC patients and 8 low-risk patients were identified from biopsy, transplant and biochemical archival records. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies taken at presentation were graded (Scheuer and Nakanuma scoring) and gene expression analysed using the NanoString® nCounter PanCancer Immunity 770-gene panel. Principle component analysis (PCA) demonstrated discrete gene expression clustering between controls and high- and low-risk PBC. High-risk PBC was characterised by up-regulation of genes linked to T-cell activation and apoptosis, INF-γ signalling and leukocyte migration and down-regulation of those linked to the complement pathway. CDKN1a, up-regulated in high-risk PBC, correlated with significantly increased expression of its gene product, the senescence marker p21(WAF1/Cip), by biliary epithelial cells. Our findings suggest high- and low-risk PBC are biologically different from disease outset and senescence an early feature in high-risk disease. Identification of a high-risk 'signal' early from standard FFPE tissue sections has clear clinical utility allowing for patient stratification and second-line therapeutic intervention.
McDermott, Mary M.; Greenland, Philip; Liu, Kiang; Tian, Lu; Green, David; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Huffman, Mark; Wilkins, John; Kibbe, Melina; Liao, Yihua; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Skelly, Christopher; Jacobs, Chad; McCarthy, Walter; Auerbach, Amanda; Lloyd-Jones, Donald
BACKGROUND Basic research suggests that rapid increases in circulating inflammatory and hemostatic blood markers may trigger or indicate impending plaque rupture and coronary thrombosis, resulting in acute ischemic heart disease (IHD) events. However, these associations are not established in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS The Biomarker Risk Assessment in Vulnerable Outpatients (BRAVO) Study will determine whether levels of inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers rapidly increase during the weeks prior to an acute IHD event in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). The BRAVO Study will determine whether biomarker levels measured immediately prior to an IHD event are higher than levels not preceding an IHD event; whether participants who experience an IHD event (cases) have higher biomarker levels immediately prior to the event and higher biomarker levels at each time point leading up to the IHD event than participants without an IHD event (controls); and whether case participants have greater increases in biomarkers during the months leading up to the event than controls. BRAVO enrolled 595 patients with PAD, a population at high risk for acute IHD events. After a baseline visit, participants returned every two months for blood collection, underwent an electrocardiogram to identify new silent myocardial infarctions, and were queried about new hospitalizations since their prior study visit. Mortality data were also collected. Participants were followed prospectively for up to three years. CONCLUSIONS BRAVO results will provide important information about the pathophysiology of IHD events and may lead to improved therapies for preventing IHD events in high-risk patients. PMID:24721480
Li, Yi-Heng; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Charng, Min-Ji; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Chao, Ting-Hsing; Liu, Ping-Yen; Su, Cheng-Huang; Chien, Shih-Chieh; Liou, Chia-Wei; Tang, Sung-Chun; Lee, Chun-Chuan; Yu, Tse-Ya; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Wu, Chau-Chung; Yeh, Hung-I
-C should be lowered to < 100 mg/dL. Statin is necessary for DM patients with CV disease and the LDL-C target is < 70 mg/dL. For diabetic patients who are ≥ 40 years of age, or who are < 40 years of age but have additional CV risk factors, the LDL-C target should be < 100 mg/dL. After achieving LDL-C target, combination of other lipid-lowering agents with statin is reasonable to attain TG < 150 mg/dL and HDL-C >40 in men and >50 mg/dL in women in DM. LDL-C increased CV risk in patients with CKD. In adults with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73m(2) without chronic dialysis (CKD stage 3-5), statin therapy should be initiated if LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL. Ezetimibe can be added to statin to consolidate the CV protection in CKD patients. Mutations in LDL receptor, apolipoprotein B and PCSK9 genes are the common causes of FH. Diagnosis of FH usually depends on family history, clinical history of premature CAD, physical findings of xanthoma or corneal arcus and high levels of LDL-C. In addition to conventional lipid lowering therapies, adjunctive treatment with mipomersen, lomitapide, or PCSK9 inhibitors become necessary to further reduce LDL-C in patients with FH. Overall, these recommendations are to help the health care professionals in Taiwan to treat hyperlipidemia with current scientific evidences. We hope the prescription rate of lipid lowering drugs and control rate of hyperlipidemia in high risk patients could be increased by implementation of the clinical guidelines. The major purpose is to improve clinical outcomes of these high risk patients through the control of hyperlipidemia.
Soto, Lourdes Diaz
Describes how artwork can be a valuable catalyst for discussions in preservice education classes, allowing students to explore how their work as educators relates to their childhood memories and can be shaped by childhood experiences. Examines an art exhibition in which diverse artists depicted autobiographical text in their paintings. Discusses…
Miller, Michael D.
Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…
Mendler, Allen N.
Many youth use substances and engage in other high-risk behaviors in an attempt to allay the emptiness accompanying broken belongings. Schools can play important roles in fostering connections and creating the natural high that comes from success. (Author)
Meskin, Lawrence H.; And Others
A dental health program in an elementary school succeeded in identifying children considered to be "high risk" in oral health and, through treatment and education, significantly improved their dental health. (JD)
In this phase III clinical trial, patients with smoldering myeloma classified as high risk for progression will be randomly assigned to undergo standard observation or six 4-week courses of treatment with the drug lenalidomide.
Bennett, K J; Lipman, E L; Brown, S; Racine, Y; Boyle, M H; Offord, D R
Externalizing behavior symptoms (EBS) in childhood are a strong predictor of future conduct problems. This study evaluated their predictive accuracy using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve techniques. EBS, alone and in combination with other child and familial risk factors, were used to predict conduct problems 30 months later in a nonclinic population of kindergartners and Grade 1 children. The sensitivity (Sn) and positive predictive value (PPV) of EBS alone were below preset criteria of > or = 50% for each (prevalence < or = 15%). Sn and PPV increased when other child and familial factors were combined with symptoms but did not exceed the preset criteria. From a developmental perspective, substantial stability of EBS exists over time. However, from the perspective of prevention science, significant levels of misclassification will occur when EBS are used to designate high-risk status under the low-prevalence conditions of normal populations.
Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily; Jameson, Nicole; Sorensen, Holger J.; Dodge, Shana; Tsuji, Thomas; Mortensen, Erik L.; Mednick, Sarnoff
Premorbid prediction of psychosis-spectrum disorders has implications for both understanding etiology and clinical identification. The current study used a longitudinal high-risk for psychosis design that included children of parents with schizophrenia as well as two groups of controls (children whose parents had no mental illness, and children with at least one parent with a non-psychotic psychiatric diagnosis). Premorbid neurological factors and an indication of social function, as measured when participants were 10–13 years of age, were combined to predict psychosis-spectrum disorders in adulthood. Through a combination of childhood predictors, the model correctly classified 82% (27 of 33) of the participants who eventually developed a psychosis-spectrum outcome in adulthood. With replication, multivariate premorbid prediction, including genetic risk, social, and neurological variables, could potentially be a useful complementary approach to identifying individuals at risk for developing psychosis-spectrum disorders. PMID:26213343
Schiffman, Jason; Kline, Emily; Jameson, Nicole D; Sorensen, Holger J; Dodge, Shana; Tsuji, Thomas; Mortensen, Erik L; Mednick, Sarnoff A
Premorbid prediction of psychosis-spectrum disorders has implications for both understanding etiology and clinical identification. The current study used a longitudinal high-risk for psychosis design that included children of parents with schizophrenia as well as two groups of controls (children whose parents had no mental illness, and children with at least one parent with a non-psychotic psychiatric diagnosis). Premorbid neurological factors and an indication of social function, as measured when participants were 10-13years of age, were combined to predict psychosis-spectrum disorders in adulthood. Through a combination of childhood predictors, the model correctly classified 82% (27 of 33) of the participants who eventually developed a psychosis-spectrum outcome in adulthood. With replication, multivariate premorbid prediction, including genetic risk, social, and neurological variables, could potentially be a useful complementary approach to identifying individuals at risk for developing psychosis-spectrum disorders.
Prevalence of gene rearrangements in Mexican children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a population study-report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukemia.
Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Rangel-López, Angélica; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María Del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel
Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010-2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children.
Prevalence of Gene Rearrangements in Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Population Study—Report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the Identification of the Causes of Childhood Leukemia
Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel
Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010–2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children. PMID:25692130
Spahn, Donat R.; Spahn, Gabriela H.; Stein, Philipp
Liberal versus restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion triggers have been debated for years. This review illustrates the human body's physiologic response to acute anemia and summarizes the evidence from prospective randomized trials (RCTs) for restrictive use of RBC transfusions in high-risk patients. During progressive anemia, the human body maintains the oxygen delivery to the tissues by an increase in cardiac output and peripheral oxygen extraction. Seven RCTs with a total of 5,566 high-risk patients compared a restrictive hemoglobin (Hb) transfusion trigger (Hb < 70 or < 80 g/l) with a liberal Hb transfusion trigger (Hb < 90 or < 100 g/l). Unanimously these studies show non-inferiority, safety, and a significant reduction in RBC transfusions in the restrictive groups. In one RCT mortality was higher in the liberal Hb transfusion group, and in two additional RCTs mortality of subgroups or after risk adjustment was significantly higher in the liberal Hb transfusion trigger groups. Conclusion Strong RCT evidence suggests the safety of restrictive transfusion triggers. As a consequence, an Hb transfusion trigger of <70 g/l is recommended for high risk patients. PMID:26019706
Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Elks, Cathy E.; Ong, Ken K.
Clinical summary Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to disease risks, and limited evidence on the most effective components of interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This article reviews the trends in childhood obesity, its genetic, nutritional and other risk factors, and preventative and treatment strategies. Particular emphasis is given to early-onset obesity in pre-school children, which, as a precursor to later childhood and adult obesity, provides insights into the developmental and genetic origins of obesity and also offers the potential for early preventative approaches with long-lasting benefits. PMID:23027812
Tiede, Andreas; Tait, R Campbell; Shaffer, Don W; Baudo, Francesco; Boneu, Bernard; Dempfle, Carl Erik; Horellou, Marie Helene; Klamroth, Robert; Lazarchick, John; Mumford, Andrew D; Schulman, Sam; Shiach, Caroline; Bonfiglio, Laura J; Frieling, Johan T M; Conard, Jacqueline; von Depka, Mario
During surgery and childbirth, patients with hereditary antithrombin (AT) deficiency are at high risk for thrombosis, and heparin prophylaxis may not be sufficiently efficacious. In these patients, exogenous AT may be used in association with heparin. A recombinant human AT (generic name: antithrombin alfa) has been developed. This multi-center study assessed the efficacy and safety of prophylactic intravenous administration of antithrombin alfa to hereditary AT deficient patients in high risk situations, including elective surgery, childbirth, or cesarean section. Antithrombin alfa was administered prior to and during the high risk period for restoration and maintenance of AT activity at 100% of normal. Heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and/or vitamin K antagonists were used according to standard of care. The primary efficacy endpoint was the incidence of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) from baseline up to day 30 post dosing as assessed by independent central review of duplex ultrasonograms and/or venograms. Safety was assessed based on adverse events (AEs) and laboratory evaluations. Five surgical and nine obstetrical hereditary AT deficiency patients received antithrombin alfa for a mean period of seven days. No clinically overt DVT occurred. Central review of ultrasonograms identified signs of acute DVT in two out of 13 evaluable patients. No antithrombin alfa-related AEs were reported. No patient developed anti-antithrombin alfa antibodies. In conclusion, this study suggests that antithrombin alfa is a safe and effective alternative to human plasma-derived AT for treating hereditary AT deficiency patients at high risk for thromboembolic events.
Muralidhar, Vinayak; Xiang, Michael; Orio, Peter F.; Martin, Neil E.; Beard, Clair J.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hoffman, Karen E.
Purpose Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT) boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA < 10 ng/ml or T1c, Gleason 6, PSA > 20 ng/ml). Material and methods We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258), and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270). Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022). Conclusions Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease. PMID:26985191
Anand, Gobind; Patel, Yuval A.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Khashab, Mouen A.; Lennon, Anne Marie; Shin, Eun Ji; Canto, Marcia I.; Okolo, Patrick I.; Kalloo, Anthony N.; Singh, Vikesh K.
Background. Consensus guidelines recommend that patients at high risk for choledocholithiasis undergo endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) without additional imaging. This study evaluates factors and outcomes associated with performing magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) prior to ERCP among patients at high risk for choledocholithiasis. Methods. An institutional administrative database was searched using diagnosis codes for choledocholithiasis, cholangitis, and acute pancreatitis and procedure codes for MRCP and ERCP. Patients categorized as high risk for choledocholithiasis were evaluated. Results. 224 patients classified as high risk, of whom 176 (79%) underwent ERCP only, while 48 (21%) underwent MRCP prior to ERCP. Patients undergoing MRCP experienced longer time to ERCP (72 hours versus 35 hours, p < 0.0001), longer length of stay (8 days versus 6 days, p = 0.02), higher hospital charges ($23,488 versus $19,260, p = 0.08), and higher radiology charges ($3,385 versus $1,711, p < 0.0001). The presence of common bile duct stone(s) on ultrasound was the only independent factor associated with less use of MRCP (OR 0.09, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. MRCP use prior to ERCP in patients at high risk for choledocholithiasis is common and associated with greater length of hospital stay, higher radiology charges, and a trend towards higher hospital charges. PMID:27446845
Solovov, V. A.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.; Matysh, Y. S.
Objectives. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or ADT alone. The widely accepted definition of high-risk prostate was first proposed by D'Amico based on a pretreatment Gleason score of ≥8, clinical stage T3, PSA level ≥20 ng/mL. There is no trial that compares traditional methods of treatment of such patients with HIFU therapy. Here we explored the effectiveness of the HIFU in multimodal treatment for patients with high risk prostate cancer. Materials & Methods. 701 patients with high risk prostate cancer were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2013. Gleason score were 8-10, stage T3N0M0, age 69 (58-86) years, mean PSA before treatment 43.3 (22.1-92.9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume - 59.3 (38-123) cc. 248 patients were treated by HIFU. We compare this group of patients with patients who undertook EBRT: number 196, and ADT: number 257. Mean follow-up time 58 months (6-72). Results. The 5-year overall survival rates in patients after HIFU were 73.8 %, after EBRT - 63.0 % and after ADT - 18.1%. Conclusions. Our experience showed that HIFU therapy in combined treatment were successful for high risk prostate cancer.
Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...
Tsuji, Thomas; Kline, Emily; Sorensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Michelsen, Niels M; Ekstrom, Morten; Mednick, Sarnoff; Schiffman, Jason
Social functioning deficits are a core component of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and may emerge years prior to the onset of diagnosable illness. The current study prospectively examines the relation between teacher-rated childhood social dysfunction and later mental illness among participants who were at genetic high-risk for schizophrenia and controls (n=244). The teacher-rated social functioning scale significantly predicted psychiatric outcomes (schizophrenia-spectrum vs. other psychiatric disorder vs. no mental illness). Poor premorbid social functioning appears to constitute a marker of illness vulnerability and may also function as a chronic stressor potentially exacerbating risk for illness.
Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gloeckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Herrmann, Carl; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K; Fischer, Matthias
Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours.
Stoita, Alina; Penman, Ian D; Williams, David B
Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results.
Stoita, Alina; Penman, Ian D; Williams, David B
Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results. PMID:21633635
Marciscano, Ariel E; Hardee, Matthew E; Sanfilippo, Nicholas
Traditionally, patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer have been an extremely challenging group to manage due to a significant likelihood of treatment failure and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). The results of multiple large, prospective, randomized trials have demonstrated that men with high-risk features who are treated in a multimodal fashion at the time of initial diagnosis have improved overall survival. Advances in local treatments such as dose-escalated radiotherapy in conjunction with androgen suppression and postprostatectomy adjuvant radiotherapy have also demonstrated benefits to this subset of patients. However, therapeutic enhancement with the addition of chemotherapy to the primary treatment regimen may help achieve optimal disease control.
Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Schmuck, Mary Lou; Paglia-Boak, Angela
Objectives: Childhood maltreatment is a robust risk factor for poor physical and mental health. Child welfare youths represent a high-risk group, given the greater likelihood of severe or multiple types of maltreatment. This study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-compassion--a concept of positive acceptance of…
Archie, Joseph P.
A case of acute distal aortic thrombosis in an elderly high-risk patient was successfully managed with intraoperative thrombectomy and balloon catheter dilatation of the common iliac arteries. Balloon catheter dilatation may be indicated prior to bypass grafting in high-risk patients with acute aortoiliac thrombosis. PMID:15216181
Keogh, Barbara K.; Smith, Carol E.
Early identification of educationally high potential and high risk children was investigated by following the same 49 children from kindergarten entrance through grade five of a regular school program. Kindergarten predictive measures were the Bender Gestalt Test and teachers' evaluations; follow-up measures were yearly standard achievement test…
Methods to identify children at high-risk for organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure are difficult to develop because biological markers reflect only recent "snapshots" of exposure due to the short half-life of OP compounds (generally about 24 hours). We conducted a series of p...
Lindgren, Scott D.; And Others
Children in a longitudinal high-risk infant follow-up program were evaluated at age 5 to determine whether they demonstrated behavior problems or cognitive deficits exceeding expectations based on conditions in their home environments. Normal expectations were determined through regression analyses on a group of age-matched controls. All high-risk…
Ramey, Craig T.; Farran, Dale C.
A longitudinal study was conducted at the Frank Porter Graham Center NC to explore the use of educational day care and related services as a mechanism for preparing socially disadvantaged children for success in later public schooling. Infant children of mothers who met a criterion score on a high risk index were randomly assigned to either an…
Hollingsworth, Kathy R.; Dunkle, John H.; Douce, Louise
The disturbed and disturbing college student causes the most vexing concerns for student affairs administrators. The Assessment-Intervention of Student Problems (AISP) model offers a useful and easily understood framework for dealing with the various challenges of this high-risk student population. This chapter focuses on changes that have…
Discusses the major elements of writing process instruction and the positive influence they have on learning-disabled and inner-city high-risk students. Argues that such process-writing programs might serve as a preventative measure for children likely to be categorized as learning disabled in the future. (HTH)
Trachtenburg, Phyllis; Ferruggia, Ann
Discusses how interactive, whole class techniques (using a student-generated Big Book adaptation of "Corduroy") improved the reading skills of high risk first grade readers. Describes several activities, including sight word strategies, decoding techniques, and word processing, and suggests 27 Big Books for use with these activities. (MM)
Slack, Kelley; Noe, Raymond; Weaver, Sallie
Research examining teams working in high-risk operations has been lacking. The present symposium showcases research on team training that helps to optimize team performance in environments characterized by life or death situations arising spontaneously after long periods of mundane activity by pulling experts from diverse areas of industry: space flight, health care, and medical simulation.
Smith, Margaret; Finneran, John; Droppa, Marj
This study investigated the high risk drinking practices of unaffiliated college students who are not involved in formal athletics, fraternities, or sororities. Using a qualitative research design, the investigators interviewed students at a northeast public college in fall 2010 to learn about unaffiliated students' drinking experiences and their…
López-Corral, Lucía; Mateos, María Victoria; Corchete, Luis A.; Sarasquete, María Eugenia; de la Rubia, Javier; de Arriba, Felipe; Lahuerta, Juan-José; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Gutiérrez, Norma C.
Smoldering myeloma is an asymptomatic plasma cell dyscrasia with a heterogeneous propensity to progress to active myeloma. In order to investigate the biology of smoldering myeloma patients with high risk of progression, we analyzed the genomic characteristics by FISH, SNP-arrays and gene expression profile of a group of patients with high-risk smoldering myeloma included in a multicenter randomized trial. Chromosomal abnormalities detected by FISH and SNP-arrays at diagnosis were not associated to risk of progression to symptomatic myeloma. However, the overexpression of four SNORD genes (SNORD25, SNORD27, SNORD30 and SNORD31) was correlated with shorter time to progression (P<0.03). When plasma cells from high-risk smoldering patients who progressed to symptomatic myeloma were sequentially analyzed, newly acquired lesions together with an increase in the proportion of plasma cells carrying a given abnormality were observed. These findings suggest that gene expression profiling is a valuable technique to identify smoldering myeloma patients with high risk of progression. (Clinical Trials NCT00443235) PMID:22331267
Hardy, Dorothy C.; Karathanos, Demetrius
Examines outcomes of a "bridge" course for first-year college students that emphasizes personal and psychological adjustment to the university experience to enhance the likelihood of academic success. Findings from 59 high-risk students who completed course suggest that goal of enhancing likelihood of academic success for such students was…
Gochman, Eva R. Grubler; Aisenstein, Clara
An exploratory study of high-risk mothers' interactions with their infants studied modalities of stimulation; vestibular and auditory. It was hypothesized that stimulation would be lower for non-paranoid than for paranoid types, and than for control mothers. Mothers recruited from inner city gynecological clinics were screened for probable…
Lim, Jia Wei; Yeap, Frances Sh; Chan, Yiong Huak; Yeoh, Allen Ej; Quah, Thuan Chong; Tan, Poh Lin
Introduction: One of the most feared complications of childhood cancer treatment is second malignant neoplasms (SMNs). This study evaluates the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of SMNs in a tertiary paediatric oncology centre in Singapore. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on patients diagnosed with childhood cancer under age 21 and treated at the National University Hospital, Singapore, from January 1990 to 15 April 2012. Case records of patients with SMNs were reviewed. Results: We identified 1124 cases of childhood cancers with a median follow-up of 3.49 (0 to 24.06) years. The most common primary malignancies were leukaemia (47.1%), central nervous system tumours (11.7%) and lymphoma (9.8%). Fifteen cases developed SMNs, most commonly acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 7). Median interval between the first and second malignancy was 3.41 (0.24 to 18.30) years. Overall 20-year cumulative incidence of SMNs was 5.3% (95% CI, 0.2% to 10.4%). The 15-year cumulative incidence of SMNs following acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was 4.4% (95% CI, 0% to 8.9%), significantly lower than the risk after osteosarcoma of 14.2% (95% CI, 0.7% to 27.7%) within 5 years (P <0.0005). Overall 5-year survival for SMNs was lower than that of primary malignancies. Conclusion: This study identified factors explaining the epidemiology of SMNs described, and found topoisomerase II inhibitor use to be a likely risk factor in our cohort. Modifications have already been made to our existing therapeutic protocols in osteosarcoma treatment. We also recognised the importance of other risk management strategies, including regular long-term surveillance and early intervention for detected SMNs, to improve outcomes of high risk patients.
Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Leduc, Nicole; Misago, Chizuru
The medical model of childbearing assumes that a pregnancy always has the potential to turn into a risky procedure. In order to advocate humanized birth in high risk pregnancy, an important step involves the enlightenment of the professional's preconceptions on humanized birth in such a situation. The goal of this paper is to identify the professionals' perception of the potential obstacles and facilitating factors for the implementation of humanized care in high risk pregnancies. Twenty-one midwives, obstetricians, and health administrator professionals from the clinical and academic fields were interviewed in nine different sites in Japan from June through August 2008. The interviews were audio taped, and transcribed with the participants' consent. Data was subsequently analyzed using content analysis qualitative methods. Professionals concurred with the concept that humanized birth is a changing and promising process, and can often bring normality to the midst of a high obstetric risk situation. No practice guidelines can be theoretically defined for humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy, as there is no conflict between humanized birth and medical intervention in such a situation. Barriers encountered in providing humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy include factors such as: the pressure of being responsible for the safety of the mother and the fetus, lack of the women's active involvement in the decision making process and the heavy burden of responsibility on the physician's shoulders, potential legal issues, and finally, the lack of midwifery authority in providing care at high risk pregnancy. The factors that facilitate humanized birth in a high risk include: the sharing of decision making and other various responsibilities between the physicians and the women; being caring; stress management, and the fact that the evolution of a better relationship and communication between the health professional and the patient will lead to a stress
Mulet, Xavier; Cabot, Gabriel; Ocampo-Sosa, Alain A.; Domínguez, M. Angeles; Zamorano, Laura; Juan, Carlos; Tubau, Fe; Rodríguez, Cristina; Moyà, Bartolomé; Peña, Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis
A limited number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa genotypes (mainly ST-111, ST-175, and ST-235), known as high-risk clones, are responsible for epidemics of nosocomial infections by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains worldwide. We explored the potential biological parameters that may explain the success of these clones. A total of 20 isolates from each of 4 resistance groups (XDR, MDR, ModR [resistant to 1 or 2 classes], and MultiS [susceptible to all antipseudomonals]), recovered from a multicenter study of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections performed in 10 Spanish hospitals, were analyzed. A further set of 20 XDR isolates belonging to epidemic high-risk clones (ST-175 [n = 6], ST-111 [n = 7], and ST-235 [n = 7]) recovered from different geographical locations was also studied. When unknown, genotypes were documented through multilocus sequence typing. The biological parameters evaluated included twitching, swimming, and swarming motility, biofilm formation, production of pyoverdine and pyocyanin, spontaneous mutant frequencies, and the in vitro competition index (CI) obtained with a flow cytometry assay. All 20 (100%) XDR, 8 (40%) MDR, and 1 (5%) ModR bloodstream isolate from the multicenter study belonged to high-risk clones. No significant differences were observed between clonally diverse ModR and MultiS isolates for any of the parameters. In contrast, MDR/XDR high-risk clones showed significantly increased biofilm formation and mutant frequencies but significantly reduced motility (twitching, swimming, and swarming), production of pyoverdine and pyocyanin, and fitness. The defined biological markers of high-risk clones, which resemble those resulting from adaptation to chronic infections, could be useful for the design of specific treatment and infection control strategies. PMID:23979744
Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma
Gourounti, Kleanthi; Karpathiotaki, Natassa; Karapanou, Vassiliki; Antzaklis, Panos; Daskalakis, Georgios
The aim of the authors in this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Greek adaptation of the High-Risk Pregnancy Stress Scale (HRPSS) in a sample of high-risk hospitalized pregnant women. The sample consisted of 133 high-risk pregnant women with gestational age from 9 to 37 weeks. Data were collected between February and June of 2014. HRPSS was "forward-backward" translated from English to Greek. Principal axis factoring with promax rotation was used to test the factor structure of the HRPSS. Measures of state anxiety (STAI) and depressive symptoms (EPDS) were used to assess the convergent validity of the HRPSS. Exploratory factor analysis suggested three factors: concerns of pregnancy, movement restriction, and isolation and restriction of external activities. Construct validity was confirmed by computing correlations between the HRPSS and constructions of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory (α = 0.813). The original factor structure of the HRPSS was only partly replicated. The results of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor solution instead of a two-factor solution would be the most adequate. The HRPSS is an appropriate measure for assessing the levels of concerns regarding pregnancy outcome, movement restriction, isolation, and external activity restrictions in Greek high-risk pregnant women.
Lanzkowsky, P; Shende, A; Aral, I; Saluja, G
Lanzkowsky, P., Shende, A., Aral, I., Saluja, G. (1975). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 50, 685. Organ irradiation and combination chemotherapy in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukaemia in children. A total of 30 consecutive children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) were treated from June 1971 until December 1974. Remission was induced with the use of vincristine and prednisone. After induction of remission, cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate were given. Then the liver, spleen, and kidney were irradiated and 6-mercaptopurine, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate were administered during the maintenance phase. Pulsed doses of vincristine and prednisone were administered at 10- to 12-week intervals. The patients were subdivided into two groups based on their initial white blood cell (WBC) counts: a standard risk group with an initial WBC count of less than 25 000/mm3 (25 X 10(9)/1) and a high risk group with an initial WBC count greater than 25 000/mm3 (25 X 10(9)/1). Of the 30 children entered in this study one standard risk patient died in the induction phase before attaining remission. Analysis of the results is therefore based on the remaining 29 patients, 22 standard risk and 7 high risk patients, who attained complete remission. Survival rates in continuous remission were found to be 43% of the high risk group, 88% for the standard risk group, and 77% for the combined group. Analysis of the data indicates that this therapy is unsatisfactory in high risk ALL. The results to date of this therapy for standard risk are sufficiently encouraging to continue its use in this subgroup of patients. PMID:1059384
Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Age at Birth of First Child and Fecundity of Women Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (1987-2007): A Study of the Childhood Cancer Registry of the Rhône-Alpes Region in France (ARCERRA).
Freycon, Fernand; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Casagranda, Léonie; Berlier, Pascale; Bertrand, Yves; Plantaz, Dominique; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Berger, Claire
We studied the fecundity of 174 successive ALL (1987-2007) in females of the Childhood Cancer Registry of the Rhône-Alpes Region (ARCERRA) with a median age at follow-up of 25.6 years (18.0-37.4). We distinguished five treatment groups: Group Ia, chemotherapy only (n = 130); Ib, chemotherapy with cranial radiotherapy (n = 10); II, TBI conditioning allograft (n = 27); III, chemotherapy conditioning allograft (n = 4); IV, TBI conditioning autograft (n = 3). Twenty-three women had their first child at the mean age of 25.8 ±3.0 years, i.e., 2.0 ±2.9 years earlier than the general population of the Rhône-Alpes region (P = 0.003). The standardized fertility ratio (SFR), expressed as the number of actual births observed (O) to the number that would be expected in women of the same age in the general population (E) (SFR = O/E) was decreased for Group Ia (0.62; 95%CI, 0.52-0.74) and collapsed in Group II (0.17; 0.11-0.25). In univariate analysis, TBI (P = 0.013) and alkylating agents (P = 0.01) were negatively correlated with fecundity, but not with the age at diagnosis or the anthracyclines doses. In multivariate analysis including TBI and alkylating agents, we still found a negative correlation between TBI (P = 0.035), as well as alkylating agents (P = 0.028), and fecundity. More precisely, fecundity was negatively correlated with cumulative cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (P = 0.001), with a fecundity decreased for ≥1g/m(2), but without any dose effect; results not found in the Group Ia. Age at first child seems younger but the young median age of the cohort not allows concluding; fecundity is collapsed after fractionated total body irradiation and decreased after chemotherapy without any demonstrable cause. A delay of fertility is not excluded.
Barnea, Dana; Raghunathan, Nirupa; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Tonorezos, Emily S.
As care for the childhood cancer patient has improved significantly, there is an increasing incidence of treatment-related late effects. Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are common and significant metabolic conditions in some populations of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and other large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors reveal that long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and those who received total body irradiation or abdominal radiotherapy are at highest risk. The potential mechanisms for the observed increase in risk, including alterations in leptin and adiponectin, pancreatic insufficiency, poor dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle, and perhaps changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, are reviewed. Discussion of exercise and diet intervention studies shows that further research about the barriers to a healthy lifestyle and other interventions in childhood cancer survivors is warranted. PMID:26568532
Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.
Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…
da Silva Filho, Isaac Lima; Ribeiro, Georgina Severo; Moura, Patrícia Gomes; Vechi, Monica Longo; Cavalcante, Andréa Cony; de Andrada-Serpa, Maria José
Objectives To describe clinical events of sickle cell disease and the correlation with β-globin haplotypes and α-thalassemia in under 6-year-old children. Methods A retrospective study was conducted of under 6-year-old children from the neonatal screening program in Rio de Janeiro. Forty-eight male and 48 female children were enrolled in this study, 79 with sickle cell anemia and 17 with hemoglobin SC. The mean age was 29.9 (standard deviation = 20.9) months, 62 (16.2 ± 8.6) were aged between 0-3 years old and 34 (54.9 ± 11.3) were from 3-6 years old. Painful events, acute splenic sequestration, hemolytic crises, hand-foot and acute chest syndromes and infections were evaluated. Results The events were more frequent in under 3-year-old children, 94% of children had at least one episode. Infection was the most common event affecting 88.5% of children. Acute splenic sequestration took place earlier, while painful crises and acute chest syndromes in under 6-year-old children. Thal-α 3.7 was observed in 20.9% of cases. Bantu was the most frequent haplotype found, followed by Benin. No correlation was observed between clinical events and β-globin haplotypes. Children with sickle cell anemia and α-thalassemia have less infectious events. No correlation was found among these polymorphisms and clinical events, however, the majority of children with Bantu/Bantu and without α-thalassemia had more clinical events. PMID:23049419
Vargas, Alberto Olaya; Luna, Roberto Rivera; Garcia, Martin Perez; Cardos, Rocio Cárdenas; Hidalgo, Liliana Velasco; Jácome, Doris LordMéndez; Gutiérrez, Mariana Campos
Background In childhood cancer, consolidation treatment with chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic progenitor stem cell transplantation is currently an accepted treatment modality in patients with high-risk solid tumors or in patients who have relapsed after conventional treatment. Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the results of transplantation of a group of children who had high-risk solid tumors or relapsed after conventional chemotherapy regimens. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted from January 1998 to October 2004 of all children with pathologic diagnoses of high-risk solid tumors or children that had previously relapsed after conventional chemotherapy and that were subsequently submitted to autologous hematopoietic progenitor stem cell transplantation. The analysis included overall survival rates, event-free survival rates, mortality rates and chemotherapy complications. Results Nineteen patients were submitted to this approach. The age range was from 27 to 196 months with a median age of 52 months. The overall survival rate at 100 days was observed in 79%, the three-year event-free survival rate was 63%. The mortality rate secondary to the myeloablative chemotherapy regimen was 21% (n = 4). Only three patients (15.8%) relapsed with tumor progression after transplant. Conclusion Autologous hematopoietic progenitor stem cell transplantation is still a successful procedure in patients with solid tumors refractory to conventional chemotherapy. PMID:24255618
Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.
This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…
... they demand more and more of the body's nutrition. Cancer takes a person's strength, destroys organs and bones, and weakens the body's defenses against other illnesses. Cancer is uncommon in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...
Arnow, Pat, Ed.; Cheek, Pauline, Ed.
This magazine offers interviews, short stories and articles with a general focus on childhood in Appalachia. Two interviews include: "Creative Response to Life-Pauline Cheek," by Jane Harris Woodside, and "Insights and Experience: A Talk with Eliot Wigginton," by Pauline Binkley Cheek. Short stories include: "Thief in the…
Arluke, Arnold; Levin, Jack
Ageism (unfair stereotyping of older adults), deeply embedded in the culture of 20th-century America, is reinforced by television and newspapers. The media depict old people as rigid, meddlesome, sexless, conservative, unhealthy, and forgetful. Most pernicious of all old age stereotypes is that of second childhood. Popular culture portrays…
Marciscano, Ariel E.; Hardee, Matthew E.; Sanfilippo, Nicholas
Traditionally, patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer have been an extremely challenging group to manage due to a significant likelihood of treatment failure and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). The results of multiple large, prospective, randomized trials have demonstrated that men with high-risk features who are treated in a multimodal fashion at the time of initial diagnosis have improved overall survival. Advances in local treatments such as dose-escalated radiotherapy in conjunction with androgen suppression and postprostatectomy adjuvant radiotherapy have also demonstrated benefits to this subset of patients. However, therapeutic enhancement with the addition of chemotherapy to the primary treatment regimen may help achieve optimal disease control. PMID:22110494
Luthra, Jatinder Singh; Al Riyami, Amur; Allami, Mohamad Kasim
Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate results of dual mobility total replacement in a high risk population who take hip into hyperflexed position while sitting and praying on the floor. Method: The study included 65 (35 primary total replacement and 30 complex total hip replacement) cases of total hip replacement using avantage privilege dual mobility cup system from biomet. A cemented acetabular component and on femoral side a bimetric stem, either cemented or uncemented used depending on the canal type. Ten cases were examined fluoroscopically in follow up. Result: There was dislocation in one patient undergoing complex hip replacement. Fluoroscopy study showed no impingement between the neck of prosthesis and acetabular shell at extremes of all movements. Conclusion: The prevalence of dislocation is low in our high risk population and we consider it preferred concept for patients undergoing complex total hip replacement. PMID:27924742
High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pathological through the reactive to the calculative. Later, the proactive culture can evolve towards the generative organisation, an alternative description of the high reliability organisation. The current status of health care is reviewed, arguing that it has a much higher level of accidents and has a reactive culture, lagging behind both high risk industries studied in both attitude and systematic management of patient risks. PMID:14645741
Oliver, Antonio; Mulet, Xavier; López-Causapé, Carla; Juan, Carlos
The increasing prevalence of chronic and hospital-acquired infections produced by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This growing threat results from the extraordinary capacity of this pathogen for developing resistance through chromosomal mutations and from the increasing prevalence of transferable resistance determinants, particularly those encoding carbapenemases or extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). P. aeruginosa has a nonclonal epidemic population structure, composed of a limited number of widespread clones which are selected from a background of a large quantity of rare and unrelated genotypes that are recombining at high frequency. Indeed, recent concerning reports have provided evidence of the existence of MDR/XDR global clones, denominated high-risk clones, disseminated in hospitals worldwide; ST235, ST111, and ST175 are likely those more widespread. Noteworthy, the vast majority of infections by MDR, and specially XDR, strains are produced by these and few other clones worldwide. Moreover, the association of high-risk clones, particularly ST235, with transferable resistance is overwhelming; nearly 100 different horizontally-acquired resistance elements and up to 39 different acquired β-lactamases have been reported so far among ST235 isolates. Likewise, MDR internationally-disseminated epidemic strains, such as the Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES, ST146), have been noted as well among cystic fibrosis patients. Here we review the population structure, epidemiology, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and virulence of the P. aeruginosa high-risk clones. The phenotypic and genetic factors potentially driving the success of high-risk clones, the aspects related to their detection in the clinical microbiology laboratory and the implications for infection control and public health are also discussed.
Michaud, Dominique S; Langevin, Scott M; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Pawlita, Michael; McClean, Michael D; Kelsey, Karl T
Although HPV16 has been strongly implicated in oropharyngeal carcinogenesis, the role of other high-risk HPV types in the etiology of head and neck cancer remains unclear. To date, few data exist addressing the nature of the association between antibodies to oncogenic proteins of non-HPV16 HPVs in relation to head and neck cancer. We examined the relationship between multiple HPV types (HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in a large population-based case-control study (1069 cases and 1107 controls). Serological measures for HPV types included antibodies to L1, E6 and/or E7. In a secondary analysis, we excluded HPV16 seropositive subjects to examine independent associations with other high-risk HPVs. All analyses were adjusted for age, race, sex, education, smoking and alcohol consumption. Statistically significant associations were observed for HPV16, 18, 33 and 52 and risk of HNSCC after mutually adjusting for HPV types. Among HPV16 seronegative subjects, elevated risks of HNSCC were observed for HPV18 E6 (OR = 4.19, 95% CI = 1.26-14.0), HPV33 E6 (OR = 7.96, 95% CI = 1.56-40.5) and HPV52 E7 (OR = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.16-9.99). When examined by tumor type, associations with HPV18 and HPV33 remained statistically significant for oropharyngeal cancer, and HPV52 was associated with oral cancer. In addition, magnitude of associations for HNSCC increased markedly with increasing number of seropositive high-risk HPV infections. High-risk HPV types, other than HPV16, are likely to be involved in the etiology of HNSCC.
Schussel, Lorne; Miller, Lisa
The healing process of the Best Self Visualization Method (BSM) is described within the framework of meditation, neuroscience, and psychodynamic theory. Cases are drawn from the treatment of high-risk youth, who have histories of poverty, survival of sexual and physical abuse, and/or current risk for perpetrating abuse. Clinical use of BSM is demonstrated in two case illustrations, one of group psychotherapy and another of individual therapy.
Li, Zhenjun; Wang, Ligui; Sun, Weige; Hou, Xuexin; Yang, Haiyan; Sun, Lina; Xu, Shuai; Sun, Qiangzheng; Zhang, Jingshan; Song, Hongbin; Lin, Hualiang
Spatial distribution of bacillary dysentery incidence was mapped at the district level in Wuhan, China. And a generalized additive time series model was used to examine the effect of daily weather factors on bacillary dysentery in the high-risk areas, after controlling for potential confounding factors. Central districts were found to be the high-risk areas. The time series analysis found an acute effect of meteorological factors on bacillary dysentery occurrence. A positive association was found for mean temperature (excess risk (ER) for 1°C increase being 0.94% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46% to 1.43% on the lag day 2), while a negative effect was observed for relative humidity and rainfall, the ER for 1% increase in relative humidity was -0.21% (95% CI: -0.34% to -0.08%), and the ER for 1 mm increase in rainfall was -0.23% (95% CI: -0.37% to -0.09%). This study suggests that bacillary dysentery prevention and control strategy should consider local weather variations.
Bernal, T; Martínez-Camblor, P; Sánchez-García, J; de Paz, R; Luño, E; Nomdedeu, B; Ardanaz, M T; Pedro, C; Amigo, M L; Xicoy, B; del Cañizo, C; Tormo, M; Bargay, J; Valcárcel, D; Brunet, S; Benlloch, L; Sanz, G
The benefit of azacitidine treatment in survival of high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients compared with conventional care treatment (CCT) has not been established outside clinical trials. To assess its effectiveness, we compared overall survival (OS) between azacitidine and conventional treatment (CCT) in high-risk MDS patients, excluding those undergoing stem cell transplantation, submitted to the Spanish MDS registry from 2000 to 2013. Several Cox regression and competing risk models, considering azacitidine as a time-dependent covariate, were used to assess survival and acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) progression. Among 821 patients included, 251 received azacitidine. Median survival was 13.4 (11.8-16) months for azacitidine-treated patients and 12.2 (11-14.1) for patients under CCT (P=0.41). In a multivariate model, age, International prognostic scoring system and lactate dehydrogenase were predictors of OS whereas azacitidine was not (adjusted odds ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.35, P=0.49). However, in patients with chromosome 7 abnormalities, a trend toward a better survival was observed in azacitidine-treated patients (median survival 13.3 (11-18) months) compared with CCT (median survival 8.6 (5-10.4) months, P=0.08). In conclusion, our data show that, in spite of a widespread use of azacitidine, there is a lack of improvement in survival over the years. Identification of predicting factors of response and survival is mandatory.
Lafeber, Melvin; Spiering, Wilko; Singh, Kavita; Guggilla, Rama K; Patil, Vinodvenkatesh; Webster, Ruth
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Adequate treatment of vascular risk factors, such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure are known to reduce the future risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients. However currently, large treatment gaps exist among high-risk individuals, in whom the guidelines recommend concomitant treatment with aspirin, statin, and blood-pressure lowering agents. Combining aspirin, cholesterol, and blood-pressure lowering agents into a single pill called the cardiovascular polypill has been proposed as complementary care in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in both intermediate- and high-risk patient populations. It is now a decade since the first recommendations to develop and trial cardiovascular polypills. The major scientific debate has been about the appropriate initial target population. This review article focuses on the potential role of fixed-dose combination therapy in different patient populations, outlines the pros and cons of combination therapy, and emphasizes the rationale for trialing their use. Current and planned future cardiovascular polypill trials are summarized and the pre-requisites for implementation of the polypill strategy in both primary and secondary prevention are described. The recent development of combination pills containing off-patent medications holds promise for highly affordable and effective treatment and evidence is emerging on the use of this strategy in high-risk populations.
Ischia, Joseph; Gleave, Martin
One consistent finding in the studies regarding treating men with prostate cancer is that men with high-risk disease have the most to gain from treatment with curative intent. Men with high-risk or locally-advanced prostate cancer require treatment to the primary cancer or risk dying prematurely from their disease. Increasingly, combined androgen deprivation therapy + radiation treatment is seen as the standard treatment as a result of prospective studies in this space, and the perceived increased morbidity of radical prostatectomy in the setting of a "low" cure rate as monotherapy. In the absence of a well-conducted randomized trial, there is no definite evidence that one treatment is superior to the other. The advantages of radical prostatectomy are that it provides excellent local control of the primary tumor without an increase in morbidity, accurately stages the disease to guide further therapy, and removes benign sources of prostate-specific antigen so that failures can be promptly identified and subsequent treatment can be initiated in a timely manner. Although several guidelines recommend radiation treatment over radical prostatectomy as first-line treatment, there is no evidence that surgery is inferior and radical prostatectomy should remain part of any informed discussion regarding treatment options for men with high-risk prostate cancer.
Pujol, E; Ollero, M; Gimeno, A; Colchero, J; Alcoucer, R; Márquez, P
The aim of this study is to detect the presence of HTLV-1 in a high-risk population in west Andalusia. We studied 267 samples of serum from 255 patients: 179 of these patients being intravenous drug-users, 14 had ADVP sexual partners, 16 were inhalation drug-users, 4 were hemophiliacs, 9 had other high-risk habits and 25 hematological patients afflicted with leukemia or lymphoma. All of them were tested for antibodies against HTLV-1 by means of an in vitro qualitative ELISA technique (ELISA Du Pont HTLV-1). The positive results were confirmed by the Western blot technique. Additionally, the p24 antigen and the antibodies against VIH-1 and VIH-2 (ENV/CORE) were analysed, except in the 25 hematological patients. We found 20 serum samples positive to HTLV-1 by ELISA (7.4%), but only 1 (0.3%) was confirmed by the Western blot technique. The prevalence of VIH-1 was 46%; 9% had p24 VIH antigen and 26% had false positive ELISA to VIH-2. We found a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.0005) between positive ELISA to HTLV-1 and antibodies against VIH. We conclude that HTLV-1 has penetrated into the high-risk population of west Andalusia , although not yet to a great degree, and point out the need for seric epidemiological surveillance to prevent the spread of the retrovirus in these groups.
Cooper, Benjamin T; Sanfilippo, Nicholas J
There are estimated to be 220800 cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in 2015, making up 26% of all cancer diagnoses. Fortunately, adenocarcinoma of the prostate is often a highly treatable malignancy. Even though the majority of prostate cancer patients present with localized disease, prostate cancer still accounts for over 27000 deaths a year. There is a subset of patients that are likely to recur after locoregional treatment that is thought of as a "high-risk" population. This more aggressive subset includes patients with clinical stage greater than T2b, Gleason score greater than 7, and prostate specific antigen greater than 20 ng/dL. The rate of biochemical relapse in this high risk group is 32%-70% within five years of definitive focal therapy. Given these discouraging outcomes, attempts have been made to improve cure rates by radiation dose escalation, addition of androgen depravation therapy, and addition of chemotherapy either sequentially or concurrently with radiation. One method that has been shown to improve clinical outcomes is the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy for definitive treatment. Concurrent chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil, estramustine phosphate, vincristine, docetaxel, and paclitaxel has been studied in the phase I and/or II setting. These trials have identified the maximum tolerated dose of chemotherapy and radiation that can be safely delivered concurrently and established the safety and feasibility of this technique. This review will focus on the addition of concurrent chemotherapy to radiotherapy in the definitive management of high-risk prostate cancer.
Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Quinn, Katherine; Broaddus, Michelle; Pacella, Maria
High-risk sexual behaviours include practices such as relationship violence and substance use, which often cluster together among young people in high-risk settings. Youth gang members often show high rates of such behaviours, substance use and relationship violence. This paper draws on data from in-depth interviews with male and female gang members from six different gangs to explore the role of powerful socialising peer groups that set gender, sexual and relationship roles and expectations for their male and female members. High-risk sexual behaviours among gang members included sex with multiple partners and group sex. Gang norms included the belief that male members were sexually insatiable with multiple sexual partners and that female gang members should be sexually available to male members. Alcohol and drugs were seen to have a large influence on sexual desire and the inability to use condoms. Much sexual behaviour with gangs, such as group sex, was viewed with ambivalence and seen as somewhat coercive. Finally, gendered sexual expectations (boys as sexually insatiable and girls as sexually available) made forming long-term romantic relationships problematic for gang members. The influence of gang norms such as these must be addressed in future programmes and interventions with gang members.
Worst, Barbara C; van Tilburg, Cornelis M; Balasubramanian, Gnana Prakash; Fiesel, Petra; Witt, Ruth; Freitag, Angelika; Boudalil, Miream; Previti, Christopher; Wolf, Stephan; Schmidt, Sabine; Chotewutmontri, Sasithorn; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Schick, Matthias; Schlesner, Matthias; Hutter, Barbara; Taylor, Lenka; Borst, Tobias; Sutter, Christian; Bartram, Claus R; Milde, Till; Pfaff, Elke; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Stackelberg, Arend; Meisel, Roland; Borkhardt, Arndt; Reinhardt, Dirk; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Dirksen, Uta; Jürgens, Heribert; Kramm, Christof M; von Bueren, Andre O; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Birgit; Wößmann, Wilhelm; Nathrath, Michaela; Bielack, Stefan S; Frühwald, Michael C; Fulda, Simone; Klingebiel, Thomas; Koscielniak, Ewa; Schwab, Matthias; Tremmel, Roman; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Schulte, Johannes H; Brors, Benedikt; von Deimling, Andreas; Lichter, Peter; Eggert, Angelika; Capper, David; Pfister, Stefan M; Jones, David T W; Witt, Olaf
The 'Individualized Therapy for Relapsed Malignancies in Childhood' (INFORM) precision medicine study is a nationwide German program for children with high-risk relapsed/refractory malignancies, which aims to identify therapeutic targets on an individualised basis. In a pilot phase, reported here, we developed the logistical and analytical pipelines necessary for rapid and comprehensive molecular profiling in a clinical setting. Fifty-seven patients from 20 centers were prospectively recruited. Malignancies investigated included sarcomas (n = 25), brain tumours (n = 23), and others (n = 9). Whole-exome, low-coverage whole-genome, and RNA sequencing were complemented with methylation and expression microarray analyses. Alterations were assessed for potential targetability according to a customised prioritisation algorithm and subsequently discussed in an interdisciplinary molecular tumour board. Next-generation sequencing data were generated for 52 patients, with the full analysis possible in 46 of 52. Turnaround time from sample receipt until first report averaged 28 d. Twenty-six patients (50%) harbored a potentially druggable alteration with a prioritisation score of 'intermediate' or higher (level 4 of 7). Common targets included receptor tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and cell cycle control. Ten patients received a targeted therapy based on these findings, with responses observed in some previously treatment-refractory tumours. Comparative primary relapse analysis revealed substantial tumour evolution as well as one case of unsuspected secondary malignancy, highlighting the importance of re-biopsy at relapse. This study demonstrates the feasibility of comprehensive, real-time molecular profiling for high-risk paediatric cancer patients. This extended proof-of-concept, with examples of treatment consequences, expands upon previous personalised oncology endeavors
Conway, Christopher C; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A
Longitudinal studies of the exact environmental conditions and personal attributes contributing to the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are rare. Furthermore, existing research typically examines risk factors in isolation, limiting our knowledge of the relative effect sizes of different risk factors and how they act in concert to bring about borderline personality pathology. The present study investigated the prospective effects of diverse acute and chronic stressors, proband psychopathology, and maternal psychopathology on BPD features in a high-risk community sample (N = 700) of youth followed from mid-adolescence to young adulthood. Multivariate analyses revealed significant effects of maternal externalizing disorder history, offspring internalizing disorder history, family stressors, and school-related stressors on BPD risk. Contrary to expectations, no interactions between chronically stressful environmental conditions and personal characteristics in predicting borderline personality features were detected. Implications of these findings for etiological theories of BPD and early screening efforts are discussed.
Whitehead, Todd P.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Singer, Amanda W.; Miller, Mark D.
Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, affecting 3,800 children per year in the United States. Its annual incidence has increased over the last decades, especially among Latinos. Although most children diagnosed with leukemia are now cured, many suffer long-term complications, and primary prevention efforts are urgently needed. The early onset of leukemia – usually before age five – and the presence at birth of “pre-leukemic” genetic signatures indicate that pre- and postnatal events are critical to the development of the disease. In contrast to most pediatric cancers, there is a growing body of literature – in the United States and internationally – that has implicated several environmental, infectious, and dietary risk factors in the etiology of childhood leukemia, mainly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common subtype. For example, exposures to pesticides, tobacco smoke, solvents, and traffic emissions have consistently demonstrated positive associations with the risk of developing childhood leukemia. In contrast, intake of vitamins and folate supplementation during the pre-conception period or pregnancy, breastfeeding, and exposure to routine childhood infections have been shown to reduce the risk of childhood leukemia. Some children may be especially vulnerable to these risk factors, as demonstrated by a disproportionate burden of childhood leukemia in the Latino population of California. The evidence supporting the associations between childhood leukemia and its risk factors – including pooled analyses from around the world and systematic reviews – is strong; however, the dissemination of this knowledge to clinicians has been limited. To protect children’s health, it is prudent to initiate programs designed to alter exposure to well-established leukemia risk factors rather than to suspend judgement until no uncertainty remains. Primary prevention programs for childhood leukemia would also result in the significant co
Joo, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Yeon Joo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jong Hoon; Lee, Sang-wook; Song, Si Yeol; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Su Ssan; Park, Jin-hong; Jeong, Yuri; Ahn, Hanjong; Kim, Choung-Soo; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Ahn, Seung Do
Purpose To assess the clinical efficacy and toxicity of whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) for high-risk prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed. The study included patients who had undergone WP-IMRT with image guidance using electronic portal imaging devices and/or cone-beam computed tomography. The endorectal balloon was used in 93% of patients. Patients received either 46 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 76 Gy to the prostate in 2 Gy daily fractions, or 44 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 72.6 Gy to the prostate in 2.2 Gy fractions. Results The study cohort included 70 patients, of whom 55 (78%) had a Gleason score of 8 to 10 and 50 (71%) had a prostate-specific antigen level > 20 ng/mL. The androgen deprivation therapy was combined in 62 patients. The biochemical failure-free survival rate was 86.7% at 2 years. Acute any grade gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates were 47% and 73%, respectively. The actuarial rate of late grade 2 or worse toxicity at 2 years was 12.9% for GI, and 5.7% for GU with no late grade 4 toxicity. Conclusion WP-IMRT was well tolerated with no severe acute or late toxicities, resulting in at least similar biochemical control to that of the historic control group with a small field. The long-term efficacy and toxicity will be assessed in the future, and a prospective randomized trial is needed to verify these findings. PMID:24501707
Quero, Laurent; Bouchbika, Zineb; Kouto, Honorine; Baruch-Hennequin, Valerie; Gornet, Jean-Marc; Munoz, Nicolas; Cojean-Zelek, Isabelle; Houdart, Remi; Panis, Yves; Valleur, Patrice; Aparicio, Thomas; Maylin, Claude; Hennequin, Christophe
Purpose: To analyze the efficacy, toxicity, and pattern of relapse after adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by three-dimensional irradiation and concomitant LV5FU2 chemotherapy (high-dose leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil bolus plus continuous infusion) in the treatment of completely resected high-risk gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of 52 patients with high-risk gastric cancer initially treated by total/partial gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy between January 2002 and June 2007. Median age was 54 years (range, 36-75 years). Postoperative treatment consisted of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was followed by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes at 4500 cGy/25 fractions in association with concomitant chemotherapy. Concomitant chemotherapy consisted of a 2-h infusion of leucovorin (200 mg/m Superscript-Two ) followed by a bolus of 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m Superscript-Two ) and then a 44-h continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (2400-3600 mg/m Superscript-Two ) given every 14 days, for three cycles (LV5FU2 protocol). Results: Five-year overall and disease-free survival were 50% and 48%, respectively. Distant metastases and peritoneal spread were the most frequent sites of relapse (37% each). After multivariate analysis, only pathologic nodal status was significantly associated with disease-free and overall survival. Acute toxicities were essentially gastrointestinal and hematologic. One myocardial infarction and one pulmonary embolism were also reported. Eighteen patients had a radiotherapy program interruption because of acute toxicity. All patients but 2 have completed radiotherapy. Conclusion: Postoperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by conformal radiotherapy in association with concurrent 5-fluorouracil seemed to be feasible and resulted in successful locoregional control.
Schultz, Kris Ann P; Chen, Lu; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Chen, Zhengjia; Woods, William G; Gamis, Alan; Kawashima, Toana; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Nicholson, H Stacy; Neglia, Joseph P
Survival rates for children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are high; however, little is known regarding the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) of these survivors. Individuals who survived ≥5 years following diagnosis of childhood AML were invited to complete parent or patient-report surveys measuring HR-QOL and chronic health conditions. In total, 26 individuals with DS had a median age at diagnosis of 1.8 years (range, 0.77 to 10.9 y) and median age at interview of 15 years (range, 8.3 to 27.6 y). Participants with DS and AML were compared with AML survivors without DS whose caregiver completed a HR-QOL survey (CHQ-PF50). In total, 77% of survivors with DS reported ≥1 chronic health condition compared with 50% of AML survivors without DS (P=0.07). Mean physical and psychosocial QOL scores for children with DS and AML were statistically lower than the population mean, though not discrepant from AML survivors without DS. Although the overall prevalence of chronic health conditions in survivors with DS is higher than in survivors without DS, prior studies of children with DS have reported similarly high rates of chronic health conditions, suggesting that AML therapy may not substantially increase this risk.
Imamura, Toshihiko; Iwamoto, Shotaro; Kanai, Rie; Shimada, Akira; Terui, Kiminori; Osugi, Yuko; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Tawa, Akio; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Koji; Hori, Hiroki; Horibe, Keizo; Oda, Megumi; Adachi, Souichi
The acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) 99 trial conducted previously in Japan for the treatment of de novo paediatric AML showed excellent results, with a 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) of 75·6% and 61·6%, respectively. To examine reproducibility of these results in another cohort, the outcome of 146 newly diagnosed AML paediatric patients prospectively registered in the Japan Association of Childhood Leukaemia Study (JACLS) from 2003 to 2006 was compared to that of 240 patients in the original AML 99 clinical trial. The 5-year EFS and OS achieved in the new cohort was 66·7 ± 4·0% and 77·7 ± 8·0% respectively, which were comparable to those obtained in the original AML 99 clinical trial, although less frequent core-binding factor (CBF) AML (29·5% vs. 37%) and an almost equal frequency of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) during first complete remission (16·5% vs. 19%) were observed. The 5-year EFS in patients with a normal karyotype (NK) (n = 35, 54·9 ± 15·1%) was inferior in the present cohort when compared to the original AML99 trial. This study confirmed the excellent outcome of the original AML99 protocol.
Background Rotavirus (RV) is the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. A Quality of Life study was conducted in primary care in three European countries as part of a larger epidemiological study (SPRIK) to investigate the impact of paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) on affected children and their parents. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was linguistically validated in Spanish, Italian and Polish. The questionnaire was included in an observational multicentre prospective study of 302 children aged <5 years presenting to a general practitioner or paediatrician for RVGE at centres in Spain, Italy or Poland. RV infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing (n = 264). The questionnaire was validated and used to assess the emotional impact of paediatric RVGE on the parents. Results Questionnaire responses showed that acute RVGE in a child adversely affects the parents’ daily life as well as the child. Parents of children with RVGE experience worry, distress and impact on their daily activities. RVGE of greater clinical severity (assessed by the Vesikari scale) was associated with higher parental worries due to symptoms and greater changes in the child’s behaviour, and a trend to higher impact on parents’ daily activities and higher parental distress, together with a higher score on the symptom severity scale of the questionnaire. Conclusions Parents of a child with acute RVGE presenting to primary care experience worry, distress and disruptions to daily life as a result of the child’s illness. Prevention of this disease through prophylactic vaccination will improve the daily lives of parents and children. PMID:22650611
Hirabayashi, Shinsuke; Ohki, Kentaro; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Momozawa, Yukihide; Okamura, Kohji; Yaguchi, Akinori; Terada, Kazuki; Saito, Yuya; Yoshimi, Ai; Ogata-Kawata, Hiroko; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Kato, Motohiro; Fujimura, Junya; Hino, Moeko; Kinoshita, Akitoshi; Kakuda, Harumi; Kurosawa, Hidemitsu; Kato, Keisuke; Kajiwara, Ryosuke; Moriwaki, Koichi; Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Kozue; Noguchi, Yasushi; Osumi, Tomoo; Sakashita, Kazuo; Takita, Junko; Yuza, Yuki; Matsuda, Koich; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Hata, Kenichiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Matsubara, Yoichi; Fukushima, Takashi; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Manabe, Atsushi; Ohara, Akira; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka
Fusion genes involving ZNF384 have recently been identified in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 7 fusion partners have been reported. We further characterized this type of fusion gene by whole transcriptome sequencing and/or polymerase chain reaction. In addition to previously reported genes, we identified BMP2K as a novel fusion partner for ZNF384. Including the EP300-ZNF384 that we reported recently, the total frequency of ZNF384-related fusion genes was 4.1% in 291 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients enrolled in a single clinical trial, and TCF3-ZNF384 was the most recurrent, with a frequency of 2.4%. The characteristic immunophenotype of weak CD10 and aberrant CD13 and/or CD33 expression was revealed to be a common feature of the leukemic cells harboring ZNF384-related fusion genes. The signature gene expression profile in TCF3-ZNF384-positive patients was enriched in hematopoietic stem cell features and related to that of EP300-ZNF384-positive patients, but was significantly distinct from that of TCF3-PBX1-positive and ZNF384-fusion-negative patients. However, clinical features of TCF3-ZNF384-positive patients are markedly different from those of EP300-ZNF384-positive patients, exhibiting higher cell counts and a younger age at presentation. TCF3-ZNF384-positive patients revealed a significantly poorer steroid response and a higher frequency of relapse, and the additional activating mutations in RAS signaling pathway genes were detected by whole exome analysis in some of the cases. Our observations indicate that ZNF384-related fusion genes consist of a distinct subgroup of B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a characteristic immunophenotype, while the clinical features depend on the functional properties of individual fusion partners. PMID:27634205
Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq
Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410
Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies.