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Sample records for high-speed laser micromachining

  1. Ultra high-speed micromachining of transparent materials using high PRF ultrafast lasers and new resonant scanning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, F.; Piontek, M. C.; Herrmann, T.; L'huillier, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Irradiation of focused laser pulses to transparent materials leads to structural changes and can be used for the fabrication of e.g. LED light guiding components. In these applications both small spot sizes and a high lateral resolution in the μm range are absolutely essential. In order to achieve the industrially required throughput of nearly one million laser markings per second, ultrafast lasers with 100 W of average power and pulse repetition frequencies of several MHz are required. Laser machining of polymers additionally necessitates a wide spatial separation of the markings to avoid heat accumulation effects. Therefore, neither commercially available galvanometer based nor Polygon based scanners with their limited scan speed can be used for beam deflection. In our work, we developed an experimental setup based

  2. High speed laser tomography system.

    PubMed

    Samsonov, D; Elsaesser, A; Edwards, A; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E

    2008-03-01

    A high speed laser tomography system was developed capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) images of optically thin clouds of moving micron-sized particles. It operates by parallel-shifting an illuminating laser sheet with a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors and synchronously recording two-dimensional (2D) images of thin slices of the imaged volume. The maximum scanning speed achieved was 120,000 slices/s, sequences of 24 volume scans (up to 256 slices each) have been obtained. The 2D slices were stacked to form 3D images of the volume, then the positions of the particles were identified and followed in the consecutive scans. The system was used to image a complex plasma with particles moving at speeds up to cm/s.

  3. High speed laser tomography system.

    PubMed

    Samsonov, D; Elsaesser, A; Edwards, A; Thomas, H M; Morfill, G E

    2008-03-01

    A high speed laser tomography system was developed capable of acquiring three-dimensional (3D) images of optically thin clouds of moving micron-sized particles. It operates by parallel-shifting an illuminating laser sheet with a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors and synchronously recording two-dimensional (2D) images of thin slices of the imaged volume. The maximum scanning speed achieved was 120,000 slices/s, sequences of 24 volume scans (up to 256 slices each) have been obtained. The 2D slices were stacked to form 3D images of the volume, then the positions of the particles were identified and followed in the consecutive scans. The system was used to image a complex plasma with particles moving at speeds up to cm/s. PMID:18377040

  4. High-speed laser photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Roger J.

    1988-08-01

    High-speed movies of solid propellant deflagration have long provided useful qualitative information on propellant behavior. Consequently, an extension of performance to include quantitative behavior of the surface, particularly the spatial relationship of particles across the surface, the temporal behavior of particles through extended periods of time, and accurate measurements of particle sizes, is highly desirable. Such measurements require the ability to take detailed movies across an extensive surface through the propellant flame for longer periods than the residence time of a given particle. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the camera optics and film will greatly affect performance. The MTF of the optics can be improved by a factor of two or more at practical spatial frequencies by the use of monochromatic light, such as the reflected light from a laser. The use of an intense, short-pulsed laser has the additional advantage of suppressing flame brightness and motion blur. High resolution at unity magnification is achieved by the use of 2 mJ of illumination energy per pulse in conjunction with a fine-grain film. The surfaces of the wide-distribution propellants were found to be molten.

  5. Trends in laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaebler, Frank; van Nunen, Joris; Held, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Laser Micromachining is well established in industry. Depending on the application lasers with pulse length from μseconds to femtoseconds and wavelengths from 1064nm and its harmonics up to 5μm or 10.6μm are used. Ultrafast laser machining using pulses with pico or femtosecond duration pulses is gaining traction, as it offers very precise processing of materials with low thermal impact. Large-scale industrial ultrafast laser applications show that the market can be divided into various sub segments. One set of applications demand low power around 10W, compact footprint and are extremely sensitive to the laser price whilst still demanding 10ps or shorter laser pulses. A second set of applications are very power hungry and only become economically feasible for large scale deployments at power levels in the 100+W class. There is also a growing demand for applications requiring fs-laser pulses. In our presentation we would like to describe these sub segments by using selected applications from the automotive and electronics industry e.g. drilling of gas/diesel injection nozzles, dicing of LED substrates. We close the presentation with an outlook to micromachining applications e.g. glass cutting and foil processing with unique new CO lasers emitting 5μm laser wavelength.

  6. High-speed wavelength-swept lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    High-speed wavelength-swept lasers capable of providing wide frequency chirp and flexible temporal waveforms could enable numerous advanced functionalities for defense and security applications. Powered by high spectral intensity at rapid sweep rates across a wide wavelength range in each of the 1060nm, 1300nm, and 1550nm spectral windows, these swept-laser systems have demonstrated real-time monitoring and superior signal-to-noise ratio measurements in optical frequency domain imaging, fiber-optic sensor arrays, and near-IR spectroscopy. These same capabilities show promising potentials in laser radar and remote sensing applications. The core of the high-speed swept laser incorporates a semiconductor gain module and a high-performance fiber Fabry- Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF) to provide rapid wavelength scanning operations. This unique design embodies the collective advantages of the semiconductor amplifier's broad gain-bandwidth with direct modulation capability, and the FFP-TF's wide tuning ranges (>200nm), high finesse (1000 to 10,000), low-loss (<3dB), and fast scan rates reaching 20KHz. As a result, the laser can sweep beyond 100nm in 25μsec, output a scanning peak power near mW level, and exhibit excellent peak signal-to-spontaneous-emission ratio >80dB in static mode. When configured as a seed laser followed by post amplification, the swept spectrum and power can be optimized for Doppler ranging and remote sensing applications. Furthermore, when combined with a dispersive element, the wavelength sweep can be converted into high-speed and wide-angle spatial scanning without moving parts.

  7. Pulsed laser triggered high speed microfluidic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Gao, Lanyu; Chen, Yue; Wei, Kenneth; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2008-10-01

    We report a high-speed microfluidic switch capable of achieving a switching time of 10 μs. The switching mechanism is realized by exciting dynamic vapor bubbles with focused laser pulses in a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. The bubble expansion deforms the elastic PDMS channel wall and squeezes the adjacent sample channel to control its fluid and particle flows as captured by the time-resolved imaging system. A switching of polystyrene microspheres in a Y-shaped channel has also been demonstrated. This ultrafast laser triggered switching mechanism has the potential to advance the sorting speed of state-of-the-art microscale fluorescence activated cell sorting devices.

  8. Laser micromachining of organic LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsch, Tino; Hänel, Jens; Clair, Maurice; Scholz, Christian

    2012-03-01

    OLED lighting is expected to be one of the fastest growing markets in the area of organic electronics. The state of the art production is mainly based on vacuum deposition processes, which, in order to simplify the material handling, will most probably be embedded in a roll-to-roll environment. While reducing the handling costs also implies challenges to the patterning of the several OLED layers. Laser micromachining applying ultra-short pulsed laser sources has the potential to fully satisfy the requirements. Within this paper the latest findings on the separate scribing steps P1, P2 and P3 will be presented.

  9. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Dragon, Ernest P.; Warner, Bruce E.

    1998-01-01

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialogroaphic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone.

  10. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  11. Laser micromachining: new developments and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizvi, Nadeem H.; Milne, David K.; Rumsby, Phil T.; Gower, Malcolm C.

    2000-06-01

    Excimer laser micromachining has developed into a mature production method and many industrial applications such as the drilling of ink-jet printer nozzles, production environments. The important concepts of excimer laser micromachining systems are described and the novel methods which have been developed in this area are presented. In particular, techniques for the production of complex, multi- level 3D microstructures are described and examples of such features are used to illustrate the relevant applications. Furthermore, some initial micromachining result from a sub- nanosecond, solid-state fiber laser are presented to highlight the rapidly-growing area of laser micro processing using ultra-short pulse lasers.

  12. Method and apparatus for precision laser micromachining

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim; Warner, Bruce E.; Dragon, Ernest P.

    2000-05-02

    A method and apparatus for micromachining and microdrilling which results in a machined part of superior surface quality is provided. The system uses a near diffraction limited, high repetition rate, short pulse length, visible wavelength laser. The laser is combined with a high speed precision tilting mirror and suitable beam shaping optics, thus allowing a large amount of energy to be accurately positioned and scanned on the workpiece. As a result of this system, complicated, high resolution machining patterns can be achieved. A cover plate may be temporarily attached to the workpiece. Then as the workpiece material is vaporized during the machining process, the vapors condense on the cover plate rather than the surface of the workpiece. In order to eliminate cutting rate variations as the cutting direction is varied, a randomly polarized laser beam is utilized. A rotating half-wave plate is used to achieve the random polarization. In order to correctly locate the focus at the desired location within the workpiece, the position of the focus is first determined by monitoring the speckle size while varying the distance between the workpiece and the focussing optics. When the speckle size reaches a maximum, the focus is located at the first surface of the workpiece. After the location of the focus has been determined, it is repositioned to the desired location within the workpiece, thus optimizing the quality of the machined area.

  13. High-speed random access laser tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.C.; Busch, G.E.; Hewitt, C.J.; Remelius, D.K.; Shimada, T.; Strauss, C.E.; Wilson, C.W.; Zaugg, T.J.

    1999-04-01

    We have developed a technique for laser tuning at rates of 100 kHz or more using a pair of acousto-optic modulators. In addition to all-electronic wavelength control, the same modulators also can provide electronically variable {ital Q}-switching, cavity length and power stabilization, chirp and linewidth control, and variable output coupling, all at rates far beyond what is possible with conventional mechanically tuned components. Tuning rates of 70 kHz have been demonstrated on a radio-frequency-pumped CO{sub 2} laser, with random access to over 50 laser lines spanning a 17{percent} range in wavelength and with wavelength discrimination better than 1 part in 1000. A compact tuner and {ital Q}-switch has been deployed in a 5{endash}10-kHz pulsed lidar system. The modulators each operate at a fixed Bragg angle, with the acoustic frequency determining the selected wavelength. This arrangement doubles the wavelength resolution without introducing an undesirable frequency shift. {copyright} 1999 Optical Society of America

  14. Laser Micromachining Fabrication of THz Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DrouetdAubigny, C.; Walker, C.; Jones, B.; Groppi, C.; Papapolymerou, J.; Tavenier, C.

    2001-01-01

    Laser micromachining techniques can be used to fabricate high-quality waveguide structures and quasi-optical components to micrometer accuracies. Successful GHz designs can be directly scaled to THz frequencies. We expect this promising technology to allow the construction of the first fully integrated THz heterodyne imaging arrays. At the University of Arizona, construction of the first laser micromachining system designed for THz waveguide components fabrication has been completed. Once tested and characterized our system will be used to construct prototype THz lx4 focal plane mixer arrays, magic tees, AR coated silicon lenses, local oscillator source phase gratings, filters and more. Our system can micro-machine structures down to a few microns accuracy and up to 6 inches across in a short time. This paper discusses the design and performance of our micromachining system, and illustrates the type, range and performance of components this exciting new technology will make accessible to the THz community.

  15. High-speed spectral tuning CARS microscopy using AOTF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mamoru; Iwatsuka, Junichi; Niioka, Hirohiko; Araki, Tsutomu

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a high speed spectral tuning CARS microscopy system using a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) in the cavity. Since the wavelength of the laser is tunable with the applied radio frequency to the AOTF, the wavelength is electrically tunable.The pulse duration of the laser is about 10 ps, tunable range is 800 nm to 930 nm, and the tuning speed is ms order. The laser is synchronized with another mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser laser our own method using a balance cross-correlator and phase lock loop technique. The synchronized lasers are used for light source of multi-focus CARS microscopy system using a microlens array scanner, and the hyperspectral imaging of adipocyte cells is demonstrated.

  16. High-Speed Operation of Interband Cascade Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Wright, Malcom W.; Farr, William H.; Yang, Rui Q.; Liu, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Optical sources operating in the atmospheric window of 3-5 microns are of particular interest for the development of free-space optical communication link. It is more advantageous to operate the free-space optical communication link in 3-5-microns atmospheric transmission window than at the telecom wavelength of 1.5 m due to lower optical scattering, scintillation, and background radiation. However, the realization of optical communications at the longer wavelength has encountered significant difficulties due to lack of adequate optical sources and detectors operating in the desirable wavelength regions. Interband Cascade (IC) lasers are novel semiconductor lasers that have a great potential for the realization of high-power, room-temperature optical sources in the 3-5-microns wavelength region, yet no experimental work, until this one, was done on high-speed direct modulation of IC lasers. Here, highspeed interband cascade laser, operating at wavelength 3.0 m, has been developed and the first direct measurement of the laser modulation bandwidth has been performed using a unique, highspeed quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The developed laser has modulation bandwidth exceeding 3 GHz. This constitutes a significant increase of the IC laser modulation bandwidth over currently existing devices. This result has demonstrated suitability of IC lasers as a mid-IR light source for multi-GHz free-space optical communications links

  17. High Speed Crystal Growth by Q-switched Laser Melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullis, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    The modification of the structural and electrical properties of semiconductors short radiation pulses obtained from Q-switched lasers is described. These modifications are accomplished by high heating and cooling rates. This processing revealed novel crystal growth and high speed resolidification phenomena. The behavior of semiconductor Si is analyzed. The annealing process typically employs short pulses of radiation in or near the visible region of the spectrum. The Q-switched ruby and Nd-YAG lasers are commonly used and these are sometimes mode locked to reduce the pulse length still further. Material to be annealed can be processed with a single large area radiation spot. Alternatively, a small radiation spot size can be used and a large sample area is covered by overlapping irradiated regions.

  18. High speed laser shadowgraphy for electromagnetically driven cylindrical implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.; Roberts, J. P.; Echave, J. A.; Taylor, A. J.

    2001-08-01

    A laser shadowgraphy system for high-speed imaging of a convergent cylindrical shockwave generated by an electromagnetically driven solid density liner implosion in Lucite is described. The laser shadowgraphy system utilizes an advanced high-energy, long-pulse, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for target illumination and a fast framing camera for multiple frame imaging of the shockwave as it radially converges and transits the Lucite. The time window resolution is 10 ns as determined by the fastest exposure time capable with the camera. Two on-axis symmetric implosions and two off-axis asymmetric implosion experiments were fielded at the Air Force Research Laboratory's Shiva Star 4.2 MJ capacitor bank z-pinch facility. For each experimental shot, the shadowgraphy system captured several frames of shadowgraph images as the shockwave moved through the Lucite. Analysis of the shockwave shadowgraph image shapes is done by fitting each shadowgraph image to a generic elliptical fit function and plotting the resultant two-dimensional image fits for comparison. For the on-axis symmetric implosion shots, a radial trajectory plot is extracted and a radial shock velocity is calculated. The Lucite shock speed is seen to increase monotonically from an initial velocity of 7.9 mm/{mu}s to a near final velocity of 13.4 mm/{mu}s as convergence effects dominate the shock speed calculated at small radii.

  19. Micro Mirrors for High-speed Laser Deflection and Patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Harald; Grahmann, Jan; Sandner, Thilo; Wagner, Michael; Dauderstädt, Ulrike; Schmidt, Jan-Uwe

    This paper focuses on high-speed optical MEMS Scanners and Micro Mirror Arrays. Devices supporting spot/pixel rateshigher than 10 Mpixel/s are considered and discussed regarding limits and possibilities to further improve speed and optical properties. Several variants of both types, developed by our group, are presented. Scanning Micro Mirrors with frequencies up to 100 kHz enable spot rates of up to 130 Mpixels / s at 650 nm. Bragg-coatings enable high power applications up to 20 W (beam ø2 mm). Challenges like static and dynamic mirror planariy are discussed. A 29-kHz-scanner for laser projection serves as application example. Highly parallel operated Micro Mirror Arrays extend pattern speed to 10 Gpixel / s including analog grey scaling. Irradiation tests prove stable operation of the mirrors at DUV. Prospects regarding optical planarity and high reflective coatings are discussed. By means of two examples, laser patterning of semiconductor masks and laser patterning of Printed Circuit Boards, properties of the spatial light modulators are presented. The two device classes are compared regarding spot/pixel rate and frequency. The comparison includes representative MEMS device examples from literature.

  20. Micromachining with femtosecond 250-nm laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Argument, Michael A.; Tsui, Ying Y.; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2000-12-01

    Laser micromachining is a flexible technique for precision patterning of surfaces in microelectronics, microelectromechanical devices and integrated optical devices. Typical applications include drilling of holes, cutting of conducting lines or shaping of micro component surfaces. The resolution, edge finish and residual damage to the surrounding and underlying structures depend on a variety of parameters including laser energy, intensity, pulse width and wavelength. Femtosecond pulses are of particular interest because the limited time of interaction limits the lateral expansion of the plasma and the inward propagation of the heat front. Thus, very small spot size can be achieved and minimal heating and damage of underlying layers can be obtained. An additional advantage of femtosecond pulses is that multiphoton absorption leads to efficient coupling of energy to many materials independent of the linear reflectivity of the surface. Thus metals and transmitting dielectrics, which are difficult to micromachine, may be machined with such pulses. The coupling is improved further by employing ultraviolet wavelength laser pulses where the linear absorption typically is much higher than for visible and infrared laser pulses. To explore these advantages, we have initiated a study of the interaction of 250nm femtosecond laser pulses with metals. The laser pulses are obtained by generating the third harmonic from a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser operating at 750nm. The pulses are focused to various intensities in the range of 1010Wcm2 to 1015 Wcm2 using reflective and refractive microscope objectives and ablation thresholds and ablation rates have been determined for a few metals. In addition the ability to control feature size and produce submicron holes and lines have been investigated. The results are presented and compared to results obtained using infrared and visible femtosecond laser pulses.

  1. Ultra-high-speed pumping of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for high-speed laser-induced fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöholm, Johan; Kristensson, Elias; Richter, Mattias; Aldén, Marcus; Göritz, Guido; Knebel, Kai

    2009-02-01

    The feasibility of pumping an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with an ultra-high repetition rate multi:YAG laser system, producing a burst of up to eight high-energy pulses, has been investigated. For this investigation an OPO with a bandwidth around 5 cm-1, together with a frequency doubling crystal, was selected. In some laser-induced fluorescence measurements the large linewidth from the OPO can be advantageous as several lines can be excited simultaneously avoiding the saturation effects of individual lines. The energy output from the OPO as a function of pulse separation was measured down to pulse separations of 400 ns and was found to be completely independent of the pulse separation. The efficiency of the OPO unit, when optimized for single-pulse operation, was measured to be around 25% for all pulses, giving over 80 mJ at 585 nm output when pumped with ~350 mJ at 355 nm. This is similar to the specified efficiency for the OPO. The system was found to give a slightly lower efficiency when double pulsing the Nd:YAG lasers. This is attributed to a somewhat elongated pulse length from the Nd:YAG lasers giving a lower pump energy density. The system was applied for measuring high-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence images of OH radicals in a Bunsen burner.

  2. OCT-aided femtosecond laser micromachining device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massow, Ole; Jackstadt, Michael; Wisweh, Henning; Will, Fabian; Lubatschowski, Holger

    2009-02-01

    Fs-lasers are widely used for microsurgery and micromachining. Due to nonlinear interaction of ultrashort pulses with tissue or matter precisions of a few μm can be achieved. But particularly in the field of surgery this precision can not be obtained as the devices for diagnostics and treatment have to be changed due to separate systems. We show a combined system of a fs-laser and a Fourier-Domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) enabling to cut and image the region of interest alternately. The FD-OCT offers non-invasive imaging at an axial resolution of 6, 2 μm and a transverse resolution of 3 μm in air which is comparable to the interaction zone of the fslaser-pulses. OCT-aided subsurface cutting is successfully demonstrated on biological ex-vito samples of porcine cornea and larynx. Furthermore it appeared that in situ OCT imaging enables to monitor cuts produced with pulse energies close to the energy threshold. In conclusion, this setup demonstrates the potential of a system combining cutting and OCT imaging within the same optical setup without the need of changing devices.

  3. Precise micromachining of materials using femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garasz, K.; Tański, M.; Barbucha, R.; Kocik, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of the experimental parametric study on efficiency, accuracy and quality of femtosecond laser micromachining of different materials. The laser micromachining process was performed with a solid-state Yb:KYW laser. The laser generates 500 fs pulses of three different wavelengths, repetition rate from 100 to 900 kHz and output power up to 50 W. This allows to perform a complex research for a wide range of parameters and materials. Laser micromachining is a process based on a laser ablation phenomenon, i.e. total evaporation of material from the target surface during laser irradiation. It is the most precise method of material removal. Applying a femtosecond laser in the process, allows the use of ultra short pulses, with a duration of 10-15 seconds, while maintaining a high laser power. The concentration of energy within a single pulse is sufficiently high to cause the detachment of particles from the irradiated target without any thermal interactions with the surrounding material. Therefore, the removal of the material occurs only in the laser focus. This allows to avoid most of the unwanted effects of the heat affected zone (HAZ). It has been established, that the quality of laser ablation process using femtosecond pulses is much higher than while using the long pulsed lasers (i.e. nanosecond). The use of femtosecond laser pulses creates therefore an attractive opportunity for high quality micromachining of many groups of materials.

  4. Laser balancing demonstration on a high-speed flexible rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuth, R. S.; Rio, R. A.; Fleming, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a flexible rotor system used for two-plane laser balancing and an experimental demonstration of the laser material removal method for balancing. A laboratory test rotor was modified to accept balancing corrections using a laser metal removal method while the rotor is at operating speed. The laser setup hardware required to balance the rotor using two correction planes is described. The test rig optical configuration and a neodymium glass laser were assembled and calibrated for material removal rates. Rotor amplitudes before and after balancing, trial and correction weights, rotor speed during operation of laser, and balancing time were documented. The rotor was balanced through the first bending critical speed using the laser material removal procedure to apply trial weights and correction weights without stopping the rotor.

  5. High-speed laser cutting of thin metal sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preissig, Kai-Uwe; Petring, Dirk; Herziger, Gerd

    1994-09-01

    Increasing productivity in splitting up of metal sheets by means of mechanical cutting processes is today limited by long change-over times as well as nonproductive times and insufficient quality caused by tool wear. In the case of high-quality materials even a slight quality reduction concerning development of dross attachment and induced stress leads to a lot of rejects. In order to increase the cutting speeds within a range economical for industrial use, i.e. about 100 m/min, a completely new type of laser cutting process had to be developed. As opposed to conventional laser cutting, during which a semicylindric cutting front is formed, a closed keyhole with subsequent melt film ejection is produced during the completely new laser cutting process. The incoupling of energy no longer only results from pure surface absorption but in addition from plasma formation and multiple reflection. With the help of the wear resisting tool `laser' the cutting quality is constantly good and can even be significantly improved in comparison with the conventional cutting method with circular knifes. In the case of a sheet thickness of 0.2 mm grain oriented electrical steel can be cut e.g. with a cutting speed of 130 m/min, aluminum with 270 m/min, copper with 95 m/min and zinc with 280 m/min; the necessary laser power is 1300 W. Based on the results of basic research the prototype of a laser slitting line was constructed and went into operation in autumn 1991. Up to now various materials for different customers have been cut on this slitting line and used in industry. Especially when cutting grain oriented electrical steel, which is a material with very high requirements on the cutting process, it becomes evident that the laser cutting process compared with the conventional technique has considerable advantages concerning cutting quality and quality assurance.

  6. Laser synchronized high-speed shutter for spectroscopic application

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Paul C.; Porter, Eldon L.; Prast, Thomas L.; Sunnarborg, Duane A.

    2002-01-01

    A fast mechanical shutter, based on rotating chopper wheels, has been designed and implemented to shutter the entrance slit of a spectrograph. This device enables an exposure time of 9 .mu.s to be achieved for a 0.8 mm wide spectrograph entrance slit, achieves 100% transmission in the open state, and an essentially infinite extinction ratio. The device further incorporates chopper wheel position sensing electronics to permit the synchronous triggering of a laser source.

  7. Application of laser velocimetry to unsteady flows in large scale high speed tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, F. K.

    1983-01-01

    Flowfield measurements obtained in several large scale, high speed facilities are presented. Sampling bias and seeding problems are addressed and solutions are outlined. The laser velocimeter systems and data reduction procedures which were used in the experiments are also described. The work demonstrated the potential of the laser velocimeter for applications in other than closely controlled, smallscale laboratory situations.

  8. Detection of laser generated ultrasound by micromachined capacitance transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billson, D. R.; Hutchins, D. A.; McIntosh, J.; Wright, W. M. D.; Noble, R. A.; Jones, A. R. D.

    2000-05-01

    Two types of micromachined capacitance transducer have been used to detect ultrasonic waves generated by lasers in engineering materials. The first uses a flexible polymer membrane attached to a micromachined backplate, whereas the second type is fully micromachined using a CMOS compatible process. In the first experiments, a thin (4-5 μm) metallised polymer film is applied to a rigid silicon backplate, which has been micromachined to extend the frequency response of the device into the low MHz range. The transducer is positioned in air close to the sample, and is used to detect ultrasonic signals from the samples under test generated by a pulsed laser. An alternative is to attach a capacitance device to a sample. The polymer membrane transducers are not suitable for this, but we have investigated a fully micromachined design which can be attached to the surface of a wide range of engineering materials. These use a 1-2 μm thick, 1 mm square silicon nitride membrane machined above a silicon substrate, with typically a 2 μm air gap. They have been adhered to aluminum samples to investigate their performance as detectors of laser-generated signals. It will be shown that they are capable of detecting wide-bandwidth signals, in excess of 10 MHz. Lamb waves were also detected. Both types of transducer will be described in detail, and applications of this new technique presented.

  9. Laser micromachining in the microelectronics industry: a historical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Edward J.; Sun, Yunlong; Dunsky, Corey M.

    2000-10-01

    The use of lasers in microelectronics is production for trimming, ablating, drilling and general micromachining continues to grow. As one example, traditional laser trimming techniques for passive and active microelectronic circuits have been used for nearly thirty years to improve yields and/or device performance. The majority of these processes have been accomplished using the fundamental wavelengths of the Nd:YAG laser source. However, recent technological advances in microelectronics laser processing, mainly for hybrid integrated circuits (HIC), dynamic random access memories (DRAM) and printed wiring boards (PWB) have resulted in new process techniques. Several new technologies, such as alternative wavelength processing and shaped, uniform laser spots have produced better processing quality, higher reliabiltiy, and greater yields. This paper will review the past, present and future of laser micromachining in microelectronics.

  10. Fine micro-welding of thin metal sheet by high speed laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Gillner, Arnold; Olowinsky, Alexander; Gedicke, Jens; Uno, Yoshiyuki

    2007-05-01

    Recently, since the size of component becomes smaller, then the welding of thin metal sheet has been required. Besides, the flexibility of process is important according to the accessibility especially for small components. Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology had developed the SHADOW ® welding technology, in which the high speed joining with small distortion is possible using pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The possibility of high speed and high quality welding had been reported by using single-mode fiber laser. The combination of micro beam and high speed laser scanning has the advantages for thin metal sheet welding. Therefore, the characteristics of micro-welding for thin metal sheet were investigated by high speed laser scanning, in which the welding was carried out by high speed scanner system with single-mode fiber laser and pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The proper welding region was narrow by the laser beam with a large focus diameter of 160 μm without pulse control, while a small focus diameter of 22 μm can control the welding state widely. A small focus diameter can perform the excellent welding seam from the extreme beginning without pulse control. The penetration depth can be controlled by the energy density with a small focus diameter of 22 μm at the energy densities less than 1 J/mm2. Besides, the unique periodic structure appeared at the high velocity of beam scanning with a small focus diameter. Moreover, the overlap welding of 25 μm thickness sheet can be performed regardless of small gap distance between two sheets by the laser beam with a small focus diameter of 22 μm.

  11. Femtosecond laser system for micromachining of the materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbucha, R.; Kocik, M.; Tański, M.; Garasz, K.; Petrov, T.; Radzewicz, C.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond-pulse laser micromachining is based on a laser ablation phenomenon, i.e. total evaporation of material from the target surface during laser irradiation. It is the most precise method of material removal. Moreover it does not require any post processing. Removal of the material occurs only in the laser focus, since the lack of thermal interaction, neither heat affected zone (HAZ) nor debris ocur. Research results have shown that shortening the duration of the laser pulse significantly reduces HAZ, which translates into the high quality of the machined structures. It is the main argument for the use of femtosecond-pulse lasers in the precise micromachining. In this paper, a femtosecond laser system consisting of a solid-state oscillator and the ytterbium-doped pulse fiber amplifier are presented. Average beam power at 343 nm with mode-locking is 4W @25A and pulse length at the oscillator output is 500 fs. Laser micro and nano-machining has found application in different fields. It's primary use is industrial micromachining of metals, ceramics, polymers, glass, biological material for medical use in eye surgery, and photovoltaic cells.

  12. Influences of carrier diffusion and radial mode field pattern on high speed characteristics for microring lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Xiao-Meng; Huang, Yong-Zhen Yang, Yue-De; Zou, Ling-Xiu; Long, Heng; Liu, Bo-Wen; Xiao, Jin-Long; Du, Yun

    2014-04-21

    High-speed directly modulated microlasers are potential light sources for on-chip optical interconnection and photonic integrated circuits. In this Letter, dynamic characteristics are studied for microring lasers by rate equation analysis considering radial carrier hole burning and diffusion and experimentally. The coupled modes with a wide radial field pattern and the injection current focused in the edge area of microring resonator can greatly improve the high speed response curve due to the less carrier hole burning. The small-signal response curves of a microring laser connected with an output waveguide exhibit a larger 3 dB bandwidth and smaller roll-off at low frequency than that of the microdisk laser with the same radius of 15 μm, which accords with the simulation results.

  13. Dentinal surface-cutting efficiency using a high-speed diamond bur, ultrasound and laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, M.; Quinelato, A.; Youssef, F.; Pelino, J. E. Pelizon; Salvadori, M. C.; Mori, M.

    2008-04-01

    We compare an ultrasound bur with a conventional one and an Er:YAG laser for cavity preparations. Human molars were embedded in resin and sliced for this study. The surface abrasion was performed by a high-speed instrument and ultrasound. The cavity preparation was initially performed with a high-speed diamond bur. After this, a 2.94-μm laser with 400 mJ/pulse at 4 Hz, and a pulse width from 250-500 μs was applied to the tooth surface for 30 s in a sweeping motion. The samples were analyzed by SEM. The abrasion surface with a conventional bur showed structure removal with different grooves, a smear-layer presence, and occluded dentinal tubules. The abraded surface with the CVD bur suggested a removal process in layers. The laser-irradiated surface showed a rough aspect with opened tubules and the absence of a smear layer. The results of this study suggest that a high-speed diamond bur, ultrasound, and laser were able to perform cavity preparation. However, the CVD bur presented a higher surface quality.

  14. High-speed video study of laser-induced forward transfer of silver nano-suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, S. A.; Auyeung, R. C. Y.; Kim, H.; Charipar, N. A.; Piqué, A.

    2013-08-01

    High-speed video (100 000 fps) is used to examine the behavior of silver nanoparticle suspensions ejected from a donor substrate during laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) as a function of viscosity, donor film thickness, and voxel area. Both high-speed video and inspection of the post-transferred material indicate dramatic changes in the behavior of the fluid as the viscosity of the nano-suspensions increases from that of inks (˜0.01 Pa.s) to pastes (>100 Pa.s). Over a specific range of viscosities (90-150 Pa.s) and laser fluences (35-65 mJ/cm2), the ejected voxels precisely reproduce the size and shape of the laser spot. This LIFT regime is known as laser decal transfer or LDT. Analysis of the high-speed video indicates that the speeds of the voxels released by the LDT process do not exceed 1 m/s. Such transfer speeds are at least an order of magnitude lower than those associated with other LIFT processes, thus minimizing voxel deformation during flight and upon impact with the receiving substrate. Variation in the threshold fluence for initiating the LDT process is measured as a function of donor film thickness and transfer spot size. Overall, the congruent nature of the silver nanopaste voxels deposited by LDT is unique among non-contact digital printing techniques given its control of the voxel's size and shape, thus allowing partial parallelization of the direct-write process.

  15. Laser Micromachining and Information Discovery Using a Dual Beam Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Senthil P. Theppakuttaikomaraswamy

    2001-12-31

    Lasers have proven to be among the most promising tools for micromachining because they can process features down to the size of the laser wavelength (smaller than 1 micrometer) and they provide a non-contact technology for machining. The demand for incorporating in-situ diagnostics technology into the micromachining environment is driven by the increasing need for producing micro-parts of high quality and accuracy. Laser interferometry can be used as an on-line monitoring tool and it is the aim of this work to enhance the understanding and application of Michelson interferometry principle for the in-situ diagnostics of the machining depth on the sub-micron and micron scales. micromachining is done on two different materials and a comprehensive investigation is done to control the width and depth of the machined feature. To control the width of the feature, laser micromachining is done on copper and a detailed analysis is performed. The objective of this experiment is to make a precision mask for sputtering with an array of holes on it using an Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm wavelength. The diameter of the hole is 50 {micro}m and the spacing between holes (the distance between the centers) is 100 {micro}m. Michelson interferometer is integrated with a laser machining system to control the depth of machining. An excimer laser of 308 nm wavelength is used for micromachining. A He-Ne laser of 632.8 nm wavelength is used as the light source for the interferometer. Interference patterns are created due to the change in the path length between the two interferometer arms. The machined depth information is obtained from the interference patterns on an oscilloscope detected by a photodiode. To compare the predicted depth by the interferometer with the true machining depth, a surface profilometer is used to measure the actual machining depth on the silicon. It is observed that the depths of machining obtained by the surface profile measurement are in accordance with the

  16. Fine structures in the broadened line of distributed feedback lasers under high-speed direct modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikuni, Y.; Matsuoka, T.; Motosugi, G.; Yamanaka, N.

    1984-10-15

    Precise observation of the single longitudinal mode spectrum for distributed feeedback lasers revealed fine structures when the spectrum was broadened by high-speed modulation. A dynamic simulation can explain reasonably the above behavior if the model takes into account the carrier density modulation enhanced by the relaxation oscillation. In this letter, experimental results where both modulation depth and speed were varied are described along with a calculated result.

  17. Vascular tissue engineering by computer-aided laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-04-28

    Many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds are not suitable for fabricating scaffolds with patient-specific attributes. For example, many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds do not provide control over overall scaffold geometry or over cell position within the scaffold. In this study, the use of computer-aided laser micromachining to create scaffolds for vascular tissue networks was investigated. Computer-aided laser micromachining was used to construct patterned surfaces in agarose or in silicon, which were used for differential adherence and growth of cells into vascular tissue networks. Concentric three-ring structures were fabricated on agarose hydrogel substrates, in which the inner ring contained human aortic endothelial cells, the middle ring contained HA587 human elastin and the outer ring contained human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Basement membrane matrix containing vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin was to promote proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells within the vascular tissue networks. Computer-aided laser micromachining provides a unique approach to fabricate small-diameter blood vessels for bypass surgery as well as other artificial tissues with complex geometries.

  18. Vascular tissue engineering by computer-aided laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-04-28

    Many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds are not suitable for fabricating scaffolds with patient-specific attributes. For example, many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds do not provide control over overall scaffold geometry or over cell position within the scaffold. In this study, the use of computer-aided laser micromachining to create scaffolds for vascular tissue networks was investigated. Computer-aided laser micromachining was used to construct patterned surfaces in agarose or in silicon, which were used for differential adherence and growth of cells into vascular tissue networks. Concentric three-ring structures were fabricated on agarose hydrogel substrates, in which the inner ring contained human aortic endothelial cells, the middle ring contained HA587 human elastin and the outer ring contained human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Basement membrane matrix containing vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin was to promote proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells within the vascular tissue networks. Computer-aided laser micromachining provides a unique approach to fabricate small-diameter blood vessels for bypass surgery as well as other artificial tissues with complex geometries. PMID:20308108

  19. Integration and test of high-speed transmitter electronics for free-space laser communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soni, Nitin J.; Lizanich, Paul J.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, has developed the electronics for a free-space, direct-detection laser communications system demonstration. Under the High-Speed Laser Integrated Terminal Electronics (Hi-LITE) Project, NASA Lewis has built a prototype full-duplex, dual-channel electronics transmitter and receiver operating at 325 megabit S per second (Mbps) per channel and using quaternary pulse-position modulation (QPPM). This paper describes the integration and testing of the transmitter portion for future application in free-space, direct-detection laser communications. A companion paper reviews the receiver portion of the prototype electronics. Minor modifications to the transmitter were made since the initial report on the entire system, and this paper addresses them. The digital electronics are implemented in gallium arsenide integrated circuits mounted on prototype boards. The fabrication and implementation issues related to these high-speed devices are discussed. The transmitter's test results are documented, and its functionality is verified by exercising all modes of operation. Various testing issues pertaining to high-speed circuits are addressed. A description of the transmitter electronics packaging concludes the paper.

  20. Birefringent vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers: toward high-speed spin-lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, Nils C.; Lindemann, Markus; Pusch, Tobias; Michalzik, Rainer; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2016-04-01

    Spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (spin-VCSELs) provide novel opportunities to overcome several limitations of conventional, purely charge-based semiconductor lasers. Presumably the highest potential lies in the spin-VCSEL's capability for ultrafast spin and polarization dynamics which can be significantly faster than the intensity dynamics in conventional devices. By injecting spin-polarized carriers, these coupled spin-photon dynamics can be controlled and utilized for high-speed applications. While relaxation oscillations provide insights in the speed and direct modulation bandwidth of conventional devices, resonance oscillations in the circular polarization degree step in for the spin and polarization dynamics in spin-VCSELs. These polarization oscillations can be generated using pulsed spin injection and achieve much higher frequencies than the conventional intensity relaxation oscillations in these devices. Furthermore polarization oscillations can be switched on and off and it is possible to generate short polarization pulses, which may represent an information unit in polarization-based optical communication. The frequency of polarization oscillations is mainly determined by the birefringence-induced mode splitting between both orthogonal linearly polarized laser modes. Thus the polarization modulation bandwidth of spin-VCSELs can be increased by adding a high amount of birefringence to the cavity, for example by incorporating mechanical strain. Using this technique, we could demonstrate tunable polarization oscillations from 10 to 40 GHz in AlGaAs-based 850nm VCSELs recently. Furthermore a birefringence-induced mode splitting of more than 250 GHz could be demonstrated experimentally. Provided that this potential for ultrafast dynamics can be fully exploited, birefringent spin-VCSELs are ideal devices for fast short-haul optical interconnects. In this paper we review our recent progress on polarization dynamics of birefringent spin

  1. Study of cavitation bubble dynamics during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy by high-speed camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yu, Honggang; Devincentis, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    Although laser lithotripsy is now the preferred treatment option for urolithiasis, the mechanism of laser pulse induced calculus damage is still not fully understood. This is because the process of laser pulse induced calculus damage involves quite a few physical and chemical processes and their time-scales are very short (down to sub micro second level). For laser lithotripsy, the laser pulse induced impact by energy flow can be summarized as: Photon energy in the laser pulse --> photon absorption generated heat in the water liquid and vapor (super heat water or plasma effect) --> shock wave (Bow shock, acoustic wave) --> cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation, and center of bubble movement , super heat water at collapse, sonoluminscence) --> calculus damage and motion (calculus heat up, spallation/melt of stone, breaking of mechanical/chemical bond, debris ejection, and retropulsion of remaining calculus body). Cavitation bubble dynamics is the center piece of the physical processes that links the whole energy flow chain from laser pulse to calculus damage. In this study, cavitation bubble dynamics was investigated by a high-speed camera and a needle hydrophone. A commercialized, pulsed Ho:YAG laser at 2.1 mu;m, StoneLightTM 30, with pulse energy from 0.5J up to 3.0 J, and pulse width from 150 mu;s up to 800 μs, was used as laser pulse source. The fiber used in the investigation is SureFlexTM fiber, Model S-LLF365, a 365 um core diameter fiber. A high-speed camera with frame rate up to 1 million fps was used in this study. The results revealed the cavitation bubble dynamics (oscillation and center of bubble movement) by laser pulse at different energy level and pulse width. More detailed investigation on bubble dynamics by different type of laser, the relationship between cavitation bubble dynamics and calculus damage (fragmentation/dusting) will be conducted as a future study.

  2. Hydrodynamic Instability in High-speed Direct Laser Deposition for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turichin, Gleb; Zemlyakov, Evgeny; Klimova, Olga; Babkin, Konstantin

    High speed direct laser deposition, when product forms from metal powder, transferred by gas-powder jet, supplied coaxially or non-coaxially to focused laser beam, in one of most prospective additive technologies for production parts for aircraft engines. The limit of process productivity is connected with development of hydrodynamic instability of the melt pool in conditions of high power laser action and material supply by gas-powder jet. Theoretical analysis and experiments allowed clarified a physical nature of instability appearance, determine a stability conditions and invent a methods which allow avoid instability in deposition process. Nozzles for direct laser deposition, designed with consideration of stability conditions, allow get a level of process productivity more then 2 kg/h. The developed technology of deposition and technological equipment, based on high power fiber laser, has been used for manufacturing of parts for "high temperature" unit of aircraft engine.

  3. Vertical cavity surface-emitting laser scanning cytometer for high speed analysis of cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gourley, P.L.; McDonald, A.E.; Gourley, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    We have constructed a new semiconductor laser device that may be useful in high speed characterization of cell morphology for diagnosis of disease. This laser device has critical advantages over conventional cell fluorescence detection methods since it provides intense, monochromatic, low-divergence fight signals that are emitted from lasing modes confined by a cell. Further, the device integrates biological structures with semiconductor materials at the wafer level to reduce device size and simplify cell preparation. In this paper we discuss operational characteristics of the prototype cytometer and present preliminary data for blood cells and dielectric spheres.

  4. High-speed wave-mixing laser Doppler imaging in vivo.

    PubMed

    Atlan, M; Gross, M; Vitalis, T; Rancillac, A; Rossier, J; Boccara, A C

    2008-04-15

    An interferometric method for parallel optical spectroscopy in the kilohertz range is reported, as well as its experimental validation in the context of high-speed laser Doppler imaging in vivo. The interferometric approach enables imaging in the low light conditions of a 2 kHz frame rate recording with a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera. Observation of mice craniums with near-infrared (lambda=785 nm) laser light in reflection configuration is reported. Doppler spectral images allegedly sensitive to blood flow are sequentially measured at several optical frequency detunings, to shift the spectral range of analysis in the radio-frequency spectrum.

  5. CO2 laser micromachining of optical waveguides for interconnection on circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariyah, Shefiu S.; Conway, Paul P.; Hutt, David A.; Wang, Kai; Selviah, David R.

    2012-12-01

    The introduction of microvia and surface mount technologies into the manufacturing process for printed circuit boards (PCBs) has significantly improved the interconnection density. However, as the speed of signals for data communication on the board approaches and begins to exceed 10 Gb/s, the loss and crosstalk of copper interconnections increase. To resolve these problems, optical interconnections (OI) have been suggested as a viable solution. Literature reports have proved the photochemical nature of excimer laser ablation with its minimal thermal effect, and other ultra-violet lasers are also being investigated for the fabrication of polymer waveguides by laser ablation. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the fabrication of multimode optical polymer waveguides by using infra-red 10.6 μm CO2 laser micromachining to etch acrylate-based photopolymer (Truemode™). CO2 lasers offer a low cost and high speed fabrication route as CO2 lasers can be used to cut through various engineering materials including polymers and metals. The paper characterises the relationship between the laser ablation power, the fabrication speed and the resulting effect on the waveguide optical insertion loss for the first time.

  6. Laser Beam MicroMachining (LBMM) - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sanjay; Yadava, Vinod

    2015-10-01

    The use of short and ultrashort laser pulses for micromachining application is an emerging technology. Laser Beam MicroMachining (LBMM) has revolutionized many industries by providing innovative solutions in numerous industrial micro-engineering applications. High-intensity short or ultrashort laser pulses are powerful thermal energy source for creating micro-features in wide range of materials. These lasers can precisely ablate various types of materials with little or no collateral damage. An overview of LBMM is given so that we can obtain a current view of capabilities and tradeoffs associated with LBMM of sub-micron size. The fundamental understanding of ultrafast laser ablation process has been elucidated and the various research activities performed with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond, lasers have been discussed to understand the physical mechanisms and the critical experimental parameters involved in the LBMM. The critical analysis of various theoretical and experimental models used to describe the performance analysis of LBMM has been elaborated so that we can identify the relevant principles underlying the process.

  7. Laser micromachining of chemically altered polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.

    1998-08-01

    During the last decade laser processing of polymers has become an important field of applied and fundamental research. One of the most promising proposals, to use laser ablation as dry etching technique in photolithography, has not yet become an industrial application. Many disadvantages of laser ablation, compared to conventional photolithography, are the result of the use of standard polymers. These polymers are designed for totally different applications, but are compared to the highly specialized photoresist. A new approach to laser polymer ablation will be described; the development of polymers, specially designed for high resolution laser ablation. These polymers have photolabile groups in the polymer backbone, which decompose upon laser irradiation or standard polymers are modified for ablation at a specific irradiation wavelength. The absorption maximum can be tailored for specific laser emissino lines, e.g. 351, 308 and 248 nm lines of excimer lasers. The authors show that with this approach many problems associated with the application of laser ablation for photolithography can be solved. The mechanism of ablation for these photopolymers is photochemical, whereas for most of the standard polymers this mechanism is photothermal. The photochemical decomposition mechanism results in high resolution ablation with no thermal damage at the edges of the etched structures. In addition there are no redeposited ablation products or surface modifications of the polymer after ablation.

  8. Laser micromachining of chemically altered polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippert, Thomas K.

    1998-06-01

    During the last decade laser processing of polymers has become an important field of applied and fundamental research. One of the most promising proposal, to use laser ablation as dry etching technique in photolithography, has not yet become an industrial application. Many disadvantages of laser ablation, compared to conventional photolithography, are the result of the use of standard polymers. These polymers are designed for totally different applications, but are compared to the highly specialized photoresist. A new approach to laser polymer ablation will be described; the development of polymers, specially designed for high resolution laser ablation. These polymers have photolabile groups in the polymer backbone, which decompose upon laser irradiation or standard polymers are modified for ablation at a specific irradiation wavelength. The absorption maximum can be tailored for specific laser emission lines, e.g. 351, 308 and 248 nm lines of excimer lasers. We will show that with this approach many problems associated with the application of laser ablation for photolithography can be solved. The mechanism of ablation for these photopolymers is photochemical, whereas for most of the standard polymers this mechanism is photothermal. The photochemical decomposition mechanism results in high resolution ablation with no thermal damage at the edges of the etched structures. In addition there are not redeposited ablation products or surface modifications of the polymer after ablation.

  9. Micromachining of polydimethylsiloxane induced by laser plasma EUV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, S.; Makimura, T.; Okazaki, K.; Nakamura, D.; Takahashi, A.; Okada, T.; Niino, H.; Murakami, K.

    2011-06-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is fundamental materials in the field of biotechnology. Because of its biocompatibility, microfabricated PDMS sheets are applied to micro-reactors and microchips for cell culture. Conventionally, the microstructures were fabricated by means of cast or imprint using molds, however it is difficult to fabricate the structures at high aspect ratios such as through-holes/vertical channels. The fabrication of the high-aspect structures would enable us to stack sheets to realize 3D fluidic circuits. In order to achieve the micromachining, direct photo-ablation by short wavelength light is promising. In the previous works, we investigated ablation of transparent materials such as silica glass and poly(methyl methacrylate) induced by irradiation with laser plasma EUV light. We achieved smooth and fine nanomachining. In this work, we applied our technique to PDMS micromachining. We condensed the EUV light onto PDMS surfaces at high power density up to 108 W/cm2 using a Au coated ellipsoidal mirror. We found that PDMS sheet was ablated at a rate up to 440 nm/shot. It should be emphasized that through hole with a diameter of 1 μm was fabricated in a PDMS sheet with a thickness of 4 μm. Thus we demonstrated the micromachining of PDMS sheets using laser plasma EUV light.

  10. Applications of laser lithography on oxide film to titanium micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvy, P.-F.; Hoffmann, P.; Landolt, D.

    2003-03-01

    Due to its good biocompatibility titanium is widely used for dental and orthopaedics implants and for biomedical microsystems. For these applications one needs specific micromachining methods. A new four-step method for electrochemical micromachining of titanium is presented here, which implies anodic oxidation, Excimer laser sensitising irradiation, anodic dissolution, and ultrasonic cleaning. The method is applied to the fabrication of two 3D model structures, surface structuring of a cylinder and machining of a complex two-level architecture. The absence of debris and of a heat affected zone as well as the resulting surface smoothness are the main advantages of the process. Ways to improve the still limited processing speed are discussed with regards to potential applications.

  11. Narrow-linewidth megahertz-rate pulse-burst laser for high-speed flow diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Thurow, Brian; Jiang, Naibo; Samimy, Mo; Lempert, Walter

    2004-09-10

    A second-generation pulse-burst laser system for high-speed flow diagnostics is described in detail. The laser can produce a burst of high-energy pulses (of the order of hundreds of millijoules per pulse) with individual pulse durations of less than 10 ns and pulse separations as short as 1 micros. A key improvement is the addition of a phase-conjugate mirror, which effectively isolates the high-intensity, short-duration pulses from the low-intensity, long-duration background illumination. It allows for more-efficient amplification and harmonic generation, with efficiencies exceeding 50% for second-harmonic and 40% for third-harmonic generation. Characteristics of the laser system, including gain narrowing, pulse-burst energy distribution, pulse narrowing, and overall pulse-burst energy, are described. In addition, the applicability of the laser for spectroscopic-based flow diagnostics is demonstrated through the presentation of megahertz-rate planar Doppler velocimetry results.

  12. Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging with a high-speed CMOS-camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draijer, Matthijs J.; Hondebrink, Erwin; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2007-07-01

    The technique of Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI) is widely used for determining cerebral blood flow or skin perfusion in the case of burns. The commonly used Laser Doppler Perfusion Imagers are scanning systems which point by point scan the area under investigation and use a single photo detector to capture the photoelectric current to obtain a perfusion map. In that case the imaging time for a perfusion map of 64 x 64 pixels is around 5 minutes. Disadvantages of a long imaging time for in-vivo imaging are the bigger chance of movement artifacts, reduced comfort for the patient and the inability to follow fast changing perfusion conditions. We present a Laser Doppler Perfusion Imager which makes use of a high speed CMOS-camera. By illuminating the area under investigation and simultaneously taking images at high speed with the camera, it is possible to obtain a perfusion map of the area under investigation in a shorter period of time than with the commonly used Laser Doppler Perfusion Imagers.

  13. Combustion Effects in Laser-oxygen Cutting: Basic Assumptions, Numerical Simulation and High Speed Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Alexander V.; Ermolaev, Grigory V.

    Laser-oxygen cutting is very complicated for theoretical description technological process. Iron-oxygen combustion playing a leading role making it highly effective, able to cut thicker plates and, at the same time, producing special types of striations and other defects on the cut surface. In this paper results of numerical simulation based on elementary assumptions on iron-oxygen combustion are verified with high speed visualization of laser-oxygen cutting process. On a base of assumption that iron oxide lost its protective properties after melting simulation of striation formation due cycles of laser induced non self-sustained combustion is proposed. Assumption that reaction limiting factor is oxygen transport from the jet to cutting front allows to calculate reaction intensity by solving Navier - Stokes and diffusion system in gas phase. Influence of oxygen purity and pressure is studied theoretically. The results of numerical simulation are examined with high speed visualization of laser-oxygen cutting of 4-20 mm mild steel plates at cutting conditions close to industrial.

  14. 4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changmin; Zhang, Chong; Cantore, Michael; Farrell, Robert M; Oh, Sang Ho; Margalith, Tal; Speck, James S; Nakamura, Shuji; Bowers, John E; DenBaars, Steven P

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate high-speed data transmission with a commercial high power GaN laser diode at 450 nm. 2.6 GHz bandwidth was achieved at an injection current of 500 mA using a high-speed visible light communication setup. Record high 4 Gbps free-space data transmission rate was achieved at room temperature.

  15. High-speed modelocked semiconductor lasers and applications in coherent photonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wangkuen

    1.55-mum high-speed modelocked semiconductor lasers are theoretically and experimentally studied for various coherent photonic system applications. The modelocked semiconductor lasers (MSLs) are designed with high-speed (>5 GHz) external cavity configurations utilizing monolithic two-section curved semiconductor optical amplifiers. By exploiting the saturable absorber section of the monolithic device, passive or hybrid mode-locking techniques are used to generate short optical pulses with broadband optical frequency combs. Laser frequency stability is improved by applying the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) frequency stabilization technique to the MSLs. The improved laser performance after the frequency stabilization (a frequency drifting of less than 350 MHz), is extensively studied with respect to the laser linewidth (˜ 3 MHz), the relative intensity noise (RIN) (< -150 dB/Hz), as well as the modal RIN (˜ 3 dB reduction). MSL to MSL, and tunable laser to MSL synchronization is demonstrated by using a dual-mode injection technique and a modulation sideband injection technique, respectively. Dynamic locking behavior and locking bandwidth are experimentally and theoretically studied. Stable laser synchronization between two MSLs is demonstrated with an injection seed power on the order of a few microwatt. Several coherent heterodyne detections based on the synchronized MSL systems are demonstrated for applications in microwave photonic links and ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (UD-WDM) system. In addition, efficient coherent homodyne balanced receivers based on synchronized MSLs are developed and demonstrated for a spectrally phase-encoded optical CDMA (SPE-OCDMA) system.

  16. Experiment of Flow Control Using Laser Energy Deposition Around High Speed Propulsion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, HyoungJin; Jeung, InSeuck; Lee, SangHun; Kim, Seihwan

    2011-11-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine the effect of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser energy deposition on the shock structures in supersonic/hypersonic flow and quiescent air. The effect of the laser energy and pressure in the blast wave generation were also investigated. As a result, the strength of plasma and blast wave becomes stronger as pressure or laser energy increase. And the breakdown threshold of air by laser energy deposition is 0.015 bar at 508 mJ laser energy, the blast wave threshold generation in air by laser energy deposition is 0.100 bar at same laser energy. As qualitative analysis, schlieren images are also obtained. After the series of experiments, the effect of laser energy deposition (LED) on high speed flow around the shock—shock interaction created by a wedge and blunt body. By LED, the structure of shock—shock interaction was collapsed momentary and the pressure of the stagnation point was fluctuated while interference of wave.

  17. Q-Switched Nd: YAG Laser Micro-Machining System

    SciTech Connect

    Messaoud, S.; Allam, A.; Siserir, F.; Bouceta, Y.; Kerdja, T.; Ouadjaout, D.

    2008-09-23

    In this paper, we present the design of a low cost Q-switched Nd: YAG laser micro-machining system for photo masks fabrication. It consists of: Nd:YAG laser source, beam delivery system, X-Y table, PC, The CCD camera and TV monitor. The synchronization between the laser source and the X-Y table is realised by NI PCI-7342, the two axis MID-7602 and LabVIEW based program. The first step of this work consists of engraving continuous and discontinuous lines on a thin film metal with a 100 {mu}m resolution by using the YG 980 Quantel Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

  18. Femtosecond laser embedded grating micromachining of flexible PDMS plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung-Hak; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Ryul; Hong, Jong Wook

    2009-04-01

    We report on the femtosecond laser micromachining of photo-induced embedded diffraction grating in flexible Poly (Dimethly Siloxane) (PDMS) plates using a high-intensity femtosecond (130 fs) Ti: sapphire laser ( λp = 800 nm). The refractive index modifications with diameters ranging from 2 μm to 5 μm were photo-induced after the irradiation with peak intensities of more than 1 × 10 11 W/cm 2. The graded refractive index profile was fabricated to be a symmetric around from the center of the point at which femtosecond laser was focused. The maximum refractive index change (Δ n) was estimated to be 2 × 10 -3. By the X- Y- Z scanning of sample, the embedded diffraction grating in PDMS plate was fabricated successfully using a femtosecond laser.

  19. The research of high-speed clock in space laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-kun; Tong, Shou-feng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Hao-zeng

    2013-08-01

    Space laser communication is moving in a wider bandwidth, greater distances, is more accurate and more narrow laser communication beam direction, faster bandwidth as well as communication interface chip high-speed clock more demanding requirements of the low frequency noise, and good reliability, small size and low power consumption characteristics. Production of ADI's ADF4350 integrated voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) bandwidth frequency synthesizer just to meet this requirement clock frequency This paper describes the basic principles and operating characteristics of the broadband frequency synthesizer. In this paper we use CPLD to control the ADF4350 and give a control electric circuit with CPLD structure and based on Verilog program. Simulation and experimental results show that the lock-in effect is good, easy to control, and reliable performance. It is able to generate stable clock, suitable for applications in laser communication.

  20. PULPAL TEMPERATURE INCREASE WITH HIGH-SPEED HANDPIECE, ER:YAG LASER AND ULTRASOUND TIPS

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Fernanda Brandão; Camargo, Fernanda Pelogia; Zamboni, Sandra Costa; Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; Teixeira, Symone Cristina; Nogueira, Lafayette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare intrapulpal temperature increase produced by high-speed handpiece, Er:YAG laser and CVDentus ultrasound tips during cavity preparation. Thirty bovine mandibular incisors with an enamel/dentin thickness of 4 mm at buccal surface had their roots amputated and were allocated to the following groups (n=10): Group I- high-speed handpiece; Group II- noncontact Er:YAG laser (250 mJ/4Hz); and Group III- CVDentus ultrasouns tips. All devices were used with water cooling. Class V cavities were prepared to a depth of 3.5 mm, measured with a periodontal probe. A type T thermocouple was placed inside the pulp chamber to determine the temperature increase (°C), which was recorded by a data acquisition system ADS 2000 IP (Lynx Technology) linked to a notebook computer. Data were analyzed statistically by oneway ANOVA and Tukey's test (p=0.05). The mean temperature rises were: 1.10°C (±0.56) for Group I, 0.84°C (±0.55) for Group II, and 3.00°C (± 1.34) for Group III. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between Groups I and II, but both of them differed significantly from Group III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the use of Er:YAG laser and high-speed handpiece for cavity preparation resulted in similar temperature increase. Although ultrasound tips generated significantly higher intrapulpal temperature increase, it remained below the critical value of 5.5°C and may be considered safe for use. PMID:19089220

  1. Full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system for blood-flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Alexandre; Lasser, Theo

    2006-02-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new full-field high-speed laser Doppler imaging system developed for mapping and monitoring of blood flow in biological tissue. The total imaging time for 256x256 pixels region of interest is 1.2 seconds. An integrating CMOS image sensor is utilized to detect Doppler signal in a plurality of points simultaneously on the sample illuminated by a divergent laser beam of a uniform intensity profile. The integrating property of the detector improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement, which results in high-quality flow-images provided by the system. The new technique is real-time, non-invasive and the instrument is easy to use. The wide range of applications is one of the major challenges for a future application of the imager. High-resolution high-speed laser Doppler perfusion imaging is a promising optical technique for diagnostic and assessing the treatment effect of the diseases such as e.g. atherosclerosis, psoriasis, diabetes, skin cancer, allergies, peripheral vascular diseases, skin irritancy and wound healing. We present some biological applications of the new imager and discuss the perspectives for the future implementations of the imager for clinical and physiological applications.

  2. Laser Micromachining In A Reactive Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.; Zahaykevich, George

    1988-01-01

    Drilling of deep holes in silicon by laser beam aided by conducting operation in reactive atmosphere. Atmosphere reacts with material ejected from hole and converts material to gas flowing away from work area. Hole cleaner and more sharply defined, and debris do not spatter surface of work.

  3. Laser direct imaging of transparent indium tin oxide electrodes using high speed stitching techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Pi-Ying; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Chung, Chien-Kai; Tseng, Shih-Feng; Liao, Ien-Chang

    2014-09-01

    To accomplish an electrode patterning in large area, we present a high speed stitching technique used in an ultraviolet laser processing system and investigate the interaction between laser beams and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on glass substrates. After optimizing the process parameters of the laser direct imaging (LDI) for the large-area electrode patterning, the ablated lines looked like regularly fish-scale marks of about a 40 μm diameter and a 120 nm depth around the processing path. The parameters includes the laser power of 1W, the scanning speed of galvanometers of 800 mm/s, and the laser pulse repetition frequency of 50 kHz. Moreover, the resistance value of the ablated ITO thin film is larger than 200MΩ that is electrically insulated from the other regions of electrode structure. LDI technology with UV laser beam has great potential applications in patterning on wafer or sapphire substrates and patterning a conductive layer deposited on the touch panels for semiconductor and optoelectric industries, respectively.

  4. High speed micro scanner for 3D in-volume laser micro processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, D.; Gottmann, J.; Hermans, M.; Ortmann, J.; Kelbassa, I.

    2013-03-01

    Using an in-house developed micro scanner three-dimensional micro components and micro fluidic devices in fused silica are realized using the ISLE process (in-volume selective laser-induced etching). With the micro scanner system the potential of high average power femtosecond lasers (P > 100 W) is exploited by the fabrication of components with micrometer precision at scan speeds of several meters per second. A commercially available galvanometer scanner is combined with an acousto-optical and/or electro-optical beam deflector and translation stages. For focusing laser radiation high numerical aperture microscope objectives (NA > 0.3) are used generating a focal volume of a few cubic micrometers. After laser exposure the materials are chemically wet etched in aqueous solution. The laser-exposed material is etched whereas the unexposed material remains nearly unchanged. Using the described technique called ISLE the fabrication of three-dimensional micro components, micro holes, cuts and channels is possible with high average power femtosecond lasers resulting in a reduced processing time for exposure. By developing the high speed micro scanner up-scaling of the ISLE process is demonstrated. The fabricated components made out of glass can be applied in various markets like biological and medical diagnostics as well as in micro mechanics.

  5. Spinodal decomposition in AISI 316L stainless steel via high-speed laser remelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikarakara, Evans; Naher, Sumsun; Brabazon, Dermot

    2014-05-01

    A 1.5 kW CO2 pulsed laser was used to melt the surface of AISI 316L stainless steel with a view to enhancing the surface properties for engineering applications. A 90 μm laser beam spot size focused onto the surface was used to provide high irradiances (up to 23.56 MW/cm2) with low residence times (as low as 50 μs) in order to induce rapid surface melting and solidification. Variations in microstructure at different points within the laser treated region were investigated. From this processing refined lamellar and nodular microstructures were produced. These sets of unique microstructures were produced within the remelted region when the highest energy densities were selected in conjunction with the lowest residence times. The transformation from the typical austenitic structure to much finer unique lamellar and nodular structures was attributed to the high thermal gradients achieved using these selected laser processing parameters. These structures resulted in unique characteristics including elimination of cracks and a reduction of inclusions within the treated region. Grain structure reorientation between the bulk alloy and laser-treated region occurred due to the induced thermal gradients. This present article reports on microstructure forms resulting from the high-speed laser surface remelting and corresponding underlying kinetics.

  6. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Laser—ultrasonic formation of melts of high-speed tool steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gureev, D. M.

    1994-09-01

    A study was made of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on the processes of heat and mass transfer, and of structure formation during ultrafast crystallisation of laser melts of T1 high-speed tool steel. Acoustic flows which appeared in laser melts effectively smoothed out the temperature inhomogeneities and flattened the relief of the molten surface even when the laser radiation acted for just ~1 ms. The transformation of the mechanical energy of ultrasonic vibrations into heat increased the depth of the laser melt baths and suppressed crack formation. The observed changes in the structural and phase composition appeared as a change in the microhardness of the solidified laser melts. The geometry of coupling of ultrasound into a laser melt influenced the changes in the microhardness, suggesting a need for a more detailed analysis of the structure formation processes in the course of ultrafast crystallisation of laser melts in an ultrasonic field.

  7. High-speed Optical Coherence Tomography for Management after Laser in Situ Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Mariana; Li, Yan; Song, Jonathan C.; Huang, David

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the management of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) related problems. SETTING: Doheny Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA. METHODS: Five patients referred for LASIK-related problems were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Clinical examination, ultrasound (US) pachymetry, Placido ring slit-scanning corneal topography (Orbscan II, Bausch & Lomb), and high-speed corneal OCT were performed. RESULTS: In cases of regression and keratectasia, OCT provided thickness measurements of the cornea, flap, and posterior stromal bed. Locations of tissue loss and flap interface planes were identified in a case with a recut enhancement complication. The information was used to determine whether further laser ablation was safe, confirm keratectasia, and manage complications. Optical coherence tomography measurements of central corneal thickness agreed well with US pachymetry measurements (difference 6.4 mm G 11.7 [SD]) (P Z .026), while Orbscan significantly underestimated corneal thickness (-67.5 ± 72.5 μm) (P = .17). CONCLUSIONS: High-speed OCT provided noncontact imaging and measurement of LASIK anatomy. It was useful in monitoring LASIK results and evaluating complications. PMID:17081866

  8. High-speed, image-based eye tracking with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Sheehy, Christy K.; Yang, Qiang; Arathorn, David W.; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; de Boer, Johannes F.; Roorda, Austin

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a high-speed, image-based tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope (TSLO) that can provide high fidelity structural images, real-time eye tracking and targeted stimulus delivery. The system was designed for diffraction-limited performance over an 8° field of view (FOV) and operates with a flexible field of view of 1°–5.5°. Stabilized videos of the retina were generated showing an amplitude of motion after stabilization of 0.2 arcmin or less across all frequencies. In addition, the imaging laser can be modulated to place a stimulus on a targeted retinal location. We show a stimulus placement accuracy with a standard deviation less than 1 arcmin. With a smaller field size of 2°, individual cone photoreceptors were clearly visible at eccentricities outside of the fovea. PMID:23082300

  9. 3D pulsed laser-triggered high-speed microfluidic fluorescence-activated cell sorter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Kung, Yu-Chun; Teitell, Michael A; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2013-11-12

    We report a 3D microfluidic pulsed laser-triggered fluorescence-activated cell sorter capable of sorting at a throughput of 23 000 cells per s with 90% purity in high-purity mode and at a throughput of 45 000 cells per s with 45% purity in enrichment mode in one stage and in a single channel. This performance is realized by exciting laser-induced cavitation bubbles in a 3D PDMS microfluidic channel to generate high-speed liquid jets that deflect detected fluorescent cells and particles focused by 3D sheath flows. The ultrafast switching mechanism (20 μs complete on-off cycle), small liquid jet perturbation volume, and three-dimensional sheath flow focusing for accurate timing control of fast (1.5 m s(-1)) passing cells and particles are three critical factors enabling high-purity sorting at high-throughput in this sorter. PMID:23844418

  10. Micromachining of microelectronic materials with deep-UV lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; von Alvensleben, Ferdinand; Kappel, Heiner; Heekenjann, Peter B.

    1997-05-01

    Micromachining requires very precise tools with high resolution. Lasers emitting electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) region offer focussed spot sizes less than one micrometer. Wavelengths in the range of lambda equals 200 to 280 nm are called deep ultraviolet (DUV) and ensure minimal resolution for actual and future application in microelectronics. Conventional DUV-lasers are the well developed excimer-lasers and frequency converted systems such as Nd:YLF, Nd:YAG and Ar+-lasers. DUV-lasers can be used for submicron single pulse machining up to processing of complex surfaces for the great variety of microelectronic components. The process efficiency is determined not only by the choice of the laser source itself, but also by the system technology such as optical elements for beam shaping and guidance or workpiece handling. Besides the system technology, the choice of an appropriate laser and handling system ensures an efficient processing and repair of microelectronic components. The presented examples cover the direct writing of conductive layers on ceramic material in combination with electroplating, which offers ways of rapid prototyping printed circuit boards (PCB). Furthermore, the repair of expensive electronic products is of growing interest. Examples are the repair of photolithography masks. An overview of further opportunities using DUV-lasers is given by 3D structuring of glass and ceramics.

  11. Method of high speed flow field influence and restrain on laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Li-xin; Wang, Chun-hui; Qian, Cun-zhu; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Li-zhong

    2013-08-01

    For laser communication performance which carried by airplane or airship, due to high-speed platform movement, the air has two influences in platform and laser communication terminal window. The first influence is that aerodynamic effect causes the deformation of the optical window; the second one is that a shock wave and boundary layer would be generated. For subsonic within the aircraft, the boundary layer is the main influence. The presence of a boundary layer could change the air density and the temperature of the optical window, which causes the light deflection and received beam spot flicker. Ultimately, the energy hunting of the beam spot which reaches receiving side increases, so that the error rate increases. In this paper, aerodynamic theory is used in analyzing the influence of the optical window deformation due to high speed air. Aero-optics theory is used to analyze the influence of the boundary layer in laser communication link. Based on this, we focused on working on exploring in aerodynamic and aero-optical effect suppression method in the perspective of the optical window design. Based on planning experimental aircraft types and equipment installation location, we optimized the design parameters of the shape and thickness of the optical window, the shape and size of air-management kit. Finally, deformation of the optical window and air flow distribution were simulated by fluid simulation software in the different mach and different altitude fly condition. The simulation results showed that the optical window can inhibit the aerodynamic influence after optimization. In addition, the boundary layer is smoothed; the turbulence influence is reduced, which meets the requirements of the airborne laser communication.

  12. Single step high-speed printing of continuous silver lines by laser-induced forward transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerto, D.; Biver, E.; Alloncle, A.-P.; Delaporte, Ph.

    2016-06-01

    The development of high-speed ink printing process by Laser-Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is of great interest for the printing community. To address the problems and the limitations of this process that have been previously identified, we have performed an experimental study on laser micro-printing of silver nanoparticle inks by LIFT and demonstrated for the first time the printing of continuous conductive lines in a single pass at velocities of 17 m/s using a 1 MHz repetition rate laser. We investigated the printing process by means of a time-resolved imaging technique to visualize the ejection dynamics of single and adjacent jets. The control of the donor film properties is of prime importance to achieve single step printing of continuous lines at high velocities. We use a 30 ps pulse duration laser with a wavelength of 343 nm and a repetition rate from 0.2 to 1 MHz. A galvanometric mirror head controls the distance between two consecutives jets by scanning the focused beam along an ink-coated donor substrate at different velocities. Droplets and lines of silver inks are laser-printed on glass and PET flexible substrates and we characterized their morphological quality by atomic force microscope (AFM) and optical microscope.

  13. Laser-high-speed-DSC: Process-oriented Thermal Analysis of PA 12 in Selective Laser Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzl, Lydia; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian; Drummer, Dietmar

    In the Selective Laser Sintering process very high heating rates occur due to the melting of the material by a laser. Extreme scanning rates could not be measured by conventional thermal analysis methods, since typical heating rates for DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) are between 5-20K min-1. By using a Laser-High-Speed-DSC, a self-developed combination of a Flash-DSC and a fitted laser head, the sample is directly heated by a CO2 laser like in the SLS process. These experiments allow a process-oriented thermal analyzation of the material. In this paper, the set-up and function of this new measuring method is introduced. Furthermore, the reliability of the measurements is evaluated by statistical design of experiment methods. By using this new measuring method, the time-dependent melting behavior of the polymer can be analyzed. Moreover, sample temperatures and heating rates dependent on laser exposure times can be quantified.

  14. Ultrafast disk technology enables next generation micromachining laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckl, Oliver H.; Weiler, Sascha; Luzius, Severin; Zawischa, Ivo; Sutter, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Ultrashort pulsed lasers based on thin disk technology have entered the 100 W regime and deliver several tens of MW peak power without chirped pulse amplification. Highest uptime and insensitivity to back reflections make them ideal tools for efficient and cost effective industrial micromachining. Frequency converted versions allow the processing of a large variety of materials. On one hand, thin disk oscillators deliver more than 30 MW peak power directly out of the resonator in laboratory setups. These peak power levels are made possible by recent progress in the scaling of the pulse energy in excess of 40 μJ. At the corresponding high peak intensity, thin disk technology profits from the limited amount of material and hence the manageable nonlinearity within the resonator. Using new broadband host materials like for example the sesquioxides will eventually reduce the pulse duration during high power operation and further increase the peak power. On the other hand industry grade amplifier systems deliver even higher peak power levels. At closed-loop controlled 100W, the TruMicro Series 5000 currently offers the highest average ultrafast power in an industry proven product, and enables efficient micromachining of almost any material, in particular of glasses, ceramics or sapphire. Conventional laser cutting of these materials often requires UV laser sources with pulse durations of several nanoseconds and an average power in the 10 W range. Material processing based on high peak power laser sources makes use of multi-photon absorption processes. This highly nonlinear absorption enables micromachining driven by the fundamental (1030 nm) or frequency doubled (515 nm) wavelength of Yb:YAG. Operation in the IR or green spectral range reduces the complexity and running costs of industrial systems initially based on UV light sources. Where UV wavelength is required, the TruMicro 5360 with a specified UV crystal life-time of more than 10 thousand hours of continues

  15. Studying the mechanism of micromachining by short pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadag, Shiva

    The semiconductor materials like Si and the transparent dielectric materials like glass and quartz are extensively used in optoelectronics, microelectronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) industries. The combination of these materials often go hand in hand for applications in MEMS such as in chips for pressure sensors, charge coupled devices (CCD), and photovoltaic (PV) cells for solar energy generation. The transparent negative terminal of the solar cell is made of glass on one surface of the PV cell. The positive terminal (cathode) on the other surface of the solar cell is made of silicon with a glass negative terminal (anode). The digital watches and cell phones, LEDs, micro-lens, optical components, and laser optics are other examples for the application of silicon and or glass. The Si and quartz are materials extensively used in CCD and LED for digital cameras and CD players respectively. Hence, three materials: (1) a semiconductor silicon and transparent dielectrics,- (2) glass, and (3) quartz are chosen for laser micromachining as they have wide spread applications in microelectronics industry. The Q-switched, nanosecond pulsed lasers are most extensively used for micro-machining. The nanosecond type of short pulsed laser is less expensive for the end users than the second type, pico or femto, ultra-short pulsed lasers. The majority of the research work done on these materials (Si, SiO 2, and glass) is based on the ultra-short pulsed lasers. This is because of the cut quality, pin point precision of the drilled holes, formation of the nanometer size microstructures and fine features, and minimally invasive heat affected zone. However, there are many applications such as large surface area dicing, cutting, surface cleaning of Si wafers by ablation, and drilling of relatively large-sized holes where some associated heat affected zone due to melting can be tolerated. In such applications the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of materials is very

  16. Studying the mechanism of micromachining by short pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadag, Shiva

    The semiconductor materials like Si and the transparent dielectric materials like glass and quartz are extensively used in optoelectronics, microelectronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) industries. The combination of these materials often go hand in hand for applications in MEMS such as in chips for pressure sensors, charge coupled devices (CCD), and photovoltaic (PV) cells for solar energy generation. The transparent negative terminal of the solar cell is made of glass on one surface of the PV cell. The positive terminal (cathode) on the other surface of the solar cell is made of silicon with a glass negative terminal (anode). The digital watches and cell phones, LEDs, micro-lens, optical components, and laser optics are other examples for the application of silicon and or glass. The Si and quartz are materials extensively used in CCD and LED for digital cameras and CD players respectively. Hence, three materials: (1) a semiconductor silicon and transparent dielectrics,- (2) glass, and (3) quartz are chosen for laser micromachining as they have wide spread applications in microelectronics industry. The Q-switched, nanosecond pulsed lasers are most extensively used for micro-machining. The nanosecond type of short pulsed laser is less expensive for the end users than the second type, pico or femto, ultra-short pulsed lasers. The majority of the research work done on these materials (Si, SiO 2, and glass) is based on the ultra-short pulsed lasers. This is because of the cut quality, pin point precision of the drilled holes, formation of the nanometer size microstructures and fine features, and minimally invasive heat affected zone. However, there are many applications such as large surface area dicing, cutting, surface cleaning of Si wafers by ablation, and drilling of relatively large-sized holes where some associated heat affected zone due to melting can be tolerated. In such applications the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of materials is very

  17. High-speed femtosecond laser beam shaping based on binary holography using a digital micromirror device.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiyi; Gu, Chenglin; Zhang, Dapeng; Chen, Shih-Chi

    2015-11-01

    In this Letter, we present a digital micromirror device (DMD)-based ultrafast beam shaper, i.e., DUBS. To our knowledge, the DUBS is the first binary laser beam shaper that can generate high-resolution (1140×912 pixels) arbitrary beam modes for femtosecond lasers at a rate of 4.2 kHz; the resolution and pattern rate are limited by the DMD. In the DUBS, the spectrum of the input pulsed laser is first angularly dispersed by a transmission grating and subsequently imaged to a DMD with beam modulation patterns; the transmission grating and a high-reflectivity mirror together compensate the angular dispersion introduced by the DMD. The mode of the output beam is monitored by a CCD camera. In the experiments, the DUBS is programmed to generate four different beam modes, including an Airy beam, Bessel beam, Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam, and a custom-designed "peace-dove" beam via the principle of binary holography. To verify the high shaping rate, the Airy beam and LG beam are generated alternately at 4.2 kHz, i.e., the maximum pattern rate of our DMD. The overall efficiency of the DUBS is measured to be 4.7%. With the high-speed and high-resolution beam-shaping capability, the DUBS may find important applications in nonlinear microscopy, optical manipulation, and microscale/nanoscale laser machining, etc.

  18. Progress and issues for high-speed vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lear, Kevin L.; Al-Omari, Ahmad N.

    2007-02-01

    Extrinsic electrical, thermal, and optical issues rather than intrinsic factors currently constrain the maximum bandwidth of directly modulated vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). Intrinsic limits based on resonance frequency, damping, and K-factor analysis are summarized. Previous reports are used to compare parasitic circuit values and electrical 3dB bandwidths and thermal resistances. A correlation between multimode operation and junction heating with bandwidth saturation is presented. The extrinsic factors motivate modified bottom-emitting structures with no electrical pads, small mesas, copper plated heatsinks, and uniform current injection. Selected results on high speed quantum well and quantum dot VCSELs at 850 nm, 980 nm, and 1070 nm are reviewed including small-signal 3dB frequencies up to 21.5 GHz and bit rates up to 30 Gb/s.

  19. Technology of High-speed Direct Laser Deposition from Ni-based Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimova-Korsmik, Olga; Turichin, Gleb; Zemlyakov, Evgeniy; Babkin, Konstantin; Petrovsky, Pavel; Travyanov, Andrey

    Recently, additive manufacturing is the one of most perspective technologies; it can replace conventional methods of casting and subsequent time-consuming machining. One of the most interesting additive technologies - high-speed direct laser deposition (HSDLD) allows realizing heterophase process during the manufacturing, which there is process takes place with a partial melting of powder. This is particularly important for materials, which are sensitive to strong fluctuations of temperature treatment regimes, like nickel base alloys with high content of gamma prime phase. This alloys are interested for many industrial areas, mostly there are used in engine systems, aircraft and shipbuilding, aeronautics. Heating and cooling rates during the producing process determine structure and affect on its properties. Using HSDLD process it possible to make a products from Ni superalloys with ultrafine microstructure and satisfactory mechanical characteristics without special subsequent heatreatment.

  20. High-speed laser-assisted cutting of strong transparent materials using picosecond Bessel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, M. K.; Jedrkiewicz, O.; Sabonis, V.; Mikutis, M.; Recchia, S.; Aprea, A.; Bollani, M.; Trapani, P. Di

    2015-08-01

    We report single-pass cutting of strong transparent glass materials of 700 μm thickness with a speed up to 270 mm/s using single-shot nanostructuring technique exploiting picosecond, zero-order Bessel beams at laser wavelength of 1030 nm. Particularly, we present results of a systematic study of cutting of tempered glass which has high resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks due to the inhomogeneous material properties along its thickness, and homogeneous glass that identify a unique focusing geometry and a finite pitch dependency, for which cutting with high quality and high reproducibility can be achieved. These results represent a significant advancement in the field of high-speed cutting of technologically important transparent materials.

  1. Experimental investigation by laser ultrasonics for high speed train axle diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Cavuto, A; Martarelli, M; Pandarese, G; Revel, G M; Tomasini, E P

    2015-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates the applicability of a laser-ultrasonic procedure to improve the performances of train axle ultrasonic inspection. The method exploits an air-coupled ultrasonic probe that detects the ultrasonic waves generated by a high-power pulsed laser. As a result, the measurement chain is completely non-contact, from generation to detection, this making it possible to considerably speed up inspection time and make the set-up more flexible. The main advantage of the technique developed is that it works in thermo-elastic regime and it therefore can be considered as a non-destructive method. The laser-ultrasonic procedure investigated has been applied for the inspection of a real high speed train axle provided by the Italian railway company (Trenitalia), on which typical fatigue defects have been expressly created according to standard specifications. A dedicated test bench has been developed so as to rotate the axle with the angle control and to speed up the inspection of the axle surface. The laser-ultrasonic procedure proposed can be automated and is potentially suitable for regular inspection of train axles. The main achievements of the activity described in this paper are: – the study of the effective applicability of laser-ultrasonics for the diagnostic of train hollow axles with variable sections by means of a numerical FE model, – the carrying out of an automated experiment on a real train axle, – the analysis of the sensitivity to experimental parameters, like laser source – receiving probe distance and receiving probe angular position, – the demonstration that the technique is suitable for the detection of surface defects purposely created on the train axle.

  2. A 5-mm piezo-scanning fiber device for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Yildirim, Murat; Subramanian, Kaushik; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2014-01-01

    Towards developing precise microsurgery tools for the clinic, we previously developed image-guided miniaturized devices using low repetition rate amplified ultrafast lasers for surgery. To improve the speed of tissue removal while reducing device diameter, here we present a new 5-mm diameter device that delivers high-repetition rate laser pulses for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery. The device consists of an air-core photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) for the delivery of high energy pulses, a piezoelectric tube actuator for fiber scanning, and two aspheric lenses for focusing the light. Its inline optical architecture provides easy alignment and substantial size reduction to 5 mm diameter as compared to our previous MEMS-scanning devices while realizing improved intensity squared (two-photon) lateral and axial resolutions of 1.16 μm and 11.46 μm, respectively. Our study also sheds light on the maximum pulse energies that can be delivered through the air-core PBF and identifies cladding damage at the input facet of the fiber as the limiting factor. We have achieved a maximum energy delivery larger than 700 nJ at 92% coupling efficiency. An in depth analysis reveals how this value is greatly affected by possible slight misalignments of the beam during coupling and the measured small beam pointing fluctuations. In the absence of these imperfections, self-phase modulation becomes the limiting factor for the maximum energy delivery, setting the theoretical upper bound to near 2 μJ for a 1-m long, 7-μm, air-core PBF. Finally, the use of a 300 kHz repetition rate fiber laser enabled rapid ablation of 150 µm x 150 µm area within only 50 ms. Such ablation speeds can now allow the surgeons to translate the surgery device as fast as ~4 mm/s to continuously remove a thin layer of a 150 µm wide tissue. Thanks to a high optical transmission efficiency of the in-line optical architecture of the device and improved resolution, we could successfully perform ablation of

  3. A 5-mm piezo-scanning fiber device for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Ferhanoglu, Onur; Yildirim, Murat; Subramanian, Kaushik; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2014-07-01

    Towards developing precise microsurgery tools for the clinic, we previously developed image-guided miniaturized devices using low repetition rate amplified ultrafast lasers for surgery. To improve the speed of tissue removal while reducing device diameter, here we present a new 5-mm diameter device that delivers high-repetition rate laser pulses for high speed ultrafast laser microsurgery. The device consists of an air-core photonic bandgap fiber (PBF) for the delivery of high energy pulses, a piezoelectric tube actuator for fiber scanning, and two aspheric lenses for focusing the light. Its inline optical architecture provides easy alignment and substantial size reduction to 5 mm diameter as compared to our previous MEMS-scanning devices while realizing improved intensity squared (two-photon) lateral and axial resolutions of 1.16 μm and 11.46 μm, respectively. Our study also sheds light on the maximum pulse energies that can be delivered through the air-core PBF and identifies cladding damage at the input facet of the fiber as the limiting factor. We have achieved a maximum energy delivery larger than 700 nJ at 92% coupling efficiency. An in depth analysis reveals how this value is greatly affected by possible slight misalignments of the beam during coupling and the measured small beam pointing fluctuations. In the absence of these imperfections, self-phase modulation becomes the limiting factor for the maximum energy delivery, setting the theoretical upper bound to near 2 μJ for a 1-m long, 7-μm, air-core PBF. Finally, the use of a 300 kHz repetition rate fiber laser enabled rapid ablation of 150 µm x 150 µm area within only 50 ms. Such ablation speeds can now allow the surgeons to translate the surgery device as fast as ~4 mm/s to continuously remove a thin layer of a 150 µm wide tissue. Thanks to a high optical transmission efficiency of the in-line optical architecture of the device and improved resolution, we could successfully perform ablation of

  4. Longitudinal Mode Control, Wavelength Tuning and High-Speed Modulation in Semiconductor Integrated ETALON Interference Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antreasyan, Arsam

    In this dissertation a new GaAs-GaAlAs double -heterostructure, interferometric semiconductor laser, the Integrated Etalon Interference (IEI) laser, is presented. This laser consists of one curved waveguide joined at both ends to two straight waveguides. The interference is caused by the internal reflection and lateral mode conversion at the junction discontinuity between the straight and curved segments. Strong lateral index confinement is provided by the fabrication of a buried heterostructure type laser cavity involving a two-step liquid phase epitaxial growth procedure. The laser is operable for several purposes. Under uniform pumping very stable single longitudinal mode operation has been obtained with a wavelength locking range up to 23(DEGREES)C within which the wavelength changes at a rate of 0.5-0.6 angstrom/(DEGREES)C. Under separate pumping discrete wavelength tuning up to 90 angstroms and continuous wavelength tuning up to 4 angstroms has been achieved making the laser very attractive for applications in state of the art optical communication systems. Furthermore, under separate pumping a wavelength locking range up to 17(DEGREES)C has been obtained. In addition, high-speed direct injection current modulation experiments reveal a fast response capability of the IEI laser in the gigahertz range. Under small-signal modulation 3dB bandwidth of 1.8 GHz at I/I(,th) = 1.115 has been measured. Also the laser has maintained single longitudinal mode operation up to an optical modulation depth of 45% under 1.5 GHz modulation. An intermodal coupling analysis has been carried out which involves the expansion of the unknown field at the junction discontinuity both in terms of the eigenmodes of the straight and curved waveguide. By satisfying the continuity conditions for the lateral field components of the magnetic and electric fields an integral equation is obtained which is solved subsequently by the method of moments. The results of this analysis are utilized to

  5. Fast spectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with high-speed tunable picosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Cahyadi, Harsono; Iwatsuka, Junichi; Minamikawa, Takeo; Niioka, Hirohiko; Araki, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Mamoru

    2013-09-01

    We develop a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy system equipped with a tunable picosecond laser for high-speed wavelength scanning. An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is integrated in the laser cavity to enable wavelength scanning by varying the radio frequency waves applied to the AOTF crystal. An end mirror attached on a piezoelectric actuator and a pair of parallel plates driven by galvanometer motors are also introduced into the cavity to compensate for changes in the cavity length during wavelength scanning to allow synchronization with another picosecond laser. We demonstrate fast spectral imaging of 3T3-L1 adipocytes every 5  cm-1 in the Raman spectral region around 2850  cm-1 with an image acquisition time of 120 ms. We also demonstrate fast switching of Raman shifts between 2100 and 2850  cm-1, corresponding to CD2 symmetric stretching and CH2 symmetric stretching vibrations, respectively. The fast-switching CARS images reveal different locations of recrystallized deuterated and nondeuterated stearic acid.

  6. Fast spectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with high-speed tunable picosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Cahyadi, Harsono; Iwatsuka, Junichi; Minamikawa, Takeo; Niioka, Hirohiko; Araki, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Mamoru

    2013-09-01

    We develop a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy system equipped with a tunable picosecond laser for high-speed wavelength scanning. An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is integrated in the laser cavity to enable wavelength scanning by varying the radio frequency waves applied to the AOTF crystal. An end mirror attached on a piezoelectric actuator and a pair of parallel plates driven by galvanometer motors are also introduced into the cavity to compensate for changes in the cavity length during wavelength scanning to allow synchronization with another picosecond laser. We demonstrate fast spectral imaging of 3T3-L1 adipocytes every 5  cm-1 in the Raman spectral region around 2850  cm-1 with an image acquisition time of 120 ms. We also demonstrate fast switching of Raman shifts between 2100 and 2850  cm-1, corresponding to CD2 symmetric stretching and CH2 symmetric stretching vibrations, respectively. The fast-switching CARS images reveal different locations of recrystallized deuterated and nondeuterated stearic acid. PMID:24013358

  7. UV laser micromachining of silicon, indium phosphide and lithium niobate for telecommunications applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greuters, Jako; Rizvi, Nadeem H.

    2003-03-01

    The laser micromachining characteristics of indium phosphide, lithium niobate and silicon have been characterised using a 355nm neodymium vanadate laser and 193nm and 248nm excimer lasers. Etch rates for these materials are presented at the different laser wavelengths. High quality cutting of the three materials is demonstrated with the 355nm laser and an excimer laser mask projection method is subsequently used to micromachine precision V-grooves as fibre placement structures. Silicon microbenches, used for the integration of multiple-function devices, are also produced using the 355nm laser.

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; McCallum, Thomas J.

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  9. Fabrication of Microhotplates Based on Laser Micromachining of Zirconium Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblov, Konstantin; Ivanova, Anastasia; Soloviev, Sergey; Samotaev, Nikolay; Lipilin, Alexandr; Vasiliev, Alexey; Sokolov, Andrey

    We present a novel approach to the fabrication of MEMS devices, which can be used for gas sensors operating in harsh environment in wireless and autonomous information systems. MEMS platforms based on ZrO2/Y2O3 (YSZ) are applied in these devices. The methods of ceramic MEMS devices fabrication with laser micromachining are considered. It is shown that the application of YSZ membranes permits a decrease in MEMS power consumption at 4500C down to ∼75 mW at continuous heating and down to ∼ 1 mW at pulse heating mode. The application of the platforms is not restricted by gas sensors: they can be used for fast thermometers, bolometric matrices, flowmeteres and other MEMS devices working under harsh environmental conditions.

  10. Fabrication of waveguide spatial light modulators via femtosecond laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savidis, Nickolaos; Jolly, Sundeep; Datta, Bianca; Karydis, Thrasyvoulos; Bove, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    We have previously introduced an anisotropic leaky-mode modulator as a waveguide-based, acousto-optic solution for spatial light modulation in holographic video display systems. Waveguide fabrication for these and similar surface acoustic wave devices relies on proton exchange of a lithium niobate substrate, which involves the immersion of the substrate in an acid melt. While simple and effective, waveguide depth and index profiles resulting from proton exchange are often non-uniform over the device length or inconsistent between waveguides fabricated at different times using the same melt and annealing parameters. In contrast to proton exchange, direct writing of waveguides has the appeal of simplifying fabrication (as these methods are inherently maskless) and the potential of fine and consistent control over waveguide depth and index profiles. In this paper, we explore femtosecond laser micromachining as an alternative to proton exchange in the fabrication of waveguides for anisotropic leaky-mode modulators.

  11. True color blood flow imaging using a high-speed laser photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Sun, Yung-Nien; Ho, Chung-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Chi

    2012-10-01

    Physiological changes in the retinal vasculature are commonly indicative of such disorders as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Thus, various methods have been developed for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics. However, to the best of our knowledge, current ophthalmic instruments do not provide a true color blood flow imaging capability. Accordingly, we propose a new method for the true color imaging of blood flow using a high-speed pulsed laser photography system. In the proposed approach, monochromatic images of the blood flow are acquired using a system of three cameras and three color lasers (red, green, and blue). A high-quality true color image of the blood flow is obtained by assembling the monochromatic images by means of image realignment and color calibration processes. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by imaging the flow of mouse blood within a microfluidic channel device. The experimental results confirm the proposed system provides a high-quality true color blood flow imaging capability, and therefore has potential for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics.

  12. High-speed laser microsurgery of alert fruit flies for fluorescence imaging of neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Supriyo; Liang, Liang; Ho, Eric T. W.; Urbanek, Karel E.; Luo, Liqun; Baer, Thomas M.; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a key means of monitoring cellular function in live organisms, but surgical preparation of a live animal for microscopy often is time-consuming, requires considerable skill, and limits experimental throughput. Here we introduce a spatially precise (<1-µm edge precision), high-speed (<1 s), largely automated, and economical protocol for microsurgical preparation of live animals for optical imaging. Using a 193-nm pulsed excimer laser and the fruit fly as a model, we created observation windows (12- to 350-µm diameters) in the exoskeleton. Through these windows we used two-photon microscopy to image odor-evoked Ca2+ signaling in projection neuron dendrites of the antennal lobe and Kenyon cells of the mushroom body. The impact of a laser-cut window on fly health appears to be substantially less than that of conventional manual dissection, for our imaging durations of up to 18 h were ∼5–20 times longer than prior in vivo microscopy studies of hand-dissected flies. This improvement will facilitate studies of numerous questions in neuroscience, such as those regarding neuronal plasticity or learning and memory. As a control, we used phototaxis as an exemplary complex behavior in flies and found that laser microsurgery is sufficiently gentle to leave it intact. To demonstrate that our techniques are applicable to other species, we created microsurgical openings in nematodes, ants, and the mouse cranium. In conjunction with emerging robotic methods for handling and mounting flies or other small organisms, our rapid, precisely controllable, and highly repeatable microsurgical techniques should enable automated, high-throughput preparation of live animals for optical experimentation. PMID:24167298

  13. High-speed laser microsurgery of alert fruit flies for fluorescence imaging of neural activity.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Supriyo; Liang, Liang; Ho, Eric T W; Urbanek, Karel E; Luo, Liqun; Baer, Thomas M; Schnitzer, Mark J

    2013-11-12

    Intravital microscopy is a key means of monitoring cellular function in live organisms, but surgical preparation of a live animal for microscopy often is time-consuming, requires considerable skill, and limits experimental throughput. Here we introduce a spatially precise (<1-µm edge precision), high-speed (<1 s), largely automated, and economical protocol for microsurgical preparation of live animals for optical imaging. Using a 193-nm pulsed excimer laser and the fruit fly as a model, we created observation windows (12- to 350-µm diameters) in the exoskeleton. Through these windows we used two-photon microscopy to image odor-evoked Ca(2+) signaling in projection neuron dendrites of the antennal lobe and Kenyon cells of the mushroom body. The impact of a laser-cut window on fly health appears to be substantially less than that of conventional manual dissection, for our imaging durations of up to 18 h were ∼5-20 times longer than prior in vivo microscopy studies of hand-dissected flies. This improvement will facilitate studies of numerous questions in neuroscience, such as those regarding neuronal plasticity or learning and memory. As a control, we used phototaxis as an exemplary complex behavior in flies and found that laser microsurgery is sufficiently gentle to leave it intact. To demonstrate that our techniques are applicable to other species, we created microsurgical openings in nematodes, ants, and the mouse cranium. In conjunction with emerging robotic methods for handling and mounting flies or other small organisms, our rapid, precisely controllable, and highly repeatable microsurgical techniques should enable automated, high-throughput preparation of live animals for optical experimentation. PMID:24167298

  14. World record in high speed laser surface microstructuring of polymer and steel using direct laser interference patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Valentin; Roch, Teja; Lasagni, Andrés. F.

    2016-03-01

    Periodic surfaces structures with micrometer or submicrometer resolution produced on the surface of components can be used to improve their mechanical, biological or optical properties. In particular, these surfaces can control the tribological performance of parts, for instance in the automotive industry. In the last years, substantial efforts have been made to develop new technologies capable to produce functionalized surfaces. One of these technologies is the Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) technology, which permits to combine high fabrication speed with high resolution even in the sub-micrometer range. In DLIP, a laser beam is split into two or more coherent beams which are guided to interfere on the work piece surface. This causes modulated laser intensities over the component's surface, enabling the direct fabrication of a periodic pattern based on selective laser ablation or melting. Depending on the angle between the laser beams and the wavelength of the laser, the pattern's spatial period can be perfectly controlled. In this study, we introduce new modular DLIP optical heads, developed at the Fraunhofer IWS and the Technische Universität Dresden for high-speed surface laser patterning of polymers and metals. For the first time it is shown that effective patterning speeds of up to 0.90 m2/min and 0.36 m2/min are possible on polymer and metals, respectively. Line- and dot-like surface architectures with spatial periods between 7 μm and 22 μm are shown.

  15. High-speed response to laser heating and cooling in thermo-magnetic writing on magneto-optical disk memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kazutomo; Saito, Jun; Akasaka, Hideki

    1994-10-01

    In order to use Magneto-Optical (MO) media for multi media applications, it is necessary to achieve higher density, higher data transfer rate and lower cost technologies than current MO media. MO recording is thermo- magnetic recording. MO recordings makes use of temperature modulation caused by light intensity modulation from the laser diode for recording. So, it is important to realize high speed response to the light intensity modulation for high data transfer rate recording. The high speed response is also indispensable to make small magnetic domains. So, it is important for high density recording, too. We investigate the temperature response to the light intensity modulation on MO disk. consequently, we found that MO medium shows the high speed response when the laser spot scanning velocity is large.

  16. A laser-induced heat flux technique for convective heat transfer measurements in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. R.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Hingst, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the local convective heat transfer coefficient on a model surface in a supersonic flow field. The technique uses a laser to apply a discrete local heat flux at the model test surface, and an infrared camera system determines the local temperature distribution due to the heating. From this temperature distribution and an analysis of the heating process, a local convective heat transfer coefficient is determined. The technique was used to measure the local surface convective heat transfer coefficient distribution on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The flat plate boundary layer initially was laminar and became transitional in the measurement region. The experimentally determined convective heat transfer coefficients were generally higher than the theoretical predictions for flat plate laminar boundary layers. However, the results indicate that this nonintrusive optical measurement technique has the potential to measure surface convective heat transfer coefficients in high speed flow fields.

  17. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited).

    PubMed

    Nagel, S R; Hilsabeck, T J; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Ayers, M J; Piston, K; Felker, B; Kilkenny, J D; Chung, T; Sammuli, B; Hares, J D; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L

    2014-11-01

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2-17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10(17). We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments. PMID:25430346

  18. Investigation of combustion dynamics in a cavity-based combustor with high-speed laser diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Pradip; Vandel, Alexis; Godard, Gilles; Renou, Bruno; Grisch, Frédéric; Cabot, Gilles; Boukhalfa, Mourad A.; Cazalens, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the flame/flow interaction produced in an optically accessible, premixed, and staged cavity-based combustor was investigated with high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and OH-planar laser-induced fluorescence (OH-PLIF) . The combined PIV and OH-PLIF images were recorded at 2.5 kHz to assess stabilization mechanisms occurring between the cavity and the mainstream. Dynamic pressure and global heat-release rate fluctuations were complementary measured. Important characteristics were identified for two operating conditions, differing from the ratio of momentum J (taken between the mainstream and the cavity jet): a high ratio of momentum (J = 7.1) produced a "stable" flow, whereas a lower one (J = 2.8) displayed "unstable" conditions. Analysis of the "unstable" case revealed an intense flow instability, primarily due to premixed flow rate fluctuations inside the cavity. This effect is confirmed from a proper orthogonal decomposition analysis of PIV data, which illustrates the prominent role of large-scale flow oscillations in the whole combustor. Furthermore, the simultaneous analysis of flow velocities and gas state (either unburned or burned) displayed important fluctuations inside the shear layer, reducing effective flame-holding capabilities. By contrast, the increase in the ratio of momentum in the "stable" case reduces significantly the penetration of the cavity flow into the mainstream and consequently produces stable properties of the shear layer, being valuable to considerably improve flame stabilization.

  19. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, S. R. Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B.; Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.

    2014-11-15

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2–17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  20. Femtosecond laser micromachining of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based piezo films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seongkuk; Bordatchev, Evgueni V.; Zeman, Marco J. F.

    2008-04-01

    Piezoelectric polymers have been known to exist for more than 40 years, but in recent years they have been recognized as smart materials for the fabrication of microsensors, microactuators and other micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). In this work, femtosecond laser micromachining of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film, coated with NiCu on both sides, has been studied to understand selective patterning mechanisms of NiCu layers and ablation characteristics of PVDF films. A detailed characterization of morphological changes of the laser-irradiated areas has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Through morphological analysis, the multiple shot damage thresholds of a 28 µm thick PVDF film and 40 nm thick NiCu layer have been determined. Surface morphology examination indicates that NiCu layers are removed from the PVDF film through a sequence of cracking-peeling off-curling. In addition, the NiCu layer on the rear side was also removed by the partially transmitted laser energy. The PVDF film was removed in forms of bundles of filaments and solid fragments by a combination of pure ablation and explosive removal of material by bursting of bubbles; the role of the explosive removal becomes more dominant with the increase of laser fluence. Optimal process conditions for cutting of the PVDF film and patterning of the NiCu coating without damaging the PVDF polymer have been established and applied to fabricate a vibration microsensor prototype that shows significant potential in using PVDF-based functional microdevices for telecommunications, transportation and biomedical applications.

  1. Micromachining with a 50 W, 50 muJ, subpicosecond fiber laser system.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lawrence; Fermann, Martin E; Dawson, Jay W; Barty, Christopher P J

    2006-12-11

    A 50 W sub-picosecond fiber chirped pulse amplification system generating 50 muJ pulses at a repetition rate of 1 MHz is demonstrated. As required for precision high speed micro-machining, this system has a practical system configuration enabled by the fiber stretcher and 1780 l/mm dielectric diffraction grating compressor and is capable of ablation rates >0.17 mm3/s metal, ceramic, and glass.

  2. Scaling ablation rates for picosecond lasers using burst micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappe, Ralf; Haloui, Hatim; Seifert, Albert; Weis, Alexander; Nebel, Achim

    2010-02-01

    High-precision micromachining with picosecond lasers became an established process. Power scaling led to industrial lasers, generating average power levels well above 50 W for applications like structuring turbine blades, micro moulds, and solar cells. In this paper we report, how a smart distribution of energy into groups of pulses can significantly improve ablation rates for some materials, also providing a better surface quality. Machining micro moulds in stainless steel, a net ablation rate of ~1 mm3/min is routinely achieved, e.g. using pulse energy of 200 μJ at a repetition rate of 200 kHz. This is industrial standard, and demonstrates an improvement by two orders of magnitude over the recent years. When the energy was distributed to a burst of 10 pulses (25 μJ), repeated with 200 kHz, the ablation rate of stainless steel was 5 times higher with the same 50 W average power. Bursts of 10 pulses repeated with 1 MHz (5 μJ) even resulted in an ablation rate as high as 12 mm3/min. In addition, optimized pulse delays achieved a reduction of the surface roughness by one order of magnitude, providing Ra values as low as 200 nm. Similar results were performed machining silicon, scaling the ablation rate from 1.2 mm3/min (1 pulse, 250 μJ, 200 kHz) to 15 mm3/min (6 pulses, 8 μJ, 1 MHz). Burst machining of ceramics, copper and glass did not change ablation rates, only improved surface quality. For glass machining, we achieved record-high ablation rates of >50 mm3/min, using a new state-of-the-art laser which could generate >70 W of average power and repetition rates as high as 2 MHz.

  3. High-Speed Photography

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-08-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}

  4. Laser micromachined hybrid open/paper microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Chumo, B; Muluneh, M; Issadore, D

    2013-01-01

    Paper-based microfluidics are an increasingly popular alternative to devices with conventional open channel geometries. The low cost of fabrication and the absence of external instrumentation needed to drive paper microchannels make them especially well suited for medical diagnostics in resource-limited settings. Despite the advantages of paper microfluidics, many assays performed using conventional open channel microfluidics are challenging to translate onto paper, such as bead, emulsion, and cell-based assays. To overcome this challenge, we have developed a hybrid open-channel/paper channel microfluidic device. In this design, wick-driven paper channels control the flow rates within conventional microfluidics. We fabricate these hybrid chips using laser-micromachined polymer sheets and filter paper. In contrast to previous efforts that utilized external, macroscopic paper-based pumps, we integrated micro-scale paper and open channels onto a single chip to control multiple open channels and control complex laminar flow-pattern within individual channels. We demonstrated that flow patterns within the open channels can be quantitatively controlled by modulating the geometry of the paper channels, and that these flow rates agree with Darcy's law. The utility of these hybrid chips, for applications such as bead-, cell-, or emulsion-based assays, was demonstrated by constructing a hybrid chip that hydrodynamically focused micrometer-sized polystyrene beads stably for >10 min, as well as cells, without external instrumentation to drive fluid flow.

  5. Thermoelectric Device Fabrication Using Thermal Spray and Laser Micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder; Fu, Gaosheng; Hwang, David J.; Zuo, Lei; Sampath, Sanjay; Longtin, Jon P.

    2016-02-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are used in many engineering applications such as vehicle and industrial waste-heat recovery systems to provide electrical power, improve operating efficiency and reduce costs. State-of-art TEG manufacturing is based on prefabricated materials and a labor-intensive process involving soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping for assembly. This reduces their durability and raises costs. Additive manufacturing technologies, such as thermal spray, present opportunities to overcome these challenges. In this work, TEGs have been fabricated for the first time using thermal spray technology and laser micromachining. The TEGs are fabricated directly onto engineering component surfaces. First, current fabrication techniques of TEGs are presented. Next, the steps required to fabricate a thermal spray-based TEG module, including the formation of the metallic interconnect layers and the thermoelectric legs are presented. A technique for bridging the air gap between two adjacent thermoelectric elements for the top layer using a sacrificial filler material is also demonstrated. A flat 50.8 mm × 50.8 mm TEG module is fabricated using this method and its performance is experimentally characterized and found to be in agreement with expected values of open-circuit voltage based on the materials used.

  6. >400 kHz repetition rate wavelength-swept laser and application to high-speed optical frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Vakoc, Benjamin J; Shishkov, Milen; Tearney, Guillermo J; Bouma, Brett E

    2010-09-01

    We demonstrate a high-speed wavelength-swept laser with a tuning range of 104 nm (1228-1332 nm) and a repetition rate of 403 kHz. The design of the laser utilizes a high-finesse polygon-based wavelength-scanning filter and a short-length unidirectional ring resonator. Optical frequency domain imaging of the human skin in vivo is presented using this laser, and the system shows sensitivity of higher than 98 dB with single-side ranging depth of 1.7 mm over 4 dB sensitivity roll-off.

  7. New developments and applications in the production of 3D microstructures by laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizvi, Nadeem H.; Rumsby, Phil T.; Gower, Malcolm C.

    1999-11-01

    Micro-machining techniques using pulsed lasers are currently being applied world-wise in many diverse industrial application areas including biomedical devices, printers, flat-panel displays, semiconductors devices and telecommunication systems. In particular, the use of excimer lasers has been at the forefront of the new developments in the manufacture of complex micro-structures for the production of micro-optical-electro-mechanical-systems units such as nozzles, optical devices and sensors. This paper reviews the fundamentals of excimer laser micromachining techniques and details recent developments which have enhanced the capabilities of these approaches. Application areas where these techniques are of interest are highlighted.

  8. High speed, intermediate resolution, large area laser beam induced current imaging and laser scribing system for photovoltaic devices and modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Adam B.; Song, Zhaoning; DeWitt, Jonathan L.; Stone, Jon M.; Krantz, Patrick W.; Royston, John M.; Zeller, Ryan M.; Mapes, Meghan R.; Roland, Paul J.; Dorogi, Mark D.; Zafar, Syed; Faykosh, Gary T.; Ellingson, Randy J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a laser beam induced current imaging tool for photovoltaic devices and modules that utilizes diode pumped Q-switched lasers. Power densities on the order of one sun (100 mW/cm2) can be produced in a ˜40 μm spot size by operating the lasers at low diode current and high repetition rate. Using galvanostatically controlled mirrors in an overhead configuration and high speed data acquisition, large areas can be scanned in short times. As the beam is rastered, focus is maintained on a flat plane with an electronically controlled lens that is positioned in a coordinated fashion with the movements of the mirrors. The system can also be used in a scribing mode by increasing the diode current and decreasing the repetition rate. In either mode, the instrument can accommodate samples ranging in size from laboratory scale (few cm2) to full modules (1 m2). Customized LabVIEW programs were developed to control the components and acquire, display, and manipulate the data in imaging mode.

  9. High speed imaging of an Er,Cr:YSGG laser in a model of a root canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; Blanken, Jan; van Heeswijk, Hans; de Roode, Rowland; Klaessens, John

    2007-02-01

    Laser systems of various wavelengths and pulse characteristics have been introduced in dentistry. At present, the range of applications for the different systems is being investigated mainly differentiating between soft and hard tissue applications. For the preparation of root canals both hard and soft tissues are involved. Ideally, one would like to use one laser system for the whole treatment. In this study, we studied the characteristics of the pulsed 2,78 Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Biolase, Waterlase Millenium), in view of root canal cleaning and desinfection. The laser energy was fiber delivered with fiber tip diameters from 400 μm down to 200 μm. Special thermal and high speed imaging techniques were applied in a transparent model of a tapered root canal and slices cut from human teeth. High speed imaging revealed the dynamics of an explosive vapor bubble at the tip of the Er laser in water and the root canal model. Typically for Erbium lasers, within a time span of several hundred μs, a longitudinal bubble expanded to maximum size of 5 mm length and 2 mm diameter at 100 mJ and imploded afterwards. In the root canal, the explosive bubble created turbulent high speed water streaming which resects soft tissue from the hard tissue. Thermal imaging showed the dynamics of all lasers heating of the canal wall up to several mm depending on the wavelength and energy settings. The mechanism of smear layer removal and sterilization in the root canal, is attributed to cavitation effects induced by the pulsed laser. The heat generation into the dentine wall was minimal.

  10. Calibration of ultra high speed laser engraving processes by correlating influencing variables including correlative evaluation with SEM and CLSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Markus; Vaupel, Matthias; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    Laser engraving is used for decades as a well-established process e. g. for the production of print and embossing forms for many goods in daily life, e. g. decorated cans and printed bank notes. Up to now it is more or less a so-called fire-and-forget process. From the original artist's plan to the digitization, then from the laser source itself (with electronic signals, RF and plasma discharge regarding CO2 lasers) to the behavior of the optical beam delivery — especially if an AOM is used — to the interaction of the laser beam with the material itself is a long process chain. The most recent results using CO2 lasers with AOMs and the research done with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) — as a set for correlative microscopy to evaluate the high speed engraving characteristics — are presented in this paper.

  11. High-speed two-dimensional laser scanner based on Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive glass.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Arain, Muzammil A; Riza, Nabeel A

    2003-09-10

    A high-speed free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner with high-speed wavelength selection coupled with narrowband volume Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive (PTR) glass is reported. The proposed scanner with no moving parts has a modular design with a wide angular scan range, accurate beam pointing, low scanner insertion loss, and two-dimensional beam scan capabilities. We present a complete analysis and design procedure for storing multiple tilted Bragg-grating structures in a single PTR glass volume (for normal incidence) in an optimal fashion. Because the scanner design is modular, many PTR glass volumes (each having multiple tilted Bragg-grating structures) can be stacked together, providing an efficient throughput with operations in both the visible and the infrared (IR) regions. A proof-of-concept experimental study is conducted with four Bragg gratings in independent PTR glass plates, and both visible and IR region scanner operations are demonstrated.

  12. High-speed two-dimensional laser scanner based on Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive glass.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Arain, Muzammil A; Riza, Nabeel A

    2003-09-10

    A high-speed free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner with high-speed wavelength selection coupled with narrowband volume Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive (PTR) glass is reported. The proposed scanner with no moving parts has a modular design with a wide angular scan range, accurate beam pointing, low scanner insertion loss, and two-dimensional beam scan capabilities. We present a complete analysis and design procedure for storing multiple tilted Bragg-grating structures in a single PTR glass volume (for normal incidence) in an optimal fashion. Because the scanner design is modular, many PTR glass volumes (each having multiple tilted Bragg-grating structures) can be stacked together, providing an efficient throughput with operations in both the visible and the infrared (IR) regions. A proof-of-concept experimental study is conducted with four Bragg gratings in independent PTR glass plates, and both visible and IR region scanner operations are demonstrated. PMID:14503693

  13. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V

    2014-08-31

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  14. Visualization of hair follicles using high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a Fourier domain mode locking laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M.-T.; Chang, F.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system with a Fourier domain mode locking (FDML) laser is proposed for a dermatology study. The homemade FDML laser is one kind of frequency-sweeping light source, which can provide output power of >20 mW and an output spectrum of 65 nm in bandwidth centered at 1300 nm, enabling imaging with an axial resolution of 12 μm in the OCT system. To eliminate the forward scans from the laser output and insert the delayed backward scans, a Mach-Zehnder configuration is implemented. Compared with conventional frequency-sweeping light sources, the FDML laser can achieve much higher scan rates, as high as ˜240 kHz, which can provide a three-dimensional imaging rate of 4 volumes/s. Furthermore, the proposed high-speed SS-OCT system can provide three-dimensional (3D) images with reduced motion artifacts. Finally, a high-speed SS-OCT system is used to visualize hair follicles, demonstrating the potential of this technology as a tool for noninvasive diagnosis of alopecia.

  15. Acoustic comparison of Er,Cr:YSGG laser and dental high speed handpiece for primary anterior tooth preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorden, Monserrat; Chen, Jung-Wei; Easley, Elisabeth; Li, Yiming; Kurti, R. Steven

    The acoustics of a dental hard tissue laser (Er,Cr:YSGG laser, Waterlase MD, Biolase, USA) and a traditional dental high speed hand piece (Midwest®, Dentsply International, USA) were compared in vitro using a simple approach that can be easily adapted for in vivo studies. Thirty one extracted caries and restoration free primary anterior teeth were selected. These teeth were sectioned along a symmetry axis to give two identical halves for use in a split study. These halves were randomly assigned to either the laser (experimental) or the high speed (control) group. A miniature electret microphone was coupled to the sample using a polymer and used to collect the acoustic signal at the interface of the pulp chamber. This signal was captured periodically by a digitizing oscilloscope and multiple traces were stored for subsequent analysis. 2x1x1mm3 preparations were made according to manufacturers recommendations for the given method. Each cavity was prepared by the same clinician and calibration tests were performed to ensure consistency. The measurements indicated that the peak acoustic pressures as well as cumulative acoustic effects (due to duty cycle) were significantly higher (P<0.001, T-test) with the dental hand piece than with the dental laser. Our study suggests the need for further investigations into the neurological implications of acoustic effects in dental patient care such as pain studies.

  16. Laser beam welding quality monitoring system based in high-speed (10 kHz) uncooled MWIR imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, Rodrigo; Vergara, German; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Fernández, Carlos; Villamayor, Víctor; Gómez, Luis; González-Camino, Maria; Baldasano, Arturo; Castro, G.; Arias, R.; Lapido, Y.; Rodríguez, J.; Romero, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    The combination of flexibility, productivity, precision and zero-defect manufacturing in future laser-based equipment are a major challenge that faces this enabling technology. New sensors for online monitoring and real-time control of laserbased processes are necessary for improving products quality and increasing manufacture yields. New approaches to fully automate processes towards zero-defect manufacturing demand smarter heads where lasers, optics, actuators, sensors and electronics will be integrated in a unique compact and affordable device. Many defects arising in laser-based manufacturing processes come from instabilities in the dynamics of the laser process. Temperature and heat dynamics are key parameters to be monitored. Low cost infrared imagers with high-speed of response will constitute the next generation of sensors to be implemented in future monitoring and control systems for laser-based processes, capable to provide simultaneous information about heat dynamics and spatial distribution. This work describes the result of using an innovative low-cost high-speed infrared imager based on the first quantum infrared imager monolithically integrated with Si-CMOS ROIC of the market. The sensor is able to provide low resolution images at frame rates up to 10 KHz in uncooled operation at the same cost as traditional infrared spot detectors. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the new sensor technology, a low-cost camera was assembled on a standard production laser welding head, allowing to register melting pool images at frame rates of 10 kHz. In addition, a specific software was developed for defect detection and classification. Multiple laser welding processes were recorded with the aim to study the performance of the system and its application to the real-time monitoring of laser welding processes. During the experiments, different types of defects were produced and monitored. The classifier was fed with the experimental images obtained. Self

  17. Simulation of excimer laser micromachined 3D surface using a CAD solid modeling package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hume, Richard G.; Iovenitti, Pio G.; Hayes, Jason P.; Harvey, Erol C.

    2002-11-01

    This paper describes the research on the development of a visualisation tool to generate 3D solid models of structures produced by micromachining using an excimer laser system. Currently, the development of part programs to achieve a desired microstructure is by a trial and error approach. This simulation tool assists designers and excimer machine programmers to produce microstructures using the excimer laser. Users can develop their microstructures and part programs with the assistance of digital prototypes rather than designing products using expensive laser micromachining equipment. The methods to simulate micromachining using the solid modelling package, SolidWorks, are described, and simulation and actual machined examples are reported. A basic knowledge of the solid modelling package is required to develop the simulations, and complex models take time to prepare, however, the development time can be minimised by working from previous simulations. The models developed can be parameterised so that families of designs can be investigated for little additional effort to optimise the design before committing to laser micromachining.

  18. Three-Dimensional Optical Reconstruction of Vocal Fold Kinematics Using High-Speed Video With a Laser Projection System.

    PubMed

    Luegmair, Georg; Mehta, Daryush D; Kobler, James B; Döllinger, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Vocal fold kinematics and its interaction with aerodynamic characteristics play a primary role in acoustic sound production of the human voice. Investigating the temporal details of these kinematics using high-speed videoendoscopic imaging techniques has proven challenging in part due to the limitations of quantifying complex vocal fold vibratory behavior using only two spatial dimensions. Thus, we propose an optical method of reconstructing the superior vocal fold surface in three spatial dimensions using a high-speed video camera and laser projection system. Using stereo-triangulation principles, we extend the camera-laser projector method and present an efficient image processing workflow to generate the three-dimensional vocal fold surfaces during phonation captured at 4000 frames per second. Initial results are provided for airflow-driven vibration of an ex vivo vocal fold model in which at least 75% of visible laser points contributed to the reconstructed surface. The method captures the vertical motion of the vocal folds at a high accuracy to allow for the computation of three-dimensional mucosal wave features such as vibratory amplitude, velocity, and asymmetry.

  19. High-speed scanning of critical structures in aviation using coordinate measurement machine and the laser ultrasonic.

    PubMed

    Swornowski, Pawel J

    2012-01-01

    Aviation is one of the know-how spheres containing a great deal of responsible sub-assemblies, in this case landing gear. The necessity for reducing production cycle times while achieving better quality compels metrologists to look for new and improved ways to perform inspection of critical structures. This article describes the ability to determine the shape deviation and location of defects in landing gear using coordinate measuring machines and laser ultrasonic with high-speed scanning. A nondestructive test is the basis for monitoring microcrack and corrosion propagation in the context of a damage-tolerant design approach. This article presents an overview of the basics and of the various metrological aspects of coordinate measurement and a nondestructive testing method in terms of high-speed scanning. The new test method (laser ultrasonic) promises to produce the necessary increase in inspection quality, but this is limited by the wide range of materials, geometries, and structure aeronautic parts used. A technique combining laser ultrasonic and F-SAFT (Fourier-Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) processing has been proposed for the detection of small defects buried in landing gear. The experimental results of landing gear inspection are also presented. PMID:22700384

  20. High-speed scanning of critical structures in aviation using coordinate measurement machine and the laser ultrasonic.

    PubMed

    Swornowski, Pawel J

    2012-01-01

    Aviation is one of the know-how spheres containing a great deal of responsible sub-assemblies, in this case landing gear. The necessity for reducing production cycle times while achieving better quality compels metrologists to look for new and improved ways to perform inspection of critical structures. This article describes the ability to determine the shape deviation and location of defects in landing gear using coordinate measuring machines and laser ultrasonic with high-speed scanning. A nondestructive test is the basis for monitoring microcrack and corrosion propagation in the context of a damage-tolerant design approach. This article presents an overview of the basics and of the various metrological aspects of coordinate measurement and a nondestructive testing method in terms of high-speed scanning. The new test method (laser ultrasonic) promises to produce the necessary increase in inspection quality, but this is limited by the wide range of materials, geometries, and structure aeronautic parts used. A technique combining laser ultrasonic and F-SAFT (Fourier-Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) processing has been proposed for the detection of small defects buried in landing gear. The experimental results of landing gear inspection are also presented.

  1. Three-dimensional optical reconstruction of vocal fold kinematics using high-speed video with a laser projection system

    PubMed Central

    Luegmair, Georg; Mehta, Daryush D.; Kobler, James B.; Döllinger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Vocal fold kinematics and its interaction with aerodynamic characteristics play a primary role in acoustic sound production of the human voice. Investigating the temporal details of these kinematics using high-speed videoendoscopic imaging techniques has proven challenging in part due to the limitations of quantifying complex vocal fold vibratory behavior using only two spatial dimensions. Thus, we propose an optical method of reconstructing the superior vocal fold surface in three spatial dimensions using a high-speed video camera and laser projection system. Using stereo-triangulation principles, we extend the camera-laser projector method and present an efficient image processing workflow to generate the three-dimensional vocal fold surfaces during phonation captured at 4000 frames per second. Initial results are provided for airflow-driven vibration of an ex vivo vocal fold model in which at least 75% of visible laser points contributed to the reconstructed surface. The method captures the vertical motion of the vocal folds at a high accuracy to allow for the computation of three-dimensional mucosal wave features such as vibratory amplitude, velocity, and asymmetry. PMID:26087485

  2. High-speed laser-induced fluorescence and spark plug absorption sensor diagnostics for mixing and combustion studies in engines

    SciTech Connect

    Cundy, Michael; Schucht, Torsten; Thiele, Olaf; Sick, Volker

    2009-02-01

    Simultaneous high-speed in-cylinder measurements of laser-induced fluorescence of biacetyl as a fuel tracer and mid-infrared broadband absorption of fuel and combustion products (water and carbon dioxide) using a spark plug probe are compared in an optical engine. The study addresses uncertainties and the applicability of absorption measurements at a location slightly offset to the spark plug when information about mixing at the spark plug is desired. Absorbance profiles reflect important engine operation events, such as valve opening and closing, mixing, combustion, and outgassing from crevices.

  3. High speed three-dimensional laser scanner with real time processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Joseph P. (Inventor); Schuet, Stefan R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A laser scanner computes a range from a laser line to an imaging sensor. The laser line illuminates a detail within an area covered by the imaging sensor, the area having a first dimension and a second dimension. The detail has a dimension perpendicular to the area. A traverse moves a laser emitter coupled to the imaging sensor, at a height above the area. The laser emitter is positioned at an offset along the scan direction with respect to the imaging sensor, and is oriented at a depression angle with respect to the area. The laser emitter projects the laser line along the second dimension of the area at a position where a image frame is acquired. The imaging sensor is sensitive to laser reflections from the detail produced by the laser line. The imaging sensor images the laser reflections from the detail to generate the image frame. A computer having a pipeline structure is connected to the imaging sensor for reception of the image frame, and for computing the range to the detail using height, depression angle and/or offset. The computer displays the range to the area and detail thereon covered by the image frame.

  4. Polygon Scanner System for Ultra Short Pulsed Laser Micro-Machining Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Loor, R.

    Ultra short pulsed lasers have gained acceptance in micro-machining applications and many processes have been developed in the lab. Transferring the technology to the manufacturing floor started few years ago as soon as relatively high average power (> 5W) lasers became available. Now that high repetition rates and average powers of 50 Watt and more are reaching the market, the commercially available galvo based laser scanners systems limit the efficient use of this expensive laser power. We present a novel polygon based scanner system incorporating laser and scanner synchronization enabling writing speeds of 50 m/sec and higher.

  5. Metallic nanoparticles grown in the core of femtosecond laser micromachined waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J. M. P.; Ferreira, P. H. D.; Mendonça, C. R.; Manzani, D.; Napoli, M.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.

    2014-05-21

    3D-waveguides containing silver nanoparticles have been fabricated in tungsten lead–pyrophosphate glass by femtosecond laser micromachining. Nucleation and growth of nanoparticles occur in a single step process when high repetition rate laser (MHz) is employed, while an additional annealing is required for the irradiation using kHz laser system. The presence of nanoparticles locally changes the refractive index, and, therefore, the elliptical structures produced by direct laser writing were able to guide light. By increasing the pulse energy applied during the micromachining, the waveguide size increased from 2 to 30 μm, while their propagation loss decrease from 1.4 to 0.5 dB/mm at 632.8 nm.

  6. Micromachining of polyurethane (PU) polymer using a KrF excimer laser (248 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabpreet; Sharma, Sunil

    2014-12-01

    Polyurethane (PU) polymer, due to its biocompatibility, weather resistance, and favorable physical properties, finds a number of applications in medical implants, protective coatings, and as a prototype material for structural components in MEMS devices. An excimer laser (wavelength = 248 nm, FWHM = 25 ns) is employed for micromachining of polyurethane (PU) polymer. For air environment, the ablation rate is 0.18 μm/pulse and for underwater environment, the ablation rate is 0.07 μm/pulse (with underwater ablation threshold as 0.10 J/cm2), which concluded low taper angles (∼32°) for in air as compared to high taper angles (∼65°) with underwater micromachining. The experimental results for air and under water micromachining demonstrate ablation process as a combination of photo-thermal and photo-chemical mechanism.

  7. High-speed laser anemometer system for intrarotor flow mapping in turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. A.; Strazisar, A. J.; Seasholtz, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    A fringe-type laser anemometer with innovative features is described. The innovative features include: (1) rapid, efficient data acquisition processes, (2) detailed graphic display of data being accumulated, and (3) input laser-beam positioning that allows greater optical access to the intrarotor region. Results are presented that demonstrate the anemometer's capability in flow mapping within a transonic axial-flow compressor rotor.

  8. Lithium iron phosphate battery electrode integrity following high speed pulsed laser cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fiorini, Maurizio; Fortunato, Alessandro; Carmignato, Simone

    2015-05-01

    Laser exposures are performed on lithium iron phosphate battery electrodes at with process parameters based on those leading to the smallest heat affected zone for low power laser exposure at . Scanning electron microscopy and Raman analysis are performed along the resulting cut edges to characterize macroscopic, chemical and microstructural changes resulting from laser exposure. The increase in velocity with respect to previous studies is found to limit macroscopic changes to areas directly exposed to the laser beam and greatly suppress or completely eliminate microstructural and chemical changes resulting from thermal conduction effects in the metallic conductor layers. These results confirm laser technology as a viable, more flexible solution to mechanical blanking devices for the cutting of lithium iron phosphate battery electrode films.

  9. Comparative study of the influence of cavity preparation with high-speed rotation or Er:YAG laser on infiltration of aesthetic restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, D. P. T. S.; Beatrice, L. C. S.; Guerra, L. S. C.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Zanin, F. A. A.; Queiroga, A. S.; Limeira Júnior, F. A.; Gerbi, M. E. M. M.

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare marginal infiltration in Class V cavities prepared on extracted human premolars with either high-speed rotation or a Er:YAG laser. Class V cavities were executed on the vestibular and lingual faces of twelve premolars, with high-speed rotation or a Er:YAG laser (300 mJ, 4 Hz, and 3 W), and cavity surfaces were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid combined with laser treatment (80 mJ, 5 Hz, 3 W) or without laser treatment in the following manner: G1—high-speed rotation + conditioning with phosphoric acid; G2—high-speed rotation + conditioning with laser and phosphoric acid; G3—laser + conditioning with phosphoric acid; and G4—laser + conditioning with laser and phosphoric acid. Specimens were restored with the composite resin, thermocycled and immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 h. Specimens were then cross-cut and analyzed using a stereoscopic magnifying glass. Evaluations were submitted to the Kruskall-Wallis statistical test. No significant differences were found between the averages of the groups ( p > 0.05). High-speed rotation and Er:YAG laser for the confection of cavity preparation exhibited a similar performance with regard to marginal infiltration.

  10. High-speed ultrashort pulse fiber ring laser using charcoal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbo; Hu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Shuai; Fu, Kan; Dutta, Niloy K

    2016-03-20

    A mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser that is easy to set up is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to generate a high-repetition-rate optical pulse train with an ultrashort pulse width. The laser combines a rational harmonic mode-locking technique and charcoal nanoparticles as saturable absorbers. Compared to a solely active mode-locking scheme, the scheme with charcoal nanoparticles can remove the supermodes and narrow the pulse width by a factor of 0.57 at a repetition rate of 20 GHz. Numerical simulation of the laser performance is also provided, which shows good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:27140546

  11. Microstructure and its effect on toughness and wear resistance of laser surface melted and post heat treated high speed steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åhman, Leif

    1984-10-01

    High speed steel hacksaw blade blanks were laser surface melted and rapidly solidified along one edge. The laser melting resulted in complete carbide dissolution. By subsequent machining and heat treatments saw teeth were manufactured with a refined internal structure of the edges and corners. The structure was fully martensitic with a uniform and dense dispersion of small primary carbides. Sawing tests in quenched and tempered steel showed that blade life was somewhat improved, as compared to conventionally heat treated blades. The increased wear resistance is believed to be due to improved toughness along with high hardness caused by the refined carbide structure. Sawing tests in austenitic stainless steel did not give any significant improvement in performance. The effect of the altered microstructure on performance is likely to be more or less pronounced depending on application, tool and work material.

  12. Nano-strip grating lines self-organized by a high speed scanning CW laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Satoru; Ito, Takeshi; Akiyama, Kensuke; Yasui, Manabu; Kato, Chihiro; Tanaka, Satomi; Hirabayashi, Yasuo; Mastuno, Akira; Nire, Takashi; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2011-04-01

    After a laser annealing experiment on Si wafer, we found an asymmetric sheet resistance on the surface of the wafer. Periodic nano-strip grating lines (nano-SGLs) were self-organized along the trace of one-time scanning of the continuous wave (CW) laser. Depending on laser power, the nano-trench formed with a period ranging from 500 to 800 nm with a flat trough between trench structures. This simple method of combining the scanning laser with high scanning speed of 300 m min - 1 promises a large area of nanostructure fabrication with a high output. As a demonstration of the versatile method, concentric circles were drawn on silicon substrate rotated by a personal computer (PC) cooling fan. Even with such a simple system, the nano-SGL showed iridescence from the concentric circles.

  13. High-speed photography during laser-based gall bladder stone lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaj, Jahja O.

    2001-04-01

    Shadowgraphy of gall bladder stone, which is held by a basket and immersed in a civete is performed. The exposure time is determined by the time of a N-Dye laser pulse used as a lightening source for photography. The shadowgram is projected in the objective of a camera which is connected to a microscope. The light coming from the laser, illuminates the civete collecting optical information of the stone and physical phenomena appearing above the stone. On top of the stone a tip of optical fiber is fixed, which is used for transmitting Ho:Yag laser power to the stone. Using a computer and time delay the laser pulses used for destruction and illumination are synchronized. Since the N-Dye laser pulse is pico-second range and the Ho:Yag laser pulse is in the range of micro-second, many image frames are obtained within the time of one pulse applied during the destruction. It is known that in the process of stone destruction several phenomena like plume, plasma, shock wave and bubble formation take place. However, the physical mechanism of the stone destruction is not yet completely understood. From the obtained results the above phenomena are studied which gives new information and clue for understanding some of the mentioned phenomena. The laser power which is guided by an optical fiber into the gall bladder or kidney of the human body can damage the living tissue and cause some serious health problems. For this reason the fiber needs to be oriented properly during the action of the laser power.

  14. Laser Doppler phase shifting using a high-speed digital micromirror device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, D.; Sharpe, J. P.

    2015-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the use of a binary spatial light modulator (Texas Instruments Digital Micromirror Device) to impart a phase shift to the beams of a laser Doppler velocimeter. Advantages of this approach to laser Doppler phase shifting include low cost, low power consumption, a precisely known phase-stepping frequency and the capability of working with a broad range of optical wavelengths. In the implementation shown here velocities of order 1 cm/s are measured.

  15. Micromachining of microchannel on the polycarbonate substrate with CO 2 laser direct-writing ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Heng; Chen, Tao; Yao, Liying; Zuo, Tiechuan

    2009-05-01

    Low-power CO 2 laser direct-writing ablation was used to micromachine a microchannel on the polycarbonate substrate in this work. The influence of the process parameters (the laser power, the moving velocity of the laser beam and the scanning times) on the micromachining quality (the depth, the width and their aspect ratio) of the microchannel was experimentally studied. The depth and width of microchannel both increase with the increase of the laser power and the decrease of the moving velocity of the laser beam. When higher laser power and slower moving velocity were used, the polycarbonate surface bore more heat irradiated from the CO 2 laser for longer time which results in the formation of deeper and wider molten pool, hence the ability to fabricate bigger microchannel. Because of the effect of the laser power on the depth and width of microchannels, higher aspect (depth/width) ratio could be achieved using slower moving velocity and higher laser power, and it would reach a steady state when the laser power increases to 9.0 W possibly caused by the effect of laser power on the different directions of microchannel. The polycarbonate-polycarbonate chip was bonded with hot-press bonding technique.

  16. High-speed deposition of titanium carbide coatings by laser-assisted metal–organic CVD

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Yansheng; Tu, Rong; Goto, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A semiconductor laser was first used to prepare wide-area LCVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. • The effect of laser power for the deposition of TiC{sub x} coatings was discussed. • TiC{sub x} coatings showed a columnar cross section and a dense surface texture. • TiC{sub x} coatings had a 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous reports. • This study gives the possibility of LCVD applying on the preparation of TiC{sub x} coating. - Abstract: A semiconductor laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of titanium carbide (TiC{sub x}) coatings on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate using tetrakis (diethylamido) titanium (TDEAT) and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} as source materials were investigated. The influences of laser power (P{sub L}) and pre-heating temperature (T{sub pre}) on the microstructure and deposition rate of TiC{sub x} coatings were examined. Single phase of TiC{sub x} coatings were obtained at P{sub L} = 100–200 W. TiC{sub x} coatings had a cauliflower-like surface and columnar cross section. TiC{sub x} coatings in the present study had the highest R{sub dep} (54 μm/h) at a relative low T{sub dep} than those of conventional CVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. The highest volume deposition rate (V{sub dep}) of TiC{sub x} coatings was about 4.7 × 10{sup −12} m{sup 3} s{sup −1}, which had 3–10{sup 5} times larger deposition area and 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous LCVD using CO{sub 2}, Nd:YAG and argon ion laser.

  17. Nd:YAG laser micromachining of SiC precision structures for MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutz, Ernst-Wolfgang; Weichenhain, Ruth; Horn, Alexander

    2001-04-01

    Micromachining of SiC with 1(omega) , 2(omega) , 3(omega) -Nd:YAG laser radiation with pulse durations in the ps to ns regime is performed in various processing gas atmospheres as a function of processing variables showing the influence of the heat and pressure load onto the precision of geometric structures generated. The physical and chemical processes involved in micromachining with laser radiation are characterized by a machine vision system and the produced structures are analyzed by profilometry, optical and electron microscopy as well as X- photoelectron spectroscopy. 3D microstructures are produced by scanning and turning the laser beam onto the material surface, width of structures < 100 micrometers and surface roughness < 2 micrometers , for example, require an overlap < 0.8 independent of the type of processing gas under investigation.

  18. Can fiber laser improve high speed multi-pulse drilling of aeronautic alloy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, M.; Loumena, C.; Bussière, A.; Kling, R.; Delor, C.; Freysz, E.

    2016-03-01

    Processing of helicopter engines faster, better and more reliably is the triptych which binds LOMA, ALPhANOV and TURBOMECA. In current production machines, flash lamp pumped lasers are employed to drill thousands of cooling holes with specific geometries and diameters to ensure a homogeneous air flow over the surface. However we aim to enhance the production process. Therefore, the three partners started an initiative to identify and overcome the shortcomings of the current process, where the laser source is a key element for improvement. In this paper, we report on the latest developments in multi-pulse drilling using an IPG fiber laser. The latter delivers, at a tunable repetition rate (from single shot up to 2 kHz), laser pulses whose width and peak power are adjustable in between 0.2 - 10 ms and 0 - 12 kW respectively. We have focused our work on drilling of thick sheets of metal alloys with different geometries and different processing strategies. We will show that using such laser system it is possible to decrease the processing time while limiting the heat affected zones and collateral effects. Finally, the impact of the different physical processes in play during the drilling on the geometry of the holes will be discussed.

  19. Laser forming cutting once quenched high-speed tool steel (HSTS) disk-shaped milling cutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhihong; Liu, Yongzhen; Weng, Shiping

    1998-08-01

    Laser cutting technology has been applied to ordinary alloy steel circular sawblade, but it is very rarely used in quenched HSTS disk-shape milling-cutters due to the material particularity. In this paper, the authors systematically explain the advantages of this new technique, respecting the optimum design of HSTS disk-shape milling-cutter, the specific characteristics of laser forming cutting once for all, the technology testing, the analysis of structural performance of tooth and the small batch production for verifying. The article displays its advantages completely as follows: The design for a perfect tooth profile is not bound to the ordinary machining methods; The special laser technique does not lower the hardness on the tooth nose so that this process and needs no follow-up operational sequences, ensures the excellent dynamic-balance performance and operation properties, and prolongs the tools' service time; The new technique also has advantages of high efficiency and good economics. Therefore, this special laser cutting method, an integration of intensified heat-treatment and laser forming cutting once for all technology, will be regarded as a reform in HSTS tools Manufacturing field.

  20. CW laser strategies for simultaneous, multi-parameter measurements in high-speed gas flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Rosa, M. D.; Philippe, L. C.; Arroyo, M. P.; Hanson, R. K.

    1992-01-01

    Strategies utilizing continuous wave (CW) lasers are considered which are capable of simultaneously measuring the flow parameters of velocity, temperature, and pressure at sampling rates exceeding 3 kHz. Velocity is determined from the Doppler shift of the spectral profile, temperature is extracted from intensity ratios of multiple lines, and pressure is measured from either the collision of broadening or the magnitude of absorption. Distinctions between strategies concern the specifics of probe spacies (NO, OH, O2, and H2O) in terms of nominal probe wavelength, equipment, and detection scheme. CW lasers were applied to path-integrated absorption measurements of transient shock-tube flows and spatially resolved laser-induced fluorescence measurements of underexpanded jets.

  1. High-speed measurement of an air transect's temperature shift heated by laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, WenYu; Jiang, ZongFu; Xi, Fengjie; Li, Qiang; Xie, Wenke

    2005-02-01

    Laser beam heat the air on the optic path, Beam-deflection optical tomography is a non-intrusive method to measure the 2-dimension temperature distribution in the transect. By means of linear Hartmann Sensor at the rate of 27kHz, the optic path was heated by a 2.7μm HF laser, continuous and high time resolution gradients of optic phase were obtained. the result of analysing and calculation showed the temperament shift in the heated beam path was not higher than 50K when the HF laser power was 9W. The experiment showed that it is a practical non-intrusive temperature shift measurement method for a small area aero-optical medium.

  2. High-speed laser anemometry based on spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1991-01-01

    Laser anemometry in unseeded flows based on the measurement of the spectrum of Rayleigh scattered laser light is reviewed. The use of molecular scattering avoids the well known problems (particle lag, biasing effects, seed generation, seed injection) of seeded flows. The fundamental limits on velocity measurement accuracy are determined using maximum likelihood methods. Measurement of the Rayleigh spectrum with scanning Fabry-Perot interferometers is analyzed and accuracy limits are established for both single pass and multipass configurations. Multipass configurations have much higher selectivity and are needed for measurements where there is a large amount of excess noise caused by stray laser light. It is shown that Rayleigh scattering is particularly useful for supersonic and hypersonic flows. The results of the analysis are compared with measurements obtained with a Rayleigh scattering diagnostic developed for study of the exhaust plume of a small hydrogen-oxygen rocket, where the velocities are in the range of 1000 to 5000 m/sec.

  3. High-speed high-sensitivity infrared spectroscopy using mid-infrared swept lasers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, David T. D.; Groom, Kristian M.; Hogg, Richard A.; Revin, Dmitry G.; Cockburn, John W.; Rehman, Ihtesham U.; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a highly attractive read-out technology for compositional analysis of biomedical specimens because of its unique combination of high molecular sensitivity without the need for exogenous labels. Traditional techniques such as FTIR and Raman have suffered from comparatively low speed and sensitivity however recent innovations are challenging this situation. Direct mid-IR spectroscopy is being speeded up by innovations such as MEMS-based FTIR instruments with very high mirror speeds and supercontinuum sources producing very high sample irradiation levels. Here we explore another possible method - external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL's) with high cavity tuning speeds (mid-IR swept lasers). Swept lasers have been heavily developed in the near-infrared where they are used for non-destructive low-coherence imaging (OCT). We adapt these concepts in two ways. Firstly by combining mid-IR quantum cascade gain chips with external cavity designs adapted from OCT we achieve spectral acquisition rates approaching 1 kHz and demonstrate potential to reach 100 kHz. Secondly we show that mid-IR swept lasers share a fundamental sensitivity advantage with near-IR OCT swept lasers. This makes them potentially able to achieve the same spectral SNR as an FTIR instrument in a time x N shorter (N being the number of spectral points) under otherwise matched conditions. This effect is demonstrated using measurements of a PDMS sample. The combination of potentially very high spectral acquisition rates, fundamental SNR advantage and the use of low-cost detector systems could make mid-IR swept lasers a powerful technology for high-throughput biomedical spectroscopy.

  4. Interferometry and high speed photography of laser-driven flyer plates

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.L.; Montoya, N.I.; Stahl, D.B.; Garcia, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    Laser-driven thin (2-10-/mu/ thick) plates of aluminum and copper are accelerated to velocities /ge/5 km/s by a 1.06-/mu/ wavelength Nd:YAG 8-10 ns FWHM laser pulse at power densities 0.7-4.0 GW/cm/sup 2/. Accelerations /ge/10/sup 9/ km/s/sup 2/ have been achieved. The acceleration and velocity of these 0.4-1.0-mm-diameter plates are experimentally recorded by velocity interferometry (VISAR) and the planarity of impact by streak photography. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Method and apparatus for reducing quantization error in laser gyro test data through high speed filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.G.; Brown, A.K.; Matthews, A.

    1987-01-06

    A method is described for processing ring laser gyroscope test data comprising the steps of: (a) accumulating the data over a preselected sample period; and (b) filtering the data at a predetermined frequency so that non-time dependent errors are reduced by a substantially greater amount than are time dependent errors; then (c) analyzing the random walk error of the filtered data.

  6. Pilot-scale synthesis of metal nanoparticles by high-speed pulsed laser ablation in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streubel, René; Bendt, Georg; Gökce, Bilal

    2016-05-01

    The synthesis of catalysis-relevant nanoparticles such as platinum and gold is demonstrated with productivities of 4 g h-1 for pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL). The major drawback of low productivity of PLAL is overcome by utilizing a novel ultrafast high-repetition rate laser system combined with a polygon scanner that reaches scanning speeds up to 500 m s-1. This high scanning speed is exploited to spatially bypass the laser-induced cavitation bubbles at MHz-repetition rates resulting in an increase of the applicable, ablation-effective, repetition rate for PLAL by two orders of magnitude. The particle size, morphology and oxidation state of fully automated synthesized colloids are analyzed while the ablation mechanisms are studied for different laser fluences, repetition rates, interpulse distances, ablation times, volumetric flow rates and focus positions. It is found that at high scanning speeds and high repetition rate PLAL the ablation process is stable in crystallite size and decoupled from shielding and liquid effects that conventionally occur during low-speed PLAL.

  7. Pilot-scale synthesis of metal nanoparticles by high-speed pulsed laser ablation in liquids.

    PubMed

    Streubel, René; Bendt, Georg; Gökce, Bilal

    2016-05-20

    The synthesis of catalysis-relevant nanoparticles such as platinum and gold is demonstrated with productivities of 4 g h(-1) for pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL). The major drawback of low productivity of PLAL is overcome by utilizing a novel ultrafast high-repetition rate laser system combined with a polygon scanner that reaches scanning speeds up to 500 m s(-1). This high scanning speed is exploited to spatially bypass the laser-induced cavitation bubbles at MHz-repetition rates resulting in an increase of the applicable, ablation-effective, repetition rate for PLAL by two orders of magnitude. The particle size, morphology and oxidation state of fully automated synthesized colloids are analyzed while the ablation mechanisms are studied for different laser fluences, repetition rates, interpulse distances, ablation times, volumetric flow rates and focus positions. It is found that at high scanning speeds and high repetition rate PLAL the ablation process is stable in crystallite size and decoupled from shielding and liquid effects that conventionally occur during low-speed PLAL.

  8. Aerodynamic distortion propagation calculation in application of high-speed target detection by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yonghui; Sun, Huayan; Zhao, Yanzhong; Chen, Jianbiao

    2015-10-01

    Active laser detection technique has a broad application prospect in antimissile and air defense, however the aerodynamic flow field around the planes and missiles cause serious distortion effect on the detecting laser beams. There are many computational fluid dynamics(CFD) codes that can predict the air density distribution and also the density fluctuations of the flow field, it's necessary for physical optics to be used to predict the distortion properties after propagation through the complex process. Aiming at the physical process of laser propagation in "Cat-eye" lenses and aerodynamic flow field for twice, distortion propagation calculation method is researched in this paper. In the minds of dividing the whole process into two parts, and tread the aero-optical optical path difference as a phase distortion, the incidence and reflection process are calculated using Collins formula and angular spectrum diffraction theory respectively. In addition, turbulent performance of the aerodynamic flow field is estimated according to the electromagnetic propagation theory through a random medium, the rms optical path difference and Strehl ratio of the turbulent optical distortion are obtained. Finally, Computational fluid mechanics and aero-optical distortion properties of the detecting laser beams are calculated with the hemisphere-on-cylinder turret as an example, calculation results are showed and analysed.

  9. Laser micromachining of through via interconnects in active die for 3-D multichip module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, D.; Miller, W. D.

    One method to increase density in integrated circuits (IC) is to stack die to create a 3-D multichip module (MCM). In the past, special post wafer processing was done to bring interconnects out to the edge of the die. The die were sawed, glued, and stacked. Special processing was done to create interconnects on the edge to provide for interconnects to each of the die. These processes require an IC type fabrication facility (fab) and special processing equipment. In contrast, we have developed packaging assembly methods to create vertical through vias in bond pads of active silicon die, isolate these vias, and metal fill these vias without the use of a special IC fab. These die with through vias can then be joined and stacked to create a 3-D MCM. Vertical through vias in active die are created by laser micromachining using a Nd:YAG laser. Besides the fundamental 1064 nm (infrared) laser wavelength of a Nd:YAG laser, modifications to our Nd:YAG laser allowed us to generate the second harmonic 532 nm (green) laser wavelength and fourth harmonic 266 nm (ultraviolet) laser wavelength in laser micromachining for these vias. Experiments were conducted to determine the best laser wavelengths to use for laser micromachining of vertical through vias in order to minimize damage to the active die. Via isolation experiments were done in order to determine the best method in isolating the bond pads of the die. Die thinning techniques were developed to allow for die thickness as thin as 50 microns. This would allow for high 3-D density when the die are stacked. A method was developed to metal fill the vias with solder using a wire bonder with solder wire.

  10. Laser micromachining of through via interconnects in active die for 3-D multichip module

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Miller, W.D.

    1995-09-01

    One method to increase density in integrated circuits (IC) is to stack die to create a 3-D multichip module (MCM). In the past, special post wafer processing was done to bring interconnects out to the edge of the die. The die were sawed, glued, and stacked. Special processing was done to create interconnects on the edge to provide for interconnects to each of the die. These processes require an IC type fabrication facility (fab) and special processing equipment. In contrast, we have developed packaging assembly methods to created vertical through vias in bond pads of active silicon die, isolate these vias, and metal fill these vias without the use of a special IC fab. These die with through vias can then be joined and stacked to create a 3-D MCM. Vertical through vias in active die are created by laser micromachining using a Nd:YAG laser. Besides the fundamental 1064 nm (infra-red) laser wavelength of a Nd:YAG laser, modifications to our Nd:YAG laser allowed us to generate the second harmonic 532 nm (green) laser wavelength and fourth harmonic 266nm (ultra violet) laser wavelength in laser micromachining for these vias. Experiments were conducted to determine the best laser wavelengths to use for laser micromachining of vertical through vias in order to minimize damage to the active die. Via isolation experiments were done in order to determine the best method in isolating the bond pads of the die. Die thinning techniques were developed to allow for die thickness as thin as 50 {mu}m. This would allow for high 3-D density when the die are stacked. A method was developed to metal fill the vias with solder using a wire bonder with solder wire.

  11. Femtosecond-pulsed laser micromachining of a 4H SiC wafer for MEMS pressure sensor diaphragms and via holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yuanyuan; Nair, Rajeev; Molian, Raathai; Molian, Pal

    2008-03-01

    The challenging issues in conventional microfabrication of SiC pressure sensor diaphragms from bulk wafers are low etch rates, thicker (>40 µm) diaphragms, low spatial resolutions, rough surfaces and substantial contamination. In via hole drilling of SiC, the critical concern is the low drilling speed (nm per minute). In this work, femtosecond (fs)-pulsed laser ablation was conducted to overcome some of these deficiencies. Circular diaphragms (0.5 to 1 mm) by trepanning mode and via holes (30-50 µm) by percussion drilling mode were micromachined in 250 µm thick 4H-SiC single crystals using an 800 nm wavelength, 120 fs, 1 mJ Ti:sapphire laser. Pulse energy, number of pulses and scan rate were varied to obtain a high etch rate and high quality features. Results showed that the etch rates are 2-10 µm per pulse, diaphragm thicknesses are 20-200 µm, surface roughness is 1-2 µm Ra and via hole drilling speeds are up to 25 µm per second. The etch depth control was well within ± 1%. High aspect ratio features with excellent spatial resolutions were obtained due to the absence of thermal damages such as a recast layer and contamination. Thus, femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation by virtue of its unique characteristics such as multiphoton ionization and the absence of lattice heating offers high speed, precision and accuracy in micromachining 4H-SiC wafers.

  12. 1.55 µm high speed low chirp electroabsorption modulated laser arrays based on SAG scheme.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanbing; Wang, Qi Jie; Pan, Jiaoqing

    2014-12-15

    We demonstrate a cost-effective 1.55 µm low chirp 4 × 25 Gbit/s electroabsorption modulated laser (EML) array with 0.8 nm channel spacing by varying ridge width of the lasers and using selective area growth (SAG) integration scheme. The devices for all the 4 channels within the EML array show uniform threshold currents around 18 mA and high SMSRs over 45 dB. The output optical power of each channel is about 9 mW at an injection current of 100 mA. The typical chirp value of single EML measured by a fiber resonance method varied from 2.2 to -4 as the bias voltage was increased from 0 V to 2.5 V. These results show that the EML array is a suitable light source for 100 Gbit/s optical transmissions. PMID:25607076

  13. High-Speed Laser Scanner Maps a Surface in Three Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Joseph; Schuet, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    A scanning optoelectronic instrument generates the digital equivalent of a threedimensional (X,Y,Z) map of a surface that spans an area with resolution on the order of 0.005 in. ( 0.125mm). Originally intended for characterizing surface flaws (e.g., pits) on space-shuttle thermal-insulation tiles, the instrument could just as well be used for similar purposes in other settings in which there are requirements to inspect the surfaces of many objects. While many commercial instruments can perform this surface-inspection function, the present instrument offers a unique combination of capabilities not available in commercial instruments. This instrument utilizes a laser triangulation method that has been described previously in NASA Tech Briefs in connection with simpler related instruments used for different purposes. The instrument includes a sensor head comprising a monochrome electronic camera and two lasers. The camera is a high-resolution

  14. Characterization of a Laser-Generated Perturbation in High-Speed Flow for Receptivity Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Amanda; Schneider, Steven P.; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    A better understanding of receptivity can contribute to the development of an amplitude-based method of transition prediction. This type of prediction model would incorporate more physics than the semi-empirical methods, which are widely used. The experimental study of receptivity requires a characterization of the external disturbances and a study of their effect on the boundary layer instabilities. Characterization measurements for a laser-generated perturbation were made in two different wind tunnels. These measurements were made with hot-wire probes, optical techniques, and pressure transducer probes. Existing methods all have their limitations, so better measurements will require the development of new instrumentation. Nevertheless, the freestream laser-generated perturbation has been shown to be about 6 mm in diameter at a static density of about 0.045 kg/cubic m. The amplitude of the perturbation is large, which may be unsuitable for the study of linear growth.

  15. Portable laser synthesizer for high-speed multi-dimensional spectroscopy

    DOEpatents

    Demos, Stavros G.; Shverdin, Miroslav Y.; Shirk, Michael D.

    2012-05-29

    Portable, field-deployable laser synthesizer devices designed for multi-dimensional spectrometry and time-resolved and/or hyperspectral imaging include a coherent light source which simultaneously produces a very broad, energetic, discrete spectrum spanning through or within the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared wavelengths. The light output is spectrally resolved and each wavelength is delayed with respect to each other. A probe enables light delivery to a target. For multidimensional spectroscopy applications, the probe can collect the resulting emission and deliver this radiation to a time gated spectrometer for temporal and spectral analysis.

  16. Cognitive high speed defect detection and classification in MWIR images of laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapido, Yago L.; Rodriguez-Araújo, Jorge; García-Díaz, Antón; Castro, Gemma; Vidal, Félix; Romero, Pablo; Vergara, Germán.

    2015-07-01

    We present a novel approach for real-time defect detection and classification in laser welding processes based on the use of uncooled PbSe image sensors working in the MWIR range. The spatial evolution of the melt pool was recorded and analyzed during several welding procedures. A machine learning approach was developed to classify welding defects. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used for dimensionality reduction of the melt pool data. This enhances classification results and enables on-line classification rates close to 1 kHz with non-optimized code prototyped in Python. These results point to the feasibility of real-time defect detection.

  17. Micro-machining workstation for a diode pumped Nd:YAG high-brightness laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleijhorst, R. A.; Offerhaus, H. L.; Bant, P.

    1998-05-01

    A Nd:YAG micro-machining workstation that allows cutting on a scale of a few microns has been developed and operated. The system incorporates a telescope viewing system that allows control during the work and a software interface to translate AutoCad files. Some examples of the performance are given. With this setup we demonstrate the possibility of machining within a few microns with a Nd:YAG laser.

  18. High-speed pre-clinical brain imaging using pulsed laser diode based photoacoustic tomography (PLD-PAT) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a promising biomedical imaging modality for small animal imaging, breast cancer imaging, monitoring of vascularisation, tumor angiogenesis, blood oxygenation, total haemoglobin concentration etc. The existing PAT systems that uses Q-switched Nd:YAG and OPO nanosecond lasers have limitations in clinical applications because they are expensive, non-potable and not suitable for real-time imaging due to their low pulse repetition rate. Low-energy pulsed near-infrared diode laser which are low-cost, compact, and light-weight (<200 grams), can be used as an alternate. In this work, we present a photoacoustic tomography system with a pulsed laser diode (PLD) that can nanosecond pulses with pulse energy 1.3 mJ/pulse at ~803 nm wavelength and 7000 Hz repetition rate. The PLD is integrated inside a single-detector circular scanning geometric system. To verify the high speed imaging capabilities of the PLD-PAT system, we performed in vivo experimental results on small animal brain imaging using this system. The proposed system is portable, low-cost and can provide real-time imaging.

  19. High-speed and crack-free direct-writing of microchannels on glass by an IR femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulushev, Evgeny; Bessmeltsev, Victor; Dostovalov, Alexandr; Goloshevsky, Nikolay; Wolf, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication of high-resolution 3D structures with laser radiation on the surface of brittle materials has always been a challenging task. Even with femtosecond laser machining, micro-cracks and edge chipping occur. In order to evaluate processing modes optimal both in quality and productivity, we investigated high-speed (50 kHz) femtosecond laser processing of BK7 glass with the use of design of experiments and regression analysis. An automated inspection technique was developed to extract quality characteristics of test-objects. A regression model was obtained appropriate to fabricate microchannels with a predefined depth in the range of 1-30 μm with average accuracy of 5%. It was found that high quality machining modes are in the range of 0.91-2.27 μJ energy pulses, overlap of 53-62%, three and more number of passes. A material removal rate higher than 0.3 mm3/min was reached and microfluidic structures were formed based on data obtained.

  20. Performance of laser Doppler velocimeter with polydisperse seed particles in high-speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samimy, M.; Abu-Hijleh, B. A. K.

    1989-01-01

    The flowfield behind an oblique shock wave, where the LDV measured velocities are seed-particle-size dependent, was used to investigate the effects of LDV system parameters on the range of detectable polydisperse seed particles. The parameters included frequency shifting, laser power, scattered signal amplification level, and number of required fringe crossings. The results showed that with polydisperse seed particles ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 microns available in the flow, the average diameter of the detected particles could change from 0.2 to 3.0 microns by changing different LDV system parameters. The effects of this shift in the range of detectable particles on the frequency response of LDV are discussed.

  1. Performance of laser Doppler velocimeter with polydisperse seed particles in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samimy, M.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Abu-Hijleh, B. A./K.

    1988-01-01

    The flowfield behind an oblique shock wave, where the LDV measured velocities are seed particle size dependent, was used to investigate the effects of LDV system parameters on the range of detectable polydisperse seed particles. The parameters included frequency shifting, laser power, scattered signal amplification level, and number of required fringe crossings. The results showed that with polydisperse seed particles ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 microns available in the flow, the average diameter of the detected particles could change from 0.2 to 3.0 microns by changing different LDV system parameters. The effects of this shift in the range of detectable particles on the frequency response of LDV was discussed.

  2. The Laser MicroJet (LMJ): a multi-solution technology for high quality micro-machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Tuan Anh; Richerzhagen, Bernold; Snowdon, Paul C.; Wood, David; Maropoulos, Paul G.

    2007-02-01

    The field of laser micromachining is highly diverse. There are many different types of lasers available in the market. Due to their differences in irradiating wavelength, output power and pulse characteristic they can be selected for different applications depending on material and feature size [1]. The main issues by using these lasers are heat damages, contamination and low ablation rates. This report examines on the application of the Laser MicroJet(R) (LMJ), a unique combination of a laser beam with a hair-thin water jet as a universal tool for micro-machining of MEMS substrates, as well as ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The materials include gallium arsenide (GaAs) & silicon wafers, steel, tantalum and alumina ceramic. A Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm (infra red) and frequency doubled 532 nm (green) were employed for the micro-machining of these materials.

  3. Investigation of temporal contrast effects in femtosecond pulse laser micromachining of metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Benjamin (Pennsylvania State University, Freeport, PA); Palmer, Jeremy Andrew

    2006-06-01

    Femtosecond pulse laser drilling has evolved to become a preferred process for selective (maskless) micromachining in a variety of materials, including metals, polymers, semiconductors, ceramics, and living tissue. Manufacturers of state-of-the-art femtosecond laser systems advertise the inherent advantage of micromachining with ultra short pulses: the absence of a heat affected zone. In the ideal case, this leads to micro and nano scale features without distortion due to melt or recast. However, recent studies have shown that this is limited to the low fluence regime in many cases. High dynamic range autocorrelation studies were performed on two commercial Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser systems to investigate the possible presence of a nanosecond pedestal in the femtosecond pulse produced by chirped pulse amplification. If confirmed, nanosecond temporal phenomena may explain many of the thermal effects witnessed in high fluence micromachining. The material removal rate was measured in addition to feature morphology observations for percussion micro drilling of metal substrates in vacuum and ambient environments. Trials were repeated with proposed corrective optics installed, including a variable aperture and a nonlinear frequency doubling crystal. Results were compared. Although the investigation of nanosecond temporal phenomena is ongoing, early results have confirmed published accounts of higher removal rates in a vacuum environment.

  4. High-speed automated DNA sequencing utilizing from-the-side laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphall, Michael S.; Brumley, Robert L., Jr.; Buxton, Erin C.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1995-04-01

    The Human Genome Initiative is an ambitious international effort to map and sequence the three billion bases of DNA encoded in the human genome. If successfully completed, the resultant sequence database will be a tool of unparalleled power for biomedical research. One of the major challenges of this project is in the area of DNA sequencing technology. At this time, virtually all DNA sequencing is based upon the separation of DNA fragments in high resolution polyacrylamide gels. This method, as generally practiced, is one to two orders of magnitude too slow and expensive for the successful completion of the Human Genome projection. One reasonable approach is improved sequencing of DNA fragments is to increase the performance of such gel-based sequencing methods. Decreased sequencing times may be obtained by increasing the magnitude of the electric field employed. This is not possible with conventional sequencing, due to the fact that the additional heat associated with the increased electric field cannot be adequately dissipated. Recent developments in the use of thin gels have addressed this problem. Performing electrophoresis in ultrathin (50 to 100 microns) gels greatly increases the heat transfer efficiency, thus allowing the benefits of larger electric fields to be obtained. An increase in separation speed of about an order of magnitude is readily achieved. Thin gels have successfully been used in capillary and slab formats. A detection system has been designed for use with a multiple fluorophore sequencing strategy in horizontal ultrathin slab gels. The system employs laser through-the-side excitation and a cooled CCD detector; this allows for the parallel detection of up to 24 sets of four fluorescently labeled DNA sequencing reactions during their electrophoretic separation in ultrathin (115 micrometers ) denaturing polyacrylamide gels. Four hundred bases of sequence information is obtained from 100 ng of M13 template DNA in an hour, corresponding to an

  5. Implosion and heating diagnostics of fast ignition laser fusion target with ultra-high-speed x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraga, H.; Zhong, J.; Koga, M.; Mochiyama, T.; Azechi, H.

    2008-11-01

    Implosion and heating experiments of Fast Ignition (FI) targets for FIREX-1 laser fusion project have been performed with Gekko-XII and PW/LFEX lasers at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. Typical FI target has a hollow cone for guiding the short-pulse heating laser beam at the time of the maximum compression. The cone is mounted so as to in one-side penetrate the shell target. Detailed implosion hydrodynamics, FI heating and core plasma formation of plastic (CD) shell target with gold cone have been clarified by observing those with ultra high-speed imaging x-ray spectroscopy as well as neutron diagnostics. Multi-channel Multi-Imaging X-Ray Streak Camera (McMIXS) was improved for observation of time-resolved x-ray images and time-resolved two dimensional temperature distributions with spatial and temporal resolutions of 20 microns and 24 ps (42 Gfps), respectively. With this instrument, one can observe heating properties of the imploded core such as spatial distribution of the heated region and its temporal evolution. Also 2D-SIXS (Two-Dimensional Sampling Image X-ray Streak camera) coupled with an x-ray imager was improved for time resolved x-ray imaging of the imploded core. Synchronization of the heating beam injection to the implosion dynamics has been monitored with an x-ray framing camera. It was found that the shape of the core is neither spherical nor uniform mainly because of the existence of the cone and moving toward the tip of the cone and interacting with it. Experimental results are compared with two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Target design taking into account of these phenomena is quite important because such core movement and jet formation can affect the condition of the cone.

  6. High speed photoacoustic imaging with fast OPO laser at 1.7 μm (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Zhonglie; Teng, Ma; Li, Jiawen; Qu, Yueqiao; Yu, Mingyue; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-03-01

    Acute cardiovascular events are mostly due to a blood clot or thrombus induced by the sudden rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques within coronary artery walls. Based on the high optical absorption contrast of the lipid rich plaques within the vessel wall, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging at 1.7 μm spectral band has shown promising capabilities for detecting of lipid composition, but the translation of the technology for in vivo application is limited by the slow imaging speed. In this work, we will present a high speed integrated IVPA/US imaging system with a 500 Hz optical parametric oscillator laser at 1725 nm (5 nm linewidth). A miniature catheter with 1.0 mm outer diameter was designed with a polished 200 μm multimode fiber and an ultrasound transducer with 45 MHz center frequency. Two optical illumination methods by gradient-index (GRIN) lens and ball lens are introduced and compared for higher spatial resolution. At 1725 nm, atherosclerotic rabbit abdominal aorta was imaged at two frame per second, which is more than one order of magnitude faster than previous reported IVPA imaging. Furthermore, by wide tuning range of the laser wavelength from 1680 nm to 1770 nm, spectroscopic photoacoustic analysis of lipid-mimicking phantom and an human atherosclerotic artery was performed ex vivo.

  7. Development of a high speed laser scanning confocal microscope with an acquisition rate up to 200 frames per second.

    PubMed

    Choi, S; Kim, P; Boutilier, R; Kim, M Y; Lee, Y J; Lee, H

    2013-10-01

    There has been an increasing interest for observing fast biological phenomena such as cell movements in circulations and action potentials. The laser scanning confocal microscopy offers a good spatial resolution and optical sectioning ability to observe various in vivo animal models. We developed a high speed laser scanning confocal microscope capable of acquiring 512 by 512 pixel images at 200 fps (frames per second). We have incorporated a fast rotating polygonal scanning mirror with 128 facets for the X-axis scanner. In order to increase the throughput of the Y-axis scanner, we applied a bi-directional scanning method for vertical scanning. This made it possible to scan along the Y-axis two times during each scanner motion cycle. For the image acquisition, we used a custom photomultiplier tube amplifier with a broad frequency band. In addition, custom imaging software was written for the new microscope. In order to verify the acquisition speed of the developed confocal microscope, a resolution target moving at a series of constant speeds and a sedated mouse with slight movements due to heartbeats were observed. By comparing successive frames, the frame acquisition speeds were calculated.

  8. Pulsed UV and ultrafast laser micromachining of surface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apte, Paul; Sykes, Neil

    2015-07-01

    We describe and compare the cutting and patterning of various "difficult" materials using pulsed UV Excimer, picosecond and femtosecond laser sources. Beam delivery using both fast galvanometer scanners and scanning mask imaging are described. Each laser source has its own particular strengths and weaknesses, and the optimum choice for an application is also decided by financial constraints. With some materials notable improvements in process quality have been observed using femtosecond lasers compared to picosecond lasers, which makes for an interesting choice now that cost effective reliable femtosecond systems are increasingly available. By contrast Pulsed UV Excimer lasers offer different imaging characteristics similar to mask based Lithographic systems and are particularly suited to the processing of polymers. We discuss optimized beam delivery techniques for these lasers.

  9. A microfluidic chip integrated with a microoptical lens fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lingling; He, Fei; Wang, Chen; Cheng, Ya; Sugioka, Koji; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    We report on the integration of microlens and microfluidic channels in fused silica glass chip using femtosecond laser micromachining. The main process includes three procedures: (1) femtosecond laser scanning for forming a hemispherical surface and a Y-shaped channel in the fused silica glass; (2) chemical etching of the sample for removal of the modified areas; and (3) oxyhydrogen (OH) flame polish for smoothening the surface of the microlens. In addition, we demonstrate that the fabricated microlens exhibits good imaging performance with a 5× magnification, showing great potential in future lab-on-a-chip applications.

  10. Gated high speed optical detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S. I.; Carson, L. M.; Neal, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and test of two gated, high speed optical detectors for use in high speed digital laser communication links are discussed. The optical detectors used a dynamic crossed field photomultiplier and electronics including dc bias and RF drive circuits, automatic remote synchronization circuits, automatic gain control circuits, and threshold detection circuits. The equipment is used to detect binary encoded signals from a mode locked neodynium laser.

  11. Target geometry and rigidity determines laser-induced cavitation bubble transport and nanoparticle productivity - a high-speed videography study.

    PubMed

    Kohsakowski, Sebastian; Gökce, Bilal; Tanabe, Rie; Wagener, Philipp; Plech, Anton; Ito, Yoshiro; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2016-06-28

    Laser-induced cavitation has mostly been studied in bulk liquid or at a two-dimensional wall, although target shapes for the particle synthesis may strongly affect bubble dynamics and interfere with particle productivity. We investigated the dynamics of the cavitation bubble induced by pulsed-laser ablation in liquid for different target geometries with high-speed laser microsecond videography and focus on the collapse behaviour. This method enables us observations in a high time resolution (intervals of 1 μs) and single-pulse experiments. Further, we analyzed the nanoparticle productivity, the sizes of the synthesized nanoparticles and the evolution of the bubble volume for each different target shape and geometry. For the ablation of metal (Ag, Cu, Ni) wire tips a springboard-like behaviour after the first collapse is observed which can be correlated with vertical projectile motion. Its turbulent friction in the liquid causes a very efficient transport and movement of the bubble and ablated material into the bulk liquid and prevents particle redeposition. This effect is influenced by the degree of freedom of the wire as well as the material properties and dimensions, especially the Young's modulus. The most efficient and largest bubble movement away from the wire was observed for a thin (500 μm) silver wire with velocities up to 19.8 m s(-1) and for materials with a small Young's modulus and flexural rigidity. We suggest that these observations may contribute to upscaling strategies and increase of particle yield towards large synthesis of colloids based on targets that may continuously be fed. PMID:27273693

  12. High speed video shooting with continuous-wave laser illumination in laboratory modeling of wind - wave interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Sergeev, Daniil; Vdovin, Maxim

    2014-05-01

    Three examples of usage of high-speed video filming in investigation of wind-wave interaction in laboratory conditions is described. Experiments were carried out at the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS (length 10 m, cross section of air channel 0.4 x 0.4 m, wind velocity up to 24 m/s) and at the Large Air-Sea Interaction Facility (LASIF) - MIO/Luminy (length 40 m, cross section of air channel 3.2 x 1.6 m, wind velocity up to 10 m/s). A combination of PIV-measurements, optical measurements of water surface form and wave gages were used for detailed investigation of the characteristics of the wind flow over the water surface. The modified PIV-method is based on the use of continuous-wave (CW) laser illumination of the airflow seeded by particles and high-speed video. During the experiments on the Wind - wave stratified flume of IAP RAS Green (532 nm) CW laser with 1.5 Wt output power was used as a source for light sheet. High speed digital camera Videosprint (VS-Fast) was used for taking visualized air flow images with the frame rate 2000 Hz. Velocity air flow field was retrieved by PIV images processing with adaptive cross-correlation method on the curvilinear grid following surface wave profile. The mean wind velocity profiles were retrieved using conditional in phase averaging like in [1]. In the experiments on the LASIF more powerful Argon laser (4 Wt, CW) was used as well as high-speed camera with higher sensitivity and resolution: Optronics Camrecord CR3000x2, frame rate 3571 Hz, frame size 259×1696 px. In both series of experiments spherical 0.02 mm polyamide particles with inertial time 7 ms were used for seeding airflow. New particle seeding system based on utilization of air pressure is capable of injecting 2 g of particles per second for 1.3 - 2.4 s without flow disturbance. Used in LASIF this system provided high particle density on PIV-images. In combination with high-resolution camera it allowed us to obtain momentum fluxes directly from

  13. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, S. R.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B.; Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.

    2014-11-01

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2-17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 1017. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  14. Spatially-Resolved Velocity Measurements in Steady, High-Speed Reacting Flows Using Laser-Induced OH Fluorescence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavuhn, Kurt G.

    The theoretical development and calibration of a nonintrusive, high-resolution, optical flowfield-diagnostic technique utilizing OH laser-induced fluorescence (OH LIF) for the measurement of velocity in steady, high-speed, reacting flows is reported. The particular high-speed, reacting flows of interest are those occurring in supersonic combustors for proposed hypersonic flight vehicles. The theory of the OH LIF strategy employed in this work is described, with emphasis on the optimization of the strategy for quantitative velocity measurements. A simplified model is derived for the calculation of expected signal levels from pulsed, narrow-linewidth, (1,0) band excitation of OH in flames when collecting filtered (1,1) and (0,0) band fluorescence with a gated detector. Several illumination techniques are presented for measuring the Doppler shift of the OH LIF while eliminating systematic errors. A unique reacting underexpanded jet was constructed for the calibration of the OH LIF velocity measurement technique over a wide range of flow conditions. A complete analysis of the distribution of flow properties in the jet flowfield is presented, including results from a full Navier-Stokes calculation with finite -rate chemistry. Comparisons of results from pointwise OH LIF velocity measurements along the centerline and planar OH LIF velocity measurements along the central plane of the reacting underexpanded jet with the numerical solution demonstrate the resolution, range, and accuracy of the technique. Measured and calculated velocities in the supersonic jet core agree on average to within +/-1.3% for the pointwise measurements and +/-2.2% for the planar measurements. The uncertainty (2 sigma) in the pointwise velocity measurements in the jet core was on average +/-6.0% for a single measurement and +/-3.5% for the average value of three scans. For the planar velocity measurements in the jet core, the uncertainty (2 sigma) was on average +/-4.9% for a single measurement

  15. Micromachining of transparent materials by laser ablation of organic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira

    2000-11-01

    Transparent materials such as fused silica, quartz, calcium fluoride, and fluorocarbon polymer were etched upon irradiation of organic solution containing pyrene with a conventional KrF excimer laser. Threshold fluence for etching was 240 mJ/cm2 for fused silica. Etch rate remarkably depended on a concentration of pyrene: higher etch rate with the increase of pyrene concentration. It means that pyrene molecules play an important role in this process. The etch rate can be easily controlled through changing a laser pulse number, a laser fluence and a concentration of solution. The mechanism for this process is discussed by cyclic multiphotonic absorption of pyrene in the excited states, thermal relaxation, and formation of super-heated solution. As the results, it is suggested that the process is based on the combination of two processes in the interface between the transparent materials and the liquid: one is a heating process by a super-heated liquid and the other is an attacking process by a high temperature and pressure vapor.

  16. Low threshold Fabry-Perot optofluidic resonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Simoni, F; Bonfadini, S; Spegni, P; Lo Turco, S; Lucchetta, D E; Criante, L

    2016-07-25

    We report the realization and characterization of an optofluidic microlaser based on a Fabry-Perot resonator fabricated by exploiting two direct writing fabrication techniques: the femtosecond laser micromachining and the inkjet printing technology. In this way a standard Fabry-Perot cavity has been integrated into an optofluidic chip. When using rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol at concentration of 5∙10-3 mol/l, laser emission was detected at a threshold energy density of 1.8 μJ/mm2 at least one order of magnitude lower than state-of-the-art optofluidic lasers. Linewidth below ~0.6 nm was measured under these conditions with a quality factor Q~103. These performances and robustness of the device makes it an excellent candidate for biosensing, security and environment monitoring applications. PMID:27464188

  17. Rear surface spallation on single-crystal silicon in nanosecond laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jun; Orlov, Sergei S.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2005-05-01

    Rear surface spallation of single-crystal silicon under 5-ns laser pulse ablation at intensities of 0.6-60GW/cm2 is studied through postablation examination of the ablated samples. The spallation threshold energy and the spallation depth's dependences on the energy and target thickness are measured. From the linear relation between the spallation threshold energy and the target thickness, an estimation of the material spall strength around 1.4GPa is obtained, in reasonable agreement with the spall strength estimation of 0.8-1.2GPa at a strain rate of 107s-1 using Grady's model for brittle materials. The experiment reveals the internal fracturing process over an extended zone in silicon, which is controlled by the competition between the shock pressure load and the laser ablation rate. The qualities of the laser microstructuring and micromachining results are greatly improved by using an acoustic impedance matching approach.

  18. Low threshold Fabry-Perot optofluidic resonator fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Simoni, F; Bonfadini, S; Spegni, P; Lo Turco, S; Lucchetta, D E; Criante, L

    2016-07-25

    We report the realization and characterization of an optofluidic microlaser based on a Fabry-Perot resonator fabricated by exploiting two direct writing fabrication techniques: the femtosecond laser micromachining and the inkjet printing technology. In this way a standard Fabry-Perot cavity has been integrated into an optofluidic chip. When using rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol at concentration of 5∙10-3 mol/l, laser emission was detected at a threshold energy density of 1.8 μJ/mm2 at least one order of magnitude lower than state-of-the-art optofluidic lasers. Linewidth below ~0.6 nm was measured under these conditions with a quality factor Q~103. These performances and robustness of the device makes it an excellent candidate for biosensing, security and environment monitoring applications.

  19. Industrial grade fiber-coupled laser systems delivering ultrashort high-power pulses for micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricking, Sebastian; Welp, Petra; Overbuschmann, Johannes; Nutsch, Sebastian; Gebs, Raphael; Fleischhaker, Robert; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Wolf, Martin; Budnicki, Aleksander; Sutter, Dirk H.; Killi, Alexander; Mielke, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We report on an industrial fiber-delivered laser system producing ultra-short pulses in the range of a few picoseconds down to a few hundred femtoseconds with high average power suitable for high-precision micromachining. The delivery fiber is a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a Kagomé shaped lattice and a hypocycloid core wall enabling the guiding of laser radiation over several meters with exceptionally low losses and preservation of high beam quality (M2<1.3). The mode-matching and coupling optics are integrated into the laser head providing a compact footprint without the need for external boxes. The laser head is carefully designed regarding its thermo-mechanical properties to allow a highly reliable coupling stability. The exchangeable delivery fiber is packaged using Trumpf's well established LLK-D connectors which offer a very high mechanical precision, the possibility to add water cooling, as well as full featured safety functions. The fiber is hermetically sealed and protected by a robust but flexible shield providing bend protection and break detection. We show the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the transported laser radiation and discuss its feasibility for pulse compression. Measurements are supported by simulation of pulse propagation by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation implementing the split-step Fourier method. In addition, mode properties are measured and confirmed by finite element method simulations. The presented industrial laser system offers the known advantages of ultra-short pulses combined with the flexibility of fiber delivery yielding a versatile tool perfectly suitable for all kinds of industrial micromachining applications.

  20. Optical vibration sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining

    SciTech Connect

    Kamata, Masanao; Obara, Minoru; Gattass, Rafael R.; Cerami, Loren R.; Mazur, Eric

    2005-08-01

    We fabricated an optical vibration sensor using a high-repetition rate femtosecond laser oscillator. The sensor consists of a single straight waveguide written across a series of three pieces of glass. The central piece is mounted on a suspended beam to make it sensitive to mechanical vibration, acceleration, or external forces. Displacement of the central piece is detected by measuring the change in optical transmission through the waveguide. The resulting sensor is small, simple, and requires no alignment. The sensor has a linear response over the frequency range 20 Hz-2 kHz, can detect accelerations as small as 0.01 m/s{sup 2}, and is nearly temperature independent.

  1. Enhancing the humidity response time of polymer optical fiber Bragg grating by using laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Chen; Hong, Yanhua; Webb, David J

    2015-10-01

    The humidity sensors constructed from polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (POFBG) respond to the water content change in the fiber induced by varying environmental condition. The water content change is a diffusion process. Therefore the response time of the POFBG sensor strongly depends on the geometry and size of the fiber. In this work we investigate the use of laser micromachining of D-shaped and slotted structures to improve the response time of polymer fiber grating based humidity sensors. A significant improvement in the response time has been achieved in laser micromachined D-shaped POFBG humidity sensors. The slotted geometry allows water rapid access to the core region but this does not of itself improve response time due to the slow expansion of the bulk of the cladding. We show that by straining the slotted sensor, the expansion component can be removed resulting in the response time being determined only by the more rapid, water induced change in core refractive index. In this way the response time is reduced by a factor of 2.5. PMID:26480109

  2. Fracture Forces of Dentin after Surface Treatment with High Speed Drill Compared to Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Rene; Kianimanesh, Nasrin; Marx, Rudolf; Ahmed, Asma; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Dental tooth restorative procedures may weaken the structural integrity of the tooth, with the possibility of leading to fracture. In this study we present findings of coronal dentin strength after different techniques of surface modification. The fracture strength of dentin beams after superficial material removal with a fine diamond bur high speed drill hand piece, Er:YAG (2.94 μm, 8 J/cm(2)), and Er,Cr:YSGG (2.78 μm, 7.8 J/cm(2)) laser irradiation slightly above the ablation threshold was measured by a four-point bending apparatus. Untreated dentin beams served as a control. A total of 58 dentin beams were manufactured from sterilized human extracted molars using the coronal part of the available dentin. Mean values of fracture strength were calculated as 82.0 ± 27.3 MPa for the control group (n = 10), 104.5 ± 26.3 MPa for high speed drill treatment (n = 10), 96.1 ± 28.1 MPa for Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (n = 20), and 89.1 ± 36.3 MPa for Er:YAG laser irradiation (n = 18). Independent Student's t-tests showed no significant difference between each two groups (p > 0.05). Within the parameter settings and the limits of the experimental setup used in this study, both lasers systems as well as the high speed drill do not significantly weaken coronal dentin after surface treatment.

  3. Automated generation of NC part programs for excimer laser ablation micromachining from known 3D surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutapcic, Emir; Iovenitti, Pio G.; Hayes, Jason P.

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this research project is to improve the capability of the laser micromachinning process, so that any desired 3D surface can be produced by taking the 3D information from a CAD system and automatically generating the NC part programs. In addition, surface quality should be able to be controlled by specifying optimised parameters. This paper presents the algorithms and a software system, which processes 3D geometry in an STL file format from a CAD system and produces the NC part program to mill the surface using the Excimer laser ablation process. Simple structures are used to demonstrate the prototype system's part programming capabilities, and an actual surface is machined.

  4. A cantilever based optical fiber acoustic sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Yuan, Lei; Huang, Jie; Xiao, Hai

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a pure silica micro-cantilever based optical fiber sensor for acoustic wave detection. The cantilever is directly fabricated by fs laser micromachining on an optical fiber tip functioning as an inline Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). The applied acoustic wave pressurizes the micro-cantilever beam and the corresponding dynamic signals can be probed by the FPI. The thickness, length, and width of the micro-cantilever beam can be flexibly designed and fabricated so that the sensitivity, frequency response, and the total measurement range can be varied to fit many practical applications. Experimental results will be presented and analyzed. Due to the assembly free fabrication of the fs-laser, multiple micro-cantilever beams could be potentially fabricated in/on a single optical fiber for quasi-distributed acoustic mapping with high spatial resolution.

  5. Programmable picosecond pulse packets for micromachining with multiwatt UV fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekel, Theodore; Foster, David H.; Crist, Jordan

    2009-02-01

    Nanosecond class lasers have been the mainstay of optical machining for decades, delivering pulses with high fluences (>1 J/cm2) that cause many material sets to undergo thermally-induced phase changes to cause removal of matter. While in many cases their delivery of sheer laser power has proved useful, nanosecond lasers have fallen short of addressing current micromachining requirements with respect to decreased feature sizes and more complex substrates. One main issue is the laser pulse width endures throughout the ablation process, depositing energy is deposited into plasma formation and local material heating. Plasma shielding takes place when the laser pulse energy contributes to plasma formation to a greater extent than direct material ablation processes. The result is a crude "plasma cutter" of the substrate, leaving a telltale trail of localized dross and droplet deposition. Nanosecond lasers of sufficient process speeds are typically Q-switched with repetition rates less than 200 kHz. As a result, the scribed lines are made of a sequence of "blast events" that result in a variety of undesired consequences and a limited process speed.

  6. Micromachining of liquid crystal polymer film with frequency converted diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingwei; Hix, Ken; Dosser, Larry R.; Hartke, Kevin; Blackshire, Jim

    2003-07-01

    Liquid crystal polymer (LCP) is a new and innovative material being used as an alternative to polyimide in the flexible circuit industry. LCP has many intrinsic benefits over polyimide including lower moisture absorption and improved dimensional stability. However, LCP is very resistant to chemical milling or etching. As a result, other methods for processing the material are being investigated including laser micromachining. In this paper, three frequency converted diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) Nd:YVO4 lasers at 355 nm were used to micromachine a LCP film and a copper/LCP laminate. Of them, two are Q-switched lasers operating in the nanosecond regime and the other a mode-locked laser in the picosecond regime. The Q-switched lasers can be operated at pulse repetition rates of 1 to 300 kHz while the mode-locked system is operated at 80 MHz. The micromachining experiments consisted of cutting the 50 μm thick LCP film, cutting the 18 μm thick copper on the film, and drilling micro-vias through both the copper coating and the film substrate. The laser/material interactions and processing speeds were studied and compared. The results show that, compared to polyimide film of the same thickness, LCP film can be more efficiently processed by laser micromachining. In addition, each laser has a unique advantage in processing LCP based flexible circuit materials. The Q-switched lasers are more capable of processing the copper coating while the mode-locked laser can cut LCP film faster with the smallest kerf width.

  7. Investigations of high-speed digital imaging of low-light-level events using pulsed near-infrared laser light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jantzen, Connie; Slagle, Rick

    1997-05-01

    The distinction between exposure time and sample rate is often the first point raised in any discussion of high speed imaging. Many high speed events require exposure times considerably shorter than those that can be achieved solely by the sample rate of the camera, where exposure time equals 1/sample rate. Gating, a method of achieving short exposure times in digital cameras, is often difficult to achieve for exposure time requirements shorter than 100 microseconds. This paper discusses the advantages and limitations of using the short duration light pulse of a near infrared laser with high speed digital imaging systems. By closely matching the output wavelength of the pulsed laser to the peak near infrared response of current sensors, high speed image capture can be accomplished at very low (visible) light levels of illumination. By virtue of the short duration light pulse, adjustable to as short as two microseconds, image capture of very high speed events can be achieved at relatively low sample rates of less than 100 pictures per second, without image blur. For our initial investigations, we chose a ballistic subject. The results of early experimentation revealed the limitations of applying traditional ballistic imaging methods when using a pulsed infrared lightsource with a digital imaging system. These early disappointing results clarified the need to further identify the unique system characteristics of the digital imager and pulsed infrared combination. It was also necessary to investigate how the infrared reflectance and transmittance of common materials affects the imaging process. This experimental work yielded a surprising, successful methodology which will prove useful in imaging ballistic and weapons tests, as well as forensics, flow visualizations, spray pattern analyses, and nocturnal animal behavioral studies.

  8. High speed handpieces.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Nayan; Desai, Asavari; Shetty, Y Bharath

    2014-02-01

    High speed instruments are versatile instruments used by clinicians of all specialties of dentistry. It is important for clinicians to understand the types of high speed handpieces available and the mechanism of working. The centers for disease control and prevention have issued guidelines time and again for disinfection and sterilization of high speed handpieces. This article presents the recent developments in the design of the high speed handpieces. With a view to prevent hospital associated infections significant importance has been given to disinfection, sterilization & maintenance of high speed handpieces. How to cite the article: Bhandary N, Desai A, Shetty YB. High speed handpieces. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):130-2.

  9. Underwater femtosecond laser micromachining of thin nitinol tubes for medical coronary stent manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Noorhafiza; Li, Lin

    2012-06-01

    Microprofiling of medical coronary stents has been dominated by the use of Nd:YAG lasers with pulse lengths in the range of a few milliseconds, and material removal is based on the melt ejection with a high-pressure gas. As a result, recast and heat-affected zones are produced, and various post-processing procedures are required to remove these defects. This paper reports a new approach of machining stents in submerged conditions using a 100-fs pulsed laser. A comparison is given of dry and underwater femtosecond laser micromachining techniques of nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) typically used as the material for coronary stents. The characteristics of laser interactions with the material have been studied. A femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system (wavelength of 800 nm, pulse duration of 100 fs, repetition rate of 1 kHz) was used to perform the cutting process. It is observed that machining under a thin water film resulted in no presence of heat-affected zone, debris, spatter or recast with fine-cut surface quality. At the optimum parameters, the results obtained with dry cutting showed nearly the same cut surface quality as with cutting under water. However, debris and recast formation still appeared on the dry cut, which is based on material vaporization. Physical processes involved during the cutting process in a thin water film, i.e. bubble formation and shock waves, are discussed.

  10. Initial evaluation of commercially available InGaAsP DFB laser diodes for use in high-speed digital fiber optic transceivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Anthony L.; Hendricks, Herbert D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has been pursuing the development of high-speed fiber-optic transceivers for use in a number of space data system applications. Current efforts are directed toward a high-performance all-integrated-circuit transceiver operating up to the 3-5 Gb/s range. Details of the evaluation and selection of candidate high-speed optical sources to be used in the space-qualified high-performance transceiver are presented. Data on the performance of commercially available DFB (distributed feedback) lasers are presented, and their performance relative to each other and to their structural design with regard to their use in high-performance fiber-optic transceivers is discussed. The DFB lasers were obtained from seven commercial manufacturers. The data taken on each laser included threshold current, differential quantum efficiency, CW side mode suppression radio, wavelength temperature coefficient, threshold temperature coefficient, natural linewidth, and far field pattern. It was found that laser diodes with buried heterostructures and first-order gratings had, in general, the best CW operating characteristics. The modulated characteristics of the DFB laser diodes are emphasized. Modulated linewidth, modulated side mode suppression ratio, and frequency response are discussed.

  11. Ferrofluid-based optofluidic switch using femtosecond laser-micromachined waveguides.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Bragheri, Francesca; Valentino, Gianna; Morris, Karl; Bellini, Nicola; Osellame, Roberto

    2015-02-20

    We present a portable optofluidic switch using a ferrofluid plug in a commercially produced microfluidic chip with waveguides added via femtosecond laser micromachining (FLM). FLM enabled the one-step fabrication of highly reproducible, perfectly aligned integrated waveguides orthogonally crossing an existing microfluidic channel. In the "ON" state for each output, the ferrofluid plug is outside the intersection and input light arrives at the output with relatively small loss. In the "OFF" state, the plug is inside the intersection and the input light is absorbed. The same plug is used to turn ON and OFF several parallel waveguides with contrast ratios of 22 dB or better. In addition, the plug is driven periodically using an electromagnet combined with a permanent magnet for frequency-dependent characterization. Photodiode data show high contrast up to 50 Hz and linear frequency response up to 1 KHz. PMID:25968208

  12. Miniature in-line photonic crystal fiber etalon fabricated by 157 nm laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Ran, Z L; Rao, Y J; Deng, H Y; Liao, X

    2007-11-01

    A miniature in-line fiber-optic Fabry-Perot etalon is fabricated on a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by using 157 nm laser micromachining for the first time to our knowledge. Experimental results show that such a PCF-based etalon has an excellent fringe visibility of up to approximately 26 dB due to the mirror-finish quality of the two cavity surfaces inside the PCF. This etalon can be used as an ideal sensor for precise strain measurement under high temperature of up to 800 degrees C. It can also offer some other outstanding advantages, such as fast and easy fabrication, high reproducibility, capacity of mass production, low cost, low temperature-strain cross-sensitivity, and high signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:17975600

  13. Miniature in-line photonic-crystal-fiber etalon fabricated by 157nm laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Zeng-ling; Rao, Yun-jiang; Deng, Hong-you; Liao, Xian

    2008-04-01

    A miniature in-line fiber-optic Fabry-Perot etalon sensor is fabricated on a photonic-crystal-fiber (PCF) by using 157nm laser micromachining for the first time to our knowledge. Experimental results show that such a PCF-based etalon sensor has an excellent fringe visibility of up to ~26dB due to the mirror-finish quality of the two cavity surfaces inside the PCF. This etalon sensor can be used as an ideal one for precise strain measurement under high temperature of up to 800°C. It can offer other outstanding advantages, such as fast and easy fabrication, high reproducibility, capacity of mass-production, low-cost, low temperature-strain cross-sensitivity, and high signal-to-noise ratio, etc.

  14. High speed CO2 laser surface modification of iron/cobalt co-doped boroaluminosilicate glass and the impact on surface roughness, gloss and wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, S. D.; Waugh, D. G.; Gillett, A.; Lawrence, J.

    2016-07-01

    A preliminary study into the impact of high speed laser processing on the surface of iron and cobalt co-doped glass substrates using a 60 W continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser. Two types of processing, termed fill-processing and line-processing, were trialled. In fill-processed samples the surface roughness of the glass was found to increase linearly with laser power from an S a value of 20.8 nm–2.1 μm at a processing power of 54 W. With line processing, a more exponential-like increase was observed with a roughness of 4 μm at 54 W. The change in surface properties of the glass, such as gloss and wettability, have also been measured. The contact angle of water was found to increase after laser processing by up to 64°. The surface gloss was varied between 45 and 100 gloss units (GUs).

  15. High speed CO2 laser surface modification of iron/cobalt co-doped boroaluminosilicate glass and the impact on surface roughness, gloss and wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, S. D.; Waugh, D. G.; Gillett, A.; Lawrence, J.

    2016-07-01

    A preliminary study into the impact of high speed laser processing on the surface of iron and cobalt co-doped glass substrates using a 60 W continuous wave (cw) CO2 laser. Two types of processing, termed fill-processing and line-processing, were trialled. In fill-processed samples the surface roughness of the glass was found to increase linearly with laser power from an S a value of 20.8 nm-2.1 μm at a processing power of 54 W. With line processing, a more exponential-like increase was observed with a roughness of 4 μm at 54 W. The change in surface properties of the glass, such as gloss and wettability, have also been measured. The contact angle of water was found to increase after laser processing by up to 64°. The surface gloss was varied between 45 and 100 gloss units (GUs).

  16. Fracture Forces of Dentin after Surface Treatment with High Speed Drill Compared to Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Franzen, Rene; Kianimanesh, Nasrin; Marx, Rudolf; Ahmed, Asma; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Dental tooth restorative procedures may weaken the structural integrity of the tooth, with the possibility of leading to fracture. In this study we present findings of coronal dentin strength after different techniques of surface modification. The fracture strength of dentin beams after superficial material removal with a fine diamond bur high speed drill hand piece, Er:YAG (2.94 μm, 8 J/cm2), and Er,Cr:YSGG (2.78 μm, 7.8 J/cm2) laser irradiation slightly above the ablation threshold was measured by a four-point bending apparatus. Untreated dentin beams served as a control. A total of 58 dentin beams were manufactured from sterilized human extracted molars using the coronal part of the available dentin. Mean values of fracture strength were calculated as 82.0 ± 27.3 MPa for the control group (n = 10), 104.5 ± 26.3 MPa for high speed drill treatment (n = 10), 96.1 ± 28.1 MPa for Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (n = 20), and 89.1 ± 36.3 MPa for Er:YAG laser irradiation (n = 18). Independent Student's t-tests showed no significant difference between each two groups (p > 0.05). Within the parameter settings and the limits of the experimental setup used in this study, both lasers systems as well as the high speed drill do not significantly weaken coronal dentin after surface treatment. PMID:26962473

  17. Ultrafast laser with an average power of 120 W at 515 nm and a highly dynamic repetition rate in the MHz range for novel applications in micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harth, F.; Piontek, M. C.; Herrmann, T.; L'huillier, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    A new generation of resonant scanners in the kHz-range shows ultra-high deflection speeds of more than 1000m/s but suffer from an inherent nonlinear mirror oscillation. If this oscillation is not compensated, a typical bitmap, written point by point, would be strongly distorted because of the decreasing spot distance at the turning point of the scanning mirror. However, this can be avoided by a dynamic adaption of the repetition rate (RR) of the ultrafast laser. Since resonant scanners are operated in the 10 kHz-range, this means that the RR has to be continuously swept up to several 10 000 times per second between e.g. 5MHz and 10 MHz. High-speed continuous adaption of the RR could also optimize laser micromachining of narrow curved geometries, where nowadays a time consuming approximation with numerous vectors is required. We present a laser system, which is capable of sweeping the RR more than 32 000 times per second between 5MHz and 10MHz at an average output power of more than 120W at 515nm with a pulse duration of about 40 ps. The laser consists of a semiconductor oscillator, a 3-stage fiber pre-amplifier, a solid state InnoSlab power amplifier and a SHG stage. We systematically analyzed the dynamic of the laser system as well as the spectral and temporal behavior of the optical pulses. Switching the repetition rate typically causes a varying pulse energy, which could affect the machining quality over one scanning line. This effect will be analyzed and discussed. Possible techniques to compensate or avoid this effect will be considered.

  18. Feasibility analysis and demonstration of high-speed digital imaging using micro-arrays of vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentzer, Mark A.; Ghosh, Chuni L.; Guo, Baiming; Brewer, Kristopher; Nicolai, Robin; Herr, Douglas; Lubking, Carl; Ojason, Neil; Tangradi, Edward; Tarpine, Howard

    2011-04-01

    Previous laser illumination systems at Aberdeen Proving Ground and elsewhere required complex pulse timing, extensive cooling, large-scale laser systems (frequency-doubled flash-pumped Nd:YAG, Cu-vapor, Q-switched ruby), making them difficult to implement for range test illumination in high speed videography. Requirements to illuminate through the self-luminosity of explosive events motivate the development of a high brightness imaging technique obviating the limitations of previous attempts. A lensed vertical cavity surface-emitting laser array is proposed and implemented with spectral filtering to effectively remove self-luminosity and the fireball from the image, providing excellent background discrimination in a variety of range test scenarios.

  19. High speed handpieces

    PubMed Central

    Bhandary, Nayan; Desai, Asavari; Shetty, Y Bharath

    2014-01-01

    High speed instruments are versatile instruments used by clinicians of all specialties of dentistry. It is important for clinicians to understand the types of high speed handpieces available and the mechanism of working. The centers for disease control and prevention have issued guidelines time and again for disinfection and sterilization of high speed handpieces. This article presents the recent developments in the design of the high speed handpieces. With a view to prevent hospital associated infections significant importance has been given to disinfection, sterilization & maintenance of high speed handpieces. How to cite the article: Bhandary N, Desai A, Shetty YB. High speed handpieces. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):130-2. PMID:24653618

  20. Auto-ignition and flame stabilization of pulsed methane jets in a hot vitiated coflow studied with high-speed laser and imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, C. M.; Gounder, J. D.; Meier, W.; Aigner, M.

    2012-08-01

    The auto-ignition of a pulsed methane jet issuing into a laminar coflow of hot exhaust products of a lean premixed hydrogen/air flat flame was examined using high-speed laser and optical measurement techniques with frame rates of 5 kHz or more. OH* chemiluminescence was used to determine the downstream location of the first auto-ignition kernel as well as the stabilization height of the steady-state lifted jet flame. OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to determine further details of the auto-ignition with a higher spatial resolution. Simultaneous imaging of broadband luminosity from a viewing angle perpendicular to the OH* chemiluminescence was applied, to three-dimensionally reconstruct the ignition kernel location in space and to determine whether the first occurrence of the kernel was within or beyond the PLIF laser sheet. The development and expansion of the jet was characterized by high-speed Schlieren imaging. Statistics have been compiled for both the ignition time as well as the downstream location of the first auto-ignition kernel and the stabilization height of the steady-state lifted jet flame. From the PLIF images it was found that auto-ignition tended to occur at the interface between bulges of the inflowing jet and the coflow. For steady-state conditions, auto-ignition kernels were observed frequently below the flame base, emphasizing that the lifted jet flame is stabilized by auto-ignition.

  1. High-speed concatenation of frequency ramps using sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector laser diode sources for OCT resolution enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Brandon; Derickson, Dennis

    2010-02-01

    Wavelength tunable sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) lasers used for telecommunications applications have previously demonstrated the ability for linear frequency ramps covering the entire tuning range of the laser at 100 kHz repetition rates1. An individual SG-DBR laser has a typical tuning range of 50 nm. The InGaAs/InP material system often used with SG-DBR lasers allows for design variations that cover the 1250 to 1650 nm wavelength range. This paper addresses the possibility of concatenating the outputs of tunable SGDBR lasers covering adjacent wavelength ranges for enhancing the resolution of OCT measurements. This laser concatenation method is demonstrated by combining the 1525 nm to 1575 nm wavelength range of a "C Band" SG-DBR laser with the 1570nm to 1620 nm wavelength coverage of an "L-Band" SG-DBR laser. Measurements show that SGDBR lasers can be concatenated with a transition switching time of less than 50 ns with undesired leakage signals attenuated by 50 dB.

  2. Influence of particle drag coefficient on particle motion in high-speed flow with typical laser velocimeter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of using different particle drag coefficient C sub D equations for computing the velocity of seeded particles in high-speed gas flows was investigated. The C sub D equations investigated included the Stokes equation, a second incompressible equation valid for higher relative Reynolds numbers, and six equations that account for the effects of compressibility together with the effects of relative Reynolds numbers greater than one. The flows investigated were center-line nozzle flows, normal shocks, and oblique shocks for free-stream Mach numbers of 1.6 to 6 and stagnation pressures of 1 and 3.4 atmospheres. The net result was empirical C sub D equation based on the latest sphere C sub D data for the low relative Mach number and Reynolds number conditions that are encountered in supersonic flows.

  3. Laser micromachined and acid-etched Fabry-Perot cavities in silica fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machavaram, V. R.; Tuck, C. J.; Teagle, M. C.; Badcock, R. A.; Fernando, G. F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on two techniques for creating Fabry-Perot cavities in conventional single- and multi-mode optical fibres. The authors have reported previously on the design and fabrication of extrinsic fibre Fabry-Perot interferometric multi-functional sensors. Here, the authors report on two novel techniques for creating intrinsic fibre optic sensors based on the Fabry-Perot etalon. The first technique involved the use of hydrofluoric acid to preferentially etch the core of the optical fibre. This technique is simple to carry out and provides a cost-effective means for manufacturing intrinsic fibre Fabry-Perot sensors. In the second technique, a 157 nm excimer laser along with a custom-designed beam delivery system was used to ablate (micro-machine) near-paralleled walled cavities through the diameter of the optical fibre (outer diameter of 125 μm). The paper details the experimental methodology and the associated instrumentation for the two techniques. The acid etched and laser ablated cavities were characterised using a 3-D surface profiler, optical and scanning electron microscopy. The feasibility of using these cavities as intrinsic fibre Fabry-Perot strain sensors is demonstrated. This was achieved by surface-mounting the acid etched cavities on to composite tensile test specimens. The output from the optical fibre devices was compared with surface-mounted electrical resistance strain gauges.

  4. High-speed Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging of Lipid-laden Atherosclerotic Plaque Enabled by a 2-kHz Barium Nitrite Raman Laser

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Ma, Teng; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Liang, Shanshan; Hui, Jie; Shung, K. Kirk; Roy, Sukesh; Sturek, Michael; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Lipid deposition inside the arterial wall is a key indicator of plaque vulnerability. An intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) catheter is considered a promising device for quantifying the amount of lipid inside the arterial wall. Thus far, IVPA systems suffered from slow imaging speed (~50 s per frame) due to the lack of a suitable laser source for high-speed excitation of molecular overtone vibrations. Here, we report an improvement in IVPA imaging speed by two orders of magnitude, to 1.0 s per frame, enabled by a custom-built, 2-kHz master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA)-pumped, barium nitrite [Ba(NO3)2] Raman laser. This advancement narrows the gap in translating the IVPA technology to the clinical setting. PMID:25366991

  5. Characterization of a High-SpeedHigh-Power Semiconductor Master-Oscillator Power-Amplifier (MOPA) Laser as a Free-Space Transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, M. W.

    2000-04-01

    Semiconductor lasers offer promise as high-speed transmitters for free-space optical communication systems. This article examines the performance of a semiconductor laser system in a master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) geometry developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with SDL, Inc. The compact thermo-electric cooler (TEC) packaged device is capable of 1-W output optical power at greater than 2-Gb/s data rates and a wavelength of 960 nm. In particular, we have investigated the effects of amplified spontaneous emission on the modulation extinction ratio and bit-error rate (BER) performance. BERs of up to 10^(-9) were possible at 1.4 Gb/s; however, the modulation extinction ratio was limited to 6 dB. Other key parameters for a free-space optical transmitter, such as the electrical-optical efficiency (24 percent) and beam quality, also were measured.

  6. Quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier/silicon external cavity laser for O-band high-speed optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuyu; Zhang, Yi; Li, Qi; Zhu, Xiaoliang; Bergman, Keren; Magill, Peter; Baehr-Jones, Thomas; Hochberg, Michael

    2015-02-01

    We report a hybrid integrated external cavity laser by butt coupling a quantum dot reflective semiconductor optical amplifier and a silicon-on-insulator chip. The device lasers at 1302 nm in the O-band, a wavelength regime critical to data communication systems. We measured 18 mW on-chip output power and over 50-dB side-mode suppression ratio. We also demonstrated open eye diagrams at 10 and 40 Gb/s.

  7. Tensile bond strength of different adhesive systems to primary dentin treated by Er:YAG laser and conventional high-speed drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Barbara A.; Navarro, Ricardo S.; Silvestre, Fellipe D.; Pinheiro, Sergio L.; Freitas, Patricia M.; Imparato, Jose Carlos P.; Oda, Margareth

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of different adhesive systems to primary tooth dentin prepared by high-speed drill and Er:YAG laser (2.94μm). Buccal surfaces of 38 primary canines were ground and flattened with sand paper disks (#120-600 grit) and distributed into five groups (n=15): G1: diamond bur in high-speed drill (HD)+ 35% phosphoric acid (PA)+Single Bond (SB); G2: HD+self-etching One Up Bond F (OUB);G3: Er:YAG laser (KaVo 3- LELO-FOUSP)(4Hz, 80mJ, 25,72J/cm2) (L)+PA+SB, G4: L+SB, G5: L+OUB. The inverted truncated cone samples built with Z-100 composite resin after storage in water (37°C/24h) were submitted to tensile bond strength test on Mini Instron 4442 (0.5mm/min, 500N). The data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey Test (p<0.05). The mean (MPa) were: G1-3.18(+/-1.24) G2-1.79(+/-0.73) G3-3.17(+/-0.44) G4-8.29(+/-1.86) G5-7.11(+/-2.07). The data analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey Test showed that Laser associated with PA+SB, SB or OUB lead to increased bonding values when compared to HD+PA+SB and HD+OUB (p=0.000), L+SB showed higher values than L+PA+SB and L+OUB (p=0.0311). Er:YAG laser radiation promoted significant increase of bond strength of different adhesive systems evaluated in the dentin of primary teeth.

  8. High speed optical and X-ray methods for evaluating laser-generated shock-wave in materials

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.; Swift, D.

    2000-11-01

    Optical diagnostic techniques including interferometry, electronic streak photography, and transient x-ray diffraction are used to study the dynamic material response to shock loading by direct laser irradiation and impact by laser-launched plates. The Los Alamos Trident laser is one of several lasers that have been used to generate shocks of 10 Kbar to several Mbar in single crystal and polycrystalline materials. Incorporating optical velocity interferometry (line-VISAR and point-VISAR) with transient x-ray diffraction can provide a complete understanding of the dynamic material response to shock compression and release. Laser-launched flyer plates provide an ideal method to generate one-dimensional shocks in materials. The quality of the one-dimensionality of the launch and acceleration of plates is evaluated by line-imaging VISA.R. The line-imaging VISAR images the fringes along a line across the diameter of the plate. Each fringe maxima and minima provide acceleration and velocity information at the specific point on the plate. By varying the fringe constant number of fringes and fringe spacing on the plate, detailed experimental data can be obtained. For our experiments, most plates are 3-mm diameter and accelerated to 0.2-->6 km/sec.

  9. Rate equation analysis of high-speed photon-lifetime-modulated strongly injection-locked semiconductor ring lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalagara, Hemashilpa; Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Osiński, Marek

    2013-02-01

    A novel method for modulation bandwidth enhancement is presented, involving strongly injection-locked whistle-geometry semiconductor ring laser modulated through photon lifetime. Advantages of photon-lifetime modulation over conventional injection-current modulation are confirmed through numerical modeling.

  10. High Speed Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert E.; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Schmitz, Frederic H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the NASA High Speed Research Program will be presented from a NASA Headquarters perspective. The presentation will include the objectives of the program and an outline of major programmatic issues.

  11. Comparative histopathological analysis of human pulps after class I cavity preparation with a high-speed air-turbine handpiece or Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kina, J. F.; Benitez, P. C.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Bagnato, V. S.; Martinez, T. C.; Oliveira, C. F.; Hebling, J.; Costa, C. A. S.

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to comparatively evaluate the response of human pulps after cavity preparation with different devices. Deep class I cavities were prepared in sound mandibular premolars using either a high-speed air-turbine handpiece (Group 1) or an Er:YAG laser (Group 2). Following total acid etching and the application of an adhesive system, all cavities were restored with composite resin. Fifteen days after the clinical procedure, the teeth were extracted and processed for analysis under optical microscopy. In Group 1 in which the average for the remaining dentin thickness (RDT) between the cavity floor and the coronal pulp was 909.5 μm, a discrete inflammatory response occurred in only one specimen with an RDT of 214 μm. However, tissue disorganization occurred in most specimens. In Group 2 (average RDT = 935.2 μm), the discrete inflammatory pulp response was observed in only one specimen (average RDT = 413 μm). It may be concluded that the high-speed air-turbine handpiece caused greater structural alterations in the pulp, although without inducing inflammatory processes.

  12. High-speed multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging with a single-photon counting camera

    PubMed Central

    Dragojević, Tanja; Bronzi, Danilo; Varma, Hari M.; Valdes, Claudia P.; Castellvi, Clara; Villa, Federica; Tosi, Alberto; Justicia, Carles; Zappa, Franco; Durduran, Turgut

    2015-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has emerged as a valuable tool for cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging. We present a multi-exposure laser speckle imaging (MESI) method which uses a high-frame rate acquisition with a negligible inter-frame dead time to mimic multiple exposures in a single-shot acquisition series. Our approach takes advantage of the noise-free readout and high-sensitivity of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array to provide real-time speckle contrast measurement with high temporal resolution and accuracy. To demonstrate its feasibility, we provide comparisons between in vivo measurements with both the standard and the new approach performed on a mouse brain, in identical conditions. PMID:26309751

  13. Gain engineering for all-optical microwave and high speed pulse generation in mode-locked fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fangxin; Helmy, Amr S.

    2014-03-01

    Pulsed sources based on approaches that employ only photonic components and no RF components will be discussed in this talk. Several technologies have been explored to generate actively mode-locked sources using electronically driven fiber ring cavities. However, for these sources the pulse repetition rate is usually limited by the bandwidth of the intracavity modulator. Filtering of highly-stable low repetition rate optical combs utilizing cavities such as Fabry-Perot etalons can be used to overcome this limitation. This scheme is not flexible as it requires highly precise control of ultrahigh finesse etalons which limits the repetition rate to the free spectral range of the filter. Pulsed sources based on semiconductor devices offer many advantages, including large gain bandwidth, rapid tunability, long-term stability. In this work we introduce a novel, simple method to generate optical clock with wavelength tunability using two continuous wave (CW) lasers. The lasers are injected into a conventional SOAs-based fiber ring laser. The beating signal generated by these two lasers causes the modulation of the SOA gain saturation inside the cavity. Thus, the SOA provides gain and functions as the modulator as well as the gain medium. When the lasing mode inside the cavity is amplified, it also results in gain-induced four wave mixing. The proposed technique is particularly versatile, overcoming the bandwidth limitation of other techniques, which require RF sources. Moreover, this technique provides the possibility for hybrid integration as it is comprised of semiconductor chips that can be heterogeneously integrated on a Si platform.

  14. Laser tabbed die: A repairable, high-speed die-interconnection technology. 1994 LDRD final report 93-SR-089

    SciTech Connect

    Malba, V.; Bernhardt, A.F.

    1995-09-01

    A unique technology for multichip module production is presented. The technology, called Laser Tabbed Die (L-TAB), consists of a method for forming surface-mount-type {open_quotes}gull wing{close_quotes} interconnects on bare dice. The dice are temporarily bonded to a sacrificial substrate which has a polymer thin film coated onto it. The gull wings are formed on the side of the die with a direct-write laser patterning process which allows vertical as well as horizontal image formation. Using the laser patterning system, trenches are formed in a positive electrodeposited photoresist (EDPR) which is plated onto a metal seed layer, allowing copper to be electroplated through the resultant mask. After stripping the resist and the metal seed layer, the polymer film on the substrate is dissolved, releasing the chip with the {open_quotes}gull wings{close_quotes} intact. The chips are then bonded onto a circuit board or permanent substrate with solder or conductive adhesive.

  15. Micromachined spinneret

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul

    2007-11-06

    A micromachined spinneret is disclosed which has one or more orifices through which a fiber-forming material can be extruded to form a fiber. Each orifice is surrounded by a concentric annular orifice which allows the fiber to be temporarily or permanently coated with a co-extrudable material. The micromachined spinneret can be formed by a combination of surface and bulk micromachining.

  16. InGaAlAs RW-based electro-absorption-modulated DFB-lasers for high-speed applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehrle, Martin; Klein, Holger; Bornholdt, Carsten; Przyrembel, Georges; Sigmund, Ariane; Molzow, Wolf-Dietrich; Troppenz, Ute; Bach, Heinz-Gunter

    2014-05-01

    Electro-absorption modulated 10G and 25G DFB lasers (EML) are key components in transmission systems for long reach (up to 10 km) and extended reach (up to 80 km) applications. The next generation Ethernet will most likely be 400 Gb/s which will require components with even higher bandwidth. Commercially available EMLs are regarded as high-cost components due to their separate epitaxial butt-coupling growth process to separately optimize the DFB laser and the electro-absorption modulator (EAM). Alternatively the selective area growth (SAG) technique is used to achieve different MQW bandgaps in the DFB and EAM section of an EML. However for a lot of applications an emission wavelength within a narrow wavelength window is required enforcing a temperature controlled operation. All these applications can be covered with the developed EML devices that use a single InGaAlAs MQW waveguide for both the DFB and the EAM enabling a low-cost fabrication process similar to a conventional DFB laser diode. It will be shown that such devices can be used for 25Gb/s and 40Gb/s applications with excellent performance. By an additional monolithic integration of an impedance matching circuit the module fabrication costs can be reduced but also the modulation bandwidth of the devices can be further enhanced. Up to 70Gb/s modulation with excellent eye openings can be achieved. This novel approach opens the possibility for 100Gb/s NRZ EMLs and thus 4x100Gb/s NRZ EML-based transmitters in future. Also even higher bitrates seem feasible using more complex modulation formats such as e.g. DMT and PAM.

  17. High-speed flow measurements in a two-stroke engine by photon-correlation laser velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Fansler, T D; French, D T

    1993-07-20

    Three-dimensional mapping of the spatial structure and the temporal evolution of the air flow field in a commercially available two-stroke engine requires the ability to resolve a wide range of flow velocities (±250 m/s) at measurement locations near the cylinder wall and the piston crown. Laser-Doppler velocimetry that uses photon-correlation signal processing and Fourier-transform analysis permits ensemble-averaged velocity-distribution functions to be extracted from scattered-light signals that are sampled at nearly the Nyquist limit and whose strength is typically less than 1 photon per Doppler cycle. Selected results from a systematic study illustrate the impulsive jet-like flow through the transfer ports into the engine cylinder, the complexity of the resultant in-cylinder flow field, and the likelihood of large-scale flow-field variations from one engine cycle to another.

  18. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    SciTech Connect

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-15

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here.

  19. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here.

  20. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team.

    PubMed

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here.

  1. High-speed phosphor thermometry.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, N; Baum, E; Brübach, J; Dreizler, A

    2011-10-01

    Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilising the luminescence properties of doped ceramic materials. Typically, these phosphor materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. This contribution reports on the first realisation of a high-speed phosphor thermometry system employing a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterised regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and its measurement precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating was investigated in terms of heating effects. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of 6 kHz corresponding to one sample per crank angle degree at 1000 rpm. PMID:22047319

  2. High-speed phosphor thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, N.; Baum, E.; Brübach, J.; Dreizler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilising the luminescence properties of doped ceramic materials. Typically, these phosphor materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. This contribution reports on the first realisation of a high-speed phosphor thermometry system employing a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterised regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and its measurement precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating was investigated in terms of heating effects. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of 6 kHz corresponding to one sample per crank angle degree at 1000 rpm.

  3. High-speed phosphor thermometry.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, N; Baum, E; Brübach, J; Dreizler, A

    2011-10-01

    Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilising the luminescence properties of doped ceramic materials. Typically, these phosphor materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. This contribution reports on the first realisation of a high-speed phosphor thermometry system employing a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterised regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and its measurement precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating was investigated in terms of heating effects. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of 6 kHz corresponding to one sample per crank angle degree at 1000 rpm.

  4. Multi-meter fiber-delivery and pulse self-compression of milli-Joule femtosecond laser and fiber-aided laser-micromachining.

    PubMed

    Debord, B; Alharbi, M; Vincetti, L; Husakou, A; Fourcade-Dutin, C; Hoenninger, C; Mottay, E; Gérôme, F; Benabid, F

    2014-05-01

    We report on damage-free fiber-guidance of milli-Joule energy-level and 600-femtosecond laser pulses into hypocycloid core-contour Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fibers. Up to 10 meter-long fibers were used to successfully deliver Yb-laser pulses in robustly single-mode fashion. Different pulse propagation regimes were demonstrated by simply changing the fiber dispersion and gas. Self-compression to ~50 fs, and intensity-level nearing petawatt/cm(2) were achieved. Finally, free focusing-optics laser-micromachining was also demonstrated on different materials.

  5. Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Song, Yuhang; Yu, Xiangyu; Lin, Aobo; Kong, Meiwei; Han, Jun; Deng, Ning

    2016-04-18

    We first study the transmission property of red light in water in terms of extinction coefficient and channel bandwidth via Monte Carlo simulation, with an interesting finding that red light outperforms blue-green light in highly turbid water. We further propose and experimentally demonstrate a broadband underwater wireless optical communication system based on a simple and cost-effective TO56 red-light laser diode. We demonstrate a 1.324-Gb/s transmission at a bit error rate (BER) of 2.02 × 10-3 over a 6-m underwater channel, by using 128-QAM OFDM signals and a low-cost 150-MHz positive-intrinsic-negative photodetector, with a record spectral efficiency higher than 7.32 bits/Hz. By using an avalanche photodetector and 32-QAM OFDM signals, we have achieved a record bit rate of 4.883 Gb/s at a BER of 3.20 × 10-3 over a 6-m underwater channel. PMID:27137249

  6. Underwater wireless transmission of high-speed QAM-OFDM signals using a compact red-light laser.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Song, Yuhang; Yu, Xiangyu; Lin, Aobo; Kong, Meiwei; Han, Jun; Deng, Ning

    2016-04-18

    We first study the transmission property of red light in water in terms of extinction coefficient and channel bandwidth via Monte Carlo simulation, with an interesting finding that red light outperforms blue-green light in highly turbid water. We further propose and experimentally demonstrate a broadband underwater wireless optical communication system based on a simple and cost-effective TO56 red-light laser diode. We demonstrate a 1.324-Gb/s transmission at a bit error rate (BER) of 2.02 × 10-3 over a 6-m underwater channel, by using 128-QAM OFDM signals and a low-cost 150-MHz positive-intrinsic-negative photodetector, with a record spectral efficiency higher than 7.32 bits/Hz. By using an avalanche photodetector and 32-QAM OFDM signals, we have achieved a record bit rate of 4.883 Gb/s at a BER of 3.20 × 10-3 over a 6-m underwater channel.

  7. High-speed laser diagnostics for the study of flame dynamics in a lean premixed gas turbine model combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boxx, Isaac; Arndt, Christoph M.; Carter, Campbell D.; Meier, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    A series of measurements was taken on two technically premixed, swirl-stabilized methane-air flames (at overall equivalence ratios of ϕ = 0.73 and 0.83) in an optically accessible gas turbine model combustor. The primary diagnostics used were combined planar laser-induced fluorescence of the OH radical and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) with simultaneous repetition rates of 10 kHz and a measurement duration of 0.8 s. Also measured were acoustic pulsations and OH chemiluminescence. Analysis revealed strong local periodicity in the thermoacoustically self-excited (or ` noisy') flame (ϕ = 0.73) in the regions of the flow corresponding to the inner shear layer and the jet-inflow. This periodicity appears to be the result of a helical precessing vortex core (PVC) present in that region of the combustor. The PVC has a precession frequency double (at 570 Hz) that of the thermo-acoustic pulsation (at 288 Hz). A comparison of the various data sets and analysis techniques applied to each flame suggests a strong coupling between the PVC and the thermo-acoustic pulsation in the noisy flame. Measurements of the stable (` quiet') flame (ϕ = 0.83) revealed a global fluctuation in both velocity and heat-release around 364 Hz, but no clear evidence of a PVC.

  8. Fabrication of an integrated high-quality-factor (high-Q) optofluidic sensor by femtosecond laser micromachining.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiangxin; Lin, Jintian; Tang, Jialei; Liao, Yang; He, Fei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya

    2014-06-16

    We report on fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality factor (i.e., Q-factor of ~3.24 × 10(6) measured under the critical coupling condition) integrated in a microfluidic channel using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. Coupling of light into and out of the microresonator has been realized with a fiber taper that is reliably assembled with the microtoroid. The assembly of the fiber to the microtoroid is achieved by welding the fiber taper onto the sidewall of the microtoroid using CO2 laser irradiation. The integrated microresonator maintains a high Q-factor of 3.21 × 10(5) as measured in air, which should still be sufficient for many sensing applications. We test the functionality of the integrated optofluidic sensor by performing bulk refractive index sensing of purified water doped with tiny amount of salt. It is shown that a detection limit of ~1.2 × 10(-4) refractive index unit can be achieved. Our result showcases the capability of integration of high-Q microresonators with complex microfluidic systems using femtosecond laser 3D micromachining. PMID:24977574

  9. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Carolyn

    1993-01-01

    A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  10. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, C.

    1993-04-27

    A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  11. High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    The design requirements of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) are discussed. The following design concerns are presented: (1) environmental impact (emissions and noise); (2) critical components (the high temperature combustor and the lightweight exhaust nozzle); and (3) advanced materials (high temperature ceramic matrix composites (CMC's)/intermetallic matrix composites (IMC's)/metal matrix composites (MMC's)).

  12. Femtosecond laser 3D micromachining: a powerful tool for the fabrication of microfluidic, optofluidic, and electrofluidic devices based on glass.

    PubMed

    Sugioka, Koji; Xu, Jian; Wu, Dong; Hanada, Yasutaka; Wang, Zhongke; Cheng, Ya; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2014-09-21

    Femtosecond lasers have unique characteristics of ultrashort pulse width and extremely high peak intensity; however, one of the most important features of femtosecond laser processing is that strong absorption can be induced only at the focus position inside transparent materials due to nonlinear multiphoton absorption. This exclusive feature makes it possible to directly fabricate three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic devices in glass microchips by two methods: 3D internal modification using direct femtosecond laser writing followed by chemical wet etching (femtosecond laser-assisted etching, FLAE) and direct ablation of glass in water (water-assisted femtosecond laser drilling, WAFLD). Direct femtosecond laser writing also enables the integration of micromechanical, microelectronic, and microoptical components into the 3D microfluidic devices without stacking or bonding substrates. This paper gives a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art femtosecond laser 3D micromachining for the fabrication of microfluidic, optofluidic, and electrofluidic devices. A new strategy (hybrid femtosecond laser processing) is also presented, in which FLAE is combined with femtosecond laser two-photon polymerization to realize a new type of biochip termed the ship-in-a-bottle biochip. PMID:25012238

  13. High speed door assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  14. Contact-lens type of micromachined hydrogenated amorphous Si fluorescence detector coupled with microfluidic electrophoresis devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamei, Toshihiro; Wada, Takehito

    2006-09-01

    A 5.8-μm-thick SiO2/Ta2O5 multilayer optical interference filter was monolithically integrated and micromachined on a hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si :H) pin photodiode to form a fluorescence detector. A microfluidic electrophoresis device was mounted on a detection platform comprising a fluorescence-collecting half-ball lens and the micromachined fluorescence detector. The central aperture of the fluorescence detector allows semiconductor laser light to pass up through the detector and to irradiate an electrophoretic separation channel. The limit of detection is as low as 7nM of the fluorescein solution, and high-speed DNA fragment sizing can be achieved with high separation efficiency. The micromachined a-Si :H fluorescence detector exhibits high sensitivity for practical fluorescent labeling dyes as well as integration flexibility on various substances, making it ideal for application to portable microfluidic bioanalysis devices.

  15. A novel optical apparatus for the study of rolling contact wear/fatigue based on a high-speed camera and multiple-source laser illumination.

    PubMed

    Bodini, I; Sansoni, G; Lancini, M; Pasinetti, S; Docchio, F

    2016-08-01

    Rolling contact wear/fatigue tests on wheel/rail specimens are important to produce wheels and rails of new materials for improved lifetime and performance, which are able to operate in harsh environments and at high rolling speeds. This paper presents a novel non-invasive, all-optical system, based on a high-speed video camera and multiple laser illumination sources, which is able to continuously monitor the dynamics of the specimens used to test wheel and rail materials, in a laboratory test bench. 3D macro-topography and angular position of the specimen are simultaneously performed, together with the acquisition of surface micro-topography, at speeds up to 500 rpm, making use of a fast camera and image processing algorithms. Synthetic indexes for surface micro-topography classification are defined, the 3D macro-topography is measured with a standard uncertainty down to 0.019 mm, and the angular position is measured on a purposely developed analog encoder with a standard uncertainty of 2.9°. The very small camera exposure time enables to obtain blur-free images with excellent definition. The system will be described with the aid of end-cycle specimens, as well as of in-test specimens. PMID:27587125

  16. Generation of multi-channel high-speed physical random numbers originated from two chaotic signals of mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Wu, Z. M.; Wu, J. G.; Deng, T.; Fan, L.; Zhong, Z. Q.; Chen, J. J.; Xia, G. Q.

    2015-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel technique to generate multi-channel high-speed physical random numbers (PRNs) by taking two chaotic signal outputs from mutually coupled semiconductor lasers (MC-SLs) as entropy sources. First, through controlling the operation parameters of the MC-SL system, two time-delay signature (TDS) suppressed chaotic signals can be obtained. Next, each of these two chaotic signals is sampled by an 8 bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a sampling rate of 10 GHz, and then a bitwise exclusive-OR (XOR) operation on the corresponding bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time delayed signal is implemented to obtain 8 bit XOR data. Furthermore, through selecting the five least significant bits (LSBs) of 8 bit XOR data to form 5 bit Boolean sequences, two sets of PRN streams with a rate up to 50 Gbits s-1 are generated and successfully pass the NIST statistical tests. Finally, merging these two sets of 50 Gbits s-1 PRN streams by an interleaving operation, another set of the 100 Gbits s-1 PRN stream, which meets all the quality criteria of NIST statistical tests, is also acquired.

  17. A novel optical apparatus for the study of rolling contact wear/fatigue based on a high-speed camera and multiple-source laser illumination.

    PubMed

    Bodini, I; Sansoni, G; Lancini, M; Pasinetti, S; Docchio, F

    2016-08-01

    Rolling contact wear/fatigue tests on wheel/rail specimens are important to produce wheels and rails of new materials for improved lifetime and performance, which are able to operate in harsh environments and at high rolling speeds. This paper presents a novel non-invasive, all-optical system, based on a high-speed video camera and multiple laser illumination sources, which is able to continuously monitor the dynamics of the specimens used to test wheel and rail materials, in a laboratory test bench. 3D macro-topography and angular position of the specimen are simultaneously performed, together with the acquisition of surface micro-topography, at speeds up to 500 rpm, making use of a fast camera and image processing algorithms. Synthetic indexes for surface micro-topography classification are defined, the 3D macro-topography is measured with a standard uncertainty down to 0.019 mm, and the angular position is measured on a purposely developed analog encoder with a standard uncertainty of 2.9°. The very small camera exposure time enables to obtain blur-free images with excellent definition. The system will be described with the aid of end-cycle specimens, as well as of in-test specimens.

  18. A novel optical apparatus for the study of rolling contact wear/fatigue based on a high-speed camera and multiple-source laser illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodini, I.; Sansoni, G.; Lancini, M.; Pasinetti, S.; Docchio, F.

    2016-08-01

    Rolling contact wear/fatigue tests on wheel/rail specimens are important to produce wheels and rails of new materials for improved lifetime and performance, which are able to operate in harsh environments and at high rolling speeds. This paper presents a novel non-invasive, all-optical system, based on a high-speed video camera and multiple laser illumination sources, which is able to continuously monitor the dynamics of the specimens used to test wheel and rail materials, in a laboratory test bench. 3D macro-topography and angular position of the specimen are simultaneously performed, together with the acquisition of surface micro-topography, at speeds up to 500 rpm, making use of a fast camera and image processing algorithms. Synthetic indexes for surface micro-topography classification are defined, the 3D macro-topography is measured with a standard uncertainty down to 0.019 mm, and the angular position is measured on a purposely developed analog encoder with a standard uncertainty of 2.9°. The very small camera exposure time enables to obtain blur-free images with excellent definition. The system will be described with the aid of end-cycle specimens, as well as of in-test specimens.

  19. High Speed Vortex Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data reviewed is for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft. These data are presented and discussed relative to the design of future vehicles. Also presented is a brief historical review of the extensive body of high-speed vortex flow research from the 1940s to the present in order to provide perspective of the NASA LaRC's high-speed research results. Data are presented which show the types of vortex structures which occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures to vehicle performance and control is discussed. The data presented shows the presence of both small- and large scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices and the downstream fins. It was shown that these vortex flow interference effects could be both positive and negative. Data are shown which highlights the effect that leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber has on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. The observed flow fields for delta wings (i.e. separation bubble, classical vortex, vortex with shock, etc.) are discussed in the context of' aircraft design. And data have been shown that indicate that aerodynamic performance improvements are available by considering vortex flows as a primary design feature. Finally a discussing of a design approach for wings which utilize vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speed is presented.

  20. High speed flywheel

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, Stephen V.

    1991-01-01

    A flywheel for operation at high speeds utilizes two or more ringlike coments arranged in a spaced concentric relationship for rotation about an axis and an expansion device interposed between the components for accommodating radial growth of the components resulting from flywheel operation. The expansion device engages both of the ringlike components, and the structure of the expansion device ensures that it maintains its engagement with the components. In addition to its expansion-accommodating capacity, the expansion device also maintains flywheel stiffness during flywheel operation.

  1. High-speed camera imaging for laser ablation process: for further reliable elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Zen

    2007-01-01

    Production of laser ablation-induced sample aerosols has been visualized using a high-speed camera device coupled with shadowgraphy technique. The time resolution of the method is 1 micros, and production of the sample grains was successfully defined by the imaging system. An argon-fluoride excimer laser operated at 193-nm wavelength was used to ablate the solid samples. When the laser was shot onto the sample (Si wafer), a dome-shaped dark area appeared at the ablation pit. This dark area reflects changes in refractive index of ambient He probably due to emission of electrons or ions from the ablation pit. The dark area expanded hemispherically from the ablation pit with a velocity close to the speed of sound (approximately 1000 m/s for He at 300 K). This was followed by the excitation or ionization of the vaporized sample, known as the plasma plume. Immediately after the formation of the plasma plume, sample aerosols were produced and released from the ablation pit along the propagation of the laser-induced shockwave. Production of the sample aerosols was significantly delayed (approximately 4 micros) from the onset of the laser shot. The typical speed of particles released from the ablation pit was 100-200 m/s, which was significantly slower than the reported velocity of the plasma plume expansion (104 m/s). Since the initial measured speed of the sample particles was rather close to the speed of sound, the sample aerosols could be rapidly decelerated to the terminal velocity by a gas drag force with ambient He. The release angle of the sample aerosols from the ablation pit was very shallow (<10 degrees ), which may be due to the downforce produced by the thermal expansion of the ambient gas above the ablation pit. The shallower release angle and the contribution of the downforce probably results in the redeposition of sample aerosols or vapor around the ablation pit. In fact, the degree of sample redeposition around the ablation pit can be effectively minimized

  2. High speed transient sampler

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-11-28

    A high speed sampler comprises a meandered sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a straight strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates along the transmission lines. The sampling gates comprise a four terminal diode bridge having a first strobe resistor connected from a first terminal of the bridge to the positive strobe line, a second strobe resistor coupled from the third terminal of the bridge to the negative strobe line, a tap connected to the second terminal of the bridge and to the sample transmission line, and a sample holding capacitor connected to the fourth terminal of the bridge. The resistance of the first and second strobe resistors is much higher than the signal transmission line impedance in the preferred system. This results in a sampling gate which applies a very small load on the sample transmission line and on the strobe generator. The sample holding capacitor is implemented using a smaller capacitor and a larger capacitor isolated from the smaller capacitor by resistance. The high speed sampler of the present invention is also characterized by other optimizations, including transmission line tap compensation, stepped impedance strobe line, a multi-layer physical layout, and unique strobe generator design. A plurality of banks of such samplers are controlled for concatenated or interleaved sample intervals to achieve long sample lengths or short sample spacing. 17 figs.

  3. High speed transient sampler

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A high speed sampler comprises a meandered sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a straight strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates along the transmission lines. The sampling gates comprise a four terminal diode bridge having a first strobe resistor connected from a first terminal of the bridge to the positive strobe line, a second strobe resistor coupled from the third terminal of the bridge to the negative strobe line, a tap connected to the second terminal of the bridge and to the sample transmission line, and a sample holding capacitor connected to the fourth terminal of the bridge. The resistance of the first and second strobe resistors is much higher than the signal transmission line impedance in the preferred system. This results in a sampling gate which applies a very small load on the sample transmission line and on the strobe generator. The sample holding capacitor is implemented using a smaller capacitor and a larger capacitor isolated from the smaller capacitor by resistance. The high speed sampler of the present invention is also characterized by other optimizations, including transmission line tap compensation, stepped impedance strobe line, a multi-layer physical layout, and unique strobe generator design. A plurality of banks of such samplers are controlled for concatenated or interleaved sample intervals to achieve long sample lengths or short sample spacing.

  4. Remote Transmission at High Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Omni and NASA Test Operations at Stennis entered a Dual-Use Agreement to develop the FOTR-125, a 125 megabit-per-second fiber-optic transceiver that allows accurate digital recordings over a great distance. The transceiver s fiber-optic link can be as long as 25 kilometers. This makes it much longer than the standard coaxial link, which can be no longer than 50 meters.The FOTR-125 utilizes laser diode transmitter modules and integrated receivers for the optical interface. Two transmitters and two receivers are employed at each end of the link with automatic or manual switchover to maximize the reliability of the communications link. NASA uses the transceiver in Stennis High-Speed Data Acquisition System (HSDAS). The HSDAS consists of several identical systems installed on the Center s test stands to process all high-speed data related to its propulsion test programs. These transceivers allow the recorder and HSDAS controls to be located in the Test Control Center in a remote location while the digitizer is located on the test stand.

  5. Laser surface texturing of cast iron steel: dramatic edge burr reduction and high speed process optimisation for industrial production using DPSS picosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneel, David; Kearsley, Andrew; Karnakis, Dimitris

    2015-07-01

    In this work we present picosecond DPSS laser surface texturing optimisation of automotive grade cast iron steel. This application attracts great interest, particularly in the automotive industry, to reduce friction between moving piston parts in car engines, in order to decrease fuel consumption. This is accomplished by partially covering with swallow microgrooves the inner surface of a piston liner and is currently a production process adopting much longer pulse (microsecond) DPSS lasers. Lubricated interface conditions of moving parts require from the laser process to produce a very strictly controlled surface topography around the laser formed grooves, whose edge burr height must be lower than 100 nm. To achieve such a strict tolerance, laser machining of cast iron steel was investigated using an infrared DPSS picosecond laser (10ps duration) with an output power of 16W and a repetition rate of 200 kHz. The ultrashort laser is believed to provide a much better thermal management of the etching process. All studies presented here were performed on flat samples in ambient air but the process is transferrable to cylindrical geometry engine liners. We will show that reducing significantly the edge burr below an acceptable limit for lubricated engine production is possible using such lasers and remarkably the process window lies at very high irradiated fluences much higher that the single pulse ablation threshold. This detailed experimental work highlights the close relationship between the optimised laser irradiation conditions as well as the process strategy with the final size of the undesirable edge burrs. The optimised process conditions are compatible with an industrial production process and show the potential for removing extra post)processing steps (honing, etc) of cylinder liners on the manufacturing line saving time and cost.

  6. HIGH SPEED CAMERA

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, B.T. Jr.; Davis, W.C.

    1957-12-17

    This patent relates to high speed cameras having resolution times of less than one-tenth microseconds suitable for filming distinct sequences of a very fast event such as an explosion. This camera consists of a rotating mirror with reflecting surfaces on both sides, a narrow mirror acting as a slit in a focal plane shutter, various other mirror and lens systems as well as an innage recording surface. The combination of the rotating mirrors and the slit mirror causes discrete, narrow, separate pictures to fall upon the film plane, thereby forming a moving image increment of the photographed event. Placing a reflecting surface on each side of the rotating mirror cancels the image velocity that one side of the rotating mirror would impart, so as a camera having this short a resolution time is thereby possible.

  7. High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogardus, Scott; Loper, Brent; Nauman, Chris; Page, Jeff; Parris, Rusty; Steinbach, Greg

    1990-01-01

    The design process of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) combines existing technology with the expectation of future technology to create a Mach 3.0 transport. The HSCT was designed to have a range in excess of 6000 nautical miles and carry up to 300 passengers. This range will allow the HSCT to service the economically expanding Pacific Basin region. Effort was made in the design to enable the aircraft to use conventional airports with standard 12,000 foot runways. With a takeoff thrust of 250,000 pounds, the four supersonic through-flow engines will accelerate the HSCT to a cruise speed of Mach 3.0. The 679,000 pound (at takeoff) HSCT is designed to cruise at an altitude of 70,000 feet, flying above most atmospheric disturbances.

  8. Intracavity control of a 200-W continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser by a micromachined deformable mirror.

    PubMed

    Vdovin, G; Kiyko, V

    2001-06-01

    A silicon micromachined membrane deformable mirror with a diameter of 10 mm, reflectivity of better than 99.8%, and a surface deflection range of 3mum has been used for intracavity control of an industrial 200-W cw Nd:YAG laser. When it was placed in the resonator, the mirror demonstrated continuous (more than 40-h) stable operation under an ~550-W cw optical load, with beam diameters in the range 3-6 mm. Periodic modulation of the curvature of the deformable mirror with a frequency of 250 Hz produced quick switching between stable and unstable resonator configurations, which resulted in pulse-period Q -switched generation with average power in the range 50-200 W, modulation depth from 95% to 10%, and an M(2) parameter of 6.5 to 30. PMID:18040454

  9. High-speed semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sze, S. M.

    An introduction to the physical principles and operational characteristics of high-speed semiconductor devices is presented. Consideration is given to materials and technologies for high-speed devices, device building blocks, the submicron MOSFET, homogeneous field-effect transistors, and heterostructure field-effect transistors. Also considered are quantum-effect devices, microwave diodes, and high-speed photonic devices.

  10. High speed packet switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document constitutes the final report prepared by Proteon, Inc. of Westborough, Massachusetts under contract NAS 5-30629 entitled High-Speed Packet Switching (SBIR 87-1, Phase 2) prepared for NASA-Greenbelt, Maryland. The primary goal of this research project is to use the results of the SBIR Phase 1 effort to develop a sound, expandable hardware and software router architecture capable of forwarding 25,000 packets per second through the router and passing 300 megabits per second on the router's internal busses. The work being delivered under this contract received its funding from three different sources: the SNIPE/RIG contract (Contract Number F30602-89-C-0014, CDRL Sequence Number A002), the SBIR contract, and Proteon. The SNIPE/RIG and SBIR contracts had many overlapping requirements, which allowed the research done under SNIPE/RIG to be applied to SBIR. Proteon funded all of the work to develop new router interfaces other than FDDI, in addition to funding the productization of the router itself. The router being delivered under SBIR will be a fully product-quality machine. The work done during this contract produced many significant findings and results, summarized here and explained in detail in later sections of this report. The SNIPE/RIG contract was completed. That contract had many overlapping requirements with the SBIR contract, and resulted in the successful demonstration and delivery of a high speed router. The development that took place during the SNIPE/RIG contract produced findings that included the choice of processor and an understanding of the issues surrounding inter processor communications in a multiprocessor environment. Many significant speed enhancements to the router software were made during that time. Under the SBIR contract (and with help from Proteon-funded work), it was found that a single processor router achieved a throughput significantly higher than originally anticipated. For this reason, a single processor router was

  11. High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the design and marketability of a next generation supersonic transport. Apogee Aeronautics Corporation has designated its High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT): Supercruiser HS-8. Since the beginning of the Concorde era, the general consensus has been that the proper time for the introduction of a next generation Supersonic Transport (SST) would depend upon the technical advances made in the areas of propulsion (reduction in emissions) and material composites (stronger, lighter materials). It is believed by many in the aerospace industry that these beforementioned technical advances lie on the horizon. With this being the case, this is the proper time to begin the design phase for the next generation HSCT. The design objective for a HSCT was to develop an aircraft that would be capable of transporting at least 250 passengers with baggage at a distance of 5500 nmi. The supersonic Mach number is currently unspecified. In addition, the design had to be marketable, cost effective, and certifiable. To achieve this goal, technical advances in the current SST's must be made, especially in the areas of aerodynamics and propulsion. As a result of these required aerodynamic advances, several different supersonic design concepts were reviewed.

  12. High Speed Ice Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

  13. High speed transition prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasperas, Gediminis

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of this work period was to develop, acquire and apply state-of-the-art tools for the prediction of transition at high speeds at NASA Ames. Although various stability codes as well as basic state codes were acquired, the development of a new Parabolized Stability Equation (PSE) code was minimal. The time that was initially allocated for development was used on other tasks, in particular for the Leading Edge Suction problem, in acquiring proficiency in various graphics tools, and in applying these tools to evaluate various Navier-Stokes and Euler solutions. The second objective of this work period was to attend the Transition and Turbulence Workshop at NASA Langley in July and August, 1991. A report on the Workshop follows. From July 8, 1991 to August 2, 1991, the author participated in the Transition and Turbulence Workshop at NASA Langley. For purposes of interest here, analysis can be said to consist of solving simplified governing equations by various analytical methods, such as asymptotic methods, or by use of very meager computer resources. From the composition of the various groups at the Workshop, it can be seen that analytical methods are generally more popular in Great Britain than they are in the U.S., possibly due to historical factors and the lack of computer resources. Experimenters at the Workshop were mostly concerned with subsonic flows, and a number of demonstrations were provided, among which were a hot-wire experiment to probe the boundary layer on a rotating disc, a hot-wire rake to map a free shear layer behind a cylinder, and the use of heating strips on a flat plate to control instability waves and consequent transition. A highpoint of the demonstrations was the opportunity to observe the rather noisy 'quiet' supersonic pilot tunnel in operation.

  14. Optimization of micropipette fabrication by laser micromachining for application in an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Jingquan; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-01

    The optimization of the laser micromachining process for special tapered micropipettes was investigated using response surface methodology. Three process parameters for the CO2 laser-based micropipette puller (P-2000, Sutter Instrument) were chosen as variables, namely heat, velocity and pull. The targeted length L TVS of the tapered variant section with a tip diameter of 10 μm was taken as a response. The optimum process parameters with L TVS of 7.3 mm were determined by analyzing the response surface three-dimension surface plots. The central composite design was selected to optimize the process variables, and the experimental data were fitted into a reduced cubic polynomial model. The high R 2 value (99.66%) and low coefficient of variation (0.73%) indicated the statistical significance of the model and good precision for the experiment. The optimization result showed that the best parameters were with the heat, velocity and pull values of 850, 53 and 170, respectively. The result was verified by a CO2 laser-based micropipette puller three times with length L TVS at 7.26 mm, 7.35 mm and 7.36 mm with the same optimized parameters. Then, the application to the ultrafine atmospheric pressure He/O2 plasma jets was carried out and micro-hole etching of the parylene-C film was realized with length L TVS at 6.29 mm, 7.35 mm and 8.02 mm. The results showed that the micro-plasma jet with an L TVS of 7.35 mm had the minimum applied voltage of 12.7 kV and the minimum micro-etching diameter of 45 μm with the deepest etching depth of 2.8 μm.

  15. High-energy picosecond hybrid fiber/crystal laser for thin films solar cells micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecourt, Jean-Bernard; Boivinet, Simon; Bertrand, Anthony; Lekime, Didier; Hernandez, Yves

    2015-05-01

    We report on an hybrid fiber/crystal ultra-short pulsed laser delivering high pulse energy and high peak power in the picosecond regime. The laser is composed of a mode-lock fiber oscillator, a pulse picker and subsequent fiber amplifiers. The last stage of the laser is a single pass Nd:YVO4 solid-state amplifier. We believe that this combination of both technologies is a very promising approach for making efficient, compact and low cost lasers compatible with industrial requirements.

  16. High speed printing with polygon scan heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    To reduce and in many cases eliminate the costs associated with high volume printing of consumer and industrial products, this paper investigates and validates the use of the new generation of high speed pulse on demand (POD) lasers in concert with high speed (HS) polygon scan heads (PSH). Associated costs include consumables such as printing ink and nozzles, provisioning labor, maintenance and repair expense as well as reduction of printing lines due to high through put. Targets that are applicable and investigated include direct printing on plastics, printing on paper/cardboard as well as printing on labels. Market segments would include consumer products (CPG), medical and pharmaceutical products, universal ID (UID), and industrial products. In regards to the POD lasers employed, the wavelengths include UV(355nm), Green (532nm) and IR (1064nm) operating within the repetition range of 180 to 250 KHz.

  17. High-Speed Photography 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the contents of a unique introductory, applications oriented, high speed photography course offered to Imaging and Photographic Technology majors at the Rochester Institute of Technology. The course covers the theory and practice of photographic systems designed to permit analysis of events of very short duration. Included are operational characteristics of intermittent and rotating prism cameras, rotating mirror and drum cameras, synchronization systems and timing controls and high speed flash and stroboscopic systems, and high speed video recording. Students gain basic experience not only in the use of fundamental equipment but also in proper planning, set-up and introductory data reduction techniques through a series of practical experiments.

  18. Full-range imaging of the whole anterior segment of eye by high-speed optical frequency domain imaging using a reflective Fabry-Perot tunable laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Hiro-Oka, Hideaki; Yoshimura, Reiko; Choi, Dong-Hak; Nakanishi, Motoi; Igarashi, Akihito; Ohbayashi, Kohji; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2011-03-01

    We describe a high-speed long-depth range optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system employing a long-coherence length tunable source and demonstrate dynamic full-range imaging of the anterior segment of the eye including from the cornea surface to the posterior capsule of the crystalline lens with a depth range of 12 mm without removing complex conjugate image ambiguity. The dependence of the whole anterior segment change on time following abrupt relaxation from the accommodated to the relaxed status was measured for a healthy eye and that with an intraocular lens.

  19. Simultaneous high-speed gas property measurements at the exhaust gas recirculation cooler exit and at the turbocharger inlet of a multicylinder diesel engine using diode-laser-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jatana, Gurneesh S; Magee, Mark; Fain, David; Naik, Sameer V; Shaver, Gregory M; Lucht, Robert P

    2015-02-10

    A diode-laser-absorption-spectroscopy-based sensor system was used to perform high-speed (100 Hz to 5 kHz) measurements of gas properties (temperature, pressure, and H(2)O vapor concentration) at the turbocharger inlet and at the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler exit of a diesel engine. An earlier version of this system was previously used for high-speed measurements of gas temperature and H(2)O vapor concentration in the intake manifold of the diesel engine. A 1387.2 N m tunable distributed feedback diode laser was used to scan across multiple H(2)O absorption transitions, and the direct absorption signal was recorded using a high-speed data acquisition system. Compact optical connectors were designed to conduct simultaneous measurements in the intake manifold, the EGR cooler exit, and the turbocharger inlet of the engine. For measurements at the turbocharger inlet, these custom optical connectors survived gas temperatures as high as 800 K using a simple and passive arrangement in which the temperature-sensitive components were protected from high temperatures using ceramic insulators. This arrangement reduced system cost and complexity by eliminating the need for any active water or oil cooling. Diode-laser measurements performed during steady-state engine operation were within 5% of the thermocouple and pressure sensor measurements, and within 10% of the H(2)O concentration values derived from the CO(2) gas analyzer measurements. Measurements were also performed in the engine during transient events. In one such transient event, where a step change in fueling was introduced, the diode-laser sensor was able to capture the 30 ms change in the gas properties; the thermocouple, on the other hand, required 7.4 s to accurately reflect the change in gas conditions, while the gas analyzer required nearly 600 ms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of such a simple and passive arrangement of high-temperature optical connectors as well

  20. Fabrication of 3D microfluidic structures inside glass by femtosecond laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Femtosecond lasers have opened up new avenues in materials processing due to their unique characteristics of ultrashort pulse widths and extremely high peak intensities. One of the most important features of femtosecond laser processing is that a femtosecond laser beam can induce strong absorption in even transparent materials due to nonlinear multiphoton absorption. This makes it possible to directly create three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic structures in glass that are of great use for fabrication of biochips. For fabrication of the 3D microfluidic structures, two technical approaches are being attempted. One of them employs femtosecond laser-induced internal modification of glass followed by wet chemical etching using an acid solution (Femtosecond laser-assisted wet chemical etching), while the other one performs femtosecond laser 3D ablation of the glass in distilled water (liquid-assisted femtosecond laser drilling). This paper provides a review on these two techniques for fabrication of 3D micro and nanofluidic structures in glass based on our development and experimental results.

  1. Laser micromachining of screen-printed graphene for forming electrode structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tien-Li; Chen, Zhao-Chi; Tseng, Shih-Feng

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing research interest in electronic applications of graphene-based devices fabricated using electrode patterning techniques. This study presents a laser ablation technique along with a screen printing process for fabricating graphene patterns on a glass substrate. First, homogeneous multilayer films on the glass substrate are coated with graphene ink by using the screen printing process. Subsequently, optimal ablation was performed using an ultraviolet nanosecond laser, and the effective number of pulses decreased with an increase in the scanning speed and a decrease in the overlapping rate. Here, the pulsed overlap of a laser spot was determined to be approximately 90% for 75 pulses at a scanning speed of 250 mm/s. Experimental results showed continuous single-line ablation along the laser scanning path in the graphene films. Furthermore, linear current-voltage (I-V) curves showed the multilayer graphene characteristics of ablated devices for forming electrode structures.

  2. Fiber laser micromachining of thin NiTi tubes for shape memory vascular stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Dong Bo; Tong, Yi Fei; Zhu, Yu Fu

    2016-07-01

    Nickel titanium (NiTi) alloy has widely been used in the vascular stent manufacturing due to its excellent properties. Neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser is commonly used for the preparation of metal vascular stents. Recently, fiber lasers have been used for stent profiling for better cutting quality. To investigate the cutting-kerf characters of NiTi vascular stents fabricated by fiber laser cutting, laser cutting experiments with thin NiTi tubes were conducted in this study, while NiTi sheets were used in other fiber laser cutting studies. Different with striation topography, new topographies such as layer topography and topography mixed with layers and striations were observed, and the underlying reason for new topographies was also discussed. Comparative research on different topographies was conducted through analyzing the surface roughness, kerf width, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and dross formation. Laser cutting process parameters have a comprehensive influence on the cutting quality; in this study, the process parameters' influences on the cutting quality were studied from the view of power density along the cutting direction. The present research provides a guideline for improving the cutting quality of NiTi vascular stents.

  3. Fabrication of low-loss ridge waveguides in z-cut lithium niobate by combination of ion implantation and UV picosecond laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolze, M.; Herrmann, T.; L'huillier, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Ridge waveguides in ferroelectric materials like LiNbO3 attended great interest for highly efficient integrated optical devices, for instance, electro-optic modulators, frequency converters and ring resonators. The main challenges are the realization of high index barrier towards the substrate and the processing of smooth ridges for minimized scattering losses. For fabricating ridges a variety of techniques, like chemical and wet etching as well as optical grade dicing, have been investigated in detail. Among them, laser micromachining offers a versatile and flexible processing technology, but up to now only a limited side wall roughness has been achieved by this technique. Here we report on laser micromachining of smooth ridges for low-loss optical waveguides in LiNbO3. The ridges with a top width of 7 µm were fabricated in z-cut LiNbO3 by a combination of UV picosecond micromachining and thermal annealing. The laser processing parameters show a strong influence on the achievable sidewall roughness of the ridges and were systematically investigated and optimized. Finally, the surface quality is further improved by an optimized thermal post-processing. The roughness of the ridges were analysed with confocal microscopy and the scattering losses were measured at an optical characterization wavelength of 632.8 nm by using the end-fire coupling method. In these investigations the index barrier was formed by multi-energy low dose oxygen ion implantation technology in a depth of 2.7 μm. With optimized laser processing parameters and thermal post-processing a scattering loss as low as 0.1 dB/cm has been demonstrated.

  4. Microchips fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining in glass for observation of aquatic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Y.; Sugioka, K.; Kawano, H.; Ishikawa, I.; Miyawaki, A.; Midorikawa, K.

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) hollow microstructures embedded in photostructurable glass by a nonlinear multiphoton absorption process using a femtosecond (fs) laser. Fs laser direct writing followed by annealing and successive wet etching in dilute hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution resulted in the rapid manufacturing of microchips with 3-D hollow microstructures for the dynamic observation of living microorganisms in fresh water. The embedded microchannel structure enables us to analyze the continuous motion of Euglena gracilis and Dinoflagellate. Such microchips, referred to as nano-aquariums realize the efficient and highly functional observation of microorganisms.

  5. Enhanced Photoresponse from Phosphorene-Phosphorene-Suboxide Junction Fashioned by Focused Laser Micromachining.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junpeng; Carvalho, Alexandra; Wu, Jing; Liu, Hongwei; Tok, Eng Soon; Neto, Antonio H Castro; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Sow, Chorng Haur

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced photoresponse is obtained from phosphorene-phosphorene-suboxide. A scanning focused laser beam is employed as a straightforward approach to convert part of a phosphorene film into phosphorene suboxide, creating a functional junction in situ on an optoelectronic device based on phosphorene. As a result, the photoelectrical properties of the optoelectronic device are significantly improved.

  6. Burst train generator of high energy femtosecond laser pulses for driving heat accumulation effect during micromachining.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Saeid; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R

    2015-05-01

    A new method for generating high-repetition-rate (12.7-38.2 MHz) burst trains of femtosecond laser pulses has been demonstrated for the purpose of tailoring ultrashort laser interactions in material processing that can harness the heat accumulation effect among pulses separated by a short interval (i.e., 26 ns). Computer-controlled time delays were applied to synchronously trigger the high frequency switching of a high voltage Pockels cell to specify distinctive values of polarization rotation for each round-trip of a laser pulse cycling within a passive resonator. Polarization dependent output coupling facilitated the flexible shaping of the burst envelope profile to provide burst trains of up to ∼1  mJ of burst energy divided over a selectable number (1 to 25) of pulses. Individual pulses of variable energy up to 150 μJ and with pulse duration tunable over 70 fs to 2 ps, were applied in burst trains to generate deep and high aspect ratio holes that could not form with low-repetition-rate laser pulses. PMID:25927785

  7. High-speed massively parallel scanning

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Derek E.

    2010-07-06

    A new technique for recording a series of images of a high-speed event (such as, but not limited to: ballistics, explosives, laser induced changes in materials, etc.) is presented. Such technique(s) makes use of a lenslet array to take image picture elements (pixels) and concentrate light from each pixel into a spot that is much smaller than the pixel. This array of spots illuminates a detector region (e.g., film, as one embodiment) which is scanned transverse to the light, creating tracks of exposed regions. Each track is a time history of the light intensity for a single pixel. By appropriately configuring the array of concentrated spots with respect to the scanning direction of the detection material, different tracks fit between pixels and sufficient lengths are possible which can be of interest in several high-speed imaging applications.

  8. High-Speed Electrochemical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Momotenko, Dmitry; Byers, Joshua C; McKelvey, Kim; Kang, Minkyung; Unwin, Patrick R

    2015-09-22

    The design, development, and application of high-speed scanning electrochemical probe microscopy is reported. The approach allows the acquisition of a series of high-resolution images (typically 1000 pixels μm(-2)) at rates approaching 4 seconds per frame, while collecting up to 8000 image pixels per second, about 1000 times faster than typical imaging speeds used up to now. The focus is on scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM), but the principles and practicalities are applicable to many electrochemical imaging methods. The versatility of the high-speed scan concept is demonstrated at a variety of substrates, including imaging the electroactivity of a patterned self-assembled monolayer on gold, visualization of chemical reactions occurring at single wall carbon nanotubes, and probing nanoscale electrocatalysts for water splitting. These studies provide movies of spatial variations of electrochemical fluxes as a function of potential and a platform for the further development of high speed scanning with other electrochemical imaging techniques.

  9. Narrow linewidth comb realized with a mode-locked fiber laser using an intra-cavity waveguide electro-optic modulator for high-speed control.

    PubMed

    Iwakuni, Kana; Inaba, Hajime; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Takumi; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2012-06-18

    We have developed an optical frequency comb using a mode-locked fiber ring laser with an intra-cavity waveguide electro-optic modulator controlling the optical length in the laser cavity. The mode-locking is achieved with a simple ring configuration and a nonlinear polarization rotation mechanism. The beat note between the laser and a reference laser and the carrier envelope offset frequency of the comb were simultaneously phase locked with servo bandwidths of 1.3 MHz and 900 kHz, respectively. We observed an out-of-loop beat between two identical combs, and obtained a coherent δ-function peak with a signal to noise ratio of 70 dB/Hz.

  10. Optical Micromachining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) with Marshall Space Flight Center, Potomac Photonics, Inc., constructed and demonstrated a unique tool that fills a need in the area of diffractive and refractive micro-optics. It is an integrated computer-aided design and computer-aided micro-machining workstation that will extend the benefits of diffractive and micro-optic technology to optical designers. Applications of diffractive optics include sensors and monitoring equipment, analytical instruments, and fiber optic distribution and communication. The company has been making diffractive elements with the system as a commercial service for the last year.

  11. SEAL FOR HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1957-12-17

    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  12. Temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for low numerical aperture micromachining through optically transparent materials

    PubMed Central

    Vitek, Dawn N.; Adams, Daniel E.; Johnson, Adrea; Tsai, Philbert S.; Backus, Sterling; Durfee, Charles G.; Kleinfeld, David; Squier, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal focusing of spatially chirped femtosecond laser pulses overcomes previous limitations for ablating high aspect ratio features with low numerical aperture (NA) beams. Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing reduces nonlinear interactions, such as self-focusing, prior to the focal plane so that deep (~1 mm) features with parallel sidewalls are ablated at high material removal rates (25 µm3 per 80 µJ pulse) at 0.04-0.05 NA. This technique is applied to the fabrication of microfluidic devices by ablation through the back surface of thick (6 mm) fused silica substrates. It is also used to ablate bone under aqueous immersion to produce craniotomies. PMID:20721196

  13. Micromachining of optically transparent materials by laser ablation of a solution containing pyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabe, Akira; Niino, Hiroyuki; Wang, Jun

    2001-01-01

    Optically transparent materials such as fused silica, quartz crystal, calcium fluoride, and fluorocarbon polymer were etched upon irradiation of organic solution containing pyrene with a conventional KrF or XeCl excimer laser. Threshold fluences for etching were 240 mJ/cm2 for fused silica, 330 mJ/cm2 for quartz crystal, 740 mJ/cm2 for calcium fluoride, and 45 mJ/cm2 for fluorocarbon polymer. These threshold values were remarkably low compared with those of direct ablation by using conventional lasers. Their etch rates remarkably depended on a concentration of pyrene: the etch rate became higher as the pyrene concentration increased. It means that pyrene molecules play an important role in this process. The mechanisms for this process is discussed by cyclic multiphotonic absorption of pyrene in the excited states, thermal relaxation, and formation of super-heated solution. As the results suggest, the process is based on the combination of two physical processes in the interface between the transparent materials and the liquid: one is a heating process by a super-heated liquid and the other is an attacking process by a high temperature and pressure vapor. The mechanism is also referred to thermal properties of materials.

  14. High speed multiwire photon camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved multiwire proportional counter camera having particular utility in the field of clinical nuclear medicine imaging. The detector utilizes direct coupled, low impedance, high speed delay lines, the segments of which are capacitor-inductor networks. A pile-up rejection test is provided to reject confused events otherwise caused by multiple ionization events occurring during the readout window.

  15. High speed multiwire photon camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved multiwire proportional counter camera having particular utility in the field of clinical nuclear medicine imaging. The detector utilizes direct coupled, low impedance, high speed delay lines, the segments of which are capacitor-inductor networks. A pile-up rejection test is provided to reject confused events otherwise caused by multiple ionization events occuring during the readout window.

  16. High-speed pulse camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, J. R.

    1968-01-01

    Miniaturized, 16 mm high speed pulse camera takes spectral photometric photographs upon instantaneous command. The design includes a low-friction, low-inertia film transport, a very thin beryllium shutter driven by a low-inertia stepper motor for minimum actuation time after a pulse command, and a binary encoder.

  17. Gratings in indium oxide film overlayers on ion-exchanged waveguides by excimer laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pissadakis, S.; Reekie, L.; Zervas, M. N.; Wilkinson, J. S.; Kiriakidis, G.

    2001-02-01

    Relief Bragg gratings were imprinted by 248 nm interferometric excimer laser ablation on potassium ion-exchanged channel waveguides in BK-7 glass overlaid with a thin high-index InOx film. Using five pulses of energy density 60 mJ/cm2, a spectral transmittance notch of depth 66% and ΔλFWHM<0.1 nm was obtained at 1547 nm in the TE polarization for a waveguide having a nominal width of 8 μm and a 135-nm-thick InOx overlayer. In waveguides coated with 100 nm InOx, with widths increasing from 3 to 8 μm, the reflection wavelength shifted by 0.12 nm/μm and the reflectivity increased monotonically.

  18. High-speed multispectral confocal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Gary E.; Locknar, Sarah A.; Morrison, William A.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2013-02-01

    A new approach for generating high-speed multispectral images has been developed. The central concept is that spectra can be acquired for each pixel in a confocal spatial scan by using a fast spectrometer based on optical fiber delay lines. This concept merges fast spectroscopy with standard spatial scanning to create datacubes in real time. The spectrometer is based on a serial array of reflecting spectral elements, delay lines between these elements, and a single element detector. The spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the instrument is described, and illustrated by multispectral images of laser-induced autofluorescence in biological tissues.

  19. High-speed multispectral confocal biomedical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Gary E.; Locknar, Sarah A.; Morrison, William A.; Krishnan Ramanujan, V.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. A new approach for generating high-speed multispectral confocal images has been developed. The central concept is that spectra can be acquired for each pixel in a confocal spatial scan by using a fast spectrometer based on optical fiber delay lines. This approach merges fast spectroscopy with standard spatial scanning to create datacubes in real time. The spectrometer is based on a serial array of reflecting spectral elements, delay lines between these elements, and a single element detector. The spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the instrument is described and illustrated by multispectral images of laser-induced autofluorescence in biological tissues. PMID:24658777

  20. Time domain algorithm for accelerated determination of the first order moment of photo current fluctuations in high speed laser Doppler perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Draijer, Matthijs; Hondebrink, Erwin; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2009-10-01

    Advances in optical array sensor technology allow for the real time acquisition of dynamic laser speckle patterns generated by tissue perfusion, which, in principle,allows for real time laser Doppler perfusion imaging(LDPI). Exploitation of these developments is enhanced with the introduction of faster algorithms to transform photo currents into perfusion estimates using the first moment of the power spectrum. A time domain (TD)algorithm is presented for determining the first-order spectral moment. Experiments are performed to compare this algorithm with the widely used Fast Fourier Transform(FFT). This study shows that the TD-algorithm is twice as fast as the FFT-algorithm without loss of accuracy.Compared to FFT, the TD-algorithm is efficient in terms of processor time, memory usage and data transport. PMID:19820976

  1. Laser velocimeter systems analysis applied to a flow survey above a stalled wing. [conducted in Langley high-speed 7 by 10 foot tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. H., Jr.; Meyers, J. F.; Hepner, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    A laser velocimeter operating in the backscatter mode was used to survey the flow above a stalled wing. Polarization was used to separate the two orthogonal velocity components of the fringe-type laser velocimeter, and digital counters were used for data processing. The velocities of the kerosene seed particles were measured with less than 2 percent uncertainty. The particle velocity measurements were collected into histograms. The flow field survey was carried out above an aspect-ratio-8 stalled wing with an NACA 0012 section. The angle of attack was 19.5 deg, the Mach number was 0.49, and the Reynolds number was 1,400,000. The flow field was characterized by the periodic shedding of discrete vortices from near the crest of the airfoil.

  2. Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a ps-pulsed UV laser for sensitive, high-speed measurements in a shock tube.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengkai; Sun, Kai; Davidson, David F; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2016-01-11

    We report the first application of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) with a ps-pulsed UV laser for sensitive and rapid gaseous species time-history measurements in a transient environment (in this study, a shock tube). The broadband nature of the ps pulses enabled instantaneous coupling of the laser beam into roughly a thousand cavity modes, which grants excellent immunity to laser-cavity coupling noise in environments with heavy vibrations, even with an on-axis alignment. In this proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrated an absorption gain of 49, which improved the minimum detectable absorbance by ~20 compared to the conventional single-pass strategy at similar experimental conditions. For absorption measurements behind reflected shock waves, an effective time-resolution of ~2 μs was achieved, which enabled time-resolved observations of transient phenomena, such as the vibrational relaxation of O(2) demonstrated here. The substantial improvement in detection sensitivity, together with microsecond measurement resolution implies excellent potential for studies of transient physical and chemical processes in nonequilibrium situations, particularly via measurements of weak absorptions of trace species in dilute reactive systems. PMID:26832262

  3. High-speed assembly language (80386/80387) programming for laser spectra scan control and data acquisition providing improved resolution water vapor spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An assembly language program using the Intel 80386 CPU and 80387 math co-processor chips was written to increase the speed of data gathering and processing, and provide control of a scanning CW ring dye laser system. This laser system is used in high resolution (better than 0.001 cm-1) water vapor spectroscopy experiments. Laser beam power is sensed at the input and output of white cells and the output of a Fabry-Perot. The assembly language subroutine is called from Basic, acquires the data and performs various calculations at rates greater than 150 faster than could be performed by the higher level language. The width of output control pulses generated in assembly language are 3 to 4 microsecs as compared to 2 to 3.7 millisecs for those generated in Basic (about 500 to 1000 times faster). Included are a block diagram and brief description of the spectroscopy experiment, a flow diagram of the Basic and assembly language programs, listing of the programs, scope photographs of the computer generated 5-volt pulses used for control and timing analysis, and representative water spectrum curves obtained using these programs.

  4. Cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy with a ps-pulsed UV laser for sensitive, high-speed measurements in a shock tube.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengkai; Sun, Kai; Davidson, David F; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2016-01-11

    We report the first application of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) with a ps-pulsed UV laser for sensitive and rapid gaseous species time-history measurements in a transient environment (in this study, a shock tube). The broadband nature of the ps pulses enabled instantaneous coupling of the laser beam into roughly a thousand cavity modes, which grants excellent immunity to laser-cavity coupling noise in environments with heavy vibrations, even with an on-axis alignment. In this proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrated an absorption gain of 49, which improved the minimum detectable absorbance by ~20 compared to the conventional single-pass strategy at similar experimental conditions. For absorption measurements behind reflected shock waves, an effective time-resolution of ~2 μs was achieved, which enabled time-resolved observations of transient phenomena, such as the vibrational relaxation of O(2) demonstrated here. The substantial improvement in detection sensitivity, together with microsecond measurement resolution implies excellent potential for studies of transient physical and chemical processes in nonequilibrium situations, particularly via measurements of weak absorptions of trace species in dilute reactive systems.

  5. Correlative microscopy including CLSM and SEM to improve high-speed, high-resolution laser-engraved print and embossing forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrer, Markus; Schweitzer, Michael; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard

    2015-10-01

    The industrial market for processing large-scale films has seen dramatic changes since the 1980s and has almost completely been replaced by lasers and digital processes. A commonly used technology for engraving screens, print and embossing forms in the printing industry, well known since then, is the use of RF-excited CO2 lasers with a beam power up to about 1 kW, modulated in accordance to the pattern to be engraved. Future needs for high-security printing (banknotes, security papers, passports, etc.) will require laser engraving of at least half a million or even more structured elements with a depth from some μm up to 500 μm. Industry now wants photorealistic pictures in packaging design, which requires a similar performance. To ensure 'trusted pulses' from the digital process to the print result the use of correlative microscopy (CLSM and SEM) is demonstrated as a complete chain for a correlative print process in this paper.

  6. High Speed Photometry for BUSCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, O.; Reif, K.

    The camera BUSCA (Bonn University Simultaneous CAmera) is a standard instrument at the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) since 2001. At the moment some modifications of BUSCA are planned and partially realised. One major goal is the replacement of the old thick CCDs in the blue, yellow-green, and near-infrared channels. The newer CCDs have better cosmetics and performance in sensitivity. The other goal is to replace the old "Heidelberg"-style controller with a newly designed controller with the main focus on high-speed readout and on an advanced windowing mechanism. We present a theoretical analysis of the new controller design and its advantage in high speed photometry of rapidly pulsating stars. As an example PG1605+072 was chosen which was observed with BUSCA before in 2001 and 2002.

  7. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2016-04-01

    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is therefore crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. The probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines. PMID:27091946

  8. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E.; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P.

    2016-04-01

    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is thus crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compressionmore » ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. Lastly, the probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines.« less

  9. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2016-04-01

    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is therefore crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. The probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines.

  10. High-speed imaging system for observation of discharge phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, R.; Kusano, H.; Ito, Y.

    2008-11-01

    A thin metal electrode tip instantly changes its shape into a sphere or a needlelike shape in a single electrical discharge of high current. These changes occur within several hundred microseconds. To observe these high-speed phenomena in a single discharge, an imaging system using a high-speed video camera and a high repetition rate pulse laser was constructed. A nanosecond laser, the wavelength of which was 532 nm, was used as the illuminating source of a newly developed high-speed video camera, HPV-1. The time resolution of our system was determined by the laser pulse width and was about 80 nanoseconds. The system can take one hundred pictures at 16- or 64-microsecond intervals in a single discharge event. A band-pass filter at 532 nm was placed in front of the camera to block the emission of the discharge arc at other wavelengths. Therefore, clear images of the electrode were recorded even during the discharge. If the laser was not used, only images of plasma during discharge and thermal radiation from the electrode after discharge were observed. These results demonstrate that the combination of a high repetition rate and a short pulse laser with a high speed video camera provides a unique and powerful method for high speed imaging.

  11. High-Speed, Integrated Ablation Cell and Dual Concentric Injector Plasma Torch for Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Douglas, David N; Managh, Amy J; Reid, Helen J; Sharp, Barry L

    2015-11-17

    In recent years, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) has gained increasing importance for biological analysis, where ultratrace imaging at micrometer resolution is required. However, while undoubtedly a valuable research tool, the washout times and sensitivity of current technology have restricted its routine and clinical application. Long periods between sampling points are required to maintain adequate spatial resolution. Additionally, temporal signal dispersion reduces the signal-to-noise ratio, which is a particular concern when analyzing discrete samples, such as individual particles or cells. This paper describes a novel, two-volume laser ablation cell and integrated ICP torch designed to minimize aerosol dispersion for fast, efficient sample transport. The holistic design utilizes a short, continuous diameter fused silica conduit, which extends from the point of ablation, through the ICP torch, and into the base of the plasma. This arrangement removes the requirement for a dispersive component for argon addition, and helps to keep the sample on axis with the ICP cone orifice. Hence, deposition of sample on the cones is theoretically reduced with a resulting improvement in the absolute sensitivity (counts per unit mole). The system described here achieved washouts of 1.5, 3.2, and 4.9 ms for NIST 612 glass, at full width half, 10%, and 1% maximum, respectively, with an 8-14-fold improvement in absolute sensitivity, compared to a single volume ablation cell. To illustrate the benefits of this performance, the system was applied to a contemporary bioanalytical challenge, specifically the analysis of individual biological cells, demonstrating similar improvements in performance.

  12. High-Speed, Integrated Ablation Cell and Dual Concentric Injector Plasma Torch for Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Douglas, David N; Managh, Amy J; Reid, Helen J; Sharp, Barry L

    2015-11-17

    In recent years, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) has gained increasing importance for biological analysis, where ultratrace imaging at micrometer resolution is required. However, while undoubtedly a valuable research tool, the washout times and sensitivity of current technology have restricted its routine and clinical application. Long periods between sampling points are required to maintain adequate spatial resolution. Additionally, temporal signal dispersion reduces the signal-to-noise ratio, which is a particular concern when analyzing discrete samples, such as individual particles or cells. This paper describes a novel, two-volume laser ablation cell and integrated ICP torch designed to minimize aerosol dispersion for fast, efficient sample transport. The holistic design utilizes a short, continuous diameter fused silica conduit, which extends from the point of ablation, through the ICP torch, and into the base of the plasma. This arrangement removes the requirement for a dispersive component for argon addition, and helps to keep the sample on axis with the ICP cone orifice. Hence, deposition of sample on the cones is theoretically reduced with a resulting improvement in the absolute sensitivity (counts per unit mole). The system described here achieved washouts of 1.5, 3.2, and 4.9 ms for NIST 612 glass, at full width half, 10%, and 1% maximum, respectively, with an 8-14-fold improvement in absolute sensitivity, compared to a single volume ablation cell. To illustrate the benefits of this performance, the system was applied to a contemporary bioanalytical challenge, specifically the analysis of individual biological cells, demonstrating similar improvements in performance. PMID:26460246

  13. Superplane! High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This light-hearted promotional piece explains what the HSCT 'Superplane' is and what advantages it will have over current aircraft. As envisioned, the HSCT is a next-generation supersonic (faster than the speed of sound) passenger jet that would fly 300 passengers at more than 1,500 miles per hour -- more than twice the speed of sound. It will cross the Pacific or Atlantic in less than half the time of modern subsonic jets, and at a ticket price less than 20 percent above comparable, slower flights

  14. High-Speed TCP Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, David E.; Gassman, Holly; Beering, Dave R.; Welch, Arun; Hoder, Douglas J.; Ivancic, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the underlying protocol used within the Internet for reliable information transfer. As such, there is great interest to have all implementations of TCP efficiently interoperate. This is particularly important for links exhibiting long bandwidth-delay products. The tools exist to perform TCP analysis at low rates and low delays. However, for extremely high-rate and lone-delay links such as 622 Mbps over geosynchronous satellites, new tools and testing techniques are required. This paper describes the tools and techniques used to analyze and debug various TCP implementations over high-speed, long-delay links.

  15. High speed quantitative digital microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, K. R.; Price, K. H.; Eskenazi, R.; Ovadya, M. M.; Navon, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Modern digital image processing hardware makes possible quantitative analysis of microscope images at high speed. This paper describes an application to automatic screening for cervical cancer. The system uses twelve MC6809 microprocessors arranged in a pipeline multiprocessor configuration. Each processor executes one part of the algorithm on each cell image as it passes through the pipeline. Each processor communicates with its upstream and downstream neighbors via shared two-port memory. Thus no time is devoted to input-output operations as such. This configuration is expected to be at least ten times faster than previous systems.

  16. High-speed nanometer-resolved imaging vibrometer and velocimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Goda, Keisuke; Fard, Ali; Ayazi, Ali; Kim, Sang Hyup; Jalali, Bahram

    2011-03-07

    Conventional laser vibrometers are incapable of performing multidimensional vibrometry at high speeds because they build on single-point measurements and rely on beam scanning, significantly limiting their utility and precision. Here we introduce a laser vibrometer that performs high-speed multidimensional imaging-based vibration and velocity measurements with nanometer-scale axial resolution without the need for beam scanning. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate real-time microscopic imaging of acoustic vibrations with 1 nm axial resolution, 1200 image pixels, and 30 ps dwell time at 36.7 MHz scan rate.

  17. Compact high-speed scanning lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, Cameron; Hussein, Marwan; Tripp, Jeff; Nimelman, Manny; Koujelev, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    The compact High Speed Scanning Lidar (HSSL) was designed to meet the requirements for a rover GN&C sensor. The eye-safe HSSL's fast scanning speed, low volume and low power, make it the ideal choice for a variety of real-time and non-real-time applications including: 3D Mapping; Vehicle guidance and Navigation; Obstacle Detection; Orbiter Rendezvous; Spacecraft Landing / Hazard Avoidance. The HSSL comprises two main hardware units: Sensor Head and Control Unit. In a rover application, the Sensor Head mounts on the top of the rover while the Control Unit can be mounted on the rover deck or within its avionics bay. An Operator Computer is used to command the lidar and immediately display the acquired scan data. The innovative lidar design concept was a result of an extensive trade study conducted during the initial phase of an exploration rover program. The lidar utilizes an innovative scanner coupled with a compact fiber laser and high-speed timing electronics. Compared to existing compact lidar systems, distinguishing features of the HSSL include its high accuracy, high resolution, high refresh rate and large field of view. Other benefits of this design include the capability to quickly configure scan settings to fit various operational modes.

  18. Small Scale High Speed Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam P. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd J. (Inventor); Lehman, Matthew K. (Inventor); Mehra, Amitav (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A small scale, high speed turbomachine is described, as well as a process for manufacturing the turbomachine. The turbomachine is manufactured by diffusion bonding stacked sheets of metal foil, each of which has been pre-formed to correspond to a cross section of the turbomachine structure. The turbomachines include rotating elements as well as static structures. Using this process, turbomachines may be manufactured with rotating elements that have outer diameters of less than four inches in size, and/or blading heights of less than 0.1 inches. The rotating elements of the turbomachines are capable of rotating at speeds in excess of 150 feet per second. In addition, cooling features may be added internally to blading to facilitate cooling in high temperature operations.

  19. High-speed data search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, James N.

    1994-01-01

    The high-speed data search system developed for KSC incorporates existing and emerging information retrieval technology to help a user intelligently and rapidly locate information found in large textual databases. This technology includes: natural language input; statistical ranking of retrieved information; an artificial intelligence concept called semantics, where 'surface level' knowledge found in text is used to improve the ranking of retrieved information; and relevance feedback, where user judgements about viewed information are used to automatically modify the search for further information. Semantics and relevance feedback are features of the system which are not available commercially. The system further demonstrates focus on paragraphs of information to decide relevance; and it can be used (without modification) to intelligently search all kinds of document collections, such as collections of legal documents medical documents, news stories, patents, and so forth. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of statistical ranking, our semantic improvement, and relevance feedback.

  20. High speed bus technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrow, Marlan B.; Hatfield, Donald W.

    1989-09-01

    The development and demonstration of the High Speed Data Bus system, a 50 Million bits per second (Mbps) local data network intended for avionics applications in advanced military aircraft is described. The Advanced System Avionics (ASA)/PAVE PILLAR program provided the avionics architecture concept and basic requirements. Designs for wire and fiber optic media were produced and hardware demonstrations were performed. An efficient, robust token-passing protocol was developed and partially demonstrated. The requirements specifications, the trade-offs made, and the resulting designs for both a coaxial wire media system and a fiber optics design are examined. Also, the development of a message-oriented media access protocol is described, from requirements definition through analysis, simulation and experimentation. Finally, the testing and demonstrations conducted on the breadboard and brassboard hardware is presented.

  1. Experiments on high speed ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted to investigate the flow and the performance of thrust augmenting ejectors for flight Mach numbers in the range of 0.5 to 0.8, primary air stagnation pressures up to 107 psig (738 kPa), and primary air stagnation temperatures up to 1250 F (677 C). The experiment verified the existence of the second solution ejector flow, where the flow after complete mixing is supersonic. Thrust augmentation in excess of 1.2 was demonstrated for both hot and cold primary jets. The experimental ejector performed better than the corresponding theoretical optimal first solution ejector, where the mixed flow is subsonic. Further studies are required to realize the full potential of the second solution ejector. The research program was started by the Flight Dynamics Research Corporation (FDRC) to investigate the characteristic of a high speed ejector which augments thrust of a jet at high flight speeds.

  2. High speed sampler and demultiplexer

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-12-26

    A high speed sampling demultiplexer based on a plurality of sampler banks, each bank comprising a sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates at respective positions along the sample transmission line for sampling the input signal in response to the strobe signal. Strobe control circuitry is coupled to the plurality of banks, and supplies a sequence of bank strobe signals to the strobe transmission lines in each of the plurality of banks, and includes circuits for controlling the timing of the bank strobe signals among the banks of samplers. Input circuitry is included for supplying the input signal to be sampled to the plurality of sample transmission lines in the respective banks. The strobe control circuitry can repetitively strobe the plurality of banks of samplers such that the banks of samplers are cycled to create a long sample length. Second tier demultiplexing circuitry is coupled to each of the samplers in the plurality of banks. The second tier demultiplexing circuitry senses the sample taken by the corresponding sampler each time the bank in which the sampler is found is strobed. A plurality of such samples can be stored by the second tier demultiplexing circuitry for later processing. Repetitive sampling with the high speed transient sampler induces an effect known as ``strobe kickout``. The sample transmission lines include structures which reduce strobe kickout to acceptable levels, generally 60 dB below the signal, by absorbing the kickout pulses before the next sampling repetition. 16 figs.

  3. High speed sampler and demultiplexer

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A high speed sampling demultiplexer based on a plurality of sampler banks, each bank comprising a sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates at respective positions along the sample transmission line for sampling the input signal in response to the strobe signal. Strobe control circuitry is coupled to the plurality of banks, and supplies a sequence of bank strobe signals to the strobe transmission lines in each of the plurality of banks, and includes circuits for controlling the timing of the bank strobe signals among the banks of samplers. Input circuitry is included for supplying the input signal to be sampled to the plurality of sample transmission lines in the respective banks. The strobe control circuitry can repetitively strobe the plurality of banks of samplers such that the banks of samplers are cycled to create a long sample length. Second tier demultiplexing circuitry is coupled to each of the samplers in the plurality of banks. The second tier demultiplexing circuitry senses the sample taken by the corresponding sampler each time the bank in which the sampler is found is strobed. A plurality of such samples can be stored by the second tier demultiplexing circuitry for later processing. Repetitive sampling with the high speed transient sampler induces an effect known as "strobe kickout". The sample transmission lines include structures which reduce strobe kickout to acceptable levels, generally 60 dB below the signal, by absorbing the kickout pulses before the next sampling repetition.

  4. High-speed signal sampling technique in lidar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Feng; Su, Jian-zhong

    2013-09-01

    Common lidar systems sets the standard using only one sample data from the laser echo signal, while information from signal waveform is ignored, constraining further enhancement of range resolution and accuracy. By employing high-speed signal sampling technique, we make full use of the echo signal, and achieved large improvement on range resolution and accuracy. Moreover, the digital signal processing algorithm can be adopted for different targets, which provides better versatility of the lidar system. This paper reviewed high speed signal sampling technique and its application in lidar system. The HT high-speed DAQ developed in our group was used in both FMCW lidar and pulse laser radar. Over fourfold increase in range accuracy, comparing to that of traditional method, is demonstrated.

  5. Faster Is Better: High-Speed Modems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Cliff

    1995-01-01

    Discusses using high-speed modems to access the Internet. Examines internal and external modems, data speeds, compression and error reduction, faxing and voice capabilities, and software features. Considers ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) as the future replacement of high-speed modems. Sidebars present high-speed modem product…

  6. A new design for a high speed spindle

    SciTech Connect

    Weck, M.; Fischer, S.; Holster, P.; Carlisle, K.; Chen, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Precision grinding and micromachining both impose high demands on the machine behavior, since the achievable workpiece accuracy is determined not only by the technological parameters but also by the characteristics of the applicated machine components. Ultraprecision surface quality and the mechanical fabrication of structures in the micron range can only be achieved by using machine tools which have appropriate spindles. Structures cannot be manufactured using spindle types of which the radial error motion is greater than the level of contour accuracy or surface roughness required. In addition, the spindle speed is an important value. Not only a certain cutting speed is needed from the technological point of view, but also the machining time required for microstructuring surfaces is reduced by deploying a high frequency spindle, thereby increasing the economic efficiency of the technique. Hence, the main purpose of the project was to develop a high speed spindle with properties concerning accuracy, speed and stiffness beyond commercially available ones.

  7. Anomalous lasing of high-speed 850 nm InGaAlAs oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with a large negative gain-to-cavity wavelength detuning

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhin, S. A. Bobrov, M. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Sakharov, A. V.; Ustinov, V. M.; Kuzmenkov, A. G.; Blokhin, A. A.; Moser, P.; Lott, J. A.; Bimberg, D.

    2014-08-11

    The impact of a large negative quantum well gain-to-cavity etalon wavelength detuning on the static and dynamic characteristics of 850 nm InGaAlAs high-speed oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) was investigated. Three distinct lasing regimes were revealed in large square aperture (≥7 μm per side) devices with large detuning including: (1) an anomalous lasing via higher order Hermite–Gaussian modes at low forward bias current; (2) lasing via the lowest order Hermite–Gaussian modes at high bias current; and (3) simultaneous lasing via both types of transverse modes at intermediate bias currents. In contrast to conventional multimode VCSELs a two-resonance modulation response was observed for the case of co-lasing via multiple transverse modes with high spectral separation. The reduction in the oxide aperture area resulted in classical lasing via the lowest order modes with a conventional single-resonance frequency response.

  8. High speed imager test station

    DOEpatents

    Yates, George J.; Albright, Kevin L.; Turko, Bojan T.

    1995-01-01

    A test station enables the performance of a solid state imager (herein called a focal plane array or FPA) to be determined at high image frame rates. A programmable waveform generator is adapted to generate clock pulses at determinable rates for clock light-induced charges from a FPA. The FPA is mounted on an imager header board for placing the imager in operable proximity to level shifters for receiving the clock pulses and outputting pulses effective to clock charge from the pixels forming the FPA. Each of the clock level shifters is driven by leading and trailing edge portions of the clock pulses to reduce power dissipation in the FPA. Analog circuits receive output charge pulses clocked from the FPA pixels. The analog circuits condition the charge pulses to cancel noise in the pulses and to determine and hold a peak value of the charge for digitizing. A high speed digitizer receives the peak signal value and outputs a digital representation of each one of the charge pulses. A video system then displays an image associated with the digital representation of the output charge pulses clocked from the FPA. In one embodiment, the FPA image is formatted to a standard video format for display on conventional video equipment.

  9. High speed imager test station

    DOEpatents

    Yates, G.J.; Albright, K.L.; Turko, B.T.

    1995-11-14

    A test station enables the performance of a solid state imager (herein called a focal plane array or FPA) to be determined at high image frame rates. A programmable waveform generator is adapted to generate clock pulses at determinable rates for clock light-induced charges from a FPA. The FPA is mounted on an imager header board for placing the imager in operable proximity to level shifters for receiving the clock pulses and outputting pulses effective to clock charge from the pixels forming the FPA. Each of the clock level shifters is driven by leading and trailing edge portions of the clock pulses to reduce power dissipation in the FPA. Analog circuits receive output charge pulses clocked from the FPA pixels. The analog circuits condition the charge pulses to cancel noise in the pulses and to determine and hold a peak value of the charge for digitizing. A high speed digitizer receives the peak signal value and outputs a digital representation of each one of the charge pulses. A video system then displays an image associated with the digital representation of the output charge pulses clocked from the FPA. In one embodiment, the FPA image is formatted to a standard video format for display on conventional video equipment. 12 figs.

  10. ADVANCED HIGH SPEED PROGRAMMABLE PREFORMING

    SciTech Connect

    Norris Jr, Robert E; Lomax, Ronny D; Xiong, Fue; Dahl, Jeffrey S; Blanchard, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    Polymer-matrix composites offer greater stiffness and strength per unit weight than conventional materials resulting in new opportunities for lightweighting of automotive and heavy vehicles. Other benefits include design flexibility, less corrosion susceptibility, and the ability to tailor properties to specific load requirements. However, widespread implementation of structural composites requires lower-cost manufacturing processes than those that are currently available. Advanced, directed-fiber preforming processes have demonstrated exceptional value for rapid preforming of large, glass-reinforced, automotive composite structures. This is due to process flexibility and inherently low material scrap rate. Hence directed fiber performing processes offer a low cost manufacturing methodology for producing preforms for a variety of structural automotive components. This paper describes work conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), focused on the development and demonstration of a high speed chopper gun to enhance throughput capabilities. ORNL and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) revised the design of a standard chopper gun to expand the operational envelope, enabling delivery of up to 20kg/min. A prototype unit was fabricated and used to demonstrate continuous chopping of multiple roving at high output over extended periods. In addition fiber handling system modifications were completed to sustain the high output the modified chopper affords. These hardware upgrades are documented along with results of process characterization and capabilities assessment.

  11. High-speed pressure clamp.

    PubMed

    Besch, Stephen R; Suchyna, Thomas; Sachs, Frederick

    2002-10-01

    We built a high-speed, pneumatic pressure clamp to stimulate patch-clamped membranes mechanically. The key control element is a newly designed differential valve that uses a single, nickel-plated piezoelectric bending element to control both pressure and vacuum. To minimize response time, the valve body was designed with minimum dead volume. The result is improved response time and stability with a threefold decrease in actuation latency. Tight valve clearances minimize the steady-state air flow, permitting us to use small resonant-piston pumps to supply pressure and vacuum. To protect the valve from water contamination in the event of a broken pipette, an optical sensor detects water entering the valve and increases pressure rapidly to clear the system. The open-loop time constant for pressure is 2.5 ms for a 100-mmHg step, and the closed-loop settling time is 500-600 micros. Valve actuation latency is 120 micros. The system performance is illustrated for mechanically induced changes in patch capacitance.

  12. Quiet High-Speed Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth; Repp, Russ; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    A calibration of the acoustic and aerodynamic prediction methods was performed and a baseline fan definition was established and evaluated to support the quiet high speed fan program. A computational fluid dynamic analysis of the NASA QF-12 Fan rotor, using the DAWES flow simulation program was performed to demonstrate and verify the causes of the relatively poor aerodynamic performance observed during the fan test. In addition, the rotor flowfield characteristics were qualitatively compared to the acoustic measurements to identify the key acoustic characteristics of the flow. The V072 turbofan source noise prediction code was used to generate noise predictions for the TFE731-60 fan at three operating conditions and compared to experimental data. V072 results were also used in the Acoustic Radiation Code to generate far field noise for the TFE731-60 nacelle at three speed points for the blade passage tone. A full 3-D viscous flow simulation of the current production TFE731-60 fan rotor was performed with the DAWES flow analysis program. The DAWES analysis was used to estimate the onset of multiple pure tone noise, based on predictions of inlet shock position as a function of the rotor tip speed. Finally, the TFE731-60 fan rotor wake structure predicted by the DAWES program was used to define a redesigned stator with the leading edge configured to minimize the acoustic effects of rotor wake / stator interaction, without appreciably degrading performance.

  13. High speed photography and photonics applications: An underutilized technology

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    Snapshot: Paisley describes the development of high-speed photography including the role of streak cameras, fiber optics, and lasers. Progress in this field has created a powerful tool for viewing such ultrafast processes as hypersonic events and ballistics. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.} [1047-6938-96-10-9939-04

  14. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging.

    PubMed

    Baziljevich, M; Barness, D; Sinvani, M; Perel, E; Shaulov, A; Yeshurun, Y

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  15. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging.

    PubMed

    Baziljevich, M; Barness, D; Sinvani, M; Perel, E; Shaulov, A; Yeshurun, Y

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated. PMID:22938303

  16. High-speed pulse-shape generator, pulse multiplexer

    DOEpatents

    Burkhart, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    The invention combines arbitrary amplitude high-speed pulses for precision pulse shaping for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The circuitry combines arbitrary height pulses which are generated by replicating scaled versions of a trigger pulse and summing them delayed in time on a pulse line. The combined electrical pulses are connected to an electro-optic modulator which modulates a laser beam. The circuit can also be adapted to combine multiple channels of high speed data into a single train of electrical pulses which generates the optical pulses for very high speed optical communication. The invention has application in laser pulse shaping for inertial confinement fusion, in optical data links for computers, telecommunications, and in laser pulse shaping for atomic excitation studies. The invention can be used to effect at least a 10.times. increase in all fiber communication lines. It allows a greatly increased data transfer rate between high-performance computers. The invention is inexpensive enough to bring high-speed video and data services to homes through a super modem.

  17. Review of high speed communications photomultiplier detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enck, R. S.; Abraham, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    Four types of newly developed high speed photomultipliers are discussed: all electrostatic; static crossed field; dynamic crossed field; and hybrid (EBS). Design, construction, and performance parameters of each class are presented along with limitations of each class of device and prognosis for its future in high speed light detection. The particular advantage of these devices lies in high speed applications using low photon flux, large cathode areas, and broadband optical detection.

  18. 850-nm Zn-diffusion vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with with oxide-relief structure for high-speed and energy-efficient optical interconnects from very-short to medium (2km) reaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jin-Wei; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Jason (Jyehong); Yang, Ying-Jay

    2015-03-01

    High-speed and "green" ~850 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have lately attracted lots of attention due to their suitability for applications in optical interconnects (OIs). To further enhance the speed and its maximum allowable linking distance of VCSELs are two major trends to meet the requirement of OI in next generation data centers. Recently, by use of the advanced 850 nm VCSEL technique, data rate as high as 64 Gbit/sec over 57m and 20 Gbit/sec over 2km MMF transmission have been demonstrated, respectively. Here, we will review our recent work about 850 nm Zn-diffusion VCSELs with oxide-relief apertures to further enhance the above-mentioned performances. By using Zn-diffusion, we can not only reduce the device resistance but also manipulate the number of optical modes to benefit transmission. Combing such device, which has excellent single-mode (SMSR >30 dB) and high-power (~7mW) performance, with advanced modulation format (OFDM), record-high bit-rate-distance-product through MMF (2.3 km×28 Gbit/sec) has been demonstrated. Furthermore, by selective etching away the oxide aperture inside Zn-diffusion VCSEL, significant enhancement of device speed, D-factor, and reliability can be observed. With such unique VCSEL structure, >40 Gbit/sec energy-efficient transmission over 100m MMF under extremely low-driving current density (<10kA/cm2) has been successfully demonstrated.

  19. The Future Of High Speed Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney-Pratt, J. S.

    1987-09-01

    The variety, range and precision of methods available for photographic recording of fast phenomena have been increasing steadily. The capabilities of the techniques are considered, classifying the methods by the kind of record obtained. descriptions of experimental techniques and apparatus, and illustrations, are given in earlier articles: "A Review of the Methods of High-Speed Photography," Reports on Progress in Physics in 1957; "Advances in High-Speed Photography 1957-1972," Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress on High-Speed Photography and also JSMPTE 82, pp. 167-175 (1973); "Advances in High-Speed Photograph, updated to 1983 in the Proceedings of SPIE Volume 427.

  20. High-Speed Digital Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Vine, Glenn; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Ware, Brent; Spero, Robert E.; Wuchenich, Danielle M.; Klipstein, William M.; McKenzie, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry (DI) is a laser metrology technique employing pseudo-random noise (PRN) codes phase-modulated onto an optical carrier. Combined with heterodyne interferometry, the PRN code is used to select individual signals, returning the inherent interferometric sensitivity determined by the optical wavelength. The signal isolation arises from the autocorrelation properties of the PRN code, enabling both rejection of spurious signals (e.g., from scattered light) and multiplexing capability using a single metrology system. The minimum separation of optical components is determined by the wavelength of the PRN code.

  1. High-Speed Ring Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  2. High-Speed RaPToRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henchen, Robert; Esham, Benjamin; Becker, William; Pogozelski, Edward; Padalino, Stephen; Sangster, Thomas; Glebov, Vladimir

    2008-11-01

    The High-Speed Rapid Pneumatic Transport of Radioactive Samples (HS-RaPToRS) system, designed to quickly and safely move radioactive materials, was assembled and tested at the Mercury facility of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington D.C. A sample, which is placed inside a four-inch-diameter carrier, is activated before being transported through a PVC tube via airflow. The carrier travels from the reaction chamber to the end station where it pneumatically brakes prior to the gate. A magnetic latch releases the gate when the carrier arrives and comes to rest. The airflow, optical carrier-monitoring devices, and end gate are controlled manually or automatically with LabView software. The installation and testing of the RaPToRS system at NRL was successfully completed with transport times of less than 3 seconds. The speed of the carrier averaged 16 m/s. Prospective facilities for similar systems include the Laboratory for Laser Energetics and the National Ignition Facility.

  3. High Speed Video for Airborne Instrumentation Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Ting; Reaves, Matthew; Mauldin, Kendall

    2006-01-01

    A flight-worthy high speed color video system has been developed. Extensive system development and ground and environmental. testing hes yielded a flight qualified High Speed Video System (HSVS), This HSVS was initially used on the F-15B #836 for the Lifting Insulating Foam Trajectory (LIFT) project.

  4. High-Speed Photography with Computer Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Loren M.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the use of a microcomputer as an intervalometer for the control and timing of several flash units to photograph high-speed events. Applies this technology to study the oscillations of a stretched rubber band, the deceleration of high-speed projectiles in water, the splashes of milk drops, and the bursts of popcorn kernels. (MDH)

  5. Reducing Heating In High-Speed Cinematography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Howard A.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared-absorbing and infrared-reflecting glass filters simple and effective means for reducing rise in temperature during high-speed motion-picture photography. "Hot-mirror" and "cold-mirror" configurations, employed in projection of images, helps prevent excessive heating of scenes by powerful lamps used in high-speed photography.

  6. High-speed wireless optical LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oe, Kunishige; Sato, Syuichi; Okayama, Motoyuki; Kubota, Toshihiro

    2001-11-01

    Study on high speed indoor wireless optical LAN system enabling 100Mbps signal transmission with low bit error rate (10-9) is presented. To realize the optical LAN system handling 100 Mbps signal, a directed line of sight (LOS) system is adopted as the optical receiver sensitivity for a bit error rate of 10-9 for 100 Mbps signals is fairly large. In the system, new approaches are introduced: WDM technology which enables bi-directional transmission in full duplex manner is applied using a 1.3 micrometers laser diode for down-link and 0.65 micrometers red laser diode for up-link light sources. As the wavelengths of the two lasers are quite separated from each other, this WDM technology brings an advantage that two kind of semiconductor materials can be used for detectors; GaInAs is used for down-link while Si is applied for up-link. GaInAs PD cannot detect the up-link laser light of 0.65 micrometers and Si PD or APD cannot detect the down-link laser light of 1.3micrometers . Therefore full duplex transmission can be achieved in this configuration. In the indoor wireless optical LAN system, one of the critical points is the transmitter configuration for down- link which enables to deliver optical power enough for 100 Mbps transmission to user areas as wide as possible with inexpensive prices. To realize the point, a special 1.3micrometers laser diode, a spot-size converter integrated laser (SS-LD), is introduced in company with convex lens and an object lens to deliver optical power to areas as wide as possible. As the far-field patterns of the SS-LD are fairly narrow, most of the output power of the LD could be collected to and spread wide by the object lens of 40 magnifications. Using the device, 3m diameter circle area in the plane 2m apart from the 1.3micrometers SS-LD emitting 20 mW optical power, could receive optical power above the receiver sensitivity for a bit error rate of 10-9 for 100 Mbps signals. The visible red light is convenient for not only position

  7. Surface Damage Growth Mitigation on KDP/DKDP Optics Using Single-Crystal Diamond Micro-Machining

    SciTech Connect

    Hrubesh, L; Adams, J; Feit, M; Sell, W; Stanley, J; Miller, E; Thompson, S; Whitman, P; Hackel, R

    2003-11-12

    A process whereby laser-initiated surface damage on KDP/DKDP optics is removed by spot micro-machining using a high-speed drill and a single-crystal diamond bit, is shown to mitigate damage growth for subsequent laser shots. Our tests show that machined dimples on both surfaces of an AR coated doubler (KDP) crystal are stable, for 526nm, {approx} 3.2ns pulses at {approx} 12J/cm{sup 2} fluences. Other tests also confirmed that the machined dimples on both surfaces of an AR coated tripler (DKDP) crystal are stable, for 351nm, {approx} 3ns pulses at {approx} 8J/cm{sup 2}. We have demonstrated successful mitigation of laser-initiated surface damage sites as large as 0.14mm diameter on DKDP, for up to 1000 shots at 351nm, 13J/cm{sup 2}, {approx} 11ns pulse length, and up to 10 shots at 351nm, 8J/cm{sup 2}, 3ns. Details of the method are presented, including estimates for the heat generated during micro-machining and a plan to implement this method to treat pre-initiated or retrieved-from-service, large-scale optics for use in high-peak-power laser applications.

  8. Visible high-speed optical transmission over photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, K; Ieda, K; Tajima, K; Nakajima, K; Shiraki, K; Sankawa, I

    2007-01-22

    We demonstrated high-speed transmission at visible wavelengths over a 1 km photonic crystal fiber (PCF). We achieved a 1 Gbit/s transmission at 783 nm by using the direct modulation of a cost-effective Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD). By employing the external modulation of the longitudinally single-mode grating-stabilized LD, we obtained the first penalty free 10 Gbit/s transmission at 780 nm. PMID:19532256

  9. Effects of high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser micromachining on the physical and chemical properties of polylactide (PLA).

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Luo, Yiming; Yu, Jian; Liu, Bowen; Hu, Minglie; Chai, Lu; Wang, Chingyue

    2015-10-19

    The effects of femtosecond laser ablation, with 115 fs pulses at 1040 nm wavelength and 57 MHz repetition-rate, on the physical and chemical properties of polylactide (PLA) were studied in air and in water. The surface of the PLA sample ablated by high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser was analysed using field emission scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, raman spectroscopy, as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the experiments in the air at ambient temperature, melting resolidification was negligible for the experiments conducted under water. Neither in air nor under water did oxidation and crystallization process take place in the laser ablated surface. In addition, the intensity of some oxygen related peaks increased for water experiments, probably due to the hydrolysis. Meantime, the chemical shift to higher energies appeared in C1s XPS spectrum of laser processing in water. Interestingly, a large amount of defects were observed after laser processing in air, while no significant change was shown under water experiments. This indicates that thermal and mechanical effects by high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser ablation in water are quite limited, which could be even ignored.

  10. ControlNet features high speed

    SciTech Connect

    McEldowney, D.

    1996-11-01

    ControlNet is a high-speed, high-capacity network providing a connection among controllers and I/O subsystems. It was designed for applications in which data integrity, determinism, high speeds, and high data capacities are required. ControlNet addresses applications needing tighter control over processes as well as demanding remote I/O or interlocked PLC applications, both discrete- and process-related. Some examples include high-speed conveyors, transfer lines, cut-to-length lines, high-speed assembly, bottling, and packaging. Process examples, or those typically requiring heavy remote analog I/O, include water/wastewater, test stands, chemical, beverage, food, marine control, and utility balance-of-plant.

  11. Lubrication and cooling for high speed gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems and failures occurring with the operation of high speed gears are discussed. The gearing losses associated with high speed gearing such as tooth mesh friction, bearing friction, churning, and windage are discussed with various ways shown to help reduce these losses and thereby improve efficiency. Several different methods of oil jet lubrication for high speed gearing are given such as into mesh, out of mesh, and radial jet lubrication. The experiments and analytical results for the various methods of oil jet lubrication are shown with the strengths and weaknesses of each method discussed. The analytical and experimental results of gear lubrication and cooling at various test conditions are presented. These results show the very definite need of improved methods of gear cooling at high speed and high load conditions.

  12. Damping Bearings In High-Speed Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Pragenau, George L.

    1994-01-01

    Paper presents comparison of damping bearings with traditional ball, roller, and hydrostatic bearings in high-speed cryogenic turbopumps. Concept of damping bearings described in "Damping Seals and Bearings for a Turbomachine" (MFS-28345).

  13. Gage for micromachining system

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Donald M.

    1979-02-27

    A gage for measuring the contour of the surface of an element of a micromachining tool system and of a work piece machined by the micromachining tool system. The gage comprises a glass plate containing two electrical contacts and supporting a steel ball resting against the contacts. As the element or workpiece is moved against the steel ball, the very slight contact pressure causes an extremely small movement of the steel ball which breaks the electrical circuit between the two contacts. The contour information is supplied to a dedicated computer controlling the micromachining tool so that the computer knows the contour of the element and the work piece to an accuracy of .+-. 25 nm. The micromachining tool system with X- and omega-axes is used to machine spherical, aspherical, and irregular surfaces with a maximum contour error of 100 nanometers (nm) and surface waviness of no more than 0.8 nm RMS.

  14. Phosphorene: Enhanced Photoresponse from Phosphorene-Phosphorene-Suboxide Junction Fashioned by Focused Laser Micromachining (Adv. Mater. 21/2016).

    PubMed

    Lu, Junpeng; Carvalho, Alexandra; Wu, Jing; Liu, Hongwei; Tok, Eng Soon; Neto, Antonio H Castro; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Sow, Chorng Haur

    2016-06-01

    On page 4090, B. Özyilmaz, C. H. Sow, and co-workers use a focused laser beam to modify the surface of a phosphorene device. With a simple focused laser beam, a part of the phosphorene can be scanned and converted into phosphorene-suboxide species, leaving behind a functional and active phosphorene-phosphorene suboxide junction in the device. Once the junction is formed, the photoresponsivity and photocurrent distribution of the device can be significantly altered with a qualitative difference in behavior. Photovoltaic-like behavior is observed, which is not found in the pristine sample.

  15. On the applicability of arbitrarily shaped nanosecond laser pulses for high-quality, high-efficiency micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiselen, Sasia; Riedel, Sebastian; Schmidt, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Progressive developments in temporal shaping of short laser pulses offer entirely new approaches at influence and investigate laser-matter-interactions. Commonly used parameters for describing the behavior of short or ultrashort pulses or pulse trains are fluence and intensity. However, fluence does not imply any information about the temporal behavior of energy input during specific pulse duration τ while using the pulse intensity as describing parameter is more meaningful. Nevertheless it still is an averaging over pulse duration and no change in intensity can be determined if the temporal pulse shape changes within a certain combination of pulse duration and pulse energy. Using a flexible programmable MOPA fiber laser experimental studies on the impact of temporal energy distribution within one single laser pulse in micro machining applications were therefore carried out. With this laser source a direct modulation of the temporal pulse shape in the nanosecond regime can easily be controlled. Experiments were carried out with moved as well as with un-moved beam resulting in areas and dimples respectively drilling holes. The presented results clearly show that any averaging over pulse duration results in missing information about time-dependent interactions but can at the same time lead to significant differences in ablation results. Thus, resulting surface roughness Sa can be decreased up to 25 % when changing the pulse shape at constant parameters of fluence and pulse peak power at a pulse duration of 30 ns. It can be observed that the combination of an intensity peak and a lower edge within one pulse can lead to increasing ablation efficiency as well as higher ablation quality compared to the commonly used Gaussian-like temporal pulse shape.

  16. High Speed Imaging of Cavitation around Dental Ultrasonic Scaler Tips.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nina; Pecheva, Emilia; Dehghani, Hamid; Sammons, Rachel L; Wang, Qianxi X; Leppinen, David M; Walmsley, A Damien

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation occurs around dental ultrasonic scalers, which are used clinically for removing dental biofilm and calculus. However it is not known if this contributes to the cleaning process. Characterisation of the cavitation around ultrasonic scalers will assist in assessing its contribution and in developing new clinical devices for removing biofilm with cavitation. The aim is to use high speed camera imaging to quantify cavitation patterns around an ultrasonic scaler. A Satelec ultrasonic scaler operating at 29 kHz with three different shaped tips has been studied at medium and high operating power using high speed imaging at 15,000, 90,000 and 250,000 frames per second. The tip displacement has been recorded using scanning laser vibrometry. Cavitation occurs at the free end of the tip and increases with power while the area and width of the cavitation cloud varies for different shaped tips. The cavitation starts at the antinodes, with little or no cavitation at the node. High speed image sequences combined with scanning laser vibrometry show individual microbubbles imploding and bubble clouds lifting and moving away from the ultrasonic scaler tip, with larger tip displacement causing more cavitation. PMID:26934340

  17. High Speed Imaging of Cavitation around Dental Ultrasonic Scaler Tips

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Nina; Pecheva, Emilia; Dehghani, Hamid; Sammons, Rachel L.; Wang, Qianxi X.; Leppinen, David M.; Walmsley, A. Damien

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation occurs around dental ultrasonic scalers, which are used clinically for removing dental biofilm and calculus. However it is not known if this contributes to the cleaning process. Characterisation of the cavitation around ultrasonic scalers will assist in assessing its contribution and in developing new clinical devices for removing biofilm with cavitation. The aim is to use high speed camera imaging to quantify cavitation patterns around an ultrasonic scaler. A Satelec ultrasonic scaler operating at 29 kHz with three different shaped tips has been studied at medium and high operating power using high speed imaging at 15,000, 90,000 and 250,000 frames per second. The tip displacement has been recorded using scanning laser vibrometry. Cavitation occurs at the free end of the tip and increases with power while the area and width of the cavitation cloud varies for different shaped tips. The cavitation starts at the antinodes, with little or no cavitation at the node. High speed image sequences combined with scanning laser vibrometry show individual microbubbles imploding and bubble clouds lifting and moving away from the ultrasonic scaler tip, with larger tip displacement causing more cavitation. PMID:26934340

  18. High Speed Imaging of Cavitation around Dental Ultrasonic Scaler Tips.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nina; Pecheva, Emilia; Dehghani, Hamid; Sammons, Rachel L; Wang, Qianxi X; Leppinen, David M; Walmsley, A Damien

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation occurs around dental ultrasonic scalers, which are used clinically for removing dental biofilm and calculus. However it is not known if this contributes to the cleaning process. Characterisation of the cavitation around ultrasonic scalers will assist in assessing its contribution and in developing new clinical devices for removing biofilm with cavitation. The aim is to use high speed camera imaging to quantify cavitation patterns around an ultrasonic scaler. A Satelec ultrasonic scaler operating at 29 kHz with three different shaped tips has been studied at medium and high operating power using high speed imaging at 15,000, 90,000 and 250,000 frames per second. The tip displacement has been recorded using scanning laser vibrometry. Cavitation occurs at the free end of the tip and increases with power while the area and width of the cavitation cloud varies for different shaped tips. The cavitation starts at the antinodes, with little or no cavitation at the node. High speed image sequences combined with scanning laser vibrometry show individual microbubbles imploding and bubble clouds lifting and moving away from the ultrasonic scaler tip, with larger tip displacement causing more cavitation.

  19. Characterizing pyrotechnic igniter output with high-speed schlieren imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaggs, M. N.; Hargather, M. J.; Cooper, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Small-scale pyrotechnic igniter output has been characterized using a high-speed schlieren imaging system for observing critical features of the post-combustion flow. The diagnostic, with laser illumination, was successfully applied towards the quantitative characterization of the output from Ti/KClO_4 and TiH_{1.65}/KClO_4 pyrotechnic igniters. The high-speed image sequences showed shock motion, burned gas expansion, and particle motion. A statistical-based analysis methodology for tracking the full-field shock motion enabled straightforward comparisons across the experimental parameters of pyrotechnic material and initial density. This characterization of the mechanical energy of the shock front within the post-combustion environment is a necessary addition to the large body of literature focused on pyrotechnic combustion behavior within the powder bed. Ultimately, understanding the role that the combustion behavior has on the resulting multiphase environment is required for tailored igniter development and comparative performance assessments.

  20. High Speed Digital Camera Technology Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, Sandra D.

    2009-01-01

    A High Speed Digital Camera Technology Review (HSD Review) is being conducted to evaluate the state-of-the-shelf in this rapidly progressing industry. Five HSD cameras supplied by four camera manufacturers participated in a Field Test during the Space Shuttle Discovery STS-128 launch. Each camera was also subjected to Bench Tests in the ASRC Imaging Development Laboratory. Evaluation of the data from the Field and Bench Tests is underway. Representatives from the imaging communities at NASA / KSC and the Optical Systems Group are participating as reviewers. A High Speed Digital Video Camera Draft Specification was updated to address Shuttle engineering imagery requirements based on findings from this HSD Review. This draft specification will serve as the template for a High Speed Digital Video Camera Specification to be developed for the wider OSG imaging community under OSG Task OS-33.

  1. Aerodynamics of High-Speed Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetz, Joseph A.

    This review highlights the differences between the aerodynamics of high-speed trains and other types of transportation vehicles. The emphasis is on modern, high-speed trains, including magnetic levitation (Maglev) trains. Some of the key differences are derived from the fact that trains operate near the ground or a track, have much greater length-to-diameter ratios than other vehicles, pass close to each other and to trackside structures, are more subject to crosswinds, and operate in tunnels with entry and exit events. The coverage includes experimental techniques and results and analytical and numerical methods, concentrating on the most recent information available.

  2. High speed databus evaluation - Further work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Andrew J.

    Communication elements of avionic architectures and tools for assessing their capabilities are discussed with emphasis placed on the most recent study aimed at understanding and using of high speed databuses. The latter include Linear Token Passing Bus, High Speed Ring Bus, and Fiber Distributed Data Interface. Simulation techniques for evaluating the performance of communication system elements provide a cost-effective and time efficient method of assessment. Further work is aimed at providing a unique capability capable of simulating the hardware and software functionality as well as communication elements. This tool will be used to assess complete avionic architectures.

  3. Rapid fabrication of a four-layer PMMA-based microfluidic chip using CO2-laser micromachining and thermal bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xueye; Shen, Jienan; Zhou, Mengde

    2016-10-01

    A smart design method to transform the original two-layer microfluidic chip into a four-layer 3D microfluidic chip is proposed. A novel fabrication method is established to rapidly and effectively produce a four-layer microfluidic chip device made entirely from polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Firstly, the CO2-laser cuts the PMMA sheets by melting and blowing away vaporized material from the parent material to obtain high-quality channels of the microfluidic chip. An orthogonal experimental method is used to study its processing stability. In addition, a simple, rapid thermal bonding technique is successfully applied in fabricating the four-layer microfluidic chip, which has a bond strength of 1.3 MPa. A wooden pole is used to improve the accuracy of the alignment. Finally, a mixing experiment with blue ink and water is carried out, which proves that this smart design method and rapid manufacturing technology are successful.

  4. High Speed and Slow Motion: The Technology of Modern High Speed Cameras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    The enormous progress in the fields of microsystem technology, microelectronics and computer science has led to the development of powerful high speed cameras. Recently a number of such cameras became available as low cost consumer products which can also be used for the teaching of physics. The technology of high speed cameras is discussed,…

  5. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Northrup, M.A.

    1999-08-31

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer is disclosed. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 {mu}m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures. 7 figs.

  6. Micromachined electrical cauterizer

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Northrup, M. Allen

    1999-01-01

    A micromachined electrical cauterizer. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 .mu.m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures.

  7. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  8. Micro-machining.

    PubMed

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  9. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  10. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Sommargren, Gary E.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    1999-10-19

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  11. A high-speed hydroplane accident.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, G N

    1975-03-29

    This report records the investigation into a high-speed hydroplane accident in which the driver died. He was ejected head first into the water at 117 to 126 ft/sec (80 to 85 mph), suffering brain damage and a fractured skull. Suggestions are made to minimize the effects of these inevitable crashes. PMID:1143139

  12. High speed hydrogen/graphite interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, A. J.; Hamman, R.; Sharma, O. P.; Harrje, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of a research program on high speed hydrogen/graphite interaction are presented. Major areas discussed are: (1) theoretical predictions of hydrogen/graphite erosion rates; (2) high temperature, nonequilibrium hydrogen flow in a nozzle; and (3) molecular beam studies of hydrogen/graphite erosion.

  13. Aerodynamic design on high-speed trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, San-San; Li, Qiang; Tian, Ai-Qin; Du, Jian; Liu, Jia-Li

    2016-04-01

    Compared with the traditional train, the operational speed of the high-speed train has largely improved, and the dynamic environment of the train has changed from one of mechanical domination to one of aerodynamic domination. The aerodynamic problem has become the key technological challenge of high-speed trains and significantly affects the economy, environment, safety, and comfort. In this paper, the relationships among the aerodynamic design principle, aerodynamic performance indexes, and design variables are first studied, and the research methods of train aerodynamics are proposed, including numerical simulation, a reduced-scale test, and a full-scale test. Technological schemes of train aerodynamics involve the optimization design of the streamlined head and the smooth design of the body surface. Optimization design of the streamlined head includes conception design, project design, numerical simulation, and a reduced-scale test. Smooth design of the body surface is mainly used for the key parts, such as electric-current collecting system, wheel truck compartment, and windshield. The aerodynamic design method established in this paper has been successfully applied to various high-speed trains (CRH380A, CRH380AM, CRH6, CRH2G, and the Standard electric multiple unit (EMU)) that have met expected design objectives. The research results can provide an effective guideline for the aerodynamic design of high-speed trains.

  14. Italian High-speed Airplane Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bona, C F

    1940-01-01

    This paper presents an account of Italian high-speed engine designs. The tests were performed on the Fiat AS6 engine, and all components of that engine are discussed from cylinders to superchargers as well as the test set-up. The results of the bench tests are given along with the performance of the engines in various races.

  15. High-speed data word monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, M. N.

    1975-01-01

    Small, portable, self-contained device provides high-speed display of bit pattern or any selected portion of transmission, can suppress filler patterns so that display is not updated, and can freeze display so that specific event may be observed in detail.

  16. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  17. High-speed adaptive optics for imaging of the living human eye

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongxin; Zhang, Tianjiao; Meadway, Alexander; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of high frequency temporal fluctuation of human ocular wave aberration dictates the necessity of high speed adaptive optics (AO) correction for high resolution retinal imaging. We present a high speed AO system for an experimental adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). We developed a custom high speed Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and maximized the wavefront detection speed based upon a trade-off among the wavefront spatial sampling density, the dynamic range, and the measurement sensitivity. We examined the temporal dynamic property of the ocular wavefront under the AOSLO imaging condition and improved the dual-thread AO control strategy. The high speed AO can be operated with a closed-loop frequency up to 110 Hz. Experiment results demonstrated that the high speed AO system can provide improved compensation for the wave aberration up to 30 Hz in the living human eye. PMID:26368408

  18. High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic arteries (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Zhonglie; Ma, Teng; Qu, Yueqiao; Li, Jiawen; Yu, Mingyue; He, Youmin; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the industrialized nations. Accurate quantification of both the morphology and composition of lipid-rich vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque are essential for early detection and optimal treatment in clinics. In previous works, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging for detection of lipid-rich plaque within coronary artery walls has been demonstrated in ex vivo, but the imaging speed is still limited. In order to increase the imaging speed, a high repetition rate laser is needed. In this work, we present a high speed integrated IVPA/US imaging system with a 500 Hz optical parametric oscillator laser at 1725 nm. A miniature catheter with 1.0 mm outer diameter was designed with a 200 μm multimode fiber and an ultrasound transducer with 45 MHz center frequency. The fiber was polished at 38 degree and enclosed in a glass capillary for total internal reflection. An optical/electrical rotary junction and pull-back mechanism was applied for rotating and linearly scanning the catheter to obtain three-dimensional imaging. Atherosclerotic rabbit abdominal aorta was imaged as two frame/second at 1725 nm. Furthermore, by wide tuning range of the laser wavelength from 1680 nm to 1770 nm, spectroscopic photoacoustic analysis of lipid-mimicking phantom and an human atherosclerotic artery was performed ex vivo. The results demonstrated that the developed IVPA/US imaging system is capable for high speed intravascular imaging for plaque detection.

  19. Insect wing deformation measurements using high speed digital holographic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Daniel D; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; De la Torre-I, Manuel H; Salas-Araiza, Manuel D; Caloca-Mendez, Cristian; Gutierrez Hernandez, David Asael

    2010-03-15

    An out-of-plane digital holographic interferometry system is used to detect and measure insect's wing micro deformations. The in-vivo phenomenon of the flapping is registered using a high power cw laser and a high speed camera. A series of digital holograms with the deformation encoded are obtained. Full field deformation maps are presented for an eastern tiger swallowtail butterfly (Pterourus multicaudata). Results show no uniform or symmetrical deformations between wings. These deformations are in the order of hundreds of nanometers over the entire surface. Out-of-plane deformation maps are presented using the unwrapped phase maps. PMID:20389581

  20. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  1. Micromachined peristaltic pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Micromachined pumps including a channel formed between a first membrane and a substrate or between first and second flexible membranes. A series of electrically conductive strips is applied to a surface of the substrate or one of the membranes. Application of a sequential voltage to the series of strips causes a region of closure to progress down the channel to achieve a pumping action.

  2. Pulse Detonation Engines for High Speed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    2002-01-01

    Revolutionary concepts in propulsion are required in order to achieve high-speed cruise capability in the atmosphere and for low cost reliable systems for earth to orbit missions. One of the advanced concepts under study is the air-breathing pulse detonation engine. Additional work remains in order to establish the role and performance of a PDE in flight applications, either as a stand-alone device or as part of a combined cycle system. In this paper, we shall offer a few remarks on some of these remaining issues, i.e., combined cycle systems, nozzles and exhaust systems and thrust per unit frontal area limitations. Currently, an intensive experimental and numerical effort is underway in order to quantify the propulsion performance characteristics of this device. In this paper, we shall highlight our recent efforts to elucidate the propulsion potential of pulse detonation engines and their possible application to high-speed or hypersonic systems.

  3. High Speed Research Program Sonic Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A. (Technical Monitor); Beier, Theodor H.; Heaton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this sonic fatigue summary is to provide major findings and technical results of studies, initiated in 1994, to assess sonic fatigue behavior of structure that is being considered for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). High Speed Research (HSR) program objectives in the area of sonic fatigue were to predict inlet, exhaust and boundary layer acoustic loads; measure high cycle fatigue data for materials developed during the HSR program; develop advanced sonic fatigue calculation methods to reduce required conservatism in airframe designs; develop damping techniques for sonic fatigue reduction where weight effective; develop wing and fuselage sonic fatigue design requirements; and perform sonic fatigue analyses on HSCT structural concepts to provide guidance to design teams. All goals were partially achieved, but none were completed due to the premature conclusion of the HSR program. A summary of major program findings and recommendations for continued effort are included in the report.

  4. Friction in high-speed impact experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelak, Robert A.; Rightley, Paul; Hammerberg, J. E.

    2000-04-01

    The physical interactions at the contact interface between two metals moving relative to one another are not well understood, particularly when the relative velocity between the bodies becomes a significant fraction of the sound speed in either material. Our goal is to characterize the interfacial dynamics occurring between two metal surfaces sliding at high loads (up to 300 kbar) and at high speeds (greater than 100 m/s). We are developing a technique where a high-speed spinning projectile is fired from a rifled gun at a rod instrumented with electrical resistance strain gauges for measuring both longitudinal and torsional strain waves. The observed traces, in conjunction with computer simulations, are used to estimate the normal and tangential force components at the interface to produce an estimate of the coefficient of friction. A preliminary estimate for a copper/steel interface is presented.

  5. High speed receiver for capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Woo, S H; Yoon, K W; Moon, Y K; Lee, J H; Park, H J; Kim, T W; Choi, H C; Won, C H; Cho, J H

    2010-10-01

    In this study, a high-speed receiver for a capsule endoscope was proposed and implemented. The proposed receiver could receive 20 Mbps data that was sufficient to receive images with a higher resolution than conventional receivers. The receiver used a 1.2 GHz band to receive radio frequency (RF) signal, and demodulated the signal to an intermediate frequency (IF) stage (150 MHz). The demodulated signal was amplified, filtered, and under-sampled by a high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC). In order to decode the under-sampled data in real time, a simple frequency detection algorithm was selected and was implemented by using a FPGA. The implemented system could receive 20 Mbps data.

  6. High-Speed Granular Chute Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, J.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate models for high speed granular flows are critical for understanding long runout landslides and rockfalls. However reproducible experimental data is extremely limited and is mostly only available for steady state flows on moderate inclinations. We report on experiments over a much greater range of slope angles 30-50 degrees and flow depths 4-130 particle diameters with upto 20kg/s of sand flowing steadily. The data suggests that friction can be much larger than the μ(I)mu(I) rheology or kinetic theories predict and suggest and that there may be constant velocity states above the angle of vanishing hstop. We show similar high speed steady flows at angles up to 50 degress in Discrete Element Simuations and discuss how these can be understood theoretically.

  7. Development of high-speed video cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etoh, Takeharu G.; Takehara, Kohsei; Okinaka, Tomoo; Takano, Yasuhide; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Poggemann, Dirk

    2001-04-01

    Presented in this paper is an outline of the R and D activities on high-speed video cameras, which have been done in Kinki University since more than ten years ago, and are currently proceeded as an international cooperative project with University of Applied Sciences Osnabruck and other organizations. Extensive marketing researches have been done, (1) on user's requirements on high-speed multi-framing and video cameras by questionnaires and hearings, and (2) on current availability of the cameras of this sort by search of journals and websites. Both of them support necessity of development of a high-speed video camera of more than 1 million fps. A video camera of 4,500 fps with parallel readout was developed in 1991. A video camera with triple sensors was developed in 1996. The sensor is the same one as developed for the previous camera. The frame rate is 50 million fps for triple-framing and 4,500 fps for triple-light-wave framing, including color image capturing. Idea on a video camera of 1 million fps with an ISIS, In-situ Storage Image Sensor, was proposed in 1993 at first, and has been continuously improved. A test sensor was developed in early 2000, and successfully captured images at 62,500 fps. Currently, design of a prototype ISIS is going on, and, hopefully, will be fabricated in near future. Epoch-making cameras in history of development of high-speed video cameras by other persons are also briefly reviewed.

  8. Data Capture Technique for High Speed Signaling

    DOEpatents

    Barrett, Wayne Melvin; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul William; Gara, Alan Gene; Jackson, Rory; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent; Nathanson, Ben Jesse; Vranas, Paylos Michael; Takken, Todd E.

    2008-08-26

    A data capture technique for high speed signaling to allow for optimal sampling of an asynchronous data stream. This technique allows for extremely high data rates and does not require that a clock be sent with the data as is done in source synchronous systems. The present invention also provides a hardware mechanism for automatically adjusting transmission delays for optimal two-bit simultaneous bi-directional (SiBiDi) signaling.

  9. Turbulence modeling for high speed compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Suresh

    1993-01-01

    The following grant objectives were delineated in the proposal to NASA: to offer course work in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and related areas to enable mechanical engineering students at North Carolina A&T State University (N.C. A&TSU) to pursue M.S. studies in CFD, and to enable students and faculty to engage in research in high speed compressible flows. Since no CFD-related activity existed at N.C. A&TSU before the start of the NASA grant period, training of students in the CFD area and initiation of research in high speed compressible flows were proposed as the key aspects of the project. To that end, graduate level courses in CFD, boundary layer theory, and fluid dynamics were offered. This effort included initiating a CFD course for graduate students. Also, research work was performed on studying compressibility effects in high speed flows. Specifically, a modified compressible dissipation model, which included a fourth order turbulent Mach number term, was incorporated into the SPARK code and verified for the air-air mixing layer case. The results obtained for this case were compared with a wide variety of experimental data to discern the trends in the mixing layer growth rates with varying convective Mach numbers. Comparison of the predictions of the study with the results of several analytical models was also carried out. The details of the research study are described in the publication entitled 'Compressibility Effects in Modeling Turbulent High Speed Mixing Layers,' which is attached to this report.

  10. Turbulence modeling for high speed compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Suresh

    1993-08-01

    The following grant objectives were delineated in the proposal to NASA: to offer course work in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and related areas to enable mechanical engineering students at North Carolina A&T State University (N.C. A&TSU) to pursue M.S. studies in CFD, and to enable students and faculty to engage in research in high speed compressible flows. Since no CFD-related activity existed at N.C. A&TSU before the start of the NASA grant period, training of students in the CFD area and initiation of research in high speed compressible flows were proposed as the key aspects of the project. To that end, graduate level courses in CFD, boundary layer theory, and fluid dynamics were offered. This effort included initiating a CFD course for graduate students. Also, research work was performed on studying compressibility effects in high speed flows. Specifically, a modified compressible dissipation model, which included a fourth order turbulent Mach number term, was incorporated into the SPARK code and verified for the air-air mixing layer case. The results obtained for this case were compared with a wide variety of experimental data to discern the trends in the mixing layer growth rates with varying convective Mach numbers. Comparison of the predictions of the study with the results of several analytical models was also carried out. The details of the research study are described in the publication entitled 'Compressibility Effects in Modeling Turbulent High Speed Mixing Layers,' which is attached to this report.

  11. Testing of high speed network components

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, W.R.

    1997-06-30

    At the time of the start of this project, a battle was being fought between the computer networking technologies and telephone networking technologies. The telecommunications industry wanted to standardize on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) as the technology of choice for carrying all cross-country traffic. The computer industry wanted to use Packet Transfer Mode (PTM). The project had several goals, some unspoken. At the highest, most obvious level, the project goals were to test the high-speed components being developed by the computer technology industry. However, in addition, both industrial partners were having trouble finding markets for the high-speed networking technology they were developing and deploying. Thus, a part of the project was to demonstrate applications developed at Oak Ridge which would stretch the limits of the network, and thus demonstrate the utility of high-speed networks. Finally, an unspoken goal of the computer technology industry was to convince the telecommunications industry that packet switching was superior to cell switching. Conversely, the telecommunications industry hoped to see the computer technology industry`s packet switch fail to perform in a real-world test. Project was terminated early due to failure of one of the CRADA partners to deliver needed component.

  12. Architectures and applications of high-speed vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Oku, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2014-11-01

    With the progress made in high-speed imaging technology, image processing systems that can process images at high frame rates, as well as their applications, are expected. In this article, we examine architectures for high-speed vision systems, and also dynamic image control, which can realize high-speed active optical systems. In addition, we also give an overview of some applications in which high-speed vision is used, including man-machine interfaces, image sensing, interactive displays, high-speed three-dimensional sensing, high-speed digital archiving, microvisual feedback, and high-speed intelligent robots.

  13. All aboard for high-speed rail

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.

    1996-09-01

    A sleek, bullet-nosed train whizzing across the countryside is a fairly common sight in many nations. Since the Train a Grande Vitesse (TGV)--the record-setting ``train with great speed``--was introduced in France in 1981, Germany, Japan, and other countries have joined the high-speed club. In addition, the Eurostar passenger train, which travels between Great Britain and France through the Channel Tunnel, can move at 186 miles per hour once it reaches French tracks. Despite the technology`s growth elsewhere, rapid rail travel has not been seen on US shores beyond a few test runs by various manufacturers. Before the end of the century, however, American train spotters will finally be able to see some very fast trains here too. In March, Washington, DC-based Amtrak announced the purchase of 18 American Flyer high-speed train sets for the Northeast Corridor, which stretches from Boston through new York to the nation`s capital. Furthermore, Florida will get its own system by 2004, and other states are now taking a look at the technology. The American Flyer--designed by Montreal-based Bombardier and TGV manufacturer GEC Alsthom Transport in Paris--should venture onto US rails by 1999. Traveling at up to 150 miles per hour, the American Flyer will cut the New York-Boston run from 4 1/2 hours to 3 hours and reduce New York-Washington trip time from 3 hours to less than 2 3/4. Amtrak hopes the new trains and better times will earn it a greater share of travelers from air shuttles and perhaps from Interstate 95. This article describes how technologies that tilt railcars and propel the world`s fastest trains will be merged into one train set for the American Flyer, Amtrak`s first trip along high-speed rails.

  14. Micromachined peristaltic pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A micromachined pump including a channel formed in a semiconductor substrate by conventional processes such as chemical etching. A number of insulating barriers are established in the substrate parallel to one another and transverse to the channel. The barriers separate a series of electrically conductive strips. An overlying flexible conductive membrane is applied over the channel and conductive strips with an insulating layer separating the conductive strips from the conductive membrane. Application of a sequential voltage to the series of strips pulls the membrane into the channel portion of each successive strip to achieve a pumping action. A particularly desirable arrangement employs a micromachined push-pull dual channel cavity employing two substrates with a single membrane sandwiched between them.

  15. Aeroacoustic sources of high speed maglev trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Carl E.

    This paper summarizes information from several studies regarding aeroacoustic sources of highspeed magnetically levitated trains (maglev). At low speed, the propulsion system, auxiliary equipment, and mechanical/structural radiation are the predominant sources of noise from maglev. At high speed, aeroacoustic sources dominate the noise. Noise from airflow over a train (aeroacoustic noise) is generated by flow separation and reattachment at the front, turbulent boundary layer over the entire surface of the train, flow interactions with edges and appendages, and flow interactions between moving and stationary components of the system. This paper discusses aeroacoustic mechanisms at the noise, the mechanisms related to the turbulent boundary layer, and edge mechanisms.

  16. The Hubble Space Telescope high speed photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancitters, G. W., Jr.; Bless, R. C.; Dolan, J. F.; Elliot, J. L.; Robinson, E. L.; White, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope will provide the opportunity to perform precise astronomical photometry above the disturbing effects of the atmosphere. The High Speed Photometer is designed to provide the observatory with a stable, precise photometer with wide dynamic range, broad wavelenth coverage, time resolution in the microsecond region, and polarimetric capability. Here, the scientific requirements for the instrument are examined, the unique design features of the photometer are explored, and the improvements to be expected over the performance of ground-based instruments are projected.

  17. High Speed SPM of Functional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, Bryan D.

    2015-08-14

    The development and optimization of applications comprising functional materials necessitates a thorough understanding of their static and dynamic properties and performance at the nanoscale. Leveraging High Speed SPM and concepts enabled by it, efficient measurements and maps with nanoscale and nanosecond temporal resolution are uniquely feasible. This includes recent enhancements for topographic, conductivity, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties as originally proposed, as well as newly developed methods or improvements to AFM-based mechanical, friction, thermal, and photoconductivity measurements. The results of this work reveal fundamental mechanisms of operation, and suggest new approaches for improving the ultimate speed and/or efficiency, of data storage systems, magnetic-electric sensors, and solar cells.

  18. Superplane!High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This light-hearted promotional piece explains what the HSCT 'Superplane' is and what advantages it will have over current aircraft. As envisioned, the HSCT is a next-generation supersonic (faster than the speed of sound) passenger jet that would fly 300 passengers at more than 1,500 miles per hour -- more than twice the speed of sound. It will cross the Pacific or Atlantic in less than half the time of modern subsonic jets, and at a ticket price less than 20 percent above comparable, slower flights

  19. Some problems of high speed travel

    PubMed Central

    Reader, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Some aspects of high speed flight are examined to investigate whether increase in speed implies any lowering of safety standards. The problem of circadian dysrhythmia is discussed and methods of attenuating its effects are explained and some new hypnotic drugs are mentioned. The risk of decompression has been quantified and predictions have been made for risks in commercial service. Cosmic radiation in supersonic aircraft is unlikely to limit commercial operation or significantly increase risks to passengers and crew. The supersonic boom is likely to limit the terrain over which supersonic aircraft can operate and regulations covering engine noise on the ground could restrict some flights. PMID:1208294

  20. The Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, C. G.

    The DOD's Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Program was established in order to gain and maintain a lead over adversaries in the military field of high density signal processing microelectronic subsystems. The advantages anticipated for VHSIC systems include order-of-magnitude reductions in signal processor size, weight and power requirements, as well as improvements in system performance capabilities, reliability, logistics support, and radiation hardness. VHSIC will be applied to systems involved in communications, intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and missile guidance and control.

  1. Characterization and Compensation of High Speed Digitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, P; Teruya, A; Lowry, M

    2005-04-04

    Increasingly, ADC technology is being pressed into service for single single-shot instrumentation applications that were formerly served by vacuum-tube based oscilloscopes and streak cameras. ADC technology, while convenient, suffers significant performance impairments. Thus, in these demanding applications, a quantitative and accurate representation of these impairments is critical to an understanding of measurement accuracy. We have developed a phase-plane behavioral model, implemented it in SIMULINK and applied it to interleaved, high-speed ADCs (up to 4 gigasamples/sec). We have also developed and demonstrated techniques to effectively compensate for these impairments based upon the model.

  2. Initial performance of the High Speed Photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Evan; Percival, Jeff; Nelson, Matt; Hatter, ED; Fitch, John; White, Rick

    1991-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope High Speed Photometer has four image dissector tubes, two with UV sensitive photocathodes, two sensitive to the near UV and to visual light, and a single red sensitive photomultiplier tube. The HSP is capable of photometric measurements from 1200 to 7500 A with time resolution of 11 microseconds and has no moving parts. An initial analysis of the on-orbit engineering performance of the HSP is presented with changes in operating procedures resulting from the primary mirror spherical aberration and experience gained during the verification period.

  3. Wafer scale micromachine assembly method

    DOEpatents

    Christenson, Todd R.

    2001-01-01

    A method for fusing together, using diffusion bonding, micromachine subassemblies which are separately fabricated is described. A first and second micromachine subassembly are fabricated on a first and second substrate, respectively. The substrates are positioned so that the upper surfaces of the two micromachine subassemblies face each other and are aligned so that the desired assembly results from their fusion. The upper surfaces are then brought into contact, and the assembly is subjected to conditions suited to the desired diffusion bonding.

  4. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    SciTech Connect

    Swierkowski, S.; Ciarlo, D.

    1996-05-13

    Goal is to develop a multi-channel micromachined chemical fluid jet dispenser that is applicable to prototype tests with biological samples that demonstrate its utility for molecular biology experiments. Objective is to demonstrate a new device capable of ultrasonically ejecting droplets from 10-200 {mu}m diameter capillaries that are arranged in an array that is linear or focused. The device is based on several common fabrication procedures used in MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) technology: piezoelectric actuators, silicon, etc.

  5. Modeling an optical micromachine probe

    SciTech Connect

    Mittas, A.; Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.

    1997-08-01

    Silicon micromachines are fabricated using Surface Micro-Machining (SMM) techniques. Silicon micromachines include engines that consist of orthogonally oriented linear comb drive actuators mechanically connected to a rotating gear. These gears are as small a 50-{micro}m in diameter and can be driven at rotation rates exceeding 300,000-rpm. Measuring and analyzing microengine performance is basic to micromachine development and system applications. Optical techniques offer the potential for measuring long term statistical performance data and transient responses needed to optimize designs and manufacturing techniques. The authors describe the modeling of an optical probe developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Experimental data will be compared with output from the model.

  6. Friction in high-speed impact experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rightley, Paul; Pelak, Robert A.; Hammerberg, James E.

    1999-06-01

    The physical interactions at the contact interface between two metals moving relative to one another are not well understood. Current knowledge is particularly limited when the relative velocity between the bodies becomes a significant fraction of the sound speed in either material. Our goal is to characterize the interfacial dynamics occurring between two metal surfaces sliding at high loads (up to 300 kBar) and at high speeds (up to 10 mm/μs). In our primary experimental geometry, a high-speed, spinning projectile is fired from a rifled gun at a rod instrumented with electrical resistance strain gauges for measuring both longitudinal and torsional strain waves. The observed traces are then used to determine the normal and tangential force components at the interface to produce an estimate of the coefficient of friction. Such an estimate for a copper/steel interface will be presented. New simulations of the impact dynamics which include the large-scale plastic deformation processes are being used to optimize the experimental design.

  7. Study of high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A systems study to identify the economic potential for a high-speed commercial transport (HSCT) has considered technology, market characteristics, airport infrastructure, and environmental issues. Market forecasts indicate a need for HSCT service in the 2000/2010 time frame conditioned on economic viability and environmental acceptability. Design requirements focused on a 300 passenger, 3 class service, and 6500 nautical mile range based on the accelerated growth of the Pacific region. Compatibility with existing airports was an assumed requirement. Mach numbers between 2 and 25 were examined in conjunction with the appropriate propulsion systems, fuels, structural materials, and thermal management systems. Aircraft productivity was a key parameter with aircraft worth, in comparison to aircraft price, being the airline-oriented figure of merit. Aircraft screening led to determination that Mach 3.2 (TSJF) would have superior characteristics to Mach 5.0 (LNG) and the recommendation that the next generation high-speed commercial transport aircraft use a kerosene fuel. The sensitivity of aircraft performance and economics to environmental constraints (e.g., sonic boom, engine emissions, and airport/community noise) was identified together with key technologies. In all, current technology is not adequate to produce viable HSCTs for the world marketplace. Technology advancements must be accomplished to meet environmental requirements (these requirements are as yet undetermined for sonic boom and engine emissions). High priority is assigned to aircraft gross weight reduction which benefits both economics and environmental aspects. Specific technology requirements are identified and national economic benefits are projected.

  8. Aerodynamics of high-speed railway train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Raghu S.; Kim, H.-D.; Setoguchi, T.

    2002-10-01

    Railway train aerodynamic problems are closely associated with the flows occurring around train. Much effort to speed up the train system has to date been paid on the improvement of electric motor power rather than understanding the flow around the train. This has led to larger energy losses and performance deterioration of the train system, since the flows around train are more disturbed due to turbulence of the increased speed of the train, and consequently the flow energies are converted to aerodynamic drag, noise and vibrations. With the speed-up of train, many engineering problems which have been neglected at low train speeds, are being raised with regard to aerodynamic noise and vibrations, impulse forces occurring as two trains intersect each other, impulse wave at the exit of tunnel, ear discomfort of passengers inside train, etc. These are of major limitation factors to the speed-up of train system. The present review addresses the state of the art on the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic problems of high-speed railway train and highlights proper control strategies to alleviate undesirable aerodynamic problems of high-speed railway train system.

  9. Ultra-high-speed embossed radiography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Abderyim, Purkhet; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Etsuro; Sato, Koetsu; Izumisawa, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Akira; Sato, Shigehiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi

    2008-11-01

    Embossed radiography is an important technique for imaging target region by decreasing absorption contrast of objects. The ultra-high-speed embossed radiography system consists of a computed radiography system, an intense flash x-ray generator, and a computer program for shifting the image pixel. In the flash x-ray generator, a high-voltage condenser of 200 nF was charged to 50 kV, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the flash x-ray tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The molybdenum-target evaporation lead to the formation of weakly ionized linear plasma, and intense molybdenum K-series x-rays were produced. High-speed radiography was performed using molybdenum K-rays, and the embossed radiography was carried out utilizing single-energy subtraction after the image shifting. The minimum spatial resolution was equal to the sampling pitch of the CR system of 87.5 μm, and concavoconvex radiography such as phase-differential imaging was performed with an x-ray duration of approximately 0.5 Μs.

  10. High-speed civil transport study. Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A system of study of the potential for a high speed commercial transport aircraft addressed technology, economic, and environmental constraints. Market projections indicated a need for fleets of transport with supersonic or greater cruise speeds by the years 2000 to 2005. The associated design requirements called for a vehicle to carry 250 to 300 passengers over a range of 5000 to 6000 nautical miles. The study was initially unconstrained in terms of vehicle characteristics, such as cruise speed, propulsion systems, fuels, or structural materials. Analyses led to a focus on the most promising vehicle concepts. These were concepts that used a kerosene type fuel and cruised at Mach numbers between 2.0 to 3.2. Further systems study identified the impact of environmental constraints (for community noise, sonic boom, and engine emissions) on economic attractiveness and technological needs. Results showed that current technology cannot produce a viable high speed civil transport. Significant advances are needed to take off gross weight and allow for both economic attractiveness and environment acceptability. Specific technological requirements were identified to meet these needs.

  11. High-speed civil transport study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A system study of the potential for a high-speed commercial transport has addressed technological, economic, and environmental constraints. Market projections indicate a need for fleets of transports with supersonic or greater cruise speeds by the year 2000 to 2005. The associated design requirements called for a vehicle to carry 250 to 300 passengers over a range of 5,000 to 6,000 nautical miles. The study was initially unconstrained in terms of vehicle characteristic, such as cruise speed, propulsion systems, fuels, or structural materials. Analyses led to a focus on the most promising vehicle concepts. These were concepts that used a kerosene-type fuel and cruised at Mach numbers between 2.0 to 3.2. Further systems study identified the impact of environmental constraints (for community noise, sonic boom, and engine emissions) on economic attractiveness and technological needs. Results showed that current technology cannot produce a viable high-speed civil transport; significant advances are required to reduce takeoff gross weight and allow for both economic attractiveness and environmental accepatability. Specific technological requirements were identified to meet these needs.

  12. Debris transport around high-speed snowplows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhla, Hany Kamel

    2001-08-01

    The distribution of airborne debris around high-speed snowplows affects visibility and thus road safety. A combination of calculations, windtunnel experiments, and road trials are presented to provide knowledge of debris distributions and to obtain understanding of the mechanisms that can reduce suspended debris. Measurements obtained around windtunnel models show the influence of a variety of plow geometries on the location of debris around plowing trucks. Debris trajectories were calculated around plows with and without overplow deflectors by solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with cutting-edge and particle-tracking models. Calculations extrapolated windtunnel results over the wide range of snow conditions from light powder to slushy ice. Road trials compared visibility of conventional and modified snowplows with image analysis that quantified visible area, contrast and color intensity. In full scale tests, snow did not blow overtop of plow configurations that had trap angles less than 50 degrees, as predicted in windtunnel and computational results. Packing and junction flaps deflected discharge snow back into the consolidated discharge stream and decreased the amount of loose debris. Side-mounted hopper vanes kept rearward- facing surfaces clearer and made rear lighting and signage more effective. The visible area of high-speed snowplows outfitted with overplow deflector, packing flap, junction flap and hopper vanes was measured to be more than 50% larger than conventional plows for following motorists in all wind conditions and this was linked to reductions in the quantity of debris in the downstream snow cloud.

  13. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, L J; Hull, G F; Dryden, H L

    1925-01-01

    This report deals with an experimental investigation of the aerodynamical characteristics of airfoils at high speeds. Lift, drag, and center of pressure measurements were made on six airfoils of the type used by the air service in propeller design, at speeds ranging from 550 to 1,000 feet per second. The results show a definite limit to the speed at which airfoils may efficiently be used to produce lift, the lift coefficient decreasing and the drag coefficient increasing as the speed approaches the speed of sound. The change in lift coefficient is large for thick airfoil sections (camber ratio 0.14 to 0.20) and for high angles of attack. The change is not marked for thin sections (camber ratio 0.10) at low angles of attack, for the speed range employed. At high speeds the center of pressure moves back toward the trailing edge of the airfoil as the speed increases. The results indicate that the use of tip speeds approaching the speed of sound for propellers of customary design involves a serious loss in efficiency.

  14. Pressure Distribution Over Airfoils at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, L J; Dryden, H L

    1927-01-01

    This report deals with the pressure distribution over airfoils at high speeds, and describes an extension of an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of certain airfoils which was presented in NACA Technical Report no. 207. The results presented in report no. 207 have been confirmed and extended to higher speeds through a more extensive and systematic series of tests. Observations were also made of the air flow near the surface of the airfoils, and the large changes in lift coefficients were shown to be associated with a sudden breaking away of the flow from the upper surface. The tests were made on models of 1-inch chord and comparison with the earlier measurements on models of 3-inch chord shows that the sudden change in the lift coefficient is due to compressibility and not to a change in the Reynolds number. The Reynolds number still has a large effect, however, on the drag coefficient. The pressure distribution observations furnish the propeller designer with data on the load distribution at high speeds, and also give a better picture of the air-flow changes.

  15. High-speed scanning ablation of dental hard tissues with a λ = 9.3 μm CO2 laser: adhesion, mechanical strength, heat accumulation, and peripheral thermal damage

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Daniel; Chang, Kwang; Hedayatollahnajafi, Saba; Staninec, Michal; Chan, Kenneth; Lee, Robert; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    CO2 lasers can be operated at high laser pulse repetition rates for the rapid and precise removal of dental decay. Excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage is a concern when using high pulse repetition rates. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. The interpulpal temperature rise was recorded using microthermocouples situated at the roof of the pulp chamber on teeth that were occlusally ablated using a rapidly-scanned CO2 laser operating at 9.3 μm with a pulse duration of 10 to 15 μs and repetition rate of 300 Hz over a 2 min time course. The adhesion strength of laser treated enamel and dentin surfaces was measured for various laser scanning parameters with and without post-ablation acid etching using the single-plane shear test. The mechanical strength of laser-ablated dentin surfaces were determined via the four-point bend test and compared to control samples prepared with 320 grit wet sand paper to simulate conventional preparations. Thermocouple measurements indicated that the temperature remained below ambient temperature if water-cooling was used. There was no discoloration of either dentin or enamel laser treated surfaces, the surfaces were uniformly ablated, and there were no cracks visible. Four-point bend tests yielded mean mechanical strengths of 18.2 N (s.d. = 4.6) for ablated dentin and 18.1 N (s.d. = 2.7) for control (p > 0.05). Shear tests yielded mean bond strengths approaching 30 MPa for both enamel and dentin under certain irradiation conditions. These values were slightly lower than nonirradiated acid-etched control samples. Additional studies are needed to determine if the slightly lower bond strength than the acid-etched control samples is clinically significant. These measurements demonstrate that enamel and dentin surfaces can be rapidly ablated by CO2 lasers with minimal

  16. High-speed scanning ablation of dental hard tissues with a λ = 9.3 μm CO2 laser: adhesion, mechanical strength, heat accumulation, and peripheral thermal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Daniel; Chang, Kwang; Hedayatollahnajafi, Saba; Staninec, Michal; Chan, Kenneth; Lee, Robert; Fried, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    CO2 lasers can be operated at high laser pulse repetition rates for the rapid and precise removal of dental decay. Excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage is a concern when using high pulse repetition rates. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. The interpulpal temperature rise was recorded using microthermocouples situated at the roof of the pulp chamber on teeth that were occlusally ablated using a rapidly-scanned CO2 laser operating at 9.3 μm with a pulse duration of 10 to 15 μs and repetition rate of 300 Hz over a 2 min time course. The adhesion strength of laser treated enamel and dentin surfaces was measured for various laser scanning parameters with and without post-ablation acid etching using the single-plane shear test. The mechanical strength of laser-ablated dentin surfaces were determined via the four-point bend test and compared to control samples prepared with 320 grit wet sand paper to simulate conventional preparations. Thermocouple measurements indicated that the temperature remained below ambient temperature if water-cooling was used. There was no discoloration of either dentin or enamel laser treated surfaces, the surfaces were uniformly ablated, and there were no cracks visible. Four-point bend tests yielded mean mechanical strengths of 18.2 N (s.d. = 4.6) for ablated dentin and 18.1 N (s.d. = 2.7) for control (p > 0.05). Shear tests yielded mean bond strengths approaching 30 MPa for both enamel and dentin under certain irradiation conditions. These values were slightly lower than nonirradiated acid-etched control samples. Additional studies are needed to determine if the slightly lower bond strength than the acid-etched control samples is clinically significant. These measurements demonstrate that enamel and dentin surfaces can be rapidly ablated by CO2 lasers with minimal

  17. High-Speed Edge-Detecting Line Scan Smart Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman F.

    2012-01-01

    A high-speed edge-detecting line scan smart camera was developed. The camera is designed to operate as a component in a NASA Glenn Research Center developed inlet shock detection system. The inlet shock is detected by projecting a laser sheet through the airflow. The shock within the airflow is the densest part and refracts the laser sheet the most in its vicinity, leaving a dark spot or shadowgraph. These spots show up as a dip or negative peak within the pixel intensity profile of an image of the projected laser sheet. The smart camera acquires and processes in real-time the linear image containing the shock shadowgraph and outputting the shock location. Previously a high-speed camera and personal computer would perform the image capture and processing to determine the shock location. This innovation consists of a linear image sensor, analog signal processing circuit, and a digital circuit that provides a numerical digital output of the shock or negative edge location. The smart camera is capable of capturing and processing linear images at over 1,000 frames per second. The edges are identified as numeric pixel values within the linear array of pixels, and the edge location information can be sent out from the circuit in a variety of ways, such as by using a microcontroller and onboard or external digital interface to include serial data such as RS-232/485, USB, Ethernet, or CAN BUS; parallel digital data; or an analog signal. The smart camera system can be integrated into a small package with a relatively small number of parts, reducing size and increasing reliability over the previous imaging system..

  18. High-speed photorefractive keratectomy with femtosecond ultraviolet pulses.

    PubMed

    Danieliene, Egle; Gabryte, Egle; Vengris, Mikas; Ruksenas, Osvaldas; Gutauskas, Algimantas; Morkunas, Vaidotas; Danielius, Romualdas

    2015-05-01

    Femtosecond near-infrared lasers are widely used for a number of ophthalmic procedures, with flap cutting in the laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery being the most frequent one. At the same time, lasers of this type, equipped with harmonic generators, have been shown to deliver enough ultraviolet (UV) power for the second stage of the LASIK procedure, the stromal ablation. However, the speed of the ablation reported so far was well below the currently accepted standards. Our purpose was to perform high-speed photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with femtosecond UV pulses in rabbits and to evaluate its predictability, reproducibility and healing response. The laser source delivered femtosecond 206 nm pulses with a repetition rate of 50 kHz and an average power of 400 mW. Transepithelial PRK was performed using two different ablation protocols, to a total depth of 110 and 150 μm. The surface temperature was monitored during ablation; haze dynamics and histological samples were evaluated to assess outcomes of the PRK procedure. For comparison, analogous excimer ablation was performed. Increase of the ablation speed up to 1.6 s/diopter for a 6 mm optical zone using femtosecond UV pulses did not significantly impact the healing process.

  19. High speed digital holographic interferometry for hypersonic flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, G. M.; Jagdeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2013-06-01

    Optical imaging techniques have played a major role in understanding the flow dynamics of varieties of fluid flows, particularly in the study of hypersonic flows. Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques have been the flow diagnostic tools for the investigation of compressible flows since more than a century. However these techniques provide only the qualitative information about the flow field. Other optical techniques such as holographic interferometry and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) have been used extensively for extracting quantitative information about the high speed flows. In this paper we present the application of digital holographic interferometry (DHI) technique integrated with short duration hypersonic shock tunnel facility having 1 ms test time, for quantitative flow visualization. Dynamics of the flow fields in hypersonic/supersonic speeds around different test models is visualized with DHI using a high-speed digital camera (0.2 million fps). These visualization results are compared with schlieren visualization and CFD simulation results. Fringe analysis is carried out to estimate the density of the flow field.

  20. High-speed, high-resolution, multielemental laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-time-of-flight mass spectrometry imaging: part I. Instrumentation and two-dimensional imaging of geological samples.

    PubMed

    Gundlach-Graham, Alexander; Burger, Marcel; Allner, Steffen; Schwarz, Gunnar; Wang, Hao A O; Gyr, Luzia; Grolimund, Daniel; Hattendorf, Bodo; Günther, Detlef

    2015-08-18

    Low-dispersion laser ablation (LA) has been combined with inductively coupled plasma-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ICP-TOFMS) to provide full-spectrum elemental imaging at high lateral resolution and fast image-acquisition speeds. The low-dispersion LA cell reported here is capable of delivering 99% of the total LA signal within 9 ms, and the prototype TOFMS instrument enables simultaneous and representative determination of all elemental ions from these fast-transient ablation events. This fast ablated-aerosol transport eliminates the effects of pulse-to-pulse mixing at laser-pulse repetition rates up to 100 Hz. Additionally, by boosting the instantaneous concentration of LA aerosol into the ICP with the use of a low-dispersion ablation cell, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios, and thus limits of detection (LODs), are improved for all measured isotopes; the lowest LODs are in the single digit parts per million for single-shot LA signal from a 10-μm diameter laser spot. Significantly, high-sensitivity, multielemental and single-shot-resolved detection enables the use of small LA spot sizes to improve lateral resolution and the development of single-shot quantitative imaging, while also maintaining fast image-acquisition speeds. Here, we demonstrate simultaneous elemental imaging of major and minor constituents in an Opalinus clay-rock sample at a 1.5 μm laser-spot diameter and quantitative imaging of a multidomain Pallasite meteorite at a 10 μm LA-spot size. PMID:26122331

  1. HIGH SPEED KERR CELL FRAMING CAMERA

    DOEpatents

    Goss, W.C.; Gilley, L.F.

    1964-01-01

    The present invention relates to a high speed camera utilizing a Kerr cell shutter and a novel optical delay system having no moving parts. The camera can selectively photograph at least 6 frames within 9 x 10/sup -8/ seconds during any such time interval of an occurring event. The invention utilizes particularly an optical system which views and transmits 6 images of an event to a multi-channeled optical delay relay system. The delay relay system has optical paths of successively increased length in whole multiples of the first channel optical path length, into which optical paths the 6 images are transmitted. The successively delayed images are accepted from the exit of the delay relay system by an optical image focusing means, which in turn directs the images into a Kerr cell shutter disposed to intercept the image paths. A camera is disposed to simultaneously view and record the 6 images during a single exposure of the Kerr cell shutter. (AEC)

  2. High speed civil transport aerodynamic optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James S.

    1994-01-01

    This is a report of work in support of the Computational Aerosciences (CAS) element of the Federal HPCC program. Specifically, CFD and aerodynamic optimization are being performed on parallel computers. The long-range goal of this work is to facilitate teraflops-rate multidisciplinary optimization of aerospace vehicles. This year's work is targeted for application to the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), one of four CAS grand challenges identified in the HPCC FY 1995 Blue Book. This vehicle is to be a passenger aircraft, with the promise of cutting overseas flight time by more than half. To meet fuel economy, operational costs, environmental impact, noise production, and range requirements, improved design tools are required, and these tools must eventually integrate optimization, external aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, heat transfer, controls, and perhaps other disciplines. The fundamental goal of this project is to contribute to improved design tools for U.S. industry, and thus to the nation's economic competitiveness.

  3. Merging of High Speed Argon Plasma Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Brockington, Sam; Wu, Lin-Chun; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2012-10-01

    Formation of an imploding plasma liner for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) requires individual plasma jets to merge into a uniform shell of plasma converging on the target region. Understanding dynamics of the merging process requires knowledge of the plasma phenomena involved. We present here results from the study of the merging of six plasma jets in three dimensional geometry. The experiments were performed using HyperV Technologies Corp. one centimeter MiniRailguns using a preionized Argon plasma armature on a vacuum chamber designed to partially reproduce the port geometry of the PLX vacuum chamber. Diagnostics include fast imaging, spectroscopy, interferometry, fast pressure probes, B-dot probes, and high speed spatially resolved photodiodes, permitting measurements of plasma density, temperature, velocity, stagnation pressure, and magnetic field. These experimental results are compared with simulation results from the LSP 3D hybrid PIC code.

  4. Merging of high speed argon plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, A.; Messer, S.; Brockington, S.; Wu, L.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Elton, R.

    2013-01-01

    Formation of an imploding plasma liner for the plasma liner experiment (PLX) requires individual plasma jets to merge into a quasi-spherical shell of plasma converging on the origin. Understanding dynamics of the merging process requires knowledge of the plasma phenomena involved. We present results from the study of the merging of three plasma jets in three dimensional geometry. The experiments were performed using HyperV Technologies Corp. 1 cm Minirailguns with a preionized argon plasma armature. The vacuum chamber partially reproduces the port geometry of the PLX chamber. Diagnostics include fast imaging, spectroscopy, interferometry, fast pressure probes, B-dot probes, and high speed spatially resolved photodiodes, permitting measurements of plasma density, temperature, velocity, stagnation pressure, magnetic field, and density gradients. These experimental results are compared with simulation results from the LSP 3D hybrid PIC code.

  5. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  6. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOEpatents

    Avery, Don E.

    1988-01-01

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed.

  7. Design of a high speed business transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The design of a High Speed Business Transport (HSBT) was considered by the Aeronautical Design Class during the academic year 1989 to 1990. The project was chosen to offer an opportunity to develop user friendliness for some computer codes such as WAVE DRAG, supplied by NASA/Langley, and to experiment with several design lessons developed by Dr. John McMasters and his colleages at Boeing. Central to these design lessons was an appeal to marketing and feasibility considerations. There was an emphasis upon simplified analytical techniques to study trades and to stimulate creative thinking before committing to extensive analytical activity. Two designs stood out among all the rest because of the depth of thought and consideration of alternatives. One design, the Aurora, used a fixed wing design to satisfy the design mission: the Viero used a swept wing configuration to overcome problems related to supersonic flight. A summary of each of these two designs is given.

  8. The high speed bus technology development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludvigson, M. T.; Modrow, M. B.; Goldman, P. C.

    The current development status of a high-speed data bus to link MIL-STD-1750A computers in avionics applications is reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. The bus requirements include data rate 50 Mb/s, a linear token-passing scheme permitting both electronic and fiber-optic implementation, up to 64-terminal capacity, maximum terminal separation 300 ft, latency control via token-rotation-timer priority, self-test and bus-loop test capability, and automatic clock synchronization. The design concept and performance of a breadboard wire bus tested in July 1986 are discussed in detail, with particular attention to the redundancy manager, the output controller, the input controller, the ringmaster topology manager, and typical initial-placement problems.

  9. High-speed electrical motor evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-03

    Under this task, MTI conducted a general review of state-of-the-art high-speed motors. The purpose of this review was to assess the operating parameters, limitations and performance of existing motor designs, and to establish commercial sources for a motor compatible with the requirements of the Brayton-cycle system. After the motor requirements were established, a list of motor types, manufacturers and designs capable of achieving the requisite performance was compiled. This list was based on an in-house evaluation of designs. Following the establishment of these options, a technical evaluation of the designs selected was conducted. In parallel with their evaluations, MTI focused on the establishment of commercial sources.

  10. Technology needs for high-speed rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, John; Orourke, Matthew; Martin, Christopher; Lovenguth, Marc; Mitchell, Clark

    1991-01-01

    A study to determine the technology development required for high-speed rotorcraft development was conducted. The study begins with an initial assessment of six concepts capable of flight at, or greater than 450 knots with helicopter-like hover efficiency (disk loading less than 50 pfs). These concepts were sized and evaluated based on measures of effectiveness and operational considerations. Additionally, an initial assessment of the impact of technology advances on the vehicles attributes was made. From these initial concepts a tilt wing and rotor/wing concepts were selected for further evaluation. A more detailed examination of conversion and technology trade studies were conducted on these two vehicles, each sized for a different mission.

  11. Computation of high-speed reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clutter, James Keith

    A computational study has been conducted for high-speed reacting flows relevant to munition problems, including shock-induced combustion and gun muzzle blast. The theoretical model considers inviscid and viscous flows, multi-species, finite rate chemical reaction schemes, and turbulence. Both the physical and numerical aspects are investigated to determine their impact on simulation accuracy. A range of hydrogen and oxygen reaction mechanisms are evaluated for the shock-induced combustion flow scenario. Characteristics of the mechanisms such as the induction time, heat release rate, and second explosion limit are found to impact the accuracy of the computation. On the numerical side, reaction source term treatments, including logarithmic weighting and scaling modifications, are investigated to determine their effectiveness in addressing numerical errors caused by disparate length scales between chemical reactions and fluid dynamics. It is demonstrated that these techniques can enhance solution accuracy. Computations of shock-induced combustion have also been performed using a κ-ɛ model to account for the turbulent transport of species and heat. An algebraic model of the temperature fluctuations has been used to estimate the impact of the turbulent effect on the chemical reaction source terms. The turbulence effects when represented with the current models are found to be minimal in the shock-induced combustion flow investigated in the present work. For the gun system simulations, computations for both a large caliber howitzer and small caliber firearms are carried out. A reduced kinetic scheme and an algebraic turbulence model are employed. The present approach, which accounts for the chemical reaction aspects of the gun muzzle blast problem, is found to improve the prediction of peak overpressures and can capture the effects produced by small caliber firearm sound suppressors. The present study has established the numerical and physical requirements for

  12. High-Speed, Three Dimensional Object Composition Mapping Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, M Y

    2001-02-14

    This document overviews an entirely new approach to determining the composition--the chemical-elemental, isotopic and molecular make-up--of complex, highly structured objects, moreover with microscopic spatial resolution in all 3 dimensions. The front cover depicts the new type of pulsed laser system at the heart of this novel technology under adjustment by Alexis Wynne, and schematically indicates two of its early uses: swiftly analyzing the 3-D composition governed structure of a transistor circuit with both optical and mass-spectrometric detectors, and of fossilized dinosaur and turtle bones high-speed probed by optical detection means. Studying the composition-cued 3-D micro-structures of advanced composite materials and the microscopic scale composition-texture of biological tissues are two near-term examples of the rich spectrum of novel applications enabled by this field-opening analytic tool-set.

  13. High-Speed Coherent Raman Fingerprint Imaging of Biological Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Charles H.; Lee, Young Jong; Heddleston, John M.; Hartshorn, Christopher M.; Hight Walker, Angela R.; Rich, Jeremy N.; Lathia, Justin D.; Cicerone, Marcus T.

    2014-01-01

    An imaging platform based on broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (BCARS) has been developed which provides an advantageous combination of speed, sensitivity and spectral breadth. The system utilizes a configuration of laser sources that probes the entire biologically-relevant Raman window (500 cm−1 to 3500 cm−1) with high resolution (< 10 cm−1). It strongly and efficiently stimulates Raman transitions within the typically weak “fingerprint” region using intrapulse 3-colour excitation, and utilizes the nonresonant background (NRB) to heterodyne amplify weak Raman signals. We demonstrate high-speed chemical imaging in two- and three-dimensional views of healthy murine liver and pancreas tissues and interfaces between xenograft brain tumours and the surrounding healthy brain matter. PMID:25621002

  14. High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Charles H., Jr.; Lee, Young Jong; Heddleston, John M.; Hartshorn, Christopher M.; Walker, Angela R. Hight; Rich, Jeremy N.; Lathia, Justin D.; Cicerone, Marcus T.

    2014-08-01

    An imaging platform based on broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering has been developed that provides an advantageous combination of speed, sensitivity and spectral breadth. The system utilizes a configuration of laser sources that probes the entire biologically relevant Raman window (500-3,500 cm-1) with high resolution (<10 cm-1). It strongly and efficiently stimulates Raman transitions within the typically weak ‘fingerprint’ region using intrapulse three-colour excitation, and utilizes the non-resonant background to heterodyne-amplify weak Raman signals. We demonstrate high-speed chemical imaging in two- and three-dimensional views of healthy murine liver and pancreas tissues as well as interfaces between xenograft brain tumours and the surrounding healthy brain matter.

  15. Reconfigurable high-speed optoelectronic interconnect technology for multiprocessor computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Julian

    1995-06-01

    We describe a compact optoelectronic switching technology for interconnecting multiple computer processors and shared memory modules together through dynamically reconfigurable optical paths to provide simultaneous, high speed communication amongst different nodes. Each switch provides a optical link to other nodes as well as electrical access to an individual processor, and it can perform optical and optoelectronic switching to covert digital data between various electrical and optical input/output formats. This multifunctional switching technology is based on the monolithic integration of arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with photodetectors and heterojunction bipolar transistors. The various digital switching and routing functions, as well as optically cascaded multistage operation, have been experimentally demonstrated.

  16. Micromachined Silicon Waveguide Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    Rectangular waveguides are commonly used as circuit elements in remote-sensing heterodyne receivers at millimeter wavelengths. The advantages of waveguides are low loss and mechanical tunability. However, conventional machining techniques for waveguide components operating above a few hundred GHz are complicated and costly. Waveguides micromachined from silicon however would have several important advantages including low-cost; small size for very high frequency (submillimeter wave) operation; high dimensional accuracy (important for high-Q circuits); atomically smooth walls, thereby reducing rf losses; and the ability to integrate active and passive devices directly in the waveguide on thin membranes, thereby solving the traditional problem of mounting thin substrates.

  17. CARS measurement of vibrational and rotational temperature with high power laser and high speed visualization of total radiation behind hypervelocity shock waves of 5-7km/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Kotaro; Bindu, Venigalla Hima; Niinomi, Shota; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2010-09-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) method is commonly used for measuring molecular structure or condition. In the aerospace technology, this method is applies to measure the temperature in thermic fluid with relatively long time duration of millisecond or sub millisecond. On the other hand, vibrational/rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity shock wave are important for heat-shield design in phase of reentry flight. The non-equilibrium flow with radiative heating from strongly shocked air ahead of the vehicles plays an important role on the heat flux to the wall surface structure as well as convective heating. In this paper CARS method is applied to measure the vibrational/rotational temperature of N2 behind hypervelocity shock wave. The strong shock wave in front of the reentering space vehicles can be experimentally realigned by free-piston, double-diaphragm shock tube with low density test gas. However CARS measurement is difficult for our experiment. Our measurement needs very short pulse which order of nanosecond and high power laser for CARS method. It is due to our measurement object is the momentary phenomena which velocity is 7km/s. In addition the observation section is low density test gas, and there is the strong background light behind the shock wave. So we employ the CARS method with high power, order of 1J/pulse, and very short pulse (10ns) laser. By using this laser the CARS signal can be acquired even in the strong radiation area. Also we simultaneously try to use the CCD camera to obtain total radiation with CARS method.

  18. High-speed particle image velocimetry near surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker

    2013-06-24

    Multi-dimensional and transient flows play a key role in many areas of science, engineering, and health sciences but are often not well understood. The complex nature of these flows may be studied using particle image velocimetry (PIV), a laser-based imaging technique for optically accessible flows. Though many forms of PIV exist that extend the technique beyond the original planar two-component velocity measurement capabilities, the basic PIV system consists of a light source (laser), a camera, tracer particles, and analysis algorithms. The imaging and recording parameters, the light source, and the algorithms are adjusted to optimize the recording for the flow of interest and obtain valid velocity data. Common PIV investigations measure two-component velocities in a plane at a few frames per second. However, recent developments in instrumentation have facilitated high-frame rate (>1 kHz) measurements capable of resolving transient flows with high temporal resolution. Therefore, high-frame rate measurements have enabled investigations on the evolution of the structure and dynamics of highly transient flows. These investigations play a critical role in understanding the fundamental physics of complex flows. A detailed description for performing high-resolution, high-speed planar PIV to study a transient flow near the surface of a flat plate is presented here. Details for adjusting the parameter constraints such as image and recording properties, the laser sheet properties, and processing algorithms to adapt PIV for any flow of interest are included.

  19. LIGA Micromachining: Infrastructure Establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Alfredo M. Morales; Barry V. Hess; Dale R. Boehme; Jill M. Hruby; John S. Krafcik; Robert H. Nilson; Stewart K. Griffiths; William D. Bonivert

    1999-02-01

    LIGA is a micromachining technology that uses high energy x-rays from a synchrotron to create patterns with small lateral dimensions in a deep, non-conducting polymeric resist. Typical dimensions for LIGA parts are microns to tens of microns in lateral size, and hundreds of microns to millimeters in depth. Once the resist is patterned, metal is electrodeposited in the features to create metal microparts, or to create a metal mold for subsequent replication. The acronym LIGA comes from the German words for lithography, electroforming, and molding, and the technology has been under worldwide development for more than a decade. over the last five years, a full-service capability to produce metal microparts using the LIGA process has been established at Sandia national Laboratories, California. This report describes the accomplishments made during the past two years in infrastructure establishment funded by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''LIGA Micromachining.'' Specific topics include photoresist processing for LIGA mask making, x-ray scanning equipment, plating bath instrumentation, plating uniformity, and software architecture.

  20. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Uhl, James Eugene; Warpinski, Norman Raymond; Whetten, Ernest Blayne

    1998-01-01

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves.

  1. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOEpatents

    Fensom, Rod; Kidder, David J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  2. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Uhl, J.E.; Warpinski, N.R.; Whetten, E.B.

    1998-06-30

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves. 9 figs.

  3. High speed curved position sensitive detector

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Robert W.; Wilson, Jack W.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed curved position sensitive porportional counter detector for use in x-ray diffraction, the detection of 5-20 keV photons and the like. The detector employs a planar anode assembly of a plurality of parallel metallic wires. This anode assembly is supported between two cathode planes, with at least one of these cathode planes having a serpentine resistive path in the form of a meander having legs generally perpendicular to the anode wires. This meander is produced by special microelectronic fabrication techniques whereby the meander "wire" fans outwardly at the cathode ends to produce the curved aspect of the detector, and the legs of the meander are small in cross-section and very closely spaced whereby a spatial resolution of about 50 .mu.m can be achieved. All of the other performance characteristics are about as good or better than conventional position sensitive proportional counter type detectors. Count rates of up to 40,000 counts per second with 0.5 .mu.s shaping time constants are achieved.

  4. Technology needs for high speed rotorcraft (3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detore, Jack; Conway, Scott

    1991-01-01

    The spectrum of vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) type aircraft is examined to determine which aircraft are most likely to achieve high subsonic cruise speeds and have hover qualities similar to a helicopter. Two civil mission profiles are considered: a 600-n.mi. mission for a 15- and a 30-passenger payload. Applying current technology, only the 15- and 30-passenger tiltfold aircraft are capable of attaining the 450-knot design goal. The two tiltfold aircraft at 450 knots and a 30-passenger tiltrotor at 375 knots were further developed for the Task II technology analysis. A program called High-Speed Total Envelope Proprotor (HI-STEP) is recommended to meet several of these issues based on the tiltrotor concept. A program called Tiltfold System (TFS) is recommended based on the tiltrotor concept. A task is identified to resolve the best design speed from productivity and demand considerations based on the technology that emerges from the recommended programs. HI-STEP's goals are to investigate propulsive efficiency, maneuver loads, and aeroelastic stability. Programs currently in progress that may meet the other technology needs include the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) (NASA Lewis) and the Advanced Structural Concepts Program funded through NASA Langley.

  5. 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    Semi-automatic readout equipment installed in the 1950s used for data recording and reduction in the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST). A 1957 NACA report on wind tunnel facilities at Langley included these comments on the data recording and reduction equipment for the 8-foot HST: 'The data recording and reduction equipment used for handling steady force and pressure information at the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel is similar to that described for the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. Very little dynamic data recording equipment, however, is available.' The description of the 16-foot transonic tunnel equipment is as follows: 'A semiautomatic force data readout system provides tabulated raw data and punch card storage of raw data concurrent with the operation of the wind tunnel. Provision is made for 12 automatic channels of strain gage-data output, and eight channels of four-digit manually operated inputs are available for tabulating and punching constants, configuration codes, and other information necessary for data reduction and identification. The data are then processed on electronic computing machines to obtain the desired coefficients. These coefficients and their proper identification are then machine tabulated to provide a printed record of the results. The punched cards may also be fed into an automatic plotting device for the preparation of plots necessary for data analysis.'

  6. Hubble Space Telescope, High Speed Photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This drawing illustrates the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST's) High Speed Photometer (HSP). The HSP measures the intensity of starlight (brightness), which will help determine astronomical distances. Its principal use will be to measure extremely-rapid variations or pulses in light from celestial objects, such as pulsating stars. The HSP produces brightness readings. Light passes into one of four special signal-multiplying tubes that record the data. The HSP can measure energy fluctuations from objects that pulsate as rapidly as once every 10 microseconds. From HSP data, astronomers expect to learn much about such mysterious objects as pulsars, black holes, and quasars. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors.

  7. Exhaust emissions from high speed passenger ferries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Exhaust emission measurements have been carried out on-board three high-speed passenger ferries (A, B and C) during normal service routes. Ship A was powered by conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines, Ship B by gas turbine engines and Ship C conventional, medium-speed, marine diesel engines equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NO x abatement. All ships had similar auxiliary engines (marine diesels) for generating electric power on-board. Real-world emission factors of NOx, SO2, CO, CO 2, NMVOC, CH4, N2O, NH3, PM and PAH at steady-state engine loads and for complete voyages were determined together with an estimate of annual emissions. In general, Ship B using gas turbines showed favourable NO x, PM and PAH emissions but at the expense of higher fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Ship C with the SCR had the lowest NO x emissions but highest NH 3 emissions especially during harbour approaches and stops. The greatest PM and PAH specific emissions were measured from auxiliary engines operating at low engine loads during harbour stops. Since all ships used a low-sulphur gas oil, SO 2 emissions were relatively low in all cases.

  8. High-speed Civil Transport Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, Richard C.; Matulaitis, J. A.; Krause, F. H.; Dodds, Willard J.; Albers, Martin; Hourmouziadis, J.; Hasel, K. L.; Lohmann, R. P.; Stander, C.; Gerstle, John H.

    1992-01-01

    Estimates are given for the emissions from a proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). This advanced technology supersonic aircraft would fly in the lower stratosphere at a speed of roughly Mach 1.6 to 3.2 (470 to 950 m/sec or 920 to 1850 knots). Because it would fly in the stratosphere at an altitude in the range of 15 to 23 km commensurate with its design speed, its exhaust effluents could perturb the chemical balance in the upper atmosphere. The first step in determining the nature and magnitude of any chemical changes in the atmosphere resulting from these proposed aircraft is to identify and quantify the chemically important species they emit. Relevant earlier work is summarized, dating back to the Climatic Impact Assessment Program of the early 1970s and current propulsion research efforts. Estimates are provided of the chemical composition of an HSCT's exhaust, and these emission indices are presented. Other aircraft emissions that are not due to combustion processes are also summarized; these emissions are found to be much smaller than the exhaust emissions. Future advances in propulsion technology, in experimental measurement techniques, and in understanding upper atmospheric chemistry may affect these estimates of the amounts of trace exhaust species or their relative importance.

  9. High speed homology search with FPGAs.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Maruyama, Tsutomu; Konagaya, Akihiko

    2002-01-01

    We will introduce a way how we can achieve high speed homology search by only adding one off-the-shelf PCI board with one Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to a Pentium based computer system in use. FPGA is a reconfigurable device, and any kind of circuits, such as pattern matching program, can be realized in a moment. The performance is almost proportional to the size of FPGA which is used in the system, and FPGAs are becoming larger and larger following Moore's law. We can easily obtain latest/larger FPGAs in the form off-the-shelf PCI boards with FPGAs, at low costs. The result which we obtained is as follows. The performance is most comparable with small to middle class dedicated hardware systems when we use a board with one of the latest FPGAs and the performance can be furthermore accelerated by using more number of FPGA boards. The time for comparing a query sequence of 2,048 elements with a database sequence of 64 million elements by the Smith-Waterman algorithm is about 34 sec, which is about 330 times faster than a desktop computer with a 1 GHz Pentium III. We can also accelerate the performance of a laptop computer using a PC card with one smaller FPGA. The time for comparing a query sequence (1,024) with the database sequence (64 million) is about 185 sec, which is about 30 times faster than the desktop computer.

  10. Sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anne; La Celle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Del Giorno, Mark; Close, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    As robotic ground systems advance in capabilities and begin to fulfill new roles in both civilian and military life, the limitation of slow operational speed has become a hindrance to the wide-spread adoption of these systems. For example, military convoys are reluctant to employ autonomous vehicles when these systems slow their movement from 60 miles per hour down to 40. However, these autonomous systems must operate at these lower speeds due to the limitations of the sensors they employ. Robotic Research, with its extensive experience in ground autonomy and associated problems therein, in conjunction with CERDEC/Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), has performed a study to specify system and detection requirements; determined how current autonomy sensors perform in various scenarios; and analyzed how sensors should be employed to increase operational speeds of ground vehicles. The sensors evaluated in this study include the state of the art in LADAR/LIDAR, Radar, Electro-Optical, and Infrared sensors, and have been analyzed at high speeds to study their effectiveness in detecting and accounting for obstacles and other perception challenges. By creating a common set of testing benchmarks, and by testing in a wide range of real-world conditions, Robotic Research has evaluated where sensors can be successfully employed today; where sensors fall short; and which technologies should be examined and developed further. This study is the first step to achieve the overarching goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds on any given terrain.

  11. Optical receiver for high-speed communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Paul A.; Grib, Valerie J.

    2010-04-01

    For through-the-air optical communication applications, we present a high speed detector module with high bandwidth and large active area. The detector has achieved a rise time of 220 pS with a full-width-half-max of 420 pS. Data rates are expected to approach 2 GHz. The active area of the input window is 12 mm, giving a large collection surface for through-the-air applications. The detector module includes an integrated power supply having low power consumption. In comparison with other detector technologies, this new detector exceeds the speed of conventional photomultiplier designs by 3 to 5 times. In comparison with microchannel plate detectors, the speed is comparable, but the throughput of the new detector is much higher - tens of microamperes of signal current can be obtained indefinitely. Optical communication applications can be served by two different designs. In the first case, the module utilizes gain based on ordinary secondary emission materials to achieve current gains of 1500. This design is suitable for applications at the limit of the detector's bandwidth where light power is relatively high. In another design, the secondary emission material was changed to diamond film which allows five times higher gain. While the current design uses an ordinary, blue sensitive input light conversion material, higher efficiency materials are in development for signals at longer wavelength.

  12. High Speed Research - External Vision System (EVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Imagine flying a supersonic passenger jet (like the Concorde) at 1500 mph with no front windows in the cockpit - it may one day be a reality, as seen in this animation still. NASA engineers are working to develop technology that would replace the forward cockpit windows in future supersonic passenger jets with large sensor displays. These displays would use video images, enhanced by computer-generated graphics, to take the place of the view out the front windows. The envisioned eXternal Visibility System (XVS) would guide pilots to an airport, warn them of other aircraft near their path, and provide additional visual aides for airport approaches, landings and takeoffs. Currently, supersonic transports like the Anglo-French Concorde droop the front of the jet (the 'nose') downward to allow the pilots to see forward during takeoffs and landings. By enhancing the pilots' vision with high-resolution video displays, future supersonic transport designers could eliminate the heavy and expensive, mechanically-drooped nose. A future U.S. supersonic passenger jet, as envisioned by NASA's High-Speed Research (HSR) program, would carry 300 passengers more than 5000 nautical miles per hour more than 1500 miles per hour (more than twice the speed of sound). Traveling from Los Angeles to Tokyo would take only four hours, with an anticipated fare increase of only 20 percent over current ticket prices for substantially slower subsonic flights. Animation by Joey Ponthieux, Computer Sciences Corporation, Inc.

  13. A prototype high-speed optically-steered X-band phased array antenna.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pengfei; Tang, Suning; Raible, Daniel E

    2013-12-30

    We develop a prototype of optically-steered X-band phased array antenna with capabilities of multi-band and multi-beam operations. It exploits high-speed wavelength tunable lasers for optical true-time delays over a dispersive optical fiber link, enabling agile, broadband and vibration-free RF beam steering with large angle.

  14. The high speed civil transport and NASA's High Speed Research (HSR) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Ongoing studies being conducted not only in this country but in Europe and Asia suggest that a second generation supersonic transport, or High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), could become an important part of the 21st century international air transportation system. However, major environmental compatibility and economic viability issues must be resolved if the HSCT is to become a reality. This talk will overview the NASA High-Speed Research (HSR) program which is aimed at providing the U.S. industry with a technology base to allow them to consider launching an HSCT program early in the next century. The talk will also discuss some of the comparable activities going on within Europe and Japan.

  15. Development of high-speed balancing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuth, R.; Zorzi, E.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation into laser material removal showed that laser burns act in a manner typical of mechanical stress raisers causing a reduction in fatigue strength; the fatigue strength is lowered relative to the smooth specimen fatigue strength. Laser-burn zones were studied for four materials: Alloy Steel 4340, Stainless Steel 17-4 PH, Inconel 718, and Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6. Calculations were made of stress concentration factors K, for laser-burn grooves of each material type. A comparison was then made to experimentally determine the fatigue strength reduction factor. These calculations and comparisons indicated that, except for the 17-4 PH material, good agreement (a ratio of close to 1.0) existed between Kt and Kf. The performance of the 17-4 PH material has been attributed to early crack initiation due to the lower fatigue resistance of the soft, unaged laser-affected zone. Also covered in this report is the development, implementation, and testing of an influence coefficient approach to balancing a long, slender shaft under applied-torque conditions. Excellent correlation existed between the analytically predicted results and those data obtained from testing.

  16. High-Speed Data Recorder for Space, Geodesy, and Other High-Speed Recording Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taveniku, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A high-speed data recorder and replay equipment has been developed for reliable high-data-rate recording to disk media. It solves problems with slow or faulty disks, multiple disk insertions, high-altitude operation, reliable performance using COTS hardware, and long-term maintenance and upgrade path challenges. The current generation data recor - ders used within the VLBI community are aging, special-purpose machines that are both slow (do not meet today's requirements) and are very expensive to maintain and operate. Furthermore, they are not easily upgraded to take advantage of commercial technology development, and are not scalable to multiple 10s of Gbit/s data rates required by new applications. The innovation provides a softwaredefined, high-speed data recorder that is scalable with technology advances in the commercial space. It maximally utilizes current technologies without being locked to a particular hardware platform. The innovation also provides a cost-effective way of streaming large amounts of data from sensors to disk, enabling many applications to store raw sensor data and perform post and signal processing offline. This recording system will be applicable to many applications needing realworld, high-speed data collection, including electronic warfare, softwaredefined radar, signal history storage of multispectral sensors, development of autonomous vehicles, and more.

  17. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  18. Photodetector having high speed and sensitivity

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention provides a photodetector having an advantageous combination of sensitivity and speed; it has a high sensitivity while retaining high speed. In a preferred embodiment, visible light is detected, but in some embodiments, x-rays can be detected, and in other embodiments infrared can be detected. The present invention comprises a photodetector having an active layer, and a recombination layer. The active layer has a surface exposed to light to be detected, and comprises a semiconductor, having a bandgap graded so that carriers formed due to interaction of the active layer with the incident radiation tend to be swept away from the exposed surface. The graded semiconductor material in the active layer preferably comprises Al.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x As. An additional sub-layer of graded In.sub.1-y Ga.sub.y As may be included between the Al.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x As layer and the recombination layer. The recombination layer comprises a semiconductor material having a short recombination time such as a defective GaAs layer grown in a low temperature process. The recombination layer is positioned adjacent to the active layer so that carriers from the active layer tend to be swept into the recombination layer. In an embodiment, the photodetector may comprise one or more additional layers stacked below the active and recombination layers. These additional layers may include another active layer and another recombination layer to absorb radiation not absorbed while passing through the first layers. A photodetector having a stacked configuration may have enhanced sensitivity and responsiveness at selected wavelengths such as infrared.

  19. High Speed Dynamics in Brittle Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiermaier, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Brittle Materials under High Speed and Shock loading provide a continuous challenge in experimental physics, analysis and numerical modelling, and consequently for engineering design. The dependence of damage and fracture processes on material-inherent length and time scales, the influence of defects, rate-dependent material properties and inertia effects on different scales make their understanding a true multi-scale problem. In addition, it is not uncommon that materials show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior when the loading rate is increased. A particular case is spallation, a brittle tensile failure induced by the interaction of stress waves leading to a sudden change from compressive to tensile loading states that can be invoked in various materials. This contribution highlights typical phenomena occurring when brittle materials are exposed to high loading rates in applications such as blast and impact on protective structures, or meteorite impact on geological materials. A short review on experimental methods that are used for dynamic characterization of brittle materials will be given. A close interaction of experimental analysis and numerical simulation has turned out to be very helpful in analyzing experimental results. For this purpose, adequate numerical methods are required. Cohesive zone models are one possible method for the analysis of brittle failure as long as some degree of tension is present. Their recent successful application for meso-mechanical simulations of concrete in Hopkinson-type spallation tests provides new insight into the dynamic failure process. Failure under compressive loading is a particular challenge for numerical simulations as it involves crushing of material which in turn influences stress states in other parts of a structure. On a continuum scale, it can be modeled using more or less complex plasticity models combined with failure surfaces, as will be demonstrated for ceramics. Models which take microstructural

  20. Compressive high speed flow microscopy with motion contrast (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, Bryan; Stroud, Jasper R.; Tran, Dung N.; Tran, Trac D.; Chin, Sang; Foster, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    High-speed continuous imaging systems are constrained by analog-to-digital conversion, storage, and transmission. However, real video signals of objects such as microscopic cells and particles require only a few percent or less of the full video bandwidth for high fidelity representation by modern compression algorithms. Compressed Sensing (CS) is a recent influential paradigm in signal processing that builds real-time compression into the acquisition step by computing inner products between the signal of interest and known random waveforms and then applying a nonlinear reconstruction algorithm. Here, we extend the continuous high-rate photonically-enabled compressed sensing (CHiRP-CS) framework to acquire motion contrast video of microscopic flowing objects. We employ chirp processing in optical fiber and high-speed electro-optic modulation to produce ultrashort pulses each with a unique pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) spectral pattern with 325 features per pulse at the full laser repetition rate (90 MHz). These PRBS-patterned pulses serve as random structured illumination inside a one-dimensional (1D) spatial disperser. By multiplexing the PRBS patterns with a user-defined repetition period, the difference signal y_i=&phi_i (x_i - x_{i-tau}) can be computed optically with balanced detection, where x is the image signal, phi_i is the PRBS pattern, and tau is the repetition period of the patterns. Two-dimensional (2D) image reconstruction via iterative alternating minimization to find the best locally-sparse representation yields an image of the edges in the flow direction, corresponding to the spatial and temporal 1D derivative. This provides both a favorable representation for image segmentation and a sparser representation for many objects that can improve image compression.

  1. High-speed line scanning confocal microscope for biological imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Keun; Ju, Sung-Bin; Cho, Yong-Jin; Jeong, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Beop-Min

    2007-02-01

    We constructed a high-speed laser line-scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) using He-Ne laser (633 nm), a line CCD camera, and an acousto-optic deflector (AOD). The line scanner consists of an AOD and a cylindrical lens, which create a line focus sweeping over the sample. The line scanner generates two-dimensional confocal images (512× 512 pixel image) up to 191 frames per second with no mechanically-moving parts. This system is configured as an inverted microscope for imaging biological organisms or tissues. Images of various biological samples were obtained including rabbit cornea, onion cells, mouse melanoma tumor cells (B16BL6), and human breast tumor cells (BT-20). The frame rate may be further improved up to over 700 frames per second when the image size is reduced (512×128 pixel image). This system may be useful for analyzing fast phenomena during biological and chemical interactions and for imaging 3D structures rapidly.

  2. Micromachined electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  3. High-speed 850 nm VCSELs with 28 GHz modulation bandwidth for short reach communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbergh, Petter; Safaisini, Rashid; Haglund, Erik; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Larsson, Anders; Joel, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    We present results from our new generation of high performance 850 nm oxide confined vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). With devices optimized for high-speed operation under direct modulation, we achieve record high 3dB modulation bandwidths of 28 GHz for ~4 μm oxide aperture diameter VCSELs, and 27 GHz for devices with a ~7 μm oxide aperture diameter. Combined with a high-speed photoreceiver, the ~7 μm VCSEL enables error-free transmission at data rates up to 47 Gbit/s at room temperature, and up to 40 Gbit/s at 85°C.

  4. Application of high-speed real-time holographic interferometry to dynamic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yulin; Ji, Zhongying; Wang, Zhengrong; Kong, Yue; Liu, Gaixia

    1989-06-01

    Results of an application experiment of high-speed real-time holographic interferometry in dynamic nondestructive testing are discussed. Appropriate laser equipment, holographic interferometry, and high speed camera were combined to form a complete photographic recording system for changing speed and spatial distribution of the optical path-length difference of dynamic events. The principle of real-time holographic interference and criterion of interference fringes are analyzed. Exposure time, photographic frequency and image amplification and appropriate camera are selected based on the analysis. The experimental equipments and results analysis includes the combustion of gunpowder and priming powder, and electric arc welding.

  5. Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

  6. Ring current development during high speed streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, V. K.; Matsui, H.; Puhl-Quinn, P. A.; Thomsen, M. F.; Mursula, K.; Holappa, L.

    2009-07-01

    Episodes of southward (Bz<0) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) which lead to disturbed geomagnetic conditions are associated either with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and possess long and continuous negative IMF Bz excursions, or with high speed solar wind streams (HSS) whose geoeffectiveness is due to IMF Bz profiles fluctuating about zero with various amplitudes and duration. We simulate ring current evolution during a HSS-driven storm that occurred during 24-26 October 2002 and compare its dynamics with a CME-driven storm of similar strength during 22-23 April 2001. We use our kinetic ring current-atmosphere interactions model (RAM), and investigate the mechanisms responsible for trapping particles and for causing their loss. Ring current evolution depends on the interplay of time-dependent inflow of plasma from the magnetotail, particle acceleration and loss (mainly due to charge exchange) along adiabatic drift paths, and outflow of plasma from the dayside magnetopause; all of these processes are incorporated in our model. We compare results from simulations using a newly developed, Cluster data based, University of New Hampshire inner magnetospheric electric field (UNH-IMEF) convection model with simulations using a Volland-Stern (V-S) type convection model. We find that, first, periods of increased magnetospheric convection coinciding with enhancements of plasma sheet density are needed for strong ring current buildup. Second, during the HSS-driven storm the convection potential from UNH-IMEF model is highly variable and causes sporadic shallow injections resulting in a weak ring current. The long period of enhanced convection during the CME-driven storm causes a continuous ion injection penetrating to lower L shells and stronger ring current buildup. V-S model predicts larger ring current injection during both storms. Third, the RAM driven by either convection model underestimates the total ring current energy during the recovery phase of the HSS storm

  7. High-speed dual Langmuir probe

    SciTech Connect

    Lobbia, Robert B.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2010-07-15

    In an effort to temporally resolve the electron density, electron temperature, and plasma potential for turbulent plasma discharges, a unique high-speed dual Langmuir probe (HDLP) has been developed. A traditional single Langmuir probe of cylindrical geometry (exposed to the plasma) is swept simultaneously with a nearby capacitance and noise compensating null probe (fully insulated from the plasma) to enable bias sweep rates on a microsecond timescale. Traditional thin-sheath Langmuir probe theory is applied for interpretation of the collected probe data. Data at a sweep rate of 100 kHz are presented; however the developed system is capable of running at 1 MHz--near the upper limit of the applied electrostatic Langmuir probe theory for the investigated plasma conditions. Large sets (100 000 sweeps at each of 352 spatial locations) of contiguous turbulent plasma properties are collected using simple electronics for probe bias driving and current measurement attaining 80 dB signal-to-noise measurements with dc to 1 MHz bandwidth. Near- and far-field plume measurements with the HDLP system are performed downstream from a modern Hall effect thruster where the time-averaged plasma properties exhibit the approximate ranges: electron density n{sub e} from (1x10{sup 15})-(5x10{sup 16}) m{sup -3}, electron temperature T{sub e} from 1 to 3.5 eV, and plasma potential V{sub p} from 5 to 15 V. The thruster discharge of 200 V (constant anode potential) and 2 A (average discharge current) displays strong, 2.2 A peak-to-peak, current oscillations at 19 kHz, characteristic of the thruster ''breathing mode'' ionization instability. Large amplitude discharge current fluctuations are typical for most Hall thrusters, yet the HDLP system reveals the presence of the same 19 kHz fluctuations in n{sub e}(t), T{sub e}(t), and V{sub p}(t) throughout the entire plume with peak-to-peak divided by mean plasma properties that average 94%. The propagation delays between the discharge current

  8. High-speed dual Langmuir probe.

    PubMed

    Lobbia, Robert B; Gallimore, Alec D

    2010-07-01

    In an effort to temporally resolve the electron density, electron temperature, and plasma potential for turbulent plasma discharges, a unique high-speed dual Langmuir probe (HDLP) has been developed. A traditional single Langmuir probe of cylindrical geometry (exposed to the plasma) is swept simultaneously with a nearby capacitance and noise compensating null probe (fully insulated from the plasma) to enable bias sweep rates on a microsecond timescale. Traditional thin-sheath Langmuir probe theory is applied for interpretation of the collected probe data. Data at a sweep rate of 100 kHz are presented; however the developed system is capable of running at 1 MHz-near the upper limit of the applied electrostatic Langmuir probe theory for the investigated plasma conditions. Large sets (100,000 sweeps at each of 352 spatial locations) of contiguous turbulent plasma properties are collected using simple electronics for probe bias driving and current measurement attaining 80 dB signal-to-noise measurements with dc to 1 MHz bandwidth. Near- and far-field plume measurements with the HDLP system are performed downstream from a modern Hall effect thruster where the time-averaged plasma properties exhibit the approximate ranges: electron density n(e) from (1x10(15))-(5x10(16)) m(-3), electron temperature T(e) from 1 to 3.5 eV, and plasma potential V(p) from 5 to 15 V. The thruster discharge of 200 V (constant anode potential) and 2 A (average discharge current) displays strong, 2.2 A peak-to-peak, current oscillations at 19 kHz, characteristic of the thruster "breathing mode" ionization instability. Large amplitude discharge current fluctuations are typical for most Hall thrusters, yet the HDLP system reveals the presence of the same 19 kHz fluctuations in n(e)(t), T(e)(t), and V(p)(t) throughout the entire plume with peak-to-peak divided by mean plasma properties that average 94%. The propagation delays between the discharge current fluctuations and the corresponding plasma

  9. High speed imaging technology: yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendley, Gil J.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this discussion is to familiarize readers with an overview of high-speed imaging technology as a means of analyzing objects in motion that occur too fast for the eye to see or conventional photography or video to capture. This information is intended to provide a brief historical narrative from the inception of high-speed imaging in the USA and the acceptance of digital video technology to augment or replace high-speed motion picture cameras. It is not intended a definitive work on the subject. For those interested in greater detail, such as application techniques, formulae, very high-speed and ultra speed technology etc. I recommend the latest text on the subject: High Speed Photography and Photonics first published in 1997 by Focal Press in the UK and copyrighted by the Association for High Speed Photography in the United Kingdom.

  10. High-Speed Imaging of Amoeboid Movements Using Light-Sheet Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Takaaki; Sonobe, Seiji; Nonaka, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    Light-sheet microscopy has been developed as a powerful tool for live imaging in biological studies. The efficient illumination of specimens using light-sheet microscopy makes it highly amenable to high-speed imaging. We therefore applied this technology to the observation of amoeboid movements, which are too rapid to capture with conventional microscopy. To simplify the setup of the optical system, we utilized the illumination optics from a conventional confocal laser scanning microscope. Using this set-up we achieved high-speed imaging of amoeboid movements. Three-dimensional images were captured at the recording rate of 40 frames/s and clearly outlined the fine structures of fluorescent-labeled amoeboid cellular membranes. The quality of images obtained by our system was sufficient for subsequent quantitative analysis for dynamics of amoeboid movements. This study demonstrates the application of light-sheet microscopy for high-speed imaging of biological specimens. PMID:23227214

  11. 33 CFR 84.24 - High-speed craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-speed craft. 84.24 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.24 High-speed craft. (a) The masthead light of high-speed craft with a length to breadth ratio of less than 3.0 may be placed at...

  12. 33 CFR 84.24 - High-speed craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-speed craft. 84.24 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.24 High-speed craft. (a) The masthead light of high-speed craft with a length to breadth ratio of less than 3.0 may be placed at...

  13. 33 CFR 84.24 - High-speed craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-speed craft. 84.24 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.24 High-speed craft. (a) The masthead light of high-speed craft with a length to breadth ratio of less than 3.0 may be placed at...

  14. 33 CFR 84.24 - High-speed craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-speed craft. 84.24 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.24 High-speed craft. (a) The masthead light of high-speed craft with a length to breadth ratio of less than 3.0 may be placed at...

  15. 33 CFR 84.24 - High-speed craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false High-speed craft. 84.24 Section... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.24 High-speed craft. (a) The masthead light of high-speed craft with a length to breadth ratio of less than 3.0 may be placed at...

  16. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    SciTech Connect

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  17. Water Containment Systems for Testing High-Speed Flywheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trase, Larry; Thompson, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Water-filled containers are used as building blocks in a new generation of containment systems for testing high-speed flywheels. Such containment systems are needed to ensure safety by trapping high-speed debris in the event of centrifugal breakup or bearing failure. Traditional containment systems for testing flywheels consist mainly of thick steel rings. The effectiveness of this approach to shielding against high-speed debris was demonstrated in a series of tests.

  18. High-speed rail-coming to America?

    PubMed

    Cameron, David Ossian

    2009-01-01

    The United States lags many parts of the world when it comes to high-speed rail. But investing in high-speed rail could help us through current problems. Funds- $8 billion-in the economic stimulus package passed by Congress are designated for high-speed rail. Other funds in the pipeline total approximately $15.5 billion. High-speed rail can relieve congestion, free up national airspace, provide reliable transportation and positive economic development, create jobs, and is more energy efficient than other modes of travel. PMID:19608527

  19. Experimental study of high-speed imaging detection system for small bubbles in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Peng; Yang, Kecheng; Xia, Min; Li, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Small bubbles are widely present in the marine environment, the presence of small bubbles generated by whitecaps, microorganisms, ships sailing will greatly affect the optical properties of seawater. A lot of work has been carried out around the detection of small bubbles, this article will introduce a method of detecting small bubbles underwater with the way of high-speed imaging underwater. The optical mechanisms to measure the parameters of small bubbles are mainly high-speed photography, laser interferometry and holography. The advantages of high-speed photography are intuitive and low cost, the experimenters can real-time monitor the shooting circumstances, and can obtain more detailed parameters concerning the small bubbles. The paper also discusses an experimental method of high-speed imaging for small bubbles in water, that is to get a cooperative target in the back of the bubbles, then shoot the bubbles, and a lot of experiments with the two methods have been done. In order to compare the imaging quality of the two sets of experiments intuitively, the histograms and the results of edge detecting of the pictures have been given. After compared the results, it is found that the images are clearer and higher in contrast in the case of there is a cooperative target behind the bubbles, and with the imaging rate of the high-speed camera increases, the image quality is significantly reduced.

  20. Enhanced high-speed coherent diffraction imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potier, Jonathan; Fricker, Sebastien; Idir, Mourad

    2011-03-01

    Due to recent advances in X-ray microscopy, we are now able to image objects with nanometer resolution thanks to Synchrotron beam lines or Free Electron Lasers (FEL). The PCI (Phase Contrast Imaging) is a robust technique that can recover the wavefront from measurements of only few intensity pictures in the Fresnel diffraction region. With our fast straightforward calculus methods, we manage to provide the phase induced by a microscopic specimen in few seconds. We can therefore obtain high contrasted images from transparent materials at very small scales. To reach atomic resolution imaging and thus make a transition from the near to the far field, the Coherent Diffraction Imaging (CDI) technique finds its roots in the analysis of diffraction patterns to obtain the phase of the altered complex wave. Theoretical results about existence and uniqueness of this retrieved piece of information by both iterative and direct algorithms have already been released. However, performances of algorithms remain limited by the coherence of the X-ray beam, presence of random noise and the saturation threshold of the detector. We will present reconstructions of samples using an enhanced version of HIO algorithm improving the speed of convergence and its repeatability. As a first step toward a practical X-Ray CDI system, initial images for reconstructions are acquired with the laser-based CDI system working in the visible spectrum.

  1. High speed photography, videography, and photonics III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 22, 23, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponseggi, B. G. (Editor); Johnson, H. C. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Papers are presented on the picosecond electronic framing camera, photogrammetric techniques using high-speed cineradiography, picosecond semiconductor lasers for characterizing high-speed image shutters, the measurement of dynamic strain by high-speed moire photography, the fast framing camera with independent frame adjustments, design considerations for a data recording system, and nanosecond optical shutters. Consideration is given to boundary-layer transition detectors, holographic imaging, laser holographic interferometry in wind tunnels, heterodyne holographic interferometry, a multispectral video imaging and analysis system, a gated intensified camera, a charge-injection-device profile camera, a gated silicon-intensified-target streak tube and nanosecond-gated photoemissive shutter tubes. Topics discussed include high time-space resolved photography of lasers, time-resolved X-ray spectrographic instrumentation for laser studies, a time-resolving X-ray spectrometer, a femtosecond streak camera, streak tubes and cameras, and a short pulse X-ray diagnostic development facility.

  2. Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, R.A.; Seager, C.H.

    1996-12-10

    An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate, created by micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face (patterned silicon plate`s surface) and the silicon wafer it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face. The islands may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face and wafer contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands, together with at least one hole bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas. 6 figs.

  3. Micromachined silicon electrostatic chuck

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert A.; Seager, Carleton H.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic chuck is faced with a patterned silicon plate 11, created y micromachining a silicon wafer, which is attached to a metallic base plate 13. Direct electrical contact between the chuck face 15 (patterned silicon plate's surface) and the silicon wafer 17 it is intended to hold is prevented by a pattern of flat-topped silicon dioxide islands 19 that protrude less than 5 micrometers from the otherwise flat surface of the chuck face 15. The islands 19 may be formed in any shape. Islands may be about 10 micrometers in diameter or width and spaced about 100 micrometers apart. One or more concentric rings formed around the periphery of the area between the chuck face 15 and wafer 17 contain a low-pressure helium thermal-contact gas used to assist heat removal during plasma etching of a silicon wafer held by the chuck. The islands 19 are tall enough and close enough together to prevent silicon-to-silicon electrical contact in the space between the islands, and the islands occupy only a small fraction of the total area of the chuck face 15, typically 0.5 to 5 percent. The pattern of the islands 19, together with at least one hole 12 bored through the silicon veneer into the base plate, will provide sufficient gas-flow space to allow the distribution of the helium thermal-contact gas.

  4. Micromachine friction test apparatus

    DOEpatents

    deBoer, Maarten P.; Redmond, James M.; Michalske, Terry A.

    2002-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) friction test apparatus is disclosed for determining static or dynamic friction in MEM devices. The friction test apparatus, formed by surface micromachining, is based on a friction pad supported at one end of a cantilevered beam, with the friction pad overlying a contact pad formed on the substrate. A first electrostatic actuator can be used to bring a lower surface of the friction pad into contact with an upper surface of the contact pad with a controlled and adjustable force of contact. A second electrostatic actuator can then be used to bend the cantilevered beam, thereby shortening its length and generating a relative motion between the two contacting surfaces. The displacement of the cantilevered beam can be measured optically and used to determine the static or dynamic friction, including frictional losses and the coefficient of friction between the surfaces. The test apparatus can also be used to assess the reliability of rubbing surfaces in MEM devices by producing and measuring wear of those surfaces. Finally, the friction test apparatus, which is small in size, can be used as an in situ process quality tool for improving the fabrication of MEM devices.

  5. High-speed electromechanical shutter for imaging spectrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention presents a high-speed electromechanical shutter which has at least two rotary beam choppers that are synchronized using a phase-locked loop electronic control to reduce the duty cycle. These choppers have blade means that can comprise discs or drums, each having about 60 (+/-15) slots which are from about 0.3 to about 0.8 mm wide and about 5 to about 20 mm long (radially) which are evenly distributed through out 360?, and a third rotary chopper which is optically aligned has a small number of slots, such as for example, 1 to 10 slots which are about 1 to about 2 mm wide and about 5 to about 20 mm long (radially). Further the blade means include phase slots that allow the blade means to be phase locked using a closed loop control circuit. In addition, in a preferred embodiment, the system also has a leaf shutter. Thus the invention preferably achieves a gate width of less than about 100 microseconds, using motors that operate at 3000 to 10,000 rpm, and with a phase jitter of less than about 1.5 microseconds, and further using an aperture with more than about 75% optical transmission with a clear aperture of about 0.8 mm?10 mm. The system can be synchronized to external sources at 0 6 kHz lasers, data acquisition systems, and cameras.

  6. Thermal Conductance Engineering for High-Speed TES Microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.; Swetz, D. S.

    2016-07-01

    Many current and future applications for superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters require significantly faster pulse response than is currently available. X-ray spectroscopy experiments at next-generation synchrotron light sources need to successfully capture very large fluxes of photons, while detectors at free-electron laser facilities need pulse response fast enough to match repetition rates of the source. Additionally, neutrino endpoint experiments such as HOLMES need enormous statistics, yet are extremely sensitive to pile-up effects that can distort spectra. These issues can be mitigated only by fast rising and falling edges. To address these needs, we have designed high-speed TES detectors with novel geometric enhancements to increase the thermal conductance of pixels suspended on silicon nitride membranes. This paper shows that the thermal conductivity can be precisely engineered to values spanning over an order of magnitude to achieve fast thermal relaxation times tailored to the relevant applications. Using these pixel prototypes, we demonstrate decay time constants faster than 100 μ s, while still maintaining spectral resolution of 3 eV FWHM at 1.5 keV. This paper also discusses the trade-offs inherent in reducing the pixel time constant, such as increased bias current leading to degradation in energy resolution, and potential modifications to improve performance.

  7. High-speed electromechanical chutter for imaging spectrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention presents a high-speed electromechanical shutter which has at least two rotary beam choppers that are synchronized using a phase-locked loop electronic control to reduce the duty cycle. These choppers have blade means that can comprise discs or drums, each having about 60 (+/- 15) slots which are from about 0.3 to about 0.8 mm wide and about 5 to about 20 nun long (radially) which are evenly distributed through out 360 deg, and a third rotary chopper which is optically aligned has a small number of slots, such as for example, 1 to 10 slots which are about 1 to about 2 mm wide and about 5 to about 20 mm long (radially). Further the blade means include phase slots that allow the blade means to be phase locked using a closed loop control circuit. In addition, in a preferred embodiment, the system also has a leaf shutter. Thus the invention preferably achieves a gate width of less than about 100 microseconds, using motors that operate at 3000 to 10,OOO rpm, and with a phase jitter of less than about 1.5 microseconds, and further using an aperture with more than about 75% optical transmission with a clear aperture of about 0.8 -10 nun. The system can be synchronized to external sources at 0 6 kHz lasers, data acquisition systems, and cameras.

  8. HIGH-SPEED GC/MS FOR AIR ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    High speed or fast gas chromatography (FGC) consists of narrow bandwidth injection into a high-speed carrier gas stream passing through a short column leading to a fast detector. Many attempts have been made to demonstrate FGC, but until recently no practical method for routin...

  9. 14 CFR 23.253 - High speed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High speed characteristics. 23.253 Section... Requirements § 23.253 High speed characteristics. If a maximum operating speed VMO/MMO is established under § 23.1505(c), the following speed increase and recovery characteristics must be met: (a)...

  10. 14 CFR 23.253 - High speed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High speed characteristics. 23.253 Section... Requirements § 23.253 High speed characteristics. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 75755, December 2, 2011. If a maximum operating speed VMO/MMO is established under § 23.1505(c), the following...

  11. 14 CFR 23.253 - High speed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High speed characteristics. 23.253 Section... Requirements § 23.253 High speed characteristics. If a maximum operating speed VMO/MMO is established under § 23.1505(c), the following speed increase and recovery characteristics must be met: (a)...

  12. 14 CFR 23.253 - High speed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High speed characteristics. 23.253 Section... Requirements § 23.253 High speed characteristics. If a maximum operating speed VMO/MMO is established under § 23.1505(c), the following speed increase and recovery characteristics must be met: (a)...

  13. Structural vulnerability and intervention of high speed railway networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianhua; Hu, Funian; Wang, Shuliang; Dai, Yang; Wang, Yixing

    2016-11-01

    This paper employs complex network theory to assess the structural vulnerability of high speed railway networks subjected to two different malicious attacks. Chinese, US and Japanese high speed railway networks are used to discuss the vulnerable characteristics of systems. We find that high speed railway networks are very fragile when suffering serious disturbances and two attack rules can cause analogous damages to one high speed railway network, which illustrates that the station with large degree possesses high betweenness, vice versa. Meanwhile, we discover that Japanese high speed railway network has the best global connectivity, but Chinese high speed railway network has the best local connectivity and possesses the largest transport capacity. Moreover, we find that there exist several redundant paths in Chinese high speed railway network and discover the critical stations of three HSRNs. Furthermore, the nearest-link method is adopted to implement topological interventions and to improve the connectivity and reliability of high speed railway networks. In addition, the feasibility and effectiveness of topological interventions are shown by simulations.

  14. 14 CFR 23.253 - High speed characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High speed characteristics. 23.253 Section... Requirements § 23.253 High speed characteristics. If a maximum operating speed VMO/MMO is established under § 23.1505(c), the following speed increase and recovery characteristics must be met: (a)...

  15. The Advantages of ISDN for High-Speed Remote Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Mark; Hauf, Al

    1997-01-01

    Explains why ISDN (integrated services digital network) is the most practical solution for high-speed remote access, including reliability, cost, flexibility, scaleability, standards, and manageability. Other data transmission options are discussed, including asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL), high-speed digital subscriber lines (HDSL),…

  16. High-Speed Video Analysis of Damped Harmonic Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poonyawatpornkul, J.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we acquire and analyse high-speed videos of a spring-mass system oscillating in glycerin at different temperatures. Three cases of damped harmonic oscillation are investigated and analysed by using high-speed video at a rate of 120 frames s[superscript -1] and Tracker Video Analysis (Tracker) software. We present empirical data for…

  17. Application of a velocity interferometer to high-speed phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinse, Wim C.; Cheng, Lun K.; Verbeek, H. J.; Bruinsma, Anastasius J.; v. d. Steen, A. C.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a Fabry-Perot Velocity Interferometer System (F-PVIS) to measure the velocity of materials, moving with very high speeds. The F-PVIS has e.g. been applied to measure the velocity of a flyer launched by an electric gun. This gun is capable of accelerating thin plastic flyers to very high velocities (up to 8 km/s). The velocity measuring system consists of a one Watt laser, a Fabry-Perot etalon with lenses, a rotating-mirror streak camera and fiber optics to optically connect the laser and the F-P etalon to the object to be measured. The total system very efficiently handles the available light, and is able to measure velocities in the range of 100 m/s to several km/s. Currently we are able to perform two kinds of velocity measurements: (1) The evolution of the velocity of the flyer during the acceleration process. This kind of measurement is performed to calibrate the velocity of the flyer as a function of the voltage on the capacitor bank of the electric gun and as a function of the thickness, diameter and specific mass of the flyer. (2) The time resolved particle velocity at the interface of a sample, subjected to a shock wave, and a transparent material like PMMA or quartz. From the interface velocity the pressure in the sample can be determined, both for inert, solid materials and for detonating substances. With a minor modification in the above mentioned set-up we can also measure the particle velocity in a ceramic powder. Recently we also succeeded in measuring the particle velocity of the tip of a multimode quartz fiber, inserted into an explosive sample. Interpretation of this measurement is still a problem.

  18. Advances In High-Speed Photography 1972-1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney-Pratt, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    The variety, range and precision of methods available for photographic recording of fast phenomena have been increasing steadily. The capabilities of some of the newer techniques will be described. At the lower end of the speed range, the advances have been mainly in improvements in resolution, and in the introduction of video techniques. At the highest speeds the advances have included increases in dynamic range, a wider acceptance of image tubes, and a more careful analysis and characterization of their limitations. The variety, range and precision of methods available for photographic recording of fast phenomena have been increasing steadily. The capabilities of the newer techniques are considered, classifying the methods by the kind of record obtained. Descriptions of experimental techniques and apparatus, and illustrations, are given in an earlier article entitled, "A Review of the Methods of High-Speed Photography," published in Reports on Progress in Physics in 1957;[1

  19. and in "Advances in High Speed Photography 1957-1972" published in the Proceedings of the Tenth Internatiopal Cngress on High Speed Photography (HSP10) [116 and also in JSMPTE 82 167-175 (1973). L117o This present paper is in the nature of a survey of the limits to which the various techniques have been pressed as compared to the limits attained, or reported in the open literature, at the date of the reviews 10 and 25 years ago. There are a number of recent books and articles which also provide excellent surveys and impressive bibliographies:129 -138 Streak records with drum cameras can give a time resolution of 5 x 10-9 s.[2,3] Rotating mirror streak cameras with a single reflection[15] at present approach 10-9 s and may with multiple reflections achieve 10-10 s. The Schardin limit[ 4] for presently available rotor materials is 0.25 x 10-9 s, but this is predicated upon a single reflection of the light beam from the rotor and can be surpassed if the camera is designed to take

  20. Laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA): fundamental and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Y.; Sugioka, K.; Midorikawa, K.

    2006-05-01

    The laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation (LIPAA) process developed by our group, in which a single conventional pulsed laser is only used, makes it possible to perform high-quality and high-speed glass microfabrication. Up to the present, this process has been widely applied for micromachining of various transparent hard and soft materials. In this process, the laser beam first passes through the glass substrate since the laser beam has no absorption by the substrate. Then, the transmitted beam is absorbed by a solid target (typically a metal), located behind the substrate so that the target is ablated, resulting in plasma generation. Due to the interaction of the laser beam and the laser-induced plasma, significant ablation takes place at the rear surface of the substrate. Recently, we have developed the proto-type LIPAA system using a second harmonic of diode pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for the practical use. In this paper, we demonstrate micromachining, crack-free marking and color marking of glass materials. Additionally, selective metallization of glass and polyimide by the LIPAA process followed by metal chemical-plating is investigated. A possible mechanism of LIPAA is also discussed based on the results from double pulse irradiation using near-IR fs laser, transient absorption measurement and plasma-conductivity measurement.

  21. Multi-criteria optimization in CO2 laser ablation of multimode polymer waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, K. F.; Zakariyah, S. S.; Sheikh, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    High interconnection density associated with current electronics products poses certain challenges in designing circuit boards. Methods, including laser-assisted microvia drilling and surface mount technologies for example, are being used to minimize the impacts of the problems. However, the bottleneck is significantly pronounced at bit data rates above 10 Gbit/s where losses, especially those due to crosstalk, become high. One solution is optical interconnections (OI) based on polymer waveguides. Laser ablation of the optical waveguides is viewed as a very compatible technique with ultraviolet laser sources, such as excimer and UV Nd:YAG lasers, being used due to their photochemical nature and minimal thermal effect when they interact with optical materials. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the application of grey relational analysis to determine the optimized processing parameters concerning fabrication of multimode optical polymer waveguides by using infra-red 10.6 μm CO2 laser micromachining to etch acrylate-based photopolymer (Truemode™). CO2 laser micromachining offers a low cost and high speed fabrication route needed for high volume productions as the wavelength of CO2 lasers can couple well with a variety of polymer substrates. Based on the highest grey relational grade, the optimized processing parameters are determined at laser power of 3 W and scanning speed of 100 mm/s.

  1. System and method that suppresses intensity fluctuations for free space high-speed optical communication

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P.; Bishop, Alan R.; Nguyen, Dinh C.; Chernobrod, Boris M.; Gorshkov, Vacheslav N.

    2009-10-13

    A high-speed (Gbps), free space optical communication system is based on spectral encoding of radiation from a wide band light source, such as a laser. By using partially coherent laser beams in combination with a relatively slow photosensor, scintillations can be suppressed by orders of magnitude for distances of more than 10 km. To suppress the intensity fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence, a source with partial transverse coherence in combination with slow response time photodetector is used. Information is encoded in the spectral domain of a wideband optical source by modulation of spectral amplitudes. A non-coherent light source with wide spectrum (an LED, for example) may be used for high-speed communication over short (less than about a mile) distances.

  2. High-speed digital in-line holography as multipoint vibrometry to analyze vibrations of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poittevin, J.; Picart, P.; Gautier, F.; Pezerat, C.

    2015-05-01

    Structural vibrations can be measured with optical digital holography. Such a method provides measurements with a very high spatial resolution and is a nonintrusive technique. This method is based on the interference between a reference laser beam and the field diffracted by the studied object. Using a high speed camera, it can also be implemented in the time domain to investigate non-stationary problems. In this paper, we present a recent investigation which shows that the high-speed digital holography is comparable with classical laser vibrometry. Furthermore, an experimental investigation of the vibratory field inside the Acoustic Black Hole is discussed. The principle of digital holography is explained and it is used here to provide a full field measurement of the velocity field at the extremity of the structure.

  3. High-speed impact test using an inertial mass and an optical interferometer.

    PubMed

    Jin, T; Watanabe, K; Prayogi, I A; Takita, A; Mitatha, S; Djamal, M; Jia, H Z; Hou, W M; Fujii, Y

    2013-07-01

    A high-speed impact testing method for evaluating mechanical properties of materials is proposed using an inertial mass and a dual beat-frequencies laser Doppler interferometer (DB-LDI). In this method, an inertial mass levitated using an aerostatic linear bearing is made to collide with the material being tested at a high initial velocity. During the collision, the velocity of the mass, which is even higher than the critical velocity (±0.56 m/s) defined by the frequency difference of the Zeeman laser, is accurately measured using the DB-LDI. The position, acceleration, and impact force of the mass are calculated from the measured velocity. Using the proposed method, the mechanical properties of a visco-elastic material under a high-speed impact loading condition can be accurately evaluated.

  4. Noise analysis for high speed CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Li-yuan; Liu, Jian; Wu, Nan-jian

    2015-04-01

    Noise performance of the high speed image sensor is a bottle neck for its low illumination applications. As the foremost stage circuit, pixel noise is an important portion of high speed image sensor system. This paper has discussed and analyzed the different noise source of the 4T pixel and influence on the image quality of high speed image sensor in detail. We proposed circuit model of pixel with ideal correlated double sampler to simulate the noise source distribution in the pixel and noise reducing methods. Pixel random readout noise can be effectively reduced to 5.44e by optimizing the gate size of the reset transistor.

  5. First Annual High-Speed Research Workshop, part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Allen H., Jr. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    Papers presented at the First Annual High Speed Research Workshop held in Williamsburg, Viginia, on May 14-16, 1991 are presented. This NASA-sponsored workshop provided a national forum for presenting and discussing important technology issues related to the definition of an economically viable and environmentally compatible High Speed Civil Transport. The sessions are developed around the technical components of NASA's Phase 1 High Speed Research Program which addresses the environmental issues of atmospheric emissions, community noise, and sonic boom. In particular, this part of the publication, Part 4, addresses high lift research and supersonic laminar flow control.

  6. High Speed Measurements using Fiber-optic Bragg Grating Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Benterou, J J; May, C A; Udd, E; Mihailov, S J; Lu, P

    2011-03-26

    Fiber grating sensors may be used to monitor high-speed events that include catastrophic failure of structures, ultrasonic testing and detonations. This paper provides insights into the utility of fiber grating sensors to measure structural changes under extreme conditions. An emphasis is placed on situations where there is a structural discontinuity. Embedded chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) sensors can track the very high-speed progress of detonation waves (6-9 km/sec) inside energetic materials. This paper discusses diagnostic instrumentation and analysis techniques used to measure these high-speed events.

  7. High-speed digital project, HSD test capability

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, R.E.; Elarton, J.L.; Allen, C.T.

    1994-04-01

    Establishing a high-speed digital (HSD) test capability for the Digital Waveform Synthesizer (DWS) multichip module (MCM) has required the development of several areas: a detailed test plan for the MCM; design, fabrication and prove-in of the high-speed test console; and the specification, design, and development of the high-speed test and environmental conditioning interface to the DWS. These development activities have been successfully completed at the Allied Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), and the test capability described herein is currently supporting DWS MCM testing and can be adapted to similar HSD module testing.

  8. First Annual High-Speed Research Workshop, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Allen H., Jr. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The First High-Speed Research (HSR) Workshop was hosted by NASA LaRC and was held 14-16 May 1991, in Williamsburg, Virginia. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a national forum for the government, industry, and university participants to present and discuss important technology issues related to the development of a commercially viable, environmentally compatible, U.S. High-Speed Civil Transport. The workshop sessions are organized around the major task elements in NASA's Phase 1 High-Speed Research Program which basically addresses the environmental issues of atmospheric emissions, community noise, and sonic boom.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES WITH MICROMACHINED MICROSCOPES

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. KINO; W.E. MOERNER

    2005-04-30

    We have made reproducible scanning probes with high efficiency, and predictable and reproducible character-istics. We obtained good efficiency with dimensions well below the diffraction limit, so that rela-tively small laser powers in the milliwatt range can be used. For single frequency operation, only low power is necessary to obtain very high fields for the excitation of well-defined Raman scattering, and to work in a reflection mode with good scanning speeds; obtained predictable results with very high fields suitable for obtaining Raman scattering and two-photon scattering; made a scanning probe mounted on a micromachined cantilever to obtain high definition reflection mode images that can be scanned rapidly;and observed Raman scattering using bowtie antennas with CW excitation.

  10. Thermal and carrier transport originating from photon recycling and non-radiative recombination in laser micromachining of GaAs thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Wen, J.; Sun, C.

    Coupled thermal and carrier transports (electron/hole generation, recombination, diffusion and drifting) in laser photoetching of GaAs thin film is investigated. A new volumetric heating mechanism originating from SRH (Shockley-Read-Hall) non-radiative recombination and photon recycling is proposed and modeled based on recent experimental findings. Both volumetric SRH heating and Joule heating are found to be important in the carrier transport, as well as the etching process. SRH heating and Joule heating are primarily confined within the space-charge region, which is about 20 nm from the GaAs surface. The surface temperature rises rapidly as the laser intensity exceeds 105 W/m2. Below a laser intensity of 105 W/m2, the thermal effect is negligible. The etch rate is found to be dependent on the competition between photovoltaic and photothermal effects on surface potential. At high laser intensity, the etch rate is increased by more than 100%, due to SRH and Joule heating.

  11. High-speed seal and bearing test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panos, Jean B.

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this viewgraph presentation: high speed seal/bearing rig background, project status, facility features, test rig capabilities, EMD testing advantages, and future opportunities.

  12. The High Speed Photometer for the Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bless, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the high speed photometer (HSP), its optics and detectors, its electronics, its mechanical structure, and some observational considerations are presented. The capabilities and limitations of the HSP are outlined.

  13. High Speed Balancing Applied to the T700 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Lee, C.; Martin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed under Contracts NAS3-23929 and NAS3-24633 is presented. MTI evaluated the feasibility of high-speed balancing for both the T700 power turbine rotor and the compressor rotor. Modifications were designed for the existing Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD) T53/T55 high-speed balancing system for balancing T700 power turbine rotors. Tests conducted under these contracts included a high-speed balancing evaluation for T700 power turbines in the Army/NASA drivetrain facility at MTI. The high-speed balancing tests demonstrated the reduction of vibration amplitudes at operating speed for both low-speed balanced and non-low-speed balanced T700 power turbines. In addition, vibration data from acceptance tests of T53, T55, and T700 engines were analyzed and a vibration diagnostic procedure developed.

  14. Design of high speed camera based on CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sei-Hun; An, Jun-Sick; Oh, Tae-Seok; Kim, Il-Hwan

    2007-12-01

    The capacity of a high speed camera in taking high speed images has been evaluated using CMOS image sensors. There are 2 types of image sensors, namely, CCD and CMOS sensors. CMOS sensor consumes less power than CCD sensor and can take images more rapidly. High speed camera with built-in CMOS sensor is widely used in vehicle crash tests and airbag controls, golf training aids, and in bullet direction measurement in the military. The High Speed Camera System made in this study has the following components: CMOS image sensor that can take about 500 frames per second at a resolution of 1280*1024; FPGA and DDR2 memory that control the image sensor and save images; Camera Link Module that transmits saved data to PC; and RS-422 communication function that enables control of the camera from a PC.

  15. High Speed Photographic Studies Of Rocket Engine Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyemura, Tsuneyoshi; Ozono, Shigeo; Mizunuma, Toshio; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Kikusato, Yutaka; Eiraku, Masamitsu; Uchida, Yubu

    1983-03-01

    The high speed cameras were used to develop the new sounding rocket motor and to check the safety operation system. The new rocket motor was designed as a single stage rocket and its power was greater than the multi-stage K-9M rocket motor. The test combustion of this new type rocket engine was photographed by the high speed cameras to analyze the burning process. At the outside of rocket chamber, the cable which connect the detector of an engine nozzle with the telemeter system was fixed. To check the thero.,a1 influences of combustion flame to the cable, the thermo-tapes and high speed cameras were used Safety operation system was tested and photographed with high speed cameras using a S0-1510 model rocket.

  16. High speed demodulation systems for fiber optic grating sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udd, Eric (Inventor); Weisshaar, Andreas (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Fiber optic grating sensor demodulation systems are described that offer high speed and multiplexing options for both single and multiple parameter fiber optic grating sensors. To attain very high speeds for single parameter fiber grating sensors ratio techniques are used that allow a series of sensors to be placed in a single fiber while retaining high speed capability. These methods can be extended to multiparameter fiber grating sensors. Optimization of speeds can be obtained by minimizing the number of spectral peaks that must be processed and it is shown that two or three spectral peak measurements may in specific multiparameter applications offer comparable or better performance than processing four spectral peaks. Combining the ratio methods with minimization of peak measurements allows very high speed measurement of such important environmental effects as transverse strain and pressure.

  17. High speed data transmission at the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovar, B.

    1990-04-01

    High speed data transmission using fiber optics in the data acquisition system of the Superconducting Super Collider has been investigated. Emphasis is placed on the high speed data transmission system overview, the local data network and on subassemblies, such as optical transmitters and receivers. Also, the performance of candidate subassemblies having a low power dissipation for the data acquisition system is discussed. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  18. High-speed and ultrahigh-speed cinematographic recording techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miquel, J. C.

    1980-12-01

    A survey is presented of various high-speed and ultrahigh-speed cinematographic recording systems (covering a range of speeds from 100 to 14-million pps). Attention is given to the functional and operational characteristics of cameras and to details of high-speed cinematography techniques (including image processing, and illumination). A list of cameras (many of them French) available in 1980 is presented

  19. Application Of High Speed Photography In Science And Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu Ji-Zong, Wu; Yu-Ju, Lin

    1983-03-01

    The service works in high-speed photography carried out by the Department of Precision Instruments, Tianjin University are described in this paper. A compensation type high-speed camera was used in these works. The photographic methods adopted and better results achieved in the studies of several technical fields, such as velocity field of flow of overflow surface of high dam, combustion process of internal combustion engine, metal cutting, electrical are welding, experiment of piling of steel tube piles for supporting the marine platforms and characteristics of motion of wrist watch escape mechanism and so on are illustrated in more detail. As the extension of human visual organs and for increasing the abi-lities of observing and studying the high-speed processes, high-speed photography plays a very important role. In order to promote the application and development on high-speed photography, we have carried out the consultative and service works inside and outside Tianjin Uni-versity. The Pentazet 35 compensation type high-speed camera, made in East Germany, was used to record the high-speed events in various kinds of technical investigations and necessary results have been ob-tained. 1. Measurement of flow velocity on the overflow surface of high dam. In the design of a key water control project with high head, it is extremely necessary to determinate various characteristics of flow velocity field on the overflow surface of high dam. Since the water flow on the surface of high overflow dam possesses the features of large flow velocity and shallow water depth, therefore it is difficult to use the conventional current meters such as pilot tube, miniature cur-rent meter or electrical measuring methods of non-electrical quantities for studying this problem. Adopting the high-speed photographic method to study analogously the characteristics of flow velocity field on the overflow surface of high dam is a kind of new measuring method. People

  20. Carrying freight on high-speed rail lines

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, D.

    1997-05-01

    Under the current economic climate it is expected that any new high-speed rail line in the US would be constructed as a public/private partnership, requiring substantial private investment, and thus the expectation of reasonable profits. To date, proposed high-speed rail lines have failed to attract sufficient investment to create any new starts, in great part due to the conclusion that these systems would not likely cover their capital and operating costs and also provide reasonable profit for investors. Studies of the economic potential of US high-speed rail lines have commonly considered them as passenger carriers only, depending solely on ridership as a source of revenue. Yet is likely that significant revenue potential exists for carrying higher value freight as well--perhaps enough to substantially improve the economic viability of certain high-speed operations. Some basic technical aspects of carrying freight on high-speed rail lines are presented, along with an analysis to estimate the quantity of freight that may be technically practical, and thus potentially economically viable, for a high-speed train to carry.