Marcus, Carol E., Ed.; Swisher, John D., Ed.
This report focuses on prevention programs developed with support from the Office for Substance Abuse Prevention's (OSAP) High-Risk Youth Demonstration Grant Program. Included are an Introduction (Eric Goplerud and others) and the following reports: (1) "Athletes Coaching Teens for Substance Abuse Prevention: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Risk…
Kanki, Barbara G.
Mountaineering expeditions combine a number of factors which make them potentially good analogs to the planetary exploration facet of long-duration space missions. A study of mountain climbing teams was conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of the environment as a space analog and to specifically identify the factors and issues surrounding teamwork and 'successful' team performance in two mountaineering environments. This paper focuses on social/organizational factors, including team size and structure, leadership styles and authority structure which were found in the sample of 22 climb teams (122 individuals). The second major issue discussed is the construction of a valid performance measure in this high-risk environment.
Care managers embedded in primary care clinics work with patients with high-risk diagnoses and multiple visits to the emergency department or hospital. Patients are identified though risk assessments, suggestions from inpatient case management, and requests from primary care clinicians. Care managers call patients before their clinic visits, look for gaps in care and find out patients' questions and concerns, sharing the information with the treating clinicians. Care managers follow patients for four weeks after their visit, helping them meet their health care goals and follow their treatment plan.
Lee, Michael L.; Howard, Mark E.; Horrey, William J.; Liang, Yulan; Anderson, Clare; Shreeve, Michael S.; O’Brien, Conor S.; Czeisler, Charles A.
Night-shift workers are at high risk of drowsiness-related motor vehicle crashes as a result of circadian disruption and sleep restriction. However, the impact of actual night-shift work on measures of drowsiness and driving performance while operating a real motor vehicle remains unknown. Sixteen night-shift workers completed two 2-h daytime driving sessions on a closed driving track at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety: (i) a postsleep baseline driving session after an average of 7.6 ± 2.4 h sleep the previous night with no night-shift work, and (ii) a postnight-shift driving session following night-shift work. Physiological measures of drowsiness were collected, including infrared reflectance oculography, electroencephalography, and electrooculography. Driving performance measures included lane excursions, near-crash events, and drives terminated because of failure to maintain control of the vehicle. Eleven near-crashes occurred in 6 of 16 postnight-shift drives (37.5%), and 7 of 16 postnight-shift drives (43.8%) were terminated early for safety reasons, compared with zero near-crashes or early drive terminations during 16 postsleep drives (Fishers exact: P = 0.0088 and P = 0.0034, respectively). Participants had a significantly higher rate of lane excursions, average Johns Drowsiness Scale, blink duration, and number of slow eye movements during postnight-shift drives compared with postsleep drives (3.09/min vs. 1.49/min; 1.71 vs. 0.97; 125 ms vs. 100 ms; 35.8 vs. 19.1; respectively, P < 0.05 for all). Night-shift work increases driver drowsiness, degrading driving performance and increasing the risk of near-crash drive events. With more than 9.5 million Americans working overnight or rotating shifts and one-third of United States commutes exceeding 30 min, these results have implications for traffic and occupational safety. PMID:26699470
Pollán, M; Gustavsson, P
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate, for the period 1971 through 1989, occupation-specific risks of breast cancer among Swedish women employed in 1970. METHODS: Age-period standardized incidence ratios were computed. Log-linear Poisson models were fitted, with geographical area and town size taken into account. Risks were further adjusted for major occupational group, used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Risk estimators were also calculated for women reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. RESULTS: Most elevated risks among professionals, managers, and clerks were reduced when intragroup comparisons were carried out, indicating the confounding effect of socioeconomic status. Excess risks were found for pharmacists, teachers of theoretical subjects, schoolmasters, systems analysts and programmers, telephone operators, telegraph and radio operators, metal platers and coaters, and hairdressers and beauticians, as well as for women working in 1960 and 1970 as physicians, religious workers, social workers, bank tellers, cost accountants, and telephonists. CONCLUSIONS: While the high risks observed among professional, administrative, and clerical workers might be related to lower birth rates and increased case detection, excess risks found for telephone workers and for hairdressers and beauticians deserve further attention. PMID:10358678
Zeynalova, Pervin A.; Tumyan, Gayane S.; Dolgushin, Mikhail B.; Akhmedov, Mobil I.
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare disorder that, in 95% of cases, represents diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. As such, making an accurate diagnosis is important. At present, stereotactic-guided biopsy is a recognized method of choice for tissue analysis. However, the diagnostic work-up for high-risk patients is determined by their performance status. Here, we report a case of PCNSL in a high-risk patient, for whom diagnosis was established by cerebrospinal fluid cytology and flow cytometry, which significantly shortened a diagnostic work-up period and allowed for the immediate treatment of the patient. PMID:28154784
Harris, Gregory E.; Jeffery, Gary
The current exploratory-descriptive study used a survey design method to examine guidance counsellors' and educational psychologists' perceptions of their preparation, motivation, and effectiveness in preventing, assessing, and intervening into student high-risk behaviour. The study also explored training associated with addressing high-risk…
Brinkley, Marsha; Zeigler, Donald W.
An urban American university, Georgia Institute of Technology, established a campus-community coalition to reduce high risk drinking, its harms and second-hand effects among university students and residents of the Atlanta community. The Atlanta-based institution was part of a ten-year, ten-university project, A Matter of Degree (AMOD),…
Looks at equipment, process, and training aspects of backpack vacuum cleaners that facilitate good ergonomics and high productivity levels, focusing on: designing new equipment for bodies and productivity; creating comfortable backpack harnesses; improving the work process via team training; and providing ergonomic training to ensure that backpack…
Balán, Iván C.; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Ávila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex
Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:24691922
Balán, Iván C; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Avila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex
Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk.
Wilson, Dawn K; Sweeney, Allison M; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St George, Sara M
Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth's behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at-risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family, and social-environmental-level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and healthcare providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth.
Seidman, Larry J.; Meyer, Eric C.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Breiter, Hans C.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Kremen, William S.; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Toomey, Rosemary; Stone, William S.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Faraone, Stephen V.
Objectives The search for predictors of schizophrenia has accelerated with a growing focus on early intervention and prevention of psychotic illness. Studying nonpsychotic relatives of individuals with schizophrenia enables identification of markers of vulnerability for the illness independent of confounds associated with psychosis. The goal of these studies was to develop new auditory continuous performance tests (ACPTs) and evaluate their effects in individuals with schizophrenia and their relatives. Methods We carried out two studies of auditory vigilance with tasks involving working memory (WM) and interference control with increasing levels of cognitive load to discern the information processing vulnerabilities in a sample of schizophrenia patients, and two samples of nonpsychotic relatives of individuals with schizophrenia and controls. Study 1 assessed adults (mean age = 41), and Study 2 assessed teenagers and young adults age 13-25 (mean =19). Results Patients with schizophrenia were impaired on all five versions of the ACPTs, while relatives were impaired only on WM tasks, particularly the two interference tasks that maximize cognitive load. Across all groups, the interference tasks were more difficult to perform than the other tasks. Schizophrenia patients performed worse than relatives who performed worse than controls. For patients, the effect sizes were large (Cohen’s d =1.5), whereas for relatives, they were moderate (d = ~0.40-0.50). There was no age by group interaction in the relatives –control comparison except for participants <31 years of age. Conclusions Novel WM tasks that manipulate cognitive load and interference control index an important component of the vulnerability to schizophrenia. PMID:22563872
The author believes happy staff make for happy classrooms and happy classrooms make for happy children. However, with all the pressures facing child care programs--from the economy to state requirements--creating and maintaining a positive work environment becomes tougher and tougher. In this article, the author discusses the importance of…
Cardo, Nicholas P.
High performance computing at the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility at NASA Ames Research Center includes C90's, J90's and Origin 2000's. Not only is it necessary to protect these systems from outside attacks, but also to provide a safe working environment on the systems. With the right tools, security anomalies in the user s work environment can be deleted and corrected. Validating proper ownership of files against user s permissions, will reduce the risk of inadvertent data compromise. The detection of extraneous directories and files hidden amongst user home directories is important for identifying potential compromises. The first runs of these utilities detected over 350,000 files with problems. With periodic scans, automated correction of problems takes only minutes. Tools for detecting these types of problems as well as their development techniques will be discussed with emphasis on consistency, portability and efficiency for both UNICOS and IRIX.
Laporte, F.; Christy, S.
Conjunction Messages (CM) provided by JSpOC are complete and valuable data to evaluate the level of risk of conjunctions, decide and choose avoidance actions. Nevertheless, conjunction assessment remains a difficult task which requires Middle Man between the CM provider (JSpOC) and Owner/Operators. Operational collision threat characterization is now an essential component of space mission operations. Most spacecraft operators have some sort of a process to evaluate and mitigate high-risk conjunction events. As the size of the space object catalog increases, satellite operators will be faced with more conjunction events to evaluate. Thus more sophisticated collision threat characterization and collision avoidance strategies must be implemented thought Middle Man entities. CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation Service, Alerts and Recommendations) is the French Middle Man. CAESAR relies on a collaborative work environment between all members of CAESAR team and its subscribers. For CAESAR, the collaborative work environment is based on JAC software and a dedicated secure webserver SpOD Space Operational Data. JAC software is not the Main Flight Dynamics (FD) software used by CAESAR team, but it is a light friendly CM dedicated software to be used on a laptop by on-call teams or support dialogue between Middle Man and FD teams. The dedicated secure webserver is a key element to share data and information between actors. This paper presents the main feedbacks from CAESAR team operational experience with regards to its collaborative work environment components: - JAC software which is not a classical Flight Dynamics software, its MMI is designed to be very quickly taken over (by teams not using it on daily basis) while also offering all the expertise levels required by the Middle Man team. JAC is used by CAESAR on-call team and all FD teams who subscribed to CAESAR. JAC is also distributed by CNES and therefore already used by some operational teams for Conjunction
Nowadays, the activities of most of the working population are carried out in confined, non-industrial environments such as offices, hospitals, libraries, social and leisure centres and means of transport. Sub-optimal air quality in these confined spaces can lead to discomfort, ailments and even diseases. The impact and diffusion of these effects have led to the organisation and funding of large-scale epidemiological investigations in many countries and the nomination of working parties by governments, health agencies and international scientific societies. Over the past 20 years studies on indoor environments have identified sources of risk of various pollutants, established the levels of potentially dangerous concentrations and, for most of them, have provided effective measures. However, the effects of many biological agents and chemical mixtures still remain to be defined and effective guidelines are needed for high quality indoor air. Identifying and managing indoor risk factors presupposes a specific methodology: the specialist in occupational medicine can play a key role in risk assessment, in the early diagnosis of building-related illnesses and in the prevention of both short- and long-term effects.
Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Lonial, Sagar; Usmani, Saad; Siegel, David; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Chng, Wee-Joo; Moreau, Philippe; Attal, Michel; Kyle, Robert A.; Caers, Jo; Hillengass, Jens; San Miguel, Jesús; van de Donk, Niels W. C. J.; Einsele, Hermann; Bladé, Joan; Durie, Brian G. M.; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Mateos, María-Victoria; Palumbo, Antonio; Orlowski, Robert
The International Myeloma Working Group consensus updates the definition for high-risk (HR) multiple myeloma based on cytogenetics Several cytogenetic abnormalities such as t(4;14), del(17/17p), t(14;16), t(14;20), nonhyperdiploidy, and gain(1q) were identified that confer poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients showing these abnormalities may vary with the choice of therapy. Treatment strategies have shown promise for HR cytogenetic diseases, such as proteasome inhibition in combination with lenalidomide/pomalidomide, double autologous stem cell transplant plus bortezomib, or combination of immunotherapy with lenalidomide or pomalidomide. Careful analysis of cytogenetic subgroups in trials comparing different treatments remains an important goal. Cross-trial comparisons may provide insight into the effect of new drugs in patients with cytogenetic abnormalities. However, to achieve this, consensus on definitions of analytical techniques, proportion of abnormal cells, and treatment regimens is needed. Based on data available today, bortezomib and carfilzomib treatment appear to improve complete response, progression-free survival, and overall survival in t(4;14) and del(17/17p), whereas lenalidomide may be associated with improved progression-free survival in t(4;14) and del(17/17p). Patients with multiple adverse cytogenetic abnormalities do not benefit from these agents. FISH data are implemented in the revised International Staging System for risk stratification. PMID:27002115
Guthrie, Bruce; Donnan, Peter T; Murphy, Douglas J; Makubate, Boikanyo; Dreischulte, Tobias
Objectives Primary care high-risk prescribing causes significant harm, but it is unclear if it is largely driven by individuals (a ‘bad apple’ problem) or by practices having higher or lower risk prescribing cultures (a ‘spoiled barrel’ problem). The study aimed to examine the extent of variation in high-risk prescribing between individual prescribers and between the practices they work in. Design, setting and participants Multilevel logistic regression modelling of routine cross-sectional data from 38 Scottish general practices for 181 010 encounters between 398 general practitioners (GPs) and 26 539 patients particularly vulnerable to adverse drug events (ADEs) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to age, comorbidity or co-prescribing. Outcome measure Initiation of a new NSAID prescription in an encounter between GPs and eligible patients. Results A new high-risk NSAID was initiated in 1953 encounters (1.1% of encounters, 7.4% of patients). Older patients, those with more vulnerabilities to NSAID ADEs and those with polypharmacy were less likely to have a high-risk NSAID initiated, consistent with GPs generally recognising the risk of NSAIDs in eligible patients. Male GPs were more likely to initiate a high-risk NSAID than female GPs (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.16). After accounting for patient characteristics, 4.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 8.3) of the variation in high-risk NSAID prescribing was attributable to variation between practices, and 14.2% (95% CI 11.4 to 17.3) to variation between GPs. Three practices had statistically higher than average high-risk prescribing, but only 15.7% of GPs with higher than average high-risk prescribing and 18.5% of patients receiving such a prescription were in these practices. Conclusions There was much more variation in high-risk prescribing between GPs than between practices, and only targeting practices with higher than average rates will miss most high-risk NSAID prescribing. Primary care prescribing
Laurier, D; Chau, N P
Identification of subjects at high risk of coronary morbidity is of major interest in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. This report describes the use of a multifactorial prediction model for the identification of high risk subjects in a French male population. The PCV-METRA study (Prévention Cardiovasculaire en Médecine du Travail) monitors risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity in a population of men and women employed in big companies in the Paris region. A model adapted from a prediction model conceived by K.M. Anderson et al. in the Framingham study was used. The modified model enables an estimation of individual coronary risk based on 7 factors: age, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, smoking, diabetes and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy, taking into account the relatively low prevalence of coronary heart disease in France. The population comprised 4,131 active men aged 30 to 65 years. The average risk at 5 years was estimated to be 1.6%. Subjects at high risk (over the 80th percentile of the risk distribution curve) usually had high blood pressures and cholesterol levels. However, nearly 30% of these subjects were neither hypertensive nor hypercholesteraemic. It is important to note that 3/4 of these smoked. Moreover, they also had low HDL-cholesterol levels. A risk table, derived from the Framingham model, is presented. This table allows estimation of individual risk at 5 years in men aged 30 to 65 years. In each age group, the comparison of individual risk with the percentiles of risk distribution in the PCV-METRA population allows identification of high-risk subjects. This study proposes a tool for identifying subjects at high risk of coronary morbidity in a French male population. This multifactorial model is particularly useful for detecting subjects with several borderline factors none of which overstep the usually accepted limits.
The Work Environment Questionnaire (WEQ) was designed as a measure of organizational climate that relies on description of observable aspects of the... work environment rather than attitudes about work or job satisfaction. WEQ items were selected based on a critical incident analysis of work issues
Crane, Adam L.; Mathiron, Anthony G. E.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.
Many prey species rely on conspecifics to gather information about unknown predation threats, but little is known about the role of varying environmental conditions on the efficacy of social learning. We examined predator-naive minnows that had the opportunity to learn about predators from experienced models that were raised in either a low- or high-risk environment. There were striking differences in behaviour among models; high-risk models showed a weaker response to the predator cue and became neophobic in response to the control cue (a novel odour, NO). Observers that were previously paired with low-risk models acquired a strong antipredator response only to the predator cue. However, observers that interacted with high-risk models, displayed a much weaker response to the predator odour and a weak neophobic response to the NO. This is the first study reporting such different outcomes of social learning under different environmental conditions, and suggests high-risk environments promote the cultural transmission of neophobia more so than social learning. If such a transfer can be considered similar to secondary traumatization in humans, culturally transmitted neophobia in minnows may provide a good model system for understanding more about the social ecology of fear disorders. PMID:26180068
Crane, Adam L; Mathiron, Anthony G E; Ferrari, Maud C O
Many prey species rely on conspecifics to gather information about unknown predation threats, but little is known about the role of varying environmental conditions on the efficacy of social learning. We examined predator-naive minnows that had the opportunity to learn about predators from experienced models that were raised in either a low- or high-risk environment. There were striking differences in behaviour among models; high-risk models showed a weaker response to the predator cue and became neophobic in response to the control cue (a novel odour, NO). Observers that were previously paired with low-risk models acquired a strong antipredator response only to the predator cue. However, observers that interacted with high-risk models, displayed a much weaker response to the predator odour and a weak neophobic response to the NO. This is the first study reporting such different outcomes of social learning under different environmental conditions, and suggests high-risk environments promote the cultural transmission of neophobia more so than social learning. If such a transfer can be considered similar to secondary traumatization in humans, culturally transmitted neophobia in minnows may provide a good model system for understanding more about the social ecology of fear disorders.
Greenwood, Reed, Ed.
A series of papers is presented from two symposia sponsored by the Work Environment and Technology Committee and offered at annual conferences of the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities. The 1988 symposium was called "Applying Technology in the Work Environment" and the 1989 symposium was called "Reasonable…
Massimo, L M; Caprino, D; Zarri, D R
Mutual help relationships are very important among families with children affected by serious diseases. Discussing common problems and experiences can provide the stimulus for developing the coping strategies that are needed to face new situations. This can thus be done with an outlook that nurtures subsequent adjustment and restoration of a good quality of life after diagnosis and the start of therapy. However, when parents are faced with the ordeal of a child affected by a high risk disease, this interaction may have detrimental effects. Through our observations of the behavior and relationships of 217 families over 5 years, we have been able to identify the caregiver as the staff member who can provide true and helpful support to the children and their parents. This caregiver is in touch with the psychologist supervisor on a daily basis, as well as with all the staff members involved in the global care of the child, including physicians, nurses, school teachers, and play workers. We strongly believe that physicians and caregivers must adopt strategies and practices to improve communication with, and often among, the families of affected children, and that they must act as a reliable source of support for their hopes for a cure. Treatment and recovery must never be proposed as a war to be won, but rather as an alliance among patients, parents, physicians and other caregivers that is formed to build health, and not merely to destroy the disease.
The Healthy Work Environment (HWE) Model, considered a model of standards of professional behaviors, was created to help foster an environment that is happy, healthy, realistic, and feasible. The model focuses on areas of PEOPLE and PRACTICE, where each letter of these words identifies core, professional qualities and behaviors to foster an environment amenable and conducive to accountability for one's behavior and action. Each of these characteristics is supported from a Christian, biblical perspective. The HWE Model provides a mental and physical checklist of what is important in creating and sustaining a healthy work environment in education and practice.
AD-AlS 1#17 NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DIEGO CA F/S 5/2 MONITORING ILLNESS MN A CLOSED WORK ENVIRONMENT .(Ul OCT Al L HERNANSEN, V M PUGH...CLOSED WORK ENVIRONMENT Larry Hermansen* and William M. Pugh* Naval Health Research Center P.O. Box 85122 San Diego, California 92138 Accesion Yor NUIS 0R...monitoring outpatient illness rates in a closed work environment . This paper presents additional procedures which were used to further organize and
Bergman, Ann; And Others
Reviews empirical literature to highlight individual, family, and illness variables that alone and together may improve identification of patients and families in need of social work services. Notes that development of screening mechanisms may be useful vehicle for improved psychosocial care and for the planning of social work services. (Author/NB)
Zanskas, Stephen; Strohmer, Douglas C.
The profession of rehabilitation counseling has undergone extensive empirical study. Absent from this research has been a theoretical basis for describing and understanding the profession and its associated work environment. The focus of this study was to further our understanding of the nature of the rehabilitation counselor's work environment…
Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.
Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647
Schwartz, Bruce; Wetzler, Scott; Swanson, Arthur; Sung, Sharon C
The goals of this study were (a) to investigate the existence of substance abuse/dependence subtypes in a diverse low-income welfare to work sample and (b) to explore subtype differences in rates of comorbid psychiatric and medical conditions. Data for all demographic and clinical variables were extracted from deidentified case records of 4,977 clients enrolled in a comprehensive case management program for welfare recipients with substance use disorders. Latent class analysis supported a five-class model made up of a multiple abuse/dependence class (n = 1,133), a cocaine/alcohol class (n = 2,120), an opioids class (n = 1,346), a cannabis class (n = 362), and a small polysubstance/none primary class (n = 16). Post hoc chi-square analyses revealed several between-class differences, perhaps reflecting differing levels of severity and service needs. All five classes were characterized by high rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidity.
Goddard, Richard; O'Brien, Patrick; Goddard, Marion
This study investigated elements of school environments that explain variance in burnout scores in a sample of university graduates from Brisbane, Australia, two years after they commenced work as teachers. Using a longitudinal survey methodology, 79 beginning teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) on four occasions over a two-year…
Howland, Joan S.
Addresses challenges faced when working in a multicultural library setting and discusses the need for library administration to create supportive environments. Highlights include fluctuating power dynamics; merging diverse opinions and approaches; overcoming perceived lack of empathy; tokenism; accountability; and transforming challenges into…
Gustavsson, Maria; Eriksson, Anna Fogelberg
The aim is to investigate female and male managers' learning environments with particular focus on their opportunities for and barriers to learning and career development in the managerial work of a male-dominated industrial company. In the case study 42 managers, 15 women and 27 men in the company were interviewed. The findings demonstrate that…
Pungello, Elizabeth P; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H; Sparling, Joseph J; Ramey, Craig T; Campbell, Frances A
The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment, attending college, and skilled employment; negative effects of risk were found for education attainment, graduating high school, being employed, and avoiding teen parenthood. The home mediated the effects of risk for graduating high school, but not being employed for teen parenthood. Evidence for moderated mediation was found for educational attainment; the home mediated the association between risk and educational attainment for the control group, but not the treated group.
Pearcy, E.C.; Cady, R.E.
This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the potential impacts of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the far-field environment.
Adamson, Bonnie J
Although I find Graham Lowe and Ben Chan's logic model and work environment metrics thought provoking, a healthy work environment framework must be more comprehensive and consider the addition of recommended diagnostic tools, vehicles to deliver the necessary change and a sustainability strategy that allows for the tweaking and refinement of ideas. Basic structure is required to frame and initiate an effective process, while allowing creativity and enhancements to be made by organizations as they learn. I support the construction of a suggested Canadian health sector framework for measuring the health of an organization, but I feel that organizations need to have some freedom in that design and the ability to incorporate their own indicators within the established proven drivers. Reflecting on my organization's experience with large-scale transformation efforts, I find that emotional intelligence along with formal leadership development and front-line engagement in Lean process improvement activities are essential for creating healthy work environments that produce the balanced set of outcomes listed in my hospital's Balanced Scorecard.
Slack, Kelley; Noe, Raymond; Weaver, Sallie
Research examining teams working in high-risk operations has been lacking. The present symposium showcases research on team training that helps to optimize team performance in environments characterized by life or death situations arising spontaneously after long periods of mundane activity by pulling experts from diverse areas of industry: space flight, health care, and medical simulation.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
This report provides an overview of efforts undertaken by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) in 1990 to review and report on federal program areas its work identified as high risk because of vulnerabilities to waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement. It reviews the current status of efforts to address these concerns. The six categories of…
Haegeli, Pascal; Gunn, Matt; Haider, Wolfgang
The development of effective prevention initiatives requires a detailed understanding of the characteristics and needs of the target audience. To properly identify at-risk individuals, it is crucial to clearly delineate risky from acceptable behavior. Whereas health behavior campaigns commonly use single conditions (e.g., lack of condom use) to identify high-risk cohorts, many risk behaviors are more complex and context dependent, rendering a single condition approach inadequate. Out-of-bounds skiing, an activity associated with voluntary exposure to avalanche hazard, is an example of such a multifaceted risk-taking activity. Using a dataset from an extensive online survey on out-of-bounds skiing, we present an innovative approach for identifying at-risk individuals in complex risk environments. Based on a risk management framework, we first examine risk-taking preferences of out-of-bounds skiers with respect to exposure and preparedness--the two main dimensions of risk management--separately. Our approach builds on existing person-centered research and uses Latent Class Analysis to assign survey participants to mutually exclusive behavioral classes on these two dimensions. Discrete Choice Experiments are introduced as a useful method for examining exposure preferences in the context of variable external conditions. The two class designations are then combined using a risk matrix to assign overall risk levels to each survey participant. The present approach complements existing person-centered prevention research on the antecedents of risk-taking by offering a process-oriented method for examining behavioral patterns with respect to the activity itself. Together, the two approaches can offer a much richer perspective for informing the design of effective prevention initiatives.
Morcego, Bernardo; Argilés, Marc; Cabrerizo, Marc; Cardona, Genís; Pérez, Ramon; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Gispets, Joan
The health of the ocular surface requires blinks of the eye to be frequent in order to provide moisture and to renew the tear film. However, blinking frequency has been shown to decrease in certain conditions such as when subjects are conducting tasks with high cognitive and visual demands. These conditions are becoming more common as people work or spend their leisure time in front of video display terminals. Supervision of blinking frequency in such environments is possible, thanks to the availability of computer-integrated cameras. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the detection of eye blinks and to test it, in a number of videos captured, while subjects are conducting a variety of tasks in front of the computer. The sensitivity of the algorithm for blink detection was found to be of 87.54% (range 30% to 100%), with a mean false-positive rate of 0.19% (range 0% to 1.7%), depending on the illumination conditions during which the image was captured and other computer-user spatial configurations. The current automatic process is based on a partly modified pre-existing eye detection and image processing algorithms and consists of four stages that are aimed at eye detection, eye tracking, iris detection and segmentation, and iris height/width ratio assessment.
Morcego, Bernardo; Argilés, Marc; Cabrerizo, Marc; Cardona, Genís; Pérez, Ramon; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Gispets, Joan
The health of the ocular surface requires blinks of the eye to be frequent in order to provide moisture and to renew the tear film. However, blinking frequency has been shown to decrease in certain conditions such as when subjects are conducting tasks with high cognitive and visual demands. These conditions are becoming more common as people work or spend their leisure time in front of video display terminals. Supervision of blinking frequency in such environments is possible, thanks to the availability of computer-integrated cameras. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the detection of eye blinks and to test it, in a number of videos captured, while subjects are conducting a variety of tasks in front of the computer. The sensitivity of the algorithm for blink detection was found to be of 87.54% (range 30% to 100%), with a mean false-positive rate of 0.19% (range 0% to 1.7%), depending on the illumination conditions during which the image was captured and other computer–user spatial configurations. The current automatic process is based on a partly modified pre-existing eye detection and image processing algorithms and consists of four stages that are aimed at eye detection, eye tracking, iris detection and segmentation, and iris height/width ratio assessment.
Stuiver, Arjan; Mulder, Ben
The usefulness of cardiovascular measures as indicators of changes in cognitive workload has been addressed in several studies. In this paper the question is explored whether cardiovascular patterns in heart rate, blood pressure, baroreflex sensitivity and HRV that are found are consistent within and between two simulated working environments. Two studies, were performed, both with 21 participants: one in an ambulance dispatch simulation and one in a driving simulator. In the ambulance dispatcher task an initial strong increase in blood pressure is followed by a moderate on-going increase in blood pressure during the next hour of task performance. This pattern is accompanied by a strong increase in baroreflex sensitivity while heart rate decreases. In the driving simulator study, blood pressure initially increases but decreases almost to baseline level in the next hour. This pattern is accompanied by a decrease in baroreflex sensitivity, while heart rate decreases. Results of both studies are interpreted in terms of autonomic control (related to both sympathetic and para-sympathetic effects), using a simplified simulation of a baroreflex regulation model. Interpretation of the results leads to the conclusion that the cardiovascular response patterns in both tasks are a combination of an initial defensive reaction, in combination with compensatory blood pressure control. The level of compensatory blood pressure control, however, is quite different for the two tasks. This helps to understand the differences in response patterns between the two studies in this paper and may be helpful as well for understanding differences in cardiovascular response patterns in general. A substantial part of the effects observed during task performance are regulatory effects and are not always directly related to workload manipulations. Making this distinction may also contribute to the understanding of differences in cardiovascular response patterns during cognitive workload. PMID
Kuehn, Mary Beth
Nursing administrators and faculty have a professional and ethical responsibility to develop and maintain a caring and healthy work environment for nursing faculty. To recruit and retain quality nursing faculty in the current nursing faculty shortage, a healthy work environment is essential. This article focuses on nursing administrators' and nursing faculty members' role in promoting a healthy academic work environment. Strategies to develop and sustain this environment are discussed.
Analyzes shortcomings of computer monitors, including one-way communication and organization of the monitor display, when they are used with multimedia in open learning environments. Solutions are described according to the concepts and theories developed by Min, Koopal, Gritter, Struyker, Boudier, Coleman, Miltenburg, and Van Schaick Zillesen…
Longhouser, G.A. Jr.
Human beings are diurnal species, normally active by day and asleep by night. Yet over thirty million Americans struggle with work schedules that include an off-normal work effort. The railroads, law enforcement, health services, Department of Defense, factory workers, chemical plants and public services, communications and utility workers must provide some form of around-the-clock effort. Shift work has been around since the advent of recorded history. There has always been a need for some type of off-normal service and assistance. The impact of shift work is replete with tales and factual evidence of an increased personnel error rate; disorders, both personal and family, and of course, increased accident events. In recent memory, the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant incident, Union Carbide`s explosion in Bhopal, and the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant catastrophe all occurred during off-normal working hours. Yet management overall has done little to correct the production-driven twelve hour, seven day week shift mentality of the nineteenth century. Most schedules in use today are nothing more than cosmetic variations of the old production schedules. This could be driven by a management consideration of the worker`s response to change coupled with a reluctant buy-in of responsibility for the effects of change. Florida Power Corporation has developed for its nuclear security force, a unique work schedule which attempts to employ the sound principles of circadian rhythms coupled with a comprehensive training program to counter the problems associated with shift work. The results over the last four years have seen a marked reduction in the generic problems of personnel errors, absenteeism, unscheduled overtime and turnover rates. Utilization and understanding of this scheduling process for rotational shift work needs to be assessed to determine if the benefits are site specific or provide an expected response to the problems of shift work.
Ames, Troy; Henderson, Scott
Real time control problems require robust, high performance solutions. Distributed computing can offer high performance through parallelism and robustness through redundancy. Unfortunately, implementing distributed systems with these characteristics places a significant burden on the applications programmers. Goddard Code 522 has developed WorkPlace to alleviate this burden. WorkPlace is a small, portable, embeddable network interface which automates message routing, failure detection, and re-configuration in response to failures in distributed systems. This paper describes the design and use of WorkPlace, and its application in the construction of a distributed blackboard system.
Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) have had little or no impact on certain performance variables studied. The same conclusion was...reached by Martin and Waaq (I’J/fl) in their work with the ASPT . Kurthermon», Kddowes found that in oni1 case, the ^!ystem with a...approach could overwhelm the trainee, leadinq to results such as those described by Fddowes (1978) and Martin and Waaq (1978) for the ASPT
This target has been under Danfoss realization for over 60 years, both in Denmark and all over the world. The operational range of the enterprise: is very wide. Danfoss manufactures a large assortment of products, starting from heat automatic control systems, through heat metering devices, industrial and refrigeration automatic control, compressors, flow meters, frequency converters, control systems, and monitoring. The four mainstays of the business activity are based on: high quality products; advanced manufacturing technology; care of the environment, and engagement of the staff. Since 1992 Danfoss has been manufacturing heat radiator thermostats in Poland. A unique solution - namely the use of a gas thermostatic head secures the highest energy savings and operational reliability. In 1993, Danfoss as the sixth company in Poland and the first in its business field, gained a ISO 9002 certificate.
Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal
Antenatal care is aiming to reduce maternal land foetal mortality and morbidity. Maternal and foetal mortality can be due to different causes. Their knowledge allows identifying pregnancy (high risk pregnancy) with factors associated with an increased risk for maternal and/or foetal mortality and serious morbidity. Identification of high risk pregnancies and initiation of appropriate treatment and/or surveillance should improve maternal and/or foetal outcome. New risk factors are continuously described thanks to improvement in antenatal care and development in biology and cytopathology, increasing complexity in identifying high risk pregnancies. Level of risk can change all over the pregnancy. Ideally, it should be evaluated prior to the pregnancy and at each antenatal visit. Clinical examination is able to screen for intra-uterin growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, threatened for preterm labour; ultrasounds help in the diagnosis of foetal morphological anomalies, foetal chromosomal anomalies, placenta praevia and abnormal foetal growth; biological exams are used to screen for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, trisomy 21 (for which screening method just changed), rhesus immunisation, seroconversion for toxoplasmosis or rubeola, unknown infectious disease (syphilis, hepatitis B, VIH). During pregnancy, most of the preventive strategies have to be initiated during the first trimester or even before conception. Prevention for neural-tube defects, neonatal hypocalcemia and listeriosis should be performed for all women. On the opposite, some measures are concerning only women with risk factors such as prevention for toxoplasmosis, rhesus immunization (which recently changed), tobacco complications and pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth factor restriction.
Haynes, Derrick E.
The qualitative and quantitative study developed and validated a questionnaire to measure Student Affairs Officers' (SAO) perceptions of the work environment. A review of the literature identified five major categories and 25 elements having an impact on SAOs' perceptions of the work environment. The test instrument (questionnaire) was developed…
Keller, M J
It is the role of management in therapeutic recreation to create a working environment where personnel can accomplish their duties; create and maintain relationships; and work together harmoniously and creatively to obtain the organization's mission or purpose. This is an awesome job and therapeutic recreation managers are at times confronted with low-morale environments. Yet, there are strategies which can be employed to create positive working environments. Yet, there are strategies which can be employed to create positive working environments for therapeutic recreation personnel. These transformation techniques are: acknowledging negativity, identifying the positives, being available, providing positive recognition, avoiding negative game playing, refraining from negative conversation, avoiding putdowns, and using positive and effective communication. A successful therapeutic recreation supervisor can bring about positive change in the work environment so that staff members can rise to new levels of performance and self-esteem.
McHugh, Matthew D; Ma, Chenjuan
Research has shown that hospitals with better nurse staffing and work environments have better nurse outcomes-less burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave the job. Many studies, however, have not accounted for wage effects, which may confound findings. By using a secondary analysis with cross-sectional administrative data and a four-state survey of nurses, we investigated how wage, work environment, and staffing were associated with nurse outcomes. Logistic regression models, with and without wage, were used to estimate the effects of work environment and staffing on burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave. We discovered that wage was associated with job dissatisfaction and intent to leave but had little influence on burnout, while work environment and average patient-to-nurse ratio still have considerable effects on nurse outcomes. Wage is important for good nurse outcomes, but it does not diminish the significant influence of work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes.
Shirey, Maria R
Implementation of authentic leadership can affect not only the nursing workforce and the profession but the healthcare delivery system and society as a whole. Creating a healthy work environment for nursing practice is crucial to maintain an adequate nursing workforce; the stressful nature of the profession often leads to burnout, disability, and high absenteeism and ultimately contributes to the escalating shortage of nurses. Leaders play a pivotal role in retention of nurses by shaping the healthcare practice environment to produce quality outcomes for staff nurses and patients. Few guidelines are available, however, for creating and sustaining the critical elements of a healthy work environment. In 2005, the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses released a landmark publication specifying 6 standards (skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition, and authentic leadership) necessary to establish and sustain healthy work environments in healthcare. Authentic leadership was described as the "glue" needed to hold together a healthy work environment. Now, the roles and relationships of authentic leaders in the healthy work environment are clarified as follows: An expanded definition of authentic leadership and its attributes (eg, genuineness, trustworthiness, reliability, compassion, and believability) is presented. Mechanisms by which authentic leaders can create healthy work environments for practice (eg, engaging employees in the work environment to promote positive behaviors) are described. A practical guide on how to become an authentic leader is advanced. A research agenda to advance the study of authentic leadership in nursing practice through collaboration between nursing and business is proposed.
Urban, Ann-Marie; Wagner, Joan I
Hospitals are situated within historical and socio-political contexts; these influence the provision of patient care and the work of registered nurses (RNs). Since the early 1990s, restructuring and the increasing pressure to save money and improve efficiency have plagued acute care hospitals. These changes have affected both the work environment and the work of nurses. After recognizing this impact, healthcare leaders have dedicated many efforts to improving the work environment in hospitals. Admirable in their intent, these initiatives have made little change for RNs and their work environment, and thus, an opportunity exists for other efforts. Research indicates that spirit at work (SAW) not only improves the work environment but also strengthens the nurse's power to improve patient outcomes and contribute to a high-quality workplace. In this paper, we present findings from our research that suggest SAW be considered an important component in improving the work environment in acute care hospitals.
Banneheke, Hasini; Paranavitane, Sarath; Jayasuriya, Vathsala; Banneheka, Sarath
Background: The aim of this study was to assess community knowledge and behavioral impact of the social mobilization and communication strategy applied in a dengue high-risk area in Sri Lanka. Methods: A group of adults visiting selected primary care facilities in Colombo district were interviewed to collect socio-demographic data, attributes of knowledge regarding dengue and the responsive behaviors adopted by them following the dengue control program though the media and social marketing campaigns. These attributes were classified as ‘good’, ‘fair,’ or ‘poor’ by developing a composite scale for analysis and interpretation of data. Results: The primary source of information was television in the majority. The overall knowledge of the disease, vector and control methods was poor. The overall level of contribution to dengue control activities was good. Conclusion: Awareness of the disease and its complications had not contributed to favorable behavior changes. While the social mobilization and behavior change campaign in Sri Lanka had low impact on knowledge and behaviors, a better understating of community perceptions of DF and how these perceptions are formulated within the social and cultural context; would be useful to improve uptake. This knowledge would be valuable for program planners to strengthen dengue control activities in SL and other similar settings across the region. PMID:27308297
Saito, Naoko; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kitaike, Tadashi
Objectives By defining health as mental health and productivity and performance as work motivation, the study aimed to identify work environments that promote the health and motivation of public health nurses, using the concept of a healthy work organizations, which encompasses the coexistence of excellent health for each worker and the productivity and performance of the organization.Methods Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 363 public health nurses in 41 municipal public health departments in Chiba prefecture. The questions were comprised of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for mental health and the Morale Measurement Scale (5 items) for work motivation. Demographic data, workplace attributes, workload, and workplace environment were set as independent variables. The Comfortable Workplace Survey (35 items in 7 areas) was used to assess workers' general work environments. The "Work Environment for Public Health Nurses" scale (25 items) was developed to assess the specific situations of public health nurses. While aggregation was carried out area by area for the general work environment, factor analysis and factor-by-factor aggregation were used for public health nurse-specific work environments. Mental health and work motivation results were divided in two based on the total scores, which were then evaluated by t-tests and χ(2) tests. Items that showed a significant correlation were analyzed using logistic regression.Results The valid responses of 215 participants were analyzed (response rate: 59.2%). For the general work environment, high scores (the higher the score, the better the situation) were obtained for "contributions to society" and "human relationships" and low scores were obtained for "career building and human resource development." For public health nurse-specific work environments, high scores were obtained for "peer support," while low scores were obtained for "easy access to advice and training" and
Shirey, Maria R
The purpose of this article is to showcase the relationship among authentic leadership, organizational culture, and healthy work environments using a stress and coping lens. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to determine what situations contribute to nurse manager stress, what coping strategies they utilize, what health outcomes they report, and what decision-making processes they follow to address stressful situations in their roles. A purposive sample of 21 nurse managers employed at 3 US acute care hospitals completed a demographic questionnaire and 14-question interview incorporating components of the Critical Decision Method. A secondary analysis of the data was conducted to identify differences in nurse manager narratives based upon differences in the organizational cultures where the managers worked. Of the 21 nurse managers studied, differences were evident in the organizational cultures reported. Nurse managers working in the positive organizational cultures (n = 12) generally worked in healthy work environments and engaged in more authentic leadership behaviors. Conversely, nurse managers working in the negative organizational cultures (n = 9) worked in unhealthy work environments and reported less optimism and more challenges engaging in authentic leadership practices. Organizational culture and leadership matter in creating and sustaining healthy work environments. Nurse managers play a pivotal role in creating these environments, yet they need supportive structures and resources to more effectively execute their roles.
Heerwagen, J.H.; Heubach, J.G.; Brown, B.W.; Sanchez, J.A.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.
In response to a request from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Analytical Chemistry Upgrades Program, a team was formed to (1) review work environment and productivity research, (2) report the research in a manner usable to organizational decision-makers, (3) identify Hanford Site facilities examples of the work environment principles and research, and (4) publish the review results in a referred journal. This report summarizes the work environment-organizational effectiveness research reviewed, provides the foundation for a publishable article, and outlines the integration of work environment research and organizational effectiveness in continuing improvement programs and strategic planning. The research cited in this review shows that the physical work environment offers a valuable tool that, used wisely, can contribute significantly to the performance of an organization, its bottom-line economics, and the well-being of all of its employees. This finding leads to one central recommendation: to derive the maximum benefit to the corporation, managers and designers must integrate organizational goals and programs with work environment design. While much of the research cited focuses on office environments, the results and design principles and practices are relevant to a full range of settings: laboratories, schools, hospitals, and factories. The major findings of the research reviewed are summarized below in four areas: (1) performance, (2) well-being, (3) image, and (4) turnover and recruitment.
Lee, Seung Eun; Scott, Linda D
This integrative literature review assesses the relationship between hospital nurses' work environment characteristics and patient safety outcomes and recommends directions for future research based on examination of the literature. Using an electronic search of five databases, 18 studies published in English between 1999 and 2016 were identified for review. All but one study used a cross-sectional design, and only four used a conceptual/theoretical framework to guide the research. No definition of work environment was provided in most studies. Differing variables and instruments were used to measure patient outcomes, and findings regarding the effects of work environment on patient outcomes were inconsistent. To clarify the relationship between nurses' work environment characteristics and patient safety outcomes, researchers should consider using a longitudinal study design, using a theoretical foundation, and providing clear operational definitions of concepts. Moreover, given the inconsistent findings of previous studies, they should choose their measurement methodologies with care.
Maguen, Shira; Metzler, Thomas J.; McCaslin, Shannon E.; Inslicht, Sabra S.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Neylan, Thomas C.; Marmar, Charles R.
This study examined the relationship between routine work environment stress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of police officers (N = 180) who were first assessed during academy training and reassessed 1-year later. In a model that included gender, ethnicity, traumatic exposure prior to entering the academy, current negative life events, and critical incident exposure over the last year, routine work environment stress was most strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. We also found that routine work environment stress mediated the relationship between critical incident exposure and PTSD symptoms and between current negative life events and PTSD symptoms. Ensuring that the work environment is functioning optimally protects against the effects of duty-related critical incidents and negative life events outside police service. PMID:19829204
Every RN should be able to work in a safe and healthy environment. Certainly, much of the foundation for such an environment rests with an organization's leadership. But it takes the commitment of every RN to make it happen 24/7. If you did a mini-assessment on your current work environment using the questions above and found it wanting, you have choices to make. First, do you stay silent or do you move the issue forward and seek change? Second, if you advocate for and try to drive change and it doesn't work, do you stay or do you go? Healthy work environments for nurses will only become the norm if nurses refuse to settle for less.
Pratt, Charlotte; Doyle, Margaret
The relationship of family environment to food use and nutrient intakes was investigated among a sample of working mothers in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The family environment scale that measured cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, intellectual-cultural orientation, morals and religious emphasis, organization, and control in the family was used to…
Squires, Allison; Juarez, Adrian
Background Studies of the nursing work environment are increasingly common in developed countries, but few exist in developing countries. Because of resource differences between the two contexts, researchers need to clarify what aspects of the work environments are similar and different. Objectives To study the perspectives of Mexican nurses about their work environments to determine similarities and differences to results from developed world studies. Design A secondary, directed content analysis of qualitative data from 46 Spanish language interviews using workplace-oriented themes Setting Purposively selected Mexican states from four regions of the country that reflect the country’s socioeconomic differences. Participants Practicing Mexican nurses with at least one year of clinical experience and currently working in nursing. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Methods Initial data collection occurred in 2006 and 2008 during a broader study about professionalization processes that occurred in Mexican nursing between 1980 and 2005. The secondary, directed content analysis focused on an in-depth exploration of a central theme that emerged from the two original studies: The Workplace. The directed content analysis used themes from the global nursing work environment literature to structure the analysis: Professional relationships, organizational administrative practices, and quality of care and services. Results The three themes from the global literature were relevant for the Mexican context and a new one emerged related to hiring practices. By category, the same factors that created positive or negative perceptions of the work environment matched findings from other international studies conducted in developed countries. The descriptors of the category, however, had different conceptual meanings that illustrate the health system challenges in Mexico. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that studies that
TEAMS IN A HIGH PERFORMANCE WORK ENVIRONMENT THESIS Gerald L. Page, Captain, USAF AFIT/GLM/LSR/90S-42 4~ELECTE SDEC121l990 Approved for public r:elease...studies in this field. vii IMPLEMENTING SELF-MANAGING WORK TEAMS IN A HIGH PERFORMANCE WORK ENVIRONMENT I. Introduction Background Many organizations today...continuous improveimenIt be sustained by a positive work environment " (28:40). General Issue An aspect of TQM that shows great promise in achieving reduced
Parkes, Katharine R
Personnel working on North Sea oil/gas installations are exposed to remote and potentially hazardous environments, and to extended work schedules (typically, 14×12h shifts). Moreover, overtime (additional to the standard 84-h week) is not uncommon among offshore personnel. Evidence from onshore research suggests that long work hours and adverse environmental characteristics are associated with sleep impairments, and consequently with health and safety risks, including accidents and injuries. However, little is known about the extent to which long hours and a demanding work environment combine synergistically in relation to sleep. The present study sought to address this issue, using survey data collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N=551). The multivariate analysis examined the additive and interactive effects of overtime and measures of the psychosocial/physical work environment (job demands, job control, supervisor support, and physical stressors) as predictors of sleep outcomes during offshore work weeks. Control variables, including age and sleep during leave weeks, were also included in the analysis model. Sleep duration and quality were significantly impaired among those who worked overtime (54% of the participants) relative to those who worked only 12-h shifts. A linear relationship was found between long overtime hours and short sleep duration; personnel who worked >33h/week overtime reported <6h/day sleep. Significant interactions were also found; sleep duration was negatively related to job demands, and positively related to supervisor support, only among personnel who worked overtime. Poor sleep quality was predicted by the additive effects of overtime, low support and an adverse physical environment. These findings highlight the need to further examine the potential health and safety consequences of impaired sleep associated with high overtime rates offshore, and to identify the extent to which adverse effects of overtime can be mitigated by
Kroth, Michael; Boverie, Patricia; Zondlo, John
The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to determine what successful managers do to create healthy work environments in a healthcare organization. Managers using exemplary behaviors were selected and interviewed based on employee satisfaction surveys, and focus groups were conducted with employees who worked for them. Effective…
Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's participation in…
King, Dennis R.; And Others
Forty male and 45 female educators were administered the Work Preference Schedule and the Barth Scale for purposes of determining the relationship between educators' perceptions of work environment and degree of support for open education. Those supporting open education tended not to prefer rules, regulations, and standard operating procedures.…
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High risk recipients. 35.6790 Section 35.6790 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6790 High risk recipients....
Aiken, Linda H.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Clarke, Sean; Poghosyan, Lusine; Cho, Eunhee; You, Liming; Finlayson, Mary; Kanai-Pak, Masako; Aungsuroch, Yupin
Purpose To determine the effect of hospital work environments on hospital outcomes across multiple countries. Design Primary survey data using a common instrument were collected from separate cross sections of 98 116 bedside care nurses practising in 1406 hospitals in 9 countries between 1999 and 2009. Main Outcome Measures Nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, patient readiness for hospital discharge and quality of patient care. Results High nurse burnout was found in hospitals in all countries except Germany, and ranged from roughly a third of nurses to about 60% of nurses in South Korea and Japan. Job dissatisfaction among nurses was close to 20% in most countries and as high as 60% in Japan. Close to half or more of nurses in every country lacked confidence that patients could care for themselves following discharge. Quality-of-care rated as fair or poor varied from 11% in Canada to 68% in South Korea. Between one-quarter and one-third of hospitals in each country were judged to have poor work environments. Working in a hospital with a better work environment was associated with significantly lower odds of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction and with better quality-of-care outcomes. Conclusions Poor hospital work environments are common and are associated with negative outcomes for nurses and quality of care. Improving work environments holds promise for nurse retention and better quality of patient care. PMID:21561979
Lefebre, Nancy; DeCicco, Julie; Ray, Karen
The current nursing shortage and increasing demand for healthcare service in the home and community compound the urgent need for service providers to better attract and retain nurses. Nursing leaders can enhance recruitment and retention by promoting healthy work environments, and developing leadership can help service providers become a better place to work. This case study illustrates how one community healthcare organization successfully implemented healthy workplace strategies using the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario (RNAO) Healthy Work Environments Best Practice Guideline, Developing and Sustaining Nursing Leadership. A detailed description of the process undertaken for project implementation and evaluation is provided, along with lessons learned and recommendations.
Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen; Sansothy, Neth; Evans, Jennifer; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sichan, Keo; Cockroft, Melissa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa
Objectives HIV prevalence among Cambodian female sex workers (FSW) is among the highest in Southeast Asia. We describe HIV prevalence and associated risk exposures in FSW sampled serially in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)), before and after the implementation of a new law designed to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from two prospective cohorts. Setting Community-based study in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Participants Women aged 15–29 years, reporting ≥2 sexual partners in the last month and/or engaged in transactional sex in the last 3 months, were enrolled in the studies in 2007 (N=161; YWHS-1), and 2009 (N=220; YWHS-2) following information sessions where 285 and 345 women attended. Primary outcomes HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour, amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) and alcohol use, and work-related factors were compared in the two groups, enrolled before and after implementation of the new law. Results Participants in the two cohorts were similar in age (median 25 years), but YWHS-2 women reported fewer sex partners, more alcohol use and less ATS use. A higher proportion of YWHS-2 compared with YWHS-1 women worked in entertainment-based venues (68% vs 31%, respectively). HIV prevalence was significantly lower in the more recently sampled women: 9.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 13.8%) vs 23% (95% CI 16.5% to 29.7%). Conclusions Sex work context and risk have shifted among young FSW in Phnom Penh, following implementation of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking laws. While both cohorts were recruited using the same eligibility criteria, more recently sampled women had lower prevalence of sexual risk and HIV infection. Women engaging more directly in transactional sex have become harder to sample and access. Future prevention research and programmes need to consider how new policies and demographic changes in FSW impact HIV transmission. PMID:24022389
Bolyard, Cassandra S.; Martin, C. Joseph
Described is a house program at Davis and Elkins College in West Virginia which combines humanistic and behavioristic philosophies of education to help students adjust better. The program appears to be working. (Author/CJ)
Background The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. Methods As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. Results The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Conclusions Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent
Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; vanHoof, Ron
In this paper we position Brahms as a tool for simulating organizational processes. Brahms is a modeling and simulation environment for analyzing human work practice, and for using such models to develop intelligent software agents to support the work practice in organizations. Brahms is the result of more than ten years of research at the Institute for Research on Learning (IRL), NYNEX Science & Technology (the former R&D institute of the Baby Bell telephone company in New York, now Verizon), and for the last six years at NASA Ames Research Center, in the Work Systems Design and Evaluation group, part of the Computational Sciences Division (Code IC). Brahms has been used on more than ten modeling and simulation research projects, and recently has been used as a distributed multiagent development environment for developing work practice support tools for human in-situ science exploration on planetary surfaces, in particular a human mission to Mars. Brahms was originally conceived of as a business process modeling and simulation tool that incorporates the social systems of work, by illuminating how formal process flow descriptions relate to people s actual located activities in the workplace. Our research started in the early nineties as a reaction to experiences with work process modeling and simulation . Although an effective tool for convincing management of the potential cost-savings of the newly designed work processes, the modeling and simulation environment was only able to describe work as a normative workflow. However, the social systems, uncovered in work practices studied by the design team played a significant role in how work actually got done-actual lived work. Multi- tasking, informal assistance and circumstantial work interactions could not easily be represented in a tool with a strict workflow modeling paradigm. In response, we began to develop a tool that would have the benefits of work process modeling and simulation, but be distinctively able to
This article describes the results of an evaluation of a new work place for ladle preparation at Swedish Steel in Luleå, Sweden. The company initiated a development project related to ladle service work, in order to come to grips with the difficult working environment and problems associated with absenteeism due to illness and occupational injuries. The evaluation was performed for the first three years after implementation of the project and it shows that the new work place considerably improved working conditions and increased both the quality and efficiency of production. The purpose of this article is also to discuss some methodological problems. The follow-up of the various changes in working environment and personnel statistics was fairly simple to carry out. But in terms of production effects, the company's in-house production follow-up system proved to be too unspecified and oversimplified. It was also difficult to decide which changes should count as effects of the new work place and to value these in monetary terms. The profitability calculation shows that an investment initiated to improve the working environment can yield good profitability.
Sanders, Carolyn L; Krugman, Mary; Schloffman, Danielle H
Nurse executives must take a leadership role in creating a healthy work environment for nurses and all disciplines. Engaging in partnerships and empowering clinical nurses to construct the solutions to barriers that may stand in the way of the goal of a satisfied and healthy workforce are important strategies toward success. This publication outlines many projects a 3-time Magnet-designated academic hospital has implemented, working with our shared leadership councils, to meet the standards for a healthy work environment. These initiatives, from the unit to the hospital level, included standardizing a culture change of uninterrupted meal breaks, the creation of intensive care unit Zen rooms, strategies to better manage increased patient volumes, best practices for facility design, enhancing physician-nurse relations, and a hospital wellness program. Data were benchmarked against national nurse and employee surveys to compare progress and report outcomes. Two important nursing organization structures that have contributed to the success of a healthy and satisfied nursing work environment include UEXCEL, a longstanding clinical nurse professional practice program, and the hospital's 11-year participation in the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing National Post-Baccalaureate Nurse Residency Program. A highly engaged, well-educated, and committed nursing workforce, nurtured by a strong leadership team, has created a positive work environment characterized by low turnover and high retention.
The role of art therapy is considered in working with such high risk groups as the institutionalized, mentally retarded, elderly, visually impaired, physically handicapped, asthmatic, hyper- and hypo-active children, hearing impaired, and patients on mind altering drugs. The special risks of infectious diseases (such as serum hepatitis), and…
Thelin, A G
The aim of this work was to study psychosocial working environment factors among farmers and other people living in rural areas. The study was carried out as a cross-section investigation. All persons visiting local occupational health service centres for a health check up have been asked to answer an inquiry which was based on the Karasek-Theorell questionnaire on job strain. Five extra items on worry about the future were added. The questionnaire was completed by over 3,800 persons. Three of four indices showed significant difference with respect to sex. Women experienced less stimulance at work, authority over work and had a greater fear of the future. Farmers had a significantly higher index for psychological demands, stimulance at work as well as authority over work than other occupational groups. The index for authority over work was very high in comparison with presented results for different occupations in other studies. With respect to worry about the future, the farmers had a significantly higher index than nearly all the other occupational groups. The low risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among farmers reported in other studies can probably be related to good psychosocial working environment as measured by the indices in this study as well as other known life style factors.
Meeusen, V; Brown-Mahoney, C; Van Dam, K; Van Zundert, A; Knape, J
With an ever increasing number of patients and more demanding health care system it is important to keep nurse anesthetists as mentally and physically fit as possible. Especially with a shortage of nurse anesthetists it is important to know which work context factors are important for maintaining a healthy balance between the nurse anesthetist and his work environment. This study is the first to determine which work context factors of nurse anesthetists are most relevant for a healthy work environment. A questionnaire survey, containing work related items, was distributed among all nurse anesthetists working in Dutch hospitals. All together 882 questionnaires (response rate 44%) were completed and analyzed, including factor analysis for the discriminating work context factors. Four discriminating work context factors (career/rewards, relation with supervisor, task contents and social environment) were found to be relevant, explaining 48% of the variance in work context. All four work context factors are considered to be job resources, although not hospital related. Supervisors (head nurses) interpret these work context factors differently from nurse anesthetists, which can result in dissatisfaction of the latter group. Nurse anesthetists participate more in sub-functions and activities in larger peripheral and academic anesthesia departments. Smaller anesthesia departments require nurse anesthetists to be more flexible and perform many different functions within the anesthesia domain.
Otacioglu, Sena Gursen
The aim of this study was the collection of data concerning Turkish music teachers' proficiency and their place in the primary and secondary education system. In addition, information was collected regarding the teachers' working environment and professional complications. A total of 200 music teachers' opinions were compiled for the determination…
When "The Chronicle" asked college employees what they value about their jobs, they put the physical environment in which they work at the top of the list. They said they were concerned not only that their spaces met their needs but also that their campuses had a pleasing appearance. That's no surprise to Thomas G. Contos, university architect at…
McNamee, Mary Anne; Attonito, Kathleen C; Woolforde, Launette
In this era of value-based health care, the knowledge, competence, and professionalism of the front-line nurse and other clinical staff are paramount. Everyone involved in patient care must maximize their skill set and drive high performance in the clinical arena. Healthy work environments will be key to achieving and sustaining quality outcomes and developing and retaining high-performing teams.
Armstrong, Paul; Hughes, Maria
To establish the prevalence and perceived value of realistic work environments (RWEs) in colleges and their use as learning resources, all further education (FE) sector colleges in Great Britain were surveyed in the summer of 1998. Of 175 colleges that responded to 2 questionnaires for senior college managers and RWE managers, 127 had at least 1…
Empirical evidence has found an increase in work-life conflicts within outsourced environments. It is important to address the increase in conflict to reduce negative effects on businesses. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of the spillover, conflict management, and resource dependency theories, the purpose of the study was to examine how…
Lee, Byoung-kwon; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk
[Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on the collected data, correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. [Results] The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between turnover intention and work-related stress but a statistically significant negative correlation respectively between turnover intention and work environment. Work-related stress (β=0.415) had a significant positive impact on turnover intention and work environment (β=−0.387) had a significant negative impact on turnover intention. [Conclusion] To increase satisfaction level with the profession as well as the workplace for physical therapists, improvement of the work environment was the most necessary primary improvement. PMID:27630432
Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk
[Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on the collected data, correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. [Results] The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between turnover intention and work-related stress but a statistically significant negative correlation respectively between turnover intention and work environment. Work-related stress (β=0.415) had a significant positive impact on turnover intention and work environment (β=-0.387) had a significant negative impact on turnover intention. [Conclusion] To increase satisfaction level with the profession as well as the workplace for physical therapists, improvement of the work environment was the most necessary primary improvement.
Lyall, Robert James
A study of chemistry students in an organic practical class, where they were required to work on their own, found considerable benefits in allowing them to work independently in a less organised environment. Although apprehensive at first, they soon gained a self-belief in their own abilities and were able to complete the course with minimal input…
Lindberg, Per; Vingård, Eva
The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. A number of major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments. Altogether 19,768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 24 peer-reviewed publications remained to be included in this systematic review. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found. That study suggested that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a 'good place to work', as these organizations were more likely to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 23 studies either investigated employee's views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. Summarizing, the nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace that emerged from these studies were, in descending order: collaboration/teamwork: growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work.
Briner, R B
Work environments appear to have both positive and negative impacts on the psychological well-being of workers. This paper reviews a number of models and theories that have addressed this issue. First, those aspects of the psychological work environment, which are thought to be most relevant to well-being, are described. Second, a number of models and theories are considered. How then is it possible to best understand how the work environment creates a psychological environment, which in turn may affect psychological well-being? While some of the available approaches are general and offer descriptive frameworks, others do attempt to explain the relationships between a more narrow set of work characteristics and well-being. Further, recent approaches focus on explaining emotional reactions at work and the role of the psychological contract. A sound understanding of work and well-being is still some way away. However, focusing on more specific kinds of well-being, taking account of other contextual influences, and looking at both the salubrious and harmful effects of the work environment are likely to bring about greater understanding.
This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the near-field environment to geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The near-field environment may be affected by thermal perturbations from the waste, and by disturbances caused by the introduction of exotic materials during construction of the repository. This group also discussed the application of modelling of performance-related processes.
Luse, Kimberly A
To create a highly functioning medical imaging team, radiology managers must be able to analyze their departments and identify areas for improvement. This type of analysis means assessing front-line personnel who already work in the department, along with identifying staffing needs and recruiting talented new employees. In addition, managers must develop effective retention tools such as career ladders and mentorship programs to improve the overall working environment. This article discusses a variety of different strategies to help managers develop a more effective department.
Vaughan, Leslie; Slinger, Trisha
Leadership and staff from the London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC) Nursing Resource Team (NRT), including members of their Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) Council, attended the first Southern Ontario Nursing Resource Team Conference (SONRTC), held March 2012 in Toronto. The SONRTC highlighted healthy work environments (HWEs), noting vast differences among the province's various organizations. Conversely, CQI Council members anecdotally acknowledged similar inconsistencies in HWEs across the various inpatient departments at LHSC. In fact, the mobility of the NRT role allows these nurses to make an unbiased observation about the culture, behaviours and practices of specific units as well as cross-reference departments regarding HWEs. Studies have documented that HWEs have a direct impact on the quality of patient care. Furthermore, the literature supports a relationship between HWEs and nurse job satisfaction. Based on this heightened awareness, the NRT CQI Council aimed to investigate HWEs at LHSC. The American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments was adapted in developing a survey for measuring HWEs based on the perceptions of NRT staff. Each of the departments was evaluated in terms of the following indicators: skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision-making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition and authentic leadership (AACN 2005). Ultimately, the Building a Healthy Work Environment: A Nursing Resource Team Perspective survey was employed with NRT nurses at LHSC, and data was collected for use by leadership and staff for creating HWE strategies aimed at improving the quality of patient care.
Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun
Background Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by ‘high-burnout’; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. Aims The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. Method We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Results Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. Conclusions A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout. PMID:23418435
Oyewumi, L K
A critical review of various high risk situations in which neuroleptics could be used and have been used in clinical practice is presented. These high risk situations include: women of child bearing age (pregnant women, lactating and/or nursing mothers), the two extremes of life (children and the elderly), patients with sexual dysfunction, patients with tardive dyskinesia, non-psychotic psychiatric patients, physically ill and suicidal patients. The extraordinary applications of these drugs, such as for rapid tranquilization and megadose regimens are examined. The author provides guidelines for the use of neuroleptics in these clinical situations.
Bonifas, Robin P.
Little is known about how work environment characteristics influence social services professionals' ability to deliver effective psychosocial services in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and how such influence translates into resident-centered outcomes. This study combines data from a survey of facility social services directors in Washington State with State inspection outcomes from the Online Survey Certification Reporting database. Logistic regression is used to examine how facility structure and facility culture impact receipt of a survey inspection deficiency in medically-related social services. Results indicate that non-metropolitan location and larger caseload size are the strongest predictors of receiving such a deficiency. PMID:19361114
Pedersen, D M
High risk sports were rated as to risk, appeal, and likelihood of participation by 282 men and 162 women. Ascending order of perceived risk was skiing, scuba diving, bungee jumping, rock climbing, motorcycle racing, hang gliding, cliff jumping, and skydiving. Profile analysis showed stated likelihood of participation to be directly related to appeal and inversely related to perceived risk.
Szubert, Z; Makowiec-Dabrowska, T; Sobala, W
The state of health in working people is determined by a number of factors among which working conditions and the kind of job performed play undoubtedly a crucial role. The observation and analysis of trends in sick absenteeism may provide indirect information on health problems of the occupationally active population. The aim of the analysis presented was to define the magnitude and the causes of temporary work disability among workers employed in individual branches of the national economy, and finally to identify high risk groups of workers because of their employment in specific working conditions. The statistical material used as the basis for the calculation of absenteeism indicators embraced the data on the number of work disability days, derived from a 15 representative sample of punched cards, concerning certificates of temporary work disability. In order to accomplish the objectives of the analysis, the trends in sick absenteeism observed before 1989, the period preceding the structural changes and the transformation of Polish economy were taken into consideration. The analysis indicates that the level of sick absenteeism in the branches of the national economy (forestry, building construction, transport, industry) and the proportion of chronic diseases in its structure prove the effect of working conditions on the workers' health. Considering individual branches of industry, the highest levels of sick absenteeism are observed in the following branches: mining for men (5.61), non-ferrous metals for women (10.04) and men (4.95), ferrous metallurgy for women (9.99) and men (4.93), and petroleum products for women (11.76). The analysis of sick absenteeism in the branches selected in view of hazardous working conditions shows that: (1) in many branches chemical hazards in the work environment are responsible for an increased sick absenteeism due to diseases of the circulatory system, particularly among men, mental disorders and neoplasms, both among men and
This article has a two-fold purpose. First, it provides an explanation for the increase in occupational stress and sick leaves in Sweden in terms of the structural and organizational conditions. Second, it discusses measures that address these issues. Results of a study of 72 establishments are presented. The study investigated these establishments at both the organizational and individual employee level. It examined management strategies and working conditions in the establishments, classifying these elements by type of operations and company position. Both classifications point to differences in how work is organized and in working conditions. The results indicate that management technologies distribute risks between segments of the labor market, thus, also between different groups of the labor force. The developments were most favorable in high tech and knowledge-based operations. The situation was least favorable in labor-intensive services and, the most negative development had taken place in human services. Establishments serving as contractors appeared to organize their work differently from those with core activities. Working conditions in contracting businesses were particularly problematic. Since organizational changes work differently from one company to the next, there is a need to develop a variety of strategies for enacting change in the work environment. This article proposes strategies for different segments of the labor market. These strategies are adapted to the particular problems facing each segment.
The Environment WorkBench EWB is a desktop integrated analysis tool for studying a spacecraft's interactions with its environment. Over 100 environment and analysis models are integrated into the menu-based tool. EWB, which was developed for and under the guidance of the NASA Lewis Research Center, is built atop the Module Integrator and Rule-based Intelligent Analytic Database (MIRIAD) architecture. This allows every module in EWB to communicate information to other modules in a transparent manner from the user's point of view. It removes the tedious and error-prone steps of entering data by hand from one model to another. EWB runs under UNIX operating systems (SGI and SUN workstations) and under MS Windows (3.x, 95, and NT) operating systems. MIRIAD, the unique software that makes up the core of EWB, provides the flexibility to easily modify old models and incorporate new ones as user needs change. The MIRIAD approach separates the computer assisted engineering (CAE) tool into three distinct units: 1) A modern graphical user interface to present information; 2) A data dictionary interpreter to coordinate analysis; and 3) A database for storing system designs and analysis results. The user interface is externally programmable through ASCII data files, which contain the location and type of information to be displayed on the screen. This approach provides great flexibility in tailoring the look and feel of the code to individual user needs. MIRIADbased applications, such as EWB, have utilities for viewing tabulated parametric study data, XY line plots, contour plots, and three-dimensional plots of contour data and system geometries. In addition, a Monte Carlo facility is provided to allow statistical assessments (including uncertainties) in models or data.
Heubach, J.G.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.; Heerwagen, J.H.
The failure to integrate environmental and organizational interventions may help explain the lack of success of many change efforts. The high rate of failure for change efforts (50% to 90% failure rates) has been noted by many writers. While specific causes of failure are diverse, a common theme has been failure to consider the organization as a system. That is, either significant aspects of the organization were ignored during the intervention or potential impacts of changes on the elements were overlooked or underestimated. Our own training, technical literature, and professional culture lead us to limited understandings of complex organizations. Change agents must consider all relevant components of organizational performance if interventions are to be meaningful and successful. This study demonstrated the value of an integrated organizational intervention involving redesign of the physical environment, introduction of a new information system, work process improvement, and extended organizational development intervention. The outcomes were extremely positive. The cost of improvement efforts was found to be recaptured within a short time, easily justifying the expenditures. One conclusion from the study is that integrated interventions are very powerful. Integrating improvement of the physical environment with organizational development and technological innovation greatly enhances the likelihood of achieving a successful intervention.
Johnson, Daniel M.; Johnson, Ranata L.
While we may be operating as dysfunctional Scrum teams at PNNL, where consistency of implementation will remain an ongoing goal, our experiences are showing a pattern of benefit from following the process as best we can. We have found value in socializing stories and user narratives to describe the user experience. We have teams that meet daily for 30 minutes and sit down while they do it, but it has proven valuable to them. We have had several successful teams deliver products even in our dysfunctional environment. Our ScrumMasters work multiple projects and strive for consistency but in our environment (R&D, engineering, and software development) we need to be adaptable and implement those aspects of the discipline that provide benefits to the teams and clients. Our implementations are not 'by the book,' but as long as teams and customers find value in it and our communication and quality of our software products are improved, then we expect to continue using Agile with Scrum.
Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva
Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer
Gardner, Christopher D; Whitsel, Laurie P; Thorndike, Anne N; Marrow, Mary W; Otten, Jennifer J; Foster, Gary D; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K
The importance of creating healthier work environments by providing healthy foods and beverages in worksite cafeterias, in on-site vending machines, and at meetings and conferences is drawing increasing attention. Large employers, federal and state governments, and hospital systems are significant purchasers and providers of food and beverages. The American Heart Association, federal government, and other organizations have created procurement standards to guide healthy purchasing by these entities. There is a need to review how procurement standards are currently implemented, to identify important minimum criteria for evaluating health and purchasing outcomes, and to recognize significant barriers and challenges to implementation, along with success stories. The purpose of this policy paper is to describe the role of food-and-beverage environment and procurement policy standards in creating healthier worksite environments; to review recently created national model standards; to identify elements across the standards that are important to consider for incorporation into policies; and to delineate issues to address as standards are implemented across the country.
Docker, John G.; And Others
Discusses the use of the Work Environment Scale (WES) to measure teachers' perceptions of psychosocial dimensions of their school environment. Describes an application of WES in which work climates of different school types were compared and contrasted. (RJC)
Harvey B. Newman
We are now well-advanced in our development, prototyping and deployment of a high performance next generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work. The system, aimed at using the capability of ESnet and Internet2 for rapid data exchange, is based on the Virtual Room Videoconferencing System (VRVS) developed by Caltech. The VRVS system has been chosen by the Internet2 Digital Video (I2-DV) Initiative as a preferred foundation for the development of advanced video, audio and multimedia collaborative applications by the Internet2 community. Today, the system supports high-end, broadcast-quality interactivity, while enabling a wide variety of clients (Mbone, H.323) to participate in the same conference by running different standard protocols in different contexts with different bandwidth connection limitations, has a fully Web-integrated user interface, developers and administrative APIs, a widely scalable video network topology based on both multicast domains and unicast tunnels, and demonstrated multiplatform support. This has led to its rapidly expanding production use for national and international scientific collaborations in more than 60 countries. We are also in the process of creating a 'testbed video network' and developing the necessary middleware to support a set of new and essential requirements for rapid data exchange, and a high level of interactivity in large-scale scientific collaborations. These include a set of tunable, scalable differentiated network services adapted to each of the data streams associated with a large number of collaborative sessions, policy-based and network state-based resource scheduling, authentication, and optional encryption to maintain confidentiality of inter-personal communications. High performance testbed video networks will be established in ESnet and Internet2 to test and tune the implementation, using a few target application-sets.
Hussein, Azza Hassan Mohamed; Abou Hashish, Ebtsam Aly
There is a gap in understanding how work environment contributes to hospitals' readiness for quality improvement (QI) in developing countries; thus, diagnosing work environment problems in health care organizations is the initial step in designing strategies for QI in organizations. This study examines the relationship between nurses' and physicians' perspectives of the work environments and hospitals' climate for QI. Study results indicate that work environment is positively associated with hospitals' readiness for QI.
... Part 851 Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment AGENCY: Office of the... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' guidelines as a model. DOE published this petition and a request for... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' by regulation be redundant, but it would also fail to add...
Camacho, Mar; Guilana, Sonia
VLE (Virtual Learning Environments) are rapidly falling short to meet the demands of a networked society. Web 2.0 and social networks are proving to offer a more personalized, open environment for students to learn formally as they are already doing informally. With the irruption of social media into society, and therefore, education, many voices…
Golaszewski, Thomas; Allen, Judd; Edington, Dee
A conccptual model for addressing the creation of supportive environments for worksite health promotion settings is presented. The authors also discuss the variety of organizational and cultural interventions that are necessary in creating a supportive environment for healthy behavior using a social ecology perspective. The connection to next generation strategies in worksite health promotion is proposed and summaries of the relevant literatures are cited.
Hallowell, Sunny G.; Spatz, Diane L.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.; Lake, Eileen T.
PURPOSE The provision of breastfeeding support in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may assist a mother to develop a milk supply for the NICU infant. Human milk offers unique benefits and its provision unique challenges in this highly vulnerable population. The provision of breastfeeding support in this setting has not been studied in a large, multihospital study. We describe the frequency of breastfeeding support provided by nurses and examined relationships between NICU nursing characteristics, the availability of a lactation consultant (LC), and breastfeeding support. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN This was a secondary analysis of 2008 survey data from 6060 registered nurses in 104 NICUs nationally. Nurse managers provided data on LCs. These NICUs were members of the Vermont Oxford Network, a voluntary quality and safety collaborative. METHODS Nurses reported on the infants (n = 15,233) they cared for on their last shift, including whether breastfeeding support was provided to parents. Breastfeeding support was measured as a percentage of infants on the unit. The denominator was all infants assigned to all nurse respondents on that NICU. The numerator was the number of infants that nurses reported providing breastfeeding support. Nurses also completed the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI), a nationally endorsed nursing care performance measure. The NICU nursing characteristics include the percentages of nurses with a BSN or higher degree and with 5 or more years of NICU experience, an acuity-adjusted staffing ratio, and PES-NWI subscale scores. Lactation consultant availability was measured as any/none and in full-time equivalent positions per 10 beds. RESULTS The parents of 14% of infants received breastfeeding support from the nurse. Half of the NICUs had an LC. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between 2 measures of nurse staffing and breastfeeding support. A 1 SD higher acuity-adjusted staffing ratio was
Kuntz, Aaron M.; Berger, Joseph B.
There is an extensive and well-developed body of literature on the nature of faculty work (e.g., Blackburn & Lawrence, 1996; Schuster & Finkelstein, 2006) that has examined numerous aspects of faculty work and sources of influence on that work (e.g., intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, personal characteristics, disciplinary affiliation,…
Davis, Marcella Z., Ed.; And Others
A major portion of the collection of 20 readings authored by practicing professionals consists of field observations presented both as raw data (field notes) and as analyzed and organized data. About the work of nurses in a variety of settings, a recurrent theme is that work behavior is greatly influenced by organizational and structural elements…
Ricketts, Todd A.; Picou, Erin M.; Galster, Jason
Purpose: The hearing aid microphone setting (omnidirectional or directional) can be selected manually or automatically. This study examined the percentage of time the microphone setting selected using each method was judged to provide the best signalto-noise ratio (SNR) for the talkers of interest in school environments. Method: A total of 26…
Fletcher, Thomas D.; Nusbaum, David N.
Recent research suggests that competitive work environments may influence individual's attitudes, behaviors, stress, and performance. Unfortunately, adequate measures of competitive environments are lacking. This article traces the development of a new multidimensional competitive work environment scale. An initial 59-item pool covering five…
Scranton, Melissa Arnold
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how students think in a technological environment. This was accomplished by exploring the differences in the thinking of students while they worked in a technological environment and comparing this to their work in a paper and pencil environment. The software program TinkerPlots:…
Lindgren, Scott D.; And Others
Children in a longitudinal high-risk infant follow-up program were evaluated at age 5 to determine whether they demonstrated behavior problems or cognitive deficits exceeding expectations based on conditions in their home environments. Normal expectations were determined through regression analyses on a group of age-matched controls. All high-risk…
Halkett, G K B; McKay, J; Hegney, D G; Breen, Lauren J; Berg, M; Ebert, M A; Davis, M; Kearvell, R
Workforce recruitment and retention are issues in radiation oncology. The working environment is likely to have an impact on retention; however, there is a lack of research in this area. The objectives of this study were to: investigate radiation therapists' (RTs) and radiation oncology medical physicists' (ROMPs) perceptions of work and the working environment; and determine the factors that influence the ability of RTs and ROMPs to undertake their work and how these factors affect recruitment and retention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and thematic analysis was used. Twenty-eight RTs and 21 ROMPs participated. The overarching themes were delivering care, support in work, working conditions and lifestyle. The overarching themes were mostly consistent across both groups; however, the exemplars reflected the different roles and perspectives of RTs and ROMPs. Participants described the importance they placed on treating patients and improving their lives. Working conditions were sometimes difficult with participants reporting pressure at work, large workloads and longer hours and overtime. Insufficient staff numbers impacted on the effectiveness of staff, the working environment and intentions to stay. Staff satisfaction is likely to be improved if changes are made to the working environment. We make recommendations that may assist departments to support RTs and ROMPs.
Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D
The manufacturing sector in the US is challenged by high health care costs and shortage of qualified workers, which are largely attributed to the degree of fit between the worker and work environment. In this regard, a healthy worker-work environment interface is a necessary and sufficient condition for the containment of health care costs and the retaining/attraction of highly qualified knowledge workers and should be based on the principles of optimum physical, cognitive and emotional health for the workers. In prior research, the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework (WCIF) was introduced as a vehicle to address these issues and was defined as the identification, improvement and maintenance of the well-being characteristics of the workforce and its interaction with the work environment through the application of engineering, medicine, management and human sciences methodologies, technologies and best practices. This paper advances WCIF by examining its applications in manufacturing with regard to the evaluation of working conditions impacting musculoskeletal/stress outcome measures. A study was conducted in a machining department of a bag packaging manufacturer in the Midwest of the United States. The work tasks were planned and executed with regard to the following aims: (1) to compute work compatibility as a function of work demands and energisers; (2) to establish whether the prevalence of musculoskeletal/stress disorders increases with a decrease in the quality of worker-work environment interface in terms of work compatibility level and other work factors such as shift and job category. A major finding is that a 'poor' work environment (a function of all work domains) results in musculoskeletal/stress disorders that are 105% and 67% higher than those for a 'good' work environment. The evening shift exhibited the poorest compatibility followed by the night shift relative to the day shift. Application of the work compatibility approach demonstrated the
van den Berg, Peter T
The relationships between older employees' willingness to continue working and characteristics of the work environment for older workers were investigated, as well as a possible mediation by intrinsic motivation. 103 employees ages 50 to 65 years, from various sectors of the Dutch labor market, completed questionnaires that measured willingness to continue working, intrinsic motivation, organizational stimulation, work variety, work challenge, and job autonomy. Hierarchical regression analyses showed organizational stimulation, as well as the various job characteristics, were positively related to employees' willingness to continue working. Moreover, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationship of work variety with willingness to continue working and partially mediated the relationships of organizational stimulation, work challenge, and job autonomy with willingness to continue working. It was concluded that organizations can encourage older workers to work until age 65 and beyond by shifting their focus from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards.
The influence of substance use, social sexual environment, psychosocial factors, and partner characteristics on high-risk sexual behavior among young Black and Latino men who have sex with men living with HIV: A qualitative study.
VanDevanter, Nancy; Duncan, Alexandra; Burrell-Piggott, Tiphani; Bleakley, Amy; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Marie; Schrimshaw, Eric; Cohall, Alwyn; Ramjohn, Destiny
Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16-24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions.
The Influence of Substance Use, Social Sexual Environment, Psychosocial Factors, and Partner Characteristics on High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Young Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV: A Qualitative Study
Duncan, Alexandra; Burrell-Piggott, Tiphani; Bleakley, Amy; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Marie; Schrimshaw, Eric; Cohall, Alwyn; Ramjohn, Destiny
Abstract Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16–24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions. PMID:21235387
unprofessional behavior created a work environment not conducive to performing quality audits. Additionally, we found a flawed audit may have...DCAA Western Region field audit offices and interviewed 68 audit employees, including supervisors and managers, to assess whether an abusive work ... environment existed. What We Found Employee concerns with (1) time pressures, (2) uncompensated overtime, (3) changes to audit results and opinions, and (4
Shen, Chun-Yi; O'Neil, Harold
Researches indicate that worked examples could effectively facilitate problem solving by reducing cognitive load during learning. However, there is no study using worked examples in a game-based environment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of worked examples on problem solving in a game-based environment. In this study,…
This article is a report of the steps followed in the pedagogical intervention of project work developed with a group of students involved in a virtual program at a public Colombian University. It is part of a wider investigation in which the purpose was to explore and describe the roles of teachers, students and discussion boards while…
Work in call centres is often presented as a form of unskilled labour characterized by routinization, technological surveillance and tight management control aimed at reaching intensive performance targets. Beyond delivering business objectives, this control and efficiency strategy is often held to produce counterproductive effects with regard to…
Penner, Nikolai; Schulze, Mathias
This paper addresses several components of successful language-learning methodologies--group work, task-based instruction, and wireless computer technologies--and examines how the interplay of these three was perceived by students in a second-year university foreign-language course. The technology component of our learning design plays a central…
Sharafizad, Fleur; Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam
Attraction and retention of highly qualified employees has become an area of concern for Australian universities. It has been suggested that flexible work arrangements can be utilised to achieve this goal once the factors affecting their uptake have been identified. This mixed-method study of 495 academic and general staff at an Australian…
Parkes, Katharine R
Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2) x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment.
TV Ontario, Toronto.
These papers present the major issues and directions in five areas: (1) the socioeconomic and demographic environment (demography, the economies and labor forces of Canada and of Ontario, and the international and social environments); (2) education (K-12, postsecondary, adult, and the educational media resource market); (3) the broadcast…
Hammer, Tove Helland; Saksvik, Per Øystein; Nytrø, Kjell; Torvatn, Hans; Bayazit, Mahmut
This study examined the contributions of organizational level norms about work requirements and social relations, and work-family conflict, to job stress and subjective health symptoms, controlling for Karasek's job demand-control-support model of the psychosocial work environment, in a sample of 1,346 employees from 56 firms in the Norwegian food and beverage industry. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that organizational norms governing work performance and social relations, and work-to-family and family-to-work conflict, explained significant amounts of variance for job stress. The cross-level interaction between work performance norms and work-to-family conflict was also significantly related to job stress. Work-to-family conflict was significantly related to health symptoms, but family-to-work conflict and organizational norms were not.
Barth, C; Knuschke, P; Barth, J
It has been checked if the "limits of the acceptable doses of ultraviolet radiation of monochromatic radiation at the workplace" (NIOSH-standard of USA) are adhered to in the vicinity of welders' work stations in a factory hall. For recording of UV-doses polysulphon films have been used. According to these investigations non-welders are exposed to doses of UV-radiation which exceed the limits recommended by about eight times. Clinical examinations of these persons showed chronic damage of the external parts of the eyes in a higher percentage than in a control group. It is pointed to the necessity of taking protective measures to shield persons working in the vicinity of welding job sites from ultraviolet radiation.
AD/A-005 2 1 5 COMPARATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENT PERCEPTIONS OF OPERATING PERSONNEL WITHIN EXPERIMENTAL AND STANDARD COMMUNICATION SYST EMS...TM’S PKit’Wh’- Dmlm Fnf»f»rf) Rtseordi Rtport 1180 AD COMPARATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENT PERCEPTIONS OF OPERATING PERSONNEL WITHIN EXPERIMENTAL AND...variety of signals. An important segment of the research is devoted to work environment factors and communication analysis and processing. The present
creation of the rest of the occupational characteristics that have come to be associated with the professions (cf. Ritzer , 1977). One of the more...Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Mi. Ritzer , G. (1977). Working: Conflict and Change, Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Schein, E... George E. Rowland Temple University, The Merit Center Ritter Annex, 9th Floor College of Education Philadephia, PA 19122 Dr. Irwin G. Sarason
Zacharisen, Michael C; Fink, Jordan N
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis can occur from a wide variety of occupational exposures. Although uncommon and difficult to recognize, through a detailed work exposure history, physical examination, radiography, pulmonary function studies, and selected laboratory studies using sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, workers can be identified early to effect avoidance of the antigen and institute pharmacologic therapy, if necessary. A lung biopsy may be necessary to rule out other interstitial lung diseases. Despite the varied organic antigen triggers, the presentation is similar with acute, subacute, or chronic forms. Systemic corticosteroids are the only reliable pharmacologic treatment but do not alter the long-term outcome.
Kelly, Deena; Kutney-Lee, Ann; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.
Background Critically ill patients are susceptible to health care–associated infections because of their illnesses and the need for intravenous access and invasive monitoring. The critical care work environment may influence the likelihood of infection in these patients. Objective To determine whether or not the critical care nurse work environment is predictive of nurse-reported health care–associated infections. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional design was used with linked nurse and hospital survey data. Nurses assessed the critical care work environment and provided the frequencies of ventilator-associated pneumonias, urinary tract infections, and infections associated with central catheters. Logistic regression models were used to determine if critical care work environments were predictive of nurse-reported frequent health care–associated infections, with controls for nurse and hospital characteristics. Results The final sample consisted of 3217 critical care nurses in 320 hospitals. Compared with nurses working in poor work environments, nurses working in better work environments were 36% to 41% less likely to report that health care–associated infections occurred frequently. Conclusion Health care–associated infections are less likely in favorable critical care work environments. These findings, based on the largest sample of critical care nurses to date, substantiate efforts to focus on the quality of the work environment as a way to minimize the frequency of health care–associated infections. PMID:24186818
Marks, E; Karpińska, B; Swiecicki, W
The morbidity rate and present health status of flying agricultural aviation personnel under health care of the Main Military Medical Committee for aviation workers were analysed and compared with another group of helicopter pilots. A detailed clinical examination of 77 "Agro" pilots indicated more trauma cases than idiopathic diseases cases, some of those trauma cases were due to professional work. Analysis of the present health status indicated the predominance of pilots with just one health disturbance, pilots with no health disturbances taking the second position in the comparison. The health deviations did not differ from those in other populations, as classified by pilots' age. On the other hand, their percentage was higher than in helicopters pilots control group. Average age of "Agro" pilots was relatively high and number of hours spent in air considerable, too.
Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Whitmer, R William
The objective of this study is to identify the contribution that selected demographic characteristics, health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and workplace environmental factors have on presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss attributed to poor health and other personal issues). Analyses are based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 3 geographically diverse US companies in 2010. Work-related factors had the greatest influence on presenteeism (eg, too much to do but not enough time to do it, insufficient technological support/resources). Personal problems and financial stress/concerns also contributed substantially to presenteeism. Factors with less contribution to presenteeism included physical limitations, depression or anxiety, inadequate job training, and problems with supervisors and coworkers. Presenteeism was greatest for those ages 30-49, women, separated/divorced/widowed employees, and those with a high school degree or some college. Clerical/office workers and service workers had higher presenteeism. Managers and professionals had the highest level of presenteeism related to having too much to do but too little time to do it, and transportation workers had the greatest presenteeism because of physical health limitations. Lowering presenteeism will require that employers have realistic expectations of workers, help workers prioritize, and provide sufficient technological support. Financial stress and concerns may warrant financial planning services. Health promotion interventions aimed at improving nutrition and physical and mental health also may contribute to reducing presenteeism.
This study was aimed at exploring the relationship between school culture and teachers' work environment and further exploring the roles of school culture, teachers' efficacy, beliefs, and behaviors for character education, and teachers' work environment in the relationship between a character education intervention and students' social emotional…
The purpose of this study was to assess the organizational climate at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) through the use of a Work Environment Scale...An additional set of questions were specifically developed for the LRMC work environment . These questions included demographic items to assist in the
Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Suk Bong
Previous research on creative working environments has focused on business organizations. This study examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of business faculty. It was hypothesized that creative personality, family support, colleague support, research resources, and workload…
Minor, Kevin I.; Wells, James B.; Jones, Brandi
This study used the Prison Social Climate Survey to measure perceptions of the work environment among staff employed in all group homes administered by a state department of juvenile justice. Work environment perceptions were favorable along six dimensions and in the moderate range on a seventh. The variables that most consistently predicted staff…
Heck, Andre; Kedzierska, Ewa; Ellermeijer, Ton
In this paper we report on the sustained research and development work at the AMSTEL Institute of the University of Amsterdam to improve mathematics and science education at primary and secondary school level, which has lead amongst other things to the development of the integrated computer working environment Coach 6. This environment consists of…
Allodi, Mara Westling; Fischbein, Siv
The aims of this study were to explore the organisational characteristics of junior high schools, to identify typologies of work environments and to explore the relationships between the type of work environment and how schools function. The educational profession and the role of teachers have been influenced by policies inspired by the principles…
Risk Assessment of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in the Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia Environment: Predictive Values of the Apfel's Simplified Risk Score for Identification of High-Risk Patients
Kim, Shin Hyung; Shin, Yang-Sik; Oh, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Rim; Chung, Sung Chan
Purpose Opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) is popular method of postoperative pain control, but many patients suffer from IV PCA-related postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). In this retrospective observational study, we have determined independent predictors of IV PCA-related PONV and predictive values of the Apfel's simplified risk score in pursuance of identifying high-risk patients. Materials and Methods We analyzed 7000 patients who received IV PCA with background infusion after elective surgery. Patients who maintained IV PCA for a postoperative period of 48 hr (completion group, n=6128) were compared with those who have discontinued IV PCA within 48 hr of surgery due to intractable PONV (cessation group, n=872). Patients, anesthetics, and surgical factors known for predicting PONV were evaluated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of IV PCA related intractable PONV. Results In a stepwise multivariate analysis, weight, background infusion dose of fentanyl, addition of ketolorac to PCA, duration of anesthesia, general anesthesia, head and neck surgery, and Apfel's simplified risk score were revealed as independent risk factors for intractable PONV followed by the cessation of IV PCA. In addition, Apfel's simplified risk score, which demonstrated the highest odds ratio among the predictors, was strongly correlated with the cessation rate of IV PCA. Conclusion Multimodal prophylactic antiemetic strategies and dose reduction of opioids may be considered as strategies for the prevention of PONV with the use of IV PCA, especially in patients with high Apfel's simplified risk scores. PMID:23918581
Amick, B C; Celentano, D D
To extend current models of psychosocial work stress research into organizational structure, technology is introduced. An exploratory model is developed combining research from ergonomics, epidemiology, and organizational science. It is hypothesized that technology influences a worker's health by structuring the job, and the relationship between the job and a worker's health is mediated by attitudes at work. To test the model, data are used from a 1978 NIOSH survey of postal workers sorting mail (N = 4903). Path analysis shows technology is indirectly associated with job satisfaction and psychosomatic symptoms by how it structured the job. A machine-paced technological system of work is associated with greater job demands, less control in the job, and less co-worker support but not with supervisor support. The implications of this model for prevention strategies at the workplace are discussed suggesting that influencing supervisor support is the most effective way to affect a person's job satisfaction and level of psychosomatic symptomology.
Králiková, Ružena; Maďoranová, Marieta
Thermal load on people in general depends on the heat production in the human organism as a result of physical activity as well as environmental conditions which are affected by transfer of heat between human and the surrounding area. The resulting effect of metabolic exchanges which occur in work activities is the thermal load of organism. The paper deals with the evaluation of microclimatic conditions of the working environment of workers, who are exposed to the hot environment during their work.
Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa
New public management (NPM) approaches have informed policy in the public sector in advanced countries in the last decade. Some authors suggest that the main objective of NPM at the organisational level is to change the traditional way professionals are regulated. This study examines the impact of NPM on the working conditions of Portuguese higher…
Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You
Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists.
Kramer, Marlene; Brewer, Brewer B; Maguire, Patricia
Do healthy work environments (HWEs) facilitate new graduate transition into professional practice in hospitals? Are such environments related to a decrease in Environmental Reality Shock? Experienced nurses in 17 Magnet hospitals completed the Essentials of Magnetism II(©) (EOMII(©)) instrument that measures health of unit work environments. New graduates (N = 468) were then tracked with modified versions of the EOMII(©) from immediate post hire to 4, 8, and 12 months post hire to ascertain degree of Environmental Reality Shock. New graduate nurses have extremely high anticipations of unit work environments that would enable delivery of quality patient care. HWE is the most-significant variable in Environmental Reality Shock, number of related Issues and Concerns, and perceptions of quality of patient care. Suggestions of how to improve quality of unit work environments are offered.
Healthcare organizations must find ways for managing conflict and developing effective working relationships to create healthy work environments. The effects of unresolved conflict on clinical outcomes, staff retention, and the financial health of the organization lead to many unnecessary costs that divert resources from clinical care. The complexity of delivering critical care services makes conflict resolution difficult. Developing collaborative working relationships helps to manage conflict in complex environments. Working relationships are based on the ability to deal with differences. Dealing with differences requires skill development and techniques for balancing interests and communicating effectively. Techniques used by mediators are effective for resolving disputes and developing working relationships. With practice, these techniques are easily transferable to the clinical setting. Listening for understanding, reframing, elevating the definition of the problem, and forming clear agreements can foster working relationships, decrease the level of conflict, and create healthy work environments that benefit patients and professionals.
Smith, Louise Hardman; Aust, Birgit; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann
Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees' conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors. PMID:26380356
Prezerakos, Panagiotis; Galanis, Peter; Moisoglou, Ioannis
The aims of this study were to assess haemodialysis nurses' work environment and investigate the correlation between work environment and patients' outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the 11 public hospital-based haemodialysis units of the 5th Regional Health Authority of Greece. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) was used to assess work environment. Nurses were asked to report the frequency of a series adverse events and errors. Study population consisted of 133 nurses (response rate 89.3%). The overall PES-NWI scored just < 2.5 (Mean = 2.48, standard deviation = 0.34) indicating a non-favourable haemodialysis workplace. Nurse-physician Relations, nurse manager ability and nursing foundations for quality of care were the most favourable aspects of work environment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that hypotension (odds ratio (OR) = 0.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.1-0.9, P = 0.03), venous needle disconnection (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03-0.65, P = 0.012) and patient fall (OR = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.001-0.51, P = 0.018) were associated with a non-favourable work environment. Findings have important implications for improvement of haemodialysis work environment and enhancement of patients' safety.
Nayback-Beebe, Ann M; Forsythe, Tanya; Funari, Tamara; Mayfield, Marie; Thoms, William; Smith, Kimberly K; Bradstreet, Harry; Scott, Pamela
In an effort to create a healthy nursing work environment in a military hospital Intermediate Care Unit (IMCU), a facility-level Evidence Based Practice working group composed of nursing.Stakeholders brainstormed and piloted several unit-level evidence-based leadership initiatives to improve the IMCU nursing work environment. These initiatives were guided by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments which encompass: (1) skilled communication, (2) true collaboration, (3) effective decision making, (4) appropriate staffing, (5) meaningful recognition, and (6) authentic leadership. Interim findings suggest implementation of these six evidence-based, relationship-centered principals, when combined with IMCU nurses' clinical expertise, management experience, and personal values and preferences, improved staff morale, decreased staff absenteeism, promoted a healthy nursing work environment, and improved patient care.
Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly
Simple Summary Attempts to reduce horse-related injuries and fatalities to humans have mostly focused on personal protective equipment like helmets. In organizational contexts, such technical interventions are considered secondary to reducing the frequency and severity of accidents. In this article, we describe the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) framework that has been associated with reduced risks in industries and organisations. We consider how such a framework could be used to reduce horse-related risks in workplaces, as well as non-work equestrian competition and leisure environments. In this article, we propose that the simplicity and concepts of the WHS framework can provide risk mitigation benefits to both work and non-work equine identities. Abstract It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of
OF WORK TEAM THEORY IN A UNIFIED COMMAND ENVIRONMENT AT CATASTROPHIC INCIDENTS by Douglas R. Templeton March 2005 Thesis Advisor...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Assessing the Utility of Work Team Theory in a Unified Command Environment at...absence of team skills instruction as part of a national training curriculum. The current curriculum teaches technical skills and ICS role
Maidantchik, C.; Xexéo, G. B.; Rocha, A. R. C.
This article presents a software development environment based on hypertext techniques to support object-oriented software construction performed by cooperative working groups spread all over the world. The environment uses the World-Wide Web to support distributed software development.
Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.
The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…
Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian; Jiao, Fenglei
The aim of this study is to reveal noise impact in open-plan working environments in China, through a series of questionnaire surveys and acoustic measurements in typical open-plan working environments. It has been found that compared to other physical environmental factors in open-plan working environments, people are much less satisfied with the acoustic environment. The noise impact in the surveyed working environments is rather significant, in terms of sound level inside the office, understanding of colleagues' conversation, and the use of background music such as music players. About 30-50% of the interviewees think that various noise sources inside and outside offices are 'very disturbing' and 'disturbing', and the most annoying sounds include noises from outside, ventilation systems, office equipment, and keyboard typing. Using higher panels to separate work space, or working in enclosed offices, are regarded as effective improvement measures, whereas introducing natural sounds to mask unwanted sounds seems to be not preferable. There are significant correlations between the evaluation of acoustic environment and office symptoms, including hypersensitivity to loud sounds, easily getting tired and depression. There are also significant correlations between evaluation of various acoustics-related factors and certain statements relating to job satisfaction, including sensitivity to noise, as well as whether conversations could be heard by colleagues.
Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Majewski, Tadeusz
The occupational activity index among people with disabilities in Poland is still one of the lowest in Europe. Employers' resistance to employ these people is considered to be one of its major reasons. It stems from employers' fear of their low productivity and the need to adapt the work environment to their psychophysical capacities. In addition, the existing system of medical certification of disability does not motivate employers strong enough to adjust the work environment. This paper attempts to specify the main principles of the work environment adaptation to psychophysical capacities of two categories of workers with disabilities: those with motor function disabilities and those with intellectual or mental disability. For the former group of workers, the work environment adaptation may involve modifications of its physical aspects and entail some outlays, while for the latter group, the work environment adaptation is mainly based on the provision of workers with social support (both instrumental and emotional) by their supervisors and co-workers. Efforts associated with the work environment adaptation to the needs of workers with disabilities should, therefore, be considered not only in terms of outlays and enterprise productivity but also in terms of preventing social exclusion of people with disabilities.
Sen Gupta, J.; Swamy, Y. V.; Pichan, G.; Dimri, G. P.
Studies have been conducted on six young healthy heat acclimatised Indians to determine the physiological changes in prolonged continuous work in thermally neutral and in hot dry and hot humid environments. Physiological responses in maximal efforts i.e. Vo2 max, VE max and Cf max were noted. In addition, duration in continuous work at three sub-maximal rate of work in three simulated environments were also noted. Physiological responses like Vo2, VE and Cf were noted every 15 minutes of work. Besides these responses, rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Ts) and mean sweat rate were also recorded during continuous work. Results indicated a significant decrease in maximum oxygen uptake capacity (Vo2 max) in heat with no change in maximum exercise ventilation (VE max) and maximum cardiac frequency. However, the fall in Vo2 max was more severe in the hot humid environment than in the hot dry climate. Cardiac frequency at fixed oxygen consumption of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 l/min was distinctly higher in the hot humid environment than in the hot dry and comfortable temperature. The duration in continuous physical effort in various grades of activities decreased in hot dry environment from that in the-comfortable climate and further decreased significantly in hot humid environment. The highest rate of sweating was observed during work in humid heat. The mean skin temperature (Ts) showed a fall in all the three rates of work in comfortable and hot dry conditions whereas in hot humid environment it showed a linear rise during the progress of work. The rectal temperature on the other hand maintained a near steady state while working at 65 and 82 watts in comfortable and hot dry environments but kept on rising during work in hot humid environment. At the highest work rate of 98 watts, the rectal temperature showed a steady increase even in the hot dry condition. It was thus concluded from the study that a hot humid climate imposes more constraints on the
Hofler, Linda D
Over the past 10 years and longer, national entities have worked within their organizations and with coalitions of other stakeholders to address issues facing the nursing profession. As a part of this work, the current state of the educational system for preparation of nurses has been discussed, as well as the need for strategies to enhance nursing students' transition from the academic environment to the work environment. This article presents a review and synthesis of national reports published from 1995 to April 2005 that contain recommendations for nursing education and the transition of nurses to the work environment. Common themes and recommendations across reports are identified and reported. Educators and others can learn from the collective wisdom of previous work and use this information to aid in development of plans and policy initiatives for development of the future nursing educational infrastructure.
Ward, Gillian; Fisher, Darrell L.
There has been little research into the work environments of teachers at the subject department level. Understanding and investigating the work environment at this level could provide insight into the type of work environment that might lead teachers to remain in the teaching profession. This article reports the development, validation and use of…
Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Leduc, Nicole; Misago, Chizuru
-free environment for both. Humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy is something that goes beyond just curing women of their illnesses. It can be considered as a token of caring, and continued support, which positively consolidates the doctor-patient relationship. As yet, it has not been described as a practiced guideline, due to its ever-changing complexities.
Johnston, Amy; Abraham, Louisa; Greenslade, Jaimi; Thom, Ogilvie; Carlstrom, Eric; Wallis, Marianne; Crilly, Julia
Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted. We identified 31 key studies that were evaluated using the mixed methods assessment tool (MMAT). These comprised 24 quantitative-descriptive studies, four mixed descriptive/comparative (non-randomised controlled trial) studies and three qualitative studies. Studies included varied widely in quality with MMAT scores ranging from 0% to 100%. A key finding was that perceptions of working environment varied across clinical staff and study location, but that high levels of autonomy and teamwork offset stress around high pressure and high volume workloads. The large range of tools used to assess staff perception of working environment limits the comparability of the studies. A dearth of intervention studies around enhancing working environments in EDs limits the capacity to recommend evidence-based interventions to improve staff morale.
Abraham, Louisa; Greenslade, Jaimi; Thom, Ogilvie; Carlstrom, Eric; Wallis, Marianne; Crilly, Julia
Abstract Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted. We identified 31 key studies that were evaluated using the mixed methods assessment tool (MMAT). These comprised 24 quantitative‐descriptive studies, four mixed descriptive/comparative (non‐randomised controlled trial) studies and three qualitative studies. Studies included varied widely in quality with MMAT scores ranging from 0% to 100%. A key finding was that perceptions of working environment varied across clinical staff and study location, but that high levels of autonomy and teamwork offset stress around high pressure and high volume workloads. The large range of tools used to assess staff perception of working environment limits the comparability of the studies. A dearth of intervention studies around enhancing working environments in EDs limits the capacity to recommend evidence‐based interventions to improve staff morale. © 2016 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine PMID:26784282
Kramer, Marlene; Schmalenberg, Claudia; Maguire, Patricia
Improving clinical nurse work environments is a major challenge faced by nurse executives today. To meet this challenge, nurse leaders must implement the "right" structures and best leadership practices so that clinical nurses can engage in the work processes and relationships that are empirically linked to quality patient outcomes. What are these "right" structures and best leadership practices? Meta-analyses of 2 sets of publications were used to identify organizational structures and best leadership practices essential to a healthy work environment, that is, a work environment that enables them to engage in the work processes and relationships needed for quality patient care outcomes. The first set was 12 publications from 7 professional organizations/regulatory bodies that advocated forces, hallmarks, and standards for a healthy work environment. The second set was 18 publications from the Essentials of Magnetism structure-identification studies, in which the aggregated results from 1300 interviews with staff nurse, manager, and physician "experts" were compared with the agency results. Broadening the categories and final aggregation yielded the 9 most important and influential structures essential to a quality work environment. Suggestions for implementing these structures are provided.
Maurício, Luiz Felipe Sales; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Campanharo, Cássia Regina Vancini; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Belasco, Angélica Gonçalves Silva; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag
ABSTRACT Objective: assess the autonomy, control over environment, and organizational support of nurses' work process and the relationships between physicians and nurses in critical care units. Method: cross-sectional study conducted with 162 nurses working in the intensive care units and emergency service of a university hospital. The workers' satisfaction with their work environment was assessed using Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised, translated and adapted for the Brazilian culture. Results: average age was 31.6 ± 3.9 years; 80.2% were women; 68.5% Caucasians and 71.6% worked in intensive care units. The nurses considered autonomy (2.38 ± 0.64) and their relationship with physicians (2.24 ± 0.62) to be characteristics of the work environment that favored professional practice. Control over environment (2.78 ± 0.62) and organizational support (2.51 ± 0.54), however, were considered to be unfavorable. No statistically significant differences were found between the units based on the scores obtained by the professionals on the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised. Conclusion: autonomy, relationship between physicians and nurses, and organizational support were considered by the units to be characteristics that favored nurses' professional practices. On the other hand, control over environment and organizational support were considered unfavorable. PMID:28301034
Rodrigues, Pedro F S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S
The present work investigated the effect of a distracting environment in the performance of attentional and working memory (WM) tasks in elderly participants. To this end, forty elderly performed two attentional tasks (simple reaction time and go/no-go tasks), and three WM tasks (arithmetic, memory for digits and sequences of letters and numbers). Each participant performed the tasks in a distracting and a non-distracting environment, with an interval of 14-21 days between sessions. The results revealed better performance in the attentional tasks when these were done in the non-distracting environment, as compared to when they were done in the distracting environment. Specifically, participants provided more accurate responses, fewer false alarms and omissions when responding in the non-distracting environment than when responding in the distracting environment. Participants were also faster at providing correct responses in the go/no-go task when it was performed in the non-distracting environment. As for the memory tasks, the effect of type of environment was significant only in the memory for digits in a forward direction task. Our data suggest the need to consider the potential damaging consequences of distracting environments when the elderly have to perform tasks that demand their attention. Specific examples of such situations are presented in the discussion (e.g., distracting effect of environment on medical and on psychological evaluations).
Matsumoto, Naomi; Yokota, Kozo; Johyama, Yasushi; Takakura, Toshiyuki
Epoxy resins are widely used in adhesives, coatings, materials for molds and composites, and encapsulation. Acid anhydrides such as methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride are being used as curing agents for epoxy resins. The anhydride hardeners are well-known industrial inhalant allergens, inducing predominantly type I allergies. In the electronic components industry, these substances have been consumed in large quantities. Therefore, safe use in the industry demands control of the levels of exposure causing allergic diseases in the workshop. We conducted a prospective survey of two electronics plants to clarify how to control the atmospheric level of the anhydrides in the work environment. Measurements of the levels of the anhydrides in air started according to the Working Environment Measurement Standards (Ministry of Labour Notification No. 46, 1976) in April 2000, along with improvements in the work environment. A value of 40 micrograms/m3 was adopted as the administrative control level to judge the propriety of the working environment control. A total of 2 unit work areas in both plants belonged to Control Class III. The exposure originated from manual loading, casting, uncured hot resins, and leaks in an impregnating-machine or curing ovens. In order to achieve the working environment control, complete enclosure of the source, installation of local exhaust ventilation, and improvement or maintenance of the local exhaust ventilation system were performed on the basis of the results of the working environment measurement, with the result that the work environment was improved (Control Class I). It became evident that these measures were effective just like other noxious substances.
Schéle, Ingrid A; Hedman, Leif R; Hammarström, Anne
Dental students are often described as stressed. The stress has, among other things, been connected to stressors in their psychosocial environment and inconsistent feedback. The hypothesis of this study was that the psychosocial work environment in dental schools leads to stress and affects the satisfaction of dental students and that tolerance for ambiguity shields students from stress. A web-based survey was sent to the entire Swedish dental student population in clinical training (N=805); the response rate was 40 percent. Structural equation modeling used in the analyses contains four main constructs: psychosocial work environment, tolerance for ambiguity, perceived stress, and student satisfaction (χ(2)=267.437, d.f.=174, p<0.001, Normed χ(2)=1.537, RMSEA= 0.041, CFI=0.98). Psychosocial work environment influenced both perceived stress and satisfaction: it accounted for almost all of the explained variance in perceived stress for women, while about half of the variance for the men was explained by tolerance for ambiguity. This study concluded that about 40 percent of the total perceived stress of these female dental students was related to their psychosocial work environment. Tolerance for ambiguity shielded men but not women from stress. An improved psychosocial work environment in dental schools would decrease the stress of both male and female dental students.
Kramer, Marlene; Halfer, Diana; Maguire, Pat; Schmalenberg, Claudia
The objective of the study was to examine effects of nurse-confirmed healthy unit work environments and multistage nurse residency programs (NRPs) on retention rates of newly licensed RNs (NLRNs). Establishing a culture of retention and healthy clinical nurse practice environments are two major challenges confronting nurse leaders today. Nurse residency programs are a major component of NLRN work environments and have been shown to be effective in abating nurse turnover. Sample for this study consisted of 5,316 new graduates in initial RN roles in 28 Magnet® hospitals. There were no differences in retention rates by education or patient population on clinical unit. NLRN retention rate was higher in community than in academic hospitals. More than half of NLRNs were placed on units with very healthy work environments. Newly licensed RNs on units with work environments needing improvement resigned at a significantly higher rate than did other NLRNs. The quality of clinical unit work environments is the most important factor in NLRN retention.
Swanson, Lesley Anne; Baenen, Nancy
The School-Community Guidance Center (SCGC) is an Austin, Texas alternative education program for high-risk students. It employs three project specialists to work with high-risk and delinquent students at two locations, Rice secondary school and a juvenile detention center. Most of the students are referred for disciplinary reasons. Students in…
Fuller, Daniel; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem
As members of the scientific committee for the Food Environments in Canada conference, we reflect on the current state of food environments research in Canada. We are very encouraged that the field is growing and there have been many collaborative efforts to link researchers in Canada, including the 2015 Food Environments in Canada Symposium and Workshop. We believe there are 5 key challenges the field will need to collectively address: theory and causality; replication and extension; consideration of rural, northern and vulnerable populations; policy analysis; and intervention research. In addressing the challenges, we look forward to working together to conduct more sophisticated, complex and community-driven food environments research in the future.
Malaney, Gary D.; Osit, Carla J.
Analyzes the results of a survey which queried student affairs staff members about their opinions on the importance of and their satisfaction with 37 aspects of their work environments. Discusses results of the survey and addresses efforts to improve the work climate. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/GCP)
Scagnoli, Norma; Stephens, Melissa; Anderson, Thomas
Online distance education programs are populated by adult learners who try to continue or complete their education without having to leave their jobs or places of residence. Their work environment becomes not just their working place, but also the lab where they apply new knowledge. The general expectation is that after graduation they will make…
Huang, Shwu-yong L.; Waxman, Hersholt C.
Queried 150 1st-year teachers and 150 mentor teachers from 86 southern urban schools regarding their work environment and professional aspirations. Questionnaires addressed affiliation, professional interest, resource adequacy, and work pressure. Resource adequacy influenced beginning teachers' intention to continue teaching. Mentor teachers…
Doolittle, Peter E.; Mariano, Gina J.
The present study examined the effects of individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) on learning from an historical inquiry multimedia tutorial in stationary versus mobile learning environments using a portable digital media player (i.e., iPod). Students with low (n = 44) and high (n = 40) working memory capacity, as measured by the…
Grissom, Jason A.; Nicholson-Crotty, Sean; Harrington, James R.
Several recent studies have examined the impacts of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) on school operations and student achievement. We complement that work by investigating the law's impacts on teachers' perceptions of their work environments and related job attitudes, including satisfaction and commitment to remain in teaching. Using four waves of the…
Gómez-Chacón, Inés Ma; Kuzniak, Alain
The main goal of this research was to assess the effect of a dynamic environment on relationships between the three geneses (figural, instrumental, and discursive) of Spaces for Geometric Work. More specifically, it was to determine whether the interactive geometry program GeoGebra could play a specific role in the geometric work of future…
Ripley, David; Hudson, Irene; Turner, Robin; Osman-Gani, AAhad
This exploratory study examines cross-national similarities and differences in employee perceptions of issues in the work environment in 17 organizational work settings in seven Asia-Pacific countries; Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. Employees at these 17 sites indicated their degree of…
Culp, Kennith; Ramey, Sandra; Karlman, Susan
Certified nursing assistants (CNAs) are the principal bedside caregivers in nursing homes, yet little is known about their perceptions of the work environment. This population-based, cross-sectional study used a mailed questionnaire to a random sample of Iowa CNAs (N = 584), representing 166 nursing homes. Of the respondents, 88.5% (n = 517) were currently employed in long-term care settings; however, 11.5% (n = 67) indicated they had left their jobs. When CNA responses were compared with those of other occupational groups, general workers reported higher scores on involvement, coworker cohesion, work pressure, and supervisor support. Those who left their CNA jobs rated their work environment as characteristic of excessive managerial control and task orientation. Results of this study emphasize the importance of the relationship between CNAs and their supervisors, CNAs’ need for greater autonomy and innovation, and the need for the work environment to change dramatically in the area of human resource management. PMID:20078021
Shatté, Andrew; Perlman, Adam; Smith, Brad; Lynch, Wendy D.
Objective: To examine whether resilience has a protective effect in difficult work environments. Methods: A survey of 2063 individuals measured individual resilience, stress, burnout, sleep problems, likelihood of depression, job satisfaction, intent to quit, absences, and productivity. It also measured work characteristics: job demands, job influence, and social support. Multivariate and logistic regression models examined the main effects and interactions of resilience and job characteristics. Results: High strain work environments (high demand, low influence, and low support) have an unfavorable effect on all outcomes. Resilience has a protective effect on all outcomes. For stress, burnout, and sleep, higher resilience has a more protective effect under low-strain conditions. For depression, absence and productivity, resilience has a more protective effect when job strain is high. Conclusions: Workers with high resilience have better outcomes in difficult work environments. PMID:28002352
Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; O'Neill, Michael J; Schleifer, Lawrence M
A macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workspace design and ergonomics training was conducted to examine the effects on psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness in a computer-based office setting. Knowledge workers were assigned to one of four conditions: flexible workspace (n=121), ergonomics training (n=92), flexible workspace+ergonomics training (n=31), and a no-intervention control (n=45). Outcome measures were collected 2 months prior to the intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Overall, the study results indicated positive, significant effects on the outcome variables for the two intervention groups compared to the control group, including work-related musculoskeletal discomfort, job control, environmental satisfaction, sense of community, ergonomic climate, communication and collaboration, and business process efficiency (time and costs). However, attrition of workers in the ergonomics training condition precluded an evaluation of the effects of this intervention. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention is effective among knowledge workers in office settings.
Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar
Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect - especially considering the cost of applying these methods.
Rehkopf, David H; Modrek, Sepideh; Cantley, Linda F; Cullen, Mark R
Studies on the physical and social characteristics of the workplace have begun to provide evidence for the role of specific workplace factors on health. However, the overall contribution of the workplace to health has not been considered. Estimates of the influences on health across domains of the work environment are a critical first step toward understanding what level of priority the workplace should take as the target for public policies to improve health. The influences or contribution of these domains on health in the work environment are particularly useful to study since they are potentially modifiable through changes in policies and environment. Our analysis used detailed data from blue-collar industrial workers at two dozen Alcoa plants. It includes work environmental measures of psychological hazards, physical hazards, and the workplace social environment, to estimate the overall importance of the workplace environment for hypertension. Our findings suggest that social, psychological, and physical aspects of the work environment could contribute to a substantial proportion of hypertension prevalence. These attributes of the workplace could thus be a useful target for improving workforce health.
Morris, Leo A.; Smith, Douglas E.; Khan, Siraj M.
The approach and methodology used in the determination of the type of cargo containing concealments of commercial quantities of narcotics such as cocaine and heroin is described. This high-risk cargo enters the United States through border crossings at land, seaports and airports. The volume and variety of cargos make it a complex and challenging task for the U.S. Customs Service.
Barber, Kirk A.
The hand is the most commonly involved site in occupation — related skin disease, and contact eczema is the most common diagnosis. The identification of workers at high risk for this condition is possible and will help in their management and assessment. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:21248925
Micronutrient requirements are well-established for healthy full-term infants. However, few such recommendations exist for high-risk infants, including full-term infants with a variety of medical disorders or very preterm infants. Key micronutrients considered in this review are calcium, phosphorus,...
Connett, Dian; Rathburn, Rene
This resource book contains innovative group activities, units of instruction, writing packets, and math activities that were developed to serve high-risk adult basic education (ABE) students. Included in the first section are units of study dealing with the following topics: Oregon history, personal health issues, controversial issues in science,…
Linton, Steven J; Kecklund, Göran; Franklin, Karl A; Leissner, Lena C; Sivertsen, Børge; Lindberg, Eva; Svensson, Anna C; Hansson, Sven O; Sundin, Örjan; Hetta, Jerker; Björkelund, Cecilia; Hall, Charlotte
Workers often attribute poor sleep to factors at work. Despite the large number of workers with sleep disturbances, there is a lack of consensus on the relationship between the work environment and sleep. The purpose of this systematic review therefore was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation. To this end, we employed standardized methods to systematically locate, review, and tabulate the results of prospective or randomized studies of the impact of work factors on sleep disturbances. From the 7981 articles located in five databases, 24 fulfilled our inclusion criteria and formed the base of the review including meta-analyses of the effect sizes. Results showed that the psychosocial work variables of social support at work, control, and organizational justice were related to fewer sleep disturbances, while high work demands, job strain, bullying, and effort-reward imbalance were related to more future sleep disturbances. Moreover, working a steady shift was associated with disturbances while exiting shift work was associated with less disturbed sleep. We conclude that psychosocial work factors and the scheduling of work have an impact on sleep disturbances and this might be utilized in the clinic as well as for planning work environments. Future research needs to employ better methodology and focus on underlying mechanisms.
Story, Mary; Giles-Corti, Billie; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus; Cummins, Steven; Frank, Lawrence Douglas; Huang, Terry T-K; Lewis, LaVonna Blair
Much progress has been made in the past 5 to 10 years in measuring and understanding the impact of the food and physical activity environments on behavioral outcomes. Nevertheless, this research is in its infancy. A work group was convened to identify current evidence gaps and barriers in food and physical activity environments and policy research measures, and develop recommendations to guide future directions for measurement and methodologic research efforts. A nominal group process was used to determine six priority areas for food and physical activity environments and policy measures to move the field forward by 2015, including: (1) identify relevant factors in the food and physical activity environments to measure, including those most amenable to change; (2) improve understanding of mechanisms for relationships between the environment and physical activity, diet, and obesity; (3) develop simplified measures that are sensitive to change, valid for different population groups and settings, and responsive to changing trends; (4) evaluate natural experiments to improve understanding of food and physical activity environments and their impact on behaviors and weight; (5) establish surveillance systems to predict and track change over time; and (6) develop standards for adopting effective health-promoting changes to the food and physical activity environments. The recommendations emanating from the work group highlight actions required to advance policy-relevant research related to food and physical activity environments.
Longo, Joy; Dean, Amy; Norris, Shelby Darlene; Wexner, Suzette W; Kent, Leslie N
A healthy work environment is needed to retain nurses. Among the factors that contribute to a healthy work environment are collaboration and communication. Through the leadership of the Palm Healthcare Foundation, Inc., a dialogue was started among health care stakeholders in Palm Beach County, Florida, resulting in a health care work force partnership community collaboration and initiatives to address the retention of nurses. One initiative was sponsoring a "train-the-trainer" program to raise awareness and provide skills for addressing factors that could affect work relationships, including emotional intelligence, generational differences, cultural competency and health literacy, employee crisis, and horizontal violence. A 6-month program evaluation was completed by the participants. A community approach provides a means for providers and educators to address common work force issues collaboratively.
Working time in conditions of exposure to hazardous factors is an important element indispensable for the evaluation of human exposure in the working environment. Agricultural work is accompanied by co-occurrence of many risk factors threatening farmers' health, e.g. dust, elements of the thermal environment, noise, vibration, chemical and biological agents. Biological factors cause diseases with contagious, allergic or immuno-toxic backgrounds which constitute the majority of farmers' occupational diseases registered in Poland. Exposure to hazardous factors in agricultural working environment is due to contact with plants, animals and organic wastes, more precisely--with microbes, plant and animal particles present in aerogenic agricultural dust, as well as pathogens of contagious and invasive diseases present in contaminated soil, water and plants. Data concerning the duration of farmers' exposure to biological and other factors of the working environment were obtained with the use of the Private Farmer Work Chart. Time-schedule observations concerned an annual work cycle. The study covered 30 farms with the following production profiles: plant (Group A), animal (Group B) and mixed production (Group C). The total working time was: in Group A - from 106-163 % of the legal working time; in Group B - from 75-147 %; in Group C - from 136-167 %. Among 48 work activities contributing to the full working cycle among the farmers examined, 15 activities were accompanied by 5 factors. These were mainly field activities which covered plant harvesting and fertilizing, chemical plant protection, as well as cultivation activities. Agricultural dust and elements of the thermal environment were the environmental factors most frequently accompanying agricultural work, followed by contact with biological factors, noise, vibration, and chemical agents. Biological factors are a specific element associated with 19 work activities, mainly the spreading of manure, animal breeding and
Nurses face the challenge of leading in a diverse society. Is the cross section of present-day nurse leaders prepared to meet the needs of patients and a work environment represented by a broader range of social backgrounds, cultural traditions, and languages? Fundamental to leaders' ability to meet diverse needs is a new framework for understanding the meaning of leadership, in which the issue of diversity is paramount. This article explores how the word leadership expresses a more complex system, when responsibility to address human needs is emphasized, and care for multilingual and multiethnic patients by a diverse, committed work environment is a focus. Under the umbrella of diversity, the necessary knowledge to create such a work environment may lack depth or may even be absent.
The relationship between dust size and penetration for a static horizontal elutriator (Sibata C-30) was measured in calm air. The elutriator as a low-volume air sampler is widely used as a dust size classifier in work environment measurements. The actual penetrations were compared with the theoretical models of the sampler and with sampling convention for respirable dust in work environment measurement. The sampling convention was recently introduced into the Japanese standard for work environment measurement and is based on the ISO 7708 respirable dust convention. The bias of sampled masses from the respirable dust was calculated for two flow rates of the sampler, i.e., 50% cut sizes of 4 microm and 5 microm, from measured penetration curves. The bias of the sampler was overestimated in the 5 microm, 50% cut condition and underestimated in the 4 microm, 50% cut condition for most workplace sampling situations.
Cho, Eunhee; Sloane, Douglas M.; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Sera; Choi, Miyoung; Yoo, Il Young; Lee, Hye Sun; Aiken, Linda H.
Background While considerable evidence has been produced showing a link between nursing characteristics and patient outcomes in the U.S. and Europe, little is known about whether similar associations are present in South Korea. Objective To examine the effects of nurse staffing, work environment, and education on patient mortality. Methods This study linked hospital facility data with staff nurse survey data (N=1,024) and surgical patient discharge data (N = 76,036) from 14 high-technology teaching hospitals with 700 or more beds in South Korea, collected between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2008. Logistic regression models that corrected for the clustering of patients in hospitals were used to estimate the effects of the three nursing characteristics on risk-adjusted patient mortality within 30 days of admission. Results Risk-adjusted models reveal that nurse staffing, nurse work environments, and nurse education were significantly associated with patient mortality (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.10; OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.31–0.88; and OR 0.91, CI 0.83–0.99; respectively). These odds ratios imply that each additional patient per nurse is associated with an 5% increase in the odds of patient death within 30 days of admission, that the odds of patient mortality are nearly 50% lower in the hospitals with better nurse work environments than in hospitals with mixed or poor nurse work environments, and that each 10% increase in BSN nurse is associated with a 9% decrease in patient deaths. Conclusions Nurse staffing, nurse work environments, and percentages of BSN nurses in South Korea are associated with patient mortality. Improving hospital nurse staffing and work environments and increasing the percentages of BSN nurses would help reduce the number of preventable in-hospital deaths. PMID:25213091
WORK ENVIRONMENT , 4 SATISFACTION WITH HUMAN RESOURCE PROGRAMS AND BENEFITS, AND...OP" THiS inAGE(Wtiofi Dejta linte) ,’- Technal Report 572 RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ORGANIZATIONAL ATTITUDES, WORK ENVIRONMENT , SATISFACTION WITH HUMAN...8217& ’ ’ . " ’ , " . .. " . . , . , . . . . . -. . RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ORGANIZATIONAL ATTITUDES, WORK ENVIRONMENT , SATISFACTION WITH HUMAN RESOURCE PROGRAMS AND BENEFITS, AND ARMY CAREER
Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen
A work group was convened to identify the core challenges, content gaps, and corresponding possible solutions for improving food- and physical activity-environment instrumentation. Identified challenges included instrument proliferation, the scaling or grain of instruments and appropriate aggregation to the neighborhood or community level, and unknown sensitivity to change of most instruments. Solutions for addressing these challenges included establishing an interactive and real-time instrument repository, developing and enforcing high standards for instrument reporting, increasing community-researcher collaborations, and implementing surveillance of food and physical activity environment. Solid instrumentation will accelerate a better understanding of food- and physical activity-environment effects on eating and physical activity behaviors.
Kacmar, K Michele; Collins, Brian J; Harris, Kenneth J; Judge, Timothy A
Using trait activation theory as a framework, the authors examined the moderating role of two situational variables-perceptions of organizational politics and perceptions of leader effectiveness-on the relationship between core self-evaluations and job performance. Results from two samples (N = 137 and N = 226) indicate that employee perceptions of their work environment moderated the relationship between their core self-evaluations and supervisor ratings of their performance. In particular, those with higher core self-evaluations received higher performance ratings in environments perceived as favorable than in environments perceived as unfavorable.
Dingley, Jacquelyn; Yoder, Linda
Public health nurses (PHNs) work to address critical health issues at the individual, family, and population levels. In recent years, a global nursing shortage has posed a significant challenge to the recruitment and retention of PHNs. Hospital-based research has shown that a healthy and productive work environment is vital to successful nursing recruitment and retention. Specific organizational characteristics have been linked to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job vacancies, and turnover rates. Although it is presumed that similarities exist between the public health and acute care nursing work environments, further evaluation is required. This literature review was conducted to identify studies that characterize the PHN work environment. An online database search was conducted to identify prospective PHN studies published between 2000 and 2010. Definitions were established for screening purposes. Twenty-nine PHN studies in the United States and abroad met criteria for inclusion in this review. Satisfaction with teamwork and job autonomy generally was reported. However, inadequate PHN staffing was described as a concern, with problems magnified during prolonged response to public health emergencies. Insufficient control over PHN practice was reported as well. Perceptions regarding other work environment characteristics were mixed or were not measured in detail. More in-depth research is recommended with the ultimate goal of improving PHN recruitment and retention.
Aalto, Anna-Mari; Heponiemi, Tarja; Väänänen, Ari; Bergbom, Barbara; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko
International mobility of health care professionals is increasing, though little is known about how working in a culturally diverse team affects the native physicians' psychosocial work environment. We examined Finnish physicians' perceptions of work-related wellbeing according to whether they had foreign-born colleagues (FBCs) in their work unit. We also examined whether work-related resources moderate the potential association between work-related wellbeing and working alongside FBCs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted for a random sample of physicians in Finland in 2010 (3826 respondents, response rate 55%). Analyses were restricted to native Finnish physicians working in public health care. The results were analyzed by ANCOVA. In unadjusted analyses, having FBCs was related to poor team climate (p<0.001) and poor job satisfaction (p=0.001). Those physicians who reported high procedural justice and high job control perceived also higher job satisfaction even if they had many FBCs in the work unit (p=0.007 for interaction between FBCs and procedural justice and p<0.001 for interaction between FBCs and job control). These associations were robust to adjustments for age, sex, health care sector, specialization, on-call duty, employment contract, full-time employment and leadership position. The results indicate that culturally diverse work units face challenges related to team climate and job satisfaction. The results also show that leadership plays an important role in culturally diverse work units. The potential challenges of culturally diverse teams for native physicians may be reduced by fair decision-making and by increasing physicians' job control.
Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola
Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R2 = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625
Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola
Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees' health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees' health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R (2) = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers' health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.
As the nursing shortage ensues, the need for recruiting and retaining highly skilled nurses committed to the organization will become necessary to maintain high-quality patient care. The primary role of nursing is to provide the best possible care to patients. To attain this goal, nurses must work in collaboration with other members of the health care team. The effect of team-orientation and organizational commitment on perceptions of nurse-physician collaboration in the work environment are examined.
Interests a • Improving Federal Oversight of Food Safety a • Protecting Public Health through Enhanced Oversight of Medical Products a • Transforming...255 Improving Federal Oversight of Food Safety 262 Protecting Public Health through Enhanced Oversight of Medical Products 268 Contents...has been sufficient for us to narrow the scope of the high-risk issue. Specifically, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made progress by
Costa-Black, Kátia M; Durand, Marie-José; Imbeau, Daniel; Baril, Raymond; Loisel, Patrick
From both a social and cost-benefit perspective, disability prevention and associated management strategies for assisting employees with back pain are only successful if they address critical return-to-work (RTW) determining factors present in the workplace, including ergonomic factors. Despite our current knowledge of the importance of an integrated team approach targeting these factors, questions remain regarding the conceptual framework adopted by contemporary rehabilitation teams as it relates to work-oriented interventions to accommodate employees back to work. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the work environment issues discussed by an interdisciplinary team engaged in the work rehabilitation process of low back disability cases. A qualitative content analysis was conducted for 10 sample cases that underwent a rehabilitation program in Quebec (Canada). Drawing on the results of these analyses, a framework representing a synopsis of practitioners' involvement in the person-environment dynamic is presented and discussed. This study makes a unique contribution to the understanding of the 'real-life' content of an interdisciplinary activity in disability management, thus, helping rehabilitation practitioners to build knowledge on the practical application of a cross-disciplinary framework to address work environment issues during the RTW process of those patients sick-listed due to back pain.
Shishko, Robert; Jorgensen, Edward J.
This paper summarizes work in progress to define and implement a risk management process tailored to a low-cost, high-risk, NASA mission -the Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX, commonly called the Mars microrover).
Coco, L; Giannone, T T; Zarbo, G
Today, 88% of pregnancies has a physiological course during which just basic care, while in 12% of cases there is a high-risk pregnancy that requires additional assistance and specific. The approach that should be used is that of supervision in all pregnant women considering their potential to have a normal pregnancy until there is no clear evidence to the contrary. Pregnancy is considered at risk if there are medical conditions that may affect maternal or fetal health or life of the mother, fetus or both. Among the risk factors for pregnancy there is first the woman's age, in fact the increase in high-risk pregnancies in the last 20 years is attributable to the increase in the average age of women who face pregnancy. In addition, the diet is very important during pregnancy and diabetes or autoimmune diseases often lead to the failure of a pregnancy. Risk factors for pregnancy, also, are the complications that occur during its course as hypertension during pregnancy, and infectious diseases. Fears and anxieties typical of a high-risk pregnancy prevent the couple to live happily in the months of gestation. Effective communication, control and early detection are important tools that doctors must be able to ensure that women in order to plan the best treatment strategies and to minimize the risks of maternal and / or fetal.
Walker, R; Swartz, C M
Pregnancy increases the risk of injury associated with mental illness. The varieties of malnutrition, substance abuse, and aggression that may accompany mental illness can injure the unborn child in more severe ways than the patient herself. Dangers associated with illness-related behavior can outweight the risks of pharmacotherapy, but no psychotropic drug is approved for use during pregnancy. Failure to produce a prompt or lasting remission of psychiatric symptoms also is a significant possibility with medication. The morbidity from continued illness and the incompletely described adverse effects of psychotropic drugs increases the attractiveness of ECT for severely depressed pregnant patients, especially with associated high-risk conditions. This paper discusses physiologic changes occurring during pregnancy and ECT and reviews contemporary monitors of maternal and fetal well-being. Guidelines are suggested for ECT during regular and high-risk pregnancies. The authors conclude that using additional precautions with high-risk pregnant patients permits ECT to be given with relative safety; medical and obstetric risk factors need not prevent its use.
Christ, Winifred R.; And Others
Tested ability of 16-item high-risk screening list to accurately predict high-risk status by comparing admission and discharge high-risk scores for 448 patients with range of psychiatric disorders. Sixty-six percent of patients rated high risk at admission were identically rated at discharge. (Author/NB)
Lone, Jon Anders; Riege, Anine H.; Bjørklund, Roald; Hoff, Thomas; Bjørkli, Cato
Recent work design theories propose that the work design configuration (i.e. "work system") in an organization interacts with its broader social and economic environment. Nevertheless, there are few studies of how the broader environment affects the work system. In the present study, the authors used a qualitative theory-elaboration…
Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun
In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices. PMID:22977692
Chang, Hye-Ja; Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun
In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the "skills" or "employability" agenda which has long been anathema to the Humanities disciplines need not be the threat it appears to represent. This paper aims to examine the concept of realistic work environments and their focus, not only the provision of hard and soft…
This study investigates the impact of employment status and work conditions on the quality of the home environment provided by single mothers of preschool-age children. Multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The results indicate that employment status is not a significant predictor of the…
Eggerth, Donald E.
This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…
Toomey, Kristine D.; Levinson, Edward M.; Palmer, Eric J.
This study investigated the validity of J. L. Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments. The sample consisted of 241 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Psychologists, each of whom completed a demographic data form, the Self-Directed Search-Revised (SDS-R; J. L. Holland, 1994) and a…
Hilbert, T. S.; Renkl, A.; Schworm, S.; Kessler, S.; Reiss, K.
Learning from worked-out examples has been shown to be very effective in initial cognitive skill acquisition. In order to fully exploit the potential of example-based learning, teachers should, however, know how to effectively employ such examples in classroom instruction. Therefore, we have designed a computer-based learning environment in which…
Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas; Rosberg, Maria
In a European project--CoReflect--researchers in seven countries are developing, implementing and evaluating teaching sequences using a web-based platform (STOCHASMOS). The interactive web-based inquiry materials support collaborative and reflective work. The learning environments will be iteratively tested and refined, during different phases of…
For the last half century, faculty in higher education has embraced unionization in its profession in a significant way. Both administrators and faculty in unionized college environments have a stake in the interactions between the two entities and a vested interest in understanding the factors that can influence working relationships. Despite…
Gitonga, Jacqueline W.
HRD professionals struggle with why a higher percentage of skills and knowledge acquired through training fail to transfer to the work environment and why transfer appears to diminish over time (Cromwell & Kolb, 2002). With increased investment in technology and professional development, it is imperative to enhance the learners' transfer process…
Teasley, Susan L.; Sexton, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Cathryn A.; Cox, Karen S.; Riley, Michele; Ferriell, Kathleen
Context: Effective recruitment and retention of professional nurses is a survival strategy for health care facilities, especially in rural areas. Purpose: This study examines the use of the Individual Workload Perception Scale to measure nurse satisfaction by a small rural hospital in order to make positive changes in the work environment for…
Weinert, Ansfried B.; And Others
A study of work environments of graduates of the University of California School of Pharmacy indicates that minority pharmacists pursue different types of practice in different locations and receive different incomes than nonminority pharmacists, and that minority programs increase minority pharmacist representation in underserved areas. (JMD)
Devos, Christelle; Dupriez, Vincent; Paquay, Leopold
We investigate how the social working environment predicts beginning teachers' self-efficacy and feelings of depression. Two quantitative studies are presented. The results show that the goal structure of the school culture (mastery or performance orientation) predicts both outcomes. Frequent collaborative interactions with colleagues are related…
Camara, Joan E.; Carr, B. Nathaniel; Grota, Barbara L.
The principal focus of this study is an investigation of whether students' grade point average (GPA) is a viable criterion for forming student work groups in the undergraduate Legal Environment of Business course. More specifically, the research focuses on the impact of: (1) GPA-homogeneous (HO) and GPA-heterogeneous (HE) groups upon student…
Kang, Hosun; Lundeberg, Mary A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how two female students participated in science practices as they worked in a multimedia case-based environment: interpreting simulated results, reading and writing multiple texts, role-playing, and Internet conferencing. Using discourse analysis, the following data were analyzed: students' published…
Terrell, William R.; And Others
Explains human interactive analysis as an architecture for using computer interactive technologies in the analysis of complex work environments. A project at the Naval Training Systems Center that used video-audio data to develop a multimedia database is described; the analysis and management of data are discussed; and decision processes are…
Pacurar, Ecaterina; Abbas, Nargis
This research investigates the effective use of Digital Work Environment (DWE) in France. A theoretical framework based on the pedagogical engineering approach is used to propose an hypothetical model, which results in an explained variable of intention for the pedagogical use of an educational technology. The sex, the teaching disciplines, the…
Diggs, Byron Kenneth
This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…
This report contains viewgraphs on lessons learned on utilizing the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model in the federal government work for others environment. These viewgraphs outline: data systems research and development; what is the SEI/CMM; Data Systems Research and Development process improvement approach; accomplishments; and lessons learned.
Kim, Kiwan; Karau, Steven J.
The authors examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of doctoral students in business. Students in management doctoral programs (N = 200) participated in an online survey. The results show that faculty support was positively associated with research productivity. Among demographic…
Lux, Karen; McCullick, Bryan A.
The purpose of this study was to analyze how one exceptional elementary physical education teacher navigated her working environment as the teacher of a marginal subject. Structuration Theory (Giddens, 1984) was used to make meaning of how the teacher functioned within her school community allowing her to remain motivated and effective. Data…
Arogundade, B. B.
This paper examined the influence of ownership and type of university on work environment in South West Nigerian universities. The study population consists of all academic staff of the ten public and nine private universities in South West Nigeria. In all, 500 respondents selected from eight universities constituted the sample of the study. The…
Gluschkoff, Kia; Elovainio, Marko; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hintsanen, Mirka; Mullola, Sari; Hintsa, Taina
Introduction: We examined the associations and proportionate contributions of three well-validated models of stressful psychosocial work environment (job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice) in explaining depressive symptoms among primary school teachers. In addition, we tested the mediating role of different types of…
Wool, Charlotte; Kozak, Leila E; Lindley, Lisa C
Increasingly, patients and clinicians are considering palliative care interventions during pregnancy for the maternal-fetal dyad, when a life-limiting diagnosis is confirmed. Nurses are at the forefront of providing hospice and palliative care that includes planning interventions for infants nearing the end of life. However, little is known about the work environment facilitators to the availability of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Using a national database of perinatal hospice and palliative care providers, we described the types of CAM therapies available and explored the influence of the nurse work environment on the availability of CAM therapies with multivariate regression analysis. This study showed that having an education environment where clinicians are trained, along with a highly educated RN support staff, and a BSN educated staff were critical to the availability of CAM therapies. The clinical implications for hospice and palliative nurses caring for infants and their families were discussed.
Battisto, Dina; Pak, Richard; Vander Wood, Melissa A; Pilcher, June J
To improve the healthcare environment where nurses work and patients receive care, it is necessary to understand the elements that define the healthcare environment. Primary elements include (a) the occupants of the room and what knowledge, skills, and abilities they bring to the situation; (b) what tasks the occupants will be doing in the room; and (c) the characteristics of the built environment. To better understand these components, a task analysis from human factor research was conducted to study nurses as they cared for hospitalized patients. Multiple methods, including a review of nursing textbooks, observations, and interviews, were used to describe nurses' capabilities, nursing activities, and the environmental problems with current patient room models. Findings from this initial study are being used to inform the design and evaluation of an inpatient room prototype and to generate future research in improving clinical environments to support nursing productivity.
Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa
When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work.
Nordlöf, Hasse; Wijk, Katarina; Westergren, Karl-Erik
BACKGROUND: Earlier studies suggest that the quality of handling occupational health and safety (OHS) activities differs between companies of different sizes. Company size is a proxy variable for other variables affecting OHS performance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate if there is an association between company size and perceptions of work environment prioritizations. METHODS: Data from 106 small- and medium-sized Swedish manufacturing companies was collected. One manager and one safety delegate at each company rated different aspects of their companies’ work environment prioritizations with a 43-item questionnaire. Ratings were aggregated to a summary statistic for each company before analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences in perceptions of priority were found to be associated with company sizes. This is in contrast to earlier studies of objective differences. The respondents in small companies, however, showed significantly greater consensus in their ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Company size does not appear to be associated with perceptions of work environment prioritizations. Company size is an important proxy variable to study in order to understand what factors enable and obstruct safe and healthy workplaces. The work presented here should be viewed as an initial exploration to serve as direction for future academic work. PMID:26409368
North, F M; Syme, S L; Feeney, A; Shipley, M; Marmot, M
OBJECTIVES. This study sought to examine the association between the psychosocial work environment and subsequent rates of sickness absence. METHODS. The analyses were based on a cohort of male and female British civil servants (n=9072). Rates of short spells (
Vanaki, Zohreh; Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl
Employee commitment to the organization is a crucial issue in today's health-care market. In Iran, few studies have sought to evaluate the factors that contribute to forms of commitment. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nurses' organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction. A cross-sectional design was utilized. Questionnaires were distributed to all the staff nurses who had permanent employment (with at least 2 years of experience in nursing) in the five hospitals affiliated to Birjand Medical Sciences University. Two hundred and fifty participants returned completed questionnaires. Most were female and married. The correlation of the total scores of nurses' affective organizational commitment and work environment conditions indicated a significant and positive relationship. Also, a statistically significant relationship was found between affective organizational commitment and life satisfaction. The implementation of a comprehensive program to improve the work conditions and life satisfaction of nurses could enhance their organizational commitment.
Weinberg, Dana Beth; Avgar, Ariel Chanan; Sugrue, Noreen M; Cooney-Miner, Dianne
Objective To examine the benefits of a high-performance work environment (HPWE) for employees, patients, and hospitals. Study Setting Forty-five adult, medical-surgical units in nine hospitals in upstate New York. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Data Collection Surveys were collected from 1,527 unit-based hospital providers (68.5 percent response rate). Hospitals provided unit turnover and patient data (16,459 discharge records and 2,920 patient surveys). Principal Findings HPWE, as perceived by multiple occupational groups on a unit, is significantly associated with desirable work processes, retention indicators, and care quality. Conclusion Our findings underscore the potential benefits for providers, patients, and health care organizations of designing work environments that value and support a broad range of employees as having essential contributions to make to the care process and their organizations. PMID:22716770
Hernandez Duran, Tania; Ravela, Neel; Sanchez Rivero, Sandra; De Jesus Castro Sandoval, Teresita; Hoogmartens, Jos; Pendela, Murali
Lighting in the working environment plays a significant role on the degree of degradation of photosensitive, thermolabile compounds and on working efficiency. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light emitting devices that are promising artificial light sources with easy modulation of light wave signals and are also known for low heat generation. Therefore, the effect of polychromatic LED light was tested in the working environment using the drug compounds montelukast, nifedipine, and clavulanic acid, which are known to be photosensitive or thermolabile. As a control, other lighting sources like a sodium lamp, a classic (incandescent, tungsten) lamp, and indirect sunlight were also used in this study. All the experiments were carried out with methanolic solutions at room temperature. An Acquity UPLC/MS/MS system was used for quantification of the main analytes and degradation products. Under the tested conditions, LED lighting proved to be more suitable for handling photosensitive and thermolabile compounds.
Maloney, J P; Anderson, F D; Gladd, D L; Brown, D L; Hardy, M A
The purpose of this study was to describe health care providers' perceptions of their work environment at a large U.S. Army medical center, and to compare the findings to other military medical centers. The sample (N = 112) consisted of the professional nursing staff working on the nine inpatient units. The Work Environmental Scale (WES) was used to measure perceptions of the workplace relative to gender, position (head nurses, staff nurses, and agency nurses), specialty nursing (intensive care unit [ICU] versus non-ICU), education (MSN, BSN, and ADN), and patterns of differences between the WES subscales of four military medical centers. Results of the study indicate that there were no significant gender differences. Head nurses, non-ICU nurses, and MSN nurses perceived their environment more positively. There were significant differences in the WES subscales between the military hospitals. Implications for nursing using the WES were recommended.
Chavaglia, Suzel Regina Ribeiro; Borges, Cristiana Machado; do Amaral, Eliana Maria Scarelli; Iwamoto, Helena Hemiko; Ohl, Rosali Isabel Barduchi
This is a descriptive exploratory study with a quantitative approach. It aims to characterize the environment of the Intensive Care Center (ICC) in regard to its physical area, material resources and equipments, and to identify factors concerned to the work of nurses. It investigates environmental factors that contribute to an aesthetically harmonious, functional and humanized space and that favor the performance of nursing work. The units that make up the ICC meet the recommendations of the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) in the evaluated items. he following favorable work conditions were highlighted: thermal conditions, color of the ceiling, walls and floors, luminosity. The following unfavorable work conditions were highlighted: outdoor spaces, privacy and individuality of clients and noise. The conclusion is that the facilities of the units meet the minimum recommendations of ANVISA. Both favorable and unfavorable environmental work conditions were identified. The creation of better environmental conditions allows a better staff performance, influencing positively quality, safety, and job satisfaction.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...
Imai, H; Nakao, H; Tsuchiya, M; Kuroda, Y; Katoh, T
Aims: (1) To examine whether prevalence of burnout is higher among community psychiatric nurses working under recently introduced job specific work systems than among public health nurses (PHNs) engaged in other public health services. (2) To identify work environment factors potentially contributing to burnout. Methods: Two groups were examined. The psychiatric group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in public mental health services at public health centres (PHCs) that had adopted the job specific work system. The control group comprised 525 PHNs primarily engaged in other health services. Pines' Burnout Scale was used to measure burnout. Respondents were classified by burnout score into three groups: A (mentally stable, no burnout); B (positive signs, risk of burnout); and C (burnout present, action required). Groups B and C were considered representative of "burnout". A questionnaire was also prepared to investigate systems for supporting PHNs working at PHCs and to define emergency mental health service factors contributing to burnout. Results: Final respondents comprised 785 PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher in the psychiatric group (59.2%) than in the control group (51.5%). Responses indicating lack of job control and increased annual frequency of emergency overtime services were significantly correlated with prevalence of burnout in the psychiatric group, but not in the control group. Conclusions: Prevalence of burnout is significantly higher for community psychiatric nurses than for PHNs engaged in other services. Overwork in emergency services and lack of job control appear to represent work environment factors contributing to burnout. PMID:15317917
Connolly, Deirdre; Fitzpatrick, Clodagh; O’Toole, Lynn; Doran, Michele; O’Shea, Finbar
Fatigue is a symptom of arthritis that causes difficulty at work. An improved understanding of this symptom could assist its management in the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore people with rheumatic diseases’ experiences of fatigue in work. A qualitative descriptive design was used with semi-structured interviews and a constant comparative method of data analysis. There were 18 participants, the majority of them female with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and working full-time. Three themes were identified: “Impact of fatigue on work performance” with cognition, mood and physical abilities being the main difficulties reported. In the second theme “Disclosure at Work” participants discussed disclosing their disease to employers but reported a lack of understanding of fatigue from colleagues. The final theme “work-based fatigue management strategies” included cognitive strategies and energy management techniques, which were mainly self-taught. In this study, fatigue was reported to impact on many areas of work performance with limited understanding from colleagues and employers. Interventions from health professionals to assist with development of work-related self-management skills are required to assist with symptom management in the work place. Such interventions should include education to employers and colleagues on the nature of fatigue in Rheumatic diseases. PMID:26516896
Bauer, Katherine W; Hearst, Mary O; Escoto, Kamisha; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Parental employment provides many benefits to children's health. However, an increasing number of studies have observed associations between mothers' full-time employment and less healthful family food environments. Few studies have examined other ways in which parental employment may be associated with the family food environment, including the role of fathers' employment and parents' stress balancing work and home obligations. This study utilized data from Project F-EAT, a population-based study of a socio-demographically diverse sample of 3709 parents of adolescents living in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States, to examine cross-sectional associations between mothers' and fathers' employment status and parents' work-life stress with multiple aspects of the family food environment. Among parents participating in Project F-EAT, 64% of fathers and 46% of mothers were full-time employed, while 25% of fathers and 37% of mothers were not employed. Results showed that full-time employed mothers reported fewer family meals, less frequent encouragement of their adolescents' healthful eating, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less time spent on food preparation, compared to part-time and not-employed mothers, after adjusting for socio-demographics. Full-time employed fathers reported significantly fewer hours of food preparation; no other associations were seen between fathers' employment status and characteristics of the family food environment. In contrast, higher work-life stress among both parents was associated with less healthful family food environment characteristics including less frequent family meals and more frequent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food consumption by parents. Among dual-parent families, taking into account the employment characteristics of the other parent did not substantially alter the relationships between work-life stress and family food environment characteristics. While parental employment is beneficial for many
Jayasree, A K
Sex workers in Kerala, India, live in a coercive environment and face violence from the police and criminals, lack of shelter, lack of childcare support and have many physical and mental health problems. This paper documents the environment in which women have been selling sex in Kerala since 1995, and their efforts to claim their rights. It is based on sex workers' own reports and experiences, a situation analysis and a needs assessment study by the Foundation for Integrated Research in Mental Health. Involvement in HIV/AIDS prevention projects first gave sex workers in Kerala an opportunity to come together. Some have become peer educators and distribute condoms but they continue to be harassed by police. Most anti-trafficking interventions, including rescue and rehabilitation, either criminalise or victimise sex workers, and sex workers reject them as a solution to sex work. They understand that the lack of sexual fulfillment in other relationships and their own lack of access to other work and resources are the reasons why commercial sex flourishes. Sex workers are not mere victims without agency. They have a right to bodily integrity, pleasure, livelihood, self-determination and a safe working environment. Sex workers are organising themselves for these objectives and demand decriminalisation of sex work.
Background Many questionnaires have been developed to measure how psychosocial characteristics are perceived in a work environment. But the content validity of these questionnaires has rarely been questioned due to the absence of a reference taxonomy for characteristics of work environments. Objectives To propose an exhaustive taxonomy of work environment characteristics involved in psychosocial risks and to apply this taxonomy to questionnaires on workplace psychosocial factors. Methods The taxonomy was developed by categorizing factors present in the main theoretical models of the field. Questionnaire items most frequently cited in scientific literature were retained for classification. Results The taxonomy was structured into four hierarchical levels and comprises 53 categories. The 17 questionnaires analyzed included 927 items: 59 from the “physical environment” category, 116 from the “social environment” category, 236 from the “work activity” category, 255 from the “activity management” category, and 174 from the “organizational context” category. Conclusions There are major content differences among analyzed questionnaires. This study offers a means for selecting a scale on the basis of content. PMID:27367232
Balsanelli, Alexandre Pazetto; Cunha, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm
AIM: To establish whether there is any relationship between the work environment and nursing leadership at intensive care units (ICUs). METHOD: Correlational study conducted at four ICUs in southern São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The study population was comprised of 66 pairs (nurses and nursing technicians) established by lottery. The nurses responded to three instruments: 1) characterization; 2) a validated Portuguese version of the Nursing Work Index Revised (B-NWI-R); and 3) Grid & Leadership in Nursing: ideal behavior. The nursing technicians responded to 1) characterization and to 2) Grid and Leadership in Nursing: actual behavior, relative to the corresponding randomly-assigned nurse. The data were analyzed by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA) at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: The work environment was not associated with actual nursing leadership (p = 0.852). The public or private nature of the institutions where the investigated ICUs were located had no significant effect on leadership (p = 0.437). Only the nurse-physician relationship domain stood out (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The choice of leadership styles by nurses should match the ICU characteristics. Leadership skills could be developed, and the work environment did not exert any influence on the investigated population. PMID:25806638
Houfflin-Debarge, V; Closset, E; Deruelle, P
Intrapartum asphyxia is increased in several situations such as intrauterine growth retardation, preterm labor, postdate pregnancy or maternal diabetes. In all these cases, fetal heart rate monitoring should be preferred to intermittent auscultation. Fetal scalp blood pH or lactates can be used to identify fetuses at risk of intrapartum asphyxia. However, fetal scalp blood sampling should not delay delivery in case of severe abnormal fetal heart rate as fetal asphyxia could occur rapidly in theses high-risk pregnancies. Data is insufficient to recommend fetal pulse oximetry or ECG analysis. Research should be undertaken to evaluate their performance in these situations.
A 49-year-old female with a history of several neurosurgical and otolaryngologic procedures for occipital meningioma and cerebrospinal fluid leaks was diagnosed with pneumocephalus after a one hour flight on a domestic jet airliner. Despite multiple operations, the air appeared to enter the cranium through a weak portion of the skull base due to the low atmospheric pressure in the cabin. The intracranial air was absorbed with conservative management. The patient was recommended not to fly before a definite diagnostic work up and a sealing procedure for the cerebrospinal fluid leak site had been performed. Recent advances in aviation technology have enabled many people to travel by air, including individuals with medical conditions. Low cabin pressure is not dangerous to healthy individuals; however, practicing consultant neurosurgeons should understand the cabin environment and prepare high risk patients for safe air travel.
Kugler, Christiane; Akca, Selda; Einhorn, Ina; Rebafka, Anne; Russell, Cynthia L
BACKGROUND Numerically, nurses represent the largest healthcare profession, thus setting norms for the quality and safety of direct patient care. Evidence of a global shortage of nurses in all clinical practice settings across different healthcare systems and countries has been documented. The aims of the present study were: (1) to assess work environments in a sample of German transplant nurses, and (2) to compare their statements with a US-based sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a cross-sectional study, 181 transplant nurses from 16 German transplant centers provided information on their work environments. The translated version of the Job Design (JD) and Job Satisfaction (JS) survey showed satisfactory internal consistency for the JD (0.78) and JS (0.93) subscales. German nurses' work environments were compared with 331 transplant nurses from the US. RESULTS The majority of transplant nurses were female (81.8%), 55.4% were age 21-40 years, and 78.1% were employed full-time. German (versus US) transplant nurses reported their job design to be best for 'skill varieties' (p≤0.0002), and worst for 'autonomy' (p≤0.01). Job satisfaction was best with 'opportunities for autonomy and growth' (p≤0.0001), and 'pay and benefits' (p≤0.0001) was lowest. A higher professional degree (OR 1.57; p≤0.03; 95% CI 1.19-2.86), and longer time in transplant (OR 1.24; p≤0.001; 95% CI 1.11-1.38) showed a positive impact on German transplant nurses' perceptions of 'job satisfaction'. Nurses with time-dependent working contracts perceived more stress negatively affecting job satisfaction (OR 1.13; p≤0.009; 95% CI 1.02-12.82). CONCLUSIONS German specialty nurses working in the field of solid organ transplantation rate their work environments with respect to job design and job satisfaction as satisfactory. Institutions' investment into satisfactory nurse work environments and specializing nurses might increase the quality of care, thus improving patient outcomes.
Holland, Sally; Burgess, Stephen; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge
This article discusses some new ways in which social work research can explore the interaction between neighbourhoods and child and adult wellbeing. The authors note that social work practices are often criticised for taking an individualistic approach and paying too little attention to the service user’s environment. The article uses examples of research projects from Chile, the United States of America and Wales, to discuss the use of spatially oriented research methods for understanding neighbourhood factors. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods approaches that are particularly appropriate for investigating social work relevant topics are discussed in turn, including quantitative and qualitative uses for geographical information systems (GIS), hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) for analysing spatially clustered data and qualitative mobile interviews. The article continues with a discussion of the strengths and limitations of using spatially orientated research designs in social work research settings and concludes optimistically with suggestions for future directions in this area. PMID:21738281
The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role made by work environment to health inequalities by wage income in Sweden. Gender differences were also analysed. Data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions for the years 1998 and 1999 were analysed. Employed 20-64-year olds with a registered wage were included (nearly 6000 respondents). Sex-specific logistic regressions in relation to global self-rated health were applied. Those in the lowest income quintile had 2.4 times (men) and 4.3 times (women) higher probability of less than good health than did those in the highest quintile (adjusted for age, family status, country of birth, education level, smoking and full-time work). The mediating contribution of work environment factors to the health gradient by income was 25 per cent (men) and 29 per cent (women), respectively. This contribution was observed mainly from ergonomic and physical exposure, decision authority and skill discretion. Psychological demands did not contribute to such inequalities because mentally demanding work tasks are more common in high income as compared with low income jobs. Using sex-specific income quintiles, instead of income quintiles for the entire sample, gave very similar results. In conclusion, work environment factors can be seen as important mediators for the association between wage income and ill health in Sweden. A larger residual effect of income on health for women as compared with men suggests that one's own income from work is a more important determinant of women's than men's ill health in Sweden.
Lafeber, Melvin; Spiering, Wilko; Bots, Michiel L; de Valk, Vincent; Visseren, Frank L J; Grobbee, Diederick E
The initial theoretical concept of a polypill was a fixed-dosed combination pill containing an antiplatelet agent, a cholesterol-lowering agent and multiple blood pressure-lowering agents aimed at the prevention of atherosclerotic vascular disease in the population aged 55 years and up. The reduction in the risk of cardiovascular disease does not depend on the cholesterol level and blood pressure at the start of treatment. The pharmacological reduction in risk factors in individuals with a high risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease is often suboptimal, partly due to the complexity of the guidelines and low adherence to the therapy. A polypill may offer opportunities for improvement. Research has shown that the use of combination products leads to a greater reduction in risk factors than the use of separate substances, possibly through improved adherence to the therapy. The use of a polypill in the prevention of vascular disease in high-risk patients may lead to a more effective reduction in risk, a decrease in costs and a reduction in pharmacological expenditure.
Sauer, J; Wastell, D G; Hockey, G R
This paper discusses the implications of increasing mission lengths of manned spaceflight for the design of future space systems from a human factors point of view. It is argued that the increase in mission duration has brought about a number of new problems, which have not been sufficiently addressed in space research. Therefore, a review of analogue work environments is carried out to make up for the paucity of space research found in the area of human performance in long-duration spaceflight. This resulted in an evaluation of seven analogue environments concerning their similarity to space with industrial process control and nuclear submarines coming out as the closest match on the technical dimension. Finally, some recommendations are given from the lessons learned in spaceflight, simulation studies and appropriate analogue environments.
Goran, Susan F; Mullen-Fortino, Margaret
The tele-intensive care unit (ICU) provides a remote monitoring system that adds an additional layer of support for critically ill patients. However, to optimize contributions, the bedside team must incorporate this resource into the patient's plan of care. Using the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses' Healthy Work Environment Standards as a platform, we can create and nurture a new partnership model. Strategies that embrace the standards of skilled communication, true collaboration, and effective decision making become mutual goals for improving patient safety and outcomes. Joint communication guidelines facilitate timely and meaningful communication. Trust and the desire to cooperate encourage provider engagement to strengthen collaboration. The use of tele-ICU technology can assist in the interpretation and transformation of data to affect decision making at all levels to influence patient care. Through the lens of the healthy work environment, the tele-ICU/ICU partnership provides enhanced opportunities for improved patient care and team satisfaction.
The productivity of the work of engineers in the design of building structures by applying the rules of technical standards  has been increasing by using different software products for recent years. The software products offer engineers new possibilities to design different structures. However, there are problems especially for design of structures with similar static schemes as it is needed to follow the same work-steps. This can be more effective if the steps are done automatically by using a programming language for leading the processes that are done by software. The design process of timber structure which is done in the environment of Scia Engineer software is presented in the article. XML Programming Language is used for automatization of the design and the XML code is modified in the Excel environment by using VBA Programming language , .
Cunningham, George B
Drawing from creative capital theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity were predictive of workplaces that fostered creativity. Data were collected from 653 senior level athletic administrators and aggregated to the athletic department level of analysis (n = 199). Moderated regression indicated that sexual orientation diversity did not influence the presence of a creative work environment. There was however, a significant sexual orientation diversity × commitment to diversity interaction. When commitment to diversity was high, there was a positive association between sexual orientation diversity and a creative work environment; on the other hand, when commitment to diversity was low, the aforementioned relationship was negative. Results provide support for the notion that all diversity forms can be a source of enrichment and understanding, thereby benefiting the workplace.
Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam
This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.
da Silva, Cintia Rc; Garcia, Ana Cristina B
This paper presents the SLMeetingRoom, a virtual reality online environment to support group meetings of geographically dispersed participants. A prototype was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach using the Second Life platform. Ten additional components had to be added to Second Life environment to support group work essential activities such as participants' communication, tasks' and participants' coordination, participants' collaboration and work evolution's perception. Empirical studies, both pilot and experiment, were developed comparing four different meeting settings: face-to-face, videoconference, stand Second Life and SLMeetingRoom. The study involved graduate students enrolled in the Interface and Multimedia discipline at the Fluminense Federal University (UFF) in Brazil. Results indicated that groups working within SLMeetingRoom environment presented similar results as face-to-face meeting as far as sense of presence is concerned and with low cognitive effort. Task completion and degree of participation were not affected by the meeting set up. It was concluded that Second Life, in conjunction with the SLMeetingRoom components, is a good tool for holding synchronous remote meetings and coexists with other electronic meeting technologies.
Goh, Yong-Shian; Lee, Alice; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Chan, Moon Fai
This study aimed to determine whether definable profiles existed in a cohort of nursing staff with regard to demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, stress, cultural values and coping abilities. A survey was conducted in one hospital in Singapore from June to July 2012, and 814 full-time staff nurses completed a self-report questionnaire (89% response rate). Demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, perceived stress, cultural values, ways of coping and intention to leave current workplace were assessed as outcomes. The two-step cluster analysis revealed three clusters. Nurses in cluster 1 (n = 222) had lower acculturation scores than nurses in cluster 3. Cluster 2 (n = 362) was a group of younger nurses who reported higher intention to leave (22.4%), stress level and job dissatisfaction than the other two clusters. Nurses in cluster 3 (n = 230) were mostly Singaporean and reported the lowest intention to leave (13.0%). Resources should be allocated to specifically address the needs of younger nurses and hopefully retain them in the profession. Management should focus their retention strategies on junior nurses and provide a work environment that helps to strengthen their intention to remain in nursing by increasing their job satisfaction.
Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ito, Akiyoshi; Ayabe, Makoto; Haruyama, Yasuo; Tomita, Shigeru; Katamoto, Shizuo; Muto, Takashi
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of working environments of different kinds of commercial kitchens on the thermal strain of kitchen workers. This study design was cross-sectional study, and data collection was performed during busy time in commercial kitchen from August to September 2006. The research subjects were 8 institutions, involving 7 cookers, and 16 men. Measured environmental variables were air temperature, radiant heat index, wet bulb globe thermometer index (WBGT) in front of the cookers, ambient temperature, and estimated ambient WBGT around the workers. The thermal strain on workers was evaluated by fluid loss, body temperatures, heart rate and amount of physical activity (METs). All average estimated ambient WBGTs in front of cookers were less than 27.5℃. The average heart rate was 107 ± 10 bpm, and average METs was 2.0 ± 0.6. The peak values of upper arm skin temperature and auditory canal temperature were less than 37.5℃. The work environments were affected by the kitchen spaces, cooling devices, heating methods, and heat sources. Even in the midsummer, if environmental temperatures were controlled adequately, estimated ambient WBGTs around workers were below the occupational exposure limit. Work environments and thermal strain on workers in commercial kitchen were not severe.
Camponogara, Silviamar; Ramos, Flávia Regina Sousa; Kirchhof, Ana Lucia Cardoso
The article aims to analyze the interface of reflexivity, knowledge and ecologic awareness in the context of hospital work, based on data collected in a qualitative case study carried out at a public hospital. Field observation data and interviews are discussed in the light of sociologic and philosophic references. Workers expressed the interface between knowledge and action, in which there is a cycle of lack of knowledge, automatism in the actions and lack of environmental awareness, posing limits to individual awareness and to responsibility towards environmental preservation. Increased debate and education, including the environmental issue, are needed in the context of hospital work. Although hospital work is reflexively affected by the environmental problem, that does not guarantee the reorientation of practices and responsible action towards the environment.
Takata, Kohei; Zhang, Bo; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Saku, Keijiro
The prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) is increasing globally and they have become the leading cause of death in most countries. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have been conducted to identify major risk factors and effective control strategies for ASCVDs. The development of imaging modalities with the ability to determine the plaque composition enables us to further identify high-risk plaque and evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment strategies. While intensive lipid-lowering by statins can stabilize or even regress plaque by various mechanisms, such as the reduction of lipid accumulation in a necrotic lipid core, the reduction of inflammation, and improvement of endothelial function, there are still considerable residual risks that need to be understood. We reviewed important findings regarding plaque vulnerability and some encouraging emerging approaches for plaque stabilization. PMID:27500090
Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Stępień, Łukasz; Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Pietrowski, Piotr
Museums, archives and libraries have large working environments. The goal of this study was to determine microbial contamination in these work places and estimate the influence of microclimatic parameters and total dust content on microbial contamination. In addition, research included evaluation of ergosterol concentration and fungal bioaerosol particle size distribution. Numbers of micro-organisms in the air and on the surfaces in museums were higher (2.1 × 10(2)-7.0 × 10(3) cfu/m(3) and 1.4 × 10(2)-1.7 × 10(4) cfu/100 cm(2), respectively) than in archives and libraries (3.2 × 10(2)-7.2 × 10(2) cfu/m(3) and 8.4 × 10(2)-8.8 × 10(2) cfu/100 cm(2), respectively). The numbers of micro-organisms detected in the tested museums, archives and libraries did not exceed occupational exposure limits proposed by Polish Committee for the Highest Permissible Concentrations and Intensities of Noxious Agents at the Workplace. The concentrations of respirable and suspended dust in museum storerooms were 2-4 times higher than the WHO-recommended limits. We found a correlation between microclimatic conditions and numbers of micro-organisms in the air in the tested working environments. In addition, a correlation was also found between ergosterol concentration and the number of fungi in the air. Fungi were the dominant micro-organisms in the working environments tested. Particles within the dominant fractions of culturable fungal aerosols sampled from museum storerooms had aerodynamic diameters between 1.1 and 2.1 µm.
Temkin-Greener, Helena; Cai, Shubing; Zheng, Nan Tracy; Zhao, Hongwei; Mukamel, Dana B
Objective To examine the association between nursing home (NH) work environment attributes such as teams, consistent assignment and staff cohesion, and the risk of pressure ulcers and incontinence. Data Sources/Setting Minimum dataset for 46,044 residents in 162 facilities in New York State, for June 2006–July 2007, and survey responses from 7,418 workers in the same facilities. Study Design For each individual and facility, primary and secondary data were linked. Random effects logistic models were used to develop/validate outcome measures. Generalized estimating equation models with robust standard errors and probability weights were employed to examine the association between outcomes and work environment attributes. Key independent variables were staff cohesion, percent staff in daily care teams, and percent staff with consistent assignment. Other facility factors were also included. Principal Findings Residents in facilities with worse staff cohesion had significantly greater odds of pressure ulcers and incontinence, compared with residents in facilities with better cohesion scores. Residents in facilities with greater penetration of self-managed teams had lower risk of pressure ulcers, but not of incontinence. Prevalence of consistent assignment was not significantly associated with the outcome measures. Conclusions NH environments and management practices influence residents’ health outcomes. These findings provide important lessons for administrators and regulators interested in promoting NH quality improvement. PMID:22098384
Stapleton, Jill M; Wright, Heather E; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Kenny, Glen P
We examined heat balance using an American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value allocated exercise protocol in hot-dry (HD; 46 °C, 10% relative humidity (RH)) and warm-wet (WW; 33 °C, 60% RH) environments of equivalent WBGT (29 °C) for different clothing ensembles. Whole-body heat exchange and changes in body heat content (ΔH(b)) were measured using simultaneous direct whole-body and indirect calorimetry. Eight males performed six 15-min cycling periods at a constant rate of metabolic heat production (360 W) interspersed by 5-min rest periods for six experimental trials: HD and WW environments for a seminude control (CON), modified work uniform (MWU, moisture permeable top and work pants), and standard work uniform (SWU, work coveralls and cotton undergarments). Whole-body evaporative and dry heat exchange, rectal temperature (T(re)), and heart rate were measured continuously. The cumulative ΔH(b) during the 2 h intermittent exercise protocol was similar between HD and WW environments for each of the clothing ensembles (CON, 387 ± 55 vs. 435 ± 49 kJ; MWU, 485 ± 58 vs. 531 ± 61 kJ; SWU, 585 ± 74 vs. 660 ± 54 kJ, respectively). Similarly, no differences in T(re) (CON, 37.67 ± 0.07 vs. 37.48 ± 0.08 °C; MWU, 37.73 ± 0.08 vs. 37.53 ± 0.09 °C; SWU, 38.01 ± 0.09 vs. 37.94 ± 0.05 °C) or heat rate (CON, 93 ± 3 vs. 84 ± 3 beats·min⁻¹; MWU, 102 ± 5 vs. 95 ± 9 beats·min⁻¹; SWU, 119 ± 8 vs. 110 ± 9 beats·min⁻¹) were observed at the end of the 2 h intermittent exercise protocol in HD vs. WW environments, respectively. We showed similar levels of thermal and cardiovascular strain for intermittent work performed in high heat stress conditions of varying environmental conditions but similar WBGT.
Gardner, Jane K; Thomas-Hawkins, Charlotte; Fogg, Louis; Latham, Carolyn E
While the nephrology nursing shortage persists despite the continued growth of the population of individuals with Stage 5 chronic kidney disease, there is a paucity of empirical data regarding nephrology nurses' perceptions of their work environments. Moreover, there are no studies that have examined the relationship of work environment attributes to patient and nurse outcomes in dialysis settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between staff nurses' perceptions of dialysis work environments, nurses' intentions to leave their current jobs, nurse turnover, patient satisfaction, and patient hospitalization rates. A descriptive, correlational design was used. Nurse level and facility level data were obtained. The sample for nurse-level data consisted of 199 registered nurses in staff nurse roles in 56 dialysis facilities of a national dialysis company. The sample for facility-level analysis consisted of 46 dialysis facilities, and nurse-level data were aggregated for facility-level analysis. The Practice Environment Scale-Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) was used to measure nurses' perceptions of the dialysis work environment. Nurses' intention to leave their jobs and facility-level turnover rates were the nurse outcomes examined in this study. Facility-level patient satisfaction and hospitalization rates were the patient outcomes examined. Correlation coefficients were computed to measure the relationships between study variables, and independent t-tests were performed to examine subgroup differences in work environment perceptions. Overall, nurses rated the work environment somewhat favorably. Nurses who expressed intention to leave their jobs rated the work environment more negatively compared to nurses who intended to stay. Significant correlations were found between nurses' perceptions of the dialysis work environment, nurses' intention to leave their jobs, nurse turnover rates, and patient hospitalizations. Study findings suggest that
Wolfson, Mark; Champion, Heather; McCoy, Thomas P.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Ip, Edward H.; Blocker, Jill N.; Martin, Barbara Alvarez; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; O’Brien, Mary Claire; Sutfin, Erin L.; Mitra, Ananda; DuRant, Robert H.
Background High-risk drinking by college students continues to pose a significant threat to public health. Despite increasing evidence of the contribution of community-level and campus-level environmental factors to high risk drinking, there have been few rigorous tests of interventions that focus on changing these interlinked environments. The Study to Prevent Alcohol Related Consequences (SPARC) assessed the efficacy of a comprehensive intervention using a community organizing approach to implement environmental strategies in and around college campuses. The goal of SPARC was to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol-related consequences among college students. Methods Ten universities in North Carolina were randomized to an Intervention or Comparison condition. Each Intervention school was assigned a campus/community organizer. The organizer worked to form a campus-community coalition, which developed and implemented a strategic plan to use environmental strategies to reduce high-risk drinking and its consequences. The intervention was implemented over a period of 3 years. Primary outcome measures were assessed using a web-based survey of students. Measures of high-risk drinking included number of days alcohol was consumed, number of days of binge drinking, and greatest number of drinks consumed (all in the past 30 days); and number of days one gets drunk in a typical week. Measures of alcohol-related consequences included indices of moderate consequences due to one’s own drinking, severe consequences due to one’s own drinking, interpersonal consequences due to others’ drinking, and community consequences due to others’ drinking (all using a past 30-day timeframe). Measure of alcohol-related injuries included (1) experiencing alcohol-related injuries and (2) alcohol-related injuries caused to others. Results We found significant decreases in the Intervention group compared to the Comparison group in severe consequences due to students’ own drinking and
Doran, Diane; Clarke, Sean; Hayes, Laureen; Nincic, Vera
Much has been written about interventions to improve the nursing work environment, yet little is known about their effectiveness. A Delphi survey of nurse experts was conducted to explore perceptions about workplace interventions in terms of feasibility and likelihood of positive impact on nurse outcomes such as job satisfaction and nurse retention. The interventions that received the highest ratings for likelihood of positive impact included: bedside handover to improve communication at shift report and promote patient-centred care; training program for nurses in dealing with violent or aggressive behaviour; development of charge nurse leadership team; training program focused on creating peer-supportive atmospheres and group cohesion; and schedule that recognizes work balance and family demands. The overall findings are consistent with the literature that highlights the importance of communication and teamwork, nurse health and safety, staffing and scheduling practices, professional development and leadership and mentorship. Nursing researchers and decision-makers should work in collaboration to implement and evaluate interventions for promoting practice environments characterized by effective communication and teamwork, professional growth and adequate support for the health and well-being of nurses.
Szőke, I; Louka, M N; Bryntesen, T R; Bratteli, J; Edvardsen, S T; RøEitrheim, K K; Bodor, K
This paper describes the latest developments at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Norway, in the field of real-time 3D (three-dimensional) radiation risk assessment for the support of work simulation in nuclear environments. 3D computer simulation can greatly facilitate efficient work planning, briefing, and training of workers. It can also support communication within and between work teams, and with advisors, regulators, the media and public, at all the stages of a nuclear installation's lifecycle. Furthermore, it is also a beneficial tool for reviewing current work practices in order to identify possible gaps in procedures, as well as to support the updating of international recommendations, dissemination of experience, and education of the current and future generation of workers.IFE has been involved in research and development into the application of 3D computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) technology to support work in radiological environments in the nuclear sector since the mid 1990s. During this process, two significant software tools have been developed, the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, and a number of publications have been produced to contribute to improving the safety culture in the nuclear industry.This paper describes the radiation risk assessment techniques applied in earlier versions of the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, for visualising radiation fields and calculating dose, and presents new developments towards implementing a flexible and up-to-date dosimetric package in these 3D software tools, based on new developments in the field of radiation protection. The latest versions of these 3D tools are capable of more accurate risk estimation, permit more flexibility via a range of user choices, and are applicable to a wider range of irradiation situations than their predecessors.
Dawson, E.B.; Harris, W.A.; Powell, L.C. )
Surveys have shown that toxic work environments lower sperm quality, and controlled studies indicate that ascorbic acid supplementation improves sperm viability and agglutination. The sperm quality of 50 subjects each from: (1) office workers, (2) a lead smelter, (3) petroleum refineries, and (4) a herbicide plant were compared with serum and semen ascorbic acid levels. The sperm characteristics studied were: count as million/ml and as percent; viability, motility, clumping, and abnormal morphology. The serum ascorbic acid levels were directly proportional to sperm viability and inversely correlated to clumping of all groups. Moreover, serum ascorbic acid levels were also inversely correlated to twin tail and amorphous forms of abnormal sperm morphology. The results of the study indicate that toxic environments depress sperm quality and suggest that ascorbic acid supplementation will improve sperm quality and fertility.
Tschannen, Dana; Lee, Eunjoo
Failure to communicate openly and accurately to members of the healthcare team can result in medical error. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of nursing characteristics and environmental values on communication in the acute care setting. Nurses (n = 135) on four medical-surgical units in two hospitals completed a survey asking nurses' perceptions of communication, work environment, and nursing demographics. LPNs perceived significantly higher levels of open communication with nurses than did RNs (P = .042). RNs noted higher levels of accuracy of communication among nurses than did LPNs (P < .001). Higher experience levels resulted in greater perceptions of open communication. Only environmental values (e.g., trust, respect) were a significant predictor of both openness and accuracy of communication. These findings suggest understanding the environment (e.g., presence or absence of trust, respect, status equity, and time availability) is a foundational step that must occur before implementing any strategies aimed at improving communication.
Moorer, Oyweda W; Meterko, Mark; Alt-White, Anna C; Sullivan, Jennifer L
In the past decade, the use of information technology (IT) to support healthcare delivery has greatly expanded. Introducing new clinical information systems and updating existing systems require continued learning and training among registered nurses (RNs) and other clinicians. Consequently, a 5-item measure was designed as a subscale to the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. This new subscale, the Nursing Information Technology Subscale (NITS) measures RNs' perception of the extent to which IT in their practice environment supports patient care delivery. A psychometric evaluation of the NITS was conducted at 8 Veterans Affairs hospitals. The findings demonstrated that this brief subscale has acceptable reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity.
This study aims to contribute to the body of knowledge as it pertains to our understanding of the relationship between work environment characteristics...Sciences to conclude that all work environment characteristics studied are positively related to training transfer. Supervisor support is shown to have the most significant influence on training transfer.
Malakolunthu, Suseela; Idris, Abdul Rahman; Rengasamy, Nagappan C.
This study investigated the work environment and general welfare of the Malaysian secondary school teachers. Past studies have explicated that the experience of work environment and general welfare exerted a direct influence on the performance of the teachers, hence student outcome. In the factor analysis, the study identified six factors, namely…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...
Cameron, Kim; And Others
This study attempted to develop a reliable and valid instrument for assessing work environment and continuous quality improvement efforts in the non-academic sectors of colleges and universities particularly those institutions who have adopted Total Quality Management programs. A model of a work environment for continuous quality improvement was…
van den Berk-Clark, Carissa
This paper examines staff discretion in permanent supportive housing facilities run by a nonprofit agency claiming to use a housing-first approach. Field observation, archival data, and individual and group interviews with staff and clients were examined to better understand agency processes involved in intake, sanctions, and disposal of clients to evaluate housing-first fidelity. In their day-to-day interactions with clients, frontline workers' discretion is affected by working conditions such as lack of resources and heavy workloads, as well as by demands placed on the agency by members of the its task environment. Implications for housing-first programs and homeless clients are discussed. PMID:26900305
Biener, L; Glanz, K; McLerran, D; Sorensen, G; Thompson, B; Basen-Engquist, K; Linnan, L; Varnes, J
This article reports the effect of a worksite cancer control intervention on aspects of the physical and social environment related to dietary and smoking behaviors of employees. Data are from 111 intervention and control worksites that participated in the Working Well Trial. Employee surveys and interviews with key organizational informants assessed environmental and normative changes relevant to nutrition and tobacco use. Results indicated significant effects of the intervention on all nutrition outcomes: access to healthy food, nutritional information at work, and social norms regarding dietary choice. Significant benefits were not found for smoking norms or smoking policies. However, changes occurred in both the control and intervention sites on these variables. This first large analysis of environmental and normative effects of a worksite intervention is consistent with the employee behavior change findings for the trial and serves as a model for future analyses of multilevel worksite health promotion programs.
Ridley, Jane; Wilson, Barbara; Harwood, Lori; Laschinger, Heather K
Nephrology, like others areas of health care, is confronting a nursing shortage. Unless action is taken to address nursing shortages, patient care may be negatively affected (American Nephrology Nurses' Association, 2007). Previous studies have been conducted on magnet hospital traits, quality of nursing worklife, empowerment, job satisfaction, burnout, health outcomes, and their influence on nursing retention in Canada. However, there is little research in this area specific to nephrology nursing. This descriptive study examined whether magnet hospital traits, empowerment, and organizational support contribute to Canadian nephrology nurses' job satisfaction, health outcomes, and perceived quality of patient care. A randomly selected sample of 300 nurse members of the Canadian Association of Nephrology Nurses and Technologists (CANNT) was asked to complete a survey consisting of four instruments: The Nursing Work Index (Lake, 2002), the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire II (Laschinger, Finegan, Shamian, & Wilk, 2001), the Pressure Management Indicator (Williams & Cooper, 1998), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). There was a 48.1% response rate. Results demonstrated that some aspects of the Canadian nephrology nursing environment were rated quite favourably (e.g., high standards of care are expected; good working relationships with peers), but areas requiring improvement were evident (e.g., assignments that foster continuity of care). Overall, the nurses felt empowered. The results of the Pressure Management Indicator and Maslach Burnout Inventory indicated that nephrology nurses are generally coping well, but that some of them are struggling. Strategies that improve work environments could promote the recruitment and retention of nephrology nurses. Further research in this area is warranted.
Woo, Jong-Min; Postolache, Teodor T
The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence estimating an impact of occupational factors on mood disorders and suicide, and the efficacy of interventions. This review is based on literature searches using Medline and Psych INFO from 1966 to 2007 (keywords: work stress, job insecurity, job strain, shift work, violence, occupational health, mood disorders, depression, and suicide). To establish the relationship between occupational variables and mood disorders, we focused on clinically significant disorders rather than depressive symptoms. During the last decade, prospective epidemiological studies have suggested a predictive association between the work environment and mood disorders. Recently, increasing numbers of clinical trials have shown favorable effect size of intervention and suggested preferable return-on-investment results. However, low awareness and social stigma still decrease workers access to treatment. Mental health professionals in conjunction with employers have to devise a creative system to make the quality care being offered more accessible to employees. In addition, further outcome data is needed to evaluate the benefit of managing mood disorders in the workplace, and to foster awareness of positive implications for employees, employers, their families, and the society at large. In addition, the work environment, with its chemical (e.g. chemosensory factors, pollutants), physical (e.g. lighting, noise, temperature, outdoor views and activities), biological (e.g., chronobiological factors, allergens, infectious agents), psychological (e.g. demand-control, effort-reward balance), social (e.g. cohesiveness, support), and organizational (e.g. leadership styles) component should meet minimal standards, and may improve with striving towards the optimum.
Woo, Jong-Min; Postolache, Teodor T
The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence estimating an impact of occupational factors on mood disorders and suicide, and the efficacy of interventions. This review is based on literature searches using Medline and Psych INFO from 1966 to 2007 (keywords: work stress, job insecurity, job strain, shift work, violence, occupational health, mood disorders, depression, and suicide). To establish the relationship between occupational variables and mood disorders, we focused on clinically significant disorders rather than depressive symptoms. During the last decade, prospective epidemiological studies have suggested a predictive association between the work environment and mood disorders. Recently, increasing numbers of clinical trials have shown favorable effect size of intervention and suggested preferable return-on-investment results. However, low awareness and social stigma still decrease workers access to treatment. Mental health professionals in conjunction with employers have to devise a creative system to make the quality care being offered more accessible to employees. In addition, further outcome data is needed to evaluate the benefit of managing mood disorders in the workplace, and to foster awareness of positive implications for employees, employers, their families, and the society at large. In addition, the work environment, with its chemical (e.g. chemosensory factors, pollutants), physical (e.g. lighting, noise, temperature, outdoor views and activities), biological (e.g., chronobiological factors, allergens, infectious agents), psychological (e.g. demand-control, effort-reward balance), social (e.g. cohesiveness, support), and organizational (e.g. leadership styles) component should meet minimal standards, and may improve with striving towards the optimum. PMID:18836547
Replacement of fluid lost due to sweating in a hot working-environment was determined by measuring the body weight of 14 workers (53.6 +/- 7.1 years old) 5 times during a working day. They were engaged in repairing and/or maintaining blast furnaces in an environment of 27.9-42.6 degrees C in WBGT. The amount of fluid consumption from a free intake of either green tea and tap water or green tea, tap water and glucose-electrolyte solution (Pocari, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., referred to as G-E solution) was compared. The body weight loss during work was 1.70 +/- 0.70 kg when free intake of fluids plus G-E solution was allowed, while it was 1.60 +/- 0.65 kg when G-E solution was not allowed. Fluid intake with G-E solution was 1.03 +/- 0.35 l, and they could rehydrate 61%. Without the G-E solution fluid, was 0.75 +/- 0.37 l (47% rehydration). Fluid intake with G-E solution was significantly (p < 0.05) larger than that without it. The body weight difference between pre -ad post-work was significant (p < 0.001), i.e., it was 0.26 +/- 0.52 kg while drinking G-E solution and 0.52 +/- 0.53 kg without it. These results suggest that restoration of body fluid after thermal dehydration takes place much faster when consuming G-E solution.
Stromfors, Charlotte M.
This study explored the impact of working memory capacity and student learning in a dual modality, multimedia environment titled Visualizing Topography. This computer-based instructional program focused on the basic skills in reading and interpreting topographic maps. Two versions of the program presented the same instructional content but varied the modality of verbal information: the audio-visual condition coordinated topographic maps and narration; the visual-visual condition provided the same topographic maps with readable text. An analysis of covariance procedure was conducted to evaluate the effects due to the two conditions in relation to working memory capacity, controlling for individual differences in spatial visualization and prior knowledge. The scores on the Figural Intersection Test were used to separate subjects into three levels in terms of their measured working memory capacity: low, medium, and high. Subjects accessed Visualizing Topography by way of the Internet and proceeded independently through the program. The program architecture was linear in format. Subjects had a minimum amount of flexibility within each of five segments, but not between segments. One hundred and fifty-one subjects were randomly assigned to either the audio-visual or the visual-visual condition. The average time spent in the program was thirty-one minutes. The results of the ANCOVA revealed a small to moderate modality effect favoring an audio-visual condition. The results also showed that subjects with low and medium working capacity benefited more from the audio-visual condition than the visual-visual condition, while subjects with a high working memory capacity did not benefit from either condition. Although splitting the data reduced group sizes, ANCOVA results by gender suggested that the audio-visual condition favored females with low working memory capacities. The results have implications for designers of educational software, the teachers who select software, and
Tüchsen, F; Andersen, O; Costa, G; Filakti, H; Marmot, M G
Four longitudinal studies of mortality and morbidity by occupation based on individual record linkage of information and two cross-sectional studies of mortality were compared in order to identify occupations at high risk of ischemic heart disease. In more than one country an increased risk of ischemic heart disease was found in drivers of buses, taxies, and lorries, in bakers, in naval officers and fishermen, in hotel and restaurant workers, in senior police, customs, and other uniformed men, in barbers and hairdressers, in warehouse and wholesale staff, as well as in laboratory assistants and in radio and telegraph operators. Occupations found at high risk in Denmark were also found at high risk in Great Britain and Italy. These occupations may be at genuine high risk. None of these groups work day-work only and several of the groups have psychologically demanding work but unsatisfactory decision authority. Identification of occupations at high risk may help to develop focused preventive strategies.
Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna Sullivan
Background Although the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index has been endorsed as a gauge of the quality of the nursing practice environment by several organizations in the United States promoting healthcare quality, there is no literature describing its use in different practice settings and countries. Objective To inform research by describing the modifications and use of the scale in a variety of practice settings and countries. Method The Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and PubMed databases were searched for the years 2002-2010 to identify 37 research reports published since 2002 describing use, modification, and scoring variations in different practice settings and countries. Results The scale was modified for 10 practice settings in five countries and translated into three languages. Composite scores ranged from 2.48 to 3.17 (on a 1-4 scale). The Staffing and Resource Adequacy subscale most often scored lowest. A new nursing information technology subscale has been developed. New scoring methods to identify the favorability of practice environments are described. Over time, the nature of the research conducted using the measure has changed. Overall, most publications report significant associations between scale scores and multiple nurse, patient, and organizational outcomes. Discussion Scale use is growing across different clinical settings and countries. Recommendations for future research use include reducing scale length, employing consistent scoring methods, considering the impact of various modifications based on cultural and clinical setting nuances, and using the measure in longitudinal and intervention research designs. PMID:21127450
Fu, Xi; Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Janson, Christer; Norbäck, Dan
The aim was to study associations between work and home environment and prevalence and incidence of respiratory health and a history of atopy in a 3-y cohort of commercial pilots. A questionnaire was mailed in 1997 to all pilots in a Scandinavian airline company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. The same questionnaire was sent to the participants 3 years later, 436 participated (76%). There were questions on asthma, respiratory symptoms and infections, allergies, the cabin environment, psychosocial environment and the home environment. Associations were analyzed by multiple logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). The incidence of doctors’ diagnosed asthma and atopy were 2.4 and 16.6 per 1000 person years, respectively. Pilots changing type of flight during follow-up got more airway infections (OR = 11.27; 95% CI 2.39–53.14). Those reporting decreased work control (OR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.03–3.31 for 1 unit change) and those with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home (OR = 3.73; 95% CI 1.09–12.83) had a higher incidence of atopy during follow up. Dampness or mould at home was associated with a higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR = 3.55; 95% CI 1.43–8.82) and airway infections (OR = 3.12 95% CI 1.27–7.68). Window pane condensation in winter at home, reported at baseline, was associated with increased incidence of asthma symptoms (OR = 4.14; 95% CI 1.32–12.97) and pilots living in newer buildings at baseline had a higher incidence of airway infections (OR = 5.23; 95% CI 1.43–19.10). In conclusion, lack of work control and ETS at home can be a risk factors for development of allergic symptoms in pilots. Window pane condensation at home can be a risk factor for incidence of asthma symptoms. Dampness and mould at home can be a risk factor for prevalence of asthma symptoms and airway infections and living in newer buildings can be a risk factor for incidence of airway infections. PMID:27741314
United States General Accounting Office GAO Information for House MajorityLeader Richard Armey and Representative Pete Sessions May 1997 GH-RISK ID...Information on Selected High-Risk Areas Corporate Author Or Publisher: General Accounting Office, GAO, Washington, DC 20548 Report Number: GAO/IHR-97-30 Report...Library: 000001 Record ID: 45053 GAO United States General Accounting OfficeWashington, D.C. 20548 Accounting and Information Management Division May
Ramaswamy, Sai K; Mosher, Gretchen A
Agriculture is a high-hazard industry that employs a large number of young workers below the age of 25. Recent studies have documented a strong positive correlation between quality management in agriculture and occupational safety as perceived by agricultural workers. Younger workers have been found to be at higher risk for occupational injuries and fatalities in agriculture. Furthermore, college students in agriculture have minimal exposure to safety and quality management principles in their coursework and thus may not be aware that the two concepts are associated Little research has studied how young workers perceive the relationship between safety and quality and how these perceptions vary based on demographic characteristics. This study builds on prior research that measured the interactions between employee perceptions of safety and quality in an agricultural work environment. Data were collected using a survey instrument adapted from a previously validated instrument. Analysis of 1017 responses showed that students perceived a high impact of quality practices on the reduction of safety hazards and safety incidents. Students' perceptions of quality and safety in agricultural work environments varied by gender, with female students perceiving the relationship between the two at a higher level than males. No significant difference in perceptions was observed based on students' academic classification, age group, field of study, or childhood environment. This study demonstrates that despite limited academic training in safety and quality, pre-professionals perceive the implementation of quality management as a very important factor in mitigating safety hazards and safety incidents. In addition, this study suggests that current academic training in these disciplines must be modified, since no differences in students' perceptions were observed based on academic classification or field of study.
Hanson, R Karl; Harris, Andrew J R; Helmus, Leslie; Thornton, David
This study examined the extent to which sexual offenders present an enduring risk for sexual recidivism over a 20-year follow-up period. Using an aggregated sample of 7,740 sexual offenders from 21 samples, the yearly recidivism rates were calculated using survival analysis. Overall, the risk of sexual recidivism was highest during the first few years after release, and decreased substantially the longer individuals remained sex offense-free in the community. This pattern was particularly strong for the high-risk sexual offenders (defined by Static-99R scores). Whereas the 5-year sexual recidivism rate for high-risk sex offenders was 22% from the time of release, this rate decreased to 4.2% for the offenders in the same static risk category who remained offense-free in the community for 10 years. The recidivism rates of the low-risk offenders were consistently low (1%-5%) for all time periods. The results suggest that offense history is a valid, but time-dependent, indicator of the propensity to sexually reoffend. Further research is needed to explain the substantial rate of desistance by high-risk sexual offenders.
Spence Laschinger, Heather K
The purpose of this study was to test Leiter and Laschinger's Nursing Worklife Model linking structural empowerment to Lake's 5-factor professional practice work environment model and work quality outcomes. A predictive, nonexperimental design was used to test the model in a random sample of 234 staff nurses. The analysis revealed that professional practice environment characteristics mediated the relationship between structurally empowering work conditions and both job satisfaction and nurse-assessed patient care quality.
Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan; Bechdolf, Andreas; Addington, Jean; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Keshavan, Matcheri; Wood, Stephen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Seidman, Larry J.; Valmaggia, Lucia; Cannon, Tyrone; Velthorst, Eva; De Haan, Lieuwe; Cornblatt, Barbara; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Birchwood, Max; McGlashan, Thomas; Carpenter, William; McGorry, Patrick; Klosterkötter, Joachim; McGuire, Philip; Yung, Alison
Context During the past 2 decades, a major transition in the clinical characterization of psychotic disorders has occurred. The construct of a clinical high-risk (HR) state for psychosis has evolved to capture the prepsychotic phase, describing people presenting with potentially prodromal symptoms. The importance of this HR state has been increasingly recognized to such an extent that a new syndrome is being considered as a diagnostic category in the DSM-5. Objective To reframe the HR state in a comprehensive state-of-the-art review on the progress that has been made while also recognizing the challenges that remain. Data Sources Available HR research of the past 20 years from PubMed, books, meetings, abstracts, and international conferences. Study Selection and Data Extraction Critical review of HR studies addressing historical development, inclusion criteria, epidemiologic research, transition criteria, outcomes, clinical and functional characteristics, neurocognition, neuroimaging, predictors of psychosis development, treatment trials, socioeconomic aspects, nosography, and future challenges in the field. Data Synthesis Relevant articles retrieved in the literature search were discussed by a large group of leading worldwide experts in the field. The core results are presented after consensus and are summarized in illustrative tables and figures. Conclusions The relatively new field of HR research in psychosis is exciting. It has the potential to shed light on the development of major psychotic disorders and to alter their course. It also provides a rationale for service provision to those in need of help who could not previously access it and the possibility of changing trajectories for those with vulnerability to psychotic illnesses. PMID:23165428
Yoshie, Satoru; Saito, Tami; Takahashi, Miyako; Kai, Ichiro
Previous literature pointed out that the role of care managers is ambiguous. In 2000, Japan instituted a new policy for long-term care of the elderly (the National Long-Term Care Insurance Policy), within which the work of care managers was recognized as a new profession providing care management services for the elderly needing care. We conducted a random-sampled mail survey on 530 care managers in 268 organizations to clarify the association between role ambiguity and care managers' work environments, including role clarification, organizational profit-seeking climate, and the utilization of professional and personal support. The results showed that fewer opportunities for role clarification and increased organizational profit-seeking climate were associated with greater role ambiguity for care managers. Furthermore, emotional and instrumental support from colleagues and external resources were positively associated with role ambiguity, while informational support from superiors was negatively associated with role ambiguity. Role clarification and the utilization of support within and outside of work organizations would be beneficial to reduce the role ambiguity of care managers.
Romano, Francesco; Gustén, Jan; De Antonellis, Stefano; Joppolo, Cesare M
Air cleanliness in operating theatres (OTs) is an important factor for preserving the health of both the patient and the medical staff. Particle contamination in OTs depends mainly on the surgery process, ventilation principle, personnel clothing systems and working routines. In many open surgical operations, electrosurgical tools (ESTs) are used for tissue cauterization. ESTs generate a significant airborne contamination, as surgical smoke. Surgical smoke is a work environment quality problem. Ordinary surgical masks and OT ventilation systems are inadequate to control this problem. This research work is based on numerous monitoring campaigns of ultrafine particle concentrations in OTs, equipped with upward displacement ventilation or with a downward unidirectional airflow system. Measurements performed during ten real surgeries highlight that the use of ESTs generates a quite sharp and relevant increase of particle concentration in the surgical area as well within the entire OT area. The measured contamination level in the OTs are linked to surgical operation, ventilation principle, and ESTs used. A better knowledge of airborne contamination is crucial for limiting the personnel's exposure to surgical smoke. Research results highlight that downward unidirectional OTs can give better conditions for adequate ventilation and contaminant removal performances than OTs equipped with upward displacement ventilation systems.
Romano, Francesco; Gustén, Jan; De Antonellis, Stefano; Joppolo, Cesare M.
Air cleanliness in operating theatres (OTs) is an important factor for preserving the health of both the patient and the medical staff. Particle contamination in OTs depends mainly on the surgery process, ventilation principle, personnel clothing systems and working routines. In many open surgical operations, electrosurgical tools (ESTs) are used for tissue cauterization. ESTs generate a significant airborne contamination, as surgical smoke. Surgical smoke is a work environment quality problem. Ordinary surgical masks and OT ventilation systems are inadequate to control this problem. This research work is based on numerous monitoring campaigns of ultrafine particle concentrations in OTs, equipped with upward displacement ventilation or with a downward unidirectional airflow system. Measurements performed during ten real surgeries highlight that the use of ESTs generates a quite sharp and relevant increase of particle concentration in the surgical area as well within the entire OT area. The measured contamination level in the OTs are linked to surgical operation, ventilation principle, and ESTs used. A better knowledge of airborne contamination is crucial for limiting the personnel’s exposure to surgical smoke. Research results highlight that downward unidirectional OTs can give better conditions for adequate ventilation and contaminant removal performances than OTs equipped with upward displacement ventilation systems. PMID:28146089
Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Herleman, Hailey A; Britt, Thomas W; Moore, Dewayne D; Castro, Carl A; McGurk, Dennis
Based on the Job Demands-Resources (JDR) model (E. Demerouti, A. B. Bakker, F. Nachreiner, & W. B. Schaufeli, 2001, The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512) and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory (S. E. Hobfoll, 2002, Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6, 307-324), we tested three competing models that predict different directions of causation for relationships over time between family-supportive work environments (FSWE) and psychological strain, with two waves of data from a military sample. Results revealed support for both the JDR and COR theories, first in the static model where FSWE at Time 1 predicted psychological strain at Time 2 and when testing the opposite direction, where psychological strain at Time 1 predicted FSWE at Time 2. For change models, FSWE predicted changes in psychological strain across time, although the reverse causation model was not supported (psychological strain at Time 1 did not predict changes in FSWE). Also, changes in FSWE across time predicted psychological strain at Time 2, whereas changes in psychological strain did not predict FSWE at Time 2. Theoretically, these results are important for the work-family interface in that they demonstrate the application of a systems approach to studying work and family interactions, as support was obtained for both the JDR model with perceptions of FSWE predicting psychological strain (in both the static and change models), and for COR theory where psychological strain predicts FSWE across time.
Haines, Annette M.
Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that…
Barnett, Claire L.
This paper presents a transcript of the speech delivered by the author at the US Senate Environment and Public Works Committee Hearing, Washington, DC, May 15, 2007. The author talked about how the Healthy Schools Network works to ensure that every child will have an environmentally healthy school that is clean and in good repair. The organization…
Chablani, Anisha; Spinney, Elizabeth R.
This article describes a model designed to engage very high-risk pregnant and parenting young mothers who are not traditionally served by home visiting or other young parent programs. These disengaged young mothers do not live in stable environments: they are street or gang involved, in danger of dropping out of school or have already dropped out,…
Mahan, Pamela L; Mahan, Michael P; Park, Na-Jin; Shelton, Christie; Brown, Kathleen C; Weaver, Michael T
Work environment stress, a salient health and safety issue for secondary school teachers, school administrators, parents, and students, was examined in 168 teachers from two urban and five suburban high schools. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between ongoing and episodic stressors and anxiety and depression, as well as the extent to which anxiety and depression may be predicted by stressors and coworker and supervisor support. The Ongoing Stressor Scale (OSS) and the Episodic Stressor Scale (ESS), the Coworker and Supervisor Contents of Communication Scales (COCS), the State Anxiety inventory (S-Anxiety), and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to measure the variables. Ongoing and episodic stressors were significantly and positively associated with anxiety and depression. Ongoing stressors and coworker support were significant in explaining anxiety and depression among secondary school teachers. Coworker support had an inverse relationship to anxiety and depression.
Morisky, Donald E; Peña, Melanie; Tiglao, Teodora V; Liu, Kenn Y
The purpose of this research is to examine how condom use is affected by specific aspects of the work environment: (1) social-structural and environmental influences and constraints, (2) mandatory condom use policy, and (3) the level of social influence and reinforcement between manager and employee. A total of 1,340 bar workers and 308 nonestablishment freelance workers comprise the study group. In establishments where a condom use policy exists, female bar workers were 2.6 times more likely to consistently use condoms during sexual intercourse compared with establishments that do not have such a policy in place. The results suggest a need for the development of comprehensive educational policies in all entertainment establishments, including regular meetings with employees, reinforcing attendance at the Social Hygiene Clinic, promoting AIDS awareness, making condoms available in the workplace, and mandating 100% condom use behavior among all employees.
Valero, M. A.; Arredondo, M. T.; Guillén, S.; Traver, V.; Fernández, C.; Basagoiti, I.; del Nogal, F.; Gallar, P.; Insausti, J.
The availability of health care attention at the point of need is one of the key benefits of telemedicine. Home environment and working place are the two scenarios selected in this article to evaluate the impact of a televisit and teleconsultation service. 31 users from four different medical and patient groups participated in this study supported by European Commission ATTRACT project. The experiences, carried out in Madrid and Valencia Spanish sites, benefited from interactive broadband access networks to provide cost-effective telecare services. Key areas analyzed encompass systems usability, clinical outcomes, patients quality of care and infoethic issues. Services advantages were verified and compared both from patients and medical staff points of view. Main benefits pointed out refer to displacement reduction, better communication doctor/patient, provision of comfort or friendliness, more precise therapy follow-up and increases in patients sense of well being. PMID:11825280
Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara J.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Krenek, Sam
In space, astronauts are constantly bombarded with energetic particles. The goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency and the NASA Space Radiation Project is to ensure that astronauts can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. The space radiation environment poses both acute and chronic risks to crew health and safety, but unlike some other aspects of space travel, space radiation exposure has clinically relevant implications for the lifetime of the crew. Among the identified radiation risks are cancer, acute and late CNS damage, chronic and degenerative tissue decease, and acute radiation syndrome. The term "safely" means that risks are sufficiently understood such that acceptable limits on mission, post-mission and multi-mission consequences can be defined. The NASA Space Radiation Project strategy has several elements. The first element is to use a peer-reviewed research program to increase our mechanistic knowledge and genetic capabilities to develop tools for individual risk projection, thereby reducing our dependency on epidemiological data and population-based risk assessment. The second element is to use the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to provide a ground-based facility to study the health effects/mechanisms of damage from space radiation exposure and the development and validation of biological models of risk, as well as methods for extrapolation to human risk. The third element is a risk modeling effort that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting the identified radiation risks. To understand the biological basis for risk, we must also understand the physical aspects of the crew environment. Thus, the fourth element develops computer algorithms to predict radiation transport properties, evaluate integrated shielding technologies and provide design optimization recommendations for the design of human space systems. Understanding the risks and determining
Corbin, Barbara J.; Sulzman, Frank M.; Krenek, Sam
The goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Agency and the Space Radiation Project is to ensure that astronauts can safely live and work in the space radiation environment. The space radiation environment poses both acute and chronic risks to crew health and safety, but unlike some other aspects of space travel, space radiation exposure has clinically relevant implications for the lifetime of the crew. The term safely means that risks are sufficiently understood such that acceptable limits on mission, post-mission and multi-mission consequences (for example, excess lifetime fatal cancer risk) can be defined. The Space Radiation Project strategy has several elements. The first element is to use a peer-reviewed research program to increase our mechanistic knowledge and genetic capabilities to develop tools for individual risk projection, thereby reducing our dependency on epidemiological data and population-based risk assessment. The second element is to use the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to provide a ground-based facility to study the understanding of health effects/mechanisms of damage from space radiation exposure and the development and validation of biological models of risk, as well as methods for extrapolation to human risk. The third element is a risk modeling effort that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects. To understand the biological basis for risk, we must also understand the physical aspects of the crew environment. Thus the fourth element develops computer codes to predict radiation transport properties, evaluate integrated shielding technologies and provide design optimization recommendations for the design of human space systems. Understanding the risks and determining methods to mitigate the risks are keys to a successful radiation protection strategy.
Yin, Hongbiao; Huang, Shenghua; Wang, Wenlan
Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers’ work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues) and two indicators of teachers’ well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion). In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2) both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3) teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers’ emotion regulation in teachers’ well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers’ well-being are identified. PMID:27649216
Yin, Hongbiao; Huang, Shenghua; Wang, Wenlan
Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers' work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues) and two indicators of teachers' well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion). In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2) both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3) teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers' emotion regulation in teachers' well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers' well-being are identified.
Murphy, Fionn; Ewins, Ciaran; Carbonnier, Frederic; Quinn, Brian
Municipal effluent discharged from wastewater treatment works (WwTW) is suspected to be a significant contributor of microplastics (MP) to the environment as many personal care products contain plastic microbeads. A secondary WwTW (population equivalent 650 000) was sampled for microplastics at different stages of the treatment process to ascertain at what stage in the treatment process the MP are being removed. The influent contained on average 15.70 (±5.23) MP·L(-1). This was reduced to 0.25 (±0.04) MP·L(-1) in the final effluent, a decrease of 98.41%. Despite this large reduction we calculate that this WwTW is releasing 65 million microplastics into the receiving water every day. A significant proportion of the microplastic accumulated in and was removed during the grease removal stage (19.67 (±4.51) MP/2.5 g), it was only in the grease that the much publicised microbeads were found. This study shows that despite the efficient removal rates of MP achieved by this modern treatment plant when dealing with such a large volume of effluent even a modest amount of microplastics being released per liter of effluent could result in significant amounts of microplastics entering the environment. This is the first study to describe in detail the fate of microplastics during the wastewater treatment process.
Garcia-Ceja, Enrique; Osmani, Venet; Mayora, Oscar
Increase in workload across many organizations and consequent increase in occupational stress are negatively affecting the health of the workforce. Measuring stress and other human psychological dynamics is difficult due to subjective nature of selfreporting and variability between and within individuals. With the advent of smartphones, it is now possible to monitor diverse aspects of human behavior, including objectively measured behavior related to psychological state and consequently stress. We have used data from the smartphone's built-in accelerometer to detect behavior that correlates with subjects stress levels. Accelerometer sensor was chosen because it raises fewer privacy concerns (e.g., in comparison to location, video, or audio recording), and because its low-power consumption makes it suitable to be embedded in smaller wearable devices, such as fitness trackers. About 30 subjects from two different organizations were provided with smartphones. The study lasted for eight weeks and was conducted in real working environments, with no constraints whatsoever placed upon smartphone usage. The subjects reported their perceived stress levels three times during their working hours. Using combination of statistical models to classify selfreported stress levels, we achieved a maximum overall accuracy of 71% for user-specific models and an accuracy of 60% for the use of similar-users models, relying solely on data from a single accelerometer.
Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Fernandes, Adília; Teixeira, João Paulo; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Morais, Simone
This work aims to characterize personal exposure of firefighters to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in non-fire work environments (fire stations), and assesses the respective risks. Eighteen PAHs (16 considered by USEPA as priority pollutants, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene and benzo[j]fluoranthene) were monitored in breathing zones of workers at five Portuguese fire stations during a normal shift. The obtained levels of PAHs fulfilled all existent occupational exposure limits as well as air quality guidelines with total concentrations (ΣPAHs) in range of 46.8-155ngm(-3). Light compounds (2-3 rings) were the most predominant congeners (74-96% of ΣPAHs) whereas PAHs with 5-6 rings accounted 3-9% of ΣPAHs. Fuel and biomass combustions, vehicular traffic emissions, and use of lubricant oils were identified as the main sources of PAHs exposure at the studied fire corporations. Incremental lifetime cancer risks were below the recommend USEPA guideline of 10(-6) and thus negligible for all the studied subjects, but WHO health-based guideline level of 10(-5) was exceeded (9-44 times) at all fire corporations. These results thus show that even during non-fire situations firefighters are exposed to PAHs at levels that may promote some adverse health outcomes; therefore the respective occupational exposures to these compounds should be carefully controlled.
Leone, Claudia; Bruyneel, Luk; Anderson, Janet E; Murrells, Trevor; Dussault, Gilles; Henriques de Jesus, Élvio; Sermeus, Walter; Aiken, Linda; Rafferty, Anne Marie
This study extends the Registered Nurses Forecasting (RN4CAST) study evidence base with newly collected data from Portuguese nurses working in acute care hospitals, in which the measurement of the quality of work environment, workload and its association with intention-to-leave emerge as of key importance. Data included surveys of 2235 nurses in 144 nursing units in 31 hospitals via stratified random sampling. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis shows that intention-to-leave is higher among nurses with a specialty degree, nurses aged 35-39, and in nursing units where nurses are less satisfied with opportunities for career advancement, staffing levels and participation in hospital affairs. Analysis with moderation effects showed the observed effect of age and of having a specialty degree on intention-to-leave during the regression analysis is reduced in nursing units where nurses are more satisfied with opportunities for career advancement. The most important finding from the study suggests that promoting retention strategies that increase satisfaction with opportunities for career advancement among Portuguese nurses has the potential to override individual characteristics associated with increased turnover intentions.
Snelgrove, Sherrill Ray
The introduction of nurse-led telephone helplines for patients to have access to information and advice has led to the development of a new kind of practise for nurses. This study focuses on the ways NHS Direct (NHSD) nurses construct a nursing identity and shape their work in a call-centre environment. The empirical findings are drawn from a study investigating the impact of NHSD on professional nursing issues that was part of a wider evaluation of the service in South Wales, UK. Data were gathered from responses to free text questions included in a questionnaire sent to nurses in three NHSD sites. Further data were collected from focus groups held with NHSD nurses. The nurses defend their identity as nurses rather than call-centre workers. The discourses of the nurses show a strong alignment with the traditional values of nursing, encompassing holistic and empathetic practise that has moved with the nurses across locales. We argue that the nurses frame a nursing identity in NHSD around the importance of previous experience and claim to practise holistic nursing. However, the development of new skills and adaptation of old skills in response to the demand of NHSD work challenges normative notions of traditional 'hands-on' models of practise and indicates a possible movement towards a cognitive model of nursing based upon knowledge, analytical and communication skills that reflects the transformative and dynamic nature of professional identity and boundaries.
Bakirov, A B; Takaev, R M; Kondrova, N S; Shaĭkhlislamova, E R
The authors studied factors of working environment and process on nonferrous metallurgy enterprises in Bashkortostan Republic and evaluated their influence on the workers' occupational health over 1997-2009, with consideration of occupation, sex, age, length of service, work conditions and characters. The article demonstrates that sanitary and hygienic characteristics of occupations connected with machinery operation are prone to increased integral evaluation of work conditions due to underestimation of actual hardiness and intensity of work.
temperature and heart rate response to work , environment , and clothing. The report defines the mathematical basis of the program and presents a brief guide for its use with the HP9810A programmable calculator.
Statement of Stephen J. Nesbitt Assistant Inspector General for Investigations Office of Inspector General U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Before the Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate
Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Villadsen, Ebbe; Burr, Hermann; Punnett, Laura; Holtermann, Andreas
Objectives To investigate if participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) depends on the work environment. Methods Questionnaire data on participation in WHP activities (smoking cessation, healthy diet, exercise facilities, weekly exercise classes, contact with health professionals, health screenings) and the work environment (social support, fatiguing work, physical, quantitative and emotional demands, job control and WHP availability setting) were collected cross-sectionally in 2010 in a representative sample (n=10 605) of Danish workers. Binary regression analyses of the association between work environment characteristics and participation in WHP were conducted and adjusted for age, gender and industry. Results WHP offered during leisure time was associated with lower participation in all measured activities compared with when offered during working hours. Low social support and fatiguing work were associated with low participation in WHP. No associations with participation in WHPs were observed for physical work or quantitative demands, work pace or job strain. However, high physical demands/low job control and high emotional demands/low job control were associated with low participation. Conclusions Lower participation in WHP was associated with programmes during leisure, low social support, very fatiguing work and high physical or emotional demands with low job control. This suggests that to obtain proper effect of health promotion in a workplace setting, a good work environment is essential. PMID:27279474
This technical work plan (TWP) describes work activities to be performed by the Near-Field Environment Team. The objective of the work scope covered by this TWP is to generate Revision 03 of EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction, referred to herein as the radionuclide transport abstraction (RTA) report. The RTA report is being revised primarily to address condition reports (CRs), to address issues identified by the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT), to address the potential impact of transport, aging, and disposal (TAD) canister design on transport models, and to ensure integration with other models that are closely associated with the RTA report and being developed or revised in other analysis/model reports in response to IVRT comments. The RTA report will be developed in accordance with the most current version of LP-SIII.10Q-BSC and will reflect current administrative procedures (LP-3.15Q-BSC, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''; LP-SIII.2Q-BSC, ''Qualification of Unqualified Data''; etc.), and will develop related Document Input Reference System (DIRS) reports and data qualifications as applicable in accordance with prevailing procedures. The RTA report consists of three models: the engineered barrier system (EBS) flow model, the EBS transport model, and the EBS-unsaturated zone (UZ) interface model. The flux-splitting submodel in the EBS flow model will change, so the EBS flow model will be validated again. The EBS transport model and validation of the model will be substantially revised in Revision 03 of the RTA report, which is the main subject of this TWP. The EBS-UZ interface model may be changed in Revision 03 of the RTA report due to changes in the conceptualization of the UZ transport abstraction model (a particle tracker transport model based on the discrete fracture transfer function will be used instead of the dual-continuum transport model previously used). Validation of the EBS-UZ interface model will be revised to be consistent with
Portnoi, Laura M.
South African higher education has been experiencing profound and vigorous transformations in the post-apartheid era. At the same time, global trends toward competition and employment equity contribute to the complexities of the country's higher education environment. These global and local developments combine to impact the working environment of…
Strange, C. Carney; Banning, James H.
This book provides a comprehensive model for creating student-friendly and learning-supportive campus environments, examining how the principles of effective person-environment interactions work through physical, aggregate, organizational, and socially-constructed environmental components. The chapters of Part 1, Types and Impacts of Campus…
Lindau, Stacy Tessler; Drum, Melinda L.; Gaumer, Elyzabeth; Surawska, Hanna; Jordan, Jeanne A.
Objective To estimate the prevalence, genotypes, and individual-level correlates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women aged 57–85. Methods Community-residing women (n=1550), aged 57–85, were drawn from a nationally-representative probability sample. In-home interviews and biomeasures, including a self-collected vaginal specimen, were obtained between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were analyzed for high-risk HPV DNA using probe hybridization and signal amplification (hc2); of 1,028 specimens provided, 1,010 were adequate for analysis. All samples testing positive were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Results The overall population-based weighted estimate of high-risk HPV prevalence by hc2 was 6.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5 to 7.9). Current marital and smoking status, frequency of sexual activity, history of cancer, and hysterectomy were associated with high-risk HPV positivity. Among high-risk HPV+ women, 63% had multiple type infections. HPV 16 or 18 was present in 17.4% of all high-risk HPV+ women. The most common high-risk genotypes among high-risk HPV+ women were HPV 61 (19.1%), 31 (13.1%), 52 (12.9%), 58 (12.5%), 83 (12.3%), 66(12.0%), 51 (11.7%), 45 (11.2%), 56 (10.3%), 53 (10.2%), 16 (9.7%), and 62 (9.2%). Being married and having an intact uterus were independently associated with lower prevalence of high-risk HPV. Among unmarried women, current sexual activity and smoking were independently and positively associated with high-risk HPV infection. Conclusions In this nationally representative population, nearly 1 in 16 women aged 57–85 were found to have high-risk HPV and prevalence was stable across older age groups. PMID:18978096
Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly
It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human-horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human-horse interactions. Whilst most-if not all-horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of WHS to prevent horse-related injury by discussing effective evidence-based guidelines and regulatory monitoring for equestrian sectors. It suggests that the WHS framework has significant potential not only to reduce the occurrence and likelihood of horse-related human accident and injury, but to enable systematic accident analysis and investigation of horse-related adverse events.
Klatt, Maryanna; Steinberg, Beth; Duchemin, Anne-Marie
A pragmatic mindfulness intervention to benefit personnel working in chronically high-stress environments, delivered onsite during the workday, is timely and valuable to employee and employer alike. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM) is a Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) offered as a modified, less time intensive method (compared to Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction), delivered onsite, during work, and intends to enable busy working adults to experience the benefits of mindfulness. It teaches mindful awareness principles, rehearses mindfulness as a group, emphasizes the use of gentle yoga stretches, and utilizes relaxing music in the background of both the group sessions and individual mindfulness practice. MIM is delivered in a group format, for 1 hr/week/8 weeks. CDs and a DVD are provided to facilitate individual practice. The yoga movement is emphasized in the protocol to facilitate a quieting of the mind. The music is included for participants to associate the relaxed state experienced in the group session with their individual practice. To determine the intervention feasibility/efficacy we conducted a randomized wait-list control group in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). ICUs represent a high-stress work environment where personnel experience chronic exposure to catastrophic situations as they care for seriously injured/ill patients. Despite high levels of work-related stress, few interventions have been developed and delivered onsite for such environments. The intervention is delivered on site in the ICU, during work hours, with participants receiving time release to attend sessions. The intervention is well received with 97% retention rate. Work engagement and resiliency increase significantly in the intervention group, compared to the wait-list control group, while participant respiration rates decrease significantly pre-post in 6/8 of the weekly sessions. Participants value institutional support, relaxing music, and the instructor as pivotal to program success
Klatt, Maryanna; Steinberg, Beth; Duchemin, Anne-Marie
A pragmatic mindfulness intervention to benefit personnel working in chronically high-stress environments, delivered onsite during the workday, is timely and valuable to employee and employer alike. Mindfulness in Motion (MIM) is a Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) offered as a modified, less time intensive method (compared to Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction), delivered onsite, during work, and intends to enable busy working adults to experience the benefits of mindfulness. It teaches mindful awareness principles, rehearses mindfulness as a group, emphasizes the use of gentle yoga stretches, and utilizes relaxing music in the background of both the group sessions and individual mindfulness practice. MIM is delivered in a group format, for 1 hr/week/8 weeks. CDs and a DVD are provided to facilitate individual practice. The yoga movement is emphasized in the protocol to facilitate a quieting of the mind. The music is included for participants to associate the relaxed state experienced in the group session with their individual practice. To determine the intervention feasibility/efficacy we conducted a randomized wait-list control group in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). ICUs represent a high-stress work environment where personnel experience chronic exposure to catastrophic situations as they care for seriously injured/ill patients. Despite high levels of work-related stress, few interventions have been developed and delivered onsite for such environments. The intervention is delivered on site in the ICU, during work hours, with participants receiving time release to attend sessions. The intervention is well received with 97% retention rate. Work engagement and resiliency increase significantly in the intervention group, compared to the wait-list control group, while participant respiration rates decrease significantly pre-post in 6/8 of the weekly sessions. Participants value institutional support, relaxing music, and the instructor as pivotal to program success
Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann
This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.
Moore, Kari; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Auchincloss, Amy; Evenson, Kelly R.; Kaufman, Joel; Mujahid, Mahasin; Williams, Kayleen
Background Little is known about neighborhood characteristics of workplaces, the extent to which they are independently and synergistically correlated with residential environments, and their impact on health. Methods This study investigated cross-sectional relationships between home and workplace neighborhood environments with body mass index (BMI) in 1,503 working participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with mean age 59.6 (SD=7.4). Neighborhood features were socioeconomic status (SES), social environment (aesthetic quality, safety, and social cohesion), and physical environment (walking environment, recreational facilities, and food stores) derived from census data, locational data on businesses, and survey data. Paired t-tests and correlations compared environments overall and by distance between locations. Cross-classified multi-level models estimated associations with BMI. Results Home neighborhoods had more favorable social environments while workplaces had more favorable SES and physical environments. Workplace and home measures were correlated (0.39–0.70) and differences between home and workplaces were larger as distance increased. Associations between BMI and neighborhood SES and recreational facilities were stronger for home environment (P≤0.05) but did not significantly differ for healthy food, safety, or social cohesion. Healthy food availability at home and work appeared to act synergistically (interaction P=0.01). Conclusions Consideration of workplace environment may enhance our understanding of how place affects BMI. PMID:23868527
Britt, Thomas W; Crane, Monique; Hodson, Stephanie E; Adler, Amy B
The authors examined the effectiveness of different coping strategies in buffering the negative effects of uncontrollable stressors and predicting mental health symptoms in a low-autonomy work environment using a longitudinal design. Soldiers in training indicated the extent to which they engaged in various coping strategies to deal with stressors related to the training environment at 4 different points in time. Factor analyses of soldiers in 2 different countries (i.e., United States and Australia) yielded 5 coping dimensions: active coping, acceptance of demands, seeking social support, humor, and denial/self-criticism. Among U.S. soldiers in basic training, acceptance of demands and denial/self-criticism interacted with the magnitude of basic-training stressors to predict mental health symptoms (depression and anxiety) at 3 different points during training while controlling for symptoms at the immediate prior time period. Acceptance buffered soldiers from the negative effects of the stressors, whereas denial/self-criticism exacerbated the effects of the stressors. The results of LGC models also indicated that the slopes of acceptance and active coping were negatively related to the slope of mental health symptoms across training, whereas the slope for denial/self-criticism was positively related to the slope of symptoms. Active coping was less predictive of functioning in the face of stressors and in the prediction of symptoms over time. The results demonstrated that in a low-autonomy occupational setting, acceptance coping was more effective in facilitating good mental health outcomes compared with other coping strategies considered important in prior research (e.g., active coping).
Losses of various nutrients through sweat of persons working under hot conditions were considered. On the basis of these considerations a supplemental drink was formulated consisting of 1 liter of water per hour containing salt, potassium chloride, iron, thiamine and ascorbic acid.
Gittman, Elizabeth; Cassata, Marian
A 5-year federally funded substance abuse prevention program targeted 426 high risk middle-school youth from 4 school districts in Nassau County, New York. Combining a child-centered model with a systemic approach, the program's goal was to prevent or delay the onset of alcohol and other drug use. High-risk youth were identified by school…
Levenson, Phyllis; And Others
Describes the program of the Demonstration and Training Center for High Risk or Mentally Retarded Infants of Teenage Mothers (ITAM), which aims at providing stimulation to the high-risk infant in order to enhance his/her development, and to offer educational and supportive programs for the teenage mother. (CM)
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High risk special award conditions. 14.14 Section 14.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM...-PROFIT, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 14.14 High risk special award...
Frigeri, Alessandro; Hare, Trent; Neteler, Markus; Coradini, Angioletta; Federico, Costanzo; Orosei, Roberto
Since the beginning of planetary exploration, mapping has been fundamental to summarize observations returned by scientific missions. Sensor-based mapping has been used to highlight specific features from the planetary surfaces by means of processing. Interpretative mapping makes use of instrumental observations to produce thematic maps that summarize observations of actual data into a specific theme. Geologic maps, for example, are thematic interpretative maps that focus on the representation of materials and processes and their relative timing. The advancements in technology of the last 30 years have allowed us to develop specialized systems where the mapping process can be made entirely in the digital domain. The spread of networked computers on a global scale allowed the rapid propagation of software and digital data such that every researcher can now access digital mapping facilities on his desktop. The efforts to maintain planetary missions data accessible to the scientific community have led to the creation of standardized digital archives that facilitate the access to different datasets by software capable of processing these data from the raw level to the map projected one. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been developed to optimize the storage, the analysis, and the retrieval of spatially referenced Earth based environmental geodata; since the last decade these computer programs have become popular among the planetary science community, and recent mission data start to be distributed in formats compatible with these systems. Among all the systems developed for the analysis of planetary and spatially referenced data, we have created a working environment combining two software suites that have similar characteristics in their modular design, their development history, their policy of distribution and their support system. The first, the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) developed by the United States Geological Survey
Frigeri, A.; Hare, T.; Neteler, M.; Coradini, A.; Federico, C.; Orosei, R.
Since the beginning of planetary exploration, mapping has been fundamental to summarize observations returned by scientific missions. Sensor-based mapping has been used to highlight specific features from the planetary surfaces by means of processing. Interpretative mapping makes use of instrumental observations to produce thematic maps that summarize observations of actual data into a specific theme. Geologic maps, for example, are thematic interpretative maps that focus on the representation of materials and processes and their relative timing. The advancements in technology of the last 30 years have allowed us to develop specialized systems where the mapping process can be made entirely in the digital domain. The spread of networked computers on a global scale allowed the rapid propagation of software and digital data such that every researcher can now access digital mapping facilities on his desktop. The efforts to maintain planetary missions data accessible to the scientific community have led to the creation of standardized digital archives that facilitate the access to different datasets by software capable of processing these data from the raw level to the map projected one. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been developed to optimize the storage, the analysis, and the retrieval of spatially referenced Earth based environmental geodata; since the last decade these computer programs have become popular among the planetary science community, and recent mission data start to be distributed in formats compatible with these systems. Among all the systems developed for the analysis of planetary and spatially referenced data, we have created a working environment combining two software suites that have similar characteristics in their modular design, their development history, their policy of distribution and their support system. The first, the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) developed by the United States Geological Survey
Rogan, J. M.; Attfield, M. D.; Jacobsen, M.; Rae, S.; Walker, D. D.; Walton, W. H.
Rogan, J. M., Attfield, M. D., Jacobsen, M., Rae, S., Walker, D. D., and Walton, W. H. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 30, 217-226. Role of dust in the working environment in development of chronic bronchitis in British coal miners. In the course of a long-term prospective study of chronic respiratory disease in British coal miners the effects on pulmonary ventilatory function of exposure to airborne dust, of simple pneumoconiosis, and of chronic bronchitis have been examined in a group of 3581 coalface workers. The men were employed in 20 collieries throughout the British coalfields. Their cumulative exposures to coal mine dust in the respirable range (1-5 μm) were calculated from detailed dust sampling results at their work places during a 10-year period and from estimates of earlier exposures based on records of their industrial histories. A progressive reduction in FEV1·0 with increasing cumulative exposure to airborne dust has been demonstrated. This effect was evident also in a subgroup of the men studied who reported no signs of mild bronchitic symptoms (cough and phlegm for at least three months in a year). Among men with pneumoconiosis there was no evidence of a reduction of FEV1·0 in excess of that attributable to their dust exposures, smoking habits, age, and physique. Increasing severity of bronchitic symptoms was associated with a loss in FEV1·0 greater than that expected from the effects of dust exposure as measured, smoking, age, and physique. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed. It is suggested that the results may indicate that once early bronchitic symptoms are present the disease may progress and ventilatory capacity may deteriorate independently of factors initiating the disease process. PMID:4723786
Winterstein, Andrew P.
Objective: To 1) examine the commitment of head athletic trainers to their intercollegiate work environments, 2) develop a model that better reflects the head athletic trainer's daily work setting, and 3) use new techniques to describe the various ways head athletic trainers demonstrate commitment to their organizations. Design and Setting: Organizational commitment (OC) surveys were sent to 461 head athletic trainers identified for the sample. A response rate of 71.5% (330/461) was obtained from the mail survey. Subjects: A proportional random sample of head athletic trainers was taken from a population identified in the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) directory of intercollegiate athletics as Division I, II, and III institutions. Measurements: Returned OC surveys were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics for all demographic and OC variables. Exploratory cluster analysis was performed to examine naturally clustering groups. Results: Exploratory cluster analysis revealed five naturally clustering groups that represent the head athletic trainers' patterns of commitment across the specific organizational targets. Paired t tests indicated that the continuance commitment scores were significantly lower than the affective and normative scores across the sample. Analysis of variance tests indicated significant differences for specific commitment dimensions based on gender and NCAA division demographics. Beyond that, the five-cluster solution revealed no particular demographic characteristics that predisposed individuals to specific clusters. Conclusions: The findings reinforce a central theme in intercollegiate athletic training: that student-athletes and student athletic trainers are the primary focus of the head athletic trainers' commitment. Positive attachment and obligation directed toward student-athletes and student athletic trainers link the five clusters. Commitment patterns in areas other than student
Chao, H Jasmine; Schwartz, Joel; Milton, Donald K; Burge, Harriet A
We conducted a 1-year epidemiologic study in Boston, Massachusetts, beginning May 1997, to examine the associations between environmental factors and office workers' health. We recruited 98 subjects (81 females and 17 males) in 21 offices in four office buildings. We conducted environmental sampling every 6 weeks and concurrently administered detailed questionnaires to collect information on work-related symptoms, psychosocial factors, and perceptions of the office environments. In multivariate analyses, eye irritation was positively correlated with floor dust [odds ratio (OR) = 1.46; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.14-1.86] and reported lack of office cleanliness (OR = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.11-2.08). Nonspecific symptoms were positively associated with unidentified chair fungi (OR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.11-3.15) and several self-reported conditions, including a history of asthma (OR = 3.15; 95% CI, 1.26-7.87), more people in offices (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.16-2.51), lack of office cleanliness (OR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.72-4.73), and low job satisfaction (OR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.06-2.81). Upper respiratory symptoms were positively associated with total fungal concentrations recovered from chair dust (OR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07-1.70) and the following self-reported conditions: more people in offices (OR = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.01-2.08), lack of office cleanliness (OR = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.15-2.30), and jobs frequently requiring hard work (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.05-1.95). This study emphasizes the importance of maintaining a clean, uncrowded workspace and the importance of chair fungi as a correlate for health effects. PMID:12842780
Abud, Tulio B.; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Dana, Reza
The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in the body. Although corneal grafts generally have high success rates, transplantation onto inflamed and vascularized host beds, or so-called high-risk corneal transplantation, has a high rate of graft rejection. The management of this high-risk corneal transplantation is challenging and involves numerous measures. One of the key measures to prevent graft rejection in these cases is the use of systemic immunosuppressive agents. In this article, we will review the systemic immunosuppressive agents most commonly used for high-risk corneal transplantation, which include corticosteroids, cysclosporine A, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin. Benefits, risks, and published data on the use of these medications for high-risk corneal transplantation will be detailed. We will also summarize novel immunoregulatory approaches that may be used to prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplantation. PMID:28299010
Abud, Tulio B; Di Zazzo, Antonio; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Dana, Reza
The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in the body. Although corneal grafts generally have high success rates, transplantation onto inflamed and vascularized host beds, or so-called high-risk corneal transplantation, has a high rate of graft rejection. The management of this high-risk corneal transplantation is challenging and involves numerous measures. One of the key measures to prevent graft rejection in these cases is the use of systemic immunosuppressive agents. In this article, we will review the systemic immunosuppressive agents most commonly used for high-risk corneal transplantation, which include corticosteroids, cysclosporine A, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin. Benefits, risks, and published data on the use of these medications for high-risk corneal transplantation will be detailed. We will also summarize novel immunoregulatory approaches that may be used to prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplantation.
Jones, Kenneth E., Jr.
Since 1975, the advance of home-based or remote work has been predicted and encouraged (Nilles). Remote work entails the ability of workers to function as productively from distant locations as those workers in face-to-face office environments: e.g. secondary offices, co-workplace offices, mobile workstations, and home. This study will look at the…
The purpose of this article is to explore the complex interrelations between educators' work environments and their experiences as an entryway for thinking differently about workforce stability and sustainability. Concepts of macro- and micropolitics (drawn from the work of Deleuze and Guattari) are used to explore one educator's experiences in…
Valdez, André Calero; Schaar, Anne Kathrin; Ziefle, Martina
In an increasingly faster paced innovative world, maintaining the ability to innovate in spite of an aging work force will become every company's strongest leverage for success. Tapping the latent knowledge resources and creativity of overlooked employees and persisting crucial information for business conduct are promising results for social networking sites (SNS) in a working context. Usability and usefulness are exponential factors in creating a successful SNS. In order to make a SNS usable for a heterogeneous user group, analyses of user diversity in regard to social media need to be done. Furthermore differences in communication medium and frequency in regard to age, content, hierarchy position, departmental thresholds and company size need to be analyzed. For analysis purposes both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied. Strong effects of age and communication content were found in survey with 194 participants.
Sundi, Debasish; Wang, Vinson M.; Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Han, Misop; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Ball, Mark W.; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Partin, Alan W.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Ross, Ashley E.
Purpose Outcomes in men with NCCN high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) can vary substantially--some will have excellent cancer-specific survival, whereas others will experience early metastasis even after aggressive local treatments. Current nomograms, which yield continuous risk probabilities, do not separate high-risk PCa into distinct sub-strata. Here we derive a binary definition of very-high-risk (VHR) localized PCa to aid in risk stratification at diagnosis and selection of therapy. Materials and Methods We queried the Johns Hopkins radical prostatectomy database to identify 753 men with NCCN high-risk localized PCa (Gleason sum 8–10, PSA >20 ng/ml, or clinical stage ≥T3). 28 alternate permutations of adverse grade, stage, and cancer volume were compared by their hazard ratios for metastasis and cancer-specific mortality. VHR criteria with top-ranking hazard ratios were further evaluated by multivariable analyses and inclusion of a clinically meaningful proportion of the high-risk cohort. Results The VHR cohort was best defined by primary pattern 5 present on biopsy, or ≥5 cores with Gleason sum 8–10, or multiple NCCN high-risk features. These criteria encompassed 15.1% of the NCCN high-risk cohort. Compared to other high-risk men, VHR men were at significantly higher risk for metastasis (H.R. 2.75) and cancer-specific mortality (H.R. 3.44) (p <0.001 for both). Among high-risk men, VHR men also had significantly worse 10-year metastasis-free survival (37% vs 78%) and cancer-specific survival (62% vs 90%). Conclusions Men who meet VHR criteria form a subgroup within the current NCCN high-risk classification who have particularly poor oncologic outcomes. Use of these characteristics to distinguish VHR localized PCa may help in counseling and selection optimal candidates for multimodal treatments or clinical trials. PMID:24189998
Miller, Shari; Herman-Stahl, Mindy; Fishbein, Diana; Lavery, Bud; Johnson, Michelle; Markovits, Lara
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the use of formative research to adapt, develop, and pretest a mindful yoga curriculum for high-risk youth attending a nontraditional high school. The formative work was conducted in the first year of a larger project to test the efficacy of a mindful yoga program through a randomized controlled trial. The…
Keeling, Maud; And Others
The pamphlet describes three Hogg Foundation-funded Texas programs (one exclusively hospital-based, one hospital-based with extensive linkages to community resources, and one community-based) which serve predominantly high-risk, low-income Mexican American families. First described are social work services connected with the Driscoll Foundation…
The aim of the present study was to explore: the main effect of empowerment on burnout; empowerment as a mediator between the work environment and burnout; and empowerment as a moderator of the association between the work environment and burnout. In order to explore these effects, multiple regression analyses were performed on questionnaire data from 838 registered nurses and 518 assistant nurses in Sweden. The analyses showed that: empowerment has a negative association to burnout; empowerment has a mediating effect between the work environment (especially for control and social support) and burnout; and the moderating effect of empowerment on the association between the work environment and burnout was weak. The results suggest that: empowerment explains variation with regard to burnout over and above what can be explained by established work situation dimensions; the improvement of the work environment is associated with a higher sense of empowerment which, in turn, is related to lower degrees of burnout; and individual and group differences should be considered in workplace health promotion.
Hanna, Tuvesson; Mona, Eklund
The psychosocial work environment is an important factor in psychiatric in-patient care, and knowing more of its correlates might open up new paths for future workplace interventions. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate perceptions of the psychosocial work environment among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care and how individual characteristics--Mastery, Moral Sensitivity, Perceived Stress, and Stress of Conscience--are related to different aspects of the psychosocial work environment. A total of 93 nursing staff members filled out five questionnaires: the QPSNordic 34+, Perceived Stress Scale, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, and Mastery scale. Multivariate analysis showed that Perceived Stress was important for Organisational Climate perceptions. The Stress of Conscience subscale Internal Demands and Experience in current units were indicators of Role Clarity. The other Stress of Conscience subscale, External Demands and Restrictions, was related to Control at Work. Two types of stress, Perceived Stress and Stress of Conscience, were particularly important for the nursing staff's perception of the psychosocial work environment. Efforts to prevent stress may also contribute to improvements in the psychosocial work environment.
Stark, Lawrence W.
Visual illusions abound in normal vision--illusions of clarity and completeness, of continuity in time and space, of presence and vivacity--and are part and parcel of the visual world inwhich we live. These illusions are discussed in terms of the human visual system, with its high- resolution fovea, moved from point to point in the visual scene by rapid saccadic eye movements (EMs). This sampling of visual information is supplemented by a low-resolution, wide peripheral field of view, especially sensitive to motion. Cognitive-spatial models controlling perception, imagery, and 'seeing,' also control the EMs that shift the fovea in the Scanpath mode. These illusions provide for presence, the sense off being within an environment. They equally well lead to 'Telepresence,' the sense of being within a virtual display, especially if the operator is intensely interacting within an eye-hand and head-eye human-machine interface that provides for congruent visual and motor frames of reference. Interaction, immersion, and interest compel telepresence; intuitive functioning and engineered information flows can optimize human adaptation to the artificial new world of virtual reality, as virtual reality expands into entertainment, simulation, telerobotics, and scientific visualization and other professional work.
Chen, Da; Wang, Jingjing; Xu, Yan; Li, Dehua; Zhang, Liuyin; Liu, Weihui
We present a lateral field excited ZnO film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) operated in pure-shear mode and analyze its performances in viscous liquids. The electrodes of the device are located on the film surface and normal to the c-axis of the ZnO film. The proposed device works near 1.44 GHz with a Q-factor up to 360 in air and 310 in water, which are higher than those of the quasi-shear thickness field excited FBAR. The resonant frequency is decreased with the increasing square root of the product of the viscosity and density with a linear dependence in the viscosity below 148.7 mPa s. The mass sensitivity of 670 Hz cm2 ng-1 was measured by monitoring the frequency change during the volatilization of saline solution loaded on the resonator. In addition, the levels of the noise and the mass resolutions were measured in various viscous environments. The proposed device yields the mass resolution of 670 Hz cm2 ng-1 and the high mass resolution of 0.06 ng cm-2. These results indicated that the lateral field excited ZnO FBAR had superior sensitivity for the bio-sensing applications in viscous biological liquids.
Sauer, Juergen; Nickel, Peter; Wastell, David
This article examines the effectiveness of different forms of static and adaptable automation under low- and high-stress conditions. Forty participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, comparing three levels of static automation (low, medium and high) and one level of adaptable automation, with the environmental stressor (noise) being varied as a within-subjects variable. Participants were trained for 4 h on a simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS, followed by a 2.5-h testing session. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that operators preferred higher levels of automation under noise than under quiet conditions. A number of parameters indicated negative effects of noise exposure, such as performance impairments, physiological stress reactions and higher mental workload. It also emerged that adaptable automation provided advantages over low and intermediate static automation, with regard to mental workload, effort expenditure and diagnostic performance. The article concludes that for the design of automation a wider range of operational scenarios reflecting adverse as well as ideal working conditions needs to be considered.
Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz
The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994
Haruyama, Yasuo; Muto, Takashi; Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Muto, Shigeki; Haratani, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Katamoto, Shizuo
To elucidate the subjective thermal strain of workers in kitchen working environments, we performed a cross-sectional study involving 991 workers in 126 kitchen facilities in Japan, using a self-reporting questionnaire survey and subjective judgment scales (SJS). The ambient temperature, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index were measured in 10 kitchen facilities of the 126 kitchens. The association of SJS with the types of kitchen was estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of the 991 kitchen workers, 809 (81%) responded to the questionnaire survey. Compared with the electric kitchens, the proportion of workers who perceived the room temperature as hot to very hot was significantly higher, and the ambient temperature, MRT, and WBGT were significantly higher in the gas kitchens. Compared with the electric kitchens, workers in gas kitchens had a more than fivefold (males) and tenfold (females) higher SJS adjusted for confounding factors (male odds ratio (OR), 5.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-15.9; and female OR, 10.9; 95%CI, 3.89-30.5). Although SJS was affected by some confounding factors, our results suggest that workers in gas kitchens might be exposed to a higher heat strains than those in electric kitchens.
Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz
The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein.
Glaser, Roberta E.; Kley, Raymond C.
Ohio's Occupational Work Adjustment (OWA) program is a one- to two-year ungraded vocational program for fourteen- and fifteen-year-olds who have been identified as potential dropouts from the regular educational program. Begun on a pilot basis in 1967, OWA served over 80,000 students in 499 programs during the 1981-82 school year. The goal of OWA,…
Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) programs, particularly for low-functioning individuals at the safety and stabilization phase of therapy, work with a variety of high-risk and often complex cases, with a curriculum consisting primarily of concrete skill acquisition and application. A significant subset of individuals in DBT programs, however, may suffer high-risk dissociative episodes in which skill application may be less available to them, contributing to further destabilization, demoralization, and thoughts of self-inefficacy in treatment. This article evaluates the potential benefits of complementing traditional DBT with psychoeducation on structural dissociation for such patients, acknowledging and addressing some of the concerns that might accompany such a consideration.
Van Bogaert, Peter; van Heusden, Danny; Timmermans, Olaf; Franck, Erik
Aim: To explore the mechanisms through which nurse practice environment dimensions, such as nurse–physician relationship, nurse management at the unit level and hospital management and organizational support, are associated with job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care. Mediating variables included nurse work characteristics of workload, social capital, decision latitude, as well as work engagement dimensions of vigor, dedication and absorption. Background: Understanding how to support and guide nurse practice communities in their daily effort to answer complex care most accurate, alongside with the demand of a stable and healthy nurse workforce, is challenging. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Method: Based on earlier empirical findings, a structural equation model, designed with valid measurement instruments, was tested. The study population included registered acute care hospital nurses (N = 1201) in eight hospitals across Belgium. Results: Nurse practice environment dimensions predicted nurses’ ratings of job outcome variables as well as quality of care. Features of nurses’ work characteristics, e.g., perceived workload, decision latitude, social capital, and the three dimension of work engagement, played mediating roles between nurse practice environment and outcomes. A revised model, using various fit measures, explained 60% of job outcomes and 47% of nurse-assessed quality of care. Conclusion: The findings in this study show that nurse work characteristics as workload, decision latitude, and social capital, alongside with nurse work engagement (e.g., vigor, dedication, and absorption) influence nurses’ perspective of their nurse practice environment, job outcomes, and quality of care. The results underline aspects to considerate for various stakeholders, such as executives, nurse managers, physicians, and staff nurses, in setting up and organizing health care services. PMID:25431563
Knez, Wade; Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sebastien; Walsh, Andrew; Gaoua, Nadia; Grantham, Justin
This study investigated the effect of living (summer vs. winter) and working (morning vs. afternoon) in a hot environment on markers of immune function and forearm strength. Thirty-one healthy male gas field employees were screened before (between 05:30 and 07:00) and after their working day (between 15:30 and 17:00) during both seasons. Body core temperature and physical activity were recorded throughout the working days. The hot condition (i.e. summer) led a higher (p≤0.05) average body core temperature (~37.2 vs. ~37.4 °C) but reduced physical activity (-14.8%) during the work-shift. Our data showed an increase (p≤0.05) in lymphocyte and monocyte counts in the summer. Additionally, work-shift resulted in significant (p≤0.001) changes in leukocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes independently of the environment. Handgrip (p=0.069) and pinch (p=0.077) forces tended to be reduced from pre-to post-work, while only force produced during handgrip manoeuvres was significantly reduced (p≤0.05) during the hot compared to the temperate season. No interactions were observed between the environment and work-shift for any marker of immune function or forearm strength. In summary, working and living in hot conditions impact on markers of immune function and work capacity; however by self-regulating energy expenditure, immune markers remained in a healthy reference range.
Hardie, Claire; Green, Kile; Jopson, Laura; Millar, Ben; Innes, Barbara; Pagan, Sarah; Tiniakos, Dina; Dyson, Jessica; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Bigley, Venetia; Jones, David E; Brain, John; Walker, Lucy J
High-risk primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), defined by inadequate response at one year to Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is associated with disease progression and liver transplantation. Stratifying high-risk patients early would facilitate improved approaches to care. Using long-term follow-up data to define risk at presentation, 6 high-risk PBC patients and 8 low-risk patients were identified from biopsy, transplant and biochemical archival records. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies taken at presentation were graded (Scheuer and Nakanuma scoring) and gene expression analysed using the NanoString® nCounter PanCancer Immunity 770-gene panel. Principle component analysis (PCA) demonstrated discrete gene expression clustering between controls and high- and low-risk PBC. High-risk PBC was characterised by up-regulation of genes linked to T-cell activation and apoptosis, INF-γ signalling and leukocyte migration and down-regulation of those linked to the complement pathway. CDKN1a, up-regulated in high-risk PBC, correlated with significantly increased expression of its gene product, the senescence marker p21(WAF1/Cip), by biliary epithelial cells. Our findings suggest high- and low-risk PBC are biologically different from disease outset and senescence an early feature in high-risk disease. Identification of a high-risk 'signal' early from standard FFPE tissue sections has clear clinical utility allowing for patient stratification and second-line therapeutic intervention.
Hystad, Sigurd W; Saus, Evelyn-Rose; Sætrevik, Bjørn; Eid, Jarle
This study examined the influence of safety climate and psychosocial work environment on the reported fatigue of seafarers working in the offshore oil and gas re-supply industry (n = 402). We found that seafarers who reported high psychological demands and perceived the organisational-level safety climate negatively,reported significantly more mental fatigue, physical fatigue, and lack of energy. In addition, seafarers who reported having high levels of job control reported being significantly less mentally fatigued. We also found some combined effects of safety climate and shift arrangement. Organisational-level safety climate did not influence the levels of physical fatigue in seafarers working on the night shift. On the contrary, seafarers working during the days reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the organisational-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The opposite effect was found for group-level safety climate: seafarers working during the nights reported to be more physically fatigued when they perceived the group-level climate to be negative compared with the positive. The results from this study point to the importance of taking into consideration aspects of the psychosocial work environment and safety climate,and their potential impact on fatigue and safety in the maritime organisations.
Brandorff, N P; Flyvholm, M A; Beck, I D; Skov, T; Bach, E
OBJECTIVES--To obtain knowledge about the use and distribution of hazardous chemicals in Danish industry. This knowledge is used to regulate the occupational environment and prevent hazardous exposure. METHODS--A national survey on the use of chemicals was carried out in 1989 in a stratified sample of 1448 Danish businesses. 13,000 different chemical products were reported. Information on components in the chemical products was obtained from the Danish product register data base (PROBAS) and by inquiries to suppliers and manufacturers. At the end of the study the composition of about 9400 of the products was known. A model was developed to estimate national numbers of chemical exposure events as a supplement to data on weights of chemicals used. RESULTS--Data are presented for 36 chemical substances with chronic toxic effects and high estimated national numbers of exposure events for the industry groups included in the survey. Seven of the 36 substances are carcinogens, 17 are reproductive toxicants, 12 are allergens, and 18 are neurotoxicants according to listings of chronic toxicants used by the Danish authorities. The largest national number of exposure events was estimated for the industry groups manufacture of fabricated metal products, and personal services, cleaning, and hair dressing. These should have special attention in further preventive work. CONCLUSIONS--This survey on the use of chemicals is the first nationwide investigation in Denmark to delineate the use of all chemicals. The data have been used in a project to review occupational hazards in general in Danish industry. In the future, the data may be used as a basis for measuring chemical substitution, developing chemical safety, and as reference for more specific investigations and for follow up studies. Also job exposure matrices based on actual use of chemical products can be constructed. PMID:7670620
Groff-Paris, Lisa; Terhaar, Mary
The strongest predictor of nurse job dissatisfaction and intent to leave is that of stress in the practice environment. Good communication, control over practice, decision making at the bedside, teamwork, and nurse empowerment have been found to increase nurse satisfaction and decrease turnover. In this article we share our experience of developing a rapid-design process to change the approach to performance improvement so as to increase engagement, empowerment, effectiveness, and the quality of the professional practice environment. Meal and non-meal breaks were identified as the target area for improvement. Qualitative and quantitative data support the success of this project. We begin this article with a review of literature related to work environment and retention and a presentation of the frameworks used to improve the work environment, specifically Maslow's theory of the Hierarchy of Inborn Needs and the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators Survey. We then describe our performance improvement project and share our conclusion and recommendations.
In Sweden, the health care sector was subject to considerable changes during the 1990s: decreased costs, related staff redundancies and high rates of sick leave. The situation has now changed, and the sector is not facing the same all-embracing and turbulent changes. In addition, there is a shortage of nurses and physicians and a difficulty in retaining qualified staff. Regarding the psychosocial work environment, there is a lack of studies where both physicians and nurses are in focus. It is from a managerial perspective important to take a holistic approach towards questions regarding the work environment in general and the psychosocial work environment in particular. The aims of this study were to analyse similarities and differences in Registered Nurses and physicians' experience of quantitative and qualitative demands, control, role conflicts, role clarity, social support and job satisfaction in 2002 and 2009 and to analyse the stability in the prediction of job satisfaction over time. Questionnaires regarding psychosocial work environment aspects were distributed in 2002 and 2009, and a total of 860 nurses and 866 physicians answered the questionnaire. Independent t tests and linear stepwise regression analyses were conducted. The results indicate that the work environment has improved between 2002 and 2009 and that nurses experience their psychosocial working environment as more satisfactory than physicians. Social support, control, role conflicts, role clarity and qualitative demands were the best predictors of job satisfaction in 2002 and 2009. Quantitative demands did not contribute to predicting job satisfaction. Variables predicting job satisfaction are quite stable over time and are quite comparable for both nurses and physicians.
Baker, S P; Wong, J; Baron, R D
"On the job" motor vehicle deaths number more than 4,000 annually in the U.S. and comprise nearly one-third of all work-related deaths. Yet the Department of Labor has set no standards relating to on-the-road safety of the millions of workers whose jobs entail large amounts of driving, and Department of Transportation standards affecting occupational safety cover only drivers in interstate commerce. Drivers of some commercial vehicles, such as heavy trucks, are at special risk of injury because trucks have usually been exempted for many years from federal motor vehicle safety standards--such as standards for brakes and seatbelts--designed to prevent crashes or protect occupants in crashes. Observations based on a series of 150 fatal crashes involving tractor trailers illustrate the need for better protection of this large population of high-risk workers. Clarification of responsibility within the various federal agencies and application of available knowledge and technology are essential. PMID:937611
Al Khatib, Saleh A
Holland's theory of vocational personalities and work environment, extended to educational environments, was used as a theoretical framework for the study of the relation of congruence and sex on self-reported GPA. 617 students at Ajman University of Science and Technology responded to the Vocational Preference Inventory. Analysis of variance indicated that students' congruence and sex were significant predictors of GPA and the interaction of GPA and sex. Associations of sex with congruence and with Academic Environment were significant, represented by choice of major. Implications of the findings were discussed.
Mendler, Allen N.
Many youth use substances and engage in other high-risk behaviors in an attempt to allay the emptiness accompanying broken belongings. Schools can play important roles in fostering connections and creating the natural high that comes from success. (Author)
Meskin, Lawrence H.; And Others
A dental health program in an elementary school succeeded in identifying children considered to be "high risk" in oral health and, through treatment and education, significantly improved their dental health. (JD)
In this phase III clinical trial, patients with smoldering myeloma classified as high risk for progression will be randomly assigned to undergo standard observation or six 4-week courses of treatment with the drug lenalidomide.
Efforts in the profession to define the physical environment are described, and an outline is presented of four curriculum modules to integrate environmental hazards content into the foundation preparation of social workers. (Author/MH)
Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann
Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places. PMID:24129115
Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann
Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.
Background Socio-ecological models of behaviour suggest that dietary behaviours are potentially shaped by exposure to the food environment (‘foodscape’). Research on associations between the foodscape and diet and health has largely focussed on foodscapes around the home, despite recognition that non-home environments are likely to be important in a more complete assessment of foodscape exposure. This paper characterises and describes foodscape exposure of different types, at home, at work, and along commuting routes for a sample of working adults in Cambridgeshire, UK. Methods Home and work locations, and transport habits for 2,696 adults aged 29–60 were drawn from the Fenland Study, UK. Food outlet locations were obtained from local councils and classified by type - we focus on convenience stores, restaurants, supermarkets and takeaway food outlets. Density of and proximity to food outlets was characterised at home and work. Commuting routes were modelled based on the shortest street network distance between home and work, with exposure (counts of food outlets) that accounted for travel mode and frequency. We describe these three domains of food environment exposure using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results For all types of food outlet, we found very different foodscapes around homes and workplaces (with overall outlet exposure at work 125% higher), as well as a potentially substantial exposure contribution from commuting routes. On average, work and commuting environments each contributed to foodscape exposure at least equally to residential neighbourhoods, which only accounted for roughly 30% of total exposure. Furthermore, for participants with highest overall exposure to takeaway food outlets, workplaces accounted for most of the exposure. Levels of relative exposure between home, work and commuting environments were poorly correlated. Conclusions Relying solely on residential neighbourhood characterisation greatly underestimated total
Then, Francisca S; Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; Thinschmidt, Marleen; Deckert, Stefanie; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Seidler, Andreas; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
The high incidence of cognitive impairment in the ageing population, together with the challenges it imposes to health systems, raises the question of what affect working life has on cognitive abilities. The study, therefore, reviews recent work on the longitudinal impact of psychosocial work conditions on cognitive functioning and on dementia. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycINFO using a standardised search string and specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. We included articles reporting longitudinal effects that were investigated in cohort studies, case-control studies or randomised controlled trials in the working population. Two independent reviewers evaluated the studies in three subsequent phases: (i) title-abstract screening, (ii) full-text screening and (iii) checklist-based quality assessment.Methodical evaluation of the identified articles resulted in 17 studies of adequate quality. We found evidence for a protective effect of high job control and high work complexity with people and data on the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Moreover, cognitively demanding work conditions seem to be associated with a decreased risk of cognitive deterioration in old age.Psychosocial work conditions can have an impact on cognitive functioning and even on the risk of dementia. As the world of work is undergoing fundamental changes, such as accelerated technological advances and an ageing working population, optimising work conditions is essential in order to promote and maintain cognitive abilities into old age.
Chesnut, Steven R.; Cullen, Theresa A.
This study was designed to examine the effects of self-efficacy, expectations of future work environment, and emotional intelligence on preservice teacher commitment to the teaching profession on a sample of 209 preservice teachers. The purpose of the study was to add to the existing knowledge surrounding preservice teacher commitment and promote…
Pham, Nga T. P.; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.
Practical application of newly gained knowledge and skills, also referred to as transfer of training, is an issue of great concern in training issues generally and in Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs particularly. This empirical study examined the influence of the trainees' work environment on their transfer of training, taking…
Manlove, Elizabeth E.; Vazquez, Arcel; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
This study examined the relationship between the complexity of thinking about children by child care teachers and observed teachers' caregiving for infants and toddlers. It was hypothesized that the perceived supportiveness of the work environment would affect this relationship. Fifty-six child care teachers completed a survey assessing complexity…
Tella, Susanna; Smith, Nancy-Jane; Partanen, Pirjo; Turunen, Hannele
Learning to ensure patient safety in complex health care environments is an internationally recognised concern. This article explores and compares Finnish (n = 22) and British (n = 32) pre-registration nursing students' important learning events about patient safety from their work placements in health care organisations. Written descriptions were…
Tisdale, Sandee; Pitt-Catsuphes, Marcie
This investigation examined the relationships between middle school-aged children's perceptions of their social environments (home, school, neighborhood, and parental work) with self-reports of well-being. In the present study, well-being was defined by measures of physical health and psychological happiness. Data from the Nurturing Families Study…
Motalová, Katarína; Rihácek, Tomáš
Most studies exploring the religiosity gap are concerned with non-religious counsellors and religious clients. Approaching this phenomenon from a reversed perspective, this study explores how counsellors' religiosity presents when working with clients in a predominantly non-religious environment. Semi-structured interviews with 11 Czech…
Jolivet, Anne; Caroly, Sandrine; Ehlinger, Virgine; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Delpierre, Cyrille; Balducci, Franck; Sobaszek, Annie; De Gaudemaris, Régis; Lang, Thierry
Few studies have analysed the association between the organisational work environment and depression in hospital workers and we still have little understanding of how processes in the practice environment are related to depressive disorders. However, individual perception of an imbalance between efforts made and expected rewards has been associated with incident depression. The main goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that some organisational constraints at the work-unit level may be related to depressive symptoms in hospital workers, either directly or through individual perceptions of effort-reward imbalance (ERI). In 2006, 3316 female registered nurses and nursing aids working in 190 work units in seven French university hospitals, recruited from the baseline screening of an epidemiological cohort study (the ORSOSA study), responded in 2006 to valid self-report questionnaires (CES-D, ERI). The organisational work environment was assessed with the self-rated Nursing Work Index - Extended Organisation (NWI-EO) aggregated at the work unit level. Multilevel models were used. We found that poor relations between workers within work units were associated with higher CES-D score, independently of perceived ERI. Low level of communication between workers in the unit was associated with individual perceptions of ERI and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms. Understaffing and non-respect of planned days off and vacations were associated with perceived ERI but these organisational constraints were not associated with depressive symptoms. Our study allowed us to identify and quantify organisational factors that have a direct effect on hospital workers' depressive symptoms, or an indirect effect through perceived ERI. Better understanding of the effect of organisational factors on health through perceived ERI would provide targets for successful interventions. Organisational approaches may be more effective in improving mental health at work and may also
Lamb, S; Kwok, K C S
This study uses a longitudinal within-subjects design to investigate the effects of inadequate Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) on work performance and wellbeing in a sample of 114 office workers over a period of 8 months. Participants completed a total of 2261 online surveys measuring perceived thermal comfort, lighting comfort and noise annoyance, measures of work performance, and individual state factors underlying performance and wellbeing. Characterising inadequate aspects of IEQ as environmental stressors, these stress factors can significantly reduce self-reported work performance and objectively measured cognitive performance by between 2.4% and 5.8% in most situations, and by up to 14.8% in rare cases. Environmental stressors act indirectly on work performance by reducing state variables, motivation, tiredness, and distractibility, which support high-functioning work performance. Exposure to environmental stress appears to erode individuals' resilience, or ability to cope with additional task demands. These results indicate that environmental stress reduces not only the cognitive capacity for work, but the rate of work (i.e. by reducing motivation). Increasing the number of individual stress factors is associated with a near linear reduction in work performance indicating that environmental stress factors are additive, not multiplicative. Environmental stressors reduce occupant wellbeing (mood, headaches, and feeling 'off') causing indirect reductions in work performance. Improving IEQ will likely produce small but pervasive increases in productivity.
Yu, P.; Huang, D.; Feng, X.; Li, L.; Liu, W.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Q.
SinoProbe has been initiated to enhance understanding of earth deep structure, resources and geological disasters forecasting throughout Chinese continent. Besides traditional deep exploration methods, various state-of-the-art technologies have been carried out in order to acquire data and jointly utilize all possible information reflecting deep crust and mantle structures and evolution.Petrel, a powerful software application developed by Schlumberger, has been successfully applied to the O&G industry. It is now a complete seismic-to-simulation application for 3D and 2D seismic interpretation. However, it has a great potential to allow the user to extend utilization with multiple types of data sets to deal with much deeper geophysical information. Petrel all-in-one concept, that functionally comprises of massive data integration, multiple domains experts participation and 3D geological object-oriented etc., will come benefit to the deep earth study. Currently, there is no special tool designed for this purpose so that Petrel is required to extend its potential to cope with not only O&G area but also a larger area with unique requests of deeper objects.Ocean, a software framework for Petrel, provides an open development environment offering seamless integration of developer intellectual contribution to the Petrel mainstream workflow. It is able to accelerate the development and deployment of user's Petrel-like workflows to resolve complex problems. It can be implemented by means of plug-ins utilities although there is additional challenge to write a robust code with Ocean framework. Deep seismic reflection profiling is a well recognized technique to reveal the fine structure of lithosphere. Moreover, it can perform a significant role for prospective evaluation of O&G and mineral resources, and geological disasters. Its near-vertical deep seismic reflection method can enhance broad band seismic observations for imaging of the deep crust and continental geodynamics
Yamawaki, Niwako; Kelly, Clinton; Dresden, Brooke E; Busath, Gregory L; Riley, Christina E
The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate factors in the work environment of the U.S. military that influence barriers toward seeking help from mental health. In particular, this study investigated the effects of gender, pay grade, satisfaction of work, coworkers, leaders, and perceived hostility in the workplace on practical concerns for and stigma toward seeking help from mental health services. A sample of 22,792 was drawn from the 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey. The results revealed the crucial roles of work environments for stigma toward seeking help from mental health services. Being female or an officer are significant predictors for greater stigma toward and practical concerns that impede seeking help from mental health professionals in comparison to being male or an enlisted officer. Furthermore, higher workplace hostility, lower satisfaction toward leaders, coworkers, and one's work were all significant predictors for greater stigma toward and practical concerns for seeking help. This study revealed the vital roles of work environments in the military that influence stigma toward and practical concerns for seeking help from mental health professionals. Some implications and recommendations for prevention and intervention for underutilization of mental health services are discussed.
Kaarlela-Tuomaala, A; Helenius, R; Keskinen, E; Hongisto, V
The aim was to determine how the perceived work environment, especially acoustic environment, and its effects differed in private office rooms and in open-plan offices. The subjects consisted of 31 workers who moved from private office rooms to open-plan offices and who answered the questionnaire before and after the relocation. Private office rooms were occupied only by one person while open-plan offices were occupied by more than 20 persons. Room acoustical descriptors showed a significant reduction in speech privacy after relocation. The noise level averaged over the whole work day did not change but the variability of noise level reduced significantly. Negative effects of acoustic environment increased significantly, including increased distraction, reduced privacy, increased concentration difficulties and increased use of coping strategies. Self-rated loss of work performance because of noise doubled. Cognitively demanding work and phone conversations were most distracted by noise. The benefits that are often associated with open-plan offices did not appear: cooperation became less pleasant and direct and information flow did not change. Nowadays, most office workers, independent of job type, are located in open-plan offices without the individual needs of privacy, concentration and interaction being analysed. This intervention study consisted of professional workers. Their work tasks mainly required individual efforts, and interaction between other workers was not of primary concern, although necessary. The results suggest that the open-plan office is not recommended for professional workers. Similar intervention studies should also be made for other job types.
Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research.
Kavey, Rae-Ellen W; Allada, Vivek; Daniels, Stephen R; Hayman, Laura L; McCrindle, Brian W; Newburger, Jane W; Parekh, Rulan S; Steinberger, Julia
Although for most children the process of atherosclerosis is subclinical, dramatically accelerated atherosclerosis occurs in some pediatric disease states, with clinical coronary events occurring in childhood and very early adult life. As with most scientific statements about children and the future risk for cardiovascular disease, there are no randomized trials documenting the effects of risk reduction on hard clinical outcomes. A growing body of literature, however, identifies the importance of premature cardiovascular disease in the course of certain pediatric diagnoses and addresses the response to risk factor reduction. For this scientific statement, a panel of experts reviewed what is known about very premature cardiovascular disease in 8 high-risk pediatric diagnoses and, from the science base, developed practical recommendations for management of cardiovascular risk.
Larkin, Helen; Hitch, Danielle; Watchorn, Valerie; Ang, Susan
Built environments that are usable by all provide opportunities for engagement in meaningful occupations. However, enabling them in day to day design processes and practice is problematic for relevant professions. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain greater understanding of the policy and regulatory influences that promote or hinder the uptake of universal design in built environments, to inform better future design. Focus groups or telephone interviews were undertaken with 28 key building industry and disability stakeholders in Australia. Four themes were identified: the difficulties of definition; the push or pull of regulations and policy; the role of formal standards; and, shifting the focus of design thinking. The findings highlight the complexity of working within policy and regulatory contexts when implementing universal design. Occupational therapists working with colleagues from other professions must be aware of these influences, and develop the skills to work with them for successful practice.
Larkin, Helen; Hitch, Danielle; Watchorn, Valerie; Ang, Susan
Built environments that are usable by all provide opportunities for engagement in meaningful occupations. However, enabling them in day to day design processes and practice is problematic for relevant professions. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain greater understanding of the policy and regulatory influences that promote or hinder the uptake of universal design in built environments, to inform better future design. Focus groups or telephone interviews were undertaken with 28 key building industry and disability stakeholders in Australia. Four themes were identified: the difficulties of definition; the push or pull of regulations and policy; the role of formal standards; and, shifting the focus of design thinking. The findings highlight the complexity of working within policy and regulatory contexts when implementing universal design. Occupational therapists working with colleagues from other professions must be aware of these influences, and develop the skills to work with them for successful practice. PMID:26184278
Reviews research that deals with group work in the field of educational computing. Topics discussed include sex differences; the influence of ability on group interaction; social class; group size; the internal dynamics of group work; achievement; the acquisition of programing skills; metacognition; and social-affective objectives. (25 references)…
Istance, David; Kools, Marco
This article presents in summary a selection of the work conducted by OECD in the field of technology and education, which has been an on-going focus of OECD work since the 1980s. Recently, much of this has been under the heading of "New Millennium Learners", but it has also included the widening of student achievement surveys towards…
Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Fenster, Judy
Although web-based courses in schools of social work have proliferated over the past decade, the literature contains few guidelines on steps that schools can take to develop such courses. Using Knowles's framework, which delineates tasks and themes involved in implementing e-learning in social work education, this article describes the cultivation…
Chappell, Clive; Hawke, Geof
The purpose of this research activity was to investigate contemporary understandings of the connections between learning and work. This initial work was then used to inform the development of an organisational tool that registered training organisations (RTOs) could use to identify organisational practices likely to lead to greater learning at…
This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…
Khaliq, Waseem; Jelovac, Danijela; Wright, Scott M
Objective To characterise the current usage of chemoprevention agents among hospitalised women who are at higher risk for breast cancer. Study design A cross-sectional study. Setting Academic hospital at Baltimore. Participants A bedside survey of 250 women aged 50–75 years was conducted who were cancer-free at the time of study enrolment and hospitalised to a general medicine service. Reproductive history, family history for breast cancer, chemopreventive agents use and medical comorbidities data was collected for all patients. χ2 and t-tests were used to analyse population characteristics. Primary outcome measures Prevalence of women at high risk for developing breast cancer (5-year Gail risk score ≥1.7) and their chemopreventive agent use. Results Mean age for the study population was 61.5 years (SD 7.5), and mean 5-year Gail risk score was 1.67 (SD 0.88). A third of study population was at high risk for breast cancer. None of the high-risk women (0%) were taking chemoprevention for breast cancer risk reduction, and 23% were at very high risk with 5-year Gail score ≥3%. These women were not recognised as being high risk by their hospital providers and none were referred to the high-risk breast cancer clinics following discharge. Conclusions Many hospitalised women are at high risk for breast cancer and we could not identify even a single woman who was using chemoprevention for risk reduction. Current chemoprevention guidelines may be falling short in their dissemination and implementation. Since women at high risk for breast cancer may only interface with the healthcare system at select points, all healthcare providers must be willing and able to do risk assessment. For those identified to be at high risk, providers must then either engage in chemopreventive counselling or refer patients to providers who are more comfortable working with patients on this critical decision. PMID:27852714
Breinegaard, Nina; Jensen, Johan Høy; Bonde, Jens Peter
Objective This study examines the impact of organizational change and psychosocial work environment on non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees. Methods In January and February 2011, Danish senior public service employees aged 58-64 years (N=3254) from the Capital Region of Denmark responded to a survey assessing psychosocial work environment (ie, social capital, organizational justice, and quality of management). Work-unit organizational changes (ie, change of management, merging, demerging, and relocation) were recorded from January 2009 to March 2011. Weekly data on non-disability early retirement transfer were obtained from the DREAM register database, which holds weekly information about all public benefit payments in Denmark. Hazard ratios (HR) for early retirement following employees' 60 (th)birthday were estimated with Cox regression adjusted for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results Exposure to change of management [HR 1.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13-1.66], mergers (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48), and relocation of work unit (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.54) increased rate of non-disability early retirement, while demerging of work unit did not (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.79-1.33). Work units with lower levels of social capital (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05-1.41), organizational justice, (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.32), and quality of management (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.25) increased rate of early retirement. Conclusion Organizational change and poor psychosocial work environment contribute to non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees, measured at work-unit level.
Muralidhar, Vinayak; Xiang, Michael; Orio, Peter F.; Martin, Neil E.; Beard, Clair J.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hoffman, Karen E.
Purpose Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT) boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA < 10 ng/ml or T1c, Gleason 6, PSA > 20 ng/ml). Material and methods We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258), and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270). Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022). Conclusions Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease. PMID:26985191
Solovov, V. A.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.; Matysh, Y. S.
Objectives. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or ADT alone. The widely accepted definition of high-risk prostate was first proposed by D'Amico based on a pretreatment Gleason score of ≥8, clinical stage T3, PSA level ≥20 ng/mL. There is no trial that compares traditional methods of treatment of such patients with HIFU therapy. Here we explored the effectiveness of the HIFU in multimodal treatment for patients with high risk prostate cancer. Materials & Methods. 701 patients with high risk prostate cancer were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2013. Gleason score were 8-10, stage T3N0M0, age 69 (58-86) years, mean PSA before treatment 43.3 (22.1-92.9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume - 59.3 (38-123) cc. 248 patients were treated by HIFU. We compare this group of patients with patients who undertook EBRT: number 196, and ADT: number 257. Mean follow-up time 58 months (6-72). Results. The 5-year overall survival rates in patients after HIFU were 73.8 %, after EBRT - 63.0 % and after ADT - 18.1%. Conclusions. Our experience showed that HIFU therapy in combined treatment were successful for high risk prostate cancer.
Meza Reyes, Gilberto Eduardo; Esquivel Gómez, Ricardo; Martínez del Campo Sánchez, Antonio; Espinosa-Larrañaga, Francisco; Martínez Guzmán, Miguel Ángel Enrique; Torres González, Rubén; de la Fuente Zuno, Juan Carlos; Méndez Huerta, Juan Vicente; Villalobos Garduño, Enrique; Cymet Ramírez, José; Ibarra Hirales, Efrén; Díaz Borjón, Efraín; Aguilera Zepeda, José Manuel; Valles Figueroa, Juan Francisco; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a worldwide public health problem, with an annual incidence of 1-2 cases/1,000 individuals in the general population and a 1-5% associated mortality. Orthopedic surgery is a major surgical risk factor for VTE, but the problem is more important for patients with hip and knee joint replacement, multiple traumatisms, severe damage to the spine, or large fractures. Thromboprophylaxis is defined as the strategy and actions necessary to diminish the risk of VTE in high-risk orthopedic surgery. Antithrombotics may prevent VTE. At the end of this paper, we describe a proposal of thromboprophylaxis actions for patients requiring high-risk orthopedic surgery, based on the opinion of specialists in Orthopedics and Traumatology who work with high-risk orthopedic surgery patients. A search for evidence about this kind of surgery was performed and a 100-item inquiring instrument was done in order to know the opinions of the participants. Then, recommendations and considerations were built. In conclusion, this document reviews the problem of VTE in high-risk orthopedic surgery patients and describes the position of the Colegio Mexicano de Ortopedia y Traumatología related to VTE prevention in this setting.
Maria Cela-Ranilla, Jose; Molías, Luis Marqués; Cervera, Mercè Gisbert
This study analyzes the relationship between the use of learning patterns as a grouping criterion to develop learning activities in the 3D simulation environment at University. Participants included 72 Spanish students from the Education and Marketing disciplines. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were conducted. The process was…
National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006
New research shows the critical impact of a child's "environment of relationships" on developing brain architecture during the first months and years of life. We have long known that interactions with parents, caregivers, and other adults are important in a child's life, but new evidence shows that these relationships actually shape brain circuits…
Cakir, Hasan; Delialioglu, Omer; Dennis, Alan; Duffy, Thomas
Student achievement gap between urban and suburban regions are a major issue in U.S. schools. Technology enhanced learning environments that support teaching and learning process with advanced technology may close this achievement gap. This paper examines the impact of student and school factors with an emphasis on schools' geographic location on…
Don Gottfredson, Gary; Duffy, Ryan D.
Most people have positive views of their general happiness or subjective well-being (SWB). Furthermore, SWB tends to be stable and rebound to prior levels following events or circumstances that might be expected to change its level. The authors speculate about ways a theory of person-environment transactions--Holland's theory of vocational…
Given the emerging focus on the intercultural dimension in language teaching and learning, language educators have been exploring the use of information and communications technology ICT-mediated language learning environments to link learners in intercultural language learning communities around the globe. Despite the potential promise of…
Ngoi, Mephie; Vondracek, Mark
The Chemistry/Physics Program at Evanston Township High School was designed to provide an environment for the rigorous teaching of advanced science and mathematics to accelerated students. This type of student makes up the bulk of students in the Advanced Placement Chemistry and Physics classes. However, there is a small number of students who…
Firestone, Brenda L.
The purpose of this dissertation research study was to investigate engineers' perceptions of diversity and the workplace learning environment surrounding diversity education efforts in engineering occupations. The study made use of a mixed methods methodology and was theoretically framed using a critical feminist adult education lens and…
US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007
As a community-based organization, community leader or activist, individuals are in a unique position to take the lead in raising awareness about resource conservation, good solid waste management, and safeguarding the environment for future generations. This paper is designed to help individuals plan and execute community events that promote the…
Yu, Chia-Ping; Kuo, Feng-Yang
In this study, we have investigated developmental patterns of virtual groups in the e-learning environment. Our findings suggest that for virtual groups formed for the purpose of e-learning, dependency and inclusion characterize the initial stage of group development, as such characteristics reinforce cooperative relationships and help to build a…
Early home learning environments are the result of interactions between the developing child and the opportunity structures provided by the family. Income is one of several resources that affect the cognitive stimulation that children experience. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examines the influence of…
Watson, Mark R.; Taylor, Arlene G.
Describes a study which examined (1) the percentage of personal and corporate name authority records in the Library of Congress authority file that do not contain any references, and (2) the percentage of references present on existing authority records that are not needed in an automatic right hand truncation, keyword searching environment. (CLB)
Donald, Janet G.
This book offers ideas or benchmarks about how to improve the postsecondary learning environment, based on interviews with academic leaders at four universities in the United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 32 academic leaders from four research universities: Northwestern University (Illinois); Pennsylvania State…
Noble, Dorinda; Russell, Amy Catherine
This paper describes the preliminary data and analysis of how students in an online MSW program perceive their experiences, interactions, and responses to learning structure, material, and technology in the Web environment. The student perceptions, which have been used to refine the online program, highlight how important it is to students to feel…
Teichgräber, Ulf K M; Gillessen, Christoph; Neumann, Fabian; Clasen, Birthe; Ricke, Jens
In the face of increasing financial pressure on our health care system, one way to reduce costs while maintaining or even improving outcome quality is to improve work flow efficiency. Network Planning Technique (NPT) is a tool for mapping and analyzing work flows. Designing a network plan requires four steps. Step 1 is concerned with the determination of the work flow structure. Step 2 deals with data acquisition. Based on the data retrieved a network plan is created in Step 3. Step 4 includes the calculation of the critical path and slack times under optimistic, realistic and pessimistic conditions. Applied to the ultrasound division in our department a total examination time of 34:14 minutes was calculated with 23:09 minutes total slack time for the technician under realistic conditions. Using NPT creates transparency in work flows and allows us to estimate resource demands. A comparison between two different divisions with a similar work flow structure but different resource allocation demonstrates this method's potential for improving work flows. Limitations of the NPT can be noted when considering cycle overlap in repetitive work flows and modeling non-regular activities.
Kishida, K; Ikegami, T; Maehara, N; Watanabe, A
"TSUKIJI" is one of the biggest and most famous Free Fish Markets in the world, but there are many problems on the working condition because it was built about 60 years ago. Our investigation was held 1991 to 1993 to give some improvements regarding layout of buildings, working time, heat condition at refrigerator, working posture, and so on. We used a questionnaire on daily life and health care of workers, time study with measurement of heartbeats, and checklist (using Checklist for Improvement of Safety-Health and Working Conditions,' made by ILO). The main occupations in TSUKIJI were seller, buyer, delivery worker, and refrigerator maintenance worker. Their starting time was early in the morning, usually between 2:00 a.m. and 5:00 a.m., but the hardest one was delivery workers starting at 9:00 p.m. They used auto cargo car for carrying to shops from refrigerator or from auction places many times. Sellers had two different types of work. First, the seller set up the auction, numbering the fish (or cases of seafood), arranging them in order, and so on. The rest of the work was transaction of invoices, sometimes using VDU with almost sitting. These works did not look well balanced. Buyer of tuna cut if like lumber by electric saws did not have guard for protection and there were more than 200 machines. Overlooking the market by checklist, some problems were clarified, and suggestions for improvement include restructuring the whole layout of the market or reforming buildings, standardization of the cases, adjustment of health facilities, safety protection on tools and machines, management of working system, working posture, health care, and so on.
The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Engineering Directorate is in the third year of a diversity process that has changed the culture of the organization in many ways. This work outlines progress toward realizing the LLNL Engineering Diversity Model. Currently recommendations are being implemented that have been formulated through a problem resolution process, described in this work, in which employees helped identify problems, recommend solutions, and work with managers in focus groups. The process of arriving at the recommendations and the lessons learned through the problem resolution process are discussed. Ongoing actions, short-term goals, and long-term goals of the program are described.
Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley
The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900
Physicians' occupational stress, depressive symptoms and work ability in relation to their working environment: a cross-sectional study of differences among medical residents with various specialties working in German hospitals
Bernburg, Monika; Vitzthum, Karin; Groneberg, David A; Mache, Stefanie
Objectives This study aimed to analyse and compare differences in occupational stress, depressive symptoms, work ability and working environment among residents working in various medical specialties. Methods 435 German hospital residents in medical training working in 6 different medical specialties participated in a cross-sectional survey study. Physicians were asked about their working conditions and aspects of mental health and work ability. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the Work Ability Index, the ICD-10 Symptom Rating and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire were used to measure working conditions, mental health and work ability. Results Results show that up to 17% of the physicians reported high levels of occupational distress and 9% reported high levels of depressive symptoms. 11% of the hospital physicians scored low in work ability. Significant differences between medical specialties were demonstrated for occupational distress, depressive symptoms, work ability, job demands and job resources. Surgeons showed consistently the highest levels of perceived distress but also the highest levels of work ability and lowest scores for depression. Depressive symptoms were rated with the highest levels by anaesthesiologists. Significant associations between physicians’ working conditions, occupational distress and mental health-related aspects are illustrated. Conclusions Study results demonstrated significant differences in specific job stressors, demands and resources. Relevant relations between work factors and physicians' health and work ability are discussed. These findings should be reinvestigated in further studies, especially with a longitudinal study design. This work suggests that to ensure physicians' health, hospital management should plan and implement suitable mental health promotion strategies. In addition, operational efficiency through resource planning optimisation and work process improvements should be focused by hospital management
Dedkova, L A; Dorogova, V B; Petrov, V F
The study concerned an influence of saline content of liquid phase of crushed ore and presence or absence of solution blending on the process of cyanic hydrogen release in air of working area gold-mining industry.
McCullagh, Marjorie C; Berry, Peggy
Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses' success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education.
Still, C H; Arsenlis, A; Bond, R B; Steinkamp, M J; Swaminarayan, S; Womble, D E; Koniges, A E; Harrison, J R; Chen, J H
The scope of the Apps WG covers three areas of interest: Physics and Engineering Models (PEM), multi-physics Integrated Codes (IC), and Verification and Validation (V&V). Each places different demands on the exascale environment. The exascale challenge will be to provide environments that optimize all three. PEM serve as a test bed for both model development and 'best practices' for IC code development, as well as their use as standalone codes to improve scientific understanding. Rapidly achieving reasonable performance for a small team is the key to maintaining PEM innovation. Thus, the environment must provide the ability to develop portable code at a higher level of abstraction, which can then be tuned, as needed. PEM concentrate their computational footprint in one or a few kernels that must perform efficiently. Their comparative simplicity permits extreme optimization, so the environment must provide the ability to exercise significant control over the lower software and hardware levels. IC serve as the underlying software tools employed for most ASC problems of interest. Often coupling dozens of physics models into very large, very complex applications, ICs are usually the product of hundreds of staff-years of development, with lifetimes measured in decades. Thus, emphasis is placed on portability, maintainability and overall performance, with optimization done on the whole rather than on individual parts. The exascale environment must provide a high-level standardized programming model with effective tools and mechanisms for fault detection and remediation. Finally, V&V addresses the infrastructure and methods to facilitate the assessment of code and model suitability for applications, and uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods for assessment and quantification of margins of uncertainty (QMU). V&V employs both PEM and IC, with somewhat differing goals, i.e., parameter studies and error assessments to determine both the quality of the calculation and to
Workplace bullying has been shown to be a severe social stressor at work, resulting in high costs both for the individuals and organizations concerned. The aim of this study is to analyze risk factors in a large, nationally representative sample of Finnish employees (n = 4,392). The study makes three important contributions to the existing literature on workplace bullying: first, it demonstrates the role of the physical work environment alongside the psychosocial work environment - employees with a poor physical work environment are more likely than others to report having been subjected to or having observed bullying. Second, contrary to common assumptions, the results suggest that performance-based pay is associated with a lower, rather than higher risk of bullying. Third, the findings suggest that there are gender differences in risk factors, thereby constituting a call for more studies on the role of gender when identifying risk factors. Increased knowledge of risk factors is important as it enables us to take more effective measures to decrease the risk of workplace bullying.
Gruskin, Sofia; Pierce, Gretchen Williams; Ferguson, Laura
The HIV epidemic has shed light on how government regulation of sex work directly affects the health and well-being of sex workers, their families and communities. A review of the public health evidence highlights the need for supportive legal and policy environments, yet criminalisation of sex work remains standard around the world. Emerging evidence, coupled with evolving political ideologies, is increasingly shaping legal environments that promote the rights and health of sex workers but even as new legislation is created, contradictions often exist with standing problematic legislation. As a region, Asia provides a compelling example in that progressive HIV policies often sit side by side with laws that criminalise sex work. Data from the 21 Asian countries reporting under the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV in 2010 were analysed to provide evidence of how countries' approach to sex-work regulation might affect HIV-related outcomes. Attention to the links between law and HIV-related outcomes can aid governments to meet their international obligations and ensure appropriate legal environments that cultivate the safe and healthy development and expression of sexuality, ensure access to HIV and other related services and promote and protect human rights.
Scotti, Dennis J; Harmon, Joel; Behson, Scott J
Healthcare managers must deliver high-quality patient services that generate highly satisfied and loyal customers. In this article, we examine how a high-involvement approach to the work environment of healthcare employees may lead to exceptional service quality, satisfied patients, and ultimately to loyal customers. Specifically, we investigate the chain of events through which high-performance work systems (HPWS) and customer orientation influence employee and customer perceptions of service quality and patient satisfaction in a national sample of 113 Veterans Health Administration ambulatory care centers. We present a conceptual model for linking work environment to customer satisfaction and test this model using structural equations modeling. The results suggest that (1) HPWS is linked to employee perceptions of their ability to deliver high-quality customer service, both directly and through their perceptions of customer orientation; (2) employee perceptions of customer service are linked to customer perceptions of high-quality service; and (3) perceived service quality is linked with customer satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings, including suggestions of how healthcare managers can implement changes to their work environments, are discussed.
Jiang, Shanhe; Lambert, Eric G; Liu, Jianhong; Zhang, Jinwu
Job satisfaction has been linked to many positive outcomes, such as greater work performance, increased organizational commitment, reduced job burnout, decreased absenteeism, and lower turnover intent/turnover. A substantial body of research has examined how work environment variables are linked to job satisfaction among U.S. correctional staff; far less research has examined prison staff in non-Western nations, especially China. Using survey data collected from two prisons in Guangzhou, China, this study investigated the level of job satisfaction among prison staff and how personal characteristics (i.e., gender, tenure, age, and educational level) and work environment variables (i.e., perceived dangerousness of the job, job variety, supervision, instrumental communication, and input into decision making) affect job satisfaction. The findings from ordinary least squares regression equations indicated that the work environment variables explained a greater proportion of the variance in the job satisfaction measure than the personal characteristics. In the full multivariate regression model, gender was the only personal characteristic to have a significant association with job satisfaction, with female staff reporting higher satisfaction. Input into decision making and job variety had significant positive associations, whereas dangerousness had a significant negative relationship with job satisfaction.
Juan, Ping-Ying; Lin, Mei-Pei; Huang, Shan; Tsai, Lai-Yin
Information technology is the inevitable product of modern society and computerized medical information provides clinic workers with more timely and instant information. Therefore, computer hardware equipment is a must to promote computerized information system. Yet, there is low satisfaction level toward the arrangement of clinical computer equipment. The purpose of this program is to improve the satisfaction level and easiness to access to e- environment and computer hardware equipment at nursing stations. Results after the improvement and rearrangement of e-environment indicated that the satisfaction level of nursing staffs has been improved by 22.4% from 41.4% to 63.8% improving the accessibility, the interactions between and among staffs and patients, and the utilization of computer equipment.
Sonke, Jill; Pesata, Virginia; Arce, Lauren; Carytsas, Ferol P.; Zemina, Kristen; Jokisch, Christine
Background: Arts in medicine programs have significant impacts on patients and staff in long-term care environments, but the literature lacks evidence of effectiveness on hospital units with shorter average lengths of stay. Methods: The qualitative study used individual structured interviews to assess the impacts of arts programming on job satisfaction, stress, unit culture, support, quality of care, and patient outcomes on a short-term medical-surgical unit, and used a qualitative cross comparison grounded theory methodology to analyze data. Results: The study confirmed that arts programming can positively affect unit culture, nursing practice, and quality of care on short-stay medical-surgical units. Significant insights related to nursing practice and the art program were found, including that music can cause negative distraction for staff. Conclusions: While positive impacts of arts programming on the medical-surgical environment are clear, potential negative effects also need to be considered in the development of practice protocols for artists. PMID:25544861
Press, 1960. 3. Brown, GA, and Willims, GM: The effects of head cooling on deep body temperature and thermal comfort in man. Aviat. Space & Environ...1971. 18. Williams, BA, and Shitzer, A,. A modular liquid-cooled helmet for thermal comfort . Aerospace Med. 45(g):1030-1036, 1974. 11J i. E Appendix A...to physiological benefits, soldier comfort and performance mey I also be enhanced by the CHP. Scalp temperature may be a factor in whole body thermal
complex and ambiguous international scenario. Brazil is consolidating its growth, leading the country to a more significant role on the world stage...complex and ambiguous (VUCA) international environment, such as persistent world economic crisis, political instability in many countries, and diffused...country is a member of the major international institutions, such as the UN, OAS, IMF, World Bank and IDB. Brazil also sees the G-20 as an opportunity
Xu, Y; Bach, E; Orhede, E
OBJECTIVES: To find associations between the prevalence of low back pain and occupational activities. METHODS: Interviews of a random sample of 5185 19-59 year old Danish employees analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Increased risks of low back pain were found for "vibration affecting the whole body" (odds ratio (OR) = 1.28), "physically hard work" (OR = 1.28), "frequently twisting or bending" (OR = 1.71), "standing up" (OR = 1.20), and "concentration demands" (OR = 1.28). In the analysis of dose-response relations between low back pain and the risk factors, the one year period prevalence increased with increasing exposure time during a working day to each of the risk factors. The prevalence proportion ratio for those reporting to be exposed for most of the working time were 1.30 for vibrations affecting the whole body, 1.54 for physically hard work, 1.48 for frequently twisting or bending, 1.29 for standing up, and 1.13 for concentration demands. These associations seemed to be stronger in the subset of subjects who worked for 37 hours or more per week. The population attributable fractions were 15.1% for frequently twisting or bending, 15.0% for standing up, 7.6% for concentration demands, and 4.4% for physically hard work. CONCLUSION: Vibrations affecting the whole body, physically hard work, frequently twisting or bending, standing up, and concentration demands proved to be risk factors for the occurrence of low back pain, even after controlling for age, sex, educational level, and duration of employment in a specific occupation. PMID:9404322
Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gloeckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Herrmann, Carl; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K; Fischer, Matthias
Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours.
Pentreath, R J
The development of a systematic approach to protection of the environment has required a number of basic steps to be taken, including a discussion of what objectives could reasonably be set, together with an examination of how existing knowledge could best be used in order to achieve them. It has required bold decisions to be made, new modelling to be undertaken, and new data sets to be compiled. Equally challenging, however, has been the need to fold the entire subject area into an expanded system originally developed for the protection of human beings. There are, inevitably, a number of data gaps, and further decisions need to be made. However, the priority now is to examine how this approach to protection of the environment can be used in practice. With an intensifying worldwide debate about the environmental merits of different forms of energy production, it would seem imperative that the various practices involved in the nuclear fuel cycle are able to demonstrate, clearly and independently, their own actual or potential impact on the environment. The International Commission on Radiological Protection now has the basic means for such evaluations to be made, and further developments in this system will reflect the experience of its practical application.
Gómez-García, Teresa; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Rol, Maria Angeles; Martínez-Madrid, María José; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa
Objective The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the characteristics of nurses' work environments in hospitals in the Spanish National Health System (SNHS) with nurse reported quality of care, and how care was provided by using different shifts schemes. The study also examined the relationship between job satisfaction, burnout, sleep quality and daytime drowsiness of nurses and shift work. Methods This was a multicentre, observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study, centred on a self-administered questionnaire. The study was conducted in seven SNHS hospitals of different sizes. We recruited 635 registered nurses who worked on day, night and rotational shifts on surgical, medical and critical care units. Their average age was 41.1 years, their average work experience was 16.4 years and 90% worked full time. A descriptive and bivariate analysis was carried out to study the relationship between work environment, quality and safety care, and sleep quality of nurses working different shift patterns. Results 65.4% (410) of nurses worked on a rotating shift. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index classification ranked 20% (95) as favourable, showing differences in nurse manager ability, leadership and support between shifts (p=0.003). 46.6% (286) were sure that patients could manage their self-care after discharge, but there were differences between shifts (p=0.035). 33.1% (201) agreed with information being lost in the shift change, showing differences between shifts (p=0.002). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index reflected an average of 6.8 (SD 3.39), with differences between shifts (p=0.017). Conclusions Nursing requires shift work, and the results showed that the rotating shift was the most common. Rotating shift nurses reported worse perception in organisational and work environmental factors. Rotating and night shift nurses were less confident about patients' competence of self-care after discharge. The
Fontes, Kátia Biagio; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros
This is a descriptive-exploratory study with a quantitative approach, with the objective of identifying how nurses perceive psychological harassment at work, the behaviors experienced and the variables involved. In collecting data, two questionnaires were used: one socio-professional and another for identifying the behaviors involving psychological harassment experienced by the subjects in the previous twelve months, along with the duration and frequency of the behaviors. At the end of the questionnaire, a dichotomous question was added, which addressed nurses' perceptions in relation to feeling victimized by psychological harassment at work. Both the questionnaires were applied in electronic and print format between May and September 2010. The data was analyzed through descriptive statistics. The results showed that some of the subjects felt that they were victims of psychological harassment. Only the variables related to characterization of the psychological harassment presented significant association. The following were highlighted among the most-referred-to behaviors: "They question your decisions" and "You receive verbal attacks criticizing work you have done". It's important to open spaces for discussing violence at work, so that managers may establish strategic measures for preventing and containing this type of violence, so as to ensure health, dignity and well-being at work. It is also important to discuss this issue in the academic space, so as to give the theme greater visibility, such that future nurses will be able to identify and appropriately confront this type of violence.
Stoita, Alina; Penman, Ian D; Williams, David B
Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results.
Stoita, Alina; Penman, Ian D; Williams, David B
Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results. PMID:21633635
Marciscano, Ariel E; Hardee, Matthew E; Sanfilippo, Nicholas
Traditionally, patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer have been an extremely challenging group to manage due to a significant likelihood of treatment failure and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). The results of multiple large, prospective, randomized trials have demonstrated that men with high-risk features who are treated in a multimodal fashion at the time of initial diagnosis have improved overall survival. Advances in local treatments such as dose-escalated radiotherapy in conjunction with androgen suppression and postprostatectomy adjuvant radiotherapy have also demonstrated benefits to this subset of patients. However, therapeutic enhancement with the addition of chemotherapy to the primary treatment regimen may help achieve optimal disease control.
Fowler, Kelly L
The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the relations between professional well-being (as characterized by positive attitudes toward work and longevity as a practicing music therapist) and the following factors: age, level of education, income, attitudes regarding the workplace (e.g., perceived control, feeling valued, as well as the amount of perceived comfort and input into administrative policies), attitudes toward work as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986a), and measures of stress and stress management as measured by the Stress Profile (Nowack, 1999a). Participants included 49 music therapists who had between one to 36 years of work experience. Correlations indicated that those respondents with greatest professional longevity tended to have higher ratings on items regarding cognitive coping strategies (e.g., positive appraisal and threat minimization) and greater perception of personal achievement. These correlational results are related to psychological theories regarding occupational burnout and cognitive hardiness.
Timmreck, T C
Motivation relies on internal/intrinsic and external factors to stimulate work-related behavior. This article presents an overview of Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory and reports on the results of a study of 99 health service midmanagers. The participants completed a survey asking whether they believe in motivational factors and if they use them. Several of Herzberg's motivational factors were included (achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement) plus several other motivational factors including money/pay, self-interest, seek a higher standard of living. Negative factors included guilt, threats, power, and control. This article presents motivation factors, such as achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, growth, self-interest, pay, and belief in successful outcome, that were presented to 99 mid-level health services administrators.
Daley, Patrick; Frank, Jeremy; Iatauro, Michael; McGann, Conor; Taylor, Will
Numerous planning and scheduling systems employ underlying constraint reasoning systems. Debugging such systems involves the search for errors in model rules, constraint reasoning algorithms, search heuristics, and the problem instance (initial state and goals). In order to effectively find such problems, users must see why each state or action is in a plan by tracking causal chains back to part of the initial problem instance. They must be able to visualize complex relationships among many different entities and distinguish between those entities easily. For example, a variable can be in the scope of several constraints, as well as part of a state or activity in a plan; the activity can arise as a consequence of another activity and a model rule. Finally, they must be able to track each logical inference made during planning. We have developed PlanWorks, a comprehensive system for debugging constraint-based planning and scheduling systems. PlanWorks assumes a strong transaction model of the entire planning process, including adding and removing parts of the constraint network, variable assignment, and constraint propagation. A planner logs all transactions to a relational database that is tailored to support queries for of specialized views to display different forms of data (e.g. constraints, activities, resources, and causal links). PlanWorks was specifically developed for the Extensible Universal Remote Operations Planning Architecture (EUROPA(sub 2)) developed at NASA, but the underlying principles behind PlanWorks make it useful for many constraint-based planning systems. The paper is organized as follows. We first describe some fundamentals of EUROPA(sub 2). We then describe PlanWorks' principal components. We then discuss each component in detail, and then describe inter-component navigation features. We close with a discussion of how PlanWorks is used to find model flaws.
[Analyzing the attributes of surgeons and working environment required for a successful career path and work-life balance: results of a survey administered to doctors working at Kyoto University Hospital].
Okoshi, Kae; Tanabe, Tomoko; Hisamoto, Norio; Sakai, Yoshiharu
We conducted a survey in March 2010 of all physicians at Kyoto University Hospital on working environments, levels of satisfaction, and level of exhaustion. A comparison of surgeons with other physicians showed tendencies among surgeons toward longer working hours and lower income. The findings indicated that surgeons experienced satisfaction from teamwork with fellow physicians, opportunities to manage interesting cases, and patient gratitude. Surgeons tended to have low fatigue level and were satisfied with their working environments, despite their low wages and long working hours. Although surgical treatment is currently built upon the feelings of accomplishment and satisfaction of individual surgeons, there is always a limit to his/her psychological strength. Indeed, the number of young surgeons is not increasing. In the future, efforts must be taken to prevent the departure of currently practicing surgeons. Consideration must also be given to reducing nonsurgical duties by increasing the numbers of medical staff, and making work conditions more appealing to young surgeons by guaranteeing income and prohibiting long working hours, particularly consecutive working hours.
Semple, Hugh M; Cudnik, Michael T; Sayre, Michael; Keseg, David; Warden, Craig R; Sasson, Comilla
Improving survival rates for out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) at the neighborhood level is increasingly seen as priority in US cities. Since wide disparities exist in OHCA rates at the neighborhood level, it is necessary to locate neighborhoods where people are at elevated risk for cardiac arrest and target these for educational outreach and other mitigation strategies. This paper describes a GIS-based methodology that was used to identify communities with high risk for cardiac arrests in Franklin County, Ohio during the period 2004-2009. Prior work in this area used a single criterion, i.e., the density of OHCA events, to define the high-risk areas, and a single analytical technique, i.e., kernel density analysis, to identify the high-risk communities. In this paper, two criteria are used to identify the high-risk communities, the rate of OHCA incidents and the level of bystander CPR participation. We also used Local Moran's I combined with traditional map overlay techniques to add robustness to the methodology for identifying high-risk communities for OHCA. Based on the criteria established for this study, we successfully identified several communities that were at higher risk for OHCA than neighboring communities. These communities had incidence rates of OHCA that were significantly higher than neighboring communities and bystander rates that were significantly lower than neighboring communities. Other risk factors for OHCA were also high in the selected communities. The methodology employed in this study provides for a measurement conceptualization of OHCA clusters that is much broader than what has been previously offered. It is also statistically reliable and can be easily executed using a GIS.
Slangen, Lou; van Keulen, Hanno; Gravemeijer, Koeno
This study investigates what pupils aged 10-12 can learn from working with robots, assuming that understanding robotics is a sign of technological literacy. We conducted cognitive and conceptual analysis to develop a frame of reference for determining pupils' understanding of robotics. Four perspectives were distinguished with increasing…
Plackowski, Linda C.
In 1979, Delta College, in Michigan, established a bioethics requirement for all nursing students. This paper describes a project to teach one of the required ethics course to local hospitals to observe students while they work and discuss ethical dilemmas as they arose. Introductory sections discuss project rationale and procedures, indicating…
Achumba, I. E.; Azzi, D.; Dunn, V. L.; Chukwudebe, G. A.
Laboratory work is critical in undergraduate engineering courses. It is used to integrate theory and practice. This demands that laboratory activities are synchronized with lectures to maximize their derivable learning outcomes, which are measurable through assessment. The typical high costs of the traditional engineering laboratory, which often…
Notes that, although social work credits itself for using biopsychosocial perspective, "bio" is virtually absent from profession's knowing and doing. Review of areas in which biological knowledge is growing ("biology of hope"--psychoneuroimmunology, for example--and the new biomedical approach to mental health) yields some ideas about how theory…
Kleinhans, Kelly A.; Chakradhar, Kala; Muller, Susan; Waddill, Paula
The current workforce composition of the academy is comprised of multiple generational cohorts, Traditionalists, Leading Edge Boomers, Trailing Edge Boomers, Generation Xers and Millennials. Despite the plethora of research identifying a myriad of differences in the way these generational cohorts approach work and social activities little…
Hathorn, Donna; Machtmes, Krisanna; Tillman, Ken
One response to the nursing shortage is to increase promotion and retention in nursing programs: However, negative attitudes of nurses threaten student progression and retention. A phenomenological study explored the lived experience of nurses who worked with student nurses to discover "what" attitudes nurses had toward student nurses…
Danhoff, Kristin Lindsay
Social work educators have the challenging task of preparing students to be ethically, morally, and socially responsible professionals. As professionals in the 21st Century, social workers are faced with ever increasing complexity and change. Teaching philosophies are at the foundation of what educators do in the classroom. Research about teaching…
Vaughn, D. Lanette; Vaughn, Paul R.
Written for rural educators, this handbook provides practical guidelines for working with rural youth who will be seeking jobs in urban areas. The suggested learning activities can be used for an independent course, integrated into existing programs, or applied in counseling. The introduction discusses needs of rural students and relates positive…
Du, Donghai; Chen, Kai; Yu, Lun; lu, Hui; Zhang, Lefu; Shi, Xiuqiang; Xu, Xuelian
Many component failures in nuclear power plants were found to be caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of cold worked austenitic steels. Some of the pressure boundary component materials are even cold worked up to 35% plastic deformation, leaving high residual stress and inducing high growth rate of corrosion crack. Controlling water chemistry is one of the best counter measure to mitigate this problem. In this work, the effects of temperature (200 up to 325 °C) and dissolved oxygen (0 up to 2000 μg/L) on SCC crack growth rates of cold worked austenitic stainless steel type 316L have been tested by using direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The results showed that temperature affected SCC crack growth rates more significantly in oxygenated water than in deaerated water. In argon deaerated water, the crack growth rate exhibited a peak at about 250 °C, which needs further verification. At 325 °C, the SCC crack growth rate increased rapidly with the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration within the range from 0 up to 200 μg/L, while when dissolved oxygen was above 200 μg/L, the crack growth rate followed a shallower dependence on dissolved oxygen concentration.
Sachs, Peter B; Long, Graham
Electronic health record (EHR) implementation has dramatically impacted all facets of radiology workflow. Many departments find themselves unprepared for the multiple issues that surface following EHR deployment and the ongoing need for workflow optimization. This paper reviews the structure and processes utilized by the team, developed at the University of Colorado Hospital to evaluate, prioritize, and implement requests for workflow repairs and improvements within the EHR. The evolution of this team as the academic hospital formed a health system with two community hospital sites is also described. This structure may serve as a useful template for others considering EHR deployment or struggling to manage radiology workflow within an existing EHR environment.
Sadatsafavi, Hessam; Walewski, John; Shepley, Mardelle
The expected increase in healthcare needs resulting from the Affordable Care Act and the growing population of older citizens in the United States is challenging owners and operators of hospitals to improve quality of care and reduce operational costs. Meanwhile, studies have indicated a serious shortage in the healthcare workforce and have highlighted the critical role of employees' job-related attitudes and feelings. The main objective of this study was to test whether employees' evaluations of important environments within hospitals were significantly associated with their job-related attitudes and feelings, and whether this relationship varied across different demographic groups. About 700 healthcare professionals from 10 acute-care hospitals run by three healthcare organizations participated in this cross-sectional study. Structural equation modeling found that employees' evaluations of their physical work environment were significantly associated with lower rates of job-related anxiety, higher levels of job satisfaction, and increased rates of organizational commitment. Perceived organizational support was responsible for mediating part of these relationships, indicating that employees can perceive a healthy work environment as a sign of their organization valuing them and caring about their well-being. When distinguishing between different spaces, analysis found that satisfaction with rest areas and work spaces had the largest effect size, while the influence of patient areas was small. Employees newer to the facility and to the organization were more influenced by the physical work environment. This study provides preliminary evidence that facility design can be used as a managerial tool for improving employees' job-related attitudes and feelings and earning their commitment.
EATON, WILLIAM W.; MUNTANER, CARLES; BOVASSO, GREGORY; SMITH, COREY
This paper assesses the hypothesis that depressive syndrome is associated with socioeconomic status, using longitudinal data from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Followup. Socioeconomic measures include those used in most studies of status attainment, as well as measures of financial dependence, non-job income, and work environment. Analyses include inter-and intra- generational mobility, and replicate the basic aspects of the status attainment process, as well as psychiatric epidemiologic findings regarding gender, family history of depression, life events, and depressive syndrome. But the involvement of depressive syndrome in the process of status attainment, either as cause or consequence, is small and not statistically significant. There are strong effects of financial dependence and work environment on depressive syndrome. The findings shed doubt on the utility of the causation/selection/drift model for depression, to the extent it is based on linear relationships and socioeconomic rank at the macro level, while lending credibility to social-psychologically oriented theories of work environment, poverty, and depression. PMID:11668774
Keogh, Barbara K.; Smith, Carol E.
Early identification of educationally high potential and high risk children was investigated by following the same 49 children from kindergarten entrance through grade five of a regular school program. Kindergarten predictive measures were the Bender Gestalt Test and teachers' evaluations; follow-up measures were yearly standard achievement test…
Methods to identify children at high-risk for organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure are difficult to develop because biological markers reflect only recent "snapshots" of exposure due to the short half-life of OP compounds (generally about 24 hours). We conducted a series of p...
Ramey, Craig T.; Farran, Dale C.
A longitudinal study was conducted at the Frank Porter Graham Center NC to explore the use of educational day care and related services as a mechanism for preparing socially disadvantaged children for success in later public schooling. Infant children of mothers who met a criterion score on a high risk index were randomly assigned to either an…
Hollingsworth, Kathy R.; Dunkle, John H.; Douce, Louise
The disturbed and disturbing college student causes the most vexing concerns for student affairs administrators. The Assessment-Intervention of Student Problems (AISP) model offers a useful and easily understood framework for dealing with the various challenges of this high-risk student population. This chapter focuses on changes that have…
Discusses the major elements of writing process instruction and the positive influence they have on learning-disabled and inner-city high-risk students. Argues that such process-writing programs might serve as a preventative measure for children likely to be categorized as learning disabled in the future. (HTH)
Trachtenburg, Phyllis; Ferruggia, Ann
Discusses how interactive, whole class techniques (using a student-generated Big Book adaptation of "Corduroy") improved the reading skills of high risk first grade readers. Describes several activities, including sight word strategies, decoding techniques, and word processing, and suggests 27 Big Books for use with these activities. (MM)
Smith, Margaret; Finneran, John; Droppa, Marj
This study investigated the high risk drinking practices of unaffiliated college students who are not involved in formal athletics, fraternities, or sororities. Using a qualitative research design, the investigators interviewed students at a northeast public college in fall 2010 to learn about unaffiliated students' drinking experiences and their…
López-Corral, Lucía; Mateos, María Victoria; Corchete, Luis A.; Sarasquete, María Eugenia; de la Rubia, Javier; de Arriba, Felipe; Lahuerta, Juan-José; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Gutiérrez, Norma C.
Smoldering myeloma is an asymptomatic plasma cell dyscrasia with a heterogeneous propensity to progress to active myeloma. In order to investigate the biology of smoldering myeloma patients with high risk of progression, we analyzed the genomic characteristics by FISH, SNP-arrays and gene expression profile of a group of patients with high-risk smoldering myeloma included in a multicenter randomized trial. Chromosomal abnormalities detected by FISH and SNP-arrays at diagnosis were not associated to risk of progression to symptomatic myeloma. However, the overexpression of four SNORD genes (SNORD25, SNORD27, SNORD30 and SNORD31) was correlated with shorter time to progression (P<0.03). When plasma cells from high-risk smoldering patients who progressed to symptomatic myeloma were sequentially analyzed, newly acquired lesions together with an increase in the proportion of plasma cells carrying a given abnormality were observed. These findings suggest that gene expression profiling is a valuable technique to identify smoldering myeloma patients with high risk of progression. (Clinical Trials NCT00443235) PMID:22331267
Hardy, Dorothy C.; Karathanos, Demetrius
Examines outcomes of a "bridge" course for first-year college students that emphasizes personal and psychological adjustment to the university experience to enhance the likelihood of academic success. Findings from 59 high-risk students who completed course suggest that goal of enhancing likelihood of academic success for such students was…
Lopez, Vera; Corona, Rosalie
This qualitative study explored 18 high-risk adolescent Latinas' perceptions of their relationships with nonresident fathers. A number of interrelated factors--early childhood memories, mothers' interpretations, and fathers' behaviors--shaped girls' perceptions, which in turn, influenced how they interacted with fathers. Some girls struggled to…
Gochman, Eva R. Grubler; Aisenstein, Clara
An exploratory study of high-risk mothers' interactions with their infants studied modalities of stimulation; vestibular and auditory. It was hypothesized that stimulation would be lower for non-paranoid than for paranoid types, and than for control mothers. Mothers recruited from inner city gynecological clinics were screened for probable…
Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.
This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…
Selkirk, G A; McLellan, T M; Wong, J
This study examined whether active or passive cooling during intermittent work reduced the heat strain associated with wearing firefighting protective clothing (FPC) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) in the heat (35 degrees Celsius, 50% relative humidity). Fifteen male Toronto firefighters participated in the heat-stress trials. Subjects walked at 4.5 km.h(-1) with 0% elevation on an intermittent work (50 min) and rest (30 min) schedule. Work continued until rectal temperature (T(re)) reached 39.5 degrees Celsius, or heart rate (HR) reached 95% of maximum or exhaustion. One of three cooling strategies, forearm submersion (FS), mister (M), and passive cooling (PC) were employed during the rest phases. Tolerance time (TT) and total work time (WT) (min) were significantly increased during FS (178.7 +/- 13.0 and 124.7 +/- 7.94, respectively) and M (139.1 +/- 8.28 and 95.1 +/- 4.96, respectively), compared with PC (108.0 +/- 3.59 and 78.0 +/- 3.59). Furthermore, TT and WT were significantly greater in FS compared with M. Rates of T(re) increase, HR and T-(sk) were significantly lower during active compared with passive cooling. In addition, HR and T(re) values in FS were significantly lower compared with M after the first rest phase. During the first rest phase, T(re) dropped significantly during FS (approximately 0.4 degree Celsius) compared with M (approximately 0.08 degree Celsius) while PC increased (approximately 0.2 degree Celsius). By the end of the second rest period T(re) was 0.9 degree Celsius lower in FS compared with M. The current findings suggest that there is a definite advantage when utilizing forearm submersion compared with other methods of active or passive cooling while wearing FPC and SCBA in the heat.
Kagan, Ilya; Farkash-Fink, Naomi; Fish, Miri
How might a tertiary hospital's nursing staff respond to the huge improvement effort required for external accreditation if they are encouraged to lead the change process themselves? This article reports the results of a concurrent evaluation of the nursing work climate at ward level, before and after accreditation by the Joint Commission International. Physician-nurse relations improved; the involvement of social workers, dieticians, and physiotherapists increased; support services responded more quickly to requests; and management-line staff relations became closer.
Lachowski, Stanisław; Lachowska, Bogusława
A considerable percentage of Polish children from agricultural families are engaged by their parents in performing work activities on farms. The performance of these tasks arouses various emotional reactions in children, from the feeling of threat, fear and anxiety, to the feeling of satisfaction, being contented and proud. The subjective feeling of happiness and life satisfaction is an extremely important factor affecting the mental health and functioning of a human being. The objective of the study was to show to what extent the quality of communication between children and parents, and the level of family cohesion and adaptability according to the Circumplex Model by D. H. Olson et al., modifies children's emotional reactions associated with the tasks performed. The study covered 192 children aged 12-13, whose parents were running a family farm. Growing up in a healthy family characterised by a balanced level of cohesion, adaptability and good communication with the father and mother, favours the occurrence in children of pleasant emotions in reaction to work which they undertake on behalf of their parents on a farm. In such families, more often than in families with bad communication and dysfunctional families (disengaged, rigid), children experience satisfaction, have a feeling of deepening bonds with their parents, and the feeling of being more adult and preparing themselves well for adult life. Family characteristics which are evidence of disorders in its functioning (lack of good communication with the father, mother, lack of bonds between family members, rigid, chaos in a family) co-occur with the child experiencing unpleasant emotional states in associated with the work performed, there occur feelings of dissatisfaction, unhappiness, unpleasantness, the feeling that it would be better to learn than to work.
Greenisen, Michael C.; West, Phillip; Newton, Frederick K.; Gilbert, John H.; Squires, William G.
The purpose was to investigate efficiency as related to the work transmission and the metabolic cost of various extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks during simulated microgravity (whole body water immersion) using three space suits. Two new prototype space station suits, AX-5 and MKIII, are pressurized at 57.2 kPa and were tested concurrently with the operationally used 29.6 kPa shuttle suit. Four male astronauts were asked to perform a fatigue trial on four upper extremity exercises during which metabolic rate and work output were measured and efficiency was calculated in each suit. The activities were selected to simulate actual EVA tasks. The test article was an underwater dynamometry system to which the astronauts were secured by foot restraints. All metabolic data was acquired, calculated, and stored using a computerized indirect calorimetry system connected to the suit ventilation/gas supply control console. During the efficiency testing, steady state metabolic rate could be evaluated as well as work transmitted to the dynamometer. Mechanical efficiency could then be calculated for each astronaut in each suit performing each movement.
Noweir, M B; Osman, H A; Abbas, F I; Abou-Taleb, A M; Mansour, T A
The studied population (1000 children and young workers and 250 controls) were interviewed for health complaints and subjected to extensive medical investigations. Health problems are more encountered among the workers than in the controls, which has been attributed to the impact of work on health and to the low socioeconomic background that compels the children to work, which may constitute a potential health problem from the start. The significant health problems include: a) Respiratory system complaints, attacks of cough, chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma and reduction in FEV1.0/FVC; b) cardiovascular abnormalities including palpitations, sinus tachycardia, anemia, vertigo and syncope; c) gastrointestinal abnormalities including dyspepsia and parasitic infestations; d) neuropsychiatric complaints; and e) other health problems including urinary tract infections, backache, visual impairment, repair of hernia and nocturnal enuresis. The study has been concluded by recommending the use of primary health care approach to child labour, emphasizing the importance of pre-employment and periodical medical examinations for protecting this vulnerable group from work hazards, and expanding the efforts of family planning to reduce family size.
Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Glaser, C.; Klingebiel, D.; Komm, M.; Müller, G.; Rieger, M.; Steggemann, J.; Urban, M.; Winchen, T.
Larsen, Ask; Mortensen, Jens; Blomqvist, Jakob; Castelli, Ivano; Christensen, Rune; Dulak, Marcin; Friis, Jesper; Groves, Michael; Hammer, Bjork; Hargus, Cory; Hermes, Eric; Jennings, Paul; Jensen, Peter; Kermode, James; Kitchin, John; Kolsbjerg, Esben; Kubal, Joseph; Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Lysgaard, Steen; Maronsson, Jon; Maxson, Tristan; Olsen, Thomas; Pastewka, Lars; Peterson, Andrew; Rostgaard, Carsten; Schiøtz, Jakob; Schütt, Ole; Strange, Mikkel; Thygesen, Kristian; Vegge, Tejs; Vilhelmsen, Lasse; Walter, Michael; Zeng, Zhenhua; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel
The Atomic Simulation Environment (ASE) is a software package written in the Python programming language with the aim of setting up, steering, and analyzing atomistic simula- tions. In ASE, tasks are fully scripted in Python. The powerful syntax of Python combined with the NumPy array library make it possible to perform very complex simulation tasks. For example, a sequence of calculations may be performed with the use of a simple "for-loop" construction. Calculations of energy, forces, stresses and other quantities are performed through interfaces to many external electronic structure codes or force fields using a uniform interface. On top of this calculator interface, ASE provides modules for performing many standard simulation tasks such as structure optimization, molecular dynamics, handling of constraints and performing nudged elastic band calculations.
Mulet, Xavier; Cabot, Gabriel; Ocampo-Sosa, Alain A.; Domínguez, M. Angeles; Zamorano, Laura; Juan, Carlos; Tubau, Fe; Rodríguez, Cristina; Moyà, Bartolomé; Peña, Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis
A limited number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa genotypes (mainly ST-111, ST-175, and ST-235), known as high-risk clones, are responsible for epidemics of nosocomial infections by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains worldwide. We explored the potential biological parameters that may explain the success of these clones. A total of 20 isolates from each of 4 resistance groups (XDR, MDR, ModR [resistant to 1 or 2 classes], and MultiS [susceptible to all antipseudomonals]), recovered from a multicenter study of P. aeruginosa bloodstream infections performed in 10 Spanish hospitals, were analyzed. A further set of 20 XDR isolates belonging to epidemic high-risk clones (ST-175 [n = 6], ST-111 [n = 7], and ST-235 [n = 7]) recovered from different geographical locations was also studied. When unknown, genotypes were documented through multilocus sequence typing. The biological parameters evaluated included twitching, swimming, and swarming motility, biofilm formation, production of pyoverdine and pyocyanin, spontaneous mutant frequencies, and the in vitro competition index (CI) obtained with a flow cytometry assay. All 20 (100%) XDR, 8 (40%) MDR, and 1 (5%) ModR bloodstream isolate from the multicenter study belonged to high-risk clones. No significant differences were observed between clonally diverse ModR and MultiS isolates for any of the parameters. In contrast, MDR/XDR high-risk clones showed significantly increased biofilm formation and mutant frequencies but significantly reduced motility (twitching, swimming, and swarming), production of pyoverdine and pyocyanin, and fitness. The defined biological markers of high-risk clones, which resemble those resulting from adaptation to chronic infections, could be useful for the design of specific treatment and infection control strategies. PMID:23979744
Ray, Karen; Decicco, Julie; Lefebre, Nancy; Bender, Danielle
The nursing profession is currently experiencing a shift to community care, more complex clients and a shortage of human resources. Home healthcare organizations can increase job satisfaction and retention by better managing nurses' workloads and ensuring more time for direct client care. This project used innovative technology and dynamic methods to document nurses' work lives, identify areas for process improvements and increase time available for direct client care. This case study provides insight into ways in which organizations can streamline non-care activities and discusses implications for nursing leaders at the local and regional levels.
Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Larivière, Michael; Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen; Schinke, Robert; Belanger-Gardner, Diane
This article reports on a literature review of workplace interventions (i.e., creating healthy work environments and improving nurses' quality of work life [QWL]) aimed at managing occupational stress and burnout for nurses. A literature search was conducted using the keywords nursing, nurses, stress, distress, stress management, burnout, and intervention. All the intervention studies included in this review reported on workplace intervention strategies, mainly individual stress management and burnout interventions. Recommendations are provided to improve nurses' QWL in health care organizations through workplace health promotion programs so that nurses can be recruited and retained in rural and northern regions of Ontario. These regions have unique human resources needs due to the shortage of nurses working in primary care.
Howell, Elizabeth A; Padrón, Norma A; Beane, Susan J; Stone, Joanne; Walther, Virginia; Balbierz, Amy; Kumar, Rashi; Pagán, José A
Purpose This paper describes the implementation of an innovative program that aims to improve postpartum care through a set of coordinated delivery and payment system changes designed to use postpartum care as an opportunity to impact the current and future health of vulnerable women and reduce disparities in health outcomes among minority women. Description A large health care system, a Medicaid managed care organization, and a multidisciplinary team of experts in obstetrics, health economics, and health disparities designed an intervention to improve postpartum care for women identified as high-risk. The program includes a social work/care management component and a payment system redesign with a cost-sharing arrangement between the health system and the Medicaid managed care plan to cover the cost of staff, clinician education, performance feedback, and clinic/clinician financial incentives. The goal is to enroll 510 high-risk postpartum mothers. Assessment The primary outcome of interest is a timely postpartum visit in accordance with NCQA healthcare effectiveness data and information set guidelines. Secondary outcomes include care process measures for women with specific high-risk conditions, emergency room visits, postpartum readmissions, depression screens, and health care costs. Conclusion Our evidence-based program focuses on an important area of maternal health, targets racial/ethnic disparities in postpartum care, utilizes an innovative payment reform strategy, and brings together insurers, researchers, clinicians, and policy experts to work together to foster health and wellness for postpartum women and reduce disparities.
Murray, R.T.; Medonos, S.
The present goal-setting approach to safety on offshore installations in the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS) means that new oil and gas installations must be designed to sufficiently resist potential accidental loads. A goal-setting approach also allows other goals such as environmental issues or continuity of hydrocarbon production targets to be defined and then integrated and optimized within the whole design and operation of an oil or gas installation. In the past, design criteria for fire and blast have been prescriptive and component based. In reality, however, an oil or gas installation fulfills its objectives as a whole system, i.e. all its parts and components act together, often in a time-dependent manner. A system approach has been possible in the past for normal operational loads, e.g. on structures and pipework. However, for accidental or upset conditions, only the relatively recent advances in computerized techniques enabled simulation of system behavior under dynamic and ultimate limit state conditions with acceptable accuracy. The work presented in this paper was performed as a part of the Safety Case development for the Rough platforms. Using performance criteria, advanced analytical techniques and performing the work in a close multi-discipline collaboration manner enabled it to be completed on time with significant cost savings.
Schaeffer, Cindy M; Henggeler, Scott W; Ford, Julian D; Mann, Marc; Chang, Rocio; Chapman, Jason E
Juvenile offenders with substance use problems are at high risk for deleterious long-term outcomes. This study evaluated the capacity of a promising vocational and employment training program in the building sector (i.e., Community Restitution Apprenticeship-Focused Training, CRAFT) to mitigate such outcomes through enhanced employment and education. Participants were 97 high-risk juvenile offenders (mean age=15.8 years) randomized to CRAFT versus education as usual (EAU) intervention conditions. Multi-method procedures measured employment, education, substance use, mental health, and criminal outcomes through a 30-month post-baseline follow-up. CRAFT was significantly more effective than EAU at increasing rates of youth employment and GED attendance. Intervention effects were not observed, however, for months employed, hours worked, or hourly wage. Measures of youth substance use, mental health symptoms, and criminal activity showed no favorable or iatrogenic effects. The potential of CRAFT was modestly supported, and suggestions were made for future research.
Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Ford, Julian D.; Mann, Marc; Chang, Rocio; Chapman, Jason E.
Juvenile offenders with substance use problems are at high risk for deleterious long-term outcomes. This study evaluated the capacity of a promising vocational and employment training program in the building sector (i.e., Community Restitution Apprenticeship-Focused Training, CRAFT) to mitigate such outcomes through enhanced employment and education. Participants were 97 high-risk juvenile offenders (mean age = 15.8 years) randomized to CRAFT versus education as usual (EAU) intervention conditions. Multi-method procedures measured employment, education, substance use, mental health, and criminal outcomes through a 30-month post-baseline follow-up. CRAFT was significantly more effective than EAU at increasing rates of youth employment and GED attendance. Intervention effects were not observed, however, for months employed, hours worked, or hourly wage. Measures of youth substance use, mental health symptoms, and criminal activity showed no favorable or iatrogenic effects. The potential of CRAFT was modestly supported, and suggestions were made for future research. PMID:23958035
Hall, Jean P
The Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan (PCIP) was a national high-risk pool established under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) to provide coverage for individuals with preexisting conditions who had been uninsured for at least six months. It was intended to be a temporary program: PCIPs opened in 2010 and closed in April 2014. At that point, those with preexisting conditions could shop for health insurance in the marketplaces, where plans are prevented from using applicants' health status to deny coverage or charge more. This issue brief draws on the PCIP experience to outline why national high-risk pools, which continue to be proposed as policy alternatives to ACA coverage expansions, are expensive to enrollees as well as their administrators and ultimately unsustainable. The key lesson--and the principle on which the ACA is built--is that insurance works best when risk is evenly spread across a broad population.
Gourounti, Kleanthi; Karpathiotaki, Natassa; Karapanou, Vassiliki; Antzaklis, Panos; Daskalakis, Georgios
The aim of the authors in this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Greek adaptation of the High-Risk Pregnancy Stress Scale (HRPSS) in a sample of high-risk hospitalized pregnant women. The sample consisted of 133 high-risk pregnant women with gestational age from 9 to 37 weeks. Data were collected between February and June of 2014. HRPSS was "forward-backward" translated from English to Greek. Principal axis factoring with promax rotation was used to test the factor structure of the HRPSS. Measures of state anxiety (STAI) and depressive symptoms (EPDS) were used to assess the convergent validity of the HRPSS. Exploratory factor analysis suggested three factors: concerns of pregnancy, movement restriction, and isolation and restriction of external activities. Construct validity was confirmed by computing correlations between the HRPSS and constructions of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory (α = 0.813). The original factor structure of the HRPSS was only partly replicated. The results of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor solution instead of a two-factor solution would be the most adequate. The HRPSS is an appropriate measure for assessing the levels of concerns regarding pregnancy outcome, movement restriction, isolation, and external activity restrictions in Greek high-risk pregnant women.
Lalonde, Michelle; Hall, Linda McGillis; Price, Sheri; Andrews, Gavin; Harris, Alexandra; MacDonald-Rencz, Sandra
The purpose of this study was to explore how educational opportunities may affect nurses' decision to move within Canada. Thematic analysis of qualitative data obtained from 35 registered nurses and 35 licensed practical nurses highlighted educational opportunities available in Canada and how these influence nurses' decision to move across the country for work. The results indicate that Canadian nurses value continued learning but face several barriers while trying to further their education. Two main themes emerged: support for and access to continuing education. Canadian nurses perceive a lack of support, both financially and in the form of scheduling, for engaging in continuing education. Additionally, the lack of access to accredited continuing education programs was reported. The findings and implications of this study are examined within the context of nurse mobility.
Brunges, Michele; Foley-Brinza, Christine
Workplace culture is one of the biggest factors driving employee commitment and engagement. Multiple studies have shown that hospitals will perform better over time if employees are committed to their jobs and engaged in what they do. By creating and implementing multiple projects during a three-year period, a team at the University of Florida Health Shands Hospital, Gainesville, increased job satisfaction. Projects included ensuring meal breaks were offered, creating a serenity area, developing the patient ambassador role, actively addressing bullying and unprofessional behavior, assigning a student mentee to work with staff members on culture change, offering regular fun activities, redesigning the unit, reorganizing schedules to reduce stress, implementing education and training initiatives, establishing a Unit Practice Council, and implementing reward and recognition programs. Survey results and anecdotal evidence suggest that these projects combined to increase employee satisfaction and employee retention rates.
Galloway, M G
In summary, academic medical centers face the same issues as their less complex brethren. Sure there are some "downs." The high expectations that the staff bring to their jobs can decrease flexibility in role design, and the increased need to keep professionals together can make the organizational matrix more complex. But there are also some "ups." In many ways their size and specialty focus can help with the difficult decisions in the areas of patient grouping and service delivery approach. Taking advantage of the positives and working to minimize the effect of the negatives can allow even the most complex organization to restructure successfully. Academic medical centers may not be "just right" for restructuring, but they are definitely not "too big."
Croghan, Catherine F; Moone, Rajean P; Olson, Andrea M
Many providers recognize the importance of creating culturally competent services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. Although multiple resources list steps to make professional practices more LGBT-welcoming, these resources provide no empirical data to support their recommendations. LGBT older adults (N = 327) were asked to describe what signals that a provider is LGBT-welcoming. Six of the top 10 signals related to provider behavior and suggest the importance of staff training; the balance included display of signage and rainbow flags, use of inclusive language on forms and the presence of LGBT-identified staff. Results provide evidence-based recommendations for working with LGBT older adults.
Inbar, O.; Rotstein, A.; Dlin, R.; Dotan, R.; Sulman, F. G.
The effects of negative air-ions on human physical performance has been investigated. Twenty-one healthy males, 20 25 years old (X=23.6±2.6) were exposed to two 180-min rest and exercise sessions two weeks apart. The subjects were randomly assigned into either an experimental group (n=12) or to a control group (n=9). The experimental group performed the first session in neutral air conditions and the second one in air containing 1.36 to 1.90×105 negative air ions and 1.40 to 1.66×102 positive air ions/ml. The control group performed both sessions under neutral air conditions. All sessions were held at Ta=40±1‡C and 25±5% RH. Each session included one hour of resting under the respective ionization conditions, followed by 3 30-min cycle ergometer work bouts, separated by 7-min rest periods. The mechanical work-load during the bicycle exercise was 1.64±0.6 W/kg BW. The experimental group showed a significant reduction with negative air-ions in heart rate (HR), in rectal temperature, and in the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), all when compared with their own neutral session. The control group showed no significant changes between the first and the second exposure. Although not statistically significant, being exposed to negative air-ions seems also to reduce total sweat rate and minute ventilation (VE), and to increase O2 pulse. It is suggested that under the conditions of this study negative air ions can improve various cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions as well as subjective feelings during physical effort. It is felt that such positive influences may be augmented by increasing the exposure time to negative ionized air and/or prolonging the stressful conditions.
Ilma Rahmillah, Fety
The working environment is one factor that has contribution to the worker's performance, especially for continuous and monotonous works. L9 Taguchi design experiment for inner array is used to design the experiment which was carried out in laboratory whereas L4 is for outer array. Four control variables with three levels of each are used to get the optimal combination of working environment setting. Four responses are also measured to know the effect of four control factors. Results shown that by using ANOVA, the effect of illumination, temperature, and instrumental music to the number of ouput, number of error, and rating perceived discomfort is significant with the total variance explained of 54,67%, 60,67%, and 75,22% respectively. By using VIKOR method, it yields the optimal combination of experiment 66 with the setting condition of A3-B2-C1-D3. The illumination is 325-350 lux, temperature is 240-260C, fast category of instrumental music, and 70-80 dB for intensity of the music being played.
Saidel-Goley, Isaac N; Albiero, Erin E; Flannery, Kathleen A
Dissociation is a mental process resulting in the disruption of memory, perception, and sometimes identity. At a nonclinical level, only mild dissociative experiences occur. The nature of nonclinical dissociation is disputed in the literature, with some asserting that it is a beneficial information processing style and others positing that it is a psychopathological phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to further the understanding of nonclinical dissociation with respect to memory and attention, by including a more ecologically valid virtual reality (VR) memory task along with standard neuropsychological tasks. Forty-five undergraduate students from a small liberal arts college in the northeast participated for course credit. The participants completed a battery of tasks including two standard memory tasks, a standard attention task, and an experimental VR memory task; the VR task included immersion in a virtual apartment, followed by incidental object-location recall for objects in the virtual apartment. Support for the theoretical model portraying nonclinical dissociation as a beneficial information processing style was found in this study. Dissociation scores were positively correlated with working memory scores and attentional processing scores on the standard neuropsychological tasks. In terms of the VR task, dissociation scores were positively correlated with more false positive memories that could be the result of a tendency of nonclinical highly dissociative individuals to create more elaborative schemas. This study also demonstrates that VR paradigms add to the prediction of cognitive functioning in testing protocols using standard neuropsychological tests, while simultaneously increasing ecological validity.
Ghose, M K; Majee, S R
In India coal production will have to be increased to meat the energy demand at a very high rate. By 2000 AD the cool production from opencast (O/C) mining will rise to 250 Mt. which will be about 70%of the total coal production. The increasing trend of O/C mining leads to cause air pollution problem. A survey was conducted to assess the status of work zone air envimment due to opencast coal mining in Jharia Coalfield. Keeping in view of place of dust generation air quality monitoring stations were selected. Methodology adapted for sampling and analysis of air pollutants have been described. Four season data revealed that maximum concentration of SPM was observed at dragline section and the next high concentration was at haul roads. At all the locations SPM and RPM concentrations exceeded the permissible limits specified by Indian Pollution Control Board. Shift wise and location wise analysis for getting higher concentration of SO2 and NOx, have been discussed. Wind velocity and directions, mixing heights, ventilation coefficient of the area have been analyzed. Huge dust generation creates vision problem to HEMM operators. The methodology adopted may be utilised on industrial scale for various sites.
Meneghetti, Chiara; Borella, Erika; Carbone, Elena; Martinelli, Massimiliano; De Beni, Rossana
This study examined age-related differences between young and older adults in the involvement of verbal and visuo-spatial components of working memory (WM) when paths are learned from verbal and visuo-spatial inputs. A sample of 60 young adults (20-30 years old) and 58 older adults (60-75 years old) learned two paths from the person's point of view, one displayed in the form of a video showing the path, the other presenting the path in a verbal description. During the learning phase, participants concurrently performed a verbal task (articulatory suppression, AS group), or a visuo-spatial task (spatial tapping, ST group), or no secondary task (control, C group). After learning each path, participants completed tasks that involved the following: (1) recalling the sequential order and the location of landmarks; and (2) judging spatial sentences as true or false (verification test). The results showed that young adults outperformed older adults in all recall tasks. In both age groups performance in all types of task was worse in the AS and ST groups than in the C group, irrespective of the type of input. Overall, these findings suggest that verbal and visuo-spatial components of WM underpin the processing of environmental information in both young and older adults. The results are discussed in terms of age-related differences and according to the spatial cognition framework.
Baker, S J; Grice, J; Roby, L; Matthews, C
The cardiorespiratory and thermal responses of two intensities of treadmill exercise were compared for brief periods (12 min) in fire ensemble (FE) but without self contained breathing apparatus, and sports ensemble (SE), in a temperature environment. A further experiment explored the responses of subjects exercising in FE over a prolonged period (60 min). Eighteen male fire-fighters wearing either FE or SE walked on a level treadmill for 6 min at 5 km x h(-1) increasing to 7 km x h(-1) for 6 min. Following a recovery interval of 1 h, the exercise protocol was repeated in the second ensemble; the order of ensemble was balanced. Heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre), VO2 max and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored continuously under both ensembles. At 7 km x h(-1), VO2 was significantly higher (p<0.05) in FE (36.1 and 39.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) than in SE and represented 74% VO2 max. There were no changes Tre. In experiment 2, following a rest interval of at least 36 h, eight subjects in FE walked on the treadmill at 6 km x h (gradient 10%) for 60 min also in temperate conditions, where HR, Tre and RPE were recorded at 10-min intervals. During the 60-min exercise in FE, HR reached 161 beats x min(-1) and Tre increased to 38.3 degrees C. Despite considerable subject discomfort, Tre remained below dangerous levels (38.4 degrees C). When RPE were compared with a physiological strain index (PSI) calculated from Tre and HR data over 60 min, there was no significant difference (p<0.05) with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.98. The results suggest that RPE and PSI are closely related when exercise is sufficiently prolonged or intense to elevate Tre and HR in fire-fighters wearing FE in temperate conditions. If further investigation confirms this relationship for hot humid conditions in which fire-fighters operate, then with training, it may provide individuals with a valid measure of dangerous levels of perceived heat strain.
Background Perceptions of the environment appear to be associated with walking and cycling. We investigated the reasons for walking and cycling to or from work despite reporting an unsupportive route environment in a sample of commuters. Methods This mixed-method analysis used data collected as part of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study. 1164 participants completed questionnaires which assessed the travel modes used and time spent on the commute and the perceived environmental conditions on the route to work. A subset of 50 also completed qualitative interviews in which they discussed their experiences of commuting. Participants were included in this analysis if they reported unsupportive conditions for walking or cycling on their route (e.g. heavy traffic) in questionnaires, walked or cycled all or part of the journey to work, and completed qualitative interviews. Using content analysis of these interviews, we investigated their reasons for walking or cycling. Results 340 participants reported walking or cycling on the journey to work despite unsupportive conditions, of whom 15 also completed qualitative interviews. From these, three potential explanations emerged. First, some commuters found strategies for coping with unsupportive conditions. Participants described knowledge of the locality and opportunities for alternative routes more conducive to active commuting, as well as their cycling experience and acquired confidence to cycle in heavy traffic. Second, some commuters had other reasons for being reliant on or preferring active commuting despite adverse environments, such as childcare arrangements, enjoyment, having more control over their journey time, employers’ restrictions on car parking, or the cost of petrol or parking. Finally, some survey respondents appeared to have reported not their own environmental perceptions but those of others such as family members or ‘the public’, partly to make a political statement regarding the adversity
Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Gutierrez, Juan Pablo; Kumar, Anil G; McPherson, Sam; Samuels, Fiona; Bertozzi, Stefano M
Background Heterosexual contact is the most common mode of HIV transmission in India that is largely linked to sex work. We assessed the non-use of condoms in sex work and with regular sex partners by female sex workers (FSWs), and identified its associations that could assist in planning HIV prevention programmes. Methods Detailed documentation of various aspects of sex work, and sexual behaviour with regular sex partners, was done through confidential interviews for 6648 FSWs in 13 districts in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Multivariate analysis was done to understand condom non-use with clients. Results 5010 (75.4%), 1499 (22.5%), and 139 (2.1%) FSWs were street-, home-, and brothel-based, respectively. Of the total 6648 FSWs, 6165 (92.7%) had penetrative vaginal/anal sex with at least one client in the last 15 days, and of these 2907 (47.2%; 95% CI 41.2–53.2%) reported non-use of condom with at least one of her last three clients. Lack of knowledge that HIV could be prevented (odds ratio 5.01; 95% CI 4.38–5.73), no access to free condoms (odds ratio 3.45; 95% CI 2.99–3.98), being street-based as compared with brothel-based (odds ratio 3.36; 95% CI 1.87–6.04), and no participation in FSW support groups (odds ratio 2.02; 95% CI 1.50–2.70) were the most significant predictors of condom non-use with clients. Other associations included lower social support, lower income, age >24 years, illiteracy, and living in medium-size urban or rural areas. Of the 2582 who had penetrative sex with regular sex partner within the last 7 days, 2428 (94%; 95% CI 92.1–95.9%) had not used condom at last sex, and 1032 (41.8%) had neither used condom consistently with clients nor with regular sex partner. Conclusion About half the FSWs do not use condom consistently with their clients in this Indian state putting them at high risk of HIV infection. Non-brothel-based FSWs, who form the majority of sex workers in India, were at a significantly higher risk of HIV