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Sample records for high-risk work environment

  1. Working with Youth in High-Risk Environments: Experiences in Prevention. OSAP Prevention Monograph-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Carol E., Ed.; Swisher, John D., Ed.

    This report focuses on prevention programs developed with support from the Office for Substance Abuse Prevention's (OSAP) High-Risk Youth Demonstration Grant Program. Included are an Introduction (Eric Goplerud and others) and the following reports: (1) "Athletes Coaching Teens for Substance Abuse Prevention: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Risk…

  2. Teamwork in high-risk environments analogous to space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1990-01-01

    Mountaineering expeditions combine a number of factors which make them potentially good analogs to the planetary exploration facet of long-duration space missions. A study of mountain climbing teams was conducted in order to evaluate the usefulness of the environment as a space analog and to specifically identify the factors and issues surrounding teamwork and 'successful' team performance in two mountaineering environments. This paper focuses on social/organizational factors, including team size and structure, leadership styles and authority structure which were found in the sample of 22 climb teams (122 individuals). The second major issue discussed is the construction of a valid performance measure in this high-risk environment.

  3. Embedded CMs work with high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Care managers embedded in primary care clinics work with patients with high-risk diagnoses and multiple visits to the emergency department or hospital. Patients are identified though risk assessments, suggestions from inpatient case management, and requests from primary care clinicians. Care managers call patients before their clinic visits, look for gaps in care and find out patients' questions and concerns, sharing the information with the treating clinicians. Care managers follow patients for four weeks after their visit, helping them meet their health care goals and follow their treatment plan.

  4. CUSTOMS SERVICE MODERNIZATION: Management Improvements Needed on High-Risk Automated Commercial Environment Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    GAO United States General Accounting OfficeReport to Congressional CommitteesMay 2002 CUSTOMS SERVICE MODERNIZATION Management Improvements Needed...from... to) - Title and Subtitle CUSTOMS SERVICE MODERNIZATION: Management Improvements Needed on High-Risk Automated Commercial Environment... Customs management of ACE. Subject Terms Report Classification unclassified Classification of this page unclassified Classification of Abstract

  5. Assessing language and language environment of high-risk infants and children: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Caskey, Melinda; Vohr, Betty

    2013-05-01

    Language delays are common among premature infants and children with hearing loss. There are multiple tools and reports for assessing language in young children. Assessing early language and providing intervention is key to improving outcomes. We conclude that utilization of a new tool, Language Environment Analysis digital language processor (LENA™), to assess the natural language environment of high-risk infants and children in a variety of settings including the neonatal intensive care unit and home, provides the opportunity to access and identify key features of the early language environment. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Infant temperament and high-risk environment relate to behavior problems and language in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Derauf, Chris; LaGasse, Linda; Smith, Lynne; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Della Grotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne; Lin, Hai; Lester, Barry

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role that easy infant temperament and cumulative environmental risk play in predicting cognitive, language, and behavioral outcomes in 3-year-old children at high social risk. Subjects were 412 mother-infant dyads, recruited at birth, participating in a longitudinal study examining the effects of prenatal methamphetamine on child development. This analysis includes a subsample (n = 290) of the study with a completed 3-year visit. Temperament was assessed by the Infant Behavior Questionnaire at 12 months. Factor analysis from well-validated measures generated “easy” and “difficult” temperament profiles and a profile for high-risk environment. Caretaker receptive vocabulary served as a proxy for intelligence quotient. Outcomes at 3 years included motor and mental development, behavior problems, and language. Linear regression and hierarchical linear modeling examined the effects of temperament, high-risk environment, and caregiver receptive language on outcomes adjusting for maternal drug use and demographic and socioeconomic covariates. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were lower in children with easy temperament and higher with increased environmental risk. Easy temperament attenuated behavioral problems only in the setting of lower environmental risk. Caregiver receptive language was associated with lower internalizing scores. High-risk environment and temperament factors were not related to cognitive or motor outcomes. Prenatal methamphetamine exposure was not associated with 3-year-old outcomes, nor did it alter the protective effects of an easier temperament on child behavior. CHILDREN growing up in adverse social environments had increased behavioral problems and compromised language development. Conversely, an easy temperament acts as a protective factor for social-emotional development and could be related to resilience.

  7. Spatial working memory ability in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Goghari, Vina M; Brett, Caroline; Tabraham, Paul; Johns, Louise; Valmaggia, Lucia; Broome, Matthew; Woolley, James; Bramon, Elvira; Howes, Oliver; Byrne, Majella; McGuire, Philip

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this investigation was to clarify the nature of spatial working memory difficulties in individuals at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. We evaluated spatial working memory and intelligence in 96 individuals at UHR for psychosis, 28 patients with first episode psychosis (FEP), and 23 healthy controls. Fourteen UHR individuals developed a psychotic disorder during follow-up. Compared to controls, the UHR group was impaired in both the short-term maintenance of material and in the effective use of strategy, but not more immediate memory. These impairments were not as severe as those in the FEP group, as the UHR group performed better than the FEP group. A similar pattern of results was found for the intelligence measures. Discriminant function analyses demonstrated short-term maintenance of material significantly differentiated the UHR and healthy control groups even when accounting for full scale intelligence quotient (IQ); whereas full scale IQ significantly differentiated the UHR and FEP groups and FEP and control groups. Notably, within the UHR group, impaired spatial working memory performance was associated with lower global functioning, but not full scale IQ. The subgroup of UHR individuals who later developed psychosis was not significantly more impaired on any aspect of working memory performance than the group of UHR individuals who did not develop psychosis. Given, the relationship between spatial working memory deficits and functional outcome, these results indicate that cognitive remediation could be useful in individuals at UHR for psychosis to potentially improve functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical decision making in a high-risk primary care environment: a qualitative study in the UK.

    PubMed

    Balla, John; Heneghan, Carl; Thompson, Matthew; Balla, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Examine clinical reasoning and decision making in an out of hours (OOH) primary care setting to gain insights into how general practitioners (GPs) make clinical decisions and manage risk in this environment. Semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions. A 2-month qualitative interview study conducted in Oxfordshire, UK. 21 GPs working in OOH primary care. The most powerful themes to emerge related to dealing with urgent potentially high-risk cases, keeping patients safe and responding to their needs, while trying to keep patients out of hospital and the concept of 'fire fighting'. There were a number of well-defined characteristics that GPs reported making presentations easy or difficult to deal with. Severely ill patients were straightforward, while the older people, with complex multisystem diseases, were often difficult. GPs stopped collecting clinical information and came to clinical decisions when high-risk disease and severe illness requiring hospital attention has been excluded; they had responded directly to the patient's needs and there was a reliable safety net in place. Learning points that GPs identified as important for trainees in the OOH setting included the importance of developing rapport in spite of time pressures, learning to deal with uncertainty and learning about common presentations with a focus on critical cues to exclude severe illness. The findings support suggestions that improvements in primary care OOH could be achieved by including automated and regular timely feedback system for GPs and individual peer and expert clinician support for GPs with regular meetings to discuss recent cases. In addition, trainee support and mentoring to focus on clinical skills, knowledge and risk management issues specific to OOH is currently required. Investigating the stopping rules used for diagnostic closure may provide new insights into the root causes of clinical error in such a high-risk setting.

  9. High risk of near-crash driving events following night-shift work

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael L.; Howard, Mark E.; Horrey, William J.; Liang, Yulan; Anderson, Clare; Shreeve, Michael S.; O’Brien, Conor S.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Night-shift workers are at high risk of drowsiness-related motor vehicle crashes as a result of circadian disruption and sleep restriction. However, the impact of actual night-shift work on measures of drowsiness and driving performance while operating a real motor vehicle remains unknown. Sixteen night-shift workers completed two 2-h daytime driving sessions on a closed driving track at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety: (i) a postsleep baseline driving session after an average of 7.6 ± 2.4 h sleep the previous night with no night-shift work, and (ii) a postnight-shift driving session following night-shift work. Physiological measures of drowsiness were collected, including infrared reflectance oculography, electroencephalography, and electrooculography. Driving performance measures included lane excursions, near-crash events, and drives terminated because of failure to maintain control of the vehicle. Eleven near-crashes occurred in 6 of 16 postnight-shift drives (37.5%), and 7 of 16 postnight-shift drives (43.8%) were terminated early for safety reasons, compared with zero near-crashes or early drive terminations during 16 postsleep drives (Fishers exact: P = 0.0088 and P = 0.0034, respectively). Participants had a significantly higher rate of lane excursions, average Johns Drowsiness Scale, blink duration, and number of slow eye movements during postnight-shift drives compared with postsleep drives (3.09/min vs. 1.49/min; 1.71 vs. 0.97; 125 ms vs. 100 ms; 35.8 vs. 19.1; respectively, P < 0.05 for all). Night-shift work increases driver drowsiness, degrading driving performance and increasing the risk of near-crash drive events. With more than 9.5 million Americans working overnight or rotating shifts and one-third of United States commutes exceeding 30 min, these results have implications for traffic and occupational safety. PMID:26699470

  10. High-risk occupations for breast cancer in the Swedish female working population.

    PubMed Central

    Pollán, M; Gustavsson, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate, for the period 1971 through 1989, occupation-specific risks of breast cancer among Swedish women employed in 1970. METHODS: Age-period standardized incidence ratios were computed. Log-linear Poisson models were fitted, with geographical area and town size taken into account. Risks were further adjusted for major occupational group, used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Risk estimators were also calculated for women reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. RESULTS: Most elevated risks among professionals, managers, and clerks were reduced when intragroup comparisons were carried out, indicating the confounding effect of socioeconomic status. Excess risks were found for pharmacists, teachers of theoretical subjects, schoolmasters, systems analysts and programmers, telephone operators, telegraph and radio operators, metal platers and coaters, and hairdressers and beauticians, as well as for women working in 1960 and 1970 as physicians, religious workers, social workers, bank tellers, cost accountants, and telephonists. CONCLUSIONS: While the high risks observed among professional, administrative, and clerical workers might be related to lower birth rates and increased case detection, excess risks found for telephone workers and for hairdressers and beauticians deserve further attention. PMID:10358678

  11. High-risk occupations for breast cancer in the Swedish female working population.

    PubMed

    Pollán, M; Gustavsson, P

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate, for the period 1971 through 1989, occupation-specific risks of breast cancer among Swedish women employed in 1970. Age-period standardized incidence ratios were computed. Log-linear Poisson models were fitted, with geographical area and town size taken into account. Risks were further adjusted for major occupational group, used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Risk estimators were also calculated for women reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. Most elevated risks among professionals, managers, and clerks were reduced when intragroup comparisons were carried out, indicating the confounding effect of socioeconomic status. Excess risks were found for pharmacists, teachers of theoretical subjects, schoolmasters, systems analysts and programmers, telephone operators, telegraph and radio operators, metal platers and coaters, and hairdressers and beauticians, as well as for women working in 1960 and 1970 as physicians, religious workers, social workers, bank tellers, cost accountants, and telephonists. While the high risks observed among professional, administrative, and clerical workers might be related to lower birth rates and increased case detection, excess risks found for telephone workers and for hairdressers and beauticians deserve further attention.

  12. Work-up and management of a high-risk patient with primary central nervous system lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalova, Pervin A.; Tumyan, Gayane S.; Dolgushin, Mikhail B.; Akhmedov, Mobil I.

    2016-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare disorder that, in 95% of cases, represents diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. As such, making an accurate diagnosis is important. At present, stereotactic-guided biopsy is a recognized method of choice for tissue analysis. However, the diagnostic work-up for high-risk patients is determined by their performance status. Here, we report a case of PCNSL in a high-risk patient, for whom diagnosis was established by cerebrospinal fluid cytology and flow cytometry, which significantly shortened a diagnostic work-up period and allowed for the immediate treatment of the patient. PMID:28154784

  13. Better Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Looks at equipment, process, and training aspects of backpack vacuum cleaners that facilitate good ergonomics and high productivity levels, focusing on: designing new equipment for bodies and productivity; creating comfortable backpack harnesses; improving the work process via team training; and providing ergonomic training to ensure that backpack…

  14. Better Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Looks at equipment, process, and training aspects of backpack vacuum cleaners that facilitate good ergonomics and high productivity levels, focusing on: designing new equipment for bodies and productivity; creating comfortable backpack harnesses; improving the work process via team training; and providing ergonomic training to ensure that backpack…

  15. School Counsellors' Perceptions on Working with Student High-Risk Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory E.; Jeffery, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The current exploratory-descriptive study used a survey design method to examine guidance counsellors' and educational psychologists' perceptions of their preparation, motivation, and effectiveness in preventing, assessing, and intervening into student high-risk behaviour. The study also explored training associated with addressing high-risk…

  16. Laptops for High-Risk Students: Empowerment and Personalization in a Standards-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Linda; Snow, Juna Z.

    2006-01-01

    "Cooltown@Roosevelt," an instructional technology program implemented in 2002-04 based on a five-year collaboration involving Vancouver School District in Washington state, Hewlett-Packard Corporation, and Comcast, provided high-risk students in six elementary classrooms with laptops and wireless internet access at school and at home. A…

  17. Effective Strategies to Reduce High Risk Drinking among College Students and Residents in an Urban Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley, Marsha; Zeigler, Donald W.

    2007-01-01

    An urban American university, Georgia Institute of Technology, established a campus-community coalition to reduce high risk drinking, its harms and second-hand effects among university students and residents of the Atlanta community. The Atlanta-based institution was part of a ten-year, ten-university project, A Matter of Degree (AMOD),…

  18. Work-Related Violent Deaths in the US Taxi and Limousine Industry 2003 to 2013: Disparities Within a High-Risk Working Population.

    PubMed

    Chaumont Menéndez, Cammie K; Socias-Morales, Christina; Daus, Matthew W

    2017-08-01

    We describe the magnitude and distribution of violent work-related deaths among taxi and limousine drivers, a high-risk population. We analyzed rates using the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) for all violent work-related deaths in the taxi and limousine industry from 2003 to 2013. We described demographics, work characteristics, and other injury details, examining temporal trends for nativity and race/ethnicity. Men (adjusted rate ratio [RRadj] 6.1 [95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6-14.1]), blacks (RRadj 2.3 [95% CI 1.6-3.4]), Hispanics (RRadj 2.1 [95% CI 1.3-3.4]), and drivers in the South (RRadj 2.7 [95% CI 1.9-3.9]) had significantly higher fatality rates than comparison groups. Over time, the rates remained substantially higher compared with all workers. The taxi and limousine industry continues to face a disproportionately dangerous working environment. Recommended safety measures implemented uniformly by cities, companies, and drivers could mitigate disparities.

  19. How work environment impacts retention.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Work environment is a major aspect of the day-to-day grind that drives the retention (or turnover) of RNs. When opportunities abound, it is easy to jump ship, and when turnover begins, it is usually the best and brightest who are first to depart. Recent research reported a whopping 27.1% average voluntary turnover rate among new graduate nurses during their first year of employment. Aging of the nurse workforce may be the largest factor impacting health care work environments, as employers struggle to diminish the physical effect of lifting thousands of pounds and walking several miles during each shift. Every influence on the work environment (management, peer behavior, patient acuity, equipment availability, the physical plant) should be assessed for impact on the workforce. While we cannot hope to create paradise in each work setting, we can promote an environment that is healing both to patient and to caregiver.

  20. Work environments for employee creativity.

    PubMed

    Dul, Jan; Ceylan, Canan

    2011-01-01

    Innovative organisations need creative employees who generate new ideas for product or process innovation. This paper presents a conceptual framework for the effect of personal, social-organisational and physical factors on employee creativity. Based on this framework, an instrument to analyse the extent to which the work environment enhances creativity is developed. This instrument was applied to a sample of 409 employees and support was found for the hypothesis that a creative work environment enhances creative performance. This paper illustrates how the instrument can be used in companies to select and implement improvements. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The ergonomics discipline addresses the work environment mainly for improving health and safety and sometimes productivity and quality. This paper opens a new area for ergonomics: designing work environments for enhancing employee creativity in order to strengthen an organisation's capability for product and process innovation and, consequently, its competitiveness.

  1. Venues, Patrons, and Alcohol Use Dynamics: The Creation of a High Risk Sexual Environment

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Ávila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:24691922

  2. Venues, patrons, and alcohol use dynamics: the creation of a high risk sexual environment.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Avila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk.

  3. Creating a Positive Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The author believes happy staff make for happy classrooms and happy classrooms make for happy children. However, with all the pressures facing child care programs--from the economy to state requirements--creating and maintaining a positive work environment becomes tougher and tougher. In this article, the author discusses the importance of…

  4. Creating a Positive Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The author believes happy staff make for happy classrooms and happy classrooms make for happy children. However, with all the pressures facing child care programs--from the economy to state requirements--creating and maintaining a positive work environment becomes tougher and tougher. In this article, the author discusses the importance of…

  5. Promoting Social Nurturance and Positive Social Environments to Reduce Obesity in High-Risk Youth.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dawn K; Sweeney, Allison M; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St George, Sara M

    2017-03-01

    Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth's behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at-risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family, and social-environmental-level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and healthcare providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth.

  6. Using satellite imagery and GPS technology to create random sampling frames in high risk environments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yihan; Kuwayama, David Paul

    2016-08-01

    Health surveys are important tools for assessing needs and informing policy decisions. However, obtaining representative samples is challenging in environments without traditional infrastructure or census data. We describe a method using satellite imagery, geographic information systems and GPS technology to obtain an accurate sample of such a population. The Kerenik Camp in Darfur is a conflict-heavy environment with 25,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs). We requisitioned high-resolution satellite imagery of the camp prior to arrival. Structures identified as potential domiciles were geocoded with a unique ID and coordinate. A random selection of ID numbers formed the representative sample. Researchers visited these coordinates using handheld GPS devices and administered surveys to the inhabitants. 2219 geocoded points were visited. Of these, 1655 (74.6%) proved to be unique domiciles. Our survey participation rate was 87.1%. The overall effective rate of completed survey per geocoded point visited was 39.1%. Our sampling technique offers several advantages when surveying vulnerable populations. It permits the establishment of a sampling frame without need for traditional infrastructure, such as addresses or telephones. Sampling frames can be constructed remotely and prior to survey initiation, important considerations for insecure environments where time on the ground may be limited. This technique can be used for any setting requiring a random sample, but is especially useful in insecure environments and survey areas without accessible census data, postal addresses, or telephone numbers. Sampling frames can be constructed remotely and prior to survey initiation, important considerations for environments where time on the ground may be limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Multicultural Considerations: Working with Families of Developmentally Disabled and High Risk Children. The Hispanic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rocio DeMateo

    The paper first points out how important it is for professionals who work with families and infants with developmental problems to be aware of ethnic and cultural differences, and then goes on to discuss some values typically held by Hispanic Americans. Professionals should understand the family's immigration history and status in order to know…

  8. Securing the User's Work Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.

    2004-01-01

    High performance computing at the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility at NASA Ames Research Center includes C90's, J90's and Origin 2000's. Not only is it necessary to protect these systems from outside attacks, but also to provide a safe working environment on the systems. With the right tools, security anomalies in the user s work environment can be deleted and corrected. Validating proper ownership of files against user s permissions, will reduce the risk of inadvertent data compromise. The detection of extraneous directories and files hidden amongst user home directories is important for identifying potential compromises. The first runs of these utilities detected over 350,000 files with problems. With periodic scans, automated correction of problems takes only minutes. Tools for detecting these types of problems as well as their development techniques will be discussed with emphasis on consistency, portability and efficiency for both UNICOS and IRIX.

  9. Securing the User's Work Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.

    2004-01-01

    High performance computing at the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility at NASA Ames Research Center includes C90's, J90's and Origin 2000's. Not only is it necessary to protect these systems from outside attacks, but also to provide a safe working environment on the systems. With the right tools, security anomalies in the user s work environment can be deleted and corrected. Validating proper ownership of files against user s permissions, will reduce the risk of inadvertent data compromise. The detection of extraneous directories and files hidden amongst user home directories is important for identifying potential compromises. The first runs of these utilities detected over 350,000 files with problems. With periodic scans, automated correction of problems takes only minutes. Tools for detecting these types of problems as well as their development techniques will be discussed with emphasis on consistency, portability and efficiency for both UNICOS and IRIX.

  10. Auditory working memory impairments in individuals at familial high risk for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Larry J.; Meyer, Eric C.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Breiter, Hans C.; Goldstein, Jill M.; Kremen, William S.; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Toomey, Rosemary; Stone, William S.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The search for predictors of schizophrenia has accelerated with a growing focus on early intervention and prevention of psychotic illness. Studying nonpsychotic relatives of individuals with schizophrenia enables identification of markers of vulnerability for the illness independent of confounds associated with psychosis. The goal of these studies was to develop new auditory continuous performance tests (ACPTs) and evaluate their effects in individuals with schizophrenia and their relatives. Methods We carried out two studies of auditory vigilance with tasks involving working memory (WM) and interference control with increasing levels of cognitive load to discern the information processing vulnerabilities in a sample of schizophrenia patients, and two samples of nonpsychotic relatives of individuals with schizophrenia and controls. Study 1 assessed adults (mean age = 41), and Study 2 assessed teenagers and young adults age 13-25 (mean =19). Results Patients with schizophrenia were impaired on all five versions of the ACPTs, while relatives were impaired only on WM tasks, particularly the two interference tasks that maximize cognitive load. Across all groups, the interference tasks were more difficult to perform than the other tasks. Schizophrenia patients performed worse than relatives who performed worse than controls. For patients, the effect sizes were large (Cohen’s d =1.5), whereas for relatives, they were moderate (d = ~0.40-0.50). There was no age by group interaction in the relatives –control comparison except for participants <31 years of age. Conclusions Novel WM tasks that manipulate cognitive load and interference control index an important component of the vulnerability to schizophrenia. PMID:22563872

  11. Collaborative Work Environment for Operational Conjunction Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, F.; Christy, S.

    Conjunction Messages (CM) provided by JSpOC are complete and valuable data to evaluate the level of risk of conjunctions, decide and choose avoidance actions. Nevertheless, conjunction assessment remains a difficult task which requires Middle Man between the CM provider (JSpOC) and Owner/Operators. Operational collision threat characterization is now an essential component of space mission operations. Most spacecraft operators have some sort of a process to evaluate and mitigate high-risk conjunction events. As the size of the space object catalog increases, satellite operators will be faced with more conjunction events to evaluate. Thus more sophisticated collision threat characterization and collision avoidance strategies must be implemented thought Middle Man entities. CAESAR (Conjunction Analysis and Evaluation Service, Alerts and Recommendations) is the French Middle Man. CAESAR relies on a collaborative work environment between all members of CAESAR team and its subscribers. For CAESAR, the collaborative work environment is based on JAC software and a dedicated secure webserver SpOD Space Operational Data. JAC software is not the Main Flight Dynamics (FD) software used by CAESAR team, but it is a light friendly CM dedicated software to be used on a laptop by on-call teams or support dialogue between Middle Man and FD teams. The dedicated secure webserver is a key element to share data and information between actors. This paper presents the main feedbacks from CAESAR team operational experience with regards to its collaborative work environment components: - JAC software which is not a classical Flight Dynamics software, its MMI is designed to be very quickly taken over (by teams not using it on daily basis) while also offering all the expertise levels required by the Middle Man team. JAC is used by CAESAR on-call team and all FD teams who subscribed to CAESAR. JAC is also distributed by CNES and therefore already used by some operational teams for Conjunction

  12. Resting cortisol level, self-concept, and putative familial environment in adolescents at ultra high-risk for psychotic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carol, Emily E.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A growing body of evidence suggests that resting cortisol levels are elevated in patients with schizophrenia and closely tied to symptom severity. However, there is limited research on the biological stress system during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis, and cortisol has not been examined in relation to individual characteristics such as self-concept or potential stressors such as putative familial environment in this critical population. In the present study, salivary cortisol samples were collected on 37 UHR and 42 matched control adolescents, and these individuals were assessed with clinical interviews as well as a measure of self-concept. For a subsection of the sample (23 UHR and 20 control adolescents), a participating relative/caretaker was also assessed with an expressed emotion interview designed to gauge psychosocial environment. Consistent with previous studies, UHR participants exhibited elevated resting cortisol levels when compared with controls. In addition, UHR adolescents exhibited increased negative self-concept and their relatives/caretakers endorsed significantly fewer initial positive statements about the participant. Interestingly, a strong trend in the UHR group suggests that higher cortisol levels are associated with higher rates of critical statements from relatives/caretakers. Furthermore, elevated cortisol levels in the participants were associated with increased negative self-concept as well as fewer initial positive comments from relatives/caretakers. Results suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysfunction is closely associated with both individual and environmental-level characteristics. Taken together, these findings support a neural diathesis-stress model of psychosis and future studies, designed to examine causal relationships, stand to inform both our understanding of pathogenic processes in the high-risk period as well as early intervention efforts. PMID

  13. Resting cortisol level, self-concept, and putative familial environment in adolescents at ultra high-risk for psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Carol, Emily E; Mittal, Vijay A

    2015-07-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that resting cortisol levels are elevated in patients with schizophrenia and closely tied to symptom severity. However, there is limited research on the biological stress system during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis, and cortisol has not been examined in relation to individual characteristics such as self-concept or potential stressors such as putative familial environment in this critical population. In the present study, salivary cortisol samples were collected on 37 UHR and 42 matched control adolescents, and these individuals were assessed with clinical interviews as well as a measure of self-concept. For a subsection of the sample (23 UHR and 20 control adolescents), a participating relative/caretaker was also assessed with an expressed emotion interview designed to gauge psychosocial environment. Consistent with previous studies, UHR participants exhibited elevated resting cortisol levels when compared with controls. In addition, UHR adolescents exhibited increased negative self-concept and their relatives/caretakers endorsed significantly fewer initial positive statements about the participant. Interestingly, a strong trend in the UHR group suggests that higher cortisol levels are associated with higher rates of critical statements from relatives/caretakers. Furthermore, elevated cortisol levels in the participants were associated with increased negative self-concept as well as fewer initial positive comments from relatives/caretakers. Results suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysfunction is closely associated with both individual and environmental-level characteristics. Taken together, these findings support a neural diathesis-stress model of psychosis and future studies, designed to examine causal relationships, stand to inform both our understanding of pathogenic processes in the high-risk period as well as early intervention efforts. Published by

  14. [Indoor environments, work and health].

    PubMed

    Abbritti, G

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the activities of most of the working population are carried out in confined, non-industrial environments such as offices, hospitals, libraries, social and leisure centres and means of transport. Sub-optimal air quality in these confined spaces can lead to discomfort, ailments and even diseases. The impact and diffusion of these effects have led to the organisation and funding of large-scale epidemiological investigations in many countries and the nomination of working parties by governments, health agencies and international scientific societies. Over the past 20 years studies on indoor environments have identified sources of risk of various pollutants, established the levels of potentially dangerous concentrations and, for most of them, have provided effective measures. However, the effects of many biological agents and chemical mixtures still remain to be defined and effective guidelines are needed for high quality indoor air. Identifying and managing indoor risk factors presupposes a specific methodology: the specialist in occupational medicine can play a key role in risk assessment, in the early diagnosis of building-related illnesses and in the prevention of both short- and long-term effects.

  15. A socio-cognitive strategy to address farmers' tolerance of high risk work: Disrupting the effects of apprenticeship of observation.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Joan M; Westneat, Susan

    2017-02-01

    Why do generations of farmers tolerate the high-risk work of agricultural work and resist safe farm practices? This study presents an analysis inspired by empirical data from studies conducted from 1993 to 2012 on the differing effects of farm safety interventions between participants who live or work on farms and those who don't, when both were learning to be farm safety advocates. Both groups show statistically significant gains in knowledge and behavioral change proxy measures. However, non-farm participants' gains consistently outstripped their live/work farm counterparts. Drawing on socio-cultural perspectives, a grounded theory qualitative analysis focused on identifying useful constructs to understand the farmers' resistance to adopt safety practices. Understanding apprenticeships of observation and its relation to experiential learning over time can expose sources of deeply anchored beliefs and how they operate insidiously to promote familiar, albeit unsafe farming practices. The challenge for intervention-prevention programs becomes how to disrupt what has been learned during these apprenticeships of observation and to address what has been obscured during this powerful socialization process. Implications focus on the design and implementation of farm safety prevention and education programs. First, farm safety advocates and prevention researchers need to attend to demographics and explicitly explore the prior experiences and background of safety program participants. Second, farm youth in particular need to explore, explicitly, their own apprenticeships of observations, preferably through the use of new social media and or digital forms of expression, resulting in a story repair process. Third, careful study of the organization of work and farm experiences and practices need to provide the foundations for intervention programs. Finally, it is crucial that farm safety programs understand apprenticeships of observation are generational and ongoing over time

  16. Classifying individuals at high-risk for psychosis based on functional brain activity during working memory processing.

    PubMed

    Bendfeldt, Kerstin; Smieskova, Renata; Koutsouleris, Nikolaos; Klöppel, Stefan; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Wrege, Johannes; Simon, Andor; Taschler, Bernd; Nichols, Thomas; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Lang, Undine E; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The psychosis high-risk state is accompanied by alterations in functional brain activity during working memory processing. We used binary automatic pattern-classification to discriminate between the at-risk mental state (ARMS), first episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls (HCs) based on n-back WM-induced brain activity. Linear support vector machines and leave-one-out-cross-validation were applied to fMRI data of matched ARMS, FEP and HC (19 subjects/group). The HC and ARMS were correctly classified, with an accuracy of 76.2% (sensitivity 89.5%, specificity 63.2%, p = 0.01) using a verbal working memory network mask. Only 50% and 47.4% of individuals were classified correctly for HC vs. FEP (p = 0.46) or ARMS vs. FEP (p = 0.62), respectively. Without mask, accuracy was 65.8% for HC vs. ARMS (p = 0.03) and 65.8% for HC vs. FEP (p = 0.0047), and 57.9% for ARMS vs. FEP (p = 0.18). Regions in the medial frontal, paracingulate, cingulate, inferior frontal and superior frontal gyri, inferior and superior parietal lobules, and precuneus were particularly important for group separation. These results suggest that FEP and HC or FEP and ARMS cannot be accurately separated in small samples under these conditions. However, ARMS can be identified with very high sensitivity in comparison to HC. This might aid classification and help to predict transition in the ARMS.

  17. Treatment of multiple myeloma with high-risk cytogenetics: a consensus of the International Myeloma Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Lonial, Sagar; Usmani, Saad; Siegel, David; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Chng, Wee-Joo; Moreau, Philippe; Attal, Michel; Kyle, Robert A.; Caers, Jo; Hillengass, Jens; San Miguel, Jesús; van de Donk, Niels W. C. J.; Einsele, Hermann; Bladé, Joan; Durie, Brian G. M.; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Mateos, María-Victoria; Palumbo, Antonio; Orlowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The International Myeloma Working Group consensus updates the definition for high-risk (HR) multiple myeloma based on cytogenetics Several cytogenetic abnormalities such as t(4;14), del(17/17p), t(14;16), t(14;20), nonhyperdiploidy, and gain(1q) were identified that confer poor prognosis. The prognosis of patients showing these abnormalities may vary with the choice of therapy. Treatment strategies have shown promise for HR cytogenetic diseases, such as proteasome inhibition in combination with lenalidomide/pomalidomide, double autologous stem cell transplant plus bortezomib, or combination of immunotherapy with lenalidomide or pomalidomide. Careful analysis of cytogenetic subgroups in trials comparing different treatments remains an important goal. Cross-trial comparisons may provide insight into the effect of new drugs in patients with cytogenetic abnormalities. However, to achieve this, consensus on definitions of analytical techniques, proportion of abnormal cells, and treatment regimens is needed. Based on data available today, bortezomib and carfilzomib treatment appear to improve complete response, progression-free survival, and overall survival in t(4;14) and del(17/17p), whereas lenalidomide may be associated with improved progression-free survival in t(4;14) and del(17/17p). Patients with multiple adverse cytogenetic abnormalities do not benefit from these agents. FISH data are implemented in the revised International Staging System for risk stratification. PMID:27002115

  18. Genetic liability, prenatal health, stress and family environment: risk factors in the Harvard Adolescent Family High Risk for schizophrenia study.

    PubMed

    Walder, Deborah J; Faraone, Stephen V; Glatt, Stephen J; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-08-01

    The familial ("genetic") high-risk (FHR) paradigm enables assessment of individuals at risk for schizophrenia based on a positive family history of schizophrenia in first-degree, biological relatives. This strategy presumes genetic transmission of abnormal traits given high heritability of the illness. It is plausible, however, that adverse environmental factors are also transmitted in these families. Few studies have evaluated both biological and environmental factors within a FHR study of adolescents. We conceptualize four precursors to psychosis pathogenesis: two biological (genetic predisposition, prenatal health issues (PHIs)) and two environmental (family environment, stressful life events (SLEs)). Participants assessed between 1998 and 2007 (ages 13-25) included 40 (20F/20M) adolescents at FHR for schizophrenia (FHRs) and 55 (31F/24M) community controls. 'Genetic load' indexed number of affected family members relative to pedigree size. PHI was significantly greater among FHRs, and family cohesion and expressiveness were less (and family conflict was higher) among FHRs; however, groups did not significantly differ in SLE indices. Among FHRs, genetic liability was significantly associated with PHI and family expressiveness. Prenatal and family environmental disruptions are elevated in families with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia. Findings support our proposed 'polygenic neurodevelopmental diathesis-stress model' whereby psychosis susceptibility (and resilience) involves the independent and synergistic confluence of (temporally-sensitive) biological and environmental factors across development. Recognition of biological and social environmental influences across critical developmental periods points to key issues relevant for enhanced identification of psychosis susceptibility, facilitation of more precise models of illness risk, and development of novel prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  20. Bad apples or spoiled barrels? Multilevel modelling analysis of variation in high-risk prescribing in Scotland between general practitioners and between the practices they work in.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Bruce; Donnan, Peter T; Murphy, Douglas J; Makubate, Boikanyo; Dreischulte, Tobias

    2015-11-06

    Primary care high-risk prescribing causes significant harm, but it is unclear if it is largely driven by individuals (a 'bad apple' problem) or by practices having higher or lower risk prescribing cultures (a 'spoiled barrel' problem). The study aimed to examine the extent of variation in high-risk prescribing between individual prescribers and between the practices they work in. Multilevel logistic regression modelling of routine cross-sectional data from 38 Scottish general practices for 181,010 encounters between 398 general practitioners (GPs) and 26,539 patients particularly vulnerable to adverse drug events (ADEs) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to age, comorbidity or co-prescribing. Initiation of a new NSAID prescription in an encounter between GPs and eligible patients. A new high-risk NSAID was initiated in 1953 encounters (1.1% of encounters, 7.4% of patients). Older patients, those with more vulnerabilities to NSAID ADEs and those with polypharmacy were less likely to have a high-risk NSAID initiated, consistent with GPs generally recognising the risk of NSAIDs in eligible patients. Male GPs were more likely to initiate a high-risk NSAID than female GPs (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.16). After accounting for patient characteristics, 4.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 8.3) of the variation in high-risk NSAID prescribing was attributable to variation between practices, and 14.2% (95% CI 11.4 to 17.3) to variation between GPs. Three practices had statistically higher than average high-risk prescribing, but only 15.7% of GPs with higher than average high-risk prescribing and 18.5% of patients receiving such a prescription were in these practices. There was much more variation in high-risk prescribing between GPs than between practices, and only targeting practices with higher than average rates will miss most high-risk NSAID prescribing. Primary care prescribing safety improvement should ideally target all practices, but encourage practices to consider

  1. Bad apples or spoiled barrels? Multilevel modelling analysis of variation in high-risk prescribing in Scotland between general practitioners and between the practices they work in

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Bruce; Donnan, Peter T; Murphy, Douglas J; Makubate, Boikanyo; Dreischulte, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Primary care high-risk prescribing causes significant harm, but it is unclear if it is largely driven by individuals (a ‘bad apple’ problem) or by practices having higher or lower risk prescribing cultures (a ‘spoiled barrel’ problem). The study aimed to examine the extent of variation in high-risk prescribing between individual prescribers and between the practices they work in. Design, setting and participants Multilevel logistic regression modelling of routine cross-sectional data from 38 Scottish general practices for 181 010 encounters between 398 general practitioners (GPs) and 26 539 patients particularly vulnerable to adverse drug events (ADEs) of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to age, comorbidity or co-prescribing. Outcome measure Initiation of a new NSAID prescription in an encounter between GPs and eligible patients. Results A new high-risk NSAID was initiated in 1953 encounters (1.1% of encounters, 7.4% of patients). Older patients, those with more vulnerabilities to NSAID ADEs and those with polypharmacy were less likely to have a high-risk NSAID initiated, consistent with GPs generally recognising the risk of NSAIDs in eligible patients. Male GPs were more likely to initiate a high-risk NSAID than female GPs (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.16). After accounting for patient characteristics, 4.2% (95% CI 2.1 to 8.3) of the variation in high-risk NSAID prescribing was attributable to variation between practices, and 14.2% (95% CI 11.4 to 17.3) to variation between GPs. Three practices had statistically higher than average high-risk prescribing, but only 15.7% of GPs with higher than average high-risk prescribing and 18.5% of patients receiving such a prescription were in these practices. Conclusions There was much more variation in high-risk prescribing between GPs than between practices, and only targeting practices with higher than average rates will miss most high-risk NSAID prescribing. Primary care prescribing

  2. [Identification of subjects at high risk of coronary disease in a working population using a prediction model].

    PubMed

    Laurier, D; Chau, N P

    1995-11-01

    Identification of subjects at high risk of coronary morbidity is of major interest in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. This report describes the use of a multifactorial prediction model for the identification of high risk subjects in a French male population. The PCV-METRA study (Prévention Cardiovasculaire en Médecine du Travail) monitors risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity in a population of men and women employed in big companies in the Paris region. A model adapted from a prediction model conceived by K.M. Anderson et al. in the Framingham study was used. The modified model enables an estimation of individual coronary risk based on 7 factors: age, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, smoking, diabetes and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy, taking into account the relatively low prevalence of coronary heart disease in France. The population comprised 4,131 active men aged 30 to 65 years. The average risk at 5 years was estimated to be 1.6%. Subjects at high risk (over the 80th percentile of the risk distribution curve) usually had high blood pressures and cholesterol levels. However, nearly 30% of these subjects were neither hypertensive nor hypercholesteraemic. It is important to note that 3/4 of these smoked. Moreover, they also had low HDL-cholesterol levels. A risk table, derived from the Framingham model, is presented. This table allows estimation of individual risk at 5 years in men aged 30 to 65 years. In each age group, the comparison of individual risk with the percentiles of risk distribution in the PCV-METRA population allows identification of high-risk subjects. This study proposes a tool for identifying subjects at high risk of coronary morbidity in a French male population. This multifactorial model is particularly useful for detecting subjects with several borderline factors none of which overstep the usually accepted limits.

  3. Social learning in a high-risk environment: incomplete disregard for the 'minnow that cried pike' results in culturally transmitted neophobia.

    PubMed

    Crane, Adam L; Mathiron, Anthony G E; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2015-08-07

    Many prey species rely on conspecifics to gather information about unknown predation threats, but little is known about the role of varying environmental conditions on the efficacy of social learning. We examined predator-naive minnows that had the opportunity to learn about predators from experienced models that were raised in either a low- or high-risk environment. There were striking differences in behaviour among models; high-risk models showed a weaker response to the predator cue and became neophobic in response to the control cue (a novel odour, NO). Observers that were previously paired with low-risk models acquired a strong antipredator response only to the predator cue. However, observers that interacted with high-risk models, displayed a much weaker response to the predator odour and a weak neophobic response to the NO. This is the first study reporting such different outcomes of social learning under different environmental conditions, and suggests high-risk environments promote the cultural transmission of neophobia more so than social learning. If such a transfer can be considered similar to secondary traumatization in humans, culturally transmitted neophobia in minnows may provide a good model system for understanding more about the social ecology of fear disorders. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Social learning in a high-risk environment: incomplete disregard for the ‘minnow that cried pike’ results in culturally transmitted neophobia

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Adam L.; Mathiron, Anthony G. E.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2015-01-01

    Many prey species rely on conspecifics to gather information about unknown predation threats, but little is known about the role of varying environmental conditions on the efficacy of social learning. We examined predator-naive minnows that had the opportunity to learn about predators from experienced models that were raised in either a low- or high-risk environment. There were striking differences in behaviour among models; high-risk models showed a weaker response to the predator cue and became neophobic in response to the control cue (a novel odour, NO). Observers that were previously paired with low-risk models acquired a strong antipredator response only to the predator cue. However, observers that interacted with high-risk models, displayed a much weaker response to the predator odour and a weak neophobic response to the NO. This is the first study reporting such different outcomes of social learning under different environmental conditions, and suggests high-risk environments promote the cultural transmission of neophobia more so than social learning. If such a transfer can be considered similar to secondary traumatization in humans, culturally transmitted neophobia in minnows may provide a good model system for understanding more about the social ecology of fear disorders. PMID:26180068

  5. Applying Technology in the Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Reed, Ed.

    A series of papers is presented from two symposia sponsored by the Work Environment and Technology Committee and offered at annual conferences of the President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities. The 1988 symposium was called "Applying Technology in the Work Environment" and the 1989 symposium was called "Reasonable…

  6. Criminal offending and the family environment: Swedish national high-risk home-reared and adopted-away co-sibling control study.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Morris, Nancy A; Ohlsson, Henrik; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-10-01

    Criminal offending is strongly transmitted across generations. To clarify the contribution of rearing environment to cross-generational transmission of crime. Using Swedish national registries, we identified 1176 full-sibling and 3085 half-sibling sets from high-risk families where at least one sibling was adopted and the other raised by the biological parents. Risk for criminal conviction was substantially lower in the full- and half-siblings who were adopted v. home-reared (hazard ratios (HR) = 0.56, 95% CI 0.50-0.64 and 0.60, 95% CI 0.56-0.65, respectively). The protective effect of adoption was significantly stronger in sibships with two v. one high-risk parent. Using matched high-risk full- and half-siblings, we found replicated evidence that (a) rearing environment has a strong impact on risk for criminal conviction, (b) high-quality rearing environments have especially strong effects in those at high familial risk for criminal offending and (c) the protective effects of adoption are stronger for more severe crimes and for repeated offending. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  7. Advancing the integration of hospital IT. Pitfalls and perspectives when replacing specialized software for high-risk environments with enterprise system extensions.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Carsten; Ametowobla, Dzifa

    2017-05-17

    Planning and controlling surgical operations hugely impacts upon productivity, patient safety, and surgeons' careers. Established, specialized software for this task is being increasingly replaced by "Operating Room (OR)-modules" appended to enterprise-wide resource planning (ERP) systems. As a result, usability problems are re-emerging and require developers' attention. Systematic evaluation of the functionality and social repercussions of a global, market-leading IT business control system (SAP R3, Germany), adapted for real-time OR process steering. Field study involving document analyses, interviews, and a 73-item survey addressed to 77 qualified (> 1-year system experience) senior planning executives (end users; "planners") working in surgical departments of university hospitals. Planners reported that 57% of electronic operation requests contained contradictory information. Key screens contained clinically irrelevant areas (36 +/- 29%). Compared to the legacy system, users reported either no improvements or worse performance, in regard to co-ordination of OR stakeholders, intra-day program changes, and safety. Planners concluded that the ERP-planning module was "non-intuitive" (66%), increased planning work (56%, p=0.002), and did not impact upon either organizational mishap spectrum or frequency. Interviews evidenced intra-institutional power shifts due to increased system complexity. Planners resented e.g. a trend towards increased personal culpability for mishap. Highly complex enterprise system extensions may not be directly suited to specific process steering tasks in a high risk/low error-environment like the OR. In view of surgeons' high primary task load, the repeated call for simpler IT is an imperative for ERP extensions. System design should consider a) that current OR IT suffers from an input limitation regarding planning-relevant real-time data, and b) that there are social processes that strongly affect planning and particularly ERP use beyond

  8. Model for a Healthy Work Environment.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    The Healthy Work Environment (HWE) Model, considered a model of standards of professional behaviors, was created to help foster an environment that is happy, healthy, realistic, and feasible. The model focuses on areas of PEOPLE and PRACTICE, where each letter of these words identifies core, professional qualities and behaviors to foster an environment amenable and conducive to accountability for one's behavior and action. Each of these characteristics is supported from a Christian, biblical perspective. The HWE Model provides a mental and physical checklist of what is important in creating and sustaining a healthy work environment in education and practice.

  9. Monitoring Illness in a Closed Work Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-20

    AD-AlS 1#17 NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DIEGO CA F/S 5/2 MONITORING ILLNESS MN A CLOSED WORK ENVIRONMENT .(Ul OCT Al L HERNANSEN, V M PUGH...CLOSED WORK ENVIRONMENT Larry Hermansen* and William M. Pugh* Naval Health Research Center P.O. Box 85122 San Diego, California 92138 Accesion Yor NUIS 0R...monitoring outpatient illness rates in a closed work environment . This paper presents additional procedures which were used to further organize and

  10. Rehabilitation Counselor Work Environment: Examining Congruence with Prototypic Work Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanskas, Stephen; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    2010-01-01

    The profession of rehabilitation counseling has undergone extensive empirical study. Absent from this research has been a theoretical basis for describing and understanding the profession and its associated work environment. The focus of this study was to further our understanding of the nature of the rehabilitation counselor's work environment…

  11. Rehabilitation Counselor Work Environment: Examining Congruence with Prototypic Work Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanskas, Stephen; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    2010-01-01

    The profession of rehabilitation counseling has undergone extensive empirical study. Absent from this research has been a theoretical basis for describing and understanding the profession and its associated work environment. The focus of this study was to further our understanding of the nature of the rehabilitation counselor's work environment…

  12. Child Problems as a Moderator of Relations Between Maternal Impulsivity and Family Environment in a High-Risk Sample.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Carly K; Ryan, Stacy R; Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M

    2016-08-23

    Previous studies have suggested that maternal characteristics are related to family environment; however, the relation between maternal impulsivity, in particular, and family environment is not well understood. As such, we examined direct relations between maternal impulsivity and family environment, as well as whether the relation between maternal impulsivity and family environment was moderated by child problems for sons and daughters. We hypothesized that child problems would moderate the association between maternal impulsivity and family environment. We also explored whether these associations differ for boys and girls. Data from the initial visit of a longitudinal study was used for the current study. Participants included 297 youth (137 boys; 160 girls) of 10 to 12 years of age (M = 10.99, SD = .84) and their mothers. The majority of the sample had a family history of substance use disorder (n = 236). Hierarchical linear regressions showed that for sons there was a significant interaction between maternal impulsivity and child problems on family environment. Maternal impulsivity was positively related to family environment problems among sons with few emotional and behavioral problems, but there was no significant correlation among sons with high problem levels. Among daughters, there was no significant interaction between maternal impulsivity and child emotional and behavioral problems on family environment. The results suggest that the association between maternal impulsivity and family environment may depend on problem level and child gender. Thus, addressing maternal impulsivity in therapy may benefit some families.

  13. Selecting Strategies to Reduce High-Risk Unsafe Work Behaviors Using the Safety Behavior Sampling Technique and Bayesian Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Fakhradin; Kalatpour, Omid; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-03-04

    High-risk unsafe behaviors (HRUBs) have been known as the main cause of occupational accidents. Considering the financial and societal costs of accidents and the limitations of available resources, there is an urgent need for managing unsafe behaviors at workplaces. The aim of the present study was to find strategies for decreasing the rate of HRUBs using an integrated approach of safety behavior sampling technique and Bayesian networks analysis. A cross-sectional study. The Bayesian network was constructed using a focus group approach. The required data was collected using the safety behavior sampling, and the parameters of the network were estimated using Expectation-Maximization algorithm. Using sensitivity analysis and belief updating, it was determined that which factors had the highest influences on unsafe behavior. Based on BN analyses, safety training was the most important factor influencing employees' behavior at the workplace. High quality safety training courses can reduce the rate of HRUBs about 10%. Moreover, the rate of HRUBs increased by decreasing the age of employees. The rate of HRUBs was higher in the afternoon and last days of a week. Among the investigated variables, training was the most important factor affecting safety behavior of employees. By holding high quality safety training courses, companies would be able to reduce the rate of HRUBs significantly.

  14. Work environment factors and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks.

    PubMed

    Svedahl, Sindre Rabben; Svendsen, Kristin; Romundstad, Pål R; Qvenild, Torgunn; Strømholm, Tonje; Aas, Oddfrid; Hilt, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    Cooks have increased morbidity and mortality. A high turnover has also been reported. We aimed to elucidate work environment and work sustainability in Norwegian cooks. A questionnaire inquiring about working conditions and work participation was sent to 2082 cooks who had qualified from 1988 onwards. Of these, 894 responded. Time at work was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier plots and possible determinants for quitting work as a cook was analyzed with Cox regression. The median time at work was 16.6 years. There were differences in sustainability between types of kitchens for both sexes (p = 0.00). The median time in the profession was 9.2 years for the cooks in restaurants, while the cooks in institutions and canteens showed a substantially higher sustainability with 75.4% still at work after 10 years, and 57% still at work after 20 years in the profession. Of those still at work as a cook, 91.4% reported a good or very good contentment, and the 67.4% who expected to stay in the profession the next 5 years frequently answered that excitement of cooking, the social working environment, and the creative features of cooking were reasons to continue. Musculoskeletal complaints were the most common health-related reason for leaving work as a cook, while working hours was the most common non-health-related reason. There are significant differences in work sustainability between the cooks in the different types of kitchens. The identified determinants for length of time in the occupation can be used for preventive purposes. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Home Health Agency Work Environments and Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647

  16. High-Risk Indicators for Family Involvement in Social Work in Health Care: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Ann; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reviews empirical literature to highlight individual, family, and illness variables that alone and together may improve identification of patients and families in need of social work services. Notes that development of screening mechanisms may be useful vehicle for improved psychosocial care and for the planning of social work services. (Author/NB)

  17. Healthy work environment--a challenge?

    PubMed

    Jansson von Vultée, Pia Hannele

    2015-01-01

    In Sweden, leave due to sickness was high during the 1990s. The Swedish Social Insurance Agency was able to decrease sick days in the period between 2000 and 2010 but sick days are rising again in Sweden, mostly due to psychological problems among women and partly due to their work environment. It is important to find methods to identify poor work settings to prevent absenteeism due to sickness. The paper aims to discuss these issues. The authors created a web questionnaire focusing on the organizational setting and its impact on employee wellbeing--reported as mental energy, work-related exhaustion and work satisfaction. The questionnaire measures good and poor work environment factors to help managers improve organizational settings. The questionnaire was validated qualitatively and quantitatively. It is possible to measure individual wellbeing in an organizational context at an early stage. The authors followed a company undergoing organizational change and identified groups at risk of developing illness. Managers uncertain about employee mental status can measure employee wellbeing easily and cost effectively to prevent illness. The authors created a method, statistically evaluated, to proactively identify good and poor work environments to promote healthy co-workers.

  18. Gendered Learning Environments in Managerial Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Maria; Eriksson, Anna Fogelberg

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to investigate female and male managers' learning environments with particular focus on their opportunities for and barriers to learning and career development in the managerial work of a male-dominated industrial company. In the case study 42 managers, 15 women and 27 men in the company were interviewed. The findings demonstrate that…

  19. Work Environment Predictors of Beginning Teacher Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Richard; O'Brien, Patrick; Goddard, Marion

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated elements of school environments that explain variance in burnout scores in a sample of university graduates from Brisbane, Australia, two years after they commenced work as teachers. Using a longitudinal survey methodology, 79 beginning teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) on four occasions over a two-year…

  20. Conflict within nursing work environments: concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Almost, Joan

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the concept of conflict in nursing work environments using the evolutionary approach to concept analysis. In nursing work environments, conflict among nurses is becoming a significant issue resulting in job dissatisfaction, absenteeism, and turnover. Although discussed frequently in the nursing literature, nursing research has focused predominantly on conflict management without first understanding the elements, causes and effects of conflict. A literature search was conducted using CINAHL, Proquest, PsychINFO, Social Sciences Index and MEDLINE databases and the keywords conflict and work environment. Articles over the last 25 years from each of these databases were examined to identify major themes, areas of agreement and disagreement across disciplines, changes in the concept over time, and emerging trends. Conflict is a multidimensional construct with both detrimental and beneficial effects. Most definitions agree that conflict is a process involving two or more people, where a person perceives the opposition of the other. Antecedents stem from individual characteristics, interpersonal factors, and organizational factors. Individual effects, interpersonal relationships, and organizational effects are the main consequences of conflict. A theoretical model of the antecedents and consequences is presented, with implications for further development. A more thorough understanding of the sources and outcomes of conflict within nursing work environments would enable the prevention of conflict. If properly understood and managed, conflict can also lead to positive outcomes for nurses and healthcare organizations.

  1. Challenges of Working in a Multicultural Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Joan S.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses challenges faced when working in a multicultural library setting and discusses the need for library administration to create supportive environments. Highlights include fluctuating power dynamics; merging diverse opinions and approaches; overcoming perceived lack of empathy; tokenism; accountability; and transforming challenges into…

  2. Sexual Assault Histories and Evening Drinking among Young American Men in a High-Risk Drinking Environment

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, E. A.; Kelley-Baker, T.; Romano, E.

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed young American men traveling to Tijuana, Mexico, from San Diego, California, for a weekend night out, collecting responses both southbound at the outset of the evening and northbound upon return at the end of the evening. Among 650 males, we examined the relationship between sexual histories and attitudes and alcohol use, both historically and on their night in Tijuana. Respondents with a history of coercing sex drank more in Tijuana and were more likely to binge drink. Although estimating sexual assaults committed by these males on the evening in question was not possible, this research establishes the link between a history of sexual assault and the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of young men resulting from an evening in a timeout environment. PMID:20043253

  3. Subtyping of substance use disorders in a high-risk welfare-to-work sample: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Bruce; Wetzler, Scott; Swanson, Arthur; Sung, Sharon C

    2010-06-01

    The goals of this study were (a) to investigate the existence of substance abuse/dependence subtypes in a diverse low-income welfare to work sample and (b) to explore subtype differences in rates of comorbid psychiatric and medical conditions. Data for all demographic and clinical variables were extracted from deidentified case records of 4,977 clients enrolled in a comprehensive case management program for welfare recipients with substance use disorders. Latent class analysis supported a five-class model made up of a multiple abuse/dependence class (n = 1,133), a cocaine/alcohol class (n = 2,120), an opioids class (n = 1,346), a cannabis class (n = 362), and a small polysubstance/none primary class (n = 16). Post hoc chi-square analyses revealed several between-class differences, perhaps reflecting differing levels of severity and service needs. All five classes were characterized by high rates of medical and psychiatric comorbidity.

  4. Far-field environment working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Pearcy, E.C.; Cady, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the potential impacts of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the far-field environment.

  5. Early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment as predictors of young adult outcomes within a high-risk sample.

    PubMed

    Pungello, Elizabeth P; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H; Sparling, Joseph J; Ramey, Craig T; Campbell, Frances A

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment, attending college, and skilled employment; negative effects of risk were found for education attainment, graduating high school, being employed, and avoiding teen parenthood. The home mediated the effects of risk for graduating high school, but not being employed for teen parenthood. Evidence for moderated mediation was found for educational attainment; the home mediated the association between risk and educational attainment for the control group, but not the treated group.

  6. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes Within a High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment, attending college, and skilled employment; negative effects of risk were found for education attainment, graduating high school, being employed and avoiding teen parenthood. The home mediated the effects of risk for graduating high school, but not being employed or teen parenthood. Evidence for moderated mediation was found for educational attainment; the home mediated the association between risk and educational attainment for the control group, but not the treated group. PMID:20331676

  7. Creating healthy work environments: a strategic perspective.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Although I find Graham Lowe and Ben Chan's logic model and work environment metrics thought provoking, a healthy work environment framework must be more comprehensive and consider the addition of recommended diagnostic tools, vehicles to deliver the necessary change and a sustainability strategy that allows for the tweaking and refinement of ideas. Basic structure is required to frame and initiate an effective process, while allowing creativity and enhancements to be made by organizations as they learn. I support the construction of a suggested Canadian health sector framework for measuring the health of an organization, but I feel that organizations need to have some freedom in that design and the ability to incorporate their own indicators within the established proven drivers. Reflecting on my organization's experience with large-scale transformation efforts, I find that emotional intelligence along with formal leadership development and front-line engagement in Lean process improvement activities are essential for creating healthy work environments that produce the balanced set of outcomes listed in my hospital's Balanced Scorecard.

  8. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    PubMed

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. Compared with day workers, shift workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach this group and meet their needs when designing and implementing workplace interventions.

  9. Work productivity loss and indirect costs associated with new cardiovascular events in high-risk patients with hyperlipidemia: estimates from population-based register data in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Banefelt, J; Hallberg, S; Fox, K M; Mesterton, J; Paoli, C J; Johansson, G; Levin, L-Å; Sobocki, P; Gandra, S R

    2016-12-01

    To estimate productivity loss and associated indirect costs in high-risk patients treated for hyperlipidemia who experience cardiovascular (CV) events. Retrospective population-based cohort study conducted using Swedish medical records linked to national registers. Patients were included based on prescriptions of lipid-lowering therapy between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011 and followed until 31 December 2012 for identification of CV events and estimation of work productivity loss (sick leave and disability pension) and indirect costs. Patients were stratified into two cohorts based on CV risk level: history of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent. Propensity score matching was applied to compare patients with new events (cases) to patients without new events (controls). The incremental effect of CV events was estimated using a difference-in-differences design, comparing productivity loss among cases and controls during the year before and the year after the cases' event. The incremental effect on indirect costs was largest in the CHD risk equivalent cohort (n = 2946) at €3119 (P value <0.01). The corresponding figure in the major CVD history cohort (n = 4508) was €2210 (P value <0.01). There was substantial variation in productivity loss depending on the type of event. Transient ischemic attack and revascularization had no significant effect on indirect costs. Myocardial infarction (€3465), unstable angina (€2733) and, most notably, ischemic stroke (€6784) yielded substantial incremental cost estimates (P values <0.01). Indirect costs related to work productivity losses of CV events are substantial in Swedish high-risk patients treated for hyperlipidemia and vary considerably by type of event.

  10. Partnership working between the Fire Service and NHS: delivering a cost-saving service to improve the safety of high-risk people.

    PubMed

    Craig, Joyce A; Creegan, Shelagh; Tait, Martin; Dolan, Donna

    2015-04-14

    The Scottish Fire and Rescue Service and NHS Tayside piloted partnership working. A Community Fire Safety Link Worker provided Risk Assessments to adults, identified by community health teams, at high risk of fires, with the aim of reducing fires. An existing evaluation shows the Service developed a culture of 'high trust' between partners and had high client satisfaction. This paper reports on an economic evaluation of the costs and benefits of the Link Worker role. An economic evaluation of the costs and benefits of the Link Worker role was undertaken. Changes in the Risk Assessment score following delivery of the Service were used to estimate the potential fires avoided. These were valued using a national cost of a fire. The estimated cost of delivering the Service was deducted from these savings. The pilot was estimated to save 4.4 fires, equivalent to £286 per client. The estimated cost of delivering the Service was £55 per client, giving net savings of £231 per client. The pilot was cost-saving under all scenarios, with results sensitive to the probability of a fire. We believe this is the first evaluation of Fire Safety Risk Assessments. Partnership working, delivering joint Risk Assessments in the homes of people at high risk of fire, is modelled to be cost saving. Uncertainties in data and small sample are key limitations. Further research is required into the ex ante risk of fire by risk category. Despite these limitations, potential savings identified in this study supports greater adoption of this partnership initiative.

  11. [Work environment assessment at a medical school].

    PubMed

    Sánchez D, Ignacio; Airola G, Gregorio; Cayazzo A, Tatiana; Pedrals G, Nuria; Rodríguez M, Magdalena; Villarroel D, Luis

    2009-11-01

    The work environment of an organization has to do with a set of permanent qualities that are experienced by its members. To assess the work environment perception of faculty members of a Medical School in two different periods (2005 and 2007). A standardized survey was applied to faculty members and Department chairs of the academic units of our Medical School. The survey used the Likert scale from 1 to 5 and included 59 items, distributed in 8 factors. Additionally, there were two groups of statements, indicating the priorities for the School and for the academic departments. In the study performed in year 2005, the survey was answered by a total of 399 faculty members (68%) and in year 2007, it was answered by 408 members (68%). The global climate perceptions were 66% and 68% in 2005 and 2007, respectively (ns). Among the dimensions evaluated, communications (p =0,62) and physical conditions (p =0,008) improved in the two years period. The applied instrument was stable and useful to knowing the requirements of the faculty members and for improving the organizational climate.

  12. SIMS depth profiling of working environment nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konarski, P.; Iwanejko, I.; Mierzejewska, A.

    2003-01-01

    Morphology of working environment nanoparticles was analyzed using sample rotation technique in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The particles were collected with nine-stage vacuum impactor during gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process of stainless steel and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) of mild steel. Ion erosion of 300-400 nm diameter nanoparticles attached to indium substrate was performed with 2 keV, 100 μm diameter, Ar + ion beam at 45° ion incidence and 1 rpm sample rotation. The results show that both types of particles have core-shell morphology. A layer of fluorine, chlorine and carbon containing compounds covers stainless steel welding fume particles. The cores of these particles are enriched in iron, manganese and chromium. Outer shell of mild steel welding fume particles is enriched in carbon, potassium, chlorine and fluorine, while the deeper layers of these nanoparticles are richer in main steel components.

  13. Nursing leadership and management effects work environments.

    PubMed

    Tomey, Ann Marriner

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this literature search was to identify recent research related to nursing leadership and management effects on work environment using the 14 forces of magnetism. This article gives some historical perspective from the original 1983 American Academy of Nursing study through to the 2002 McClure and Hinshaw update to 2009 publications. Research publications were given a priority for references. The 14 forces of magnetism as identified by Unden and Monarch were: '1. Quality of leadership..., 2. Organizational structure..., 3. Management style..., 4. Personnel policies and programs..., 5. Professional models of care..., 6. Quality of care..., 7 Quality improvement..., 8. Consultation and resources..., 9. Autonomy..., 10. Community and the hospital..., 11. Nurse as teacher..., 12. Image of nursing..., 13. Interdisciplinary relationships... and 14. Professional development....'. Correlations have been found among positive workplace management initiatives, style of transformational leadership and participative management; patient-to-nurse ratios; education levels of nurses; quality of patient care, patient satisfaction, employee health and well-being programmes; nurse satisfaction and retention of nurses; healthy workplace environments and healthy patients and personnel. This article identifies some of the research that provides evidence for evidence-based nursing management and leadership practice.

  14. Elderly Service Workers' Training Project. Block C: Work Environment. Module C.1: Work Environment 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This learning module, which is part of a three-block series intended to help human service workers develop the skills necessary to solve the problems encountered in their daily contact with elderly clients of different cultural backgrounds, deals with the work environment of a human services worker who deals primarily with elderly minority…

  15. Aggression in the work environment of physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    Szczegielniak, Anna; Skowronek, Anna; Krysta, Krzysztof; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2012-09-01

    Aggression in the medical environment can take on different forms. It can be inflicted both by patients and workmates and may also cause a rise of aggressive behavior performed by the physiotherapists themselves. The aim of the study was to evaluate possible danger that may occur in the working environment of physiotherapists as well as to assess the correlation between such factors as the length of professional experience and exposure to the aggression inflicted by patients and workmates in the workplace with the level of aggression occurring within the professional group of physiotherapists. The study was conducted among 50 physiotherapists from Opole and the Silesian Voivodships in Poland. Two types of questionnaires were used: the author's own questionnaire, assessing exposure of the physiotherapists to aggression in the workplace, and the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The results were analyzed with the Statistica 8.0 application. 60% of participants suffered from patients' verbal aggression, 8% from physical aggression and 26% from the patients' emotional self-aggression at least twice a month. The study showed a minor correlation between the duration of the length of professional experience and the level of hostility (r=0.2; p>0.05). There is a considerable impact of negative emotions present in relations with workmates at the workplace causing mainly increase of general aggression among physiotherapists and hostility. Similarly, negative emotions that may appear in relations between psychiatrists and patients show a positive correlation with the level of general aggression developed by doctors. It can be observed that there is a huge impact of the impulsive behaviour and attitude (presented both by patients and workmates in the workplaces) on the appearance of aggressive actions by physiotherapists (especially anger and hostility). Further research in this field is needed.

  16. Staying Alive! Training High-Risk Teams for Self Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley; Noe, Raymond; Weaver, Sallie

    2011-01-01

    Research examining teams working in high-risk operations has been lacking. The present symposium showcases research on team training that helps to optimize team performance in environments characterized by life or death situations arising spontaneously after long periods of mundane activity by pulling experts from diverse areas of industry: space flight, health care, and medical simulation.

  17. Blinking supervision in a working environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morcego, Bernardo; Argilés, Marc; Cabrerizo, Marc; Cardona, Genís; Pérez, Ramon; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Gispets, Joan

    2016-02-01

    The health of the ocular surface requires blinks of the eye to be frequent in order to provide moisture and to renew the tear film. However, blinking frequency has been shown to decrease in certain conditions such as when subjects are conducting tasks with high cognitive and visual demands. These conditions are becoming more common as people work or spend their leisure time in front of video display terminals. Supervision of blinking frequency in such environments is possible, thanks to the availability of computer-integrated cameras. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the detection of eye blinks and to test it, in a number of videos captured, while subjects are conducting a variety of tasks in front of the computer. The sensitivity of the algorithm for blink detection was found to be of 87.54% (range 30% to 100%), with a mean false-positive rate of 0.19% (range 0% to 1.7%), depending on the illumination conditions during which the image was captured and other computer-user spatial configurations. The current automatic process is based on a partly modified pre-existing eye detection and image processing algorithms and consists of four stages that are aimed at eye detection, eye tracking, iris detection and segmentation, and iris height/width ratio assessment.

  18. Blinking supervision in a working environment.

    PubMed

    Morcego, Bernardo; Argilés, Marc; Cabrerizo, Marc; Cardona, Genís; Pérez, Ramon; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Gispets, Joan

    2016-02-01

    The health of the ocular surface requires blinks of the eye to be frequent in order to provide moisture and to renew the tear film. However, blinking frequency has been shown to decrease in certain conditions such as when subjects are conducting tasks with high cognitive and visual demands. These conditions are becoming more common as people work or spend their leisure time in front of video display terminals. Supervision of blinking frequency in such environments is possible, thanks to the availability of computer-integrated cameras. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the detection of eye blinks and to test it, in a number of videos captured, while subjects are conducting a variety of tasks in front of the computer. The sensitivity of the algorithm for blink detection was found to be of 87.54% (range 30% to 100%), with a mean false-positive rate of 0.19% (range 0% to 1.7%), depending on the illumination conditions during which the image was captured and other computer–user spatial configurations. The current automatic process is based on a partly modified pre-existing eye detection and image processing algorithms and consists of four stages that are aimed at eye detection, eye tracking, iris detection and segmentation, and iris height/width ratio assessment.

  19. An Overview. High Risk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report provides an overview of efforts undertaken by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) in 1990 to review and report on federal program areas its work identified as high risk because of vulnerabilities to waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement. It reviews the current status of efforts to address these concerns. The six categories of…

  20. An Overview. High Risk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report provides an overview of efforts undertaken by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) in 1990 to review and report on federal program areas its work identified as high risk because of vulnerabilities to waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement. It reviews the current status of efforts to address these concerns. The six categories of…

  1. Identifying a high-risk cohort in a complex and dynamic risk environment: out-of-bounds skiing--an example from avalanche safety.

    PubMed

    Haegeli, Pascal; Gunn, Matt; Haider, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    The development of effective prevention initiatives requires a detailed understanding of the characteristics and needs of the target audience. To properly identify at-risk individuals, it is crucial to clearly delineate risky from acceptable behavior. Whereas health behavior campaigns commonly use single conditions (e.g., lack of condom use) to identify high-risk cohorts, many risk behaviors are more complex and context dependent, rendering a single condition approach inadequate. Out-of-bounds skiing, an activity associated with voluntary exposure to avalanche hazard, is an example of such a multifaceted risk-taking activity. Using a dataset from an extensive online survey on out-of-bounds skiing, we present an innovative approach for identifying at-risk individuals in complex risk environments. Based on a risk management framework, we first examine risk-taking preferences of out-of-bounds skiers with respect to exposure and preparedness--the two main dimensions of risk management--separately. Our approach builds on existing person-centered research and uses Latent Class Analysis to assign survey participants to mutually exclusive behavioral classes on these two dimensions. Discrete Choice Experiments are introduced as a useful method for examining exposure preferences in the context of variable external conditions. The two class designations are then combined using a risk matrix to assign overall risk levels to each survey participant. The present approach complements existing person-centered prevention research on the antecedents of risk-taking by offering a process-oriented method for examining behavioral patterns with respect to the activity itself. Together, the two approaches can offer a much richer perspective for informing the design of effective prevention initiatives.

  2. Cardiovascular state changes in simulated work environments

    PubMed Central

    Stuiver, Arjan; Mulder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of cardiovascular measures as indicators of changes in cognitive workload has been addressed in several studies. In this paper the question is explored whether cardiovascular patterns in heart rate, blood pressure, baroreflex sensitivity and HRV that are found are consistent within and between two simulated working environments. Two studies, were performed, both with 21 participants: one in an ambulance dispatch simulation and one in a driving simulator. In the ambulance dispatcher task an initial strong increase in blood pressure is followed by a moderate on-going increase in blood pressure during the next hour of task performance. This pattern is accompanied by a strong increase in baroreflex sensitivity while heart rate decreases. In the driving simulator study, blood pressure initially increases but decreases almost to baseline level in the next hour. This pattern is accompanied by a decrease in baroreflex sensitivity, while heart rate decreases. Results of both studies are interpreted in terms of autonomic control (related to both sympathetic and para-sympathetic effects), using a simplified simulation of a baroreflex regulation model. Interpretation of the results leads to the conclusion that the cardiovascular response patterns in both tasks are a combination of an initial defensive reaction, in combination with compensatory blood pressure control. The level of compensatory blood pressure control, however, is quite different for the two tasks. This helps to understand the differences in response patterns between the two studies in this paper and may be helpful as well for understanding differences in cardiovascular response patterns in general. A substantial part of the effects observed during task performance are regulatory effects and are not always directly related to workload manipulations. Making this distinction may also contribute to the understanding of differences in cardiovascular response patterns during cognitive workload. PMID

  3. Effects of work environment on patient and nurse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Copanitsanou, Panagiota; Fotos, Nikolaos; Brokalaki, Hero

    2017-02-09

    Several parameters of the nurse's work environment lead to fewer patient complications and lower nurse burnout. The aim of this systematic review was the analysis of research data related to the effect of nurses' work environments on outcomes for both patients and nurses. Medline was searched by using keywords: 'working conditions', 'work environment', 'nurses', 'nursing staff', 'patients', 'outcomes'. In total, 10 studies were included, of which 4 were cross-sectional and the remaining were descriptive correlational studies. Patients who were hospitalised in units with good work environments for the nurses were more satisfied with the nursing care than the patients in units with poor work environments. Nurses who perceived their work environment to be good experienced higher job satisfaction and lower rates of burnout syndrome. A good work environment constitutes a determinant factor for high care quality and, at the same time, relates to improved outcomes for the nurses.

  4. Mobile work: Ergonomics in a rapidly changing work environment.

    PubMed

    Honan, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Places of work have been completely transformed by innovations in mobile work tools and ever-present access to internet data. This article characterizes use patterns and provides preliminary considerations for productive and comfortable use of common mobile devices. Two surveys described trends in mobile work. In the first, ergonomics professionals who oversee programs reported common mobile devices, their users and what data is accessed. The second, an end user survey, explored common activities performed on mobile devices, duration of use and locations where mobile work is common. The survey results provide a baseline data point for the status of mobile work in early 2014. Research indicates that additional risks have been introduced to the neck, thumbs and hands when using mobile devices. Possible trends regarding device use and work locations emerge. Intervention studies provide some direction for the practitioner. Practical strategies are outlined to reduce exposure intensity and duration. Contemporary mobile work presents tremendous change and opportunity for ergonomists and researchers to keep pace with fitting the changing models of work to the person. Continued research is needed on current mobile device use patterns to better understand ergonomic risk exposure in this rapidly changing realm.

  5. Creating a healthy work environment for nursing faculty.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Nursing administrators and faculty have a professional and ethical responsibility to develop and maintain a caring and healthy work environment for nursing faculty. To recruit and retain quality nursing faculty in the current nursing faculty shortage, a healthy work environment is essential. This article focuses on nursing administrators' and nursing faculty members' role in promoting a healthy academic work environment. Strategies to develop and sustain this environment are discussed.

  6. A Place at Work: The Working Environment of the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson, Robert W. K. C.; Spence, Philip H.

    Designed for the architect and student, the text concerns the health of the disabled as seen through the eyes of the architect. The total environment of the handicapped is the focal point of the approach. It begins with schools; then looks at medical treatment and rehabilitation as dealt with in hospitals, special rehabilitation centers, and…

  7. Work, work-life conflict and health in an industrial work environment.

    PubMed

    Hämmig, O; Bauer, G F

    2014-01-01

    Work-life conflict has been poorly studied as a cause of ill-health in occupational medicine. To study associations between physical and psychosocial working conditions, including work-life conflict on the one hand and general, physical and mental health outcomes on the other. Cross-sectional data were used from an employee survey among the workforces of four medium-sized and large companies in Switzerland. Physical work factors included five demands and exposures such as heavy loads, repetitive work and poor posture. Psychosocial factors included 14 demands and limited resources such as time pressure, overtime, monotonous work, job insecurity, low job autonomy, low social support and work-life conflict. Health outcomes studied were self-rated health, sickness absence, musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disorders, stress and burnout. There was a response rate of 49%; 2014 employees participated. All adverse working conditions were positively associated with several poor health outcomes in both men and women. After mutual adjustment for all work factors and additional covariates, only a few, mainly psychosocial work factors remained significant as risk factors for health. Work-life conflict, a largely neglected work-related psychosocial factor in occupational medicine, turned out to be the only factor that was significantly and strongly associated with all studied health outcomes and was consistently found to be the strongest or second strongest of all the studied risk factors. Even in an industrial work environment, psychosocial work factors, and particularly work-life conflict, play a key role and need to be taken into consideration in research and workplace health promotion.

  8. Parallelism in Open Learning and Working Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Rik

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes shortcomings of computer monitors, including one-way communication and organization of the monitor display, when they are used with multimedia in open learning environments. Solutions are described according to the concepts and theories developed by Min, Koopal, Gritter, Struyker, Boudier, Coleman, Miltenburg, and Van Schaick Zillesen…

  9. Critical care nurse work environments 2013: a status report.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Beth T; Lavandero, Ramón; Woods, Dana; Early, Sean

    2014-08-01

    The health of critical care nurse work environments has been shown to affect patient care outcomes as well as the job satisfaction and retention of registered nurses. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) Critical Care Nurse Work Environment Survey was first conducted in 2006 following the release of the AACN Standards for Establishing and Sustaining a Healthy Work Environment and was conducted again in 2008. This article reports the results of the third AACN Critical Care Nurse Work Environment Survey conducted in 2013. To evaluate the current state of critical care nurse work environments. A total of 8444 AACN members and constituents responded to an online survey. The overall health of critical care nurses' work environments has declined since 2008, as have nurses' perceptions of the quality of care. Respondents rated their overall work environment and factors associated with healthy work environments including quality of patient care, staffing, communication and collaboration, respect, physical and mental safety, moral distress, nursing leadership, support for certification and continuing education, meaningful recognition, job satisfaction, and career plans. Although some factors improved, declines in any factors are a concern. An increasing body of evidence has shown relationships between healthy nurse work environments and patient outcomes. The results of this 2013 survey identified areas in which the health of critical care nurse work environments needs attention and care, requiring the relentless true collaboration of everyone involved. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  10. Shift work in a security environment

    SciTech Connect

    Longhouser, G.A. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Human beings are diurnal species, normally active by day and asleep by night. Yet over thirty million Americans struggle with work schedules that include an off-normal work effort. The railroads, law enforcement, health services, Department of Defense, factory workers, chemical plants and public services, communications and utility workers must provide some form of around-the-clock effort. Shift work has been around since the advent of recorded history. There has always been a need for some type of off-normal service and assistance. The impact of shift work is replete with tales and factual evidence of an increased personnel error rate; disorders, both personal and family, and of course, increased accident events. In recent memory, the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant incident, Union Carbide`s explosion in Bhopal, and the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant catastrophe all occurred during off-normal working hours. Yet management overall has done little to correct the production-driven twelve hour, seven day week shift mentality of the nineteenth century. Most schedules in use today are nothing more than cosmetic variations of the old production schedules. This could be driven by a management consideration of the worker`s response to change coupled with a reluctant buy-in of responsibility for the effects of change. Florida Power Corporation has developed for its nuclear security force, a unique work schedule which attempts to employ the sound principles of circadian rhythms coupled with a comprehensive training program to counter the problems associated with shift work. The results over the last four years have seen a marked reduction in the generic problems of personnel errors, absenteeism, unscheduled overtime and turnover rates. Utilization and understanding of this scheduling process for rotational shift work needs to be assessed to determine if the benefits are site specific or provide an expected response to the problems of shift work.

  11. The WorkPlace distributed processing environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Henderson, Scott

    1993-01-01

    Real time control problems require robust, high performance solutions. Distributed computing can offer high performance through parallelism and robustness through redundancy. Unfortunately, implementing distributed systems with these characteristics places a significant burden on the applications programmers. Goddard Code 522 has developed WorkPlace to alleviate this burden. WorkPlace is a small, portable, embeddable network interface which automates message routing, failure detection, and re-configuration in response to failures in distributed systems. This paper describes the design and use of WorkPlace, and its application in the construction of a distributed blackboard system.

  12. A Safe and Healthful Work Environment

    PubMed Central

    McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Berry, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health nursing focuses on promotion and restoration of health, prevention of illness and injury, protection from work-related and environmental hazards, and corporate profitability. Quality education about the relationship between work and health is critical for nurses’ success regardless of work setting, and is consistent with Healthy People 2020 goals, but is lacking or limited in some programs. This report introduces an innovative occupational health nursing curriculum for students enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. The process of designing and pilot testing this novel curriculum, its alignment with nursing competencies, and its format and learning activities are described. Preparing professional nurses to understand the role of the occupational health nurse and the relationship between work and health is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary nursing education. PMID:26077879

  13. Workplace bullying, working environment and health.

    PubMed

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Elofsson, Stig; Gjerde, Maria; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Theorell, Töres

    2012-01-01

    Improved work organisation could be of importance for decreased bullying in workplaces. Participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) responded to questions about work and workplace and whether they had been bullied during the past year in 2006. Those in worksites with at least five employees who did not report that they had been bullied in 2006 and without workplace change between 2006 and 2008 constituted the final sample (n=1,021 men and 1,182 women). Work characteristics and workplace factors in 2006 were used in multiple logistic regression as predictors of bullying in 2008. Separate analyses were performed for work characteristics and workplace factors respectively. Adjustments for demographic factors were made in all analyses. The question used for bullying was: "Are you exposed to personal persecution by means of vicious words or actions from your superiors or your workmates?" Such persecution any time during the past year was defined as bullying. For both genders organisational change and conflicting demands were identified as risk factors, and good decision authority as a protective factor. Dictatorial leadership, lack of procedural justice and attitude of expendability were male and lack of humanity a female risk factor for bullying.

  14. Psychosocial work environment and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Danelia, M; Trapaidze, D

    2005-04-01

    In Georgia, like the other post Soviet republics, CHD morbidity is increasing, especially among young and middle aged people-- i.e. among those who should have the most working ability-- that points at both individual and social significance of the problem. CHD is becoming more and more common among rural inhabitants, different professional groups involved not only in mental but also in physical work. The longstanding observation that rates of coronary heart disease vary markedly among occupations more than can be accounted for by conventional risk factors for coronary heart disease has generated a quest for specific components of work that might be of etiological importance. Especially when according to structural changes in society the role of social and psychological factors increased. Case-control study was carried out based on Karasek model. Our results indicate that jobs characterized by low decision latitude, high job strain and low social support at work may be associated with an increased risk of acute coronary events.

  15. Psychological Fidelity in Simulated Work Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    Advanced Simulator for Pilot Training ( ASPT ) have had little or no impact on certain performance variables studied. The same conclusion was...reached by Martin and Waaq (I’J/fl) in their work with the ASPT . Kurthermon», Kddowes found that in oni1 case, the ^!ystem with a...approach could overwhelm the trainee, leadinq to results such as those described by Fddowes (1978) and Martin and Waaq (1978) for the ASPT

  16. Production loss among employees perceiving work environment problems.

    PubMed

    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Hagberg, Jan; Bergström, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    The overall aim of this explorative study was to investigate the relationship between factors in the psychosocial work environment and work environment-related production loss. Employees at a Swedish university were invited to answer a workplace questionnaire and were selected for this study if they reported having experienced work environment-related problems in the past 7 days (n = 302). A stepwise logistic regression and a modified Poisson regression were used to identify psychosocial work factors associated with work environment-related production loss as well as to identify at what level those factors are associated with production loss. Employees who reported having experienced work environment problems but also fair leadership, good social climate, role clarity and control of decision had significantly lower levels of production loss, whereas employees who reported inequality and high decision demands reported significantly higher levels of production loss. Never or seldom experiencing fair leadership, role clarity, equality, decision demands and good social climate increase the risk of production loss due to work environment problems, compared to those who experience these circumstances frequently, always or most of the time. Several psychosocial work factors are identified as factors associated with a reduced risk of production losses among employees despite the nature of the work environment problem. Knowledge of these factors may be important not only to reduce employee ill-health and the corresponding health-related production loss, but also reduce immediate production loss due to work environment-related problems.

  17. Motto: We work for people and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Barcik, M.

    1995-12-31

    This target has been under Danfoss realization for over 60 years, both in Denmark and all over the world. The operational range of the enterprise: is very wide. Danfoss manufactures a large assortment of products, starting from heat automatic control systems, through heat metering devices, industrial and refrigeration automatic control, compressors, flow meters, frequency converters, control systems, and monitoring. The four mainstays of the business activity are based on: high quality products; advanced manufacturing technology; care of the environment, and engagement of the staff. Since 1992 Danfoss has been manufacturing heat radiator thermostats in Poland. A unique solution - namely the use of a gas thermostatic head secures the highest energy savings and operational reliability. In 1993, Danfoss as the sixth company in Poland and the first in its business field, gained a ISO 9002 certificate.

  18. Army Work Environment Questionnaire (WEQ) Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    A~w WORK E AvRmwx QUESTIONNIRE NWfvw LEAERSHIP AND MANGEMENT TEa-mIicA AREA MAY .1.980 * 41 LI. S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND...Information System Officer (MISO), who would then be in charge of processing the data and giving the WEQ scale scores back to the OESO. Step 3: Plot...Entry a. Gain client support and commitment. b. Build understanding of significant others in the client system . Identify: (1) who proposes (innovator

  19. Crossing a Border for a Low-Cost, High-Risk Environment: Smoking Status and Excessive Drinking among Young Adults in Tijuana

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Gitchell, Joe G.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Romano, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the drinking and smoking behavior of 2,311 college-age adults traveling from San Diego, California to Tijuana, Mexico (December 2006 to December 2008). We describe this Border sample’s drinking history and smoking status and estimate multivariate models of evening drinking participation and, conditional on drinking, blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Noting limitations, we present implications for identifying young adults at high risk of alcohol and tobacco use, particularly females, and lay the foundation for further research examining young adults’ alcohol and tobacco use in reduced price scenarios. PMID:20735192

  20. Hospital Magnet Status, Unit Work Environment, and Pressure Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chenjuan; Park, Shin Hye

    2015-11-01

    To identify how organizational nursing factors at different structural levels (i.e., unit-level work environment and hospital Magnet status) are associated with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) in U.S. acute care hospitals. A cross-sectional observational study used data from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators®. Responses from 33,845 registered nurses (RNs) were used to measure unit work environments. The unit of analysis was the nursing unit, and there were 1,381 units in 373 hospitals in the United States. Unit work environment was measured by the Practice Environment Scale of Nurse Working Index (PES-NWI). Multilevel logistic regressions were used to estimate the effects of unit work environment and hospital Magnet status on HAPUs. All models were controlled for hospital and unit characteristics when considering clustering of units within hospitals. Magnet hospital units had 21% lower odds of having an HAPU than non-Magnet hospital units (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.98). With one unit increase of the PES-NWI score, units had 29% lower odds of having an HAPU (95% CI, 0.55-0.91). When including both hospital Magnet status and unit work environment in the model, hospital Magnet status no longer had a significant effect on HAPUs (odds ratio [OR] = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66-1.02), whereas the significant effect of unit work environment persisted (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.93). Both hospital and unit environments were significantly associated with HAPUs, and the unit-level work environment can be more influential in reducing HAPUs. Investment in the nurse work environments at both the hospital level and unit level has the potential to reduce HAPUs; and additional to hospital-level initiatives (e.g., Magnet recognition program), efforts targeting on-unit work environments deserve more attention. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. Development of the Student Affairs Officers Work Environment Perception Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Derrick E.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative study developed and validated a questionnaire to measure Student Affairs Officers' (SAO) perceptions of the work environment. A review of the literature identified five major categories and 25 elements having an impact on SAOs' perceptions of the work environment. The test instrument (questionnaire) was developed…

  2. Development of the Student Affairs Officers Work Environment Perception Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Derrick E.

    2010-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative study developed and validated a questionnaire to measure Student Affairs Officers' (SAO) perceptions of the work environment. A review of the literature identified five major categories and 25 elements having an impact on SAOs' perceptions of the work environment. The test instrument (questionnaire) was developed…

  3. Wage, Work Environment, and Staffing: Effects on Nurse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Ma, Chenjuan

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that hospitals with better nurse staffing and work environments have better nurse outcomes—less burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave the job. Many studies, however, have not accounted for wage effects, which may confound findings. By using a secondary analysis with cross-sectional administrative data and a four-state survey of nurses, we investigated how wage, work environment, and staffing were associated with nurse outcomes. Logistic regression models, with and without wage, were used to estimate the effects of work environment and staffing on burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave. We discovered that wage was associated with job dissatisfaction and intent to leave but had little influence on burnout, while work environment and average patient-to-nurse ratio still have considerable effects on nurse outcomes. Wage is important for good nurse outcomes, but it does not diminish the significant influence of work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes. PMID:25121923

  4. Creating a positive work environment for therapeutic recreation personnel.

    PubMed

    Keller, M J

    1985-01-01

    It is the role of management in therapeutic recreation to create a working environment where personnel can accomplish their duties; create and maintain relationships; and work together harmoniously and creatively to obtain the organization's mission or purpose. This is an awesome job and therapeutic recreation managers are at times confronted with low-morale environments. Yet, there are strategies which can be employed to create positive working environments. Yet, there are strategies which can be employed to create positive working environments for therapeutic recreation personnel. These transformation techniques are: acknowledging negativity, identifying the positives, being available, providing positive recognition, avoiding negative game playing, refraining from negative conversation, avoiding putdowns, and using positive and effective communication. A successful therapeutic recreation supervisor can bring about positive change in the work environment so that staff members can rise to new levels of performance and self-esteem.

  5. Wage, work environment, and staffing: effects on nurse outcomes.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Matthew D; Ma, Chenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that hospitals with better nurse staffing and work environments have better nurse outcomes-less burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave the job. Many studies, however, have not accounted for wage effects, which may confound findings. By using a secondary analysis with cross-sectional administrative data and a four-state survey of nurses, we investigated how wage, work environment, and staffing were associated with nurse outcomes. Logistic regression models, with and without wage, were used to estimate the effects of work environment and staffing on burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave. We discovered that wage was associated with job dissatisfaction and intent to leave but had little influence on burnout, while work environment and average patient-to-nurse ratio still have considerable effects on nurse outcomes. Wage is important for good nurse outcomes, but it does not diminish the significant influence of work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes.

  6. Authentic leaders creating healthy work environments for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2006-05-01

    Implementation of authentic leadership can affect not only the nursing workforce and the profession but the healthcare delivery system and society as a whole. Creating a healthy work environment for nursing practice is crucial to maintain an adequate nursing workforce; the stressful nature of the profession often leads to burnout, disability, and high absenteeism and ultimately contributes to the escalating shortage of nurses. Leaders play a pivotal role in retention of nurses by shaping the healthcare practice environment to produce quality outcomes for staff nurses and patients. Few guidelines are available, however, for creating and sustaining the critical elements of a healthy work environment. In 2005, the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses released a landmark publication specifying 6 standards (skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition, and authentic leadership) necessary to establish and sustain healthy work environments in healthcare. Authentic leadership was described as the "glue" needed to hold together a healthy work environment. Now, the roles and relationships of authentic leaders in the healthy work environment are clarified as follows: An expanded definition of authentic leadership and its attributes (eg, genuineness, trustworthiness, reliability, compassion, and believability) is presented. Mechanisms by which authentic leaders can create healthy work environments for practice (eg, engaging employees in the work environment to promote positive behaviors) are described. A practical guide on how to become an authentic leader is advanced. A research agenda to advance the study of authentic leadership in nursing practice through collaboration between nursing and business is proposed.

  7. Another link to improving the working environment in acute care hospitals: registered nurses' spirit at work.

    PubMed

    Urban, Ann-Marie; Wagner, Joan I

    2013-12-01

    Hospitals are situated within historical and socio-political contexts; these influence the provision of patient care and the work of registered nurses (RNs). Since the early 1990s, restructuring and the increasing pressure to save money and improve efficiency have plagued acute care hospitals. These changes have affected both the work environment and the work of nurses. After recognizing this impact, healthcare leaders have dedicated many efforts to improving the work environment in hospitals. Admirable in their intent, these initiatives have made little change for RNs and their work environment, and thus, an opportunity exists for other efforts. Research indicates that spirit at work (SAW) not only improves the work environment but also strengthens the nurse's power to improve patient outcomes and contribute to a high-quality workplace. In this paper, we present findings from our research that suggest SAW be considered an important component in improving the work environment in acute care hospitals.

  8. Work environments for healthy and motivated public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Saito, Naoko; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kitaike, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives By defining health as mental health and productivity and performance as work motivation, the study aimed to identify work environments that promote the health and motivation of public health nurses, using the concept of a healthy work organizations, which encompasses the coexistence of excellent health for each worker and the productivity and performance of the organization.Methods Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 363 public health nurses in 41 municipal public health departments in Chiba prefecture. The questions were comprised of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) for mental health and the Morale Measurement Scale (5 items) for work motivation. Demographic data, workplace attributes, workload, and workplace environment were set as independent variables. The Comfortable Workplace Survey (35 items in 7 areas) was used to assess workers' general work environments. The "Work Environment for Public Health Nurses" scale (25 items) was developed to assess the specific situations of public health nurses. While aggregation was carried out area by area for the general work environment, factor analysis and factor-by-factor aggregation were used for public health nurse-specific work environments. Mental health and work motivation results were divided in two based on the total scores, which were then evaluated by t-tests and χ(2) tests. Items that showed a significant correlation were analyzed using logistic regression.Results The valid responses of 215 participants were analyzed (response rate: 59.2%). For the general work environment, high scores (the higher the score, the better the situation) were obtained for "contributions to society" and "human relationships" and low scores were obtained for "career building and human resource development." For public health nurse-specific work environments, high scores were obtained for "peer support," while low scores were obtained for "easy access to advice and training" and

  9. Measuring Work Environment and Performance in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan (Tracy); Katz, Paul; Zhao, Hongwei; Mukamel, Dana B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Qualitative studies of the nursing home work environment have long suggested that such attributes as leadership and communication may be related to nursing home performance, including residents' outcomes. However, empirical studies examining these relationships have been scant. Objectives This study is designed to: develop an instrument for measuring nursing home work environment and perceived work effectiveness; test the reliability and validity of the instrument; and identify individual and facility-level factors associated with better facility performance. Research Design and Methods The analysis was based on survey responses provided by managers (N=308) and direct care workers (N=7,418) employed in 162 facilities throughout New York State. Exploratory factor analysis, Chronbach's alphas, analysis of variance, and regression models were used to assess instrument reliability and validity. Multivariate regression models, with fixed facility effects, were used to examine factors associated with work effectiveness. Results The reliability and the validity of the survey instrument for measuring work environment and perceived work effectiveness has been demonstrated. Several individual (e.g. occupation, race) and facility characteristics (e.g. management style, workplace conditions, staffing) that are significant predictors of perceived work effectiveness were identified. Conclusions The organizational performance model used in this study recognizes the multidimensionality of the work environment in nursing homes. Our findings suggest that efforts at improving work effectiveness must also be multifaceted. Empirical findings from such a line of research may provide insights for improving the quality of the work environment and ultimately the quality of residents' care. PMID:19330892

  10. Measuring work environment and performance in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan; Katz, Paul; Zhao, Hongwei; Mukamel, Dana B

    2009-04-01

    Qualitative studies of the nursing home work environment have long suggested that attributes such as leadership and communication may be related to nursing home performance, including residents' outcomes. However, empirical studies examining these relationships have been scant. This study is designed to develop an instrument for measuring nursing home work environment and perceived work effectiveness; test the reliability and validity of the instrument; and identify individual and facility-level factors associated with better facility performance. The analysis was based on survey responses provided by managers (N = 308) and direct care workers (N = 7418) employed in 162 facilities throughout New York State. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alphas, analysis of variance, and regression models were used to assess instrument reliability and validity. Multivariate regression models, with fixed facility effects, were used to examine factors associated with work effectiveness. The reliability and the validity of the survey instrument for measuring work environment and perceived work effectiveness have been demonstrated. Several individual (eg, occupation, race) and facility characteristics (eg, management style, workplace conditions, staffing) that are significant predictors of perceived work effectiveness were identified. The organizational performance model used in this study recognizes the multidimensionality of the work environment in nursing homes. Our findings suggest that efforts at improving work effectiveness must also be multifaceted. Empirical findings from such a line of research may provide insights for improving the quality of the work environment and ultimately the quality of residents' care.

  11. Suicidal feelings and work environment in psychiatric nursing personnel.

    PubMed

    Samuelsson, M; Gustavsson, J P; Petterson, I L; Arnetz, B; Asberg, M

    1997-10-01

    Suicidal feelings, attempted suicide and aspects of work environment and well-being in Swedish psychiatric nursing personnel were studied using a questionnaire. The questionnaire, containing 190 questions, was mailed to all 242 nurses and attendants working in psychiatric care at the department of psychiatry at Karolinska Hospital. Eighty-one percent (n = 197) returned the questionnaire. Suicidal feelings "last year" were lower than in the general population, but suicidal feeling and attempted suicide "earlier than last year" were much more common, and 13% reported that they had attempted suicide earlier in life. In order to study the possible association between work environment and suicide, a factor analysis was performed. Four factors were extracted and labelled: suicidality, quality of work, negative work environment and burn out/depression. The correlation between the factors suggests that negative work environment is associated with burn out/depression, which in turn is related to suicidality. No direct link was demonstrated between suicidality and work environment, and completed suicide was not investigated. The study provides some indirect evidence that a negative work environment may increase suicidal feelings.

  12. Work environment, job satisfaction, stress and burnout among haemodialysis nurses.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Bronwyn; Douglas, Clint; Bonner, Ann

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationships among nurse and work characteristics, job satisfaction, stress, burnout and the work environment of haemodialysis nurses. Haemodialysis nursing is characterised by frequent and intense contact with patients in a complex and intense environment. A cross-sectional online survey of 417 haemodialysis nurses that included nurse and work characteristics, the Brisbane Practice Environment Measure, Index of Work Satisfaction, Nursing Stress Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Haemodialysis nurses reported an acceptable level of job satisfaction and perceived their work environment positively, although high levels of burnout were found. Nurses who were older and had worked in haemodialysis the longest had higher satisfaction levels, experienced less stress and lower levels of burnout than younger nurses. The in-centre type of haemodialysis unit had greater levels of stress and burnout than home training units. Greater satisfaction with the work environment was strongly correlated with job satisfaction, lower job stress and emotional exhaustion. Haemodialysis nurses experienced high levels of burnout even though their work environment was favourable and they had acceptable levels of job satisfaction. Targeted strategies are required to retain and avoid burnout in younger and less experienced nurses in this highly specialised field of nursing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Detecting high risk pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal

    2009-12-20

    Antenatal care is aiming to reduce maternal land foetal mortality and morbidity. Maternal and foetal mortality can be due to different causes. Their knowledge allows identifying pregnancy (high risk pregnancy) with factors associated with an increased risk for maternal and/or foetal mortality and serious morbidity. Identification of high risk pregnancies and initiation of appropriate treatment and/or surveillance should improve maternal and/or foetal outcome. New risk factors are continuously described thanks to improvement in antenatal care and development in biology and cytopathology, increasing complexity in identifying high risk pregnancies. Level of risk can change all over the pregnancy. Ideally, it should be evaluated prior to the pregnancy and at each antenatal visit. Clinical examination is able to screen for intra-uterin growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, threatened for preterm labour; ultrasounds help in the diagnosis of foetal morphological anomalies, foetal chromosomal anomalies, placenta praevia and abnormal foetal growth; biological exams are used to screen for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, trisomy 21 (for which screening method just changed), rhesus immunisation, seroconversion for toxoplasmosis or rubeola, unknown infectious disease (syphilis, hepatitis B, VIH). During pregnancy, most of the preventive strategies have to be initiated during the first trimester or even before conception. Prevention for neural-tube defects, neonatal hypocalcemia and listeriosis should be performed for all women. On the opposite, some measures are concerning only women with risk factors such as prevention for toxoplasmosis, rhesus immunization (which recently changed), tobacco complications and pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth factor restriction.

  14. Jordanian Nursing Work Environments, Intent to Stay, and Job Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdan, Zaid; Manojlovich, Milisa; Tanima, Banerjee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations among the nursing work environment, nurse job satisfaction, and intent to stay for nurses who practice in hospitals in Jordan. A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. Data were collected through survey questionnaires distributed to 650 registered nurses (RNs) who worked in three hospitals in Jordan. The self-report questionnaire consisted of three instruments and demographic questions. The instruments were the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI), the McCain Intent to Stay scale, and Quinn and Shepard's (1974) Global Job Satisfaction survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated for discrete measures of demographic characteristics of the study participants. Multivariate linear regression models were used to explore relationships among the nursing work environment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay, adjusting for unit type. There was a positive association between nurses' job satisfaction and the nursing work environment (t = 6.42, p < .001). For each one-unit increase in the total score of the PES-NWI, nurses' average job satisfaction increased by 1.3 points, controlling for other factors. Overall, nurses employed in public hospitals were more satisfied than those working in teaching hospitals. The nursing work environment was positively associated with nurses' intent to stay (t = 4.83, p < .001). The Intent to Stay score increased by 3.6 points for every one-unit increase in the total PES-NWI score on average. The highest Intent to Stay scores were reported by nurses from public hospitals. The work environment was positively associated with nurses' intent to stay and job satisfaction. More attention should be paid to create positive work environments to increase job satisfaction for nurses and increase their intent to stay. Hospital and nurse managers and healthcare policymakers urgently need to create satisfactory work environments supporting nursing

  15. Work environments and organizational effectiveness: A call for integration

    SciTech Connect

    Heerwagen, J.H.; Heubach, J.G.; Brown, B.W.; Sanchez, J.A.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.

    1994-07-01

    In response to a request from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Analytical Chemistry Upgrades Program, a team was formed to (1) review work environment and productivity research, (2) report the research in a manner usable to organizational decision-makers, (3) identify Hanford Site facilities examples of the work environment principles and research, and (4) publish the review results in a referred journal. This report summarizes the work environment-organizational effectiveness research reviewed, provides the foundation for a publishable article, and outlines the integration of work environment research and organizational effectiveness in continuing improvement programs and strategic planning. The research cited in this review shows that the physical work environment offers a valuable tool that, used wisely, can contribute significantly to the performance of an organization, its bottom-line economics, and the well-being of all of its employees. This finding leads to one central recommendation: to derive the maximum benefit to the corporation, managers and designers must integrate organizational goals and programs with work environment design. While much of the research cited focuses on office environments, the results and design principles and practices are relevant to a full range of settings: laboratories, schools, hospitals, and factories. The major findings of the research reviewed are summarized below in four areas: (1) performance, (2) well-being, (3) image, and (4) turnover and recruitment.

  16. Authentic leadership, organizational culture, and healthy work environments.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to showcase the relationship among authentic leadership, organizational culture, and healthy work environments using a stress and coping lens. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to determine what situations contribute to nurse manager stress, what coping strategies they utilize, what health outcomes they report, and what decision-making processes they follow to address stressful situations in their roles. A purposive sample of 21 nurse managers employed at 3 US acute care hospitals completed a demographic questionnaire and 14-question interview incorporating components of the Critical Decision Method. A secondary analysis of the data was conducted to identify differences in nurse manager narratives based upon differences in the organizational cultures where the managers worked. Of the 21 nurse managers studied, differences were evident in the organizational cultures reported. Nurse managers working in the positive organizational cultures (n = 12) generally worked in healthy work environments and engaged in more authentic leadership behaviors. Conversely, nurse managers working in the negative organizational cultures (n = 9) worked in unhealthy work environments and reported less optimism and more challenges engaging in authentic leadership practices. Organizational culture and leadership matter in creating and sustaining healthy work environments. Nurse managers play a pivotal role in creating these environments, yet they need supportive structures and resources to more effectively execute their roles.

  17. Psychosocial work environment among employed Swedish dairy and pig farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Kolstrup, Christina; Lundqvist, Peter; Pinzke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial work environment for employed dairy and pig farmworkers in southern Sweden and to identify potential risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment for the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Thirty-seven workers on 10 dairy farms and 30 workers on 10 pig farms participated in the study. The study was based on a Swedish translation of the short version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for analyses of self-perceived psychosocial work environment and the general Nordic questionnaire for analyses of self-perceived MSDs. In general, the psychosocial work environment was assessed as "good" by both the dairy and pig farmworkers. However, the dairy and pig farmworkers experienced lower work demands, poorer general and mental health, and poorer vitality (physical and mental strength, vigor, and energy) compared to other occupations. Furthermore, the results indicated that the quality of leadership, feedback, and social support at work were poorer at the dairy farms than at the pig farms. No significant risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment were identified for MSDs in "the back" and in the "upper extremities." This study indicates that the psychosocial work environment for the dairy and pig farmworkers may well be improved in order to promote these workplaces as attractive and healthful. This especially seems to be the case concerning the quality of leadership, feedback, and social support at work for the dairy farmworkers. Furthermore, the present study suggests the probability that physical factors are more likely to lead to MSDs among employed livestock workers than factors related to the psychosocial work environment.

  18. Routine Work Environment Stress and PTSD Symptoms in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Maguen, Shira; Metzler, Thomas J.; McCaslin, Shannon E.; Inslicht, Sabra S.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Neylan, Thomas C.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between routine work environment stress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of police officers (N = 180) who were first assessed during academy training and reassessed 1-year later. In a model that included gender, ethnicity, traumatic exposure prior to entering the academy, current negative life events, and critical incident exposure over the last year, routine work environment stress was most strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. We also found that routine work environment stress mediated the relationship between critical incident exposure and PTSD symptoms and between current negative life events and PTSD symptoms. Ensuring that the work environment is functioning optimally protects against the effects of duty-related critical incidents and negative life events outside police service. PMID:19829204

  19. Hospital Nurses' Work Environment Characteristics and Patient Safety Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Scott, Linda D

    2016-08-01

    This integrative literature review assesses the relationship between hospital nurses' work environment characteristics and patient safety outcomes and recommends directions for future research based on examination of the literature. Using an electronic search of five databases, 18 studies published in English between 1999 and 2016 were identified for review. All but one study used a cross-sectional design, and only four used a conceptual/theoretical framework to guide the research. No definition of work environment was provided in most studies. Differing variables and instruments were used to measure patient outcomes, and findings regarding the effects of work environment on patient outcomes were inconsistent. To clarify the relationship between nurses' work environment characteristics and patient safety outcomes, researchers should consider using a longitudinal study design, using a theoretical foundation, and providing clear operational definitions of concepts. Moreover, given the inconsistent findings of previous studies, they should choose their measurement methodologies with care.

  20. Healthy work environment standards: is your unit up to par?

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Every RN should be able to work in a safe and healthy environment. Certainly, much of the foundation for such an environment rests with an organization's leadership. But it takes the commitment of every RN to make it happen 24/7. If you did a mini-assessment on your current work environment using the questions above and found it wanting, you have choices to make. First, do you stay silent or do you move the issue forward and seek change? Second, if you advocate for and try to drive change and it doesn't work, do you stay or do you go? Healthy work environments for nurses will only become the norm if nurses refuse to settle for less.

  1. Nutrient Intake of Working Mothers: Relationships with the Family Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Charlotte; Doyle, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    The relationship of family environment to food use and nutrient intakes was investigated among a sample of working mothers in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The family environment scale that measured cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, intellectual-cultural orientation, morals and religious emphasis, organization, and control in the family was used to…

  2. Perceived Risk of Dengue in Ones’ Living Environment as a Determinant of Behavior Change through Social Mobilization and Communication: Evidence from a High Risk Area in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Banneheke, Hasini; Paranavitane, Sarath; Jayasuriya, Vathsala; Banneheka, Sarath

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess community knowledge and behavioral impact of the social mobilization and communication strategy applied in a dengue high-risk area in Sri Lanka. Methods: A group of adults visiting selected primary care facilities in Colombo district were interviewed to collect socio-demographic data, attributes of knowledge regarding dengue and the responsive behaviors adopted by them following the dengue control program though the media and social marketing campaigns. These attributes were classified as ‘good’, ‘fair,’ or ‘poor’ by developing a composite scale for analysis and interpretation of data. Results: The primary source of information was television in the majority. The overall knowledge of the disease, vector and control methods was poor. The overall level of contribution to dengue control activities was good. Conclusion: Awareness of the disease and its complications had not contributed to favorable behavior changes. While the social mobilization and behavior change campaign in Sri Lanka had low impact on knowledge and behaviors, a better understating of community perceptions of DF and how these perceptions are formulated within the social and cultural context; would be useful to improve uptake. This knowledge would be valuable for program planners to strengthen dengue control activities in SL and other similar settings across the region. PMID:27308297

  3. Perceived Risk of Dengue in Ones' Living Environment as a Determinant of Behavior Change through Social Mobilization and Communication: Evidence from a High Risk Area in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Banneheke, Hasini; Paranavitane, Sarath; Jayasuriya, Vathsala; Banneheka, Sarath

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess community knowledge and behavioral impact of the social mobilization and communication strategy applied in a dengue high-risk area in Sri Lanka. A group of adults visiting selected primary care facilities in Colombo district were interviewed to collect socio-demographic data, attributes of knowledge regarding dengue and the responsive behaviors adopted by them following the dengue control program though the media and social marketing campaigns. These attributes were classified as 'good', 'fair,' or 'poor' by developing a composite scale for analysis and interpretation of data. The primary source of information was television in the majority. The overall knowledge of the disease, vector and control methods was poor. The overall level of contribution to dengue control activities was good. Awareness of the disease and its complications had not contributed to favorable behavior changes. While the social mobilization and behavior change campaign in Sri Lanka had low impact on knowledge and behaviors, a better understating of community perceptions of DF and how these perceptions are formulated within the social and cultural context; would be useful to improve uptake. This knowledge would be valuable for program planners to strengthen dengue control activities in SL and other similar settings across the region.

  4. A qualitative study of the work environments of Mexican nurses.

    PubMed

    Squires, Allison; Juárez, Adrián

    2012-07-01

    Studies of the nursing work environment are increasingly common in developed countries, but few exist in developing countries. Because of resource differences between the two contexts, researchers need to clarify what aspects of the work environments are similar and different. To study the perspectives of Mexican nurses about their work environments to determine similarities and differences to results from developed world studies. A secondary, directed content analysis of qualitative data from 46 Spanish language interviews using workplace-oriented themes. Purposively selected Mexican states from four regions of the country that reflect the country's socioeconomic differences. Practicing Mexican nurses with at least 1 year of clinical experience and currently working in nursing. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Initial data collection occurred in 2006 and 2008 during a broader study about professionalization processes that occurred in Mexican nursing between 1980 and 2005. The secondary, directed content analysis focused on an in-depth exploration of a central theme that emerged from the two original studies: the workplace. The directed content analysis used themes from the global nursing work environment literature to structure the analysis: professional relationships, organizational administrative practices, and quality of care and services. The three themes from the global literature were relevant for the Mexican context and a new one emerged related to hiring practices. By category, the same factors that created positive or negative perceptions of the work environment matched findings from other international studies conducted in developed countries. The descriptors of the category, however, had different conceptual meanings that illustrate the health system challenges in Mexico. Findings from this study suggest that studies that seek to measure nursing work environments will most likely apply in Mexico and other

  5. A Qualitative Study of the Work Environments of Mexican Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Juarez, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of the nursing work environment are increasingly common in developed countries, but few exist in developing countries. Because of resource differences between the two contexts, researchers need to clarify what aspects of the work environments are similar and different. Objectives To study the perspectives of Mexican nurses about their work environments to determine similarities and differences to results from developed world studies. Design A secondary, directed content analysis of qualitative data from 46 Spanish language interviews using workplace-oriented themes Setting Purposively selected Mexican states from four regions of the country that reflect the country’s socioeconomic differences. Participants Practicing Mexican nurses with at least one year of clinical experience and currently working in nursing. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Methods Initial data collection occurred in 2006 and 2008 during a broader study about professionalization processes that occurred in Mexican nursing between 1980 and 2005. The secondary, directed content analysis focused on an in-depth exploration of a central theme that emerged from the two original studies: The Workplace. The directed content analysis used themes from the global nursing work environment literature to structure the analysis: Professional relationships, organizational administrative practices, and quality of care and services. Results The three themes from the global literature were relevant for the Mexican context and a new one emerged related to hiring practices. By category, the same factors that created positive or negative perceptions of the work environment matched findings from other international studies conducted in developed countries. The descriptors of the category, however, had different conceptual meanings that illustrate the health system challenges in Mexico. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that studies that

  6. Work environment, overtime and sleep among offshore personnel.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2017-02-01

    Personnel working on North Sea oil/gas installations are exposed to remote and potentially hazardous environments, and to extended work schedules (typically, 14×12h shifts). Moreover, overtime (additional to the standard 84-h week) is not uncommon among offshore personnel. Evidence from onshore research suggests that long work hours and adverse environmental characteristics are associated with sleep impairments, and consequently with health and safety risks, including accidents and injuries. However, little is known about the extent to which long hours and a demanding work environment combine synergistically in relation to sleep. The present study sought to address this issue, using survey data collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N=551). The multivariate analysis examined the additive and interactive effects of overtime and measures of the psychosocial/physical work environment (job demands, job control, supervisor support, and physical stressors) as predictors of sleep outcomes during offshore work weeks. Control variables, including age and sleep during leave weeks, were also included in the analysis model. Sleep duration and quality were significantly impaired among those who worked overtime (54% of the participants) relative to those who worked only 12-h shifts. A linear relationship was found between long overtime hours and short sleep duration; personnel who worked >33h/week overtime reported <6h/day sleep. Significant interactions were also found; sleep duration was negatively related to job demands, and positively related to supervisor support, only among personnel who worked overtime. Poor sleep quality was predicted by the additive effects of overtime, low support and an adverse physical environment. These findings highlight the need to further examine the potential health and safety consequences of impaired sleep associated with high overtime rates offshore, and to identify the extent to which adverse effects of overtime can be mitigated by

  7. Work Environment and Japanese Fathers' Involvement in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's participation in…

  8. What Managers Do to Create Healthy Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael; Boverie, Patricia; Zondlo, John

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to determine what successful managers do to create healthy work environments in a healthcare organization. Managers using exemplary behaviors were selected and interviewed based on employee satisfaction surveys, and focus groups were conducted with employees who worked for them. Effective…

  9. Work Environment and Japanese Fathers' Involvement in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii-Kuntz, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies mainly examined individual and family factors affecting Japanese fathers' involvement in child care. Along with these factors, we examine how work-related factors such as father-friendly environment at work, workplace's accommodation of parental needs, job stress, and autonomy are associated with Japanese men's participation in…

  10. Heat stress standard for hot work environments in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Threshold limit values (TLVs) are intended to protect workers from the severest effects of thermal stress and to establish the exposures to heat in working conditions. Earlier, acute heat strokes often occurred as a result of working in hot environments in Japan. However, acute heat strokes recently sometimes occurred in outdoor work environments such as industrial constructions and agriculture. Seasonal variations in weather are significant and the climatic conditions vary. The criteria are mainly set for working in mines, factories, and so on. WBGT is a useful evaluation index for hot environments; however, it is not commonly used for work practices. WBGT could be calculated and should be commonly used as a standard during summer. Japan mainly has a very hot and humid climate during summer. With regard to the thermal standard for offices, humidity also creates a problem in the indoor thermal conditions. Therefore, it is better to decide the TLVs of the thermal conditions according to seasons and activity levels. Inadequate thermal stress may cause discomfort and adversely affect the performance, safety, and harm to health. Further, thermal factors in the work environment must be measured and evaluated under light workload conditions like desk work for safety and work efficiency.

  11. Perception of the Work Environment and Support for Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Dennis R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Forty male and 45 female educators were administered the Work Preference Schedule and the Barth Scale for purposes of determining the relationship between educators' perceptions of work environment and degree of support for open education. Those supporting open education tended not to prefer rules, regulations, and standard operating procedures.…

  12. Importance of work environments on hospital outcomes in nine countries

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Linda H.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Clarke, Sean; Poghosyan, Lusine; Cho, Eunhee; You, Liming; Finlayson, Mary; Kanai-Pak, Masako; Aungsuroch, Yupin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of hospital work environments on hospital outcomes across multiple countries. Design Primary survey data using a common instrument were collected from separate cross sections of 98 116 bedside care nurses practising in 1406 hospitals in 9 countries between 1999 and 2009. Main Outcome Measures Nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction, patient readiness for hospital discharge and quality of patient care. Results High nurse burnout was found in hospitals in all countries except Germany, and ranged from roughly a third of nurses to about 60% of nurses in South Korea and Japan. Job dissatisfaction among nurses was close to 20% in most countries and as high as 60% in Japan. Close to half or more of nurses in every country lacked confidence that patients could care for themselves following discharge. Quality-of-care rated as fair or poor varied from 11% in Canada to 68% in South Korea. Between one-quarter and one-third of hospitals in each country were judged to have poor work environments. Working in a hospital with a better work environment was associated with significantly lower odds of nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction and with better quality-of-care outcomes. Conclusions Poor hospital work environments are common and are associated with negative outcomes for nurses and quality of care. Improving work environments holds promise for nurse retention and better quality of patient care. PMID:21561979

  13. Developing and sustaining nursing leadership for healthy work environments.

    PubMed

    Lefebre, Nancy; DeCicco, Julie; Ray, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The current nursing shortage and increasing demand for healthcare service in the home and community compound the urgent need for service providers to better attract and retain nurses. Nursing leaders can enhance recruitment and retention by promoting healthy work environments, and developing leadership can help service providers become a better place to work. This case study illustrates how one community healthcare organization successfully implemented healthy workplace strategies using the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario (RNAO) Healthy Work Environments Best Practice Guideline, Developing and Sustaining Nursing Leadership. A detailed description of the process undertaken for project implementation and evaluation is provided, along with lessons learned and recommendations.

  14. Perceived nursing work environment of critical care nurses.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeungok; Bakken, Suzanne; Larson, Elaine; Du, Yunling; Stone, Patricia W

    2004-01-01

    Different concepts and measures have been used to evaluate the work environment of nurses in hospital settings. There is increasing need for updated measurement tools that reflect the evolving nature of the work environment. To report the psychometric properties of the Perceived Nursing Work Environment (PNWE) instrument, and to compare these results with those of other scales derived from the same background instrument: the Nursing Work Index-Revised. The Nursing Work Index-Revised was used in a national survey of critical care nurses. Exploratory principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation was conducted. Psychometric properties were examined. Construct validity was evaluated by comparing the scores for a subsample of nurses in magnet and nonmagnet hospitals. Surveys obtained from 68 hospitals across the nation had a mean response rate of 41%, resulting in a sample of 2,324 participants. The PNWE, with its seven subscales and 42 items, explained 53% of the total variance of the Nursing Work Index-Revised. The subscales exhibited moderate to high reliabilities ranging from .70 to .91, except for one subscale (.56), and generally low intercorrelation. A similar version of the nurse-physician collaboration subscale was found in three of the other four scales compared. The positive scheduling climate subscale was a unique finding. Nurses employed at magnet hospitals had more positive perceived work environments than those employed at nonmagnet hospitals, and showed higher mean scores in four of the seven subscales (p < .05). The PNWE, a measure of the work environment as perceived by nurses, represents the latest version of the Nursing Work Index-Revised based on current practice. In this study, it exhibited sound psychometric properties. Further application and testing of the PNWE in various patient care settings is recommended.

  15. Work environment and occupational health of Finnish veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Reijula, Kari; Räsänen, Kimmo; Hämäläinen, Marjut; Juntunen, Kalevi; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Taskinen, Helena; Bergbom, Barbara; Rinta-Jouppi, Meeri

    2003-07-01

    Health and work environment of Finnish veterinarians was evaluated by The Finnish Veterinary Association and the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire was mailed in the spring of 2000 to all veterinarians under 65 years of age and working in Finland (n = 1169); 785 (67%) responded. A veterinarian's work was physically demanding, and often involved an elevated risk of accident. The risks were considered moderately or considerably high by over half of the respondents, and the highest risks occurred among veterinarians working in equine, mixed (both small and large animals), or in production animal practice. The veterinarians were committed to their work, although, at the same time they experienced work-related stress and fatigue. Particularly veterinarians working in towns, or those involved in education and research, reported the most stress. Serious work-related exhaustion was experienced most often by women in the youngest and by men in the oldest age groups. On average, the veterinarians spent over 100 hr a month on call. Over two-thirds of the participants in the survey reported their general state of health as good or fairly good, while less than 5% of the participants reported their health as rather poor or poor. The work of a Finnish veterinarian, the work environment, and the risks of the work varied greatly depending on the tasks assigned to the veterinarian. This has to be taken into consideration when occupational health services are planned for veterinarians. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. A Multiagent Modeling Environment for Simulating Work Practice in Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; vanHoof, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we position Brahms as a tool for simulating organizational processes. Brahms is a modeling and simulation environment for analyzing human work practice, and for using such models to develop intelligent software agents to support the work practice in organizations. Brahms is the result of more than ten years of research at the Institute for Research on Learning (IRL), NYNEX Science & Technology (the former R&D institute of the Baby Bell telephone company in New York, now Verizon), and for the last six years at NASA Ames Research Center, in the Work Systems Design and Evaluation group, part of the Computational Sciences Division (Code IC). Brahms has been used on more than ten modeling and simulation research projects, and recently has been used as a distributed multiagent development environment for developing work practice support tools for human in-situ science exploration on planetary surfaces, in particular a human mission to Mars. Brahms was originally conceived of as a business process modeling and simulation tool that incorporates the social systems of work, by illuminating how formal process flow descriptions relate to people s actual located activities in the workplace. Our research started in the early nineties as a reaction to experiences with work process modeling and simulation . Although an effective tool for convincing management of the potential cost-savings of the newly designed work processes, the modeling and simulation environment was only able to describe work as a normative workflow. However, the social systems, uncovered in work practices studied by the design team played a significant role in how work actually got done-actual lived work. Multi- tasking, informal assistance and circumstantial work interactions could not easily be represented in a tool with a strict workflow modeling paradigm. In response, we began to develop a tool that would have the benefits of work process modeling and simulation, but be distinctively able to

  17. Production economics analysis of investment initiated to improve working environment.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsson, L

    2000-02-01

    This article describes the results of an evaluation of a new work place for ladle preparation at Swedish Steel in Luleå, Sweden. The company initiated a development project related to ladle service work, in order to come to grips with the difficult working environment and problems associated with absenteeism due to illness and occupational injuries. The evaluation was performed for the first three years after implementation of the project and it shows that the new work place considerably improved working conditions and increased both the quality and efficiency of production. The purpose of this article is also to discuss some methodological problems. The follow-up of the various changes in working environment and personnel statistics was fairly simple to carry out. But in terms of production effects, the company's in-house production follow-up system proved to be too unspecified and oversimplified. It was also difficult to decide which changes should count as effects of the new work place and to value these in monetary terms. The profitability calculation shows that an investment initiated to improve the working environment can yield good profitability.

  18. Conflict management style, supportive work environments and the experience of work stress in emergency nurses.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Mary L; Cadmus, Edna

    2016-03-01

    To examine the conflict management style that emergency department (ED) nurses use to resolve conflict and to determine whether their style of managing conflict and a supportive work environment affects their experience of work stress. Conflict is a common stressor that is encountered as nurses strive to achieve patient satisfaction goals while delivering quality care. How a nurse perceives support may impact work stress levels and how they deal with conflict. A correlational design examined the relationship between supportive work environment, and conflict management style and work stress in a sample of 222 ED nurses using the expanded nurse work stress scale; the survey of perceived organisational support; and the Rahim organisational conflict inventory-II. Twenty seven percent of nurses reported elevated levels of work stress. A supportive work environment and avoidant conflict management style were significant predictors of work stress. Findings suggest that ED nurses' perception of a supportive work environment and their approach to resolving conflict may be related to their experience of work stress. Providing opportunities for ED nurses in skills training in constructive conflict resolution may help to reduce work stress and to improve the quality of patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Stein, Ellen; Evans, Jennifer; Cockroft, Melissa; Sansothy, Neth; Nemoto, Tooro; Page, Kimberly

    2011-11-20

    The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent need for targeted interventions

  20. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. Methods As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. Results The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Conclusions Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent

  1. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment.

  2. Healthy work environments: a validation of the literature.

    PubMed

    Heath, Janie; Johanson, Wanda; Blake, Nancy

    2004-11-01

    Nursing leaders are under intense pressure to ensure that safety and quality exist at every point of service. Landmark reports set forth many calls to action to transform systems and processes of care to improve healthcare delivery. Evidence indicates that healthy work environments (HWEs) are at the heart of the solutions to significantly affect patient outcomes and professional nursing practice. Findings from an HWEs literature review and focus groups indicate that nursing leaders must prioritize efforts to improve the culture in the work environment. Three elements emerged to help nursing leaders set the tone and standard of practice for HWEs: (1) effective communication, (2) collaborative relationships, and (3) promoting decision making among nurses.

  3. Work satisfaction among community-based mental health service providers: the association between work environment and work satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, L B

    1990-12-01

    This is a study of work environment and work satisfaction among 601 community mental health service providers in the central United States. Aspects of the work environment may limit resources and strategies available to minimize staff burnout and maximize effective service delivery. Three human resource issues related to work satisfaction are reviewed: (a) unique constraints in rural mental health service delivery, (b) the role of paraprofessionals in service delivery, and (c) community-based services for seriously mentally ill individuals. This study demonstrates hypothesized associations between work environment and work satisfaction variables. The results suggest that staff members working with seriously mentally ill individuals are vulnerable to dissatisfaction and stress, and may require special skill and mastery enhancement.

  4. Leading change to create a healthy and satisfying work environment.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Carolyn L; Krugman, Mary; Schloffman, Danielle H

    2013-01-01

    Nurse executives must take a leadership role in creating a healthy work environment for nurses and all disciplines. Engaging in partnerships and empowering clinical nurses to construct the solutions to barriers that may stand in the way of the goal of a satisfied and healthy workforce are important strategies toward success. This publication outlines many projects a 3-time Magnet-designated academic hospital has implemented, working with our shared leadership councils, to meet the standards for a healthy work environment. These initiatives, from the unit to the hospital level, included standardizing a culture change of uninterrupted meal breaks, the creation of intensive care unit Zen rooms, strategies to better manage increased patient volumes, best practices for facility design, enhancing physician-nurse relations, and a hospital wellness program. Data were benchmarked against national nurse and employee surveys to compare progress and report outcomes. Two important nursing organization structures that have contributed to the success of a healthy and satisfied nursing work environment include UEXCEL, a longstanding clinical nurse professional practice program, and the hospital's 11-year participation in the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing National Post-Baccalaureate Nurse Residency Program. A highly engaged, well-educated, and committed nursing workforce, nurtured by a strong leadership team, has created a positive work environment characterized by low turnover and high retention.

  5. Dental hygienists' work environment: motivating, facilitating, but also trying.

    PubMed

    Candell, A; Engström, M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe dental hygienists' experiences of their physical and psychosocial work environment. The study was descriptive in design and used a qualitative approach. Eleven dental hygienists participated in the study and data were collected during spring 2008 using semi-structured interviews. The material was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that the dental hygienists experienced their work environment as motivating and facilitating, but at the same time as trying. The three categories revealed a theme: Being controlled in a modern environment characterized by good relationships. Motivating factors were the good relationship with co-workers, managers and patients, seeing the results of your work, having your own responsibility and making your own decisions. The new, pleasant and modern clinics, good cooperation between co-workers and varying duties were described as facilitating factors. The trying factors, as described by the dental hygienists, were above all being controlled by time limits or by some elements of the work, such as teamwork. The dental hygienists also felt stress because appointments were too-short. To conclude, the participants described their work environment as trying in several ways, despite the modern clinics and good relationships.

  6. Sex work and HIV in Cambodia: trajectories of risk and disease in two cohorts of high-risk young women in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen; Sansothy, Neth; Evans, Jennifer; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sichan, Keo; Cockroft, Melissa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

    2013-09-10

    HIV prevalence among Cambodian female sex workers (FSW) is among the highest in Southeast Asia. We describe HIV prevalence and associated risk exposures in FSW sampled serially in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)), before and after the implementation of a new law designed to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from two prospective cohorts. Community-based study in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Women aged 15-29 years, reporting ≥2 sexual partners in the last month and/or engaged in transactional sex in the last 3 months, were enrolled in the studies in 2007 (N=161; YWHS-1), and 2009 (N=220; YWHS-2) following information sessions where 285 and 345 women attended. HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour, amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) and alcohol use, and work-related factors were compared in the two groups, enrolled before and after implementation of the new law. Participants in the two cohorts were similar in age (median 25 years), but YWHS-2 women reported fewer sex partners, more alcohol use and less ATS use. A higher proportion of YWHS-2 compared with YWHS-1 women worked in entertainment-based venues (68% vs 31%, respectively). HIV prevalence was significantly lower in the more recently sampled women: 9.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 13.8%) vs 23% (95% CI 16.5% to 29.7%). Sex work context and risk have shifted among young FSW in Phnom Penh, following implementation of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking laws. While both cohorts were recruited using the same eligibility criteria, more recently sampled women had lower prevalence of sexual risk and HIV infection. Women engaging more directly in transactional sex have become harder to sample and access. Future prevention research and programmes need to consider how new policies and demographic changes in FSW impact HIV transmission.

  7. Development of a work environment rating scale for kindergarten teachers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yau-ho P

    2015-08-01

    Kindergarten education in Hong Kong serves children aged 32-68 months. However, there is no extant scale that measures kindergarten teachers' perceived work environment, an important influence on their well-being. To develop a new instrument, the Teachers' Perceived Work Environment (TPWE) scale, and to assess whether kindergarten teachers with higher TPWE ratings had higher scores for job satisfaction, self-esteem and mental health. A 25-item rating scale was developed and used with a sample of in-service kindergarten teachers. Their perceived work environment was represented by five factors (ergonomics, staffing, teaching space, work hours and social space). These teachers also completed three well-being inventories: the Job Satisfaction Survey, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire-12. In a second stage, a new sample of in-service kindergarten teachers was used to cross-validate the findings from the earlier assessment. In the first sample of 141 teachers and the second of 125, social space, staffing and work hours were associated with job satisfaction, while ergonomics was a significant negative predictor of mental health complaints. The TPWE exhibited satisfactory reliability and validity. Some factors were differentially associated with specific types of well-being. The results may inform future studies of the working conditions of kindergarten teachers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sex work and HIV in Cambodia: trajectories of risk and disease in two cohorts of high-risk young women in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen; Sansothy, Neth; Evans, Jennifer; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sichan, Keo; Cockroft, Melissa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV prevalence among Cambodian female sex workers (FSW) is among the highest in Southeast Asia. We describe HIV prevalence and associated risk exposures in FSW sampled serially in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)), before and after the implementation of a new law designed to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from two prospective cohorts. Setting Community-based study in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Participants Women aged 15–29 years, reporting ≥2 sexual partners in the last month and/or engaged in transactional sex in the last 3 months, were enrolled in the studies in 2007 (N=161; YWHS-1), and 2009 (N=220; YWHS-2) following information sessions where 285 and 345 women attended. Primary outcomes HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour, amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) and alcohol use, and work-related factors were compared in the two groups, enrolled before and after implementation of the new law. Results Participants in the two cohorts were similar in age (median 25 years), but YWHS-2 women reported fewer sex partners, more alcohol use and less ATS use. A higher proportion of YWHS-2 compared with YWHS-1 women worked in entertainment-based venues (68% vs 31%, respectively). HIV prevalence was significantly lower in the more recently sampled women: 9.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 13.8%) vs 23% (95% CI 16.5% to 29.7%). Conclusions Sex work context and risk have shifted among young FSW in Phnom Penh, following implementation of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking laws. While both cohorts were recruited using the same eligibility criteria, more recently sampled women had lower prevalence of sexual risk and HIV infection. Women engaging more directly in transactional sex have become harder to sample and access. Future prevention research and programmes need to consider how new policies and demographic changes in FSW impact HIV transmission. PMID:24022389

  9. Defining high risk in adult kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    2009-09-01

    Because identifiable factors contribute to allograft loss, and because no consensus has been reached on the definition of high risk, an interdisciplinary group of nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and social workers was convened in May 2008. Participants sought to reach consensus about the current state of science and best practices related to the definition and management of high-risk kidney transplant recipients. An expert facilitator with extensive experience in leading consensus teams guided consensus-building activities, which included discussion and small-group work. This consensus group conceptualized the definition of the "high-risk" kidney transplant recipient and provided information to guide the multidisciplinary team in their assessment of these patients before and after transplant. Three key areas, which were conceptualized as independent scales, had a substantial impact on outcomes: (1) transplant recipient medical factors, (2) donor and recipient immunological factors, and (3) transplant recipient psychosocial factors. Though depicted separately, alteration of a specific risk on one scale could influence some risk factors on another scale. In addition, the kidney allograft itself must be considered in the assessment of high risk. The continuum of risk described here should be useful to transplant clinicians in their assessment of high-risk adult kidney transplant patients, may aid centers in developing a more complete definition of high risk, and may lead to risk-reduction efforts.

  10. [A model list of high risk drugs].

    PubMed

    Cotrina Luque, J; Guerrero Aznar, M D; Alvarez del Vayo Benito, C; Jimenez Mesa, E; Guzman Laura, K P; Fernández Fernández, L

    2013-12-01

    «High-risk drugs» are those that have a very high «risk» of causing death or serious injury if an error occurs during its use. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) has prepared a high-risk drugs list applicable to the general population (with no differences between the pediatric and adult population). Thus, there is a lack of information for the pediatric population. The main objective of this work is to develop a high-risk drug list adapted to the neonatal or pediatric population as a reference model for the pediatric hospital health workforce. We made a literature search in May 2012 to identify any published lists or references in relation to pediatric and/or neonatal high-risk drugs. A total of 15 studies were found, from which 9 were selected. A model list was developed mainly based on the ISMP one, adding strongly perceived pediatric risk drugs and removing those where the pediatric use was anecdotal. There is no published list that suits pediatric risk management. The list of pediatric and neonatal high-risk drugs presented here could be a «reference list of high-risk drugs » for pediatric hospitals. Using this list and training will help to prevent medication errors in each drug supply chain (prescribing, transcribing, dispensing and administration). Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Working environment conditions in rural areas according to psychosocial indices.

    PubMed

    Thelin, A G

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study psychosocial working environment factors among farmers and other people living in rural areas. The study was carried out as a cross-section investigation. All persons visiting local occupational health service centres for a health check up have been asked to answer an inquiry which was based on the Karasek-Theorell questionnaire on job strain. Five extra items on worry about the future were added. The questionnaire was completed by over 3,800 persons. Three of four indices showed significant difference with respect to sex. Women experienced less stimulance at work, authority over work and had a greater fear of the future. Farmers had a significantly higher index for psychological demands, stimulance at work as well as authority over work than other occupational groups. The index for authority over work was very high in comparison with presented results for different occupations in other studies. With respect to worry about the future, the farmers had a significantly higher index than nearly all the other occupational groups. The low risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among farmers reported in other studies can probably be related to good psychosocial working environment as measured by the indices in this study as well as other known life style factors.

  12. High-Risk Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Boris Mikhailovich; Levin, Mikhail Borisovich

    1990-01-01

    Posits reasons for accelerated alcohol use and accompanying personality changes among Soviet adolescents. Analyzes the relationship between difficult family environment and poor academic performance. Contends that students who are alienated from school seek to meet needs in antisocial groups where the frequency of drinking to excess often produces…

  13. 40 CFR 35.6790 - High risk recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High risk recipients. 35.6790 Section 35.6790 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Actions Other Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6790 High risk recipients. If...

  14. Effects of dialogue groups on physicians' work environment.

    PubMed

    Bergman, David; Arnetz, Bengt; Wahlström, Rolf; Sandahl, Christer

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether dialogue groups for physicians can improve their psychosocial work environment. The study assessed the impact of eight dialogue groups, which involved 60 physicians at a children's clinic in one of the main hospitals in Stockholm. Psychosocial work environment measures were collected through a validated instrument sent to all physicians (n = 68) in 1999, 2001 and 2003. Follow-up data were collected after the termination of the groups. The overall score of organizational and staff wellbeing, as assessed by the physicians at the clinic, deteriorated from 1999 until 2003 and then improved 2004. This shift in the trend coincided with the intervention. No other factors which might explain this shift could be identified. In a naturalistic study of this kind it is not possible to prove any causal relationships. A controlled survey of management programmes concerning the work environment among physicians would be of interest for further research. The results suggest that dialogue groups may be one way to improve the psychosocial work environment for physicians. There is a lack of intervention studies regarding the efficacy of management programmes directed toward physicians, concerning the effects on professional and personal wellbeing. This is the first time dialogue groups have been studied within a health care setting.

  15. Music Teachers in Turkey: Their Proficiency, Working Environments and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otacioglu, Sena Gursen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was the collection of data concerning Turkish music teachers' proficiency and their place in the primary and secondary education system. In addition, information was collected regarding the teachers' working environment and professional complications. A total of 200 music teachers' opinions were compiled for the determination…

  16. To College Employees, the Work Environment Is All-Important

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    When "The Chronicle" asked college employees what they value about their jobs, they put the physical environment in which they work at the top of the list. They said they were concerned not only that their spaces met their needs but also that their campuses had a pleasing appearance. That's no surprise to Thomas G. Contos, university architect at…

  17. Controlling Glare Problems in the VDT Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleifer, Lawrence M.; Sauter, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    The sources and characteristics (light measurement, direct and indirect or reflected glare) of glare problems in the video display terminal work environment are described. Glare control measures, including the location and design of lighting systems, managing outdoor light and using screen filters and hoods, are reviewed. Five sources are given.…

  18. Work-Life Balance in an Outsourcing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Dervent

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence has found an increase in work-life conflicts within outsourced environments. It is important to address the increase in conflict to reduce negative effects on businesses. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of the spillover, conflict management, and resource dependency theories, the purpose of the study was to examine how…

  19. Fostering healthy work environments through nursing education initiatives.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Mary Anne; Attonito, Kathleen C; Woolforde, Launette

    2013-05-01

    In this era of value-based health care, the knowledge, competence, and professionalism of the front-line nurse and other clinical staff are paramount. Everyone involved in patient care must maximize their skill set and drive high performance in the clinical arena. Healthy work environments will be key to achieving and sustaining quality outcomes and developing and retaining high-performing teams.

  20. How Nurses Experience Their Work as a Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skår, Randi

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and illuminates the meaning of nurses' experiences with their work as a learning environment. A qualitative hermeneutic approach guided the research process and the analysis and interpretation of the transcribed interview-texts of eleven graduate nurses. Three core themes emerged from these informants' descriptions of their…

  1. Developing Skills: Realistic Work Environments in Further Education. FEDA Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Paul; Hughes, Maria

    To establish the prevalence and perceived value of realistic work environments (RWEs) in colleges and their use as learning resources, all further education (FE) sector colleges in Great Britain were surveyed in the summer of 1998. Of 175 colleges that responded to 2 questionnaires for senior college managers and RWE managers, 127 had at least 1…

  2. Communication skills, working environment and burnout among oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Emold, Carol; Schneider, Noa; Meller, Isaac; Yagil, Yaron

    2011-09-01

    To examine the association between communication self-efficacy, working environment perceptions and burnout in an Israeli sample of oncology nurses. A non-randomized convenience sample of nurses (n=39) was recruited from six oncology units in a major tertiary medical center in Israel. Measurements included a socio-demographic survey, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a communication skills self-efficacy inventory and the Working Environment Scale. Frequent experiences of emotional exhaustion were reported by >60% of participants, cynicism by 28%, and self-actualization by >80%. Several statistically significant associations were demonstrated between communication skills self-efficacy and burnout, as well as between cynicism and reported positive characteristics of the working environment. In our study, emotional exhaustion and self-actualization were found to be separate and distinct experiences that can occur simultaneously. Communication self-efficacy and a positive perception of the working environment appear to buffer the occurrence of emotional exhaustion and promote self-actualization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Work-Life Balance in an Outsourcing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Dervent

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence has found an increase in work-life conflicts within outsourced environments. It is important to address the increase in conflict to reduce negative effects on businesses. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of the spillover, conflict management, and resource dependency theories, the purpose of the study was to examine how…

  4. Addressing the nursing work environment to promote patient safety.

    PubMed

    Lin, Laura; Liang, Bryan A

    2007-01-01

    The nursing work environment has a critical impact on patient safety. Yet confusion on the specific roles and competencies of nurses, staff ratio issues, and lack of nurse empowerment create weaknesses that result in safety risks. These interrelated issues must be addressed systemically to impact the nursing care system. Educational reform focusing upon standardized, higher level nursing education using a military model, appropriate staff ratio laws derived from the outcomes literature, and recurrent training incorporating policy-making powers can result in nurse empowerment and improved patient safety. Improving the nursing environment requires a broad approach to benefit patient safety. By treating the work environment as a complex system, approaches can result in greater nurse professionalism, empowerment, and patient safety.

  5. Changes in psychosocial work environment and depressive symptoms: a prospective study in junior physicians.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Weigl, Matthias; Glaser, Jürgen; Petru, Raluca; Siegrist, Johannes; Angerer, Peter

    2013-12-01

    We examined the impact of changes in the psychosocial work environment on depressive symptoms in a sample of junior physicians, a high risk group for stress and mental disorders. This is a three-wave prospective study in 417 junior physicians during their residency in German hospitals. The psychosocial work environment was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire at Waves 1 and 2, and the depressive symptoms were assessed with the State-Trait Depression Scales at all three waves. Multivariate linear regression was applied for prospective associations between ERI across Waves 1 and 2, and baseline-adjusted depressive symptoms at Wave 3. Compared with the ERI scores at Wave 1, at Wave 2, and mean scores between the two waves, the baseline-adjusted ERI change scores between the two waves showed slightly better statistical power, predicting depressive symptoms at Wave 3 (β = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.38-1.18 for increased ERI per SD, β = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.22-1.06 for increased effort per SD, β = -0.65, 95% CI = -1.06 to -0.24 for increased reward per SD, and β = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.27-1.09 for increased overcommitment per SD). Negative changes in the psychosocial work environment, specifically increased ERI, are associated with depressive symptoms in German junior physicians. Reducing the non-reciprocity of working life, particularly improving reward at work, may have beneficial effects on prevention of mental health problems in the hospital workplace. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Discriminating work context factors in the working environment of Dutch nurse anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, V; Brown-Mahoney, C; Van Dam, K; Van Zundert, A; Knape, J

    2008-01-01

    With an ever increasing number of patients and more demanding health care system it is important to keep nurse anesthetists as mentally and physically fit as possible. Especially with a shortage of nurse anesthetists it is important to know which work context factors are important for maintaining a healthy balance between the nurse anesthetist and his work environment. This study is the first to determine which work context factors of nurse anesthetists are most relevant for a healthy work environment. A questionnaire survey, containing work related items, was distributed among all nurse anesthetists working in Dutch hospitals. All together 882 questionnaires (response rate 44%) were completed and analyzed, including factor analysis for the discriminating work context factors. Four discriminating work context factors (career/rewards, relation with supervisor, task contents and social environment) were found to be relevant, explaining 48% of the variance in work context. All four work context factors are considered to be job resources, although not hospital related. Supervisors (head nurses) interpret these work context factors differently from nurse anesthetists, which can result in dissatisfaction of the latter group. Nurse anesthetists participate more in sub-functions and activities in larger peripheral and academic anesthesia departments. Smaller anesthesia departments require nurse anesthetists to be more flexible and perform many different functions within the anesthesia domain.

  7. High-Risk Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolyard, Cassandra S.; Martin, C. Joseph

    1973-01-01

    Described is a house program at Davis and Elkins College in West Virginia which combines humanistic and behavioristic philosophies of education to help students adjust better. The program appears to be working. (Author/CJ)

  8. Relationships between work environments, psychological environments and psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Briner, R B

    2000-07-01

    Work environments appear to have both positive and negative impacts on the psychological well-being of workers. This paper reviews a number of models and theories that have addressed this issue. First, those aspects of the psychological work environment, which are thought to be most relevant to well-being, are described. Second, a number of models and theories are considered. How then is it possible to best understand how the work environment creates a psychological environment, which in turn may affect psychological well-being? While some of the available approaches are general and offer descriptive frameworks, others do attempt to explain the relationships between a more narrow set of work characteristics and well-being. Further, recent approaches focus on explaining emotional reactions at work and the role of the psychological contract. A sound understanding of work and well-being is still some way away. However, focusing on more specific kinds of well-being, taking account of other contextual influences, and looking at both the salubrious and harmful effects of the work environment are likely to bring about greater understanding.

  9. Work environment influences adverse events in an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Pedersen, Anna Helene Meldgaard; Pape, Louise; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Madsen, Marlene Dyrløv; Nielsen, Kent Jacob

    2014-05-01

    The psychosocial work environment has been recognised as a factor that contributes to the occurrence of errors and adverse events at hospitals. There has been a strong focus on stress factors at intensive care units and emergency departments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of adverse events and to examine the relationship between work-related stressors, safety culture and adverse events at an emergency department. A total of 98 nurses and 26 doctors working in an emergency department at a Danish regional hospital filled out a questionnaire on the occurrence and pattern of adverse events, psychosocial work environment factors, safety climate and learning culture. The participants had experienced 742 adverse events during the previous month. The most frequent event types were lack of documents, referrals not performed, blood tests not available and lack of documentation. Problems related to reporting and learning and insufficient follow-up and feedback after serious events were the most frequent complaints. A poor patient safety climate and increased cognitive demands were significantly correlated to adverse events. This study supports previous findings of severe underreporting to the mandatory national reporting system. The issue of reporting bias related to self-reported data should be born in mind. Among work environment issues, the patient safety climate and stress factors related to cognitive demands had the highest impact on the occurrence of adverse events. The project was funded by Trygfonden (grant no 7-10-0949). not relevant.

  10. Indicators of healthy work environments--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Per; Vingård, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. A number of major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments. Altogether 19,768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 24 peer-reviewed publications remained to be included in this systematic review. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found. That study suggested that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a 'good place to work', as these organizations were more likely to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 23 studies either investigated employee's views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. Summarizing, the nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace that emerged from these studies were, in descending order: collaboration/teamwork: growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work.

  11. LANL Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE) Self-Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Barbara C.

    2014-01-29

    On December 21, 2012 Secretary of Energy Chu transmitted to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) revised commitments on the implementation plan for Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Action 2-5 was revised to require contractors and federal organizations to complete Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE) selfassessments and provide reports to the appropriate U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Headquarters Program Office by September 2013. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) planned and conducted a Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE) Self-Assessment over the time period July through August, 2013 in accordance with the SCWE Self-Assessment Guidance provided by DOE. Significant field work was conducted over the 2-week period August 5-16, 2013. The purpose of the self-assessment was to evaluate whether programs and processes associated with a SCWE are in place and whether they are effective in supporting and promoting a SCWE.

  12. The psychosocial work environment and evidence utilization by health professionals.

    PubMed

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Sounan, Charles; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Lesage, Alain D; Denis, Pascale L; Renaud, Martine; Maisy, Nadège; Farand, Lambert; Racine, Hélène

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between dimensions of the psychosocial work environment and health professionals' use of evidence in their practice. A correlational descriptive design was developed. Health professionals working in mental health units at 2 hospitals were asked to complete a questionnaire about their perceptions of the psychosocial work environment and their use of evidence. Correlations and regression analyses were performed. Use of evidence was found to be correlated with social support and decision latitude. Results of multiple regression analyses found perceived social support (beta = .27, p < .01) and perceived decision latitude (beta = .25,p < .01) to be significant predictors of the use of evidence. The authors conclude that good social support and decision latitude among interprofessional groups may promote use of evidence by health professions in their practice.

  13. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Jens Peter E; Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels; Agerbo, Esben

    2009-01-01

    Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%). Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120)]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments. PMID:19635130

  14. Practical Work in Chemistry: Chemistry Students' Perceptions of Working Independently in a Less Organised Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall, Robert James

    2010-01-01

    A study of chemistry students in an organic practical class, where they were required to work on their own, found considerable benefits in allowing them to work independently in a less organised environment. Although apprehensive at first, they soon gained a self-belief in their own abilities and were able to complete the course with minimal input…

  15. Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Seo, Dong-Kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on the collected data, correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. [Results] The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between turnover intention and work-related stress but a statistically significant negative correlation respectively between turnover intention and work environment. Work-related stress (β=0.415) had a significant positive impact on turnover intention and work environment (β=-0.387) had a significant negative impact on turnover intention. [Conclusion] To increase satisfaction level with the profession as well as the workplace for physical therapists, improvement of the work environment was the most necessary primary improvement.

  16. Impact of work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention in physical therapists

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung-kwon; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to provide basic data for solutions to reduce the turnover rate of physical therapists. It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them. [Subjects and Methods] A survey was conducted with 236 physical therapists working at medical institutions in the Daejeon and Chungcheong areas. For the analysis on the collected data, correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 program and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. [Results] The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between turnover intention and work-related stress but a statistically significant negative correlation respectively between turnover intention and work environment. Work-related stress (β=0.415) had a significant positive impact on turnover intention and work environment (β=−0.387) had a significant negative impact on turnover intention. [Conclusion] To increase satisfaction level with the profession as well as the workplace for physical therapists, improvement of the work environment was the most necessary primary improvement. PMID:27630432

  17. From School to Work and from Work to School: Information Environments and Transferring Information Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study, based in a Scottish secondary school, aimed to examine the views of students who were completing work experience, on their information literacy practices, and the differences they found between the school and workplace information environments while on work experience. The views of guidance teachers were also explored.…

  18. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    PubMed

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  19. Assessment of exposure to chemicals in a complex work environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, M.G.; Teta, M.J.; Greenberg, H.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Exposure information was evaluated for two large chemical manufacturing facilities and a research and development center in support of occupational health studies of employees assigned to these facilities. Methodology and rationale underlying the exposure categorization are provided, and descriptive exposure statistics are presented for a sample of 774 employees. Analysis of work patterns and exposure profiles revealed that (1) employee transfers among various production work areas did not follow a predictable pattern, (2) over 41% of the chemicals identified were present in multiple work areas, and (3) individuals exposed to one chemical of toxicologic interest were also likely to be exposed to other similarly toxic materials. The use of both work area and chemical-specific exposure measures is recommended, as each may be helpful in addressing etiologic questions regarding complex work environments.

  20. Leadership and the psychosocial work environment in old age care.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Dan; Ernsth-Bravell, Marie; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2016-03-01

    To study leadership factors and their associations with psychosocial work environmental among nursing assistants who are engaged in old age care and to analyse (i) differences in the assessment of leadership factors and the assessment of psychosocial work environmental in nursing homes and home help services and (ii) the association between the psychosocial work environment and factors that are related to leadership in nursing homes and home help services. Leadership factors are an important element of the psychosocial work environment in old age care. The physical distance between leaders and nursing assistants is larger in home help services than in nursing homes. Therefore, it is important to study leadership separately in nursing homes and home help services. Assessments from 844 nursing assistants in nursing homes and 288 in home help services (45 nursing homes and 21 home help service units) were analysed. The data were analysed using linear regression. Age, gender, number of staff at the unit, number of years at the current working unit and educational level were controlled in Model 1. Summarised indexes that were based on all independent variables except the main independent variable were additionally controlled in Model 2. Psychosocial work environment was related to leadership factors, but stronger associations occurred more frequently in nursing homes than in home help services. Empowering leadership, support from superiors, the primacy of human resources and control over decisions were associated with higher assessments on all the variables that were related to the psychosocial work environment in both the nursing homes and home help services. Organisational differences in conducting leadership in old age care must be considered. Some leadership characteristics are better prerequisites for creating and maintaining a positive psychosocial work environment for nursing assistants in nursing homes and home help services. Due to the differences in

  1. Near-field environment/processes working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the near-field environment to geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The near-field environment may be affected by thermal perturbations from the waste, and by disturbances caused by the introduction of exotic materials during construction of the repository. This group also discussed the application of modelling of performance-related processes.

  2. Work environment characteristics of high-quality home health agencies.

    PubMed

    Tullai-McGuinness, Susan; Riggs, Jennifer S; Farag, Amany A

    2011-10-01

    This concurrent mixed-method study examines the nurse work environment of high-quality Medicare-certified home health agencies. High-quality (n=6) and low-quality (n=6) home health agencies were recruited using agency-level publicly reported patient outcomes. Direct care registered nurses (RNs) from each agency participated in a focus group and completed the Practice Environment Scale of the Nurse Work Index (PES-NWI). No significant differences were found in the PES-NWI results between nurses working in high- and low-quality agencies, though nurses in high-quality agencies scored higher on all subscales. Nurses working in all the high-quality agencies identified themes of adequate staffing, supportive managers, and team work. These themes were not consistently identified in low-quality agencies. Themes of supportive managers and team work are reflective of effective leadership at the manager level. Agencies struggling to improve quality of care might consider developing their managers' leadership skills.

  3. The work environment, stress and well-being.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, E J K; Chaplin, K S; Smith, A P

    2010-12-01

    Much recent work extending the field of job characteristics to include positive aspects of work makes the implicit assumption that the absence of negative work characteristics is equivalent to the presence of positive work characteristics. To consider the effect sizes seen at different ends of job characteristic dimensions and to compare the impact of the presence and absence of job characteristics in association with mental health and well-being outcomes. Data from 8755 workers were analysed to compare the impacts of the presence or absence of job characteristics (job demand, extrinsic effort and social support) in associations with both positive (job satisfaction) and negative (work-related stress) outcome measures. Comparable presence and absence impacts were apparent for extrinsic effort in association with work-related stress. However, in the association between job demand and work-related stress, the presence of high levels of job demand had a significantly greater impact than the absence of high levels of job demand; while in the association between social support and job satisfaction, the absence of high levels of social support had a significantly greater impact than the presence of high levels of social support. It is not always appropriate to assume that the absence of negative aspects of the work environment is equivalent to the presence of positive aspects.

  4. Influence of psychosocial work environment on adherence to workplace exercise.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lars L

    2011-02-01

    Physical exercise can reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, but adherence to exercise is challenging for many employees. This study determines prognostic factors for adherence to workplace exercise. In Copenhagen, 132 office workers with neck/shoulder pain were randomized to 2 or 12 minutes of exercise five days a week. Low, medium, and high adherence was defined as performing less than 10, 10-30, or more than 30 exercise sessions during the subsequent 10 weeks. Odds ratios (OR) for adherence were modeled by logistic regression. Lower adherence to the 10-week exercise program was predicted by poorer psychosocial work environment and lower exercise self-efficacy. A longer exercise program was not associated with lower adherence. Concurrent strategies to improve psychosocial work environment and individual exercise beliefs should be considered when implementing exercise at the workplace.

  5. Stressful work environment and wellbeing: What comes first?

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Jokela, Markus; Hakulinen, Christian; Presseau, Justin; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Kivimäki, Mika

    2015-07-01

    The association between the psychosocial work environment, including job demands, job control, and organizational justice, and employee wellbeing has been well established. However, the exposure to adverse work environments is typically measured only using self-reported measures that are vulnerable to reporting bias, and thus any associations found may be explained by reverse causality. Using linear regression models and cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM), we tested the direction of the association between established job stress models (job demand control and organizational justice models) and 3 wellbeing indicators (psychological distress, sleeping problems, and job satisfaction) among 1524 physicians in a 4-year follow-up. Results from the longitudinal cross-lagged analyses showed that the direction of the association was from low justice to decreasing wellbeing rather than the reverse. Although the pattern was similar in job demands and job control, a reciprocal association was found between job control and psychological distress. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Well Organised Working Environment: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Dominique Kim Frances; Griffin, Murray

    2016-03-01

    The English National Health Service Institute for Innovation and Improvement designed a series of programmes called The Productive Series. These are innovations designed to help healthcare staff reduce inefficiency and improve quality, and have been implemented in healthcare organisations in at least 14 different countries. This paper examines an implementation of the first module of the Productive Community Services programme called 'The Well Organised Working Environment'. The quantitative component aims to identify the quantitative outcomes and impact of the implementation of the Well Organised Working Environment module. The qualitative component aims to describe the contexts, mechanisms and outcomes evident during the implementation, and to consider the implication of these findings for healthcare staff, commissioners and implementation teams. Mixed methods explanatory sequential design. Community Healthcare Organisation in East Anglia, England. For the quantitative data, participants were 73 staff members that completed End of Module Assessments. Data from 25 services that carried out an inventory of stock items stored were also analysed. For the qualitative element, participants were 45 staff members working in the organisation during the implementation, and four members of the Productive Community Services Implementation Team. Staff completed assessments at the end of the module implementation, and the value of items stored by clinical services was recorded. After the programme concluded, semi-structured interviews with staff and a focus group with members of the Productive Community Services implementation team were analysed using Framework Analysis employing the principles of Realist Evaluation. 62.5% respondents (n=45) to the module assessment reported an improvement in their working environment, 37.5% (n=27) reported that their working environment stayed the same or deteriorated. The reduction of the value of items stored by services ranged from £4 to

  7. Managerial strategies for creating an effective work environment.

    PubMed

    Luse, Kimberly A

    2013-01-01

    To create a highly functioning medical imaging team, radiology managers must be able to analyze their departments and identify areas for improvement. This type of analysis means assessing front-line personnel who already work in the department, along with identifying staffing needs and recruiting talented new employees. In addition, managers must develop effective retention tools such as career ladders and mentorship programs to improve the overall working environment. This article discusses a variety of different strategies to help managers develop a more effective department.

  8. Risk Assessment in the Working Environment in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Tint, Piia

    1998-01-01

    The first step to chart hazards in the working environment in Estonia (labour force: 0.65 million) was taken by the National Board of Health Protection in the beginning of 1996. The existing chemical, physical, and biological agents in the working environment were investigated with the help of local health inspectors in all counties. An identification of hazards and workers at risk was carried out. The results of the analysis showed that 16% of Estonian industrial workers are exposed to different hazards: 20,000 persons are exposed to noise, 11,000 are working in the conditions of vibration, 10,000 are affected by unsatisfactory microclimate, 6,000 complain about long-lasting work in a compulsory posture, the overexertion of eyes is suffered by 5,500 persons, and physical overload by 3,500 workers. In the group of chemical hazards the greatest numbers of workers are exposed to organic dust (6,500) and welding aerosols (5,400), followed by petroleum products (2,700), and oil-shale dust (4,300). The measurements of working conditions showed that an average of 30.3% of the results are above the standards. Proposals for the improvement of the situation in occupational safety and health are presented.

  9. [The survey on the work environment of young cardiovascular surgeons].

    PubMed

    Gon, Shigeyoshi; Morizumi, Sei; Shimizu, Tsuyoshi; Suematsu, Yoshihiro; Kyo, Shunei

    2011-01-01

    We carried out the questionnaire of the working environment of young cardiovascular trainees, which are equal and less than ten years after graduation from medical school. We asked 261 surgeons for questionnaire on direct mail and 76 (29.1%) replied. Most of them thought they were working in poor environment. 47 surgeons (61.3%) were not satisfied with their current works. Main reasons were less chance of surgical cases as primary surgeons and lots of duties and paper works which were not related to operations and pre-and post-operative management. Primary thing that we have to do, would be to construct the system, which the medical clerk and physician's assistant share duties and reduce the labor burden on doctors. Many young surgeons expect to built up their social status as cardiovascular specialist. We considered that the improvement of working circumstances with establishing a system of physician assistant, drastic practice curriculums, would be necessary, before the discussion to put together cardiovascular institutions.

  10. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    PubMed

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p < 0.0001). Exposures to exhausts, oils and dust were commonly reported. Major work problems were noise, risk of an accident and vibrations from the hull of the ship. The safety climate was high in comparison with that in land-based occupations. One-fourth had experienced personal harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  11. Teaching Art to High Risk Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossol, Monona

    The role of art therapy is considered in working with such high risk groups as the institutionalized, mentally retarded, elderly, visually impaired, physically handicapped, asthmatic, hyper- and hypo-active children, hearing impaired, and patients on mind altering drugs. The special risks of infectious diseases (such as serum hepatitis), and…

  12. A road map for creating a Magnet work environment.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Gail A; Greenhouse, Pamela K

    2006-10-01

    The authors examine the relationship between working environment and the developmental level of the workforce, against the backdrop of the American Nurses Credentialing Center Magnet Recognition Program, to provide a road map for creating a positive work environment. With the daily demands on nurse managers, there is a need to identify focused strategies to achieve a Magnetized, high-performing work environment. The American Nursing Association Magnet survey was administered to nurses at a large healthcare system. Patient units at each hospital were categorized as reactive, responsive, proactive, or high performing. Similar categories of units across all 6 hospitals were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed on each Force of Magnetism by developmental level. Mean scores measuring the Forces of Magnetism were statistically significant between reactive and responsive units. Likewise, mean scores between responsive and proactive units were also statistically significant. Between reactive and responsive units, there were 3 statistically significant forces of Magnetism: organizational structure, management style, and interdisciplinary relations. These are labeled primary priority forces. Between responsive and proactive units, there were 6 statistically significant forces of Magnetism labeled secondary priority forces: policies and programs; professional models of care; quality of care; consultation and resources; autonomy; and interdisciplinary relations. Nursing staff perceive the "Magnetism" of the work environment differently, depending on the developmental level of the unit. Nurse managers with reactive units should focus on the 3 Forces of Magnetism identified as the primary priority forces, in order to help develop their unit to the next level of responsive. Once a responsive level has been achieved, the next 6 forces should be addressed.

  13. Building a healthy work environment: a nursing resource team perspective.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Leslie; Slinger, Trisha

    2013-01-01

    Leadership and staff from the London Health Sciences Centre (LHSC) Nursing Resource Team (NRT), including members of their Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) Council, attended the first Southern Ontario Nursing Resource Team Conference (SONRTC), held March 2012 in Toronto. The SONRTC highlighted healthy work environments (HWEs), noting vast differences among the province's various organizations. Conversely, CQI Council members anecdotally acknowledged similar inconsistencies in HWEs across the various inpatient departments at LHSC. In fact, the mobility of the NRT role allows these nurses to make an unbiased observation about the culture, behaviours and practices of specific units as well as cross-reference departments regarding HWEs. Studies have documented that HWEs have a direct impact on the quality of patient care. Furthermore, the literature supports a relationship between HWEs and nurse job satisfaction. Based on this heightened awareness, the NRT CQI Council aimed to investigate HWEs at LHSC. The American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments was adapted in developing a survey for measuring HWEs based on the perceptions of NRT staff. Each of the departments was evaluated in terms of the following indicators: skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision-making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition and authentic leadership (AACN 2005). Ultimately, the Building a Healthy Work Environment: A Nursing Resource Team Perspective survey was employed with NRT nurses at LHSC, and data was collected for use by leadership and staff for creating HWE strategies aimed at improving the quality of patient care.

  14. Effect of the Work Environment on Using Time at Work to Exercise.

    PubMed

    Bale, Jeffrey M; Gazmararian, Julie A; Elon, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether workload, job satisfaction, and flexible schedules are predictive of using time at work to exercise. The study design was the quantitative analysis of the time at work to exercise intervention of a cluster-randomized controlled trial. The study took place at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. Subjects comprised 188 full- and part-time faculty and staff (57% female). Employees were randomized into different intervention groups, and analysis focused on employees who were provided 30 minutes of time at work to exercise. Time at work to exercise at was measured 9 months, and work environment characteristics were measured at baseline. Logistic regression modeling using generalized estimating equation analysis was used to account for departmental clustering. Time at work to exercise was used by 45% of participants. Participants who felt comfortable taking time off work to exercise were 2.8 times more likely to use time to exercise than those who did not feel comfortable taking time off (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 6.1). Participants who reported too much work were .3 times less likely to exercise (95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 0.7). Job satisfaction and the ability to take time off for personal matters were not significantly associated with using time to exercise. The results support the hypothesis that individuals with a supportive work environment would be more likely to use time at work to exercise. Workload and having time during the day are more important than job satisfaction.

  15. Airborne moulds and actinomycetes in work environment of farmers.

    PubMed

    Kotimaa, M H; Terho, E O; Husman, K

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this series of studies was to investigate the quality and quantity of farmers' exposure to airborne spores during the handling of hay or grain. In the beginning, the Petri dish method and later a six-stage Andersen sampler were used to collect the samples. The number of spores of mesophilic fungi, thermotolerant fungi, thermophilic actinomycetes and fungi of the Aspergillus glaucus group were determined in order to find possible causative agents of farmer's lung disease. The level of exposure varied from 10(4) cfu/m3 to 10(7) cfu/m3 (cfu = colony forming unit). In hay, fungi of the A. glaucus group usually dominated. In grain the most common moulds were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. In both hay and grain the most common thermophilic actinomycete was Thermoactinomyces vulgaris; Micropolyspora faeni was found less frequently. Silaging was found to be the best method to prevent moulding of hay. Chemicals added during baling did not satisfactorily prevent moulding of hay. For stored grain, however, the best results were obtained with propionic acid treatment. The quality and quantity of airborne spores found suggests that farm work exposes farmers to a high risk of becoming sensitized, which leads to the development of asthma or farmer's lung. Few of the methods presently available for making or storing hay and grain can satisfactorily prevent moulding. So far, use of personal dust respirators with a type P2 (previously II b) filter seems to be the only way to effectively diminish exposure to spores.

  16. Healthy work environments for the ageing nursing workforce.

    PubMed

    Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the physical challenges that ageing nurses experience and the facility design features that can promote healthy work environments to motivate nurses to continue working. Older nurses are working longer and beyond the usual retirement age. They often experience chronic fatigue and the usual physical and cognitive changes associated with aging. Nursing is a physically demanding profession and many older nurses work in pain while providing direct patient care. The literature is replete with studies focusing on the organisational factors that retain older nurses, but little research addresses design factors that facilitate nurses working longer and more safely in direct patient care. Electronic databases in medicine, nursing, psychology, and architecture were searched and evidence-based, non-evidence-based, and review articles and government and organisational newsletters were evaluated. Hospital design can help address the physical work challenges that older nurses experience. Older nurses have a wealth of knowledge and expertise, and the design of nursing units can optimize their work experience. Nurse Managers must participate in design efforts and advocate designs that support aging nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Explaining nurses' work behaviour from their perception of the environment and work values.

    PubMed

    Takase, Miyuki; Maude, Phillip; Manias, Elizabeth

    2005-11-01

    The present study examined how the relationship between nurses' perception of their environment and their work values could explain their job performance and whether they intended to quit their jobs. A survey (N=346) and a focus group (N=6) were used to collect data. The results revealed that nurses' job performance was maintained in an environment where they received few professional incentives due to their professionalism. In contrast, negative environmental characteristics directly impacted on nurses' intention to quit their jobs. The present study provides new insights into nurses' work behaviour.

  18. Engaging health care workers in improving their work environment.

    PubMed

    Hamelin Brabant, Louise; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Viens, Chantal; Lefrançois, Linda

    2007-04-01

    This study describes the perceptions of health care workers who were involved in a participatory approach for the reorganization of care and work, aimed at creating an optimum work environment. Quebec's health network has undertaken large-scale organizational changes to ensure the quality of health care and services for the population. This participatory research was carried out by means of interviews. The sample consisted of 20 participants involved in the participatory approach for making changes to the organization of care and work in two pilot units. Four main perspectives emerged from the analysis: (1) views on the legitimacy of change, (2) commitment, indifference and resistance, (3) day-to-day concrete changes as signs of hope and (4) the elements of the success of the participatory approach. The management team's support and leadership and the participatory approach were significant factors in the success of the project.

  19. Nationwide Survey of Work Environment, Work-Life Balance and Burnout among Psychiatrists in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by ‘high-burnout’; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. Aims The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. Method We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Results Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. Conclusions A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout. PMID:23418435

  20. [Mobbing and working environment: towards an organizational prevention].

    PubMed

    Bosco, Maria Giuseppina; Salerno, Silvana

    2004-01-01

    Psychological violence in the workplaces is increasing and the Italian national health service and trade unions are mostly involved in single cases of diagnosis strategy. To analyse published mobbing cases using a mobbing prevention approach that takes account of the main civil rights violation in mobbing actions. 25 cases were analysed in order to identify the type of mobbing, gender, the professional position and the main civil rights that were violated. Seven main civil rights had been violated in the 25 mobbing cases: health, work, professional skills, equal treatment, legality, diversity, dignity. Men working in unhealthy conditions, mostly due to unhealthy working environments, were forced to leave under the pressure of moral violence. In women, equal treatment and diversity were the main rights that were violated. Co-worker support was absent in all cases. A civil rights assessment to prevent mobbing is considered. Italian legislation, particularly the Civil Code, can be the legislation key for prevention, with the employer responsible for providing a violence-free environment as indicated in European Directive 626/94.

  1. Challenges to temperature regulation when working in hot environments.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nigel A S

    2006-07-01

    The focus of this review is upon acute exposure to hot environments and the accompanying physiological changes. The target audience includes physiologists, physicians and occupational health and safety practitioners. Using the principles of thermodynamics, the avenues for human heat exchange are explored, leading to an evaluation of some methods used to assess thermally-stressful environments. In particular, there is a critique of the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, and an overview of an alternative means by which such assessments may be undertaken (the heat stress index). These principles and methods are combined to illustrate how one may evaluate the risk of heat illness. Three general areas of research are briefly reviewed: the physiological impact of wearing thermal protective clothing, heat adaptation (acclimation) and whole-body pre-cooling. These topics are considered as potential pre-exposure techniques that may be used to reduce the threat of hyperthermia, or to enhance work performance in the heat.

  2. Nursing Home Work Environment Characteristics: Associated Outcomes in Psychosocial Care

    PubMed Central

    Bonifas, Robin P.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about how work environment characteristics influence social services professionals' ability to deliver effective psychosocial services in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) and how such influence translates into resident-centered outcomes. This study combines data from a survey of facility social services directors in Washington State with State inspection outcomes from the Online Survey Certification Reporting database. Logistic regression is used to examine how facility structure and facility culture impact receipt of a survey inspection deficiency in medically-related social services. Results indicate that non-metropolitan location and larger caseload size are the strongest predictors of receiving such a deficiency. PMID:19361114

  3. Nursing unit managers, staff retention and the work environment.

    PubMed

    Duffield, Christine M; Roche, Michael A; Blay, Nicole; Stasa, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the impact of leadership characteristics of nursing unit managers, as perceived by staff nurses, on staff satisfaction and retention. A positive work environment will increase levels of job satisfaction and staff retention. Nurse leaders play a critical role in creating a positive work environment. Important leadership characteristics of the front-line nurse manager include visibility, accessibility, consultation, recognition and support. Secondary analysis of data collected on 94 randomly selected wards in 21 public hospitals across two Australian states between 2004-2006. All nurses (n = 2488, 80·3% response rate) on the selected wards were asked to complete a survey that included the 49-item Nursing Work Index-Revised [NWI-R] together with measures of job satisfaction, satisfaction with nursing and intention to leave. Subscales of the NWI-R were calculated. Leadership, the domain of interest, consisted of 12 items. Wards were divided into those reporting either positive or negative leadership. Data were analysed at the nurse level using spss version 16. A nursing manager who was perceived to be a good leader, was visible, consulted with staff, provided praise and recognition and where flexible work schedules were available was found to distinguish the positive and negative wards. However, for a ward to be rated as positive overall, nurse leaders need to perform well on all the leadership items. An effective nursing unit manager who consults with staff and provides positive feedback and who is rated highly on a broad range of leadership items is instrumental in increasing job satisfaction and satisfaction with nursing. Good nurse managers play an important role in staff retention and satisfaction. Improved retention will lead to savings for the organisation, which may be allocated to activities such as training and mentorship to assist nurse leaders in developing these critical leadership skills. Strategies also need to be put in place to

  4. WORKING ENVIRONMENT AND JOB SATISFACTION AMONG HEALTH PROFESSIONAL WORKING AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Imrana; Kumar, Ramesh; Rathore, Anita; Lal, Manohr

    2015-01-01

    Work environment is believed to be a major factor for better performance of human resource for health in any organization. This study concentrated on multiple factors involved in job satisfaction was appraised to critique their efficient significance in calculation of the health professional liking. Factors included job matched with workers' skills/experience, incentives, supervision, administrator support; convenient work load, training, appreciation, low pay and job protection were major contributors in job satisfaction. A mix method study was done in 2014; an initial descriptive cross sectional survey was done followed by qualitative approach. Eighteen in-depth interviews with health care providers were conducted after taking written consent. Nodes, sub-nodes and final themes were generated during qualitative data analysis. Main findings and themes were, generated after making the nodes and sub-nodes from the most frequent responses. These themes were; absence of work pressure, work place safety, social support, learning opportunities, and employee influence on conditions and recognition individual or team efforts. Work environment is a major contributing factor towards job satisfaction among the health workers.

  5. Effect assessment in work environment interventions: a methodological reflection.

    PubMed

    Neumann, W P; Eklund, J; Hansson, B; Lindbeck, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of issues for work environment intervention (WEI) researchers in light of the mixed results reported in the literature. If researchers emphasise study quality over intervention quality, reviews that exclude case studies with high quality and multifactorial interventions may be vulnerable to 'quality criteria selection bias'. Learning from 'failed' interventions is inhibited by both publication bias and reporting lengths that limit information on relevant contextual and implementation factors. The authors argue for the need to develop evaluation approaches consistent with the complexity of multifactorial WEIs that: a) are owned by and aimed at the whole organisation; and b) include intervention in early design stages where potential impact is highest. Context variety, complexity and instability in and around organisations suggest that attention might usefully shift from generalisable 'proof of effectiveness' to a more nuanced identification of intervention elements and the situations in which they are more likely to work as intended. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper considers ergonomics interventions from perspectives of what constitutes quality and 'proof". It points to limitations of traditional experimental intervention designs and argues that the complexity of organisational change, and the need for multifactorial interventions that reach deep into work processes for greater impact, should be recognised.

  6. [Health-related absenteeism among workers employed in various work environments].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Z; Makowiec-Dabrowska, T; Sobala, W

    1999-01-01

    The state of health in working people is determined by a number of factors among which working conditions and the kind of job performed play undoubtedly a crucial role. The observation and analysis of trends in sick absenteeism may provide indirect information on health problems of the occupationally active population. The aim of the analysis presented was to define the magnitude and the causes of temporary work disability among workers employed in individual branches of the national economy, and finally to identify high risk groups of workers because of their employment in specific working conditions. The statistical material used as the basis for the calculation of absenteeism indicators embraced the data on the number of work disability days, derived from a 15 representative sample of punched cards, concerning certificates of temporary work disability. In order to accomplish the objectives of the analysis, the trends in sick absenteeism observed before 1989, the period preceding the structural changes and the transformation of Polish economy were taken into consideration. The analysis indicates that the level of sick absenteeism in the branches of the national economy (forestry, building construction, transport, industry) and the proportion of chronic diseases in its structure prove the effect of working conditions on the workers' health. Considering individual branches of industry, the highest levels of sick absenteeism are observed in the following branches: mining for men (5.61), non-ferrous metals for women (10.04) and men (4.95), ferrous metallurgy for women (9.99) and men (4.93), and petroleum products for women (11.76). The analysis of sick absenteeism in the branches selected in view of hazardous working conditions shows that: (1) in many branches chemical hazards in the work environment are responsible for an increased sick absenteeism due to diseases of the circulatory system, particularly among men, mental disorders and neoplasms, both among men and

  7. Patterns of work injuries: cases admitted to emergency room treatment compared to cases reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority during 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt; Lauritsen, Jens M

    2014-02-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA). Work injuries of the ED, Odense University Hospital, and injuries from the geographical catchment area reported to the DWEA between 2003 and 2010 were included. The injuries included in both datasets were identified by merging the ED file and the DWEA file using the civil registry number and injury date information as key. Approximately 50 000 work injuries occurred in the catchment area of the ED. The intersection between the two injury registration systems was 16%. A major discordance concerned the type of injuries, as some injuries were seen frequently in the ED but not reported to the DWEA to any significant extent, for example 'eye injuries' and 'superficial lacerations or wounds'. On the other hand, some injuries are rarely seen in the ED, but often reported to the DWEA, for example 'low back pain'. Additionally, younger workers visit the ED more often than older workers, and injuries in the high risk sectors have the lowest reporting proportion. Neither the ED nor DWEA injury files alone give a complete picture of work injuries. But merged, they represent a significant number of injuries, taking into account differences in data sources, for example concerning uneven distribution of age, sex, type of injury and type of industry. Obviously, not all serious work related ED injuries resulting in lost work time are reported to the DWEA.

  8. Different development trends in working life and increasing occupational stress require new work environment strategies.

    PubMed

    Härenstam, Annika

    2005-01-01

    This article has a two-fold purpose. First, it provides an explanation for the increase in occupational stress and sick leaves in Sweden in terms of the structural and organizational conditions. Second, it discusses measures that address these issues. Results of a study of 72 establishments are presented. The study investigated these establishments at both the organizational and individual employee level. It examined management strategies and working conditions in the establishments, classifying these elements by type of operations and company position. Both classifications point to differences in how work is organized and in working conditions. The results indicate that management technologies distribute risks between segments of the labor market, thus, also between different groups of the labor force. The developments were most favorable in high tech and knowledge-based operations. The situation was least favorable in labor-intensive services and, the most negative development had taken place in human services. Establishments serving as contractors appeared to organize their work differently from those with core activities. Working conditions in contracting businesses were particularly problematic. Since organizational changes work differently from one company to the next, there is a need to develop a variety of strategies for enacting change in the work environment. This article proposes strategies for different segments of the labor market. These strategies are adapted to the particular problems facing each segment.

  9. Neuroleptics under high risk conditions.

    PubMed

    Oyewumi, L K

    1983-08-01

    A critical review of various high risk situations in which neuroleptics could be used and have been used in clinical practice is presented. These high risk situations include: women of child bearing age (pregnant women, lactating and/or nursing mothers), the two extremes of life (children and the elderly), patients with sexual dysfunction, patients with tardive dyskinesia, non-psychotic psychiatric patients, physically ill and suicidal patients. The extraordinary applications of these drugs, such as for rapid tranquilization and megadose regimens are examined. The author provides guidelines for the use of neuroleptics in these clinical situations.

  10. [The forestry work environment and its ergonomic requirements].

    PubMed

    Sever, S

    1995-03-01

    The paper describes chief instruments of forest production and their ergonomic requirements. The level of mechanization in the forestry production differs from high in logging and roadbuilding to a considerably lower one in silviculture, where nursery production stands out with the level of mechanization equalling that of agriculture. Ergonomic requirements greatly depend on the attitude of a particular social environment towards work safety. Some ergonomic requirements take the form of standards, recommendations or agreements. The chain saw is characterized not only by ergonomic-technical properties but also by mass, noise and vibration. Over the past three and a half decades, each of these parameters has come to conform to stricter and stricter requirements. Mass has been reduced to less than 8 kg, noise near the cutter's ear to about 100 dB(A), and the estimated acceleration transfer to the hand/arm system (WAS) below 12.5 m/s2 (frequently even below 10 m/s2).

  11. Multichannel sound reinforcement systems at work in a learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, John; Campbell, Colin

    2003-04-01

    Many people have experienced the entertaining benefits of a surround sound system, either in their own home or in a movie theater, but another application exists for multichannel sound that has for the most part gone unused. This is the application of multichannel sound systems to the learning environment. By incorporating a 7.1 surround processor and a touch panel interface programmable control system, the main lecture hall at the University of Michigan Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning has been converted from an ordinary lecture hall to a working audiovisual laboratory. The multichannel sound system is used in a wide variety of experiments, including exposure to sounds to test listeners' aural perception of the tonal characteristics of varying pitch, reverberation, speech transmission index, and sound-pressure level. The touch panel's custom interface allows a variety of user groups to control different parts of the AV system and provides preset capability that allows for numerous system configurations.

  12. EWB: The Environment WorkBench Version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Environment WorkBench EWB is a desktop integrated analysis tool for studying a spacecraft's interactions with its environment. Over 100 environment and analysis models are integrated into the menu-based tool. EWB, which was developed for and under the guidance of the NASA Lewis Research Center, is built atop the Module Integrator and Rule-based Intelligent Analytic Database (MIRIAD) architecture. This allows every module in EWB to communicate information to other modules in a transparent manner from the user's point of view. It removes the tedious and error-prone steps of entering data by hand from one model to another. EWB runs under UNIX operating systems (SGI and SUN workstations) and under MS Windows (3.x, 95, and NT) operating systems. MIRIAD, the unique software that makes up the core of EWB, provides the flexibility to easily modify old models and incorporate new ones as user needs change. The MIRIAD approach separates the computer assisted engineering (CAE) tool into three distinct units: 1) A modern graphical user interface to present information; 2) A data dictionary interpreter to coordinate analysis; and 3) A database for storing system designs and analysis results. The user interface is externally programmable through ASCII data files, which contain the location and type of information to be displayed on the screen. This approach provides great flexibility in tailoring the look and feel of the code to individual user needs. MIRIADbased applications, such as EWB, have utilities for viewing tabulated parametric study data, XY line plots, contour plots, and three-dimensional plots of contour data and system geometries. In addition, a Monte Carlo facility is provided to allow statistical assessments (including uncertainties) in models or data.

  13. Communication and psychological safety in veterans health administration work environments.

    PubMed

    Yanchus, Nancy J; Derickson, Ryan; Moore, Scott C; Bologna, Daniele; Osatuke, Katerine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore employee perceptions of communication in psychologically safe and unsafe clinical care environments. Clinical providers at the USA Veterans Health Administration were interviewed as part of planning organizational interventions. They discussed strengths, weaknesses, and desired changes in their workplaces. A subset of respondents also discussed workplace psychological safety (i.e. employee perceptions of being able to speak up or report errors without retaliation or ostracism--Edmondson, 1999). Two trained coders analysed the interview data using a grounded theory-based method. They excerpted passages that discussed job-related communication and summarized specific themes. Subsequent analyses compared frequencies of themes across workgroups defined as having psychologically safe vs unsafe climate based upon an independently administered employee survey. Perceptions of work-related communication differed across clinical provider groups with high vs low psychological safety. The differences in frequencies of communication-related themes across the compared groups matched the expected pattern of problem-laden communication characterizing psychologically unsafe workplaces. Previous research implied the existence of a connection between communication and psychological safety whereas this study offers substantive evidence of it. The paper summarized the differences in perceptions of communication in high vs low psychological safety environments drawing from qualitative data that reflected clinical providers' direct experience on the job. The paper also illustrated the conclusions with multiple specific examples. The findings are informative to health care providers seeking to improve communication within care delivery teams.

  14. Dysfunctional Scrum: Making it work in a matrixed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Daniel M.; Johnson, Ranata L.

    2011-05-16

    While we may be operating as dysfunctional Scrum teams at PNNL, where consistency of implementation will remain an ongoing goal, our experiences are showing a pattern of benefit from following the process as best we can. We have found value in socializing stories and user narratives to describe the user experience. We have teams that meet daily for 30 minutes and sit down while they do it, but it has proven valuable to them. We have had several successful teams deliver products even in our dysfunctional environment. Our ScrumMasters work multiple projects and strive for consistency but in our environment (R&D, engineering, and software development) we need to be adaptable and implement those aspects of the discipline that provide benefits to the teams and clients. Our implementations are not 'by the book,' but as long as teams and customers find value in it and our communication and quality of our software products are improved, then we expect to continue using Agile with Scrum.

  15. A case study: Integrated work environment and organizational change

    SciTech Connect

    Heubach, J.G.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.; Heerwagen, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    The failure to integrate environmental and organizational interventions may help explain the lack of success of many change efforts. The high rate of failure for change efforts (50% to 90% failure rates) has been noted by many writers. While specific causes of failure are diverse, a common theme has been failure to consider the organization as a system. That is, either significant aspects of the organization were ignored during the intervention or potential impacts of changes on the elements were overlooked or underestimated. Our own training, technical literature, and professional culture lead us to limited understandings of complex organizations. Change agents must consider all relevant components of organizational performance if interventions are to be meaningful and successful. This study demonstrated the value of an integrated organizational intervention involving redesign of the physical environment, introduction of a new information system, work process improvement, and extended organizational development intervention. The outcomes were extremely positive. The cost of improvement efforts was found to be recaptured within a short time, easily justifying the expenditures. One conclusion from the study is that integrated interventions are very powerful. Integrating improvement of the physical environment with organizational development and technological innovation greatly enhances the likelihood of achieving a successful intervention.

  16. The scholarly productivity and work environments of academic pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Desselle, Shane P; Andrews, Brienna; Lui, Julia; Raja, G Leela

    2017-09-08

    Productive faculty are key to generating new knowledge and advancing pharmacy practice. The work environments of academic pharmacists are critical to their vitality, commitment, and longevity. To (1) identify correlates of faculty scholarly productivity and teaching effectiveness, considering personal and environmental characteristics; (2) determine the relationship between a faculty's perception of organizational citizenship behaviors they witness with the organizational culture of their employing college/school of pharmacy; and (3) describe the relationship between organizational climate, job satisfaction, and commitment of academic pharmacists. A self-administered survey was disseminated to a random sample of U.S. academic pharmacists acquired from AACP list-servs. The survey measured perceptions of their organization's culture, the organizational citizenship behaviors they witness at their institution, their job satisfaction, teaching load and productivity, and scholarly productivity based upon peer-reviewed scholarly papers accepted. Both bivariate and multivariate (regression) procedures were employed to identify factors most responsible for explaining academic pharmacist's work environment. Responses were received from 177 of 600 survey recipients. Faculty reported having had accepted 10.9 ± 13.6 papers in peer-reviewed journals during the previous 5 years, with most of those in journals with relatively low Impact Factor scores. Faculty productivity was related to type of academic institution employed, teaching effectiveness, job satisfaction, and other factors. Organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational culture was seen similarly by faculty of varied ranks and experience levels. Commitment to remain at the current college/school of pharmacy was highly associated with culture, climate, and job satisfaction conditions. The results provided evidence for a strong connection or nexus between teaching and research effectiveness. Organizational

  17. Perceptions of high risk sports.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, D M

    1997-10-01

    High risk sports were rated as to risk, appeal, and likelihood of participation by 282 men and 162 women. Ascending order of perceived risk was skiing, scuba diving, bungee jumping, rock climbing, motorcycle racing, hang gliding, cliff jumping, and skydiving. Profile analysis showed stated likelihood of participation to be directly related to appeal and inversely related to perceived risk.

  18. The midwife's role in providing smoking cessation interventions for pregnant women: The views of midwives working with high risk, disadvantaged women in public sector antenatal services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K; Steyn, K; Mathews, C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and current practices of South Africa midwives in relation to providing smoking cessation education or counselling to pregnant women. This was with a view to involving them in a potential smoking cessation intervention, targeting a sub-group of South African women who are at particularly high risk of the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking. A cross-sectional survey of midwives, supplemented by individual, in depth, qualitative interviews. Public sector antenatal clinics serving this particular community of women in five of the major urban centres of South Africa. A total of 102 midwives were surveyed across 29 antenatal clinics and 24 were interviewed. Self-administered survey and semi-structured, individual interviews describing constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour with respect to the provision of smoking cessation education/counselling, including: knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. The majority of midwives accepted that providing smoking cessation advice was a part of their remit, perceived prevailing social norms to be supportive and were, overall, positively predisposed to participating in a smoking cessation intervention in antenatal clinics. However, the study identified a number of constraints to midwives fulfilling this role, which affected their perceived behavioural control. These included stressful working conditions, too little time, a dearth of educational resources and a lack of knowledge of best practice intervention methods and counselling skills. Perceived patient resistance to quitting was a further obstacle. For the intervention to be accepted and adopted by midwives, it would need to offer them an opportunity to enhance their professional knowledge and expertise, provide them with attractive educational aids and take into account the very limited time they have for smoking education. Patient-centred, best

  19. The impact of home, work, and church environments on fat intake over time among rural residents: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Haardörfer, Regine; Alcantara, Iris; Addison, Ann; Glanz, Karen; Kegler, Michelle C

    2016-01-29

    Dietary behaviors are influenced by many individual and environmental factors. This study explores how dietary fat intake in high-risk midlife adults living in the rural south is influenced by three behavior settings, i.e. in the home, at work, and at church. Self-report data were collected from rural African American or Caucasian adults age 40-70 at three time points at baseline, 6, and 12 months post baseline. Multilevel analyses investigated the impact of determinants of fat intake over time. Home and work environments varied significantly over time in regard to healthy eating while church environments remained stable. Age, gender, and self-efficacy for healthy eating were individual factors associated with fat intake. In the home, presence of more high fat items, a time-varying variable, was significant. In the work environment, having access to healthy foods as well as healthy eating programs has positive impact as did hearing healthy eating messages and availability of healthy foods at church. Understanding stability and variability of dietary fat intake from a social ecologic perspective will aid in identifying targets of change for intervention. Understanding which components of key behavior settings are dynamic and which are relatively stable will help to disentangle the complexity of multi-level determinants of dietary behavior.

  20. Otorhinolaryngology residency in Spain: training satisfaction, working environment and conditions.

    PubMed

    Oker, N; Alotaibi, N H; Herman, P; Bernal-Sprekelsen, M; Albers, A E

    2016-06-01

    Europe-wide efforts are being initiated to define quality standards and harmonize Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS)-specialty-training by creating an European board examination. However, differences within and between countries remain and are underinvestigated making comparisons and further improvement more difficult. The study aimed at assessing quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL-HNS specialists in Spain and to trace similarities and differences to France and Germany administering anonymous online-questionnaire to ORL-HNS-residents and recent specialists. 146 questionnaires were returned with answers of 75.6 % of residents, a mean age of 30 years and a female to male ratio of 1.46:1. The global satisfaction of training was high as 76 % would choose the same ENT training again, 86 % confirmed that responsibilities which were given to them were adapted to their level of training and 97 % felt well considered in their department. Ninety-two confirmed that helpful seniors contributed to a good work environment (75 %) and to a good organization within the department (69 %). The respondents spent on average 8.8 h per day at the hospital and covered on average 4.8 night duties or week-end shifts per month with mostly no post-day off (86 %). Seventy-four percent participated regularly at complementary training sessions. Research work was supported and guided in 59 %. This study is the first one, to our best of knowledge, to assess the ORL-HNS-training in Spain and to trace parallelisms and differences to other European countries, such as France and Germany. The satisfaction of training and supervision was high in Spain, but there are still efforts to make concerning resident's quality of life. Compared to France and Germany, satisfaction with ORL-HNS-training and the support and guidance provided by seniors was similar. Work conditions were comparable to those in France. Motivation, teaching and

  1. Food-and-beverage environment and procurement policies for healthier work environments.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Christopher D; Whitsel, Laurie P; Thorndike, Anne N; Marrow, Mary W; Otten, Jennifer J; Foster, Gary D; Carson, Jo Ann S; Johnson, Rachel K

    2014-06-01

    The importance of creating healthier work environments by providing healthy foods and beverages in worksite cafeterias, in on-site vending machines, and at meetings and conferences is drawing increasing attention. Large employers, federal and state governments, and hospital systems are significant purchasers and providers of food and beverages. The American Heart Association, federal government, and other organizations have created procurement standards to guide healthy purchasing by these entities. There is a need to review how procurement standards are currently implemented, to identify important minimum criteria for evaluating health and purchasing outcomes, and to recognize significant barriers and challenges to implementation, along with success stories. The purpose of this policy paper is to describe the role of food-and-beverage environment and procurement policy standards in creating healthier worksite environments; to review recently created national model standards; to identify elements across the standards that are important to consider for incorporation into policies; and to delineate issues to address as standards are implemented across the country.

  2. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  3. Differences in the Psychosocial Work Environment of Different Types of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docker, John G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of the Work Environment Scale (WES) to measure teachers' perceptions of psychosocial dimensions of their school environment. Describes an application of WES in which work climates of different school types were compared and contrasted. (RJC)

  4. Work Environment and Its Relationship to Quality Improvement: Health Care Providers' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Azza Hassan Mohamed; Abou Hashish, Ebtsam Aly

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap in understanding how work environment contributes to hospitals' readiness for quality improvement (QI) in developing countries; thus, diagnosing work environment problems in health care organizations is the initial step in designing strategies for QI in organizations. This study examines the relationship between nurses' and physicians' perspectives of the work environments and hospitals' climate for QI. Study results indicate that work environment is positively associated with hospitals' readiness for QI.

  5. Miniature magnetic fluid seal working in liquid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Durst, Christopher A.

    2017-06-01

    This study was carried out to develop a miniature magnetic fluid (MF) seal working in a liquid environment. The miniature MF seal is intended for use in a catheter blood pump. The requirements for the MF seal included a size of less than Ø4×4.5 mm, shaft diameter of 1 mm, sealing pressure of 200 mmHg, shaft speed of up to 40000 rpm, and life of one month. The miniature MF seal was composed of an NdFeB magnet (Ø4×Ø2×1) sandwiched between two pole pieces (Ø4×Ø1.1×0.5). A shield (Ø4×Ø1.2×1.5) was placed on the pole piece facing the liquid to minimize the influence of pump flow on the MF. The seal was installed on a Ø1 shaft. A seal was formed by injecting MF (Ms: 47.8 kA/m and η: 0.5 Pa·sec) into the gap between the pole pieces and the shaft. Total volume of the MF seal was 44 μL. A sealing pressure of 370 mmHg was obtained at motor speeds of 0-40,000 rpm. The seal remained perfect for 10 days in saline under the condition of a pump flow of 1.5 L/min (The test was terminated in accordance with plans). The seal remained intact after ethylene oxide sterilization during which the seal was exposed to high pressures. In conclusion, the newly developed MF seal will be useful for a catheter pump.

  6. Next Generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work Across Internets

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-02-24

    We are now well-advanced in our development, prototyping and deployment of a high performance next generation Integrated Environment for Collaborative Work. The system, aimed at using the capability of ESnet and Internet2 for rapid data exchange, is based on the Virtual Room Videoconferencing System (VRVS) developed by Caltech. The VRVS system has been chosen by the Internet2 Digital Video (I2-DV) Initiative as a preferred foundation for the development of advanced video, audio and multimedia collaborative applications by the Internet2 community. Today, the system supports high-end, broadcast-quality interactivity, while enabling a wide variety of clients (Mbone, H.323) to participate in the same conference by running different standard protocols in different contexts with different bandwidth connection limitations, has a fully Web-integrated user interface, developers and administrative APIs, a widely scalable video network topology based on both multicast domains and unicast tunnels, and demonstrated multiplatform support. This has led to its rapidly expanding production use for national and international scientific collaborations in more than 60 countries. We are also in the process of creating a 'testbed video network' and developing the necessary middleware to support a set of new and essential requirements for rapid data exchange, and a high level of interactivity in large-scale scientific collaborations. These include a set of tunable, scalable differentiated network services adapted to each of the data streams associated with a large number of collaborative sessions, policy-based and network state-based resource scheduling, authentication, and optional encryption to maintain confidentiality of inter-personal communications. High performance testbed video networks will be established in ESnet and Internet2 to test and tune the implementation, using a few target application-sets.

  7. 75 FR 73946 - Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Part 851 Worker Safety and Health Program: Safety Conscious Work Environment AGENCY: Office of the... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' guidelines as a model. DOE published this petition and a request for... ``Safety-Conscious Work Environment'' by regulation be redundant, but it would also fail to add any...

  8. The impact of poor psychosocial work environment on non-work-related sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Catalina-Romero, C; Sainz, J C; Pastrana-Jiménez, J I; García-Diéguez, N; Irízar-Muñoz, I; Aleixandre-Chiva, J L; Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Calvo-Bonacho, E

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to analyse the impact of psychosocial work environment on non-work-related sickness absence (NWRSA) among a prospective cohort study, stratified using a random sampling technique. Psychosocial variables were assessed among 15,643 healthy workers using a brief version of the Spanish adaptation of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. A one year follow-up assessed the total count of NWRSA days. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used for multivariate analyses. After adjusting for covariates, low levels of job control and possibilities for development (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.01-1.36 [men]; OR: 1.39 95% CI: 1.09-1.77 [women]), poor social support and quality of leadership (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11-1.50 [men]; OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.01-1.63 [women]), and poor rewards (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57 [men]; OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01-1.66 [women]) predicted a total count of sickness absence greater than zero, in both men and women. Double presence was also significantly associated with NWRSA different than 0, but only among women (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.08-1.81). Analyses found no association between psychosocial risk factors at work and the total count (i.e., number of days) of sickness absences. The results suggest that work-related psychosocial factors may increase the likelihood of initiating an NWRSA episode, but were not associated with the length of the sickness absence episode. Among our large cohort we observed that some associations were gender-dependent, suggesting that future research should consider gender when designing psychosocial interventions aimed at decreasing sickness absences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. From Personal to Social: Learning Environments that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Mar; Guilana, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    VLE (Virtual Learning Environments) are rapidly falling short to meet the demands of a networked society. Web 2.0 and social networks are proving to offer a more personalized, open environment for students to learn formally as they are already doing informally. With the irruption of social media into society, and therefore, education, many voices…

  10. Working together to create supportive environments in worksite health promotion.

    PubMed

    Golaszewski, Thomas; Allen, Judd; Edington, Dee

    2008-01-01

    A conccptual model for addressing the creation of supportive environments for worksite health promotion settings is presented. The authors also discuss the variety of organizational and cultural interventions that are necessary in creating a supportive environment for healthy behavior using a social ecology perspective. The connection to next generation strategies in worksite health promotion is proposed and summaries of the relevant literatures are cited.

  11. Work Environment-Related Risk Factors for Leptospirosis among Plantation Workers in Tropical Countries: Evidence from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Ridzuan, J; Aziah, B D; Zahiruddin, W M

    2016-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that is recognized as a re-emerging global public health issue, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. Malaysia, for example, has increasingly registered leptospirosis cases, outbreaks, and fatalities over the past decade. One of the major industries in the country is the palm oil sector, which employs numerous agricultural workers. These laborers are at a particularly high risk of contracting the disease. To identify the work environment-related risk factors for leptospirosis infection among oil palm plantation workers in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study involving 350 workers was conducted. The participants were interviewed and administered a microscopic agglutination test. Seropositivity was determined using a cut-off titer of ≥1:100. 100 of 350 workers tested positive for leptospiral antibodies, hence, a seroprevalence of 28.6% (95% CI 23.8% to 33.3%). The workplace environment-related risk factors significantly associated with seropositive leptospirosis were the presence of cows in plantations (adjusted OR 4.78, 95% CI 2.76 to 8.26) and the presence of a landfill in plantations (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.40). Preventing leptospirosis incidence among oil palm plantation workers necessitates changes in policy on work environments. Identifying modifiable factors may also contribute to the reduction of the infection.

  12. Characteristics of the NICU Work Environment Associated With Breastfeeding Support

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Sunny G.; Spatz, Diane L.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.; Lake, Eileen T.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The provision of breastfeeding support in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may assist a mother to develop a milk supply for the NICU infant. Human milk offers unique benefits and its provision unique challenges in this highly vulnerable population. The provision of breastfeeding support in this setting has not been studied in a large, multihospital study. We describe the frequency of breastfeeding support provided by nurses and examined relationships between NICU nursing characteristics, the availability of a lactation consultant (LC), and breastfeeding support. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN This was a secondary analysis of 2008 survey data from 6060 registered nurses in 104 NICUs nationally. Nurse managers provided data on LCs. These NICUs were members of the Vermont Oxford Network, a voluntary quality and safety collaborative. METHODS Nurses reported on the infants (n = 15,233) they cared for on their last shift, including whether breastfeeding support was provided to parents. Breastfeeding support was measured as a percentage of infants on the unit. The denominator was all infants assigned to all nurse respondents on that NICU. The numerator was the number of infants that nurses reported providing breastfeeding support. Nurses also completed the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI), a nationally endorsed nursing care performance measure. The NICU nursing characteristics include the percentages of nurses with a BSN or higher degree and with 5 or more years of NICU experience, an acuity-adjusted staffing ratio, and PES-NWI subscale scores. Lactation consultant availability was measured as any/none and in full-time equivalent positions per 10 beds. RESULTS The parents of 14% of infants received breastfeeding support from the nurse. Half of the NICUs had an LC. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between 2 measures of nurse staffing and breastfeeding support. A 1 SD higher acuity-adjusted staffing ratio was

  13. Faculty Work Practices in Material Environments: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Aaron M.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an extensive and well-developed body of literature on the nature of faculty work (e.g., Blackburn & Lawrence, 1996; Schuster & Finkelstein, 2006) that has examined numerous aspects of faculty work and sources of influence on that work (e.g., intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, personal characteristics, disciplinary affiliation,…

  14. Faculty Work Practices in Material Environments: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Aaron M.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    There is an extensive and well-developed body of literature on the nature of faculty work (e.g., Blackburn & Lawrence, 1996; Schuster & Finkelstein, 2006) that has examined numerous aspects of faculty work and sources of influence on that work (e.g., intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, personal characteristics, disciplinary affiliation,…

  15. Swedish female hairdressers' views on their work environment--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Diab, Kerstin Kronholm; Nielsen, Jörn; Andersson, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Hairdressers have several work-related health hazards. Little is known of their strategies for the work environment. The aim of this study was to explore female hairdressers' own views on their physical, social and psychological work environment and possibilities of influencing it, implementation of their knowledge, financial impacts and how work-related symptoms affect their views. Fourteen hairdressers working for four years were subjected to open-ended interviews covering aspects of the physical, social and psychological work environment. Content analysis was applied. An awareness of the impact of the work environment and the possibilities of influencing it emerged, but also an inability to achieve preventive improvements. This included reflections concerning ventilation, health issues, job strain, hair products, financial issues, knowledge from school and concern for having to leave the profession. The organization and acceptance of the work environment were important issues. Making the work environment an active part of their business was not common. Female hairdressers had an awareness of their work environment but lacked the means and strategies to make it an active part of their business. The main focus was on the customers and the work techniques. Having various symptoms did not alter this. Organizational and financial issues could put limitations on the work environment. Teachers were crucial in making the work environment interesting. Hairdressing was seen with advantages and disadvantages, and its future was seen as being insecure in terms of the occupational health risks. The hairdressers expressed a great pride in their profession providing possibilities for development.

  16. Nurses in Practice: A Perspective on Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Marcella Z., Ed.; And Others

    A major portion of the collection of 20 readings authored by practicing professionals consists of field observations presented both as raw data (field notes) and as analyzed and organized data. About the work of nurses in a variety of settings, a recurrent theme is that work behavior is greatly influenced by organizational and structural elements…

  17. Development of the Competitive Work Environment Scale: A Multidimensional Climate Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Thomas D.; Nusbaum, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that competitive work environments may influence individual's attitudes, behaviors, stress, and performance. Unfortunately, adequate measures of competitive environments are lacking. This article traces the development of a new multidimensional competitive work environment scale. An initial 59-item pool covering five…

  18. Examining Middle School Students' Statistical Thinking While Working in a Technological Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scranton, Melissa Arnold

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how students think in a technological environment. This was accomplished by exploring the differences in the thinking of students while they worked in a technological environment and comparing this to their work in a paper and pencil environment. The software program TinkerPlots:…

  19. Examining Middle School Students' Statistical Thinking While Working in a Technological Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scranton, Melissa Arnold

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how students think in a technological environment. This was accomplished by exploring the differences in the thinking of students while they worked in a technological environment and comparing this to their work in a paper and pencil environment. The software program TinkerPlots:…

  20. Directional Microphone Hearing Aids in School Environments: Working toward Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Todd A.; Picou, Erin M.; Galster, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The hearing aid microphone setting (omnidirectional or directional) can be selected manually or automatically. This study examined the percentage of time the microphone setting selected using each method was judged to provide the best signalto-noise ratio (SNR) for the talkers of interest in school environments. Method: A total of 26…

  1. Directional Microphone Hearing Aids in School Environments: Working toward Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Todd A.; Picou, Erin M.; Galster, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The hearing aid microphone setting (omnidirectional or directional) can be selected manually or automatically. This study examined the percentage of time the microphone setting selected using each method was judged to provide the best signalto-noise ratio (SNR) for the talkers of interest in school environments. Method: A total of 26…

  2. 'High-risk' pregnancy after perinatal loss: understanding the label.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Heather A; Goldberg, Lisa S

    2011-08-01

    to explore women's experience of living with a 'high-risk' pregnancy following a perinatal loss. a feminist phenomenological methodology provided the framework for the research study. the experience of 'high-risk' pregnancy following perinatal loss of seven women receiving care at a tertiary health centre in Atlantic Canada was explored by way of conversational interviews and reflective journaling. four themes emerged through thematic analysis and researcher interpretation: (1) understanding the meaning in the label of 'high-risk' pregnancy, (2) relational engagement with the unborn infant, (3) insight and acceptance of the influence of previous loss, and (4) essentiality of information. Taken together, these four themes represent the storied text embedded in the research study. The focus of attention in this article is based solely on the first theme, understanding the meaning in the label of 'high-risk' pregnancy, in so far as this fosters an ability to attend to the interpretive text in the methodological manner appropriate to phenomenological inquiry. although previous research indicates that the label of 'high-risk' in pregnancy is often associated with increased anxiety and fear, findings from this study suggest that a 'high-risk' pregnancy following perinatal loss results in women embracing the 'high-risk' label. By recognising the possibility that women experiencing 'high-risk' pregnancy following perinatal loss may perceive the label of 'high-risk' pregnancy in a positive way, nurses, midwives and other health-care providers may begin to alter their practices when caring for these women in current health-care environments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does organizational justice predict empowerment? Nurses assess their work environment.

    PubMed

    Kuokkanen, Liisa; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Katajisto, Jouko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore how nurses assess their empowerment and clarify organizational justice compared to other work-related factors. In addition, we examined the major variables pertinent to empowerment. Cross-sectional survey data were used. A total of 2,152 nurses returned the completed questionnaire. The instruments consisted of nurse empowerment, organizational justice, job control, and possibilities for developing work. The data analysis was based on descriptive statistics and further statistical tests. Organizational justice and empowerment had a clear correlation. Job control, possibilities for developing work and organizational justice were statistically significant predictors of nurse empowerment. Organizational justice and the possibility to use one's individual skills at work are significant factors in staff activity and its development in nursing. They increase the level of empowerment and commitment as well as motivation to work. The results of this study confirm that nurses regard organizational justice as highly important. We can facilitate both work-related empowerment and organizational justice by creating and maintaining a culture of fairness and justice. Employees should be heard and involved more in the planning and decision making of work. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. [Evaluation of the nurse working environment in health and social care intermediate care units in Catalonia].

    PubMed

    Bullich-Marín, Ingrid; Miralles Basseda, Ramón; Torres Egea, Pilar; Planas-Campmany, Carme; Juvé-Udina, María Eulalia

    A favourable work environment contributes to greater job satisfaction and improved working conditions for nurses, a fact that could influence the quality of patient outcomes. The aim of the study is two-fold: Identifying types of centres, according to the working environment assessment made by nurses in intermediate care units, and describing the individual characteristics of nurses related to this assessment. An observational, descriptive, prospective, cross-sectional, and multicentre study was conducted in the last quarter of 2014. Nurses in intermediate care units were given a questionnaire containing the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) which assesses five factors of the work environment using 31 items. Sociodemographic, employment conditions, professional and educational variables were also collected. From a sample of 501 nurses from 14 centres, 388 nurses participated (77% response). The mean score on the PES-NWI was 84.75. Nine centres scored a "favourable" working environment and five "mixed". The best valued factor was "work relations" and the worst was "resource provision/adaptation". Rotating shift work, working in several units at the same time, having management responsibilities, and having a master degree were the characteristics related to a better perception of the nursing work environment. In most centres, the working environment was perceived as favourable. Some employment conditions, professional, and educational characteristics of nurses were related to the work environment assessment. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Work Environment: A Profile of the Social Climate of Nursing Faculty in an Academic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Jana; May, Barbara; Butell, Sue; Tong, Vivian

    2002-01-01

    The perceptions of 15 full-time and 7 part-time nursing faculty regarding their work environment at a liberal arts college were gathered using the Moos Work Environment Scale. Scores were congruent in 7 of 10 social climate subscales. Widest discrepancies were in the areas of work pressures, physical comfort, and managerial control. (Contains 42…

  6. Tenure, Satisfaction, and Work Environment Flexibility of People with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiocchio, Francois; Frigon, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    In the Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA), Dawis and Lofquist (1984) hypothesize that Employee satisfaction (ES) and flexibility of the work environment moderate the functional relationship between satisfaction in the work environment (WS) and the correspondence between job requirements and employees' abilities. In addition, they hypothesize that…

  7. The Effectiveness of Worked Examples in a Game-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Chun-Yi; O'Neil, Harold

    2006-01-01

    Researches indicate that worked examples could effectively facilitate problem solving by reducing cognitive load during learning. However, there is no study using worked examples in a game-based environment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of worked examples on problem solving in a game-based environment. In this study,…

  8. Status, Longevity, and Perceptions of the Work Environment among Federal Prison Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, William G.; Wright, Kevin N.

    1992-01-01

    Examined organizational life within federal prisons. Employees (n=3,325) completed Prison Social Climate Survey. Findings revealed widespread satisfaction with work environments. Staff having frequent contact with inmates, those working in custody positions, and those with longer tenure generally had lower opinions of work environment, whereas…

  9. Radiation therapists' and radiation oncology medical physicists' perceptions of work and the working environment in Australia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Halkett, G K B; McKay, J; Hegney, D G; Breen, Lauren J; Berg, M; Ebert, M A; Davis, M; Kearvell, R

    2016-05-05

    Workforce recruitment and retention are issues in radiation oncology. The working environment is likely to have an impact on retention; however, there is a lack of research in this area. The objectives of this study were to: investigate radiation therapists' (RTs) and radiation oncology medical physicists' (ROMPs) perceptions of work and the working environment; and determine the factors that influence the ability of RTs and ROMPs to undertake their work and how these factors affect recruitment and retention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and thematic analysis was used. Twenty-eight RTs and 21 ROMPs participated. The overarching themes were delivering care, support in work, working conditions and lifestyle. The overarching themes were mostly consistent across both groups; however, the exemplars reflected the different roles and perspectives of RTs and ROMPs. Participants described the importance they placed on treating patients and improving their lives. Working conditions were sometimes difficult with participants reporting pressure at work, large workloads and longer hours and overtime. Insufficient staff numbers impacted on the effectiveness of staff, the working environment and intentions to stay. Staff satisfaction is likely to be improved if changes are made to the working environment. We make recommendations that may assist departments to support RTs and ROMPs.

  10. The work compatibility improvement framework: an assessment of the worker-work environment interaction in the manufacturing sector.

    PubMed

    Genaidy, Ash M; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2008-08-01

    The manufacturing sector in the US is challenged by high health care costs and shortage of qualified workers, which are largely attributed to the degree of fit between the worker and work environment. In this regard, a healthy worker-work environment interface is a necessary and sufficient condition for the containment of health care costs and the retaining/attraction of highly qualified knowledge workers and should be based on the principles of optimum physical, cognitive and emotional health for the workers. In prior research, the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework (WCIF) was introduced as a vehicle to address these issues and was defined as the identification, improvement and maintenance of the well-being characteristics of the workforce and its interaction with the work environment through the application of engineering, medicine, management and human sciences methodologies, technologies and best practices. This paper advances WCIF by examining its applications in manufacturing with regard to the evaluation of working conditions impacting musculoskeletal/stress outcome measures. A study was conducted in a machining department of a bag packaging manufacturer in the Midwest of the United States. The work tasks were planned and executed with regard to the following aims: (1) to compute work compatibility as a function of work demands and energisers; (2) to establish whether the prevalence of musculoskeletal/stress disorders increases with a decrease in the quality of worker-work environment interface in terms of work compatibility level and other work factors such as shift and job category. A major finding is that a 'poor' work environment (a function of all work domains) results in musculoskeletal/stress disorders that are 105% and 67% higher than those for a 'good' work environment. The evening shift exhibited the poorest compatibility followed by the night shift relative to the day shift. Application of the work compatibility approach demonstrated the

  11. Characteristics of the work environment related to older employees' willingness to continue working: intrinsic motivation as a mediator.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Peter T

    2011-08-01

    The relationships between older employees' willingness to continue working and characteristics of the work environment for older workers were investigated, as well as a possible mediation by intrinsic motivation. 103 employees ages 50 to 65 years, from various sectors of the Dutch labor market, completed questionnaires that measured willingness to continue working, intrinsic motivation, organizational stimulation, work variety, work challenge, and job autonomy. Hierarchical regression analyses showed organizational stimulation, as well as the various job characteristics, were positively related to employees' willingness to continue working. Moreover, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationship of work variety with willingness to continue working and partially mediated the relationships of organizational stimulation, work challenge, and job autonomy with willingness to continue working. It was concluded that organizations can encourage older workers to work until age 65 and beyond by shifting their focus from extrinsic to intrinsic rewards.

  12. Thoron (220Rn) in the indoor environment and work places

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, T. V.; Sahoo, B. K.

    2009-08-01

    Ever since studies on uranium miners established the presence of a positive risk coefficient for the occurrence of lung cancer in miners exposed to elevated levels of 222Rn and its progeny, there was a great upsurge of interest in the measurement of 222Rn in the environment. Subsequently, considerable data is being generated on the levels of 222Rn in the environment across the worlds and is being periodically reported by UNSCEAR reports. In contrast to this, data pertaining to 220Rn in indoors and workplace environment is scaree due to the genral perception that its levels are negligible due to its shorter half life, and subsequently its contribution to the total inhalation dose is ignored, in the presence of other significant sources of natural radiation. This may not be true. Globally many locations have higher levels of natural background radiation due to elevated levels of primordial radio nuclides in the soil and their decay products like radon (222Rn), and thoron (220Rn) in the environment. Of late, technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material has also contributed to the burden of background radiation. It is estimated that inhalation of 222Rn, 220Rn and their short lived progenies contribute more than 54% of the total natural background radiation dose received by the general population. 220Rn problem exists in industries which use thorium nitrate. Including India, lamps using thoriated gas mantles are still being used for indoor and outdoor lighting and by hawkers in rural as well as urban areas. Considering the fact that large amount of thorium nitrate is being handled by these industries, contribution to the inhalation dose of workers from 220Rn gas emanated and build up of the progeny in ambient air may also be quite significant. In this paper current status of 220Rn levels in the indoor environment and workplaces as well as in other industries where large amount of 232Th is being handled is being summarized. Methods of measurement and

  13. Meaningful work in supportive environments: experiences with the recovery process.

    PubMed

    Strong, S

    1998-01-01

    This ethnographic study examined what makes work meaningful for persons with persistent mental illness and how this meaningfulness relates to their recovery. Twelve persons between 32 and 58 years of age who had been involved an average of 19 years with a formal mental health system participated in in-depth interviews and a focus group. Thematic analysis and case studies were understood in the context of the investigator's 15 months of participant observation of 35 persons with psychiatric disabilities working at an affirmative business. The meaning of work varied with participants perception of their illness and their self-concept. Changes in their self-efficacy and self-concept were driven by their participation in work activities to operate the affirmative business. Findings suggest that therapists could potentially facilitate these changes in clients' sense of self-efficacy and self-concept by helping them make connections with meaningful occupations and contributions to organizations in the community and to experience challenges and successes in the context of meaningful work.

  14. Defense Contract Audit Agency Audit Work Deficiencies and Abusive Work Environment Identified by the Government Accountability Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-31

    unprofessional behavior created a work environment not conducive to performing quality audits. Additionally, we found a flawed audit may have...DCAA Western Region field audit offices and interviewed 68 audit employees, including supervisors and managers, to assess whether an abusive work ... environment existed. What We Found Employee concerns with (1) time pressures, (2) uncompensated overtime, (3) changes to audit results and opinions, and (4

  15. The effects of dialogue groups on physicians' work environment: A matter of gender?

    PubMed

    Bergman, David; Liljefors, Ingrid; Palm, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, the work environment of physicians has been deteriorating, particularly for female physicians. In this study, we evaluated the effects of dialogue groups on the work environment of physicians in relation to gender. Sixty physicians (38 women) at Sachs' Children's Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, participated in dialogue groups once a month during a period of one year. Assessments of their psychosocial work environment were performed before and after the intervention. At baseline, female physicians experienced their work environment as less satisfactory compared to male physicians. After the intervention, the female physicians perceived improvements in more areas than their male colleagues. Our study shows that female physicians at this clinic were disadvantaged in relation to the work environment, but, more importantly, the findings suggest that several of the disadvantages can be reduced. Dialogue groups appear to improve the physicians' work environment and promote gender equality.

  16. Age and work environment characteristics in relation to sleep: Additive, interactive and curvilinear effects.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Katharine R

    2016-05-01

    Although additive combinations of age and work environment characteristics have been found to predict sleep impairment, possible age x work environment interactions have been largely disregarded. The present study examined linear and curvilinear interactions of age with work environment measures in relation to sleep quality and duration. Survey data were collected from offshore day-shift personnel (N = 901). Main effects and interactions of the age terms with work environment measures (job demand, control, and social support, physical environment and strenuous work) were evaluated. Sleep duration was predicted by a curvilinear interaction, age(2) x job demand (p < .005), and by the age x social support interaction (p < .002); sleep quality was predicted by age x job demand (p < .002). Job control and physical environment showed significant additive effects. At a time when older employees are encouraged to remain in the workforce, the findings serve to increase understanding of how ageing and work demands jointly contribute to sleep impairment.

  17. Measuring production loss due to health and work environment problems: construct validity and implications.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Malin Lohela; Bergström, Gunnar; Björklund, Christina; Hagberg, Jan; Jensen, Irene

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to validate two measures of production loss, health-related and work environment-related production loss, concerning their associations with health status and work environment factors. Validity was assessed by evaluating the construct validity. Health problems related and work environment-related problems (or factors) were included in separate analyses and evaluated regarding the significant difference in proportion of explained variation (R) of production loss. health problems production loss was not found to fulfill the criteria for convergent validity in this study; however, the measure of work environment-related production loss did fulfill the criteria that were set up. The measure of work environment-related production loss can be used to screen for production loss due to work environment problems as well as an outcome measure when evaluating the effect of organizational interventions.

  18. Comparative Work Environment Perceptions of Operating Personnel within Experimental and Standard Communication Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-01

    AD/A-005 2 1 5 COMPARATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENT PERCEPTIONS OF OPERATING PERSONNEL WITHIN EXPERIMENTAL AND STANDARD COMMUNICATION SYST EMS...TM’S PKit’Wh’- Dmlm Fnf»f»rf) Rtseordi Rtport 1180 AD COMPARATIVE WORK ENVIRONMENT PERCEPTIONS OF OPERATING PERSONNEL WITHIN EXPERIMENTAL AND...variety of signals. An important segment of the research is devoted to work environment factors and communication analysis and processing. The present

  19. Group Work in a Technology-Rich Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Nikolai; Schulze, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses several components of successful language-learning methodologies--group work, task-based instruction, and wireless computer technologies--and examines how the interplay of these three was perceived by students in a second-year university foreign-language course. The technology component of our learning design plays a central…

  20. Seizing Workplace Learning Affordances in High-Pressure Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnaur, Dorina

    2010-01-01

    Work in call centres is often presented as a form of unskilled labour characterized by routinization, technological surveillance and tight management control aimed at reaching intensive performance targets. Beyond delivering business objectives, this control and efficiency strategy is often held to produce counterproductive effects with regard to…

  1. Seizing Workplace Learning Affordances in High-Pressure Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnaur, Dorina

    2010-01-01

    Work in call centres is often presented as a form of unskilled labour characterized by routinization, technological surveillance and tight management control aimed at reaching intensive performance targets. Beyond delivering business objectives, this control and efficiency strategy is often held to produce counterproductive effects with regard to…

  2. Group Work in a Technology-Rich Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Nikolai; Schulze, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses several components of successful language-learning methodologies--group work, task-based instruction, and wireless computer technologies--and examines how the interplay of these three was perceived by students in a second-year university foreign-language course. The technology component of our learning design plays a central…

  3. Project Work Implementation in a Virtual Colombian Public University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Yakelin

    2011-01-01

    This article is a report of the steps followed in the pedagogical intervention of project work developed with a group of students involved in a virtual program at a public Colombian University. It is part of a wider investigation in which the purpose was to explore and describe the roles of teachers, students and discussion boards while…

  4. Flexible Work Arrangements: Accessibility in a University Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafizad, Fleur; Paull, Megan; Omari, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Attraction and retention of highly qualified employees has become an area of concern for Australian universities. It has been suggested that flexible work arrangements can be utilised to achieve this goal once the factors affecting their uptake have been identified. This mixed-method study of 495 academic and general staff at an Australian…

  5. Effectiveness in Work Roles: Employee Responses to Work Environments. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Robert P.

    A five-year study of effectiveness in work roles had four general objectives: (1) to assess associations between aspects of working conditions and indicators of employees' work role effectiveness; (2) to identify personal and situational characteristics that limit associations between working conditions and effectiveness; (3) to begin to map the…

  6. Directional Microphone Hearing Aids in School Environments: Working Toward Optimization.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Todd A; Picou, Erin M; Galster, Jason

    2017-01-01

    The hearing aid microphone setting (omnidirectional or directional) can be selected manually or automatically. This study examined the percentage of time the microphone setting selected using each method was judged to provide the best signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the talkers of interest in school environments. A total of 26 children (aged 6-17 years) with hearing loss were fitted with study hearing aids and evaluated during 2 typical school days. Time-stamped hearing aid settings were compared with observer judgments of the microphone setting that provided the best SNR on the basis of the specific listening environment. Despite training for appropriate use, school-age children were unlikely to consistently manually switch to the microphone setting that optimized SNR. Furthermore, there was only fair agreement between the observer judgments and the hearing aid setting chosen by the automatic switching algorithm. Factors contributing to disagreement included the hearing aid algorithm choosing the directional setting when the talker was not in front of the listener or when noise arrived only from the front quadrant and choosing the omnidirectional setting when the noise level was low. Consideration of listener preferences, talker position, sound level, and other factors in the classroom may be necessary to optimize microphone settings.

  7. Goal Development Practices of Physical Therapists Working in Educational Environments.

    PubMed

    Wynarczuk, Kimberly D; Chiarello, Lisa A; Gohrband, Catherine L

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) describe the practices that school-based physical therapists use in developing student goals, and (2) identify facilitators and barriers to development of goals that are specific to participation in the context of the school setting. 46 school-based physical therapists who participated in a previous study on school-based physical therapy practice (PT COUNTS) completed a questionnaire on goal development. Frequencies and cross tabulations were generated for quantitative data. Open-ended questions were analyzed using an iterative qualitative analysis process. A majority of therapists reported that they frequently develop goals collaboratively with other educational team members. Input from teachers, related services personnel, and parents has the most influence on goal development. Qualitative analysis identified five themes that influence development of participation-based goals: (1) school-based philosophy and practice; (2) the educational environment, settings, and routines; (3) student strengths, needs, and personal characteristics; (4) support from and collaboration with members of the educational team; and (5) therapist practice and motivation. Goal development is a complex process that involves multiple members of the educational team and is influenced by many different aspects of practice, the school environment, and student characteristics.

  8. Expanding the psychosocial work environment: workplace norms and work-family conflict as correlates of stress and health.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tove Helland; Saksvik, Per Øystein; Nytrø, Kjell; Torvatn, Hans; Bayazit, Mahmut

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of organizational level norms about work requirements and social relations, and work-family conflict, to job stress and subjective health symptoms, controlling for Karasek's job demand-control-support model of the psychosocial work environment, in a sample of 1,346 employees from 56 firms in the Norwegian food and beverage industry. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that organizational norms governing work performance and social relations, and work-to-family and family-to-work conflict, explained significant amounts of variance for job stress. The cross-level interaction between work performance norms and work-to-family conflict was also significantly related to job stress. Work-to-family conflict was significantly related to health symptoms, but family-to-work conflict and organizational norms were not.

  9. Women's perceived work environment after stress-related rehabilitation: experiences from the ReDO project.

    PubMed

    Wästberg, Birgitta A; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Eklund, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate (a) if women's perceptions of their work environment changed during a 16-week rehabilitation period and at a 12-month follow-up; (b) whether such changes were related to outcomes in terms of return to work, well-being and valued occupations. Eighty-four gainfully employed women on sick-leave due to stress-related disorders responded to instruments assessing perceptions of the work environment, well-being (self-esteem, self-mastery, quality of life, perceived stress, self-rated health) and perceived occupational value. Data about return to work were collected from registers. Non-parametric statistics were used. The increase in the women's ratings of their work environment was non-significant between baseline and completed rehabilitation but was statistically significant between baseline and the 12-month follow-up. No relationships were found between changes in perceptions of the work environment and outcomes after the rehabilitation. At the follow-up, however, there were associations between perceived work environment changes in a positive direction and return to work; improved self-esteem, self-mastery, quality of life, perceived occupational value and self-rated health; and reduced stress. It seems important to consider the work environment in rehabilitation for stress-related problems, and a follow-up appears warranted to detect changes and associations not visible immediately after rehabilitation. Work environment Perceptions of the work environment seem important for return to work, although other factors are likely to contribute as well. Perceptions of the work environment are associated with several aspects of well-being. When developing rehabilitation interventions a focus on the clients' perceptions of their work environment seems vital.

  10. External Environment Papers. Working Papers of Planning and Development Research. Working Paper 88-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TV Ontario, Toronto.

    These papers present the major issues and directions in five areas: (1) the socioeconomic and demographic environment (demography, the economies and labor forces of Canada and of Ontario, and the international and social environments); (2) education (K-12, postsecondary, adult, and the educational media resource market); (3) the broadcast…

  11. [Ultraviolet exposure in the environment of welding work sites].

    PubMed

    Barth, C; Knuschke, P; Barth, J

    1990-12-01

    It has been checked if the "limits of the acceptable doses of ultraviolet radiation of monochromatic radiation at the workplace" (NIOSH-standard of USA) are adhered to in the vicinity of welders' work stations in a factory hall. For recording of UV-doses polysulphon films have been used. According to these investigations non-welders are exposed to doses of UV-radiation which exceed the limits recommended by about eight times. Clinical examinations of these persons showed chronic damage of the external parts of the eyes in a higher percentage than in a control group. It is pointed to the necessity of taking protective measures to shield persons working in the vicinity of welding job sites from ultraviolet radiation.

  12. Alcohol--health effects, working environment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Jukić, Vlado; Matosić, Ana; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Turcić, Nada; Schachter, E Neil; Milosević, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Alcoholism is a growing medical and public health issue both in adults and in the younger generation. It is a multietiological phenomenon influenced by genetic, psychological, cultural and other factors. Alcoholic beverages have traditionally been prepared from various ingredients such as grapes, hops, rice, honey, etc. Drinking prevalence has varied and is more pronounced in women and the youth. Alcoholism is shown to be of neurophysiological etiology and may lead to impairment of all human body systems. The most frequent cause of death in alcoholics are diseases of the cardiovascular system. The problem of alcoholism at workplace is very important since by affecting health and reducing work productivity it leads to accidents, injuries and decreased working capacity. Efficient solving of alcoholism and related problems includes early detection, so it is necessary to orient the health care services towards primary prevention and early interventions.

  13. THE CRITICAL CARE WORK ENVIRONMENT AND NURSE-REPORTED HEALTH CARE–ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Deena; Kutney-Lee, Ann; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Critically ill patients are susceptible to health care–associated infections because of their illnesses and the need for intravenous access and invasive monitoring. The critical care work environment may influence the likelihood of infection in these patients. Objective To determine whether or not the critical care nurse work environment is predictive of nurse-reported health care–associated infections. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional design was used with linked nurse and hospital survey data. Nurses assessed the critical care work environment and provided the frequencies of ventilator-associated pneumonias, urinary tract infections, and infections associated with central catheters. Logistic regression models were used to determine if critical care work environments were predictive of nurse-reported frequent health care–associated infections, with controls for nurse and hospital characteristics. Results The final sample consisted of 3217 critical care nurses in 320 hospitals. Compared with nurses working in poor work environments, nurses working in better work environments were 36% to 41% less likely to report that health care–associated infections occurred frequently. Conclusion Health care–associated infections are less likely in favorable critical care work environments. These findings, based on the largest sample of critical care nurses to date, substantiate efforts to focus on the quality of the work environment as a way to minimize the frequency of health care–associated infections. PMID:24186818

  14. Effects of nurse work environment on job dissatisfaction, burnout, intention to leave.

    PubMed

    Nantsupawat, A; Kunaviktikul, W; Nantsupawat, R; Wichaikhum, O-A; Thienthong, H; Poghosyan, L

    2017-03-01

    The nursing shortage is a critical issue in many countries. High turnover rates among nurses is contributing to the shortage, and job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout have been identified as some of the predictors of nurse turnover. A well-established body of evidence demonstrates that the work environment for nurses influences nurse job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout, but there never has been a study undertaken in Thailand to investigate this relationship. To investigate how work environment affects job dissatisfaction, burnout, and intention to leave among nurses in Thailand. The study used a cross-sectional survey to collect data from 1351 nurses working in 43 inpatient units in five university hospitals across Thailand. The participants completed the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and measures of job dissatisfaction and intention to leave. Logistical regression models assessed the association between work environment and nurse-reported job dissatisfaction, burnout, and intent to leave. Nurses working in university hospitals with better work environments had significantly less job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout. The nurse work environment is a significant feature contributing to nurse retention in Thai university hospitals. Improving the work environment for nurses may lead to lower levels of job dissatisfaction, intention to leave, and burnout. Focusing on these nurse outcomes can be used as a strategy to retain nurses in the healthcare system. Addressing the challenges of poor work environments requires coordinated action from policymakers and health managers. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  15. Musculoskeletal symptoms and psychosocial work environment, among Swedish commercial pilots.

    PubMed

    Runeson-Broberg, Roma; Lindgren, Torsten; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The associations between psychosocial work conditions and health in pilots are understudied, and therefore, the associations between the psychosocial work conditions and musculoskeletal problems among Swedish commercial pilots were investigated. In 2010, a self-administered questionnaire study was performed among pilots in one Swedish commercial airline: 354 pilots participated (61 %). Musculoskeletal symptoms and the psychosocial work conditions measured by the demand control social support model were investigated. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were expressed per change of one unit on the interquartile score scale. Pilots on long-haul flights had less elbow symptoms (OR 0.34, 95 % CI 0.14-0.85), and women had more hand symptoms (OR 2.90, 95 % CI 1.11-7.52). There were associations between high work demands and symptoms from the neck (OR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.45-2.88), shoulders (OR 1.46, 95 % 1.05-2.03), elbows (OR 1.79, 95 % CI 1.10-2.90) and low back (OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.02-1.96) in pilots. Low social support was associated with symptoms from the neck (OR 1.87, 95 % 1.35-2.58), shoulders (OR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.14-2.14) and low back (OR 1.63, 95 % CI 1.18-2.24). Low supervisor support was associated with neck (OR 1.67, 95 % CI 1.22-2.27), shoulders (OR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.02-1.87) and low back symptoms (OR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.09-2.01). The associations were mainly found among first officers. Musculoskeletal symptoms in pilots can be affected by poor psychosocial work conditions such as high demands and low social support, especially for first officers. The psychosocial aspects of organisational changes in commercial airlines should be taken into consideration.

  16. Improving the work environment through the use of research instruments: an example.

    PubMed

    Sieloff, Christina Leibold

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, although the quality of the work environment has improved for registered nurses, there is much that still needs to be done. However, much of the published research conducted in relation to the quality of work environments has focused on the more traditional components of the work environment. To assess the nontraditional components of a work environment, it is critical that reliable and valid instruments be utilized in order to ensure that the data gathered is accurate and truly reflective of what exists within the work environment. This article will describe one instrument, the Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Outcome Attainment within Organizations, that has demonstrated reliability and validity. The application of this instrument in the improvement of the health care environment will be discussed.

  17. The influence of substance use, social sexual environment, psychosocial factors, and partner characteristics on high-risk sexual behavior among young Black and Latino men who have sex with men living with HIV: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    VanDevanter, Nancy; Duncan, Alexandra; Burrell-Piggott, Tiphani; Bleakley, Amy; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Marie; Schrimshaw, Eric; Cohall, Alwyn; Ramjohn, Destiny

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16-24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions.

  18. The Influence of Substance Use, Social Sexual Environment, Psychosocial Factors, and Partner Characteristics on High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Young Black and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alexandra; Burrell-Piggott, Tiphani; Bleakley, Amy; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Marie; Schrimshaw, Eric; Cohall, Alwyn; Ramjohn, Destiny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the sexual risk behaviors of youths living with HIV/AIDS is critical to secondary prevention of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 African American and Latino, HIV-infected young men who have sex with men, aged 16–24 years, living in New York City. The study explored the role of substance use, the social-sexual-environmental, and psychological contexts in which sexual risk behaviors occurred. Since learning of their HIV infection, the majority of participants had reduced their risky sexual behaviors; however, a subset (26%) of participants continued to have unprotected sex, in most cases with multiple partners. Substance use, the social environmental context of the sexual encounter, the psychological impact of HIV on sexual behavior, and partner characteristics were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors in this group. Among high-risk participants, factors associated with risky sexual behaviors clustered, with 57% reporting two or more factors. More intensive interventions are needed for this subset of youths living with HIV, including assessment and treatment for substance use and mental health issues, strategies for stress reduction, and partner interventions. PMID:21235387

  19. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and related conditions in the work environment.

    PubMed

    Zacharisen, Michael C; Fink, Jordan N

    2011-11-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis can occur from a wide variety of occupational exposures. Although uncommon and difficult to recognize, through a detailed work exposure history, physical examination, radiography, pulmonary function studies, and selected laboratory studies using sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, workers can be identified early to effect avoidance of the antigen and institute pharmacologic therapy, if necessary. A lung biopsy may be necessary to rule out other interstitial lung diseases. Despite the varied organic antigen triggers, the presentation is similar with acute, subacute, or chronic forms. Systemic corticosteroids are the only reliable pharmacologic treatment but do not alter the long-term outcome.

  20. Association of the Nurse Work Environment, Collective Efficacy, and Missed Care.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jessica G; Morin, Karen H; Wallace, Leigh E; Lake, Eileen T

    2017-10-01

    Missed nursing care is a significant threat to quality patient care. Promoting collective efficacy within nurse work environments could decrease missed care. The purpose was to understand how missed care is associated with nurse work environments and collective efficacy of hospital staff nurses. A cross-sectional, convenience sample was obtained through online surveys from registered nurses working at five southwestern U.S. hospitals. Descriptive, correlational, regression, and path analyses were conducted ( N = 233). The percentage of nurses who reported that at least one care activity was missed frequently or always was 94%. Mouth care (36.0% of nurses) and ambulation (35.3%) were missed frequently or always. Nurse work environments and collective efficacy were moderately, positively correlated. Nurse work environments and collective efficacy were associated with less missed care (χ(2) = 10.714, p = .0054). Fostering collective efficacy in the nurse work environment could reduce missed care and improve patient outcomes.

  1. Work environment for Chinese nurses in different types of ICUs: a multisite cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jinbing; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Ying; Yu, Li-Ping; Pei, Xian-Bo; Cheng, Lei; Hsu, Lily

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the current nurse work environment, levels of job satisfaction and quality of patient care, and to identify intensive care units with a healthier work environment in mainland China. A healthy work environment is closely related to a higher nurse job satisfaction and a better patient care quality. The work environment has not been extensively explored among Chinese intensive care unit nurses. The Chinese version of the Essentials of Magnetism II was used to measure the nurse work environment and another two 0-10 single-item scales were used to assess nurses' overall job satisfaction and nurse-assessed quality of care. The study found that the eight essentials of Chinese version of the Essentials of Magnetism II were significantly correlated with each other and also correlated with overall job satisfaction and quality of care. Nurses from medical intensive care units had a healthier work environment with higher scores of overall job satisfaction and quality of care than other intensive care units, while surgical intensive care units showed the least healthy work environment with the lowest overall job satisfaction and quality of care scores identified. The essentials of Chinese version of the Essentials of Magnetism II, overall job satisfaction and quality of care were also correlated with nurses' work experience and their education level. Nurse administrators and health policy-makers should establish a healthy work environment for intensive care units nurses, especially for those from surgical intensive care units. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Association of the nurse work environment with nurse incivility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jessica G; Morin, Karen H; Lake, Eileen T

    2017-10-09

    To determine whether nurse coworker incivility is associated with the nurse work environment, defined as organisational characteristics that promote nurse autonomy. Workplace incivility can negatively affect nurses, hospitals and patients. Plentiful evidence documents that nurses working in better nurse work environments have improved job and health outcomes. There is minimal knowledge about how nurse coworker incivility relates to the United States nurse work environment. Quantitative, cross-sectional. Data were collected through online surveys of registered nurses in a southwestern United States health system. The survey content included the National Quality Forum-endorsed Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and the Workplace Incivility Scale. Data analyses were descriptive and correlational. Mean levels of incivility were low in this sample of 233 staff nurses. Incivility occurred 'sporadically' (mean = 0.58; range 0.00-5.29). The nurse work environment was rated highly (mean = 3.10; range of 1.00-4.00). The nurse work environment was significantly inversely associated with coworker incivility. The nurse manager qualities were the principal factor of the nurse work environment associated with incivility. Supportive nurse managers reduce coworker incivility. Nurse managers can shape nurse work environments to prevent nurse incivility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The airport atmospheric environment: respiratory health at work.

    PubMed

    Touri, Léa; Marchetti, Hélène; Sari-Minodier, Irène; Molinari, Nicolas; Chanez, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    Air traffic is increasing, raising concern about local pollution and its adverse health effects on the people living in the vicinity of large airports. However, the highest risk is probably occupational exposure due to proximity. Jet exhaust is one of the main concerns at an airport and may have a health impact, particularly on the respiratory tract. Current studies are neither numerous enough nor strong enough to prove this kind of association. Yet, more and more people work in airports, and occupational exposure to jet exhaust is a fact. The aim of this review was to evaluate the existing knowledge regarding the impact of airport pollution on respiratory health. We conducted systematic literature searches to examine workplace exposures.

  4. [Work environment and health status of agricultural aviation personnel].

    PubMed

    Marks, E; Karpińska, B; Swiecicki, W

    1983-01-01

    The morbidity rate and present health status of flying agricultural aviation personnel under health care of the Main Military Medical Committee for aviation workers were analysed and compared with another group of helicopter pilots. A detailed clinical examination of 77 "Agro" pilots indicated more trauma cases than idiopathic diseases cases, some of those trauma cases were due to professional work. Analysis of the present health status indicated the predominance of pilots with just one health disturbance, pilots with no health disturbances taking the second position in the comparison. The health deviations did not differ from those in other populations, as classified by pilots' age. On the other hand, their percentage was higher than in helicopters pilots control group. Average age of "Agro" pilots was relatively high and number of hours spent in air considerable, too.

  5. Environmental Influences and Perinatal Risk Factors in High Risk Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Scott D.; And Others

    Children in a longitudinal high-risk infant follow-up program were evaluated at age 5 to determine whether they demonstrated behavior problems or cognitive deficits exceeding expectations based on conditions in their home environments. Normal expectations were determined through regression analyses on a group of age-matched controls. All high-risk…

  6. Influences of Creative Personality and Working Environment on the Research Productivity of Business School Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Suk Bong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on creative working environments has focused on business organizations. This study examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of business faculty. It was hypothesized that creative personality, family support, colleague support, research resources, and workload…

  7. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Work Environment in Swedish Junior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allodi, Mara Westling; Fischbein, Siv

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the organisational characteristics of junior high schools, to identify typologies of work environments and to explore the relationships between the type of work environment and how schools function. The educational profession and the role of teachers have been influenced by policies inspired by the principles…

  8. Influences of Creative Personality and Working Environment on the Research Productivity of Business School Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Suk Bong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on creative working environments has focused on business organizations. This study examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of business faculty. It was hypothesized that creative personality, family support, colleague support, research resources, and workload…

  9. Does job satisfaction mediate the relationship between healthy work environment and care quality?

    PubMed

    Bai, Jinbing

    2016-01-01

    A healthy work environment can increase nurse-reported job satisfaction and patient care outcomes. Yet the associations between healthy work environment, nurse job satisfaction and QC have not been comprehensively examined in Chinese ICUs. To investigate the mediating effect of nurse job satisfaction on the relationship between healthy work environment and nurse-reported quality of care (QC) in Chinese intensive care units (ICUs). A total of 706 nurses were recruited from 28 ICUs of 14 tertiary hospitals. The nurses completed self-reported questionnaires to evaluate healthy work environment, job satisfaction and quality of patient care. Mediation analysis was conducted to explore the mediating effect between nurse-reported healthy work environment and QC. Nurse work environment showed positive correlations with nurse-reported QC in the ICUs. Nurse-reported job satisfaction showed full mediating effects between healthy work environment and QC in the medical-surgical ICUs, surgical ICUs and neonatal/paediatric ICUs and indicated a partial mediating effect in the medical ICUs. Significant mediating effects of nurse job satisfaction provide more support for thinking about how to use this mediator to increase nurse and patient care outcomes. Nurse administrators can design interventions to increase nurse work environment and patient care outcomes with this mediating factor addressed. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  10. School Culture: A Validation Study and Exploration of Its Relationship with Teachers' Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ping

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring the relationship between school culture and teachers' work environment and further exploring the roles of school culture, teachers' efficacy, beliefs, and behaviors for character education, and teachers' work environment in the relationship between a character education intervention and students' social emotional…

  11. Implementation of an Employee Work Environment Survey at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center Landstuhl, Germany.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the organizational climate at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC) through the use of a Work Environment Scale...An additional set of questions were specifically developed for the LRMC work environment . These questions included demographic items to assist in the

  12. Hospital nurses' work environment, quality of care provided and career plans.

    PubMed

    Hinno, S; Partanen, P; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    2011-06-01

    In several European countries, the availability of qualified nurses is insufficient to meet current healthcare requirements. Nurses are highly dissatisfied with the rising demands of the healthcare environment and increasingly considering leaving their jobs. The study aims to investigate the relationships between the characteristics of hospital nurses' work environment and the quality of care provided, and furthermore to examine Dutch nurses' career plans. A cross-sectional, questionnaire survey of registered nurses (n = 334) working in the academic and district hospitals was conducted in 2005/2006. Previously validated questionnaires translated into the participants' language were used. Factor and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Overall, nurses rated their work environment rather favourably. Five work environment characteristics were identified: support for professional development, adequate staffing, nursing competence, supportive management and teamwork. Significant relationships were found between nurses' perceptions of their work environment characteristics and quality of care provided and nurses' career plans. When work environment characteristics were evaluated to be better, nurse-assessed quality of care also increased and intentions to leave current job decreased linearly. Study findings suggest that nurses' perceptions of their work environment are important for nurse outcomes in hospital settings. Further research is needed to explore the predictive ability of the work environment for nurse, patient and organizational outcomes in hospitals. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Design and Implementation of an Integrated Computer Working Environment for Doing Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Andre; Kedzierska, Ewa; Ellermeijer, Ton

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the sustained research and development work at the AMSTEL Institute of the University of Amsterdam to improve mathematics and science education at primary and secondary school level, which has lead amongst other things to the development of the integrated computer working environment Coach 6. This environment consists of…

  14. Staff Perceptions of the Work Environment in Juvenile Group Home Settings: A Study of Social Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Kevin I.; Wells, James B.; Jones, Brandi

    2004-01-01

    This study used the Prison Social Climate Survey to measure perceptions of the work environment among staff employed in all group homes administered by a state department of juvenile justice. Work environment perceptions were favorable along six dimensions and in the moderate range on a seventh. The variables that most consistently predicted staff…

  15. Staff Perceptions of the Work Environment in Juvenile Group Home Settings: A Study of Social Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Kevin I.; Wells, James B.; Jones, Brandi

    2004-01-01

    This study used the Prison Social Climate Survey to measure perceptions of the work environment among staff employed in all group homes administered by a state department of juvenile justice. Work environment perceptions were favorable along six dimensions and in the moderate range on a seventh. The variables that most consistently predicted staff…

  16. School Culture: A Validation Study and Exploration of Its Relationship with Teachers' Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ping

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring the relationship between school culture and teachers' work environment and further exploring the roles of school culture, teachers' efficacy, beliefs, and behaviors for character education, and teachers' work environment in the relationship between a character education intervention and students' social emotional…

  17. Establishing a Measurement Tool for a Nursing Work Environment in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Chiu; Lee, Huan-Fang; Yen, Miaofen

    2017-02-01

    The nursing work environment is a critical global health care problem. Many health care providers are concerned about the associations between the nursing work environment and the outcomes of organizations, nurses, and patients. Nursing work environment instruments have been assessed in the West but have not been considered in Asia. However, different cultures will affect the factorial structure of the tool. Using a stratified nationwide random sample, we created a measurement tool for the nursing work environment in Taiwan. The Nursing Work Environment Index-Revised Scale and the Essentials of Magnetism scale were used to examine the factorial structure. Item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were used to examine the hypothesis model and generate a new factorial structure. The Taiwan Nursing Work Environment Index (TNWEI) was established to evaluate the nursing work environment in Taiwan. The four factors were labeled "Organizational Support" (7 items), "Nurse Staffing and Resources" (4 items), "Nurse-Physician Collaboration" (4 items), and "Support for Continuing Education" (4 items). The 19 items explained 58.5% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the model (x2/df = 5.99; p < .05, goodness of fit index [GFI] = .90; RMSEA = .07). The TNWEI provides a comprehensive and efficient method for measuring the nurses' work environment in Taiwan.

  18. Design and Implementation of an Integrated Computer Working Environment for Doing Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Andre; Kedzierska, Ewa; Ellermeijer, Ton

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the sustained research and development work at the AMSTEL Institute of the University of Amsterdam to improve mathematics and science education at primary and secondary school level, which has lead amongst other things to the development of the integrated computer working environment Coach 6. This environment consists of…

  19. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Work Environment in Swedish Junior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allodi, Mara Westling; Fischbein, Siv

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the organisational characteristics of junior high schools, to identify typologies of work environments and to explore the relationships between the type of work environment and how schools function. The educational profession and the role of teachers have been influenced by policies inspired by the principles…

  20. Identified obstacles and prerequisites in telenurses' work environment - a modified Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Bjorkman, Annica; Engstrom, Maria; Olsson, Annakarin; Wahlberg, Anna Carin

    2017-05-18

    Telenursing is an expanding part of healthcare, staffed with registered nurses whose work environment is typical of a call centre. Work-related stress has been shown to be a major problem in nurses' work environments and of importance to the outcome of care, patient safety, nurse job satisfaction and burnout. Today, however, we have a limited understanding of and knowledge about the work environment for telenurses. The aim of the present study is to explore and reach consensus on perceived important obstacles and prerequisites in telenurses' work environment. A modified Delphi design, using qualitative as well as quantitative data sequentially through three phases, was taken. Data were initially collected via semi-structured interviews (Phase I) and later using a web survey (Phase II-III) between March 2015 and March 2016. The findings present a consensus view of telenurses' experiences of important obstacles and prerequisites in their work environment. Central to the findings are the aspects of telenurses having a demanding work, cognitive fatigue and having no opportunity for recovery during the work shift was ranked as important obstacles. Highly ranked prerequisites for managing were being able to focus on one caller at a time, working in a calm and pleasant environment and having technical support 24/7. Managers need to enable telenurses to experience control in their work, provided with possibilities to control their work and to recover during work; shortening work time could improve their work environment. Limited possibilities to perform work might contribute to feelings of stress and inability to perform work.

  1. Presenteeism according to healthy behaviors, physical health, and work environment.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Whitmer, R William

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the contribution that selected demographic characteristics, health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and workplace environmental factors have on presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss attributed to poor health and other personal issues). Analyses are based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 3 geographically diverse US companies in 2010. Work-related factors had the greatest influence on presenteeism (eg, too much to do but not enough time to do it, insufficient technological support/resources). Personal problems and financial stress/concerns also contributed substantially to presenteeism. Factors with less contribution to presenteeism included physical limitations, depression or anxiety, inadequate job training, and problems with supervisors and coworkers. Presenteeism was greatest for those ages 30-49, women, separated/divorced/widowed employees, and those with a high school degree or some college. Clerical/office workers and service workers had higher presenteeism. Managers and professionals had the highest level of presenteeism related to having too much to do but too little time to do it, and transportation workers had the greatest presenteeism because of physical health limitations. Lowering presenteeism will require that employers have realistic expectations of workers, help workers prioritize, and provide sufficient technological support. Financial stress and concerns may warrant financial planning services. Health promotion interventions aimed at improving nutrition and physical and mental health also may contribute to reducing presenteeism.

  2. Workplace and workforce 2000+ -the future of our work environment.

    PubMed

    Oechsler, W A

    2000-06-01

    Research in the Human Resource Department at the University of Mannheim is directed towards the exploration of future work structures and design, and their effects on employees and employment relations. The main methods applied are trend extrapolation and simulation in combination with delphi research methodology. The trends observed during the last decade suggest that the workplace and workforce in the new millenium will primarily be affected by flexibilization, decentralization, and globalization. Flexibilization will lead to a core group with unlimited full employment and an increasing larger group of short-term limited and/or part-time employees who face severe employment risks, ultimately resulting in stress. Flexibilization will also affect the workplace. Information technologies will dissolve social entities. The virtual company suppresses social interaction and will as a consequence create new forms of alienation. Decentralization will increase the responsibility for business processes. Employees will be regarded as business process owners and will be held responsible for their results, a situation which again creates new stress factors. Globalization enhances competition, which in turn will encourage competitive attitudes at the workplace. Internal market mechanisms will take the place of performance appraisals by management. Market evaluation will substitute leadership styles and communication, which stand for the human side of enterprise. The psychosocial problems arising from these developments will produce new challenges for occupational health professionals.

  3. Defining an evidence-based work environment for nursing in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kotzer, Anne Marie; Arellana, Kerry

    2008-06-01

    To describe and compare staff nurses' perceptions of their real and ideal work environment in a tertiary paediatric facility; to provide administrators with research evidence for identifying areas for improvement. The workforce shortage of hospital nurses is a global problem having an impact on the financial resources and efficient operations of an organisation and the quality of care delivered to patients. A direct relationship exists between job satisfaction, retention, turnover and elements of the nurses' work environment. Research identifying specific elements of the current work setting that are in conflict with nurses' views of their preferred practice milieu can help define an evidence-based work environment for nursing. Using a descriptive survey design, a convenience sample of 385 nurses on five inpatient units and the float team completed two forms (real and ideal) of the work environment scale. The work environment scale consists of 10 subscales within three dimensions: relationship, personal growth and system maintenance and change. A consistent pattern was seen across all units with reported high levels of involvement, peer cohesion, task orientation and managerial control. Scores for work pressure and autonomy were moderate-high and physical comfort, supervisor support, clarity and innovation were moderate. Overall, highest scores were reported for involvement and lowest for physical comfort. Significant differences were found between real and ideal subscale scores suggesting that staff were able to identify areas for improvement. Despite moderate work pressure, staff affirmed a highly positive work environment on their units. Specific areas in their current work setting that were not congruent with their preferred work environment were identified and targeted for change. Understanding dimensions of the nurses' work environment needing improvement and involving staff in making and evaluating change supports an evidence-based environment to attract and

  4. Job insecurity, work-family imbalance, and hostile work environment: prevalence data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Alterman, Toni; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Dahlhamer, James M; Ward, Brian W; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2013-06-01

    Little nationally representative information on job insecurity, work-family imbalance, and hostile work environments experienced by workers in the US is available. Prevalence rates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were calculated for three workplace psychosocial factors (job insecurity, work-family imbalance, bullying/harassment) using SUDAAN to account for the complex NHIS sample design. Data were available for 17,524 adults who worked in the 12 months that preceded the interview. Overall prevalence rates were 31.7% for job insecurity, 16.3% for work-family imbalance, and 7.8% for hostile work environment (being bullied or harassed). The highest prevalence rate of job insecurity was found for construction and extraction occupations. Workers in legal occupations had the highest prevalence rate of work-family imbalance. Workers in protective service occupations had the highest prevalence rate of hostile work environment. We identified demographic characteristics along with industries and occupations with the highest prevalence rates for three adverse workplace psychosocial factors. These data can be used for benchmarking and identification of targets for investigation and intervention activities. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nursing work environment and nurse caring: relationship among motivational factors.

    PubMed

    Burtson, Paige L; Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2010-08-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the relationships among compassion satisfaction, nurse job satisfaction, stress, burnout and compassion fatigue to nurse caring. Nurse caring is the most influential dimension of patient advocation and is predictive of patient satisfaction. Qualitative studies have indicated that nurse caring is a key motivational factor impacting recruitment and retention. A correlational study of nurses (N = 126) was conducted in 2008 at a single, academic medical center. The six variables of interest were operationalized using four valid and reliable research instruments: (1) the Mueller McCloskey Satisfaction Scale, (2) the Professional Quality of Life Scale, (3) the Stress in General Scale and (4) the Caring Behaviors Inventory. Pearson Product-moment correlations showed statistically significant relationships between nurse caring and compassion satisfaction (r = 0.51, P < 0.001), nurse job satisfaction subscales (r = 0.16-0.28, P < 0.05), stress (r = -0.21, P < 0.05), and burnout (r = -0.22, P < 0.01). A statistically significant relationship was found between the nurse caring subscale of knowledge and skill and compassion fatigue (r = -0.22, P < 0.01). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that compassion satisfaction (R(2) = 0.287, beta = 0.536, P = 0.000) and nurse satisfaction with social interaction opportunities related to work (beta = 0.223, P = 0.032) explained variability in nurse caring. Fostering compassion satisfaction and social interaction opportunities among nurses may improve nurse caring, potentially sustaining long-term improvements in patient.

  6. Determination Of Heat Load By Wet Bulb Globe Temperature In Working Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Králiková, Ružena; Maďoranová, Marieta

    2015-07-01

    Thermal load on people in general depends on the heat production in the human organism as a result of physical activity as well as environmental conditions which are affected by transfer of heat between human and the surrounding area. The resulting effect of metabolic exchanges which occur in work activities is the thermal load of organism. The paper deals with the evaluation of microclimatic conditions of the working environment of workers, who are exposed to the hot environment during their work.

  7. Issues to be addressed by the program for measuring incremental costs for the environment. Global Environment Facility Working Paper 8

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.

    1993-12-01

    Describes the five key research areas to be addressed by the Program for Measuring Incremental Costs for the Environment (PRINCE). This paper outlines incremental cost concepts, operational interpretations, national climate change studies, country studies on ozone protection, and transaction costs. It also develops a broad interpretation of `incremental cost` that can be used across the range of issues covered by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Those issues include global warming, pollution of international waters, destruction of biodiversity, and ozone depletion. This is one of five GEF Working Papers to explore the PRINCE program and is co-published with the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Environment Programme.

  8. Job satisfaction, work environment and intention to leave among migrant nurses working in a publicly funded tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong-Shian; Lopez, Violeta

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to explore the job satisfaction level of migrant nurses working in a multicultural society and, more specifically, the relationship between their job satisfaction levels, work environment, their intentions to leave and the predictors of their intentions to leave. Nursing shortages have led to the increasing trend of employing migrant nurses, which necessitated studies examining nurses' migration. A cross-sectional, correlational design using a stratified random sample was conducted on 495 migrant nurses working in a tertiary public-funded hospital in Singapore. The results showed that migrant nurses were satisfied with their jobs; with job satisfaction negatively correlated with work environment. Interestingly, pre-existing groups of Chinese migrant nurses did not help newly arrived Chinese migrant nurses to assimilate better. Predictors of migrant nurses' intentions to leave included having supportive nurse managers and nursing practice environment. The presence of a supportive work environment is essential to retain migrant nurses. Health administrators need to empower nursing managers with skills to implement career development plans as part of hospitals' retention strategies for migrant nurses. Information should also be provided during recruitment campaigns to enable migrant nurses to make informed choices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Person-related work and incident use of antidepressants: relations and mediating factors from the Danish work environment cohort study.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Ida E H; Diderichsen, Finn; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    2010-11-01

    Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who "work with people" (i.e., do person-related work) are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. However, these studies were purely register-based and consequently unable to point to factors underlying this elevated risk. This paper examines whether person-related work is associated with incident use of antidepressants, and whether this association is mediated by several work environment exposures. Self-reported data from the Danish work environment cohort study in 2000 were linked with the use of antidepressants between 2001-2006. We included 4958 respondents in our study after excluding those with severe depressive symptoms or use of antidepressants at baseline. Compared to employees doing non-person-related work, the use of antidepressants was increased statistically significantly for healthcare workers and statistically non-significantly for educational workers. The use of antidepressants was not elevated for social or customer service workers, or those doing "other" types of person-related work. The increased risks of antidepressant-use for healthcare and educational workers were attenuated when adjusted for emotional demands at work. The results imply that healthcare and educational workers in Denmark are at increased risk of depression and that this risk is partly mediated by the high emotional demands of the work.

  10. Attributes of nursing work environment as predictors of registered nurses' job satisfaction and intention to leave.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sandy Pin-Pin; Cheung, Kin; Pang, Samantha Mei-Che

    2013-04-01

    To examine how front-line registered nurses' perception of their work environment associates with and predicts nurse outcomes in terms of job satisfaction and turnover intention. Mounting evidence has pointed to an inseparable link between attributes of the nursing work environment and nurse outcomes. However, there is a paucity of research examining nurses' perception of their work environment beyond the Western context. This cross-sectional survey involved 1271 registered nurses working in 135 inpatient units in 10 public hospitals in Hong Kong. The instrument comprised items developed from in-depth interviews with front-line nurses that explored nurses' perception of their work environment. Factor analysis identified five dimensions (professionalism, co-worker relationship, management, staffing and resources, and ward practice) of the nursing work environment. Logistic regression analysis further identified professionalism, management and ward practice as significant factors in predicting nurses' turnover intention, and staffing and resources as an additional factor in predicting their job satisfaction. Attributes of the nursing work environment have a significant bearing on nurses' job satisfaction and intention to leave. Managerial effort should focus on improving nurses' work conditions through detailed resource planning, effective management and removal of work constraints that affect nursing practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Exploring Environment-Intervention Fit: A Study of a Work Environment Intervention Program for the Care Sector

    PubMed Central

    Aust, Birgit; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees' conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors. PMID:26380356

  12. Impact of healthy work environments on new graduate nurses' environmental reality shock.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marlene; Brewer, Brewer B; Maguire, Patricia

    2013-03-01

    Do healthy work environments (HWEs) facilitate new graduate transition into professional practice in hospitals? Are such environments related to a decrease in Environmental Reality Shock? Experienced nurses in 17 Magnet hospitals completed the Essentials of Magnetism II(©) (EOMII(©)) instrument that measures health of unit work environments. New graduates (N = 468) were then tracked with modified versions of the EOMII(©) from immediate post hire to 4, 8, and 12 months post hire to ascertain degree of Environmental Reality Shock. New graduate nurses have extremely high anticipations of unit work environments that would enable delivery of quality patient care. HWE is the most-significant variable in Environmental Reality Shock, number of related Issues and Concerns, and perceptions of quality of patient care. Suggestions of how to improve quality of unit work environments are offered.

  13. Workplace gender composition and psychological distress: the importance of the psychosocial work environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health consequences of the gender segregated labour market have previously been demonstrated in the light of gender composition of occupations and workplaces, with somewhat mixed results. Associations between the gender composition and health status have been suggested to be shaped by the psychosocial work environment. The present study aims to analyse how workplace gender composition is related to psychological distress and to explore the importance of the psychosocial work environment for psychological distress at workplaces with different gender compositions. Methods The study population consisted of participants from the Northern Swedish Cohort with a registered workplace in 2007 when the participants were 42 years old (N = 795). Questionnaire data were supplemented with register data on the gender composition of the participants’ workplaces divided into three groups: workplaces with more women, mixed workplaces, and workplaces with more men. Associations between psychological distress and gender composition were analysed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for socioeconomic position, previous psychological distress, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Logistic regression analyses (including interaction terms for gender composition and each work environment factor) were also used to assess differential associations between psychosocial work factor and psychological distress according to gender composition. Results Working at workplaces with a mixed gender composition was related to a higher likelihood of psychological distress compared to workplaces with more men, after adjustments for socioeconomic position, psychological distress at age 21, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Psychosocial work environment factors did not explain the association between gender composition and psychological distress. Conclusions The association between gender composition and psychological distress cannot be

  14. Using mediation techniques to manage conflict and create healthy work environments.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Debra

    2004-01-01

    Healthcare organizations must find ways for managing conflict and developing effective working relationships to create healthy work environments. The effects of unresolved conflict on clinical outcomes, staff retention, and the financial health of the organization lead to many unnecessary costs that divert resources from clinical care. The complexity of delivering critical care services makes conflict resolution difficult. Developing collaborative working relationships helps to manage conflict in complex environments. Working relationships are based on the ability to deal with differences. Dealing with differences requires skill development and techniques for balancing interests and communicating effectively. Techniques used by mediators are effective for resolving disputes and developing working relationships. With practice, these techniques are easily transferable to the clinical setting. Listening for understanding, reframing, elevating the definition of the problem, and forming clear agreements can foster working relationships, decrease the level of conflict, and create healthy work environments that benefit patients and professionals.

  15. The nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units

    PubMed Central

    BAERNHOLDT, MARIANNE; MARK, BARBARA A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in hospital characteristics, nursing unit characteristics, the nurse work environment, job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units. Background Research in urban hospitals has found an association between the nurse work environment and job satisfaction and turnover rates, but this association has not been examined in rural hospitals. Method Rural and urban nursing units were compared in a national random sample of 97 United States hospitals (194 nursing units) with between 99 and 450 beds. Results Significant differences were found between hospital and nursing unit characteristics and the nurse work environment in rural and urban nursing units. Both nursing unit characteristics and the work environment were found to have a significant influence on nurse job satisfaction and turnover rates. Conclusion Job satisfaction and turnover rates in rural and urban nursing units are associated with both nursing unit characteristics and the work environment. Implications for nursing management Both rural and urban hospitals can improve nurse job satisfaction and turnover rates by changing unit characteristics, such as creating better support services and a work environment that supports autonomous nursing practice. Rural hospitals can also improve the work environment by providing nurses with more educational opportunities. PMID:19941573

  16. The work environment of haemodialysis nurses and its impact on patients' outcomes.

    PubMed

    Prezerakos, Panagiotis; Galanis, Peter; Moisoglou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess haemodialysis nurses' work environment and investigate the correlation between work environment and patients' outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the 11 public hospital-based haemodialysis units of the 5th Regional Health Authority of Greece. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) was used to assess work environment. Nurses were asked to report the frequency of a series adverse events and errors. Study population consisted of 133 nurses (response rate 89.3%). The overall PES-NWI scored just < 2.5 (Mean = 2.48, standard deviation = 0.34) indicating a non-favourable haemodialysis workplace. Nurse-physician Relations, nurse manager ability and nursing foundations for quality of care were the most favourable aspects of work environment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that hypotension (odds ratio (OR) = 0.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.1-0.9, P = 0.03), venous needle disconnection (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.03-0.65, P = 0.012) and patient fall (OR = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.001-0.51, P = 0.018) were associated with a non-favourable work environment. Findings have important implications for improvement of haemodialysis work environment and enhancement of patients' safety.

  17. Verbal abuse from nurse colleagues and work environment of early career registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Budin, Wendy C; Brewer, Carol S; Chao, Ying-Yu; Kovner, Christine

    2013-09-01

    This study examined relationships between verbal abuse from nurse colleagues and demographic characteristics, work attributes, and work attitudes of early career registered nurses (RNs). Data are from the fourth wave of a national panel survey of early career RNs begun in 2006. The final analytic sample included 1,407 RNs. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample, analysis of variance to compare means, and chi square to compare categorical variables. RNs reporting higher levels of verbal abuse from nurse colleagues were more likely to be unmarried, work in a hospital setting, or work in a non-magnet hospital. They also had lower job satisfaction, and less organizational commitment, autonomy, and intent to stay. Lastly, they perceived their work environments unfavorably. Data support the hypothesis that early career RNs are vulnerable to the effects of verbal abuse from nurse colleagues. Although more verbal abuse is seen in environments with unfavorable working conditions, and RNs working in such environments tend to have less favorable work attitudes, one cannot assume causality. It is unclear if poor working conditions create an environment where verbal abuse is tolerated or if verbal abuse creates an unfavorable work environment. There is a need to develop and test evidence-based interventions to deal with the problems inherent with verbal abuse from nurse colleagues. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Structural determinants of the psychosocial work environment: introducing technology in the work stress framework.

    PubMed

    Amick, B C; Celentano, D D

    1991-05-01

    To extend current models of psychosocial work stress research into organizational structure, technology is introduced. An exploratory model is developed combining research from ergonomics, epidemiology, and organizational science. It is hypothesized that technology influences a worker's health by structuring the job, and the relationship between the job and a worker's health is mediated by attitudes at work. To test the model, data are used from a 1978 NIOSH survey of postal workers sorting mail (N = 4903). Path analysis shows technology is indirectly associated with job satisfaction and psychosomatic symptoms by how it structured the job. A machine-paced technological system of work is associated with greater job demands, less control in the job, and less co-worker support but not with supervisor support. The implications of this model for prevention strategies at the workplace are discussed suggesting that influencing supervisor support is the most effective way to affect a person's job satisfaction and level of psychosomatic symptomology.

  19. Using evidence-based leadership initiatives to create a healthy nursing work environment.

    PubMed

    Nayback-Beebe, Ann M; Forsythe, Tanya; Funari, Tamara; Mayfield, Marie; Thoms, William; Smith, Kimberly K; Bradstreet, Harry; Scott, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to create a healthy nursing work environment in a military hospital Intermediate Care Unit (IMCU), a facility-level Evidence Based Practice working group composed of nursing.Stakeholders brainstormed and piloted several unit-level evidence-based leadership initiatives to improve the IMCU nursing work environment. These initiatives were guided by the American Association of Critical Care Nurses Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments which encompass: (1) skilled communication, (2) true collaboration, (3) effective decision making, (4) appropriate staffing, (5) meaningful recognition, and (6) authentic leadership. Interim findings suggest implementation of these six evidence-based, relationship-centered principals, when combined with IMCU nurses' clinical expertise, management experience, and personal values and preferences, improved staff morale, decreased staff absenteeism, promoted a healthy nursing work environment, and improved patient care.

  20. Risk Assessment of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in the Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia Environment: Predictive Values of the Apfel's Simplified Risk Score for Identification of High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin Hyung; Shin, Yang-Sik; Oh, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Rim; Chung, Sung Chan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) is popular method of postoperative pain control, but many patients suffer from IV PCA-related postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). In this retrospective observational study, we have determined independent predictors of IV PCA-related PONV and predictive values of the Apfel's simplified risk score in pursuance of identifying high-risk patients. Materials and Methods We analyzed 7000 patients who received IV PCA with background infusion after elective surgery. Patients who maintained IV PCA for a postoperative period of 48 hr (completion group, n=6128) were compared with those who have discontinued IV PCA within 48 hr of surgery due to intractable PONV (cessation group, n=872). Patients, anesthetics, and surgical factors known for predicting PONV were evaluated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of IV PCA related intractable PONV. Results In a stepwise multivariate analysis, weight, background infusion dose of fentanyl, addition of ketolorac to PCA, duration of anesthesia, general anesthesia, head and neck surgery, and Apfel's simplified risk score were revealed as independent risk factors for intractable PONV followed by the cessation of IV PCA. In addition, Apfel's simplified risk score, which demonstrated the highest odds ratio among the predictors, was strongly correlated with the cessation rate of IV PCA. Conclusion Multimodal prophylactic antiemetic strategies and dose reduction of opioids may be considered as strategies for the prevention of PONV with the use of IV PCA, especially in patients with high Apfel's simplified risk scores. PMID:23918581

  1. Risk assessment of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the intravenous patient-controlled analgesia environment: predictive values of the Apfel's simplified risk score for identification of high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin Hyung; Shin, Yang-Sik; Oh, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Rim; Chung, Sung Chan; Choi, Yong Seon

    2013-09-01

    Opioid-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) is popular method of postoperative pain control, but many patients suffer from IV PCA-related postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). In this retrospective observational study, we have determined independent predictors of IV PCA-related PONV and predictive values of the Apfel's simplified risk score in pursuance of identifying high-risk patients. We analyzed 7000 patients who received IV PCA with background infusion after elective surgery. Patients who maintained IV PCA for a postoperative period of 48 hr (completion group, n=6128) were compared with those who have discontinued IV PCA within 48 hr of surgery due to intractable PONV (cessation group, n=872). Patients, anesthetics, and surgical factors known for predicting PONV were evaluated by logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of IV PCA related intractable PONV. In a stepwise multivariate analysis, weight, background infusion dose of fentanyl, addition of ketolorac to PCA, duration of anesthesia, general anesthesia, head and neck surgery, and Apfel's simplified risk score were revealed as independent risk factors for intractable PONV followed by the cessation of IV PCA. In addition, Apfel's simplified risk score, which demonstrated the highest odds ratio among the predictors, was strongly correlated with the cessation rate of IV PCA. Multimodal prophylactic antiemetic strategies and dose reduction of opioids may be considered as strategies for the prevention of PONV with the use of IV PCA, especially in patients with high Apfel's simplified risk scores.

  2. The perceived importance and the presence of creative potential in the health professional's work environment.

    PubMed

    Lukersmith, Sue; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The value of creative employees to an organisation's growth and innovative development, productivity, quality and sustainability is well established. This study examined the perceived relationship between creativity and work environment factors of 361 practicing health professionals, and whether these factors were present (realised) in their work environment. Job design (challenges, team work, task rotation, autonomy) and leadership (coaching supervisor, time for thinking, creative goals, recognition and incentives for creative ideas and results) were perceived as the most important factors for stimulating creativity. There was room for improvement of these in the work environment. Many aspects of the physical work environment were less important. Public health sector employers and organisations should adopt sustainable strategies which target the important work environment factors to support employee creativity and so enhance service quality, productivity, performance and growth. Implications of the results for ergonomists and workplace managers are discussed with a participatory ergonomics approach recommended. Creative employees are important to an organisation's innovation, productivity and sustainability. The survey identified health professionals perceive a need to improve job design and leadership factors at work to enhance and support employee creativity. There are implications for organisations and ergonomists to investigate the creative potential of work environments.

  3. Academics in a New Work Environment: The Impact of New Public Management on Work Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    New public management (NPM) approaches have informed policy in the public sector in advanced countries in the last decade. Some authors suggest that the main objective of NPM at the organisational level is to change the traditional way professionals are regulated. This study examines the impact of NPM on the working conditions of Portuguese higher…

  4. Academics in a New Work Environment: The Impact of New Public Management on Work Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    New public management (NPM) approaches have informed policy in the public sector in advanced countries in the last decade. Some authors suggest that the main objective of NPM at the organisational level is to change the traditional way professionals are regulated. This study examines the impact of NPM on the working conditions of Portuguese higher…

  5. Retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and risk of sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers.

    PubMed

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2017-08-17

    To determine the prospective association between retrospectively assessed physical work environment during working life and prospectively assessed sickness absence and labour market exit among older workers. Using Cox regression analyses we estimated the 4-year to 6-year prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement and unemployment from exposure to different physical work environmental factors during working life among 5076 older workers (age 49-63 at baseline) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank cohort. Very hard physical work throughout working life was a risk factor for LTSA (HR 1.66,95% CI 1.32 to 2.07), disability pension (HR 2.21,95% CI 1.04 to 4.72) and early retirement (HR 1.57,95% CI 1.13 to 2.17). Both short-term (<10 years) and long-term (≥20 years) exposures to lifting or carrying of heavy burdens predicted the risk of LTSA (HRs 1.49-1.56) and disability pension (HRs 2.26-3.29). In contrast, exposure to dust was associated with LTSA and disability pension only following 20 or more exposure years. Retrospectively assessed hard physical work during working life and exposure to several factors in the physical work environment, especially heavy lifting, were important for labour market exit and sickness absence. This study underscores the importance of reducing physical work exposures throughout the working life course for preventing sickness absence and premature exit from the labour market. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Implementing Self-Managing Work Teams in a High Performance Work Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    of goals (27:1187). These variances can be further compounded when they occur in a seri~s of dependent events. Eliyahu Goldratt treats this...Transformation of Quality Circles Into Self-Managing Work Teams," IAOC Conference Transactions: 380-84 (1987). 15. Goldratt , Eliyahu M. and Jeff Cox. The...process B can begin, B before C, and so forth. Goldratt submits that if each of these processes have some sort of variance or fluctuation, the effects

  7. The relationship between hospital work environment and nurse outcomes in Guangdong, China: a nurse questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; You, Li-Ming; Chen, Shao-Xian; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Li-Feng; Aiken, Linda H

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives This study examines the relationship between hospital work environments and job satisfaction, job-related burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Guangdong province, China. Background The nursing shortage is an urgent global problem and also of concern in China. Studies in Western countries have shown that better work environments are associated with higher nurse satisfaction and lower burnout, thereby improving retention and lowering turnover rates. However, there is little research on the relationship between nurse work environments and nurse outcomes in China. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Survey data were collected from 1104 bedside nurses in 89 medical, surgical and intensive care units in 21 hospitals across the Guangdong province in China. Methods Stratified convenience sampling was used to select hospitals, and systematic sampling was used to select units. All staff nurses working on participating units were surveyed. The China Hospital Nurse Survey, including the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and Maslach Burnout Inventory, was employed to collect data from nurses. Statistical significance level was set at 0·05. Results Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses experienced high burnout, and 54% were dissatisfied with their jobs. Improving nurses’ work environments from poor to better was associated with a 50% decrease in job dissatisfaction and a 33% decrease in job-related burnout among nurses. Conclusion Burnout and job dissatisfaction are high among hospital nurses in Guangdong province, China. Better work environments for nurses were associated with decreased job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout, which may successfully address the nursing shortage in China. Relevance to clinical practice The findings of this study indicate that improving work environments is essential to deal with the nursing shortage; the findings provide motivation for nurse managers and policy makers to improve work

  8. Using a social capital framework to enhance measurement of the nursing work environment.

    PubMed

    Sheingold, Brenda Helen; Sheingold, Steven H

    2013-07-01

    To develop, field test and analyse a social capital survey instrument for measuring the nursing work environment. The concept of social capital, which focuses on improving productive capacity by examining relationships and networks, may provide a promising framework to measure and evaluate the nurse work environment in a variety of settings. A survey instrument for measuring social capital in the nurse work environment was developed by adapting the World Bank's Social Capital - Integrated Questionnaire (SC-IQ). Exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analyses were applied to assess the properties of the instrument. The exploratory factor analysis yielded five factors that align well with the social capital framework, while reflecting unique aspects of the nurse work environment. The results suggest that the social capital framework provides a promising context to assess the nurse work environment. Further work is needed to refine the instrument for a diverse range of health-care providers and to correlate social capital measures with quality of patient care. Social capital measurement of the nurse work environment has the potential to provide managers with an enhanced set of tools for building productive capacity in health-care organisations and achieving desired outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Association of Chinese Hospital Work Environment with Nurse Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Intention to Leave

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-feng; You, Li-ming; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Fang, Jin-bo; Lu, Min-min; Lv, Ai-li; Ma, Wei-guang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Shu-hong; Wu, Xue; Zhu, Xiao-wen; Bu, Xiu-qing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nurse burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to leave, and to explore the relationship of work environment to nurse outcomes in a sample of 9,698 nurses from 181 hospitals in China. Nurses reported moderate levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and high levels of reduced personal accomplishment. Nearly one fifth of the nurses reported high levels of burnout on all three dimensions. Forty-five percent of the nurses were dissatisfied with their current job; these nurses were most dissatisfied with their salary. Five percent of nurses reported intention to leave. Nurses reporting mixed and good work environments were less likely to report high burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave compared with those in poor work environments. The results suggest that high burnout and low job satisfaction are prominent problems for Chinese nurses, and improving work environment might be an effective strategy for better nurse outcomes in Chinese hospitals. PMID:24345617

  10. Work environment structure and psychological ownership: the mediating effects of control.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jon L; O'Driscoll, Michael P; Coghlan, Anne-Marie

    2004-10-01

    Current theorists on the psychology of possession highlight control as an important route in the development of feelings of ownership. In the present article, the authors hypothesized that the extent to which individuals experience control over their job and work environment is positively associated with feelings of ownership for their job and the organization. The authors used supervisory report data on work environment structure and self-reports on experienced control and psychological ownership to test for the mediating effects of experienced control in the relationship between the work environment structure and psychological ownership. The authors found that experienced control mediates the relationship between 3 sources of work environment structure--technology, autonomy, and participative decision making--and psychological ownership of the job and (to a lesser extent) the organization. The authors proposed implications of the findings and directions of further research.

  11. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relation of the Feedback Environment to Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…

  12. Teachers' Images of Their Schools and Perceptions of Their Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Darrell; Grady, Neville

    1998-01-01

    Describes development of the Images Through Metaphor Questionnaire and its application in an investigation of relationships between 162 (Tasmanian) teachers' images of their schools and their perceptions of their work environment as assessed by the School Level Environment Questionnaire. Results revealed a strong relationship between these…

  13. A WWW software development environment to support cooperative and spread working groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidantchik, C.; Xexéo, G. B.; Rocha, A. R. C.

    1998-05-01

    This article presents a software development environment based on hypertext techniques to support object-oriented software construction performed by cooperative working groups spread all over the world. The environment uses the World-Wide Web to support distributed software development.

  14. The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in the Relation of the Feedback Environment to Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris-Watts, Christina; Levy, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The Feedback Environment, as opposed to the formal performance appraisal process, is comprised of the daily interactions between members of an organization (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, in press). Relations between the feedback environment and work outcome variables such as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) were examined through the mediating…

  15. Association of nurse work environment and safety climate on patient mortality: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Olds, Danielle M; Aiken, Linda H; Cimiotti, Jeannie P; Lake, Eileen T

    2017-06-24

    There are two largely distinct research literatures on the association of the nurse work environment and the safety climate on patient outcomes. To determine whether hospital safety climate and work environment make comparable or distinct contributions to patient mortality. Cross-sectional secondary analysis of linked datasets of Registered Nurse survey responses, adult acute care discharge records, and hospital characteristics. Acute care hospitals in California, Florida, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The sample included 600 hospitals linked to 27,009 nurse survey respondents and 852,974 surgical patients. Nurse survey data included assessments of the nurse work environment and hospital safety climate. The outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariate random intercept logistic regression. In a fully adjusted model, a one standard deviation increase in work environment score was associated with an 8.1% decrease in the odds of mortality (OR 0.919, p<0.001). A one-standard deviation increase in safety climate score was similarly associated with a 7.7% decrease in the odds of mortality (OR 0.923, p<0.001). However, when work environment and safety climate were modeled together, the effect of the work environment remained significant, while safety climate became a non-significant predictor of mortality odds (OR 0.940, p=0.035 vs. OR 0.971, p=0.316). We found that safety climate perception is not predictive of patient mortality beyond the effect of the nurse work environment. To advance hospital safety and quality and improve patient outcomes, organizational interventions should be directed toward improving nurse work environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the Utility of Work Team Theory in a Unified Command Environment at Catastrophic Incidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    OF WORK TEAM THEORY IN A UNIFIED COMMAND ENVIRONMENT AT CATASTROPHIC INCIDENTS by Douglas R. Templeton March 2005 Thesis Advisor...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Assessing the Utility of Work Team Theory in a Unified Command Environment at...absence of team skills instruction as part of a national training curriculum. The current curriculum teaches technical skills and ICS role

  17. Lesion-Related Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting with Closed-Cell Design without Embolic Protection Devices in High-Risk Elderly Patients-Can This Concept Work Out? A Single Center Experience Focusing on Stent Design.

    PubMed

    Hopf-Jensen, Silke; Marques, Leonardo; Preiß, Michael; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    To compare the performance differences of three carotid artery stents in high-risk elderly patients without embolic protection devices (EPDs) on the basis of stent design, procedure-related complications, conveniences in handling, in-stent restenosis, 30-day outcome, and long-term follow-up. A total of 101 symptomatic internal carotid stenoses of 94 patients were prospectively treated with stent-protected angioplasty to 94 patients. Three closed-cell stents, one of those being hybrid cell design, were chosen depending on vascular anatomy: curved vessel, lesion length > 1 cm: 64 Carotid Wallstent (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA); curved vessel, lesion length < 1 cm: 21 Cristallo Ideale (Invatec, Roncadelle, Italy); straight vessel, lesion length > 1 cm: 16 Xact (Vascular Abbott, Santa Clara, CA). Comparisons of demographics, procedures, and outcomes were performed. The mean age of patients was 73.1 years (standard deviation [SD], ± 7.9; range, 58-87 years), 71% of the patients were older than 70 years and 20% were octogenarians. Male/female ratio was 3.1:1. About 13.9% (14/101) had contralateral internal carotid artery occlusion. Overall peri-interventional complication rate was 2.9% and 30-day mortality rate was 1%. During the long-term follow-up (34 months, range 1-59) no ipsilateral stroke was documented. Ten deaths (three after MI) were recognized. Two in-stent restenosis were detected (> 70% North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial) during follow-up, one patient was detected with previous carotid endarterectomy. Especially, if individual anatomical variance is considered, lesion-related stent-protected carotid angioplasty with lesion-adapted closed-cell design is an effective, reliable, safe, and comprehensible treatment option in symptomatic patients. Even without EPDs, the rate of complications is low, when compared with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis described in the literature. In-stent restenosis seems to play no

  18. Development and Use of an Instrument for Assessing the Department-Level Work Environment: The Department-Level Environment Questionnaire (DLEQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Gillian; Fisher, Darrell L.

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research into the work environments of teachers at the subject department level. Understanding and investigating the work environment at this level could provide insight into the type of work environment that might lead teachers to remain in the teaching profession. This article reports the development, validation and use of…

  19. [Adaptation of the working environment to the capacities of workers with physical, intellectual and mental disabilities].

    PubMed

    Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Majewski, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    The occupational activity index among people with disabilities in Poland is still one of the lowest in Europe. Employers' resistance to employ these people is considered to be one of its major reasons. It stems from employers' fear of their low productivity and the need to adapt the work environment to their psychophysical capacities. In addition, the existing system of medical certification of disability does not motivate employers strong enough to adjust the work environment. This paper attempts to specify the main principles of the work environment adaptation to psychophysical capacities of two categories of workers with disabilities: those with motor function disabilities and those with intellectual or mental disability. For the former group of workers, the work environment adaptation may involve modifications of its physical aspects and entail some outlays, while for the latter group, the work environment adaptation is mainly based on the provision of workers with social support (both instrumental and emotional) by their supervisors and co-workers. Efforts associated with the work environment adaptation to the needs of workers with disabilities should, therefore, be considered not only in terms of outlays and enterprise productivity but also in terms of preventing social exclusion of people with disabilities.

  20. A social survey on the noise impact in open-plan working environments in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian; Jiao, Fenglei

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal noise impact in open-plan working environments in China, through a series of questionnaire surveys and acoustic measurements in typical open-plan working environments. It has been found that compared to other physical environmental factors in open-plan working environments, people are much less satisfied with the acoustic environment. The noise impact in the surveyed working environments is rather significant, in terms of sound level inside the office, understanding of colleagues' conversation, and the use of background music such as music players. About 30-50% of the interviewees think that various noise sources inside and outside offices are 'very disturbing' and 'disturbing', and the most annoying sounds include noises from outside, ventilation systems, office equipment, and keyboard typing. Using higher panels to separate work space, or working in enclosed offices, are regarded as effective improvement measures, whereas introducing natural sounds to mask unwanted sounds seems to be not preferable. There are significant correlations between the evaluation of acoustic environment and office symptoms, including hypersensitivity to loud sounds, easily getting tired and depression. There are also significant correlations between evaluation of various acoustics-related factors and certain statements relating to job satisfaction, including sensitivity to noise, as well as whether conversations could be heard by colleagues.

  1. Organizational culture and a safety-conscious work environment: The mediating role of employee communication satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Silla, Inmaculada; Navajas, Joaquin; Koves, G Kenneth

    2017-06-01

    A safety-conscious work environment allows high-reliability organizations to be proactive regarding safety and enables employees to feel free to report any concern without fear of retaliation. Currently, research on the antecedents to safety-conscious work environments is scarce. Structural equation modeling was applied to test the mediating role of employee communication satisfaction in the relationship between constructive culture and a safety-conscious work environment in several nuclear power plants. Employee communication satisfaction partially mediated the positive relationships between a constructive culture and a safety-conscious work environment. Constructive cultures in which cooperation, supportive relationships, individual growth and high performance are encouraged facilitate the establishment of a safety-conscious work environment. This influence is partially explained by increased employee communication satisfaction. Constructive cultures should be encouraged within organizations. In addition, managers should promote communication policies and practices that support a safety-conscious work environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological responses during continuous work in hot dry and hot humid environments in Indians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen Gupta, J.; Swamy, Y. V.; Pichan, G.; Dimri, G. P.

    1984-06-01

    Studies have been conducted on six young healthy heat acclimatised Indians to determine the physiological changes in prolonged continuous work in thermally neutral and in hot dry and hot humid environments. Physiological responses in maximal efforts i.e. Vo2 max, VE max and Cf max were noted. In addition, duration in continuous work at three sub-maximal rate of work in three simulated environments were also noted. Physiological responses like Vo2, VE and Cf were noted every 15 minutes of work. Besides these responses, rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Ts) and mean sweat rate were also recorded during continuous work. Results indicated a significant decrease in maximum oxygen uptake capacity (Vo2 max) in heat with no change in maximum exercise ventilation (VE max) and maximum cardiac frequency. However, the fall in Vo2 max was more severe in the hot humid environment than in the hot dry climate. Cardiac frequency at fixed oxygen consumption of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 l/min was distinctly higher in the hot humid environment than in the hot dry and comfortable temperature. The duration in continuous physical effort in various grades of activities decreased in hot dry environment from that in the-comfortable climate and further decreased significantly in hot humid environment. The highest rate of sweating was observed during work in humid heat. The mean skin temperature (Ts) showed a fall in all the three rates of work in comfortable and hot dry conditions whereas in hot humid environment it showed a linear rise during the progress of work. The rectal temperature on the other hand maintained a near steady state while working at 65 and 82 watts in comfortable and hot dry environments but kept on rising during work in hot humid environment. At the highest work rate of 98 watts, the rectal temperature showed a steady increase even in the hot dry condition. It was thus concluded from the study that a hot humid climate imposes more constraints on the

  3. Nursing education and transition to the work environment: a synthesis of national reports.

    PubMed

    Hofler, Linda D

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years and longer, national entities have worked within their organizations and with coalitions of other stakeholders to address issues facing the nursing profession. As a part of this work, the current state of the educational system for preparation of nurses has been discussed, as well as the need for strategies to enhance nursing students' transition from the academic environment to the work environment. This article presents a review and synthesis of national reports published from 1995 to April 2005 that contain recommendations for nursing education and the transition of nurses to the work environment. Common themes and recommendations across reports are identified and reported. Educators and others can learn from the collective wisdom of previous work and use this information to aid in development of plans and policy initiatives for development of the future nursing educational infrastructure.

  4. Attention and working memory in elderly: the influence of a distracting environment.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro F S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S

    2015-02-01

    The present work investigated the effect of a distracting environment in the performance of attentional and working memory (WM) tasks in elderly participants. To this end, forty elderly performed two attentional tasks (simple reaction time and go/no-go tasks), and three WM tasks (arithmetic, memory for digits and sequences of letters and numbers). Each participant performed the tasks in a distracting and a non-distracting environment, with an interval of 14-21 days between sessions. The results revealed better performance in the attentional tasks when these were done in the non-distracting environment, as compared to when they were done in the distracting environment. Specifically, participants provided more accurate responses, fewer false alarms and omissions when responding in the non-distracting environment than when responding in the distracting environment. Participants were also faster at providing correct responses in the go/no-go task when it was performed in the non-distracting environment. As for the memory tasks, the effect of type of environment was significant only in the memory for digits in a forward direction task. Our data suggest the need to consider the potential damaging consequences of distracting environments when the elderly have to perform tasks that demand their attention. Specific examples of such situations are presented in the discussion (e.g., distracting effect of environment on medical and on psychological evaluations).

  5. Review article: Staff perception of the emergency department working environment: Integrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Amy; Abraham, Louisa; Greenslade, Jaimi; Thom, Ogilvie; Carlstrom, Eric; Wallis, Marianne; Crilly, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted. We identified 31 key studies that were evaluated using the mixed methods assessment tool (MMAT). These comprised 24 quantitative-descriptive studies, four mixed descriptive/comparative (non-randomised controlled trial) studies and three qualitative studies. Studies included varied widely in quality with MMAT scores ranging from 0% to 100%. A key finding was that perceptions of working environment varied across clinical staff and study location, but that high levels of autonomy and teamwork offset stress around high pressure and high volume workloads. The large range of tools used to assess staff perception of working environment limits the comparability of the studies. A dearth of intervention studies around enhancing working environments in EDs limits the capacity to recommend evidence-based interventions to improve staff morale. © 2016 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  6. Review article: Staff perception of the emergency department working environment: Integrative review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Louisa; Greenslade, Jaimi; Thom, Ogilvie; Carlstrom, Eric; Wallis, Marianne; Crilly, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted. We identified 31 key studies that were evaluated using the mixed methods assessment tool (MMAT). These comprised 24 quantitative‐descriptive studies, four mixed descriptive/comparative (non‐randomised controlled trial) studies and three qualitative studies. Studies included varied widely in quality with MMAT scores ranging from 0% to 100%. A key finding was that perceptions of working environment varied across clinical staff and study location, but that high levels of autonomy and teamwork offset stress around high pressure and high volume workloads. The large range of tools used to assess staff perception of working environment limits the comparability of the studies. A dearth of intervention studies around enhancing working environments in EDs limits the capacity to recommend evidence‐based interventions to improve staff morale. © 2016 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine PMID:26784282

  7. Full-time dental faculty perceptions of satisfaction with the academic work environment.

    PubMed

    Froeschle, Mary Lynn; Sinkford, Jeanne C

    2009-10-01

    A significant factor in a faculty member's accepting or maintaining an academic appointment is the work environment. Assessing the work environment to identify characteristics that could increase faculty retention and recruitment could be valuable to an educational institution. This study assessed the academic dental work environment to identify positive and negative areas affecting career satisfaction. An online survey about departmental structure and individual work patterns was sent to the deans of fifty-two U.S. dental schools who then forwarded the survey to their faculty. Thirty-eight institutions (73 percent) and 451 full-time faculty members from those thirty-eight schools responded. Most dental faculty members in this survey intend to remain in academia for the next five to eight years. Slightly fewer male faculty members intend to remain in dental education for five to eight years than do female faculty members. Positive satisfaction aspects of the work environment listed by respondents included supportive chair/administration, working relationships with colleagues, and interactions with students. Negative satisfaction aspects of the work environment included low salary, long hours, and heavy workloads. Both positive aspects of job satisfaction and negative factors that impede productivity need to be analyzed within the framework of each institution to enact change for career enrichment, leading to increased faculty recruitment and retention.

  8. The impact of workplace incivility on the work environment, manager skill, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Patricia Smokler; Malecha, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of workplace incivility (WPI) on staff nurses related to cost and productivity. Healthful practice environments are one of the goals of the American Organization of Nurse Executives 2010 to 2012 Strategic Plan. Healthy work environments are linked to patient safety and quality. A postal survey was sent to 2,160 staff nurses (n = 659 completed) and included the Nursing Incivility Scale and Work Limitation Questionnaire. Although almost 85% (n = 553) reported experiencing WPI in the past 12 months, nurses working in healthy work environments(defined as Magnet®, Pathway to Excellence, and/or Beacon Unit recognition) reported lower WPI scores compared with nurses working in the standard work environment (P < .001). Workplace incivility scores varied between types of unit. Nurses' perception of their manager's ability to handle WPI was negatively associated with WPI scores (P < .001). Lost productivity as a result of WPI was calculated at $11,581 per nurse per year. Not only does WPI exist at high rates, but also it is costly. Nursing leaders play a vital role ensuring a healthy work environment.

  9. The impact of workplace incivility on the work environment, manager skill, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Smokler Lewis, Patricia; Malecha, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of workplace incivility (WPI) on staff nurses related to cost and productivity. Healthful practice environments are one of the goals of the American Organization of Nurse Executives 2010 to 2012 Strategic Plan. Healthy work environments are linked to patient safety and quality. A postal survey was sent to 2,160 staff nurses (n = 659 completed) and included the Nursing Incivility Scale and Work Limitation Questionnaire. Although almost 85% (n = 553) reported experiencing WPI in the past 12 months, nurses working in healthy work environments(defined as MagnetA, Pathway to Excellence, and/or Beacon Unit recognition) reported lower WPI scores compared with nurses working in the standard work environment (P G .001). Workplace incivility scores varied between types of unit. Nurses' perception of their manager's ability to handle WPI was negatively associated with WPI scores (P G .001). Lost productivity as a result of WPI was calculated at $11,581 per nurse per year. Not only does WPI exist at high rates, but also it is costly. Nursing leaders play a vital role ensuring a healthy work environment.

  10. Nine structures and leadership practices essential for a magnetic (healthy) work environment.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marlene; Schmalenberg, Claudia; Maguire, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Improving clinical nurse work environments is a major challenge faced by nurse executives today. To meet this challenge, nurse leaders must implement the "right" structures and best leadership practices so that clinical nurses can engage in the work processes and relationships that are empirically linked to quality patient outcomes. What are these "right" structures and best leadership practices? Meta-analyses of 2 sets of publications were used to identify organizational structures and best leadership practices essential to a healthy work environment, that is, a work environment that enables them to engage in the work processes and relationships needed for quality patient care outcomes. The first set was 12 publications from 7 professional organizations/regulatory bodies that advocated forces, hallmarks, and standards for a healthy work environment. The second set was 18 publications from the Essentials of Magnetism structure-identification studies, in which the aggregated results from 1300 interviews with staff nurse, manager, and physician "experts" were compared with the agency results. Broadening the categories and final aggregation yielded the 9 most important and influential structures essential to a quality work environment. Suggestions for implementing these structures are provided.

  11. Professional nursing practice in critical units: assessment of work environment characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Maurício, Luiz Felipe Sales; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Campanharo, Cássia Regina Vancini; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Belasco, Angélica Gonçalves Silva; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: assess the autonomy, control over environment, and organizational support of nurses' work process and the relationships between physicians and nurses in critical care units. Method: cross-sectional study conducted with 162 nurses working in the intensive care units and emergency service of a university hospital. The workers' satisfaction with their work environment was assessed using Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised, translated and adapted for the Brazilian culture. Results: average age was 31.6 ± 3.9 years; 80.2% were women; 68.5% Caucasians and 71.6% worked in intensive care units. The nurses considered autonomy (2.38 ± 0.64) and their relationship with physicians (2.24 ± 0.62) to be characteristics of the work environment that favored professional practice. Control over environment (2.78 ± 0.62) and organizational support (2.51 ± 0.54), however, were considered to be unfavorable. No statistically significant differences were found between the units based on the scores obtained by the professionals on the Brazilian Nursing Work Index - Revised. Conclusion: autonomy, relationship between physicians and nurses, and organizational support were considered by the units to be characteristics that favored nurses' professional practices. On the other hand, control over environment and organizational support were considered unfavorable. PMID:28301034

  12. High risk factors of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Camara, Soriba Naby; Yin, Tao; Yang, Ming; Li, Xiang; Gong, Qiong; Zhou, Jing; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Aroun, Tajoo; Kuete, Martin; Ramdany, Sonam; Camara, Alpha Kabinet; Diallo, Aissatou Taran; Feng, Zhen; Ning, Xin; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Tao, Jing; Qin, Qi; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Jing; Huang, Min; Guo, Yao; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wang, Bo; Liu, Tao; Olivier, Ohoya Etsaka Terence; Conde, Tenin; Cisse, Mohamed; Magassouba, Aboubacar Sidiki; Ballah, Sneha; Keita, Naby Laye Moussa; Souare, Ibrahima Sory; Toure, Aboubacar; Traore, Sadamoudou; Balde, Abdoulaye Korse; Keita, Namory; Camara, Naby Daouda; Emmanuel, Dusabe; Wu, He-Shui; Wang, Chun-You

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, cancer has become one of the toughest challenges for health professionals. The epidemiologists are increasingly directing their research efforts on various malignant tumor worldwide. Of note, incidence of cancers is on the rise more quickly in developed countries. Indeed, great endeavors have to be made in the control of the life-threatening disease. As we know it, pancreatic cancer (PC) is a malignant disease with the worst prognosis. While little is known about the etiology of the PC and measures to prevent the condition, so far, a number of risk factors have been identified. Genetic factors, pre-malignant lesions, predisposing diseases and exogenous factors have been found to be linked to PC. Genetic susceptibility was observed in 10% of PC cases, including inherited PC syndromes and familial PC. However, in the remaining 90%, their PC might be caused by genetic factors in combination with environmental factors. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism of the two kinds of factors, endogenous and exogenous, working together to cause PC remains poorly understood. The fact that most pancreatic neoplasms are diagnosed at an incurable stage of the disease highlights the need to identify risk factors and to understand their contribution to carcinogenesis. This article reviews the high risk factors contributing to the development of PC, to provide information for clinicians and epidemiologists.

  13. [The working environment control of anhydride hardeners from an epoxy resin system].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Naomi; Yokota, Kozo; Johyama, Yasushi; Takakura, Toshiyuki

    2003-07-01

    Epoxy resins are widely used in adhesives, coatings, materials for molds and composites, and encapsulation. Acid anhydrides such as methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride are being used as curing agents for epoxy resins. The anhydride hardeners are well-known industrial inhalant allergens, inducing predominantly type I allergies. In the electronic components industry, these substances have been consumed in large quantities. Therefore, safe use in the industry demands control of the levels of exposure causing allergic diseases in the workshop. We conducted a prospective survey of two electronics plants to clarify how to control the atmospheric level of the anhydrides in the work environment. Measurements of the levels of the anhydrides in air started according to the Working Environment Measurement Standards (Ministry of Labour Notification No. 46, 1976) in April 2000, along with improvements in the work environment. A value of 40 micrograms/m3 was adopted as the administrative control level to judge the propriety of the working environment control. A total of 2 unit work areas in both plants belonged to Control Class III. The exposure originated from manual loading, casting, uncured hot resins, and leaks in an impregnating-machine or curing ovens. In order to achieve the working environment control, complete enclosure of the source, installation of local exhaust ventilation, and improvement or maintenance of the local exhaust ventilation system were performed on the basis of the results of the working environment measurement, with the result that the work environment was improved (Control Class I). It became evident that these measures were effective just like other noxious substances.

  14. The relationship between nurses' perception of work environment and patient satisfaction in adult critical care.

    PubMed

    Boev, Christine

    2012-12-01

    Patient satisfaction in critical care is rarely measured yet has a major impact on hospital reimbursement. The critical care setting is characterized by high patient acuity and a fast-paced work environment. Nurses' perception of work environment in relation to various patient outcomes including patient satisfaction has not been explored exclusively in critical care. (a) Examine patient's perception of nursing care associated with their hospitalization in the intensive care unit. (b) Describe nurses' perception of work environment within a defined sample of adult critical care units, using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI). (c) Explore the relationships between nurses' perception of work environment and patient satisfaction in adult critical care. This study used existing data to address the study aims. Unit-level comparisons were examined using analysis of variance. The final aim was examined using multilevel modeling for longitudinal data. Patients were very satisfied with their hospitalization (4.48 out of 5.0). Significant differences were noted among all unit level comparisons (p < .001). Nurses also reported moderate satisfaction with work environment as measured by the PES-NWI, with perception of the role of their nurse manager receiving the highest scores. Perception of nurse manager leadership and ability was significantly related to patient satisfaction (p= .018). Favorable perception of the nurse manager was associated with a .424 point increase in patient satisfaction. This study offers preliminary support for the relationship between nurses' perception of work environment and patient satisfaction in critical care. It also highlights the pivotal role of the nurse manager in both nurse and patient satisfaction. This study examines two important aspects that are both relevant and important to clinical nursing. The first aspect is the healthy work environment. Multiple studies have linked the nursing work environment to

  15. Preventing and Investigating Horse-Related Human Injury and Fatality in Work and Non-Work Equestrian Environments: A Consideration of the Workplace Health and Safety Framework

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Meredith; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Attempts to reduce horse-related injuries and fatalities to humans have mostly focused on personal protective equipment like helmets. In organizational contexts, such technical interventions are considered secondary to reducing the frequency and severity of accidents. In this article, we describe the Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) framework that has been associated with reduced risks in industries and organisations. We consider how such a framework could be used to reduce horse-related risks in workplaces, as well as non-work equestrian competition and leisure environments. In this article, we propose that the simplicity and concepts of the WHS framework can provide risk mitigation benefits to both work and non-work equine identities. Abstract It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS) monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a) situation-specific hazards, and (b) the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of

  16. Retail food environments research: Promising future with more work to be done.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Daniel; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-06-09

    As members of the scientific committee for the Food Environments in Canada conference, we reflect on the current state of food environments research in Canada. We are very encouraged that the field is growing and there have been many collaborative efforts to link researchers in Canada, including the 2015 Food Environments in Canada Symposium and Workshop. We believe there are 5 key challenges the field will need to collectively address: theory and causality; replication and extension; consideration of rural, northern and vulnerable populations; policy analysis; and intervention research. In addressing the challenges, we look forward to working together to conduct more sophisticated, complex and community-driven food environments research in the future.

  17. Effect of Psychosocial Work Environment on Sickness Absence Among Patients Treated for Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Biering, Karin; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Hjollund, Niels Henrik

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades mortality has declined in patients with coronary heart disease due to improvements in treatments and changes in life style, resulting in more people living with chronic heart disease. This implies that focus on rehabilitation and re-integration to the work-force becomes increasingly important. Previous studies among healthy workers suggest that the psychosocial working environment is associated with sickness absence. Whether the psychosocial working environment plays a role for patients with existing cardiovascular disease on return to work and sickness absence is less studied. A cohort of patients under 67 years and treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was established in 2006. Three months after the procedure the patients (n = 625) answered a questionnaire about their psychosocial working environment. Patients were followed in registers for the following year. We examined the association between psychosocial working environment and sickness absence at 3 months, 1 year and new sick-listings during the first year with logistic regression. A total of 528 patients had returned to work 3 months after the PCI, while 97 was still sick-listed. After 1 year one was dead, 465 were working and 85 were receiving health related benefits, while 74 had left the workforce permanently. A number of 106 patients were sick-listed during the whole first year or had left the workforce permanently. After the initial return to work, 90 experienced a new sickness absence during the first year while the remaining 429 did not. High work pace, low commitment to the workplace, low recognition (rewards) and low job control were associated with sickness absence at 3 months, but not after 1 year. Low job control as well as job strain (combination of high demands and low control) was associated with new sick-listings. The psychosocial working environment was associated with sickness absence 3 months after the PCI, but not 1 year after.

  18. Haemodialysis work environment contributors to job satisfaction and stress: a sequential mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Bronwyn; Bonner, Ann; Douglas, Clint

    2015-01-01

    Haemodialysis nurses form long term relationships with patients in a technologically complex work environment. Previous studies have highlighted that haemodialysis nurses face stressors related to the nature of their work and also their work environments leading to reported high levels of burnout. Using Kanters (1997) Structural Empowerment Theory as a guiding framework, the aim of this study was to explore the factors contributing to satisfaction with the work environment, job satisfaction, job stress and burnout in haemodialysis nurses. Using a sequential mixed-methods design, the first phase involved an on-line survey comprising demographic and work characteristics, Brisbane Practice Environment Measure (B-PEM), Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS), Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The second phase involved conducting eight semi-structured interviews with data thematically analyzed. From the 417 nurses surveyed the majority were female (90.9 %), aged over 41 years of age (74.3 %), and 47.4 % had worked in haemodialysis for more than 10 years. Overall the work environment was perceived positively and there was a moderate level of job satisfaction. However levels of stress and emotional exhaustion (burnout) were high. Two themes, ability to care and feeling successful as a nurse, provided clarity to the level of job satisfaction found in phase 1. While two further themes, patients as quasi-family and intense working teams, explained why working as a haemodialysis nurse was both satisfying and stressful. Nurse managers can use these results to identify issues being experienced by haemodialysis nurses working in the unit they are supervising.

  19. A model of psychosocial work environment, stress, and satisfaction among dental students in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Schéle, Ingrid A; Hedman, Leif R; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-09-01

    Dental students are often described as stressed. The stress has, among other things, been connected to stressors in their psychosocial environment and inconsistent feedback. The hypothesis of this study was that the psychosocial work environment in dental schools leads to stress and affects the satisfaction of dental students and that tolerance for ambiguity shields students from stress. A web-based survey was sent to the entire Swedish dental student population in clinical training (N=805); the response rate was 40 percent. Structural equation modeling used in the analyses contains four main constructs: psychosocial work environment, tolerance for ambiguity, perceived stress, and student satisfaction (χ(2)=267.437, d.f.=174, p<0.001, Normed χ(2)=1.537, RMSEA= 0.041, CFI=0.98). Psychosocial work environment influenced both perceived stress and satisfaction: it accounted for almost all of the explained variance in perceived stress for women, while about half of the variance for the men was explained by tolerance for ambiguity. This study concluded that about 40 percent of the total perceived stress of these female dental students was related to their psychosocial work environment. Tolerance for ambiguity shielded men but not women from stress. An improved psychosocial work environment in dental schools would decrease the stress of both male and female dental students.

  20. Impact of healthy work environments and multistage nurse residency programs on retention of newly licensed RNs.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marlene; Halfer, Diana; Maguire, Pat; Schmalenberg, Claudia

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to examine effects of nurse-confirmed healthy unit work environments and multistage nurse residency programs (NRPs) on retention rates of newly licensed RNs (NLRNs). Establishing a culture of retention and healthy clinical nurse practice environments are two major challenges confronting nurse leaders today. Nurse residency programs are a major component of NLRN work environments and have been shown to be effective in abating nurse turnover. Sample for this study consisted of 5,316 new graduates in initial RN roles in 28 Magnet® hospitals. There were no differences in retention rates by education or patient population on clinical unit. NLRN retention rate was higher in community than in academic hospitals. More than half of NLRNs were placed on units with very healthy work environments. Newly licensed RNs on units with work environments needing improvement resigned at a significantly higher rate than did other NLRNs. The quality of clinical unit work environments is the most important factor in NLRN retention.

  1. Spaces for Geometric Work: Figural, Instrumental, and Discursive Geneses of Reasoning in a Technological Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Chacón, Inés Ma; Kuzniak, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to assess the effect of a dynamic environment on relationships between the three geneses (figural, instrumental, and discursive) of Spaces for Geometric Work. More specifically, it was to determine whether the interactive geometry program GeoGebra could play a specific role in the geometric work of future…

  2. Spaces for Geometric Work: Figural, Instrumental, and Discursive Geneses of Reasoning in a Technological Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Chacón, Inés Ma; Kuzniak, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to assess the effect of a dynamic environment on relationships between the three geneses (figural, instrumental, and discursive) of Spaces for Geometric Work. More specifically, it was to determine whether the interactive geometry program GeoGebra could play a specific role in the geometric work of future…

  3. The Effects of Training Design, Individual Characteristics and Work Environment on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Michel, John W.; Lyons, Brian D.; Kavanagh, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to gain insight into some of the factors that determine the transfer of training to the work context. The present research examined the relationship between three types of predictors on transfer of training, including training design, individual characteristics and work environment. Data was collected at two points in time from 182…

  4. Cross-National Similarities and Differences in Employee Perceptions of Issues in the Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, David; Hudson, Irene; Turner, Robin; Osman-Gani, AAhad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines cross-national similarities and differences in employee perceptions of issues in the work environment in 17 organizational work settings in seven Asia-Pacific countries; Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. Employees at these 17 sites indicated their degree of…

  5. Applying Theories of Person-Environment Fit to the Transition from School to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jane L.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes potential contributions of theories of person-environment fit to understanding of the transition from school to work. Provides specific implications for integrating these concepts into school-to-work programs including: students need to spend time in exploration that leads to self-knowledge; programs should teach elements of…

  6. Working Memory Capacity and Mobile Multimedia Learning Environments: Individual Differences in Learning While Mobile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Peter E.; Mariano, Gina J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) on learning from an historical inquiry multimedia tutorial in stationary versus mobile learning environments using a portable digital media player (i.e., iPod). Students with low (n = 44) and high (n = 40) working memory capacity, as measured by the…

  7. Obstacles of Saudi Woman Work in the Mixed Environment: A Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Hazmi, Mohammad Abdullah; Hammad, Mohammad Ahamd; AL-Shahrani, Hend Faye

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the obstacles facing Saudi woman while working in a mixed work environment. The main study sample consisted of (223) from the health sector female affiliates and were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of (129) participants from the health sector and workers in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)…

  8. Estimating the Effects of No Child Left Behind on Teachers' Work Environments and Job Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Nicholson-Crotty, Sean; Harrington, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have examined the impacts of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) on school operations and student achievement. We complement that work by investigating the law's impacts on teachers' perceptions of their work environments and related job attitudes, including satisfaction and commitment to remain in teaching. Using four waves of the…

  9. Estimating the Effects of No Child Left Behind on Teachers' Work Environments and Job Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Nicholson-Crotty, Sean; Harrington, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have examined the impacts of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) on school operations and student achievement. We complement that work by investigating the law's impacts on teachers' perceptions of their work environments and related job attitudes, including satisfaction and commitment to remain in teaching. Using four waves of the…

  10. Employability and Work-Related Learning Activities in Higher Education: How Strategies Differ across Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnell, Marie; Kolmos, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on how academic staff perceive their roles and responsibilities regarding work-related learning, and how they approach and implement work-related learning activities in curricula across academic environments in higher education. The study is based on case studies, including semi-structured interviews and analyses of…

  11. Impact of Graduates from an Online Program in Their Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scagnoli, Norma; Stephens, Melissa; Anderson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Online distance education programs are populated by adult learners who try to continue or complete their education without having to leave their jobs or places of residence. Their work environment becomes not just their working place, but also the lab where they apply new knowledge. The general expectation is that after graduation they will make…

  12. Impact of Graduates from an Online Program in Their Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scagnoli, Norma; Stephens, Melissa; Anderson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Online distance education programs are populated by adult learners who try to continue or complete their education without having to leave their jobs or places of residence. Their work environment becomes not just their working place, but also the lab where they apply new knowledge. The general expectation is that after graduation they will make…

  13. Continuous Quality Improvement in Student Affairs: A Survey of Staff Opinions on the Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaney, Gary D.; Osit, Carla J.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the results of a survey which queried student affairs staff members about their opinions on the importance of and their satisfaction with 37 aspects of their work environments. Discusses results of the survey and addresses efforts to improve the work climate. (Contains 18 references.) (Author/GCP)

  14. Beginning and Mentor Teachers' Perceptions of Their Urban School-Level Work Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shwu-yong L.; Waxman, Hersholt C.

    1995-01-01

    Queried 150 1st-year teachers and 150 mentor teachers from 86 southern urban schools regarding their work environment and professional aspirations. Questionnaires addressed affiliation, professional interest, resource adequacy, and work pressure. Resource adequacy influenced beginning teachers' intention to continue teaching. Mentor teachers…

  15. Cross-National Similarities and Differences in Employee Perceptions of Issues in the Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, David; Hudson, Irene; Turner, Robin; Osman-Gani, AAhad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines cross-national similarities and differences in employee perceptions of issues in the work environment in 17 organizational work settings in seven Asia-Pacific countries; Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. Employees at these 17 sites indicated their degree of…

  16. Physical work environment: testing an expanded model of job satisfaction in a sample of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Budin, Wendy C; Norman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The impact of personal, organizational, and economic factors on nurses' job satisfaction have been studied extensively, but few studies exist in which the effects of physical work environment--including perceptions of architectural, interior design, and ambient features on job satisfaction-are examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of perceived physical work environment on job satisfaction, adjusting for multiple personal, organizational, and economic determinants of job satisfaction. A cross-sectional, predictive design and a Web-based survey instrument were used to collect data from staff registered nurses in a large metropolitan hospital. The survey included 34 questions about multiple job satisfaction determinants, including 18 Likert-type measures with established good validity (comparative fit index = .97, Tucker-Lewis index = .98, root mean square error of approximation = .06) and reliability (r ≥ .70). A response rate of 48.5% resulted in a sample of 362, with 80% power to detect a medium effect of perceived physical environment on job satisfaction. On average, nurses had negative perceptions of physical work environment (M = 2.9, SD = 2.2). Although physical environment was related positively to job satisfaction (r =.256, p = .01) in bivariate analysis, in ordered probit regression, no effect of physical work environment on job satisfaction was found. In future studies, this relationship should be examined in larger and more representative samples of nurses. Qualitative methods should be used to explore how negatively perceived physical work environment impacts nurses. Rebuilding of U.S. hospitals, with a planned investment of $200 billion without considering how physical environment contributes to nurse work outcomes, threatens to exacerbate organizational nurse turnover.

  17. Structural characteristics of hospitals and nurse-reported care quality, work environment, burnout and leaving intentions.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Smeds Alenius, Lisa; Griffiths, Peter; Runesdotter, Sara; Tishelman, Carol

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether hospital characteristics not readily susceptible to change (i.e. hospital size, university status, and geographic location) are associated with specific self-reported nurse outcomes. Research often focuses on factors within hospitals (e.g. work environment), which are susceptible to change, rather than on structural factors in their own right. However, numerous assumptions exist about the role of structural factors that may lead to a sense of pessimism and undermine efforts at constructive change. Data was derived from survey questions on assessments of work environment and satisfaction, intention to leave, quality of care and burnout (measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory), from a population-based sample of 11 000 registered nurses in Sweden. Mixed model regressions were used for analysis. Registered nurses in small hospitals were slightly more likely to rank their working environment and quality of nursing care better than others. For example 23% of staff in small hospitals were very satisfied with the work environment compared with 20% in medium-sized hospitals and 21% in large hospitals. Registered nurses in urban areas, who intended to leave their job, were more likely to seek work in another hospital (38% vs. 32%). While some structural factors were related to nurse-reported outcomes in this large sample, the associations were small or of questionable importance. The influence of structural factors such as hospital size on nurse-reported outcomes is small and unlikely to negate efforts to improve work environment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Medical symptoms among pilots associated with work and home environments: a 3-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xi; Lindgren, Torsten; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-05-01

    To study associations between the cockpit environment, psychosocial work environment, home environment, and medical symptoms in a cohort of commercial pilots followed over 3 yr. A standardized questionnaire was mailed in February-March 1997 to all Stockholm-based pilots on duty in a Scandinavian flight company (N = 622); 577 (93%) participated. During this time smoking was allowed on long haul flights, but not on shorter flights. Smoking was prohibited on all flights after September 1997. The same questionnaire was sent to the cohort of 577 pilots in February-March 2000; 436 participated (76%). The questionnaire contained questions on symptoms, the psychosocial work environment, and the home environment. Associations were investigated using multiple logistic and ordinal regression. Symptoms were common, especially eye symptoms (38.5%), nose symptoms (39.9%), and tiredness (29.9%). Pilots exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on long haul flights had more eye symptoms (odds ratio = 1.91) and tiredness (odds ratio = 2.73). These symptoms were reduced when no longer exposed to ETS. Those who started working on long haul flights developed more nose symptoms. Pilots reporting increased work demands developed more nose and dermal symptoms and tiredness and those with decreased work control developed more eye symptoms. Pilots living in new houses, multifamily houses, and in recently painted homes reported more symptoms. Eliminating ETS exposure on board reduced medical symptoms. Further work to reduce ETS exposure globally is needed. Psychosocial aspects of the work environment for commercial pilots should be considered, as well as the home environment.

  19. Applicability of concentrations obtained by working environment measurement to assessment of personal exposure concentrations of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinobu; Natsumeda, Shuichiro; Hara, Kunio; Yoshida, Satoru; Sakurai, Haruhiko; Ichiba, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the applicability of Japanese working environment measurements to assessment of personal exposure concentrations of chemicals by comparing both levels of concentrations. The chemicals measured in this study comprised eight kinds of vaporous chemicals as well as two kinds of chemicals in dust. Personal exposure measurements, Japanese working environment measurements and spot sampling measurements were undertaken in 70 companies. Personal exposure concentrations and the arithmetic mean value (EA2) of the working environment measurement concentrations obtained according to the Japanese working environment control system had statistically positive correlations (r=0.732-0.893, p<0.01) after logarithmic transformation. The 5th to 95th percentile values of personal exposure concentrations divided by EA2 ranged from 0.17 to 7.69 for vaporous chemicals and from 0.27 to 18.06 for dust. There was a relatively large difference between the personal exposure concentrations and the EA2 obtained in weighing, forming and bonding use-processes. In such cases, the B-value measured in ten minutes in the Japanese working environment control system, which is almost the same as the spot measurement concentration in this study, is supposed to be substituted for the EA2 value. Ten times the EA2 of the working environment measurement concentrations, or ten times the B-value, obtained according to the Japanese working environment control system can be used to conservatively estimate the personal exposure concentrations in EU workplaces as well as in occupational exposure scenarios of the Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals.

  20. Nonlinear Analysis to Detect if Excellent Nursing Work Environments Have Highest Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Casalicchio, Giuseppe; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Bruyneel, Luk

    2017-09-01

    To detect potentially nonlinear associations between nurses' work environment and nurse staffing on the one hand and nurse burnout on the other hand. A cross-sectional multicountry study for which data collection using a survey of 33,731 registered nurses in 12 European countries took place during 2009 to 2010. A semiparametric latent variable model that describes both linear and potentially nonlinear associations between burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) and work environment (Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index: managerial support for nursing, doctor-nurse collegial relations, promotion of care quality) and staffing (patient-to-nurse ratio). Similar conclusions are reached from linear and nonlinear models estimating the association between work environment and burnout. For staffing, an increase in the patient-to-nurse ratio is associated with an increase in emotional exhaustion. At about 15 patients per nurse, no further increase in emotional exhaustion is seen. Absence of evidence for diminishing returns of improving work environments suggests that continuous improvement and achieving excellence in nurse work environments pays off strongly in terms of lower nurse-reported burnout rates. Nurse staffing policy would benefit from a larger number of studies that identify specific minimum as well as maximum thresholds at which inputs affect nurse and patient outcomes. Nurse burnout is omnipresent and has previously been shown to be related to worse patient outcomes. Additional increments in characteristics of excellent work environments, up to the highest possible standard, correspond to lower nurse burnout. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. The Positive Effect of Resilience on Stress and Business Outcomes in Difficult Work Environments.

    PubMed

    Shatté, Andrew; Perlman, Adam; Smith, Brad; Lynch, Wendy D

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether resilience has a protective effect in difficult work environments. A survey of 2063 individuals measured individual resilience, stress, burnout, sleep problems, likelihood of depression, job satisfaction, intent to quit, absences, and productivity. It also measured work characteristics: job demands, job influence, and social support. Multivariate and logistic regression models examined the main effects and interactions of resilience and job characteristics. High strain work environments (high demand, low influence, and low support) have an unfavorable effect on all outcomes. Resilience has a protective effect on all outcomes. For stress, burnout, and sleep, higher resilience has a more protective effect under low-strain conditions. For depression, absence and productivity, resilience has a more protective effect when job strain is high. Workers with high resilience have better outcomes in difficult work environments.

  2. Does the work environment matter? Sexual objectification and waitresses' body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Dawn M; Mikorski, Renee

    2017-08-14

    We investigated the relations between working in sexually objectifying restaurant environments and body dissatisfaction in a sample of 252 United States waitresses. Supporting our hypotheses, results indicated that working in sexually objectifying restaurant environments was positively correlated with waitresses' body dissatisfaction. Our findings also supported a theorized serial three-chain mediation model in which working in sexually objectifying restaurant environments was related to body dissatisfaction through more thin ideal internalization and greater self-objectification/body surveillance. Furthermore, thin ideal internalization had a direct, unique link to body dissatisfaction. Our findings highlight the importance of working conditions and internalization processes in understanding waitresses' body image concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Iowa Certified Nursing Assistants Study: Self-Reported Ratings of the Nursing Home Work Environment

    PubMed Central

    Culp, Kennith; Ramey, Sandra; Karlman, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Certified nursing assistants (CNAs) are the principal bedside caregivers in nursing homes, yet little is known about their perceptions of the work environment. This population-based, cross-sectional study used a mailed questionnaire to a random sample of Iowa CNAs (N = 584), representing 166 nursing homes. Of the respondents, 88.5% (n = 517) were currently employed in long-term care settings; however, 11.5% (n = 67) indicated they had left their jobs. When CNA responses were compared with those of other occupational groups, general workers reported higher scores on involvement, coworker cohesion, work pressure, and supervisor support. Those who left their CNA jobs rated their work environment as characteristic of excessive managerial control and task orientation. Results of this study emphasize the importance of the relationship between CNAs and their supervisors, CNAs’ need for greater autonomy and innovation, and the need for the work environment to change dramatically in the area of human resource management. PMID:20078021

  4. The Positive Effect of Resilience on Stress and Business Outcomes in Difficult Work Environments

    PubMed Central

    Shatté, Andrew; Perlman, Adam; Smith, Brad; Lynch, Wendy D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether resilience has a protective effect in difficult work environments. Methods: A survey of 2063 individuals measured individual resilience, stress, burnout, sleep problems, likelihood of depression, job satisfaction, intent to quit, absences, and productivity. It also measured work characteristics: job demands, job influence, and social support. Multivariate and logistic regression models examined the main effects and interactions of resilience and job characteristics. Results: High strain work environments (high demand, low influence, and low support) have an unfavorable effect on all outcomes. Resilience has a protective effect on all outcomes. For stress, burnout, and sleep, higher resilience has a more protective effect under low-strain conditions. For depression, absence and productivity, resilience has a more protective effect when job strain is high. Conclusions: Workers with high resilience have better outcomes in difficult work environments. PMID:28002352

  5. Relationship between Psychiatric Nurse Work Environments and Nurse Burnout in Acute Care General Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Aiken, Linda H.; McClaine, Lakeetra; Hanlon, Alexandra L

    2010-01-01

    Following deinstitutionalization, inpatient psychiatric services moved from state institutions to general hospitals. Despite the magnitude of these changes, evaluations of the quality of inpatient care environments in general hospitals are limited. This study examined the extent to which organizational factors of the inpatient psychiatric environments are associated with psychiatric nurse burnout. Organizational factors were measured by an instrument endorsed by the National Quality Forum. Robust clustered regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between organizational factors in 67 hospitals and levels of burnout for 353 psychiatric nurses. Lower levels of psychiatric nurse burnout was significantly associated with inpatient environments that had better overall quality work environments, more effective managers, strong nurse-physician relationships, and higher psychiatric nurse-to-patient staffing ratios. These results suggest that adjustments in organizational management of inpatient psychiatric environments could have a positive effect on psychiatric nurses’ capacity to sustain safe and effective patient care environments. PMID:20144031

  6. Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Greta G; MacGregor, Tara; Davey, Mandy; Lee, How; Wong, Carol A; Lo, Eliza; Muise, Melanie; Stafford, Erin

    2010-03-01

    Numerous policy and research reports call for leadership to build quality work environments, implement new models of care, and bring health and wellbeing to an exhausted and stretched nursing workforce. Rarely do they indicate how leadership should be enacted, or examine whether some forms of leadership may lead to negative outcomes. We aimed to examine the relationships between various styles of leadership and outcomes for the nursing workforce and their work environments. The search strategy of this multidisciplinary systematic review included 10 electronic databases. Published, quantitative studies that examined leadership behaviours and outcomes for nurses and organizations were included. Quality assessments, data extractions and analysis were completed on all included studies. 34,664 titles and abstracts were screened resulting in 53 included studies. Using content analysis, 64 outcomes were grouped into five categories: staffsatisfaction with work, role and pay, staff relationships with work, staff health and wellbeing, work environment factors, and productivity and effectiveness. Distinctive patterns between relational and task focused leadership styles and their outcomes for nurses and their work environments emerged from our analysis. For example, 24 studies reported that leadership styles focused on people and relationships (transformational, resonant, supportive, and consideration) were associated with higher nurse job satisfaction, whereas 10 studies found that leadership styles focused on tasks (dissonant, instrumental and management by exception) were associated with lower nurse job satisfaction. Similar trends were found for each category of outcomes. Our results document evidence of various forms of leadership and their differential effects on the nursing workforce and work environments. Leadership focused on task completion alone is not sufficient to achieve optimum outcomes for the nursing workforce. Efforts by organizations and individuals to

  7. Systematic Work Environment Management: experiences from implementation in Swedish small-scale enterprises.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Kristina; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect - especially considering the cost of applying these methods.

  8. Social, Psychological, And Physical Aspects Of The Work Environment Could Contribute To Hypertension Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Rehkopf, David H; Modrek, Sepideh; Cantley, Linda F; Cullen, Mark R

    2017-02-01

    Studies on the physical and social characteristics of the workplace have begun to provide evidence for the role of specific workplace factors on health. However, the overall contribution of the workplace to health has not been considered. Estimates of the influences on health across domains of the work environment are a critical first step toward understanding what level of priority the workplace should take as the target for public policies to improve health. The influences or contribution of these domains on health in the work environment are particularly useful to study since they are potentially modifiable through changes in policies and environment. Our analysis used detailed data from blue-collar industrial workers at two dozen Alcoa plants. It includes work environmental measures of psychological hazards, physical hazards, and the workplace social environment, to estimate the overall importance of the workplace environment for hypertension. Our findings suggest that social, psychological, and physical aspects of the work environment could contribute to a substantial proportion of hypertension prevalence. These attributes of the workplace could thus be a useful target for improving workforce health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index: An updated review and recommendations for use.

    PubMed

    Swiger, Pauline A; Patrician, Patricia A; Miltner, Rebecca S Susie; Raju, Dheeraj; Breckenridge-Sproat, Sara; Loan, Lori A

    2017-06-12

    The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) is an instrument, which measures the nursing practice environment - defined as factors that enhance or attenuate a nurse's ability to practice nursing skillfully and deliver high quality care. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index's use to date and provide recommendations that may be helpful to nursing leaders and researchers who plan to use this instrument. A narrative review of quantitative studies. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature were searched to identify relevant literature using the search terms, Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and PES-NWI. Studies were included if they were published in English between 2010 and 2016 and focused on the relationship between the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and patient, nurse, or organizational outcomes. Data extraction focused on the reported survey scores and the significance and strength of the reported associations. Forty-six articles, from 28 countries, were included in this review. The majority reported significant findings between the nursing practice environment and outcomes. Although some modifications have been made, the instrument has remained primarily unchanged since its development. Most often, the scores regarding staffing and resource adequacy remained the lowest. The frequency of use of this instrument has remained high. Many researchers advocate for a move beyond the study of the connection between the Practice Environment Scale and nurse, patient, and organizational outcomes. Research should shift toward identifying interventions that improve the environment in which nurses practice and determining if changing the environment results in improved care quality. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Flexible workspace design and ergonomics training: impacts on the psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness among knowledge workers.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; O'Neill, Michael J; Schleifer, Lawrence M

    2008-07-01

    A macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workspace design and ergonomics training was conducted to examine the effects on psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness in a computer-based office setting. Knowledge workers were assigned to one of four conditions: flexible workspace (n=121), ergonomics training (n=92), flexible workspace+ergonomics training (n=31), and a no-intervention control (n=45). Outcome measures were collected 2 months prior to the intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Overall, the study results indicated positive, significant effects on the outcome variables for the two intervention groups compared to the control group, including work-related musculoskeletal discomfort, job control, environmental satisfaction, sense of community, ergonomic climate, communication and collaboration, and business process efficiency (time and costs). However, attrition of workers in the ergonomics training condition precluded an evaluation of the effects of this intervention. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention is effective among knowledge workers in office settings.

  11. [Gender differences in career motivation: female doctors' ambitions benefit from family friendly work environment].

    PubMed

    Pas, B R; Lagro-Janssen, A L M; Doorewaard, J A C M; Eisinga, R N; Peters, C P

    2008-10-04

    To determine gender differences in career motivation and the effect of a family friendly work environment. Cross-sectional pilot investigation. A web survey among male and female doctors (n = 107; 72 women and 35 men) in different specialties, including surgical, internal medicine and general practitioners, was used to gather information on different dimensions of career motivation and perceptions of the family friendliness of the work environment. Differences were analysed by means of t-tests and regression analyses. Male doctors had higher scores on career identity and on career planning than female doctors. However, male and female doctors did not differ in their willingness to achieve top positions. Female doctors were more determined concerning their career goals than their male counterparts. The family friendliness of the work environment had an overall positive effect on career motivation for both male and female doctors. However, a family friendly work environment had a negative effect on the career identity of male doctors. For male and female doctors alike, support to achieve career goals and elimination of career barriers lead to increased career identity. Male and female doctors differed in certain dimensions of career motivation. Offering support for career goals and taking away career barriers leads to a higher career motivation than offering a family friendly work environment.

  12. Work group IV: Future directions for measures of the food and physical activity environments.

    PubMed

    Story, Mary; Giles-Corti, Billie; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus; Cummins, Steven; Frank, Lawrence Douglas; Huang, Terry T-K; Lewis, LaVonna Blair

    2009-04-01

    Much progress has been made in the past 5 to 10 years in measuring and understanding the impact of the food and physical activity environments on behavioral outcomes. Nevertheless, this research is in its infancy. A work group was convened to identify current evidence gaps and barriers in food and physical activity environments and policy research measures, and develop recommendations to guide future directions for measurement and methodologic research efforts. A nominal group process was used to determine six priority areas for food and physical activity environments and policy measures to move the field forward by 2015, including: (1) identify relevant factors in the food and physical activity environments to measure, including those most amenable to change; (2) improve understanding of mechanisms for relationships between the environment and physical activity, diet, and obesity; (3) develop simplified measures that are sensitive to change, valid for different population groups and settings, and responsive to changing trends; (4) evaluate natural experiments to improve understanding of food and physical activity environments and their impact on behaviors and weight; (5) establish surveillance systems to predict and track change over time; and (6) develop standards for adopting effective health-promoting changes to the food and physical activity environments. The recommendations emanating from the work group highlight actions required to advance policy-relevant research related to food and physical activity environments.

  13. The effect of the work environment on future sleep disturbances: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Linton, Steven J; Kecklund, Göran; Franklin, Karl A; Leissner, Lena C; Sivertsen, Børge; Lindberg, Eva; Svensson, Anna C; Hansson, Sven O; Sundin, Örjan; Hetta, Jerker; Björkelund, Cecilia; Hall, Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Workers often attribute poor sleep to factors at work. Despite the large number of workers with sleep disturbances, there is a lack of consensus on the relationship between the work environment and sleep. The purpose of this systematic review therefore was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation. To this end, we employed standardized methods to systematically locate, review, and tabulate the results of prospective or randomized studies of the impact of work factors on sleep disturbances. From the 7981 articles located in five databases, 24 fulfilled our inclusion criteria and formed the base of the review including meta-analyses of the effect sizes. Results showed that the psychosocial work variables of social support at work, control, and organizational justice were related to fewer sleep disturbances, while high work demands, job strain, bullying, and effort-reward imbalance were related to more future sleep disturbances. Moreover, working a steady shift was associated with disturbances while exiting shift work was associated with less disturbed sleep. We conclude that psychosocial work factors and the scheduling of work have an impact on sleep disturbances and this might be utilized in the clinic as well as for planning work environments. Future research needs to employ better methodology and focus on underlying mechanisms.

  14. Impact of nurse work environment and staffing on hospital nurse and quality of care in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nantsupawat, Apiradee; Srisuphan, Wichit; Kunaviktikul, Wipada; Wichaikhum, Orn-Anong; Aungsuroch, Yupin; Aiken, Linda H

    2011-12-01

    To determine the impact of nurse work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes, including job satisfaction and burnout, and on quality of nursing care. Secondary data analysis of the 2007 Thai Nurse Survey. The sample consisted of 5,247 nurses who provided direct care for patients across 39 public hospitals in Thailand. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the impact of nurse work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes and quality of care. Nurses cared for an average of 10 patients each. Forty-one percent of nurses had a high burnout score as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory; 28% of nurses were dissatisfied with their job; and 27% rated quality of nursing care as fair or poor. At the hospital level, after controlling for nurse characteristics (age, years in unit), the addition of each patient to a nurse's workload was associated with a 2% increase in the odds on nurses reporting high emotional exhaustion (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.03; p < .05). Nurses who reported favorable work environments were about 30% less likely to report fair to poor care quality (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.48-0.98; p < .05) compared with nurses who reported unfavorable work environments. The addition of each patient to a nurse's workload was associated with a 4% increase in the odds on nurses reporting quality of nursing care as fair or poor (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.05; p < .001). Improving nurse work environments and nurse staffing in Thai hospitals holds promise for reducing nurse burnout, thus improving nurse retention at the hospital bedside as well as potentially improving the quality of care. Nurses should work with management and policymakers to achieve safe staffing levels and good work environments in hospitals throughout the world. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. It starts with a conversation: a community approach to creating healthy work environments.

    PubMed

    Longo, Joy; Dean, Amy; Norris, Shelby Darlene; Wexner, Suzette W; Kent, Leslie N

    2011-01-01

    A healthy work environment is needed to retain nurses. Among the factors that contribute to a healthy work environment are collaboration and communication. Through the leadership of the Palm Healthcare Foundation, Inc., a dialogue was started among health care stakeholders in Palm Beach County, Florida, resulting in a health care work force partnership community collaboration and initiatives to address the retention of nurses. One initiative was sponsoring a "train-the-trainer" program to raise awareness and provide skills for addressing factors that could affect work relationships, including emotional intelligence, generational differences, cultural competency and health literacy, employee crisis, and horizontal violence. A 6-month program evaluation was completed by the participants. A community approach provides a means for providers and educators to address common work force issues collaboratively.

  16. Time of farmers' exposure to biological factors in agricultural working environment.

    PubMed

    Mołocznik, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Working time in conditions of exposure to hazardous factors is an important element indispensable for the evaluation of human exposure in the working environment. Agricultural work is accompanied by co-occurrence of many risk factors threatening farmers' health, e.g. dust, elements of the thermal environment, noise, vibration, chemical and biological agents. Biological factors cause diseases with contagious, allergic or immuno-toxic backgrounds which constitute the majority of farmers' occupational diseases registered in Poland. Exposure to hazardous factors in agricultural working environment is due to contact with plants, animals and organic wastes, more precisely--with microbes, plant and animal particles present in aerogenic agricultural dust, as well as pathogens of contagious and invasive diseases present in contaminated soil, water and plants. Data concerning the duration of farmers' exposure to biological and other factors of the working environment were obtained with the use of the Private Farmer Work Chart. Time-schedule observations concerned an annual work cycle. The study covered 30 farms with the following production profiles: plant (Group A), animal (Group B) and mixed production (Group C). The total working time was: in Group A - from 106-163 % of the legal working time; in Group B - from 75-147 %; in Group C - from 136-167 %. Among 48 work activities contributing to the full working cycle among the farmers examined, 15 activities were accompanied by 5 factors. These were mainly field activities which covered plant harvesting and fertilizing, chemical plant protection, as well as cultivation activities. Agricultural dust and elements of the thermal environment were the environmental factors most frequently accompanying agricultural work, followed by contact with biological factors, noise, vibration, and chemical agents. Biological factors are a specific element associated with 19 work activities, mainly the spreading of manure, animal breeding and

  17. A systematic review of the impact of work environment on smoking cessation, relapse and amount smoked.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm; Oldenburg, Brian

    2006-10-01

    Smoking is an important issue for the majority of the world's working population. It is important to explore in which ways the workplace might contribute to changes in smoking status and smoking behavior. The present article provides a systematic review and quality assessment of studies that have addressed the impact of factors in the work environment on smoking behavior. An evaluation of the methodological quality of 22 prospective studies was based on 14 explicit criteria, which included features of study design, statistical analysis, sampling issues and measurement. The level of scientific evidence was evaluated for each study. There was strong evidence for an effect of the work environment on the amount smoked, but insufficient or mixed evidence regarding cessation and relapse. Summarizing the results, high job demands were associated with higher amount smoked and with increased likelihood of cessation. Resources at work and social support were positively associated with cessation and negatively associated with relapse and the amount smoked. The results supported the overall hypothesis that the work environment influences aspects of smoking behavior. Recommendations are made for more intervention studies where changes in work environment are carried out in combination with health promotion interventions.

  18. Interplay among resistance profiles, high-risk clones and virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection model.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Diener, Irina; Zamorano, Laura; López-Causapé, Carla; Cabot, Gabriel; Mulet, Xavier; Peña, Carmen; Del Campo, Rosa; Cantón, Rafael; Doménech-Sánchez, Antonio; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Arcos, Susana C; Navas, Alfonso; Oliver, Antonio

    2017-09-18

    The increasing prevalence of nosocomial infections produced by multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa is frequently linked to widespread international strains designated as high-risk clones. In this work we attempted to decipher the interplay between resistance profiles, high-risk clones and virulence, testing a large (n=140) collection of well characterized P. aeruginosa isolates from different sources (bloodstream infections, nosocomial outbreaks, cystic fibrosis and environment) in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Consistently with previous data, we documented a clear inverse correlation between antimicrobial resistance and virulence in the C. elegans model. Indeed, lowest virulence was linked to XDR profiles, which were typically linked to defined high-risk clones. However, virulence varied broadly depending on the involved high-risk clone; it was high for ST111 and ST235 but very low for ST175. The highest virulence of ST235 could be attributed to its ExoU+ Type III secretion system (TTSS) genotype, found to be linked with higher virulence in our C. elegans model. Other markers, such as motility or pigment production were not essential for virulence in the C. elegans model, but seemed to be related with the higher values of the statistical normalized data. Opposite to ST235, the ST175 high-risk clone, widespread in Spain and France, seems to be associated with a particularly low virulence in the C. elegans model. Moreover, the previously described G154R AmpR mutation, prevalent in ST175, was found to contribute to the reduced virulence, although it was not the only factor involved. Altogether, our results provide a major step forward for understanding the interplay between P. aeruginosa resistance profiles, high-risk clones and virulence. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Nursing work environment, patient safety and quality of care in pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Alves, Daniela Fernanda Dos Santos; Guirardello, Edinêis de Brito

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To describe the characteristics of the nursing work environment, safety attitudes, quality of care, measured by the nursing staff of the pediatric units, as well as to analyze the evolution of quality of care and hospital indicators. Methods Descriptive study with 136 nursing professionals at a paediatric hospital, conducted through personal and professional characterization form, Nursing Work Index - Revised, Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Short Form 2006 and quality indicators. Results The professionals perceive the environment as favourable to professional practice, and consider good quality care that is also observed by reducing the incidence of adverse events and decreased length of stay. The domain job satisfaction was considered favourable to patient safety. Conclusions The work environment is favourable to nursing practice, the professionals nursing approve the quality of care and the indicators tended reducing adverse events and length of stay.

  20. Assessing motivation for work environment improvements: internal consistency, reliability and factorial structure.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Ann; Ateg, Mattias; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

    2010-04-01

    Workers' motivation to actively take part in improvements to the work environment is assumed to be important for the efficiency of investments for that purpose. That gives rise to the need for a tool to measure this motivation. A questionnaire to measure motivation for improvements to the work environment has been designed. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the domains of the questionnaire have been measured, and the factorial structure has been explored, from the answers of 113 employees. The internal consistency is high (0.94), as well as the correlation for the total score (0.84). Three factors are identified accounting for 61.6% of the total variance. The questionnaire can be a useful tool in improving intervention methods. The expectation is that the tool can be useful, particularly with the aim of improving efficiency of companies' investments for work environment improvements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Assessment of measured respirable dust sampler penetration and the sampling convention for work environment measurement].

    PubMed

    Myojo, Toshihiko

    2005-11-01

    The relationship between dust size and penetration for a static horizontal elutriator (Sibata C-30) was measured in calm air. The elutriator as a low-volume air sampler is widely used as a dust size classifier in work environment measurements. The actual penetrations were compared with the theoretical models of the sampler and with sampling convention for respirable dust in work environment measurement. The sampling convention was recently introduced into the Japanese standard for work environment measurement and is based on the ISO 7708 respirable dust convention. The bias of sampled masses from the respirable dust was calculated for two flow rates of the sampler, i.e., 50% cut sizes of 4 microm and 5 microm, from measured penetration curves. The bias of the sampler was overestimated in the 5 microm, 50% cut condition and underestimated in the 4 microm, 50% cut condition for most workplace sampling situations.

  2. Leading a multicultural work environment: reflections on the next frontier of nurse leadership.

    PubMed

    Washington, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Nurses face the challenge of leading in a diverse society. Is the cross section of present-day nurse leaders prepared to meet the needs of patients and a work environment represented by a broader range of social backgrounds, cultural traditions, and languages? Fundamental to leaders' ability to meet diverse needs is a new framework for understanding the meaning of leadership, in which the issue of diversity is paramount. This article explores how the word leadership expresses a more complex system, when responsibility to address human needs is emphasized, and care for multilingual and multiethnic patients by a diverse, committed work environment is a focus. Under the umbrella of diversity, the necessary knowledge to create such a work environment may lack depth or may even be absent.

  3. Relationships among Organizational Attitudes, Work Environment, Satisfaction with Human Resource Programs and Benefits, and Army Career Intentions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    WORK ENVIRONMENT , 4 SATISFACTION WITH HUMAN RESOURCE PROGRAMS AND BENEFITS, AND...OP" THiS inAGE(Wtiofi Dejta linte) ,’- Technal Report 572 RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ORGANIZATIONAL ATTITUDES, WORK ENVIRONMENT , SATISFACTION WITH HUMAN...8217& ’ ’ . " ’ , " . .. " . . , . , . . . . . -. . RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ORGANIZATIONAL ATTITUDES, WORK ENVIRONMENT , SATISFACTION WITH HUMAN RESOURCE PROGRAMS AND BENEFITS, AND ARMY CAREER

  4. The impact of ADHD symptoms and global impairment in childhood on working disability in mid-adulthood: a 28-year follow-up study using official disability pension records in a high-risk in-patient population.

    PubMed

    Mordre, Marianne; Groholt, Berit; Sandstad, Berit; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2012-10-19

    Individuals with ADHD have been associated with more employment difficulties in early adulthood than healthy community controls. To examine whether this association is attributable specifically to disturbance of activity and attention (ADHD) or to psychopathology in general, we wanted to extend existing research by comparing the rate of mid-adulthood working disabilities for individuals diagnosed with ADHD as children with the rate for clinical controls diagnosed with either conduct disorder, emotional disorder or mixed disorder of conduct and emotions. Former Norwegian child-psychiatric in-patients (n = 257) were followed up 17-39 years after hospitalization by record linkage to the Norwegian national registry of disability pension (DP) awards. Based on the hospital records, the patients were re-diagnosed according to ICD-10. Associations between the diagnoses, other baseline factors and subsequent DP were investigated using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and logrank testing. At follow-up, 19% of the participants had received a DP award. In the logrank testing, ADHD was the only disorder associated with a subsequent DP, with 30% being disabled at follow-up (p = 0.01). Low psychosocial functioning (assessed by the Children's Global Assessment Scale) at admission uniquely predicted future DP (p = 0.04). ADHD in childhood was highly associated with later receiving a DP. Our finding of worse prognosis in ADHD compared with other internalizing and externalizing disorders in mid-adulthood supports the assumption of ADHD being specifically linked to working disability. Assessment of psychosocial functioning in addition to diagnostic features could enhance prediction of children who are most at risk of future disability.

  5. The impact of ADHD symptoms and global impairment in childhood on working disability in mid-adulthood: a 28-year follow-up study using official disability pension records in a high-risk in-patient population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Individuals with ADHD have been associated with more employment difficulties in early adulthood than healthy community controls. To examine whether this association is attributable specifically to disturbance of activity and attention (ADHD) or to psychopathology in general, we wanted to extend existing research by comparing the rate of mid-adulthood working disabilities for individuals diagnosed with ADHD as children with the rate for clinical controls diagnosed with either conduct disorder, emotional disorder or mixed disorder of conduct and emotions. Methods Former Norwegian child-psychiatric in-patients (n = 257) were followed up 17–39 years after hospitalization by record linkage to the Norwegian national registry of disability pension (DP) awards. Based on the hospital records, the patients were re-diagnosed according to ICD-10. Associations between the diagnoses, other baseline factors and subsequent DP were investigated using Kaplan–Meier survival analyses and logrank testing. Results At follow-up, 19% of the participants had received a DP award. In the logrank testing, ADHD was the only disorder associated with a subsequent DP, with 30% being disabled at follow-up (p = 0.01). Low psychosocial functioning (assessed by the Children’s Global Assessment Scale) at admission uniquely predicted future DP (p = 0.04). Conclusions ADHD in childhood was highly associated with later receiving a DP. Our finding of worse prognosis in ADHD compared with other internalizing and externalizing disorders in mid-adulthood supports the assumption of ADHD being specifically linked to working disability. Assessment of psychosocial functioning in addition to diagnostic features could enhance prediction of children who are most at risk of future disability. PMID:23083209

  6. Effects of nurse staffing, work environments, and education on patient mortality: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunhee; Sloane, Douglas M; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Sera; Choi, Miyoung; Yoo, Il Young; Lee, Hye Sun; Aiken, Linda H

    2015-02-01

    While considerable evidence has been produced showing a link between nursing characteristics and patient outcomes in the U.S. and Europe, little is known about whether similar associations are present in South Korea. To examine the effects of nurse staffing, work environment, and education on patient mortality. This study linked hospital facility data with staff nurse survey data (N=1024) and surgical patient discharge data (N=76,036) from 14 high-technology teaching hospitals with 700 or more beds in South Korea, collected between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2008. Logistic regression models that corrected for the clustering of patients in hospitals were used to estimate the effects of the three nursing characteristics on risk-adjusted patient mortality within 30 days of admission. Risk-adjusted models reveal that nurse staffing, nurse work environments, and nurse education were significantly associated with patient mortality (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10; OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.88; and OR 0.91, CI 0.83-0.99; respectively). These odds ratios imply that each additional patient per nurse is associated with an 5% increase in the odds of patient death within 30 days of admission, that the odds of patient mortality are nearly 50% lower in the hospitals with better nurse work environments than in hospitals with mixed or poor nurse work environments, and that each 10% increase in nurses having Bachelor of Science in Nursing Degree is associated with a 9% decrease in patient deaths. Nurse staffing, nurse work environments, and percentages of nurses having Bachelor of Science in Nursing Degree in South Korea are associated with patient mortality. Improving hospital nurse staffing and work environments and increasing the percentages of nurses having Bachelor of Science in Nursing Degree would help reduce the number of preventable in-hospital deaths. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of nurse staffing, work environments, and education on patient mortality: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunhee; Sloane, Douglas M.; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Sera; Choi, Miyoung; Yoo, Il Young; Lee, Hye Sun; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background While considerable evidence has been produced showing a link between nursing characteristics and patient outcomes in the U.S. and Europe, little is known about whether similar associations are present in South Korea. Objective To examine the effects of nurse staffing, work environment, and education on patient mortality. Methods This study linked hospital facility data with staff nurse survey data (N=1,024) and surgical patient discharge data (N = 76,036) from 14 high-technology teaching hospitals with 700 or more beds in South Korea, collected between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2008. Logistic regression models that corrected for the clustering of patients in hospitals were used to estimate the effects of the three nursing characteristics on risk-adjusted patient mortality within 30 days of admission. Results Risk-adjusted models reveal that nurse staffing, nurse work environments, and nurse education were significantly associated with patient mortality (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.10; OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.31–0.88; and OR 0.91, CI 0.83–0.99; respectively). These odds ratios imply that each additional patient per nurse is associated with an 5% increase in the odds of patient death within 30 days of admission, that the odds of patient mortality are nearly 50% lower in the hospitals with better nurse work environments than in hospitals with mixed or poor nurse work environments, and that each 10% increase in BSN nurse is associated with a 9% decrease in patient deaths. Conclusions Nurse staffing, nurse work environments, and percentages of BSN nurses in South Korea are associated with patient mortality. Improving hospital nurse staffing and work environments and increasing the percentages of BSN nurses would help reduce the number of preventable in-hospital deaths. PMID:25213091

  8. Relationships among supervisor feedback environment, work-related stressors, and employee deviance.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Man; Lee, Yin-Ling

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the employee deviance imposes enormous costs on organizational performance and productivity. Similar research supports the positive effect of favorable supervisor feedback on employee job performance. In light of such, it is important to understand the interaction between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviant behavior to streamline organization operations. The purposes of this study were to explore how the supervisor feedback environment influences employee deviance and to examine the mediating role played by work-related stressors. Data were collected from 276 subordinate-supervisor dyads at a regional hospital in Yilan. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test hypotheses. Structural equation modeling analysis results show that supervisor feedback environment negatively related to interpersonal and organizational deviance. Moreover, work-related stressors were found to partially mediate the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviance. Study findings suggest that when employees (nurses in this case) perceive an appropriate supervisor-provided feedback environment, their deviance is suppressed because of the related reduction in work-related stressors. Thus, to decrease deviant behavior, organizations may foster supervisor integration of disseminated knowledge such as (a) how to improve employees' actual performance, (b) how to effectively clarify expected performance, and (c) how to improve continuous performance feedback. If supervisors absorb this integrated feedback knowledge, they should be in a better position to enhance their own daily interactions with nurses and reduce nurses' work-related stress and, consequently, decrease deviant behavior.

  9. Systematic comparative content analysis of 17 psychosocial work environment questionnaires using a new taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Kop, Jean-Luc; Althaus, Virginie; Formet-Robert, Nadja; Grosjean, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Many questionnaires have been developed to measure how psychosocial characteristics are perceived in a work environment. But the content validity of these questionnaires has rarely been questioned due to the absence of a reference taxonomy for characteristics of work environments. To propose an exhaustive taxonomy of work environment characteristics involved in psychosocial risks and to apply this taxonomy to questionnaires on workplace psychosocial factors. The taxonomy was developed by categorizing factors present in the main theoretical models of the field. Questionnaire items most frequently cited in scientific literature were retained for classification. The taxonomy was structured into four hierarchical levels and comprises 53 categories. The 17 questionnaires analyzed included 927 items: 59 from the "physical environment" category, 116 from the "social environment" category, 236 from the "work activity" category, 255 from the "activity management" category, and 174 from the "organizational context" category. There are major content differences among analyzed questionnaires. This study offers a means for selecting a scale on the basis of content.

  10. Work group I: Measures of the food and physical activity environment: instruments.

    PubMed

    Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2009-04-01

    A work group was convened to identify the core challenges, content gaps, and corresponding possible solutions for improving food- and physical activity-environment instrumentation. Identified challenges included instrument proliferation, the scaling or grain of instruments and appropriate aggregation to the neighborhood or community level, and unknown sensitivity to change of most instruments. Solutions for addressing these challenges included establishing an interactive and real-time instrument repository, developing and enforcing high standards for instrument reporting, increasing community-researcher collaborations, and implementing surveillance of food and physical activity environment. Solid instrumentation will accelerate a better understanding of food- and physical activity-environment effects on eating and physical activity behaviors.

  11. Core self-evaluations and job performance: the role of the perceived work environment.

    PubMed

    Kacmar, K Michele; Collins, Brian J; Harris, Kenneth J; Judge, Timothy A

    2009-11-01

    Using trait activation theory as a framework, the authors examined the moderating role of two situational variables-perceptions of organizational politics and perceptions of leader effectiveness-on the relationship between core self-evaluations and job performance. Results from two samples (N = 137 and N = 226) indicate that employee perceptions of their work environment moderated the relationship between their core self-evaluations and supervisor ratings of their performance. In particular, those with higher core self-evaluations received higher performance ratings in environments perceived as favorable than in environments perceived as unfavorable.

  12. Work, work environments and other factors influencing nurse faculty intention to remain employed: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tourangeau, Ann; Saari, Margaret; Patterson, Erin; Ferron, Era Mae; Thomson, Heather; Widger, Kimberley; MacMillan, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    Given the role nurse faculty have in educating nurses, little is known about what influences their intention to remain employed (ITR) in academic settings. Findings from a nurse faculty survey administered to test a conceptual model of factors hypothesized as influencing nurse faculty ITR are reported. A cross-sectional survey design was employed. We included colleges and universities in Ontario, Canada. The population of Ontario nurse faculty who reported being employed as nurse faculty with the College of Nurses of Ontario (Canada) was included. Of the 1328 nurse faculty who were surveyed, 650 participated. Participants completed a questionnaire with measures of work, work environment, job satisfaction, burnout and ITR. Regression analyses were conducted to test the model. Ten of 26 independent variables explained 25.4% of variance in nurse faculty ITR for five years. These variables included: proximity to retirement, quality of relationships with colleagues, being employed full time, having dependents, satisfaction with work-life balance, quality of education, satisfaction with job status, access to financial support for education from organization, access to required human resources and being unionized. Although not all influencing factors are modifiable, academic leadership should develop strategies that encourage nurse faculty ITR. Strategies that support collegial relationships among faculty, increase the number of full time positions, promote work-life balance, engage faculty in assessing and strengthening education quality, support faculty choice between full-time and part-time work, and ensure adequate human resources required to teach effectively will lead to heightened nurse faculty ITR. © 2013.

  13. Drunken Environments: A Survey of Bartenders Working in Pubs, Bars and Nightclubs

    PubMed Central

    Tutenges, Sébastien; Bøgkjær, Trine; Witte, Maj; Hesse, Morten

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that bartenders play a key role in respect of the health and safety of patrons in nightlife environments. However, little is known of how bartenders themselves are affected by the environments in which they work, especially with regard to their exposure to violence, pressure to drink and stress. We used a cross-sectional survey to assess the experiences of bartenders (n = 424) working in pubs, bars and nightclubs in Denmark. 71% of the respondents reported drinking while working, 6% reported using other drugs than alcohol at work, and 33% reported drinking even when they did not feel like it because of pressure to drink at work. Verbal assaults and threats were common and associated with higher levels of perceived stress. Bartenders’ work environment poses a risk for the development of alcohol use disorders. The fact that many bartenders consume significant quantities of alcohol during their working hours may pose a risk not only to their own safety, but also to that of their colleagues and patrons. PMID:24157511

  14. Work environments and HIV prevention: a qualitative review and meta-synthesis of sex worker narratives.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Krusi, Andrea

    2015-12-16

    Sex workers (SWs) experience a disproportionately high burden of HIV, with evidence indicating that complex and dynamic factors within work environments play a critical role in mitigating or producing HIV risks in sex work. In light of sweeping policy efforts to further criminalize sex work globally, coupled with emerging calls for structural responses situated in labour and human-rights frameworks, this meta-synthesis of the qualitative and ethnographic literature sought to examine SWs' narratives to elucidate the ways in which physical, social and policy features of diverse work environments influence SWs' agency to engage in HIV prevention. We conducted a meta-synthesis of qualitative and ethnographic studies published from 2008 to 2014 to elucidate SWs' narratives and lived experiences of the complex and nuanced ways in which physical, social, and policy features of indoor and outdoor work environments shape HIV prevention in the sex industry. Twenty-four qualitative and/or ethnographic studies were included in this meta-synthesis. SWs' narratives revealed the nuanced ways that physical, social, and policy features of work environments shaped HIV risk and interacted with macrostructural constraints (e.g., criminalization, stigma) and community determinants (e.g., sex worker empowerment initiatives) to shape SWs' agency in negotiating condom use. SWs' narratives revealed the ways in which the existence of occupational health and safety standards in indoor establishments, as well as protective practices of third parties (e.g., condom promotion) and other SWs/peers were critical ways of enhancing safety and sexual risk negotiation within indoor work environments. Additionally, working in settings where negative interactions with law enforcement were minimized (e.g., working in decriminalized contexts or environments in which peers/managers successfully deterred unjust policing practices) was critical for supporting SWs' agency to negotiate HIV prevention. Policy

  15. How Nurse Work Environments Relate to the Presence of Parents in Neonatal Intensive Care.

    PubMed

    Hallowell, Sunny G; Rogowski, Jeannette A; Lake, Eileen T

    2017-09-25

    Parental presence in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is essential for families to participate in infant care and prepare them to transition from hospital to home. Nurses are the principal caregivers in the NICU. The nurse work environment may influence whether parents spend time with their hospitalized infants. To examine the relationship between the NICU work environment and parental presence in the NICU using a national data set. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study of a national sample of 104 NICUs, where 6060 nurses reported on 15,233 infants cared for. Secondary analysis was used to examine associations between the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) (subscale items and with a composite measure) and the proportion of parents who were present during the nurses' shift. Parents of 60% (SD = 9.7%) of infants were present during the nurses' shift. The PES-NWI composite score and 2 domains-Nurse Participation in Hospital Affairs and Manager Leadership and Support-were significant predictors of parental presence. A 1 SD higher score in the composite or either subscale was associated with 2.5% more parents being present. Parental presence in the NICU is significantly associated with better nurse work environments. NICU practices may be enhanced through enhanced leadership and professional opportunities for nurse managers and staff. Future work may benefit from qualitative work with parents to illuminate their experiences with nursing leaders and nurse-led interventions in the NICU and design and testing of interventions to improve the NICU work environment.

  16. Humanized birth in high risk pregnancy: barriers and facilitating factors.

    PubMed

    Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Leduc, Nicole; Misago, Chizuru

    2010-02-01

    -free environment for both. Humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy is something that goes beyond just curing women of their illnesses. It can be considered as a token of caring, and continued support, which positively consolidates the doctor-patient relationship. As yet, it has not been described as a practiced guideline, due to its ever-changing complexities.

  17. The public health nursing work environment: review of the research literature.

    PubMed

    Dingley, Jacquelyn; Yoder, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Public health nurses (PHNs) work to address critical health issues at the individual, family, and population levels. In recent years, a global nursing shortage has posed a significant challenge to the recruitment and retention of PHNs. Hospital-based research has shown that a healthy and productive work environment is vital to successful nursing recruitment and retention. Specific organizational characteristics have been linked to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job vacancies, and turnover rates. Although it is presumed that similarities exist between the public health and acute care nursing work environments, further evaluation is required. This literature review was conducted to identify studies that characterize the PHN work environment. An online database search was conducted to identify prospective PHN studies published between 2000 and 2010. Definitions were established for screening purposes. Twenty-nine PHN studies in the United States and abroad met criteria for inclusion in this review. Satisfaction with teamwork and job autonomy generally was reported. However, inadequate PHN staffing was described as a concern, with problems magnified during prolonged response to public health emergencies. Insufficient control over PHN practice was reported as well. Perceptions regarding other work environment characteristics were mixed or were not measured in detail. More in-depth research is recommended with the ultimate goal of improving PHN recruitment and retention.

  18. Nurse work environment and quality of care by unit types: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chenjuan; Olds, Danielle M; Dunton, Nancy E

    2015-10-01

    Nursing unit is the micro-organization in the hospital health care system in which integrated patient care is provided. Nursing units of different types serve patients with distinct care goals, clinical tasks, and social structures and norms. However, empirical evidence is sparse on unit type differences in quality of care and its relation with nurse work environment. Nurse work environment has been found as an important nursing factor predicting nurse and patient outcomes. To examine the unit type differences in nurse-reported quality of care, and to identify the association between unit work environment and quality of care by unit types. This is a cross-sectional study using nurse survey data (2012) from US hospitals nationwide. The nurse survey collected data on quality of care, nurse work environment, and other work related information from staff nurses working in units of various types. Unit types were systematically classified across hospitals. The unit of analysis was the nursing unit, and the final sample included 7677 units of 14 unit types from 577 hospitals in 49 states in the US. Multilevel regressions were used to assess the relationship between nurse work environment and quality of care across and by unit types. On average, units had 58% of the nurses reporting excellent quality of care and 40% of the nurses reporting improved quality of care over the past year. Unit quality of care varied by unit types, from 43% of the nurses in adult medical units to 73% of the nurses in interventional units rating overall quality of care on unit as excellent, and from 35% of the nurses in adult critical care units to 44% of the nurses in adult medical units and medical-surgical combined units reporting improved quality of care. Estimates from regressions indicated that better unit work environments were associated with higher quality of care when controlling various hospital and unit covariates; and this association persisted among units of different types. Unit

  19. Psychological implications of high-risk pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cumberbatch, Carla-Joy; Birndorf, Catherine; Dresner, Nehama

    2005-01-01

    The psychological adjustments of "normal" pregnancy are complex, and those of high-risk pregnancy are even more pronounced and severe. A pregnancy may be determined to be at high risk because of obstetric factors in previous pregnancies or the present one; more general medical factors, such as preexisting or emergent disease (often, diabetes); and conditions that are, themselves, psychosocial: anxiety disorders (GAD, OCD, panic disorder, PTSD), mood disorders, and schizophrenia, all of which are a background for a disturbed pregnancy and might complicate a pregnancy denominated high risk for some other reason. This paper discusses these concepts and, in addition, includes sections on pregnancy in adolescence, in the developmentally disabled, and in the situation of chemical dependence (substance abuse).

  20. Exploring the relationship between work environment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay of Jordanian nurses in underserved areas.

    PubMed

    AbuAlRub, Raeda; El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Abu Al-Rub, Nawzat

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study are to (1) examine the relationships between work environment, job satisfaction and intention to stay at work; and (2) explore the predicting factors of intention to stay at work among nurses in underserved areas. Developing and fostering creative work environment are paramount especially in underserved areas, where the work conditions present many challenges. A descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data from 330 hospital nurses who worked in two underserved governorates in Jordan. A set of instruments were used to measure the variables of the study. The results showed a strong positive association between job satisfaction and work environment. The results of logistic regression indicated receiving housing, job satisfaction, and work environment were the predicting variables of the level of intention to stay at work. It is critical to improve work conditions and create a culture of supportive work environment in underserved area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health

    PubMed Central

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R2 = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625

  2. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health.

    PubMed

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees' health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees' health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R (2) = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers' health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.

  3. Improvement of the Work Environment and Work-Related Stress: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Study of a Nationally Representative Sample of Japanese Workers.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kawakami, Norito

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional multilevel study aimed to investigate the relationship between improvement of the work environment and work-related stress in a nationally representative sample in Japan. The study was based on a national survey that randomly sampled 1745 worksites and 17,500 nested employees. The survey asked the worksites whether improvements of the work environment were conducted; and it asked the employees to report the number of work-related stresses they experienced. Multilevel multinominal logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted. Improvement of the work environment was not significantly associated with any level of work-related stress. Among men, it was significantly and negatively associated with the severe level of work-related stress. The association was not significant among women. Improvements to work environments may be associated with reduced work-related stress among men nationwide in Japan.

  4. The effect of individual characteristics on perceptions of collaboration in the work environment.

    PubMed

    Tschannen, Dana

    2004-10-01

    As the nursing shortage ensues, the need for recruiting and retaining highly skilled nurses committed to the organization will become necessary to maintain high-quality patient care. The primary role of nursing is to provide the best possible care to patients. To attain this goal, nurses must work in collaboration with other members of the health care team. The effect of team-orientation and organizational commitment on perceptions of nurse-physician collaboration in the work environment are examined.

  5. Understanding the psychosocial and physical work environment in a Singapore medical school.

    PubMed

    Chan, G C T; Koh, D

    2007-02-01

    This study aims to understand the physical and psychosocial work environment, expectations and the perceived levels of stress encountered of medical students in Singapore. A cross-sectional study employing a self-administered work environment questionnaire was applied over a one-week period to the entire 2003/2004 medical school cohort (1,069 students, response rate 85 percent) from the first to fifth (final) years at the National University of Singapore. 3.3 percent had at least one needlestick injury within the academic year. The majority (especially the clinical students) also had musculoskeletal complaints (neck and back mainly) within the last three months. Using the General Health Questionnaire, it was found that 49.6 percent encountered significant stress and 64.6 percent reported that more than 60 percent of their total life stress was due to medical school. The most important psychosocial stressors were: too much work and difficulty in coping. The clinical students were particularly concerned about being good medical students and doctors. The reasons for choosing Medicine as a career and social health (health, study and sleep habits) were also studied. The health risks of a medical student are primarily psychosocial in nature. The biggest challenges are work demands, maintaining a work-life balance and managing the psychosocial work environment.

  6. Interdisciplinary team discussion on work environment issues related to low back disability: a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Costa-Black, Kátia M; Durand, Marie-José; Imbeau, Daniel; Baril, Raymond; Loisel, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    From both a social and cost-benefit perspective, disability prevention and associated management strategies for assisting employees with back pain are only successful if they address critical return-to-work (RTW) determining factors present in the workplace, including ergonomic factors. Despite our current knowledge of the importance of an integrated team approach targeting these factors, questions remain regarding the conceptual framework adopted by contemporary rehabilitation teams as it relates to work-oriented interventions to accommodate employees back to work. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the work environment issues discussed by an interdisciplinary team engaged in the work rehabilitation process of low back disability cases. A qualitative content analysis was conducted for 10 sample cases that underwent a rehabilitation program in Quebec (Canada). Drawing on the results of these analyses, a framework representing a synopsis of practitioners' involvement in the person-environment dynamic is presented and discussed. This study makes a unique contribution to the understanding of the 'real-life' content of an interdisciplinary activity in disability management, thus, helping rehabilitation practitioners to build knowledge on the practical application of a cross-disciplinary framework to address work environment issues during the RTW process of those patients sick-listed due to back pain.

  7. Nurses' work environments, care rationing, job outcomes, and quality of care on neonatal units.

    PubMed

    Rochefort, Christian M; Clarke, Sean P

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the relationship between work environment characteristics and neonatal intensive care unit nurses' perceptions of care rationing, job outcomes, and quality of care. International evidence suggests that attention to work environments might improve nurse recruitment and retention, and the quality of care. However, comparatively little attention has been given to neonatal care, a specialty where patient and nurse outcomes are potentially quite sensitive to problems with staffing and work environments. Over a 6-month period in 2007-2008, a questionnaire containing measures of work environment characteristics, nursing care rationing, job satisfaction, burnout and quality of care was distributed to 553 nurses in all neonatal intensive care units in the province of Quebec (Canada). A total of 339 nurses (61.3%) completed questionnaires. Overall, 18.6% were dissatisfied with their job, 35.7% showed high emotional exhaustion, and 19.2% rated the quality of care on their unit as fair or poor. Care activities most frequently rationed because of insufficient time were discharge planning, parental support and teaching, and comfort care. In multivariate analyses, higher work environment ratings were related to lower likelihood of reporting rationing and burnout, and better ratings of quality of care and job satisfaction. Additional research on the determinants of nurse outcomes, the quality of patient care, and the impact of rationing of nursing care on patient outcomes in neonatal intensive care units is required. The Neonatal Extent of Work Rationing Instrument appears to be a useful tool for monitoring the extent of rationing of nursing care in neonatal units. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The Relationship between the Broader Environment and the Work System in a University Setting: A Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lone, Jon Anders; Riege, Anine H.; Bjørklund, Roald; Hoff, Thomas; Bjørkli, Cato

    2017-01-01

    Recent work design theories propose that the work design configuration (i.e. "work system") in an organization interacts with its broader social and economic environment. Nevertheless, there are few studies of how the broader environment affects the work system. In the present study, the authors used a qualitative theory-elaboration…

  9. The Relationship between the Broader Environment and the Work System in a University Setting: A Systems Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lone, Jon Anders; Riege, Anine H.; Bjørklund, Roald; Hoff, Thomas; Bjørkli, Cato

    2017-01-01

    Recent work design theories propose that the work design configuration (i.e. "work system") in an organization interacts with its broader social and economic environment. Nevertheless, there are few studies of how the broader environment affects the work system. In the present study, the authors used a qualitative theory-elaboration…

  10. The School-Community Guidance Center: Alternative Education for High-Risk Students 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lesley Anne; Baenen, Nancy

    The School-Community Guidance Center (SCGC) is an Austin, Texas alternative education program for high-risk students. It employs three project specialists to work with high-risk and delinquent students at two locations, Rice secondary school and a juvenile detention center. Most of the students are referred for disciplinary reasons. Students in…

  11. [Work environments and mortality attributable to smoking: a study among male citizens from 2010 to 2012 in Tianjin, China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guohong; Wang, Dezheng; Xu, Zhongliang; Li, Wei; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Ying

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the mortality attributable to smoking in different work environments among male citizens in Tianjin, China, and to provide scientific evidence for banning smoking in workplaces and public places. The data of 38 312 male deaths 18-69 years of age in Tianjin from 2010 to 2012 were collected. The risk of death due to lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases attributed to smoking in different work environments was analyzed. Among the male deaths 18-69 years of age in Tianjin, 22.57% were caused by smoking, and the life scan of smokers was shortened by 5 years on average. The smokers who started smoking at an early age and had high dialy cigarette consumption were at high risk of death.The risk of death due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among workers in indoor workshop(OR=1.82,95%CI: 1.55 2.15), indoor office personnel (OR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.39-1.81) Indoor public places (OR=1 .55, 95%U: 1.19 2.01) were higher than outdoor workers (OR=1.23,95%CI: 1.12-1.35). The risk of death due to lung cancer among workers in indoor workshop (OR =3.80,95% CI: 3.03-4.76), indoor office personnel (OR =3.04,95% CI: 2.48-3.73) Indoor public places (OR =4.63,95% CI:3.08-6.96)were higher than outdoor workers (OR 2.57,95% CI:2.22-2.97). The risk of death due to lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases among indoor workers was higher than that among outdoor workers. The risk of death due to lung cancer among indoor workers in public places who started smoking when they were younger than 18 years of age was higher than those among outdoor workers and other indoor workers. Smoking is a major risk factor for mortality among male citizens in Tianjin, and also a key factor for the loss of labor productivity. Indoor workers have a higher risk of mortality than outdoor workers. In order to reduce the mortality attributable to smoking, effective actions should be taken as soon as possible to ban smoking in indoor workplaces.

  12. Bullying among radiation therapists: effects on job performance and work environment.

    PubMed

    Trad, Megan; Johnson, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    To identify the effects of workplace bullying in the radiation therapy department on job performance and explore the environment and morale of individuals who work with a bully. A quantitative research study was designed to assess the prevalence and effects of bullying in the radiation therapy workplace. A total of 308 radiation therapists participated in the study for a return rate of 46%. Of those, 194 indicated that workplace bullying was present either in their current workplace or in a previous radiation therapy environment and that it negatively affected job performance and satisfaction. Findings of this study indicate a need for evaluation of the radiation therapy workplace, education on how to identify and prevent bullying behavior, and better communication among members of the radiation therapy environment. Participants indicated that working in a hostile environment led to forgetfulness, ineffective communication, and perceived discrepancies in promotion and treatment by management. Any bullying behavior contributes to an overall toxic work environment, which is unhealthy and unsafe for patients and therapists. Those who manage therapists should promote a culture of safety and embrace their staff's independence.

  13. Person factors and work environments of workers who use mobility devices.

    PubMed

    Gray, David B; Morgan, Kerri A; Gottlieb, Meghan; Hollingsworth, Holly H

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25% of people with mobility impairments and limitations who are of working age are employed, yet few studies have examined their perspectives on their jobs or work environments required to complete job tasks. The purpose of this study was to describe the factors that contribute to successful employment for those who use mobility devices. A convenience sample of 132 workers who use power wheelchairs, manual wheelchairs, canes, crutches or walkers. Participants completed an online version of the Mobility Device User Work Survey (MWS). A multivariate analysis and a two-step multiple linear regression analysis were used. Study participants had few secondary health conditions that influenced their work. Employee satisfactoriness to their employers was high. Accessibility of worksites was high. Assistive technologies were inexpensive, and personal assistance was used infrequently and usually was unpaid. Co-worker communications were very positive. Flexible work rules and supportive managers were highly valued. Job satisfaction positively correlated with accessibility, work tasks, co-worker communication and work support. The description of work environments of successfully employed mobility device users can provide some useful guidance to employers, vocational rehabilitation (VR) counselors and unemployed mobility device users to balance employee abilities and preferences with the needs of employers.

  14. Relationships among leadership practices, work environments, staff communication and outcomes in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Tourangeau, Ann; Cranley, Lisa; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Pachis, Jaime

    2010-11-01

    To examine the role that work relationships have on two long-term care outcomes: job satisfaction and turnover intention. It is easy to overlook the impact that human relations have in shaping work environments that are conducive to organizational effectiveness. Employee job satisfaction and retention are important organizational outcomes. Six hundred and seventy-five nursing and other staff from 26 long-term care facilities were surveyed about their work environments, work group relationships, observed leadership practices, organizational support, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Higher job satisfaction was associated with lower emotional exhaustion burnout, higher global empowerment, higher organizational support, higher psychological empowerment, stronger work group cohesion and higher personal accomplishment. Higher turnover intention was associated with lower job satisfaction, higher emotional exhaustion burnout, more outside job opportunities, weaker work group cohesion, lower personal accomplishment and higher depersonalization. No relationship was found between leadership practices and job satisfaction or turnover intention. Stronger work group relationships, stronger sense of personal accomplishment and lower emotional exhaustion have direct effects on increasing job satisfaction and lowering turnover intention. To retain long-term care staff, attention should be paid to fostering positive work group cohesion, supporting and acknowledging staff accomplishments and minimizing staff burnout. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Is working in culturally diverse working environment associated with physicians' work-related well-being? A cross-sectional survey study among Finnish physicians.

    PubMed

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Heponiemi, Tarja; Väänänen, Ari; Bergbom, Barbara; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko

    2014-08-01

    International mobility of health care professionals is increasing, though little is known about how working in a culturally diverse team affects the native physicians' psychosocial work environment. We examined Finnish physicians' perceptions of work-related wellbeing according to whether they had foreign-born colleagues (FBCs) in their work unit. We also examined whether work-related resources moderate the potential association between work-related wellbeing and working alongside FBCs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted for a random sample of physicians in Finland in 2010 (3826 respondents, response rate 55%). Analyses were restricted to native Finnish physicians working in public health care. The results were analyzed by ANCOVA. In unadjusted analyses, having FBCs was related to poor team climate (p<0.001) and poor job satisfaction (p=0.001). Those physicians who reported high procedural justice and high job control perceived also higher job satisfaction even if they had many FBCs in the work unit (p=0.007 for interaction between FBCs and procedural justice and p<0.001 for interaction between FBCs and job control). These associations were robust to adjustments for age, sex, health care sector, specialization, on-call duty, employment contract, full-time employment and leadership position. The results indicate that culturally diverse work units face challenges related to team climate and job satisfaction. The results also show that leadership plays an important role in culturally diverse work units. The potential challenges of culturally diverse teams for native physicians may be reduced by fair decision-making and by increasing physicians' job control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Working Environment and the Research Productivity of Doctoral Students in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kiwan; Karau, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of doctoral students in business. Students in management doctoral programs (N = 200) participated in an online survey. The results show that faculty support was positively associated with research productivity. Among demographic…

  17. Teaching MSW Social Work Practice in a Blended Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Shelley; Whitsett, Doni; Wood, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Blended learning is a newly emerging trend in higher education and is defined as the purposeful integration of synchronous and asynchronous learning to provide educational activities that maximize the benefits of each. This paper describes the development of a graduate social work foundation-year practice class in a blended online environment in…

  18. One Approach to Formulating and Evaluating Student Work Groups in Legal Environment of Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Joan E.; Carr, B. Nathaniel; Grota, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    The principal focus of this study is an investigation of whether students' grade point average (GPA) is a viable criterion for forming student work groups in the undergraduate Legal Environment of Business course. More specifically, the research focuses on the impact of: (1) GPA-homogeneous (HO) and GPA-heterogeneous (HE) groups upon student…

  19. Students' Socio-Scientific Reasoning in an Astrobiological Context during Work with a Digital Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas; Rosberg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In a European project--CoReflect--researchers in seven countries are developing, implementing and evaluating teaching sequences using a web-based platform (STOCHASMOS). The interactive web-based inquiry materials support collaborative and reflective work. The learning environments will be iteratively tested and refined, during different phases of…

  20. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  1. Employment, Work Conditions, and the Home Environment in Single-Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of employment status and work conditions on the quality of the home environment provided by single mothers of preschool-age children. Multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The results indicate that employment status is not a significant predictor of the…

  2. One Approach to Formulating and Evaluating Student Work Groups in Legal Environment of Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Joan E.; Carr, B. Nathaniel; Grota, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    The principal focus of this study is an investigation of whether students' grade point average (GPA) is a viable criterion for forming student work groups in the undergraduate Legal Environment of Business course. More specifically, the research focuses on the impact of: (1) GPA-homogeneous (HO) and GPA-heterogeneous (HE) groups upon student…

  3. Stressful Psychosocial Work Environment, Poor Sleep, and Depressive Symptoms among Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluschkoff, Kia; Elovainio, Marko; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hintsanen, Mirka; Mullola, Sari; Hintsa, Taina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the associations and proportionate contributions of three well-validated models of stressful psychosocial work environment (job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice) in explaining depressive symptoms among primary school teachers. In addition, we tested the mediating role of different types of…

  4. Work Environment Factors Influencing the Transfer of Learning for Online Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitonga, Jacqueline W.

    2006-01-01

    HRD professionals struggle with why a higher percentage of skills and knowledge acquired through training fail to transfer to the work environment and why transfer appears to diminish over time (Cromwell & Kolb, 2002). With increased investment in technology and professional development, it is imperative to enhance the learners' transfer process…

  5. Participation in Science Practices while Working in a Multimedia Case-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hosun; Lundeberg, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how two female students participated in science practices as they worked in a multimedia case-based environment: interpreting simulated results, reading and writing multiple texts, role-playing, and Internet conferencing. Using discourse analysis, the following data were analyzed: students' published…

  6. The impact of the hospital work environment on social support from physicians in breast cancer care.

    PubMed

    Ansmann, Lena; Wirtz, Markus; Kowalski, Christoph; Pfaff, Holger; Visser, Adriaan; Ernstmann, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Research on determinants of a good patient-physician interaction mainly disregards systemic factors, such as the work environment in healthcare. This study aims to identify stressors and resources within the work environment of hospital physicians that enable or hinder the physicians' provision of social support to patients. Four data sources on 35 German breast cancer center hospitals were matched: structured hospital quality reports and surveys of 348 physicians, 108 persons in hospital leadership, and 1844 patients. Associations between hospital structures, physicians' social resources as well as job demands and control and patients' perceived support from physicians have been studied in multilevel models. Patients feel better supported by their physicians in hospitals with high social capital, a high percentage of permanently employed physicians, and less physically strained physicians. The results highlight the importance of the work environment for a good patient-physician interaction. They can be used to develop interventions for redesigning the hospital work environment, which in turn may improve physician satisfaction, well-being, and performance and consequently the quality of care. Health policy and hospital management could create conditions conducive to better patient-physician interaction by strengthening the social capital and by increasing job security for physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does the Social Working Environment Predict Beginning Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Feelings of Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devos, Christelle; Dupriez, Vincent; Paquay, Leopold

    2012-01-01

    We investigate how the social working environment predicts beginning teachers' self-efficacy and feelings of depression. Two quantitative studies are presented. The results show that the goal structure of the school culture (mastery or performance orientation) predicts both outcomes. Frequent collaborative interactions with colleagues are related…

  8. How One Exceptional Teacher Navigated Her Working Environment as the Teacher of a Marginal Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Karen; McCullick, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how one exceptional elementary physical education teacher navigated her working environment as the teacher of a marginal subject. Structuration Theory (Giddens, 1984) was used to make meaning of how the teacher functioned within her school community allowing her to remain motivated and effective. Data…

  9. Human Interactive Analysis Using Video: Mapping the Dynamics of Complex Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, William R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explains human interactive analysis as an architecture for using computer interactive technologies in the analysis of complex work environments. A project at the Naval Training Systems Center that used video-audio data to develop a multimedia database is described; the analysis and management of data are discussed; and decision processes are…

  10. Analysis of French Secondary School Teachers' Intention to Integrate Digital Work Environments into Their Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacurar, Ecaterina; Abbas, Nargis

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the effective use of Digital Work Environment (DWE) in France. A theoretical framework based on the pedagogical engineering approach is used to propose an hypothetical model, which results in an explained variable of intention for the pedagogical use of an educational technology. The sex, the teaching disciplines, the…

  11. A Test of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Kristine D.; Levinson, Edward M.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of J. L. Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments. The sample consisted of 241 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Psychologists, each of whom completed a demographic data form, the Self-Directed Search-Revised (SDS-R; J. L. Holland, 1994) and a…

  12. A Phenomenological Study Examining the Impact of Unionized Environments on College Work Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strehlow, Betty

    2012-01-01

    For the last half century, faculty in higher education has embraced unionization in its profession in a significant way. Both administrators and faculty in unionized college environments have a stake in the interactions between the two entities and a vested interest in understanding the factors that can influence working relationships. Despite…

  13. Stressful Psychosocial Work Environment, Poor Sleep, and Depressive Symptoms among Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluschkoff, Kia; Elovainio, Marko; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hintsanen, Mirka; Mullola, Sari; Hintsa, Taina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the associations and proportionate contributions of three well-validated models of stressful psychosocial work environment (job strain, effort-reward imbalance, and organizational injustice) in explaining depressive symptoms among primary school teachers. In addition, we tested the mediating role of different types of…

  14. The Empirical Study of Teenage Work: A Behavioral Code for the Assessment of Adolescent Job Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Mary; Steinberg, Laurence D.

    1981-01-01

    Used a coding system for chronicling a variety of microbehaviors in sequence in adolescent job environments. Working teenagers (N=97) were observed continuously over a two-hour period. Three elements of each of 100 behaviors were recorded: the social context, the character, and the duration and concomitants of the behavior. (Author/RC)

  15. The Influence of Ownership and Type of University on Work Environment in South West Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arogundade, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of ownership and type of university on work environment in South West Nigerian universities. The study population consists of all academic staff of the ten public and nine private universities in South West Nigeria. In all, 500 respondents selected from eight universities constituted the sample of the study. The…

  16. Improving Work Environment Perceptions for Nurses Employed in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Susan L.; Sexton, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Cathryn A.; Cox, Karen S.; Riley, Michele; Ferriell, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Context: Effective recruitment and retention of professional nurses is a survival strategy for health care facilities, especially in rural areas. Purpose: This study examines the use of the Individual Workload Perception Scale to measure nurse satisfaction by a small rural hospital in order to make positive changes in the work environment for…

  17. Lessons learned on utilizing the SEI/CMM in the federal government work for others environment

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on lessons learned on utilizing the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model in the federal government work for others environment. These viewgraphs outline: data systems research and development; what is the SEI/CMM; Data Systems Research and Development process improvement approach; accomplishments; and lessons learned.

  18. Work environment and workforce problems: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of hospital nurses in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Milisen, Koen; Abraham, Ivo; Siebens, Kaat; Darras, Elisabeth; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated Belgian hospital nurses' perceptions on work environment and workforce issues, quality of care, job satisfaction and professional decision making. All eligible nurses in a selection of 22 hospitals received the BELIMAGE questionnaire for a total of 13,958 potential respondents. Of these, 9941 returned study materials (response rate=71.2%) of which 9638 were valid and useable for statistical analysis (valid response rate=69.1%). The study identified several areas of tension in the nursing profession. The commitment to being competent providers of quality care was remarkably strong among the nurses, but they also perceived the barriers in the work environment to be multiple and complex. Concerns about the quality of leadership and management, insufficient staff, time demands and stressful work environment are experienced as obstacles in providing good nursing care. Four out of ten nurses (39.2%) would not choose nursing again as a career and more than half of the nurses (54.3%) have contemplated leaving the profession at some point in time. To effectively tackle the professional and workforce issues in nursing, investments should focus on redesigning a work environment that supports nurses in providing comprehensive professional care.

  19. From Theory of Work Adjustment to Person-Environment Correspondence Counseling: Vocational Psychology as Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggerth, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…

  20. Participation in Science Practices while Working in a Multimedia Case-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hosun; Lundeberg, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how two female students participated in science practices as they worked in a multimedia case-based environment: interpreting simulated results, reading and writing multiple texts, role-playing, and Internet conferencing. Using discourse analysis, the following data were analyzed: students' published…

  1. Students' Socio-Scientific Reasoning in an Astrobiological Context during Work with a Digital Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas; Rosberg, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In a European project--CoReflect--researchers in seven countries are developing, implementing and evaluating teaching sequences using a web-based platform (STOCHASMOS). The interactive web-based inquiry materials support collaborative and reflective work. The learning environments will be iteratively tested and refined, during different phases of…

  2. Improving Work Environment Perceptions for Nurses Employed in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Susan L.; Sexton, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Cathryn A.; Cox, Karen S.; Riley, Michele; Ferriell, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    Context: Effective recruitment and retention of professional nurses is a survival strategy for health care facilities, especially in rural areas. Purpose: This study examines the use of the Individual Workload Perception Scale to measure nurse satisfaction by a small rural hospital in order to make positive changes in the work environment for…

  3. Employment, Work Conditions, and the Home Environment in Single-Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of employment status and work conditions on the quality of the home environment provided by single mothers of preschool-age children. Multivariate analyses were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The results indicate that employment status is not a significant predictor of the…

  4. Academic Accreditation of Work-Based Learning in the Construction Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLernon, Tim; Hughes, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of work-based learning (WBL) to the education of construction students. The research draws on the experiences of part-time students and students on sandwich courses in a School of the Built Environment. The sandwich courses include a year in industry as the penultimate year of a four-year programme. This WBL…

  5. Work Environment Practice Attitudes of Recent Black and Chicano Doctor of Pharmacy Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinert, Ansfried B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A study of work environments of graduates of the University of California School of Pharmacy indicates that minority pharmacists pursue different types of practice in different locations and receive different incomes than nonminority pharmacists, and that minority programs increase minority pharmacist representation in underserved areas. (JMD)

  6. A Phenomenological Study Examining the Impact of Unionized Environments on College Work Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strehlow, Betty

    2012-01-01

    For the last half century, faculty in higher education has embraced unionization in its profession in a significant way. Both administrators and faculty in unionized college environments have a stake in the interactions between the two entities and a vested interest in understanding the factors that can influence working relationships. Despite…

  7. Quality management and the work environment: an empirical investigation in a public sector organization.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Alvaro D; James, Craig A; Karsh, Ben -Tzion; Sainfort, François

    2003-07-01

    The integration of quality management initiatives, particularly total quality management (TQM), and ergonomics has received increasing attention from scholars and practitioners. Above all, the question of how TQM programs relate to ergonomic aspects of organizational design and culture is at the center of this discussion. This study examines how elements of a "typical", Deming-inspired, TQM program in the public sector interact with the work environment. Elements of the TQM program were defined and measured using the Malcom Baldridge Award criteria. The specific elements examined were "Management Support of Quality", "Information and Analysis", "Human Resources", "Processes and Quality Results", and "Customer Focus and Satisfaction". The relationship between these TQM elements and the work environment were defined through five separate hypotheses. The work environment was described by the constructs "Supervisor Support", "Task Clarity", "Task Orientation", and "Innovation". Data were obtained through survey questionnaires administered to employees of four departments in a municipal government organization. Results supported three of the hypotheses, but produced some unanticipated outcomes with regard to the other two. Namely, "Management Support of Quality" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support", "Task Orientation", "Task Clarity" and "Innovation"; "Human Resources" was significantly related to "Supervisor Support"; "Processes and Quality Results" was significantly related to "Task Orientation" and "Innovation". Contrary to predicted "Information and Analysis" was negatively related to "Innovation", and "Customer Focus" was unrelated to any of the outcome variables. The relationships between these TQM elements and work environment dimensions are discussed. Implications for TQM and ergonomic practice are analyzed, and directions for future research proposed.

  8. Perception of Transfer Climate Factors in the Macro and Micro Organizational Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diggs, Byron Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to provide insight on the perceived transfer climate factors in the macro and micro organizational work environment that may influence an employee's willingness to transfer what was learned in a training program to the job. More specifically, the purpose of the study was to delineate descriptive patterns and…

  9. Human Interactive Analysis Using Video: Mapping the Dynamics of Complex Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, William R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explains human interactive analysis as an architecture for using computer interactive technologies in the analysis of complex work environments. A project at the Naval Training Systems Center that used video-audio data to develop a multimedia database is described; the analysis and management of data are discussed; and decision processes are…

  10. Learning to Teach with Worked-out Examples: A Computer-Based Learning Environment for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, T. S.; Renkl, A.; Schworm, S.; Kessler, S.; Reiss, K.

    2008-01-01

    Learning from worked-out examples has been shown to be very effective in initial cognitive skill acquisition. In order to fully exploit the potential of example-based learning, teachers should, however, know how to effectively employ such examples in classroom instruction. Therefore, we have designed a computer-based learning environment in which…

  11. The Publishing House: From Being to Becoming--The Developmental Dimension in Realistic Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the "skills" or "employability" agenda which has long been anathema to the Humanities disciplines need not be the threat it appears to represent. This paper aims to examine the concept of realistic work environments and their focus, not only the provision of hard and soft…

  12. Stress in the Work Environment: An Examination of Social Support and Hardiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David E.; Campbell, David E.

    Stress in organizations continues to be of interests to researchers in industrial psychology, organizational behavior, and human resources development. This study examined the effects on stress of an individual's social support and hardiness in a work environment. Subjects were 90 employees of an industrial firm and 50 undergraduate students who…

  13. Analysis of French Secondary School Teachers' Intention to Integrate Digital Work Environments into Their Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacurar, Ecaterina; Abbas, Nargis

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the effective use of Digital Work Environment (DWE) in France. A theoretical framework based on the pedagogical engineering approach is used to propose an hypothetical model, which results in an explained variable of intention for the pedagogical use of an educational technology. The sex, the teaching disciplines, the…

  14. A Test of Holland's Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Kristine D.; Levinson, Edward M.; Palmer, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of J. L. Holland's (1997) theory of vocational personalities and work environments. The sample consisted of 241 randomly selected members of the National Association of School Psychologists, each of whom completed a demographic data form, the Self-Directed Search-Revised (SDS-R; J. L. Holland, 1994) and a…

  15. The Publishing House: From Being to Becoming--The Developmental Dimension in Realistic Work Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the "skills" or "employability" agenda which has long been anathema to the Humanities disciplines need not be the threat it appears to represent. This paper aims to examine the concept of realistic work environments and their focus, not only the provision of hard and soft…

  16. From Theory of Work Adjustment to Person-Environment Correspondence Counseling: Vocational Psychology as Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggerth, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that vocational psychology is, and has been, positive psychology. It provides an overview of the theory of work adjustment (TWA), one of the most robust and best validated theories in vocational psychology. It also provides an introduction to person-environment-correspondence (PEC) counseling, an extension of the TWA concepts…

  17. The association of Chinese hospital work environment with nurse burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to leave.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Feng; You, Li-Ming; Liu, Ke; Zheng, Jing; Fang, Jin-Bo; Lu, Min-Min; Lv, Ai-Li; Ma, Wei-Guang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Shu-Hong; Wu, Xue; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Bu, Xiu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nurse burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to leave and to explore the relationship of work environment to nursing outcomes in a sample of 9,698 nurses from 181 hospitals in China. Nurses reported moderate levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and high levels of reduced personal accomplishment. Nearly one-fifth of the nurses reported high levels of burnout on all three dimensions. Forty-five percent of the nurses were dissatisfied with their current job; these nurses were most dissatisfied with their salary. Five percent of nurses reported an intention to leave. Nurses reporting mixed and good work environments were less likely to report high burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave compared with those in poor work environments. The results suggest that high burnout and low job satisfaction are prominent problems for Chinese nurses, and improving work environment might be an effective strategy for better nursing outcomes in Chinese hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. WEDNESDAY: EPA Administrator to Testify before Senate Environment and Public Works Committee on FY 2016 Budget

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will testify Wednesday, March 4 before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee on FY 2016 Budget. EPA's proposed budget provides resources to ensure the agency can make the investments need

  19. How One Exceptional Teacher Navigated Her Working Environment as the Teacher of a Marginal Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Karen; McCullick, Bryan A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how one exceptional elementary physical education teacher navigated her working environment as the teacher of a marginal subject. Structuration Theory (Giddens, 1984) was used to make meaning of how the teacher functioned within her school community allowing her to remain motivated and effective. Data…

  20. Working Environment and the Research Productivity of Doctoral Students in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kiwan; Karau, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of doctoral students in business. Students in management doctoral programs (N = 200) participated in an online survey. The results show that faculty support was positively associated with research productivity. Among demographic…

  1. Work environment facilitators to the availability of complementary and alternative therapies in perinatal hospices.

    PubMed

    Wool, Charlotte; Kozak, Leila E; Lindley, Lisa C

    2015-10-01

    Increasingly, patients and clinicians are considering palliative care interventions during pregnancy for the maternal-fetal dyad, when a life-limiting diagnosis is confirmed. Nurses are at the forefront of providing hospice and palliative care that includes planning interventions for infants nearing the end of life. However, little is known about the work environment facilitators to the availability of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. Using a national database of perinatal hospice and palliative care providers, we described the types of CAM therapies available and explored the influence of the nurse work environment on the availability of CAM therapies with multivariate regression analysis. This study showed that having an education environment where clinicians are trained, along with a highly educated RN support staff, and a BSN educated staff were critical to the availability of CAM therapies. The clinical implications for hospice and palliative nurses caring for infants and their families were discussed.

  2. The Psychometric Properties and the Development of the Indicators of Quality Nursing Work Environments in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiou-Fen; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Huang, Hsiu-Ying

    2016-03-01

    The nursing shortage in medical institutions in Taiwan averaged 9% in 2012, considerably higher than the 5% indicated in the literature. As a result, many hospitals have been forced to close wards or reduce beds. Despite the acute need, the percentage of registered nurses who are employed as nurses in Taiwan (60.4%) is considerably lower than those in Canada or the United States. This low rate may be because of the poor working environment for nurses in Taiwan. This study aimed to develop a set of nursing work environment quality indicators for Taiwan and to test the reliability and validity of the resulting survey tool. Multiple methods were used in this study. In Phase 1, we organized an expert panel, reviewed the literature, and conducted seven rounds of expert panel discussion and six focus group discussions with nursing directors. The goal was to draft indicators representing a quality nursing work environment to fit current conditions in Taiwan. In Phase 2, we conducted an expert review for content validity, held three public hearings, and conducted a survey. Four hundred twenty-seven questionnaires were sent out, with 381 returned. The goal was to test the content validity, construct validity, and internal consistency reliability. The study produced a set of indicators of a quality nursing work environment with eight dimensions and 65 items. The content validity index for importance and suitability dimensions were 1.0, whereas the internal consistency was 0.91. The eight dimensions were safe practice environment (16 items), quality and quantity of staff (four items), salary and welfare (seven items), professional specialization and teamwork (seven items), work simplification (five items), informatics (five items), career development (nine items), and support and caring (12 items). The overall load for the indicators was 77.57%. The developed indicators may be used to evaluate the quality of nursing work environments. Furthermore, the indicators may be used

  3. The Relationships of Nurse Staffing Level and Work Environment With Patient Adverse Events.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunhee; Chin, Dal Lae; Kim, Sinhye; Hong, OiSaeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of nurse staffing level and work environment with patient adverse events. This cross-sectional study used a combination of nurse survey data (N = 4,864 nurses), facility data (N = 58 hospitals), and patient hospital discharge data (N = 113,426 patients) in South Korea. The three most commonly nurse-reported adverse events included administration of the wrong medication or dose to a patient, pressure ulcers, and injury from a fall after admission. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression was employed to explore the relationships of nurse staffing level (number of patients assigned to a nurse) and work environment (Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index) with patient adverse events after controlling for nurse, hospital, and patient characteristics. A larger number of patients per nurse was significantly associated with a greater incidence of administration of the wrong medication or dose (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.007-1.016), pressure ulcer (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.007-1.016), and patient falls with injury (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.013-1.022). A better work environment had a significant inverse relationship with adverse events; the odds of reporting a higher incidence of adverse events were 45% lower for administration of the wrong medication or dose (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.400-0.758), followed by 39% lower for pressure ulcer (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.449-0.834) and 32% lower for falls with injury after admission (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.490-0.939). This study found that a larger number of patients per nurse and poor work environment increase the incidence of patient adverse events, such as administration of the wrong medication or dose to a patient, pressure ulcers, and injury from falling after admission. The findings suggest that South Korean hospitals could prevent patient adverse events by improving nurse staffing and work environment. Healthcare strategies and efforts to

  4. Innovative Materials for High Risk ABE Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connett, Dian; Rathburn, Rene

    This resource book contains innovative group activities, units of instruction, writing packets, and math activities that were developed to serve high-risk adult basic education (ABE) students. Included in the first section are units of study dealing with the following topics: Oregon history, personal health issues, controversial issues in science,…

  5. High-Risk Workers: The Eczematous Hand

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Kirk A.

    1989-01-01

    The hand is the most commonly involved site in occupation — related skin disease, and contact eczema is the most common diagnosis. The identification of workers at high risk for this condition is possible and will help in their management and assessment. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:21248925

  6. Micronutrient requirements of high-risk infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Micronutrient requirements are well-established for healthy full-term infants. However, few such recommendations exist for high-risk infants, including full-term infants with a variety of medical disorders or very preterm infants. Key micronutrients considered in this review are calcium, phosphorus,...

  7. Student Assistance Programs and High Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Jenni

    This manual discusses a method for developing a comprehensive drug abuse prevention and intervention program for students in special education. The first section contains introductory material regarding high risk students in general and implications for special education. The second section outlines material on specific types of high-risk…

  8. Determination of high-risk cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Leo A.; Smith, Douglas E.; Khan, Siraj M.

    1994-10-01

    The approach and methodology used in the determination of the type of cargo containing concealments of commercial quantities of narcotics such as cocaine and heroin is described. This high-risk cargo enters the United States through border crossings at land, seaports and airports. The volume and variety of cargos make it a complex and challenging task for the U.S. Customs Service.

  9. Trends in emerging and high risk activities

    Treesearch

    Robert C. White; Richard Schreyer; Kent Downing

    1980-01-01

    Newly emerging and high risk activities have increased markedly in the last generation, yet little is known about trends in participation. Factors such as technological innovation and creative experimentation with traditional activities appear to play a major role in the development of new activities. Christy's criteria for mass demand in recreation are used to...

  10. Using a task analysis to describe nursing work in acute care patient environments.

    PubMed

    Battisto, Dina; Pak, Richard; Vander Wood, Melissa A; Pilcher, June J

    2009-12-01

    To improve the healthcare environment where nurses work and patients receive care, it is necessary to understand the elements that define the healthcare environment. Primary elements include (a) the occupants of the room and what knowledge, skills, and abilities they bring to the situation; (b) what tasks the occupants will be doing in the room; and (c) the characteristics of the built environment. To better understand these components, a task analysis from human factor research was conducted to study nurses as they cared for hospitalized patients. Multiple methods, including a review of nursing textbooks, observations, and interviews, were used to describe nurses' capabilities, nursing activities, and the environmental problems with current patient room models. Findings from this initial study are being used to inform the design and evaluation of an inpatient room prototype and to generate future research in improving clinical environments to support nursing productivity.

  11. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    PubMed

    Chang, Hye-Ja; Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-08-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices.

  12. How do the work environment and work safety differ between the dry and wet kitchen foodservice facilities?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Won; Ju, Se-Young; Go, Eun-Sun

    2012-01-01

    In order to create a worker-friendly environment for institutional foodservice, facilities operating with a dry kitchen system have been recommended. This study was designed to compare the work safety and work environment of foodservice between wet and dry kitchen systems. Data were obtained using questionnaires with a target group of 303 staff at 57 foodservice operations. Dry kitchen facilities were constructed after 2006, which had a higher construction cost and more finishing floors with anti-slip tiles, and in which employees more wore non-slip footwear than wet kitchen (76.7%). The kitchen temperature and muscular pain were the most frequently reported employees' discomfort factors in the two systems, and, in the wet kitchen, "noise of kitchen" was also frequently reported as a discomfort. Dietitian and employees rated the less slippery and slip related incidents in dry kitchens than those of wet kitchen. Fryer area, ware-washing area, and plate waste table were the slippery areas and the causes were different between the functional areas. The risk for current leakage was rated significantly higher in wet kitchens by dietitians. In addition, the ware-washing area was found to be where employees felt the highest risk of electrical shock. Muscular pain (72.2%), arthritis (39.1%), hard-of-hearing (46.6%) and psychological stress (47.0%) were experienced by employees more than once a month, particularly in the wet kitchen. In conclusion, the dry kitchen system was found to be more efficient for food and work safety because of its superior design and well managed practices. PMID:22977692

  13. Psychosocial work environment and sickness absence among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed Central

    North, F M; Syme, S L; Feeney, A; Shipley, M; Marmot, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study sought to examine the association between the psychosocial work environment and subsequent rates of sickness absence. METHODS. The analyses were based on a cohort of male and female British civil servants (n=9072). Rates of short spells (7 days) of sickness absence were calculated for different aspects of the psychosocial work environment, as measured by self-reports and personnel managers' ratings (external assessments). RESULTS. Low levels of work demands, control, and support were associated with higher rates of short and long spells of absence in men and, to a lesser extent, in women. The differences were similar for the self-reports and external assessments. After adjustment for grade of employment, the differences were diminished but generally remained significant for short spells. The combination of high demands and low control was only associated with higher rates of short spells in the lower grades. CONCLUSIONS. The psychosocial work environment predicts rates of sickness absence. Increased levels of control and support at work could have beneficial effects in terms of both improving the health and well-being of employees and increasing productivity. PMID:8604757

  14. Perceptions of work environment priorities: Are there any differences by company size? An ecological study.

    PubMed

    Nordlöf, Hasse; Wijk, Katarina; Westergren, Karl-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies suggest that the quality of handling occupational health and safety (OHS) activities differs between companies of different sizes. Company size is a proxy variable for other variables affecting OHS performance. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is an association between company size and perceptions of work environment prioritizations. Data from 106 small- and medium-sized Swedish manufacturing companies was collected. One manager and one safety delegate at each company rated different aspects of their companies' work environment prioritizations with a 43-item questionnaire. Ratings were aggregated to a summary statistic for each company before analysis. No significant differences in perceptions of priority were found to be associated with company sizes. This is in contrast to earlier studies of objective differences. The respondents in small companies, however, showed significantly greater consensus in their ratings. Company size does not appear to be associated with perceptions of work environment prioritizations. Company size is an important proxy variable to study in order to understand what factors enable and obstruct safe and healthy workplaces. The work presented here should be viewed as an initial exploration to serve as direction for future academic work.

  15. Perceptions of work environment priorities: Are there any differences by company size? An ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Nordlöf, Hasse; Wijk, Katarina; Westergren, Karl-Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies suggest that the quality of handling occupational health and safety (OHS) activities differs between companies of different sizes. Company size is a proxy variable for other variables affecting OHS performance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate if there is an association between company size and perceptions of work environment prioritizations. METHODS: Data from 106 small- and medium-sized Swedish manufacturing companies was collected. One manager and one safety delegate at each company rated different aspects of their companies’ work environment prioritizations with a 43-item questionnaire. Ratings were aggregated to a summary statistic for each company before analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences in perceptions of priority were found to be associated with company sizes. This is in contrast to earlier studies of objective differences. The respondents in small companies, however, showed significantly greater consensus in their ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Company size does not appear to be associated with perceptions of work environment prioritizations. Company size is an important proxy variable to study in order to understand what factors enable and obstruct safe and healthy workplaces. The work presented here should be viewed as an initial exploration to serve as direction for future academic work. PMID:26409368

  16. Fatigue, performance and the work environment: a survey of registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Barker, Linsey M; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2011-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study of perceived levels of mental, physical and total fatigue, and also acute and chronic fatigue states, among registered nurses. Relationships between dimensions of fatigue and performance were investigated, as were differences in fatigue across levels of several demographic and work environment variables. Fatigue is a factor that has been linked to performance decrements in healthcare workers. As a result of the nature of their work, nurses may be particularly susceptible to multiple dimensions of fatigue, and their performance is closely linked to patient safety. An online survey was used to measure mental, physical, and total fatigue dimensions, acute and chronic fatigue states, and performance. Participants were recruited via convenience sampling in cooperation with professional nursing organizations; 745 registered nurses completed the survey between February 2008 and April 2009. Reported mental fatigue levels were higher than physical fatigue levels, and acute fatigue levels were higher than chronic fatigue levels. All fatigue dimensions and states were negatively correlated with perceived performance. Longer shift lengths and hours worked per week were associated with increases in physical and total fatigue levels. Mental, physical and total fatigue levels also differed with shift schedule. Fatigue levels were negatively correlated with performance, further supporting the role of fatigue in nurse performance. Work environment variables were strongly associated with differences in perceived levels of fatigue. By altering the work environment, it may thus be possible to reduce fatigue levels and the rates of medical errors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction among Iranian nurses.

    PubMed

    Vanaki, Zohreh; Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl

    2009-12-01

    Employee commitment to the organization is a crucial issue in today's health-care market. In Iran, few studies have sought to evaluate the factors that contribute to forms of commitment. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nurses' organizational commitment, work environment conditions, and life satisfaction. A cross-sectional design was utilized. Questionnaires were distributed to all the staff nurses who had permanent employment (with at least 2 years of experience in nursing) in the five hospitals affiliated to Birjand Medical Sciences University. Two hundred and fifty participants returned completed questionnaires. Most were female and married. The correlation of the total scores of nurses' affective organizational commitment and work environment conditions indicated a significant and positive relationship. Also, a statistically significant relationship was found between affective organizational commitment and life satisfaction. The implementation of a comprehensive program to improve the work conditions and life satisfaction of nurses could enhance their organizational commitment.

  18. Evaluation and comparison of health care Work Environment Scale in military settings.

    PubMed

    Maloney, J P; Anderson, F D; Gladd, D L; Brown, D L; Hardy, M A

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe health care providers' perceptions of their work environment at a large U.S. Army medical center, and to compare the findings to other military medical centers. The sample (N = 112) consisted of the professional nursing staff working on the nine inpatient units. The Work Environmental Scale (WES) was used to measure perceptions of the workplace relative to gender, position (head nurses, staff nurses, and agency nurses), specialty nursing (intensive care unit [ICU] versus non-ICU), education (MSN, BSN, and ADN), and patterns of differences between the WES subscales of four military medical centers. Results of the study indicate that there were no significant gender differences. Head nurses, non-ICU nurses, and MSN nurses perceived their environment more positively. There were significant differences in the WES subscales between the military hospitals. Implications for nursing using the WES were recommended.

  19. Evaluation of Different Light Conditions in the Working Environment for Handling Photosensitive and Thermolabile Compounds.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Duran, Tania; Ravela, Neel; Sanchez Rivero, Sandra; De Jesus Castro Sandoval, Teresita; Hoogmartens, Jos; Pendela, Murali

    2015-01-01

    Lighting in the working environment plays a significant role on the degree of degradation of photosensitive, thermolabile compounds and on working efficiency. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are semiconductor light emitting devices that are promising artificial light sources with easy modulation of light wave signals and are also known for low heat generation. Therefore, the effect of polychromatic LED light was tested in the working environment using the drug compounds montelukast, nifedipine, and clavulanic acid, which are known to be photosensitive or thermolabile. As a control, other lighting sources like a sodium lamp, a classic (incandescent, tungsten) lamp, and indirect sunlight were also used in this study. All the experiments were carried out with methanolic solutions at room temperature. An Acquity UPLC/MS/MS system was used for quantification of the main analytes and degradation products. Under the tested conditions, LED lighting proved to be more suitable for handling photosensitive and thermolabile compounds.

  20. The Importance of a High-Performance Work Environment in Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Dana Beth; Avgar, Ariel Chanan; Sugrue, Noreen M; Cooney-Miner, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the benefits of a high-performance work environment (HPWE) for employees, patients, and hospitals. Study Setting Forty-five adult, medical-surgical units in nine hospitals in upstate New York. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Data Collection Surveys were collected from 1,527 unit-based hospital providers (68.5 percent response rate). Hospitals provided unit turnover and patient data (16,459 discharge records and 2,920 patient surveys). Principal Findings HPWE, as perceived by multiple occupational groups on a unit, is significantly associated with desirable work processes, retention indicators, and care quality. Conclusion Our findings underscore the potential benefits for providers, patients, and health care organizations of designing work environments that value and support a broad range of employees as having essential contributions to make to the care process and their organizations. PMID:22716770