Science.gov

Sample records for high-stakes test scores

  1. Flow and diffusion of high-stakes test scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marder, M.; Bansal, D.

    2009-10-01

    We apply visualization and modeling methods for convective and diffusive flows to public school mathematics test scores from Texas. We obtain plots that show the most likely future and past scores of students, the effects of random processes such as guessing, and the rate at which students appear in and disappear from schools. We show that student outcomes depend strongly upon economic class, and identify the grade levels where flows of different groups diverge most strongly. Changing the effectiveness of instruction in one grade naturally leads to strongly nonlinear effects on student outcomes in subsequent grades.

  2. Keeping Scores: Audited Self-Monitoring of High-Stakes Testing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Raymond; Richards, Michael

    2006-01-01

    To address a public relations problem faced by a large urban public school district in Texas, we conducted action research that resulted in an audited self-monitoring system for high-stakes testing environments. The system monitors violations of testing protocols while identifying and disseminating best practices to improve the education of…

  3. High-Stakes Online Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    For decades the No. 2 pencil and bubble sheet have ruled the student assessment process. The time has finally come to move all of those important tests online. High-stakes computer-based testing has been around for more than 10 years, with some states eagerly embracing it and others avoiding it like whooping cough. But the advent of national…

  4. Alignment, High Stakes, and the Inflation of Test Scores. CSE Report 655

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    There are many reasons to align tests with curricular standards, but this alignment is not sufficient to protect against score inflation. This report explains the relationship between alignment and score inflation by clarifying what is meant by inappropriate test preparation. It provides a concrete, hypothetical example that illustrates a process…

  5. A concept analysis of "high stakes testing".

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The nursing community is troubled by the growing use of standardized exit examinations as a graduation requirement. After years of preparation, a single test score could prevent a student from graduating or taking a licensing examination. The tremendous importance placed on exit examinations qualifies them as "high-stakes testing," a concept not well studied in nursing education. This concept analysis provides a greater understanding of the term to help operationalize its use in the nursing discipline. PMID:24535182

  6. A concept analysis of "high stakes testing".

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The nursing community is troubled by the growing use of standardized exit examinations as a graduation requirement. After years of preparation, a single test score could prevent a student from graduating or taking a licensing examination. The tremendous importance placed on exit examinations qualifies them as "high-stakes testing," a concept not well studied in nursing education. This concept analysis provides a greater understanding of the term to help operationalize its use in the nursing discipline.

  7. Angoff Method of Setting Cut Scores for High-Stakes Testing: Foley Catheter Checkoff as an Exemplar.

    PubMed

    Kardong-Edgren, Suzan; Mulcock, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    The Angoff method is a commonly used and legally defensible method for setting passing or cut scores for high-stakes examinations. It also can be used for setting passing scores on clinical skill checklists. Two variations of the Angoff method were compared with a traditional and arbitrary 75% passing score, using a Foley catheter insertion checklist as an exemplar. Both Angoff methods produced slightly lower scores than our traditional scoring; because of "must pass" steps on our checklist, 12 of 13 students still failed the evaluation. The project uncovered multiple variations of checklists within different courses and variations in teaching practices for this skill. PMID:26402909

  8. Angoff Method of Setting Cut Scores for High-Stakes Testing: Foley Catheter Checkoff as an Exemplar.

    PubMed

    Kardong-Edgren, Suzan; Mulcock, Pamela M

    2016-01-01

    The Angoff method is a commonly used and legally defensible method for setting passing or cut scores for high-stakes examinations. It also can be used for setting passing scores on clinical skill checklists. Two variations of the Angoff method were compared with a traditional and arbitrary 75% passing score, using a Foley catheter insertion checklist as an exemplar. Both Angoff methods produced slightly lower scores than our traditional scoring; because of "must pass" steps on our checklist, 12 of 13 students still failed the evaluation. The project uncovered multiple variations of checklists within different courses and variations in teaching practices for this skill.

  9. Distributed Leadership and High-Stakes Testing: Examining the Relationship between Distributed Leadership and LEAP Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Wilbert

    2011-01-01

    Educational stakeholders are aware that school administration has become an incredibly intricate dynamic that is too complex for principals to handle alone. Test-driven accountability has made the already daunting task of school administration even more challenging. Distributed leadership presents an opportunity to explore increased leadership…

  10. Negative Impacts of High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minarechová, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    High-stakes testing is not a new phenomenon in education. It has become part of the education system in many countries. These tests affect the school systems, teachers, students, politicians and parents, whether that is in a positive or negative sense. High-stakes testing is associated with concepts such as a school's accountability, funding…

  11. High Stakes Testing and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The effects of high stakes testing may be critical in the lives of public school students and may have many consequences for schools and teachers. There are no easy answers in measuring student achievement and in holding teachers accountable for learner progress. High stakes testing also involves responsibilities on the part of the principal who…

  12. The Impact of Socioeconomic Status on High Stakes Testing Reexamined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Melissa; Johnston, Pattie

    2010-01-01

    High-stakes testing plays a critical role in education today in the United States. Every state uses a high-stakes test to comply with the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandate. While many believe high-stakes testing is an acceptable and accurate way to measure students' learning, one has to ask whether high stakes testing is an effective measurement…

  13. Resistance to High-Stakes Testing Spreads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaeffer, Bob

    2012-01-01

    A rising tide of protest is sweeping across the nation as growing numbers of parents, teachers, administrators and academics take action against high-stakes testing. Instead of test-and-punish policies, which have failed to improve academic performance or equity, the movement is pressing for broader forms of assessment. From Texas to New York and…

  14. (Over and) beyond High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.

    2009-01-01

    Sackett, Borneman, and Connelly's article and recent meta-analyses (e.g., Kuncel & Hezlett, 2007) should lay to rest any doubt over whether high-stakes standardized tests predict important academic and professional outcomes--they do. The challenge now is to identify noncognitive individual differences that determine the same outcomes. Noncognitive…

  15. Taps for the High Stakes Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, W. Sean; Smith, Page A.

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses a case study that stems from actual events, targets the issue of ethics in schools, and is applicable for use in a variety of educational leadership courses. The article examines the issues related to ethical responsibilities and high-stakes testing in public schools. The administration must decide what actions to take…

  16. The Politics of High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casbarro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A troubling reality in today's political climate is that many political leaders actually believe that the best way to change schools is through an "end of a gun barrel" approach, rather than by building consensus. In this article, the author examines the reality of high-stakes testing from several perspectives, including the politics of coercion,…

  17. Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, William

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined the impact of an intervention aimed at improving the standardized test scores for students on the mathematics portions of a high-stakes high school examination. Research shows that the achievement gap between high performing and low performing students on standardized tests continues to grow and that the long-term…

  18. IQ Scores Should Be Corrected for the Flynn Effect in High-Stakes Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Hughes, Lisa C.

    2010-01-01

    IQ test scores should be corrected for high stakes decisions that employ these assessments, including capital offense cases. If scores are not corrected, then diagnostic standards must change with each generation. Arguments against corrections, based on standards of practice, information present and absent in test manuals, and related issues,…

  19. Coping with the Stress of High Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Louis J.; Wandle, Caroline; Struzziero, Joan

    2007-01-01

    High stakes testing puts considerable pressure on schools, teachers, and students to achieve at high levels. Therefore, how schools and individuals cope with this major source of stress may have important implications for the success of high stakes testing. This article reviews relevant theory and research on stress as they relate to public…

  20. Excellence in Education versus High-Stakes Standardized Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    2000-01-01

    High-stakes standardized testing cannot be considered a reform tool for increasing student achievement. Teaching quality is critical in student achievement. Teachers can become powerful agents in raising students' academic achievement levels, regardless of common barriers (e.g., poverty and bilingualism). The extreme focus on high-stakes testing…

  1. Stop High-Stakes Testing: An Appeal to America's Conscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale; Johnson, Bonnie; Farenga, Steve; Ness, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This book is a compelling indictment of the use of high-stakes assessments with punitive consequences in public schools. The authors trace the history of the policy and document the inequities for children of poverty that undergird high-stakes testing practices. Lack of dental and medical care, environmental violence, insufficient school funding,…

  2. The Impact of a Multi-Year, Multi-School District K-6 Professional Development Programme Designed to Integrate Science Inquiry and Language Arts on Students' High-Stakes Test Scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shymansky, James A.; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard A.; Yore, Larry D.; Everett, Susan A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper is a report of a quasi-experimental study on the impact of a systemic 5-year, K-6 professional development (PD) project on the 'high stakes' achievement test scores of different student groups in rural mid-west school districts in the USA. The PD programme utilized regional summer workshops, district-based leadership teams and distance delivery technologies to help teachers learn science concepts and inquiry teaching strategies associated with a selection of popular science inquiry kits and how to adapt inquiry science lessons in the kits to teach and reinforce skills in the language arts-i.e. to teach more than science when doing inquiry science. Analyses of the school district-level pre-post high-stakes achievement scores of 33 school districts participating in the adaptation of inquiry PD and a comparative group of 23 school districts revealed that both the Grade 3 and Grade 6 student-cohorts in the school districts utilizing adapted science inquiry lessons significantly outscored their student-cohort counterparts in the comparative school districts. The positive school district-level high-stakes test results, which serve as the basis for state and local decision making, suggest that an inquiry adaptation strategy and a combination of regional live workshop and distance delivery technologies with ongoing local leadership and support can serve as a viable PD option for K-6 science.

  3. Response to Cizek: Historical High-Stakes Policies Relating to Unintended Consequences of High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, William

    2003-01-01

    Discusses current high-stakes standardized testing policy in response to G. Cizek through analogy with the policies of Chairman Mao in China and the decision to build the Maginot Line in France after World War I. Lessons from these events show that high-stakes policies skew outcomes and present high risk. (SLD)

  4. Radical Dilemmas in the Anti-High-Stakes-Testing Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that the most dangerous component of President Bush's education plan is the imposition of high-stakes standardized testing on public school students, describing the country's national anti-testing movement and highlighting the movement against the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System, which is led by such groups as the Coalition…

  5. Examining Teacher-Assigned Math Grades as Predictors for High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Bettina Coley

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether a relationship existed between teacher-assigned classroom grades and high-stakes test scores. The study examined teacher-assigned math grades in correlation to the student scores on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment test (FCAT) in a selected Florida high school. It also sought to determine the relationship…

  6. Timed essay writing: implications for high-stakes tests.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Noel; Coleman, Chris; Davis, Mark; Chalk, Jill C

    2007-01-01

    The majority of high-stakes tests from elementary school through postsecondary education include the timed impromptu essay as a measure of writing performance. For adolescents with writing disorders, this type of evaluation often presents a significant barrier. The purpose of the current study was twofold. First, we investigated the influence of handwritten, typed, and typed/edited formats of an expository essay on the quality scores received by students with (n = 65) and without (n = 65) dyslexia. Second, we examined the contribution of spelling, handwriting, fluency, and vocabulary complexity to the quality scores that students with and without dyslexia received on the same writing task. Analyses indicated that vocabulary complexity, verbosity, spelling, and handwriting accounted for more variance in essay quality scores for writers with dyslexia than for their typically achieving peers. Both group and individual student outcomes are reported to better understand the needs of struggling writers with dyslexia. Implications for assessment, instruction, and accommodations are discussed with an eye toward reform efforts that target improved teaching and learning.

  7. High Stakes Testing: Our Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddell, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper was to examine the effects of standardized testing on the youth of America. It was intended to point out the shortcomings of the usage of such tests. There were comparisons of the effects testing has on different cultures of students as well as different socioeconomic classes. Court cases were brought into play…

  8. The Effects of High Stakes Testing on Teachers in NJ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgar, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    A great number of teachers in the United States have found themselves wrestling with an internal conflict between their teaching beliefs and a need to revert back to traditional modes of teaching in order to have their students demonstrate proficiency on high-stakes tests. While they want to include more non-traditional methods in their repertoire…

  9. Get Smart: Facing High-Stakes Testing Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Gabriel A.; Bally, David

    2010-01-01

    Using personal narratives and research on teacher "communities of practice," the authors outline a proactive response to high-stakes testing policies that places teacher learning at its center. Although research on the effects of these policies is mixed, the authors are troubled by the ways in which the policies have been used to strip teachers of…

  10. Measurement Issues in High Stakes Testing: Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Emanuel J.

    2007-01-01

    Validity and reliability of the new high stakes testing systems initiated in school systems across the United States in recent years in response to the accountability features mandated in the No Child Left Behind Legislation largely depend on item response theory and new rules of measurement. Reliability and validity in item response theory and…

  11. The Effects of High-Stakes Testing Policy on Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard A., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined high-stakes test scores for 37,222 eighth grade students enrolled in music and/or visual arts classes and those students not enrolled in arts courses. Students enrolled in music had significantly higher mean scores than those not enrolled in music (p less than 0.001). Results for visual arts and dual arts were not as…

  12. Success with ELLs: ELLs at the Center--Rethinking High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Marrero, Floris Wilma; Sumaryono, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Learning a language can be a long and arduous journey, and there is a lot of pressure on teachers to get students ready for standardized tests quickly. Because of the high-stakes consequences attached to standardized tests in combination with consistently lower test scores among English language learners (ELLs), the tests greatly impact the…

  13. Students' Attitudes toward High-Stakes Testing and Its Effect on Educational Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Aldo Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    With the recent increase in accountability due to No Child Left Behind, graduation rates and drop-out rates are important indicators of how well a school district is performing. High-stakes testing scores are at the forefront of a school's success and recognition as a school that is preparing and graduating students to meet society's challenging…

  14. Assessment for the Masses: A Historical Critique of High-Stakes Testing in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Andrew P.; Rockwell, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    This historical critique of high-stakes testing in reading focuses on selected events from three historical movements: 1) the history of standardized testing, 2) the history of standardized reading tests, and 3) the history of high-stakes testing. These three interrelated histories have produced the high-stakes, standardized reading tests used in…

  15. Inquiry-Based Instruction and High Stakes Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cothern, Rebecca L.

    Science education is a key to economic success for a country in terms of promoting advances in national industry and technology and maximizing competitive advantage in a global marketplace. The December 2010 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranked the United States 23rd of 65 countries in science. That dismal standing in science proficiency impedes the ability of American school graduates to compete in the global market place. Furthermore, the implementation of high stakes testing in science mandated by the 2007 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has created an additional need for educators to find effective science pedagogy. Research has shown that inquiry-based science instruction is one of the predominant science instructional methods. Inquiry-based instruction is a multifaceted teaching method with its theoretical foundation in constructivism. A correlational survey research design was used to determine the relationship between levels of inquiry-based science instruction and student performance on a standardized state science test. A self-report survey, using a Likert-type scale, was completed by 26 fifth grade teachers. Participants' responses were analyzed and grouped as high, medium, or low level inquiry instruction. The unit of analysis for the achievement variable was the student scale score average from the state science test. Spearman's Rho correlation data showed a positive relationship between the level of inquiry-based instruction and student achievement on the state assessment. The findings can assist teachers and administrators by providing additional research on the benefits of the inquiry-based instructional method. Implications for positive social change include increases in student proficiency and decision-making skills related to science policy issues which can help make them more competitive in the global marketplace.

  16. High Stakes Testing of African-American Male Student Performance on Middle School Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell-Heydorf, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    The driving force behind high-stakes-testing may be attributed to the issue of education reform. In the last decade, high-stakes testing has generated intense controversy among educators and parents. The use of high-stakes testing in making decisions about student promotion and graduation is both controversial and significant. The purpose of the…

  17. East Feliciana Parish Schools Embrace Place-Based Education as a Way To Lift Scores on Louisiana's High-Stakes Tests. Rural Trust Featured Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elizabeth Higgins

    East Feliciana Parish (Louisiana) has raised achievement scores by involving students in hands-on projects related to community needs and resources. Project Connect, a hands-on science and math program begun by the Delta Rural Systemic Initiative, has expanded into a comprehensive place-based program. In response to new state standards, teams of…

  18. High-Stakes Standardized Testing & Marginalized Youth: An Examination of the Impact on Those Who Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of high-stakes, large-scale, standardized literacy testing on youth who have failed the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test. Interviews with youth indicate that the unintended impact of high-stakes testing is more problematic than policy makers and educators may realize. In contrast to literacy policy's aims to…

  19. Teachers' Motivation and Beliefs in a High-Stakes Testing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Heather S.

    2012-01-01

    High-stakes testing has created challenges for teachers, administrators, parents, students, and other related education stakeholders in recent decades (Nichols & Berliner, 2007). While high-stakes tests have a long history (Ravitch, 2009) it was not until No Child Left Behind was signed into law in 2002 that the tests became law for most…

  20. Plenty of Children Left Behind: High-Stakes Testing and Graduation Rates in Duval County, Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Mary O'Malley; Plumlee, J. Patrick; Stranahan, Harriet A.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) is a high-stakes test that public school students must pass to be eligible for graduation from high school. Previous research suggests that high-stakes tests have a differential effect on students by race and ethnicity. This study finds that in one Florida school district African American and…

  1. High-Stakes Testing and Discursive Control: The Triple Bind for Non-Standard Student Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne W.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of high-stakes, standardized testing on the curriculum are discouraging the teaching of multicultural, anti-racist content. Test-influenced educational environments contribute to the reproduction of racial and cultural inequality in education. Using the lens of sociolinguistics, the author asserts that high-stakes, standardized tests…

  2. Beginning Teachers Thinking Historically? Negotiating the Context of Virginia's High-Stakes Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hover, Stephanie; Hicks, David; Irwin, William

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the effects of Virginia's high stakes history tests on beginning teachers' "notions of historical thinking," and briefly consider the literature on historical thinking, high-stakes testing, and beginning teachers. Data sources for this study included interviews, observations, and classroom documents of seven…

  3. High-Stakes Educational Testing and Democracy--Antagonistic or Symbiotic Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ydesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that high-stakes educational testing, along with the attendant questions of power, education access, education management and social selection, cannot be considered in isolation from society at large. Thus, high-stakes testing practices bear numerous implications for democratic conditions in society. For decades, advocates of…

  4. Hiding behind High-Stakes Testing: Meritocracy, Objectivity and Inequality in U.S. Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses how high-stakes, standardised testing became the policy tool in the U.S. that it is today and discusses its role in advancing an ideology of meritocracy that fundamentally masks structural inequalities related to race and economic class. This paper first traces the early history of high-stakes testing within the U.S. context,…

  5. High Stakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin, Catherine Z.

    2004-01-01

    I discuss the contributions of Harvey Siegel, Francis Schrag and Randall Curren to this volume. Their articles cast in bold relief the relation of High Stakes Testing to the goals of education, the nature of mind and the demands of justice. I argue that the connections are deep, but that the considerations these authors raise do not show that High…

  6. High Stakes: Poverty, Testing, and Failure in American Schools. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale D.; Johnson, Bonnie

    2005-01-01

    High Stakes brings the voices of students and teachers to national debates over school accountability and educational reform. Recounting the experiences of two classrooms during one academic year, the book offers a critical exploration of excessive state-mandated monitoring, high-stakes testing pressures, and inequities in public school funding…

  7. The Construction of "Illiterate" and "Literate" Youth: The Effects of High-Stakes Standardized Literacy Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes standardized literacy testing is not neutral and continues to build upon the legacy of dominant power relations in the state in its ability to sort, select and rank students and ultimately produce and name some youth as illiterate in contrast to an ideal white, male, literate citizen. I trace the effects of high-stakes standardized…

  8. Meritocracy 2.0: High-Stakes, Standardized Testing as a Racial Project of Neoliberal Multiculturalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes, standardized testing is regularly used within in accountability narratives as a tool for achieving racial equality in schools. Using the frameworks of "racial projects" and "neoliberal multiculturalism," and drawing on historical and empirical research, this article argues that not only does high-stakes,…

  9. Outlier Detection in High-Stakes Certification Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.

    2002-01-01

    Used empirical data from a certification test to study methods from statistical process control that have been proposed to classify an item score pattern as fitting or misfitting the underlying item response theory model in computerized adaptive testing. Results for 1,392 examinees show that different types of misfit can be distinguished. (SLD)

  10. Utilization of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to Reduce Test Anxiety in High Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohler, Marie Elaine

    2013-01-01

    There are many reasons a person may fail a high stakes test such as the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®). Sleep deprivation, illness, life stressors, knowledge deficit, and test anxiety are some of the common explanations. A student with test anxiety may feel threatened by this evaluation process. This…

  11. Is High-Stakes Testing Harming Lower Socioeconomic Status Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, William G.; Sanzo, Tiffany D.

    2002-01-01

    A strong relationship is shown between students' state assessment test pass rates and students' socioeconomic status (SES). State sanctions based on assessment scores can affect graduation, student diplomas, school accreditation, school funding, teacher rewards and promotion, paperwork requirements, regulations, work expectations, improvement…

  12. Outlier Detection in High-Stakes Certification Testing. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.

    Recent developments of person-fit analysis in computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are discussed. Methods from statistical process control are presented that have been proposed to classify an item score pattern as fitting or misfitting the underlying item response theory (IRT) model in a CAT. Most person-fit research in CAT is restricted to…

  13. Fundamental Concerns in High-Stakes Language Testing: The Case of the College English Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yan

    2011-01-01

    The College English Test (CET) is an English language test designed for educational purposes, administered on a very large scale, and used for making high-stakes decisions. This paper discusses the key issues facing the CET during the course of its development in the past two decades. It argues that the most fundamental and critical concerns of…

  14. Test Anxiety and High-Stakes Test Performance between School Settings: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Embse, Nathaniel; Hasson, Ramzi

    2012-01-01

    With the enactment of standards-based accountability in education, high-stakes tests have become the dominant method for measuring school effectiveness and student achievement. Schools and educators are under increasing pressure to meet achievement standards. However, there are variables which may interfere with the authentic measurement of…

  15. Negotiating identity and science teaching in a high-stakes testing environment: an elementary teacher's perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar

    2009-09-01

    This study draws upon a qualitative case study to investigate the impact of the high-stakes test environment on an elementary teacher's identities and the influence of identity maintenance on science teaching. Drawing from social identity theory, I argue that we can gain deep insight into how and why urban elementary science teachers engage in defining and negotiating their identities in practice. In addition, we can further understand how and why science teachers of poor urban students engage in teaching decisions that accommodate school demands and students' needs to succeed in high-stakes tests. This paper presents in-depth experiences of one elementary teacher as she negotiates her identities and teaching science in school settings that emphasize high-stakes testing. I found that a teacher's identities generate tensions while teaching science when: (a) schools prioritize high-stakes tests as the benchmark of teacher success and student success; (b) activity-based and participatory science teaching is deemphasized; (c) science teacher of minority students identity is threatened or questioned; and (d) a teacher perceives a threat to one's identities in the context of high stakes testing. Further, the results suggest that stronger links to identities generate more positive values in teachers, and greater possibilities for positive actions in science classrooms that support minority students' success in science.

  16. High-Stakes Accountability: Student Anxiety and Large-Scale Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Witmer, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between student anxiety about high-stakes testing and their subsequent test performance. The FRIEDBEN Test Anxiety Scale was administered to 1,134 11th-grade students, and data were subsequently collected on their statewide assessment performance. Test anxiety was a significant predictor of test performance…

  17. Preparing Adolescents with High-Incidence Disabilities for High-Stakes Testing with Strategy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Wehby, Joseph; Hughes, Carolyn; Johnson, Stephen M.; Plank, Don R.; Barton-Arwood, Sally M.; Lunsford, Lauren B.

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives promoting high-stakes testing for graduation present a significant challenge to practitioners charged with educating students with high-incidence disabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of test-taking strategy instruction on the test performance of secondary students with high-incidence…

  18. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of the Effects of High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavia, Amy

    2012-01-01

    High-stakes testing has increased since the passage of the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001. Many teachers are using teacher-centered activities with memorization and testing coach books instead of creating student-centered higher-order thinking activities. Some school districts are eliminating subjects that are not tested on state…

  19. Spotlight on High-Stakes Testing. No. 1 in the Harvard Education Letter Spotlight Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Education Press, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This inaugural volume of our Spotlight Series features recent "Harvard Education Letter" articles on testing and new reports never before published on this important topic. Contributors address such issues as how educators can manage the "avalanche" of tests; whether the benefits of high-stakes tests justify the risks to…

  20. Predicting Student Performance in Statewide High-Stakes Tests for Middle School Mathematics Using the Results from Third Party Testing Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meylani, Rusen; Bitter, Gary G.; Castaneda, Rene

    2014-01-01

    In this study regression and neural networks based methods are used to predict statewide high-stakes test results for middle school mathematics using the scores obtained from third party tests throughout the school year. Such prediction is of utmost significance for school districts to live up to the state's educational standards mandated by the…

  1. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Updated Analyses with NAEP Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The present research is a follow-up study of earlier published analyses that looked at the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement in 25 states. Using the previously derived Accountability Pressure Index (APR) as a measure of state-level policy pressure for performance on standardized tests, a series of…

  2. Validity Inferences under High-Stakes Conditions: A Response from Language Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kathryn; McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Those who work in second- and foreign-language testing often find Koretz's concern for validity inferences under high-stakes (VIHS) conditions both welcome and familiar. While the focus of the article is more narrowly on the potential for two instructional responses to test-based accountability, "reallocation" and "coaching,"…

  3. Markets, Managerialism and Teachers' Work: The Invisible Hand of High Stakes Testing in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard; Wood, Phil

    2013-01-01

    High stakes testing has been long established in the English school system. In this article, we seek to demonstrate how testing has become pivotal to securing the neo-liberal restructuring of schools, that commenced during the Thatcher era, and is reaching a critical point at the current time. Central to this project has been the need to assert…

  4. How Teachers' Professional Identities Position High-Stakes Test Preparation in Their Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rex, Lesley A.; Nelson, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we present profiles of two high school English teachers and their classrooms as the teachers responded to mandated high-stakes test accountability. Both teachers accepted targeted professional development, strong accountability measures, vigilant specialist support, and school site leadership; both believed tests were permanent…

  5. High Stakes Testing and the Structure of the Mind: A Reply to Randall Curren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    "High stakes testing" is to be understood as testing with serious consequences for students, their teachers and their educational institutions. It plays a central role in holding teachers and educational institutions to account. In a recent article Randall Curren seeks to refute a number of philosophical arguments developed in my "The Limits of…

  6. De-Stressing High-Stakes Testing for NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedore, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    It is readily apparent that testing raises academic standards at both the state and the federal levels. The three Rs currently touted as aims for school improvement--rigor, relevance, and relationships--can be applied to testing as well. The connection between standardized testing and rigor can be easily made, while the relevance of testing is…

  7. High-Stakes Testing and Its Relationship to Stress Levels of Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Sonya Colman

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between high-stakes testing and the stress levels of secondary teachers in Jackson's Jackson Public School District. The independent variables of age, gender, subject taught, teaching experience, degree and school level were used to determine the differences of the various groups. A survey was piloted and…

  8. None of the Above: The Promise and Peril of High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; Brigham, Frederick

    2000-01-01

    High-stakes tests can set a clear, challenging hurdle for students and schools, while increasing the numbers of failing kids. Costs and benefits include increased equity, clear and focused curricula, efficient use of resources, achievement-based school personnel evaluations, limited local decision making, narrow curriculum, and favored course…

  9. High-Stakes Testing and Its Relationship to Stress Levels of Coastal Secondary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Sheneatha Lashelle Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between high-stakes tests and stress with secondary teachers. Furthermore, this study investigated whether veteran teachers experience more stress than novice teachers and whether or not self-efficacy, gender, accountability status, and years of experience influence teacher stress as it…

  10. Raising the Stakes: High-Stakes Testing and the Attack on Public Education in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursh, David

    2013-01-01

    Over the last almost two decades, high-stakes testing has become increasingly central to New York's schools. In the 1990s, the State Department of Education began requiring that secondary students pass five standardized exams to graduate. In 2002, the federal No Child Left Behind Act required students in grades three through eight to take…

  11. A Longitudinal Investigation of Reading in High-Stakes Tests for Adolescent English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hyo Jin

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated longitudinal changes of the reading achievement among schools populated with English learners. It also examined the heterogeneity in the English learners group in terms of students' performance in high stakes reading tests. Historically, English learners have often been considered the students who are in the process…

  12. Growing the Good Stuff: One Literacy Coach's Approach to Support Teachers with High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoch, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study reports on one elementary literacy coach's response to high-stakes testing and her approach to support third- through fifth-grade teachers in a Title I school in Texas. Sources of data included field notes and observations of classes and meetings, audio/video recordings, and transcribed interviews. The findings illustrate…

  13. Corporate Control of Public School Goals: High-Stakes Testing in Its Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    In the last 20 years, public education in the United States has been transformed under the pressures of high-stakes testing. Some argue that right wing ideologues are out to privatize the public school system in order to wring as much profit from the system as they can. Others argue that the new reforms are needed because for too long, teachers…

  14. High-Stakes Testing and Latina/o Students: Creating a Hierarchy of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruecker, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how high-stakes testing policies can constrain the way teachers at predominately Latina/o high schools teach literacy and subsequently influence the success of Latina/o students at college. It is based on a year and a half study of seven Latina/o students making transition from a high school to a community college or…

  15. High Stakes Testing and High School Completion. NBETPP Statements, Volume 1, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Marguerite; Haney, Walter; Madaus, George

    This report examines how high stakes assessments affect dropout and high school completion rates. The focus is on five suggestive lines of evidence about this relationship. This evidence is drawn in part from studies done at Boston College or by researchers for the National Board on Educational Testing and Public Policy. The conclusion drawn is…

  16. Funding, Reputation and Targets: The Discursive Logics of High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Steven; Hardy, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides insights into teacher and school-based administrators' responses to policy demands for improved outcomes on high-stakes, standardised literacy and numeracy tests in Australia. Specifically, the research reveals the effects of the National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN), and associated policies, in the state…

  17. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Does Accountability Pressure Increase Student Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement across 25 states. Standardized portfolios were created for each study state. Each portfolio contained a range of documents that told the "story" of accountability implementation and impact in that state. Using the "law of comparative judgments," over…

  18. No Child Left Behind: High-Stakes Testing and Teacher Burnout in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 calls for 100% proficiency in reading and mathematics by 2014. The mandate thus transforms reading and mathematics into high-stakes subject areas. This quantitative cross-sectional study examined legislated testing mandates in relation to burnout subscales, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  19. Emotions toward Teacher-Created and High-Stakes Tests in Middle School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Lauren L.

    2013-01-01

    Many leading scholars believe that students' emotions affect their learning and performance, and have voiced concerns about the need to investigate these emotions in the context of classrooms and schools. Apart from the emotion of anxiety, very little research has assessed students' achievement emotions toward tests. As high-stakes tests…

  20. On My Mind: Pay It Forward with Professional Development, Not High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlick, David

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that professional planning, not high-stakes testing, "an Industrial Age solution to an Information Age problem," is the key to education's future. Proposes that the day for school library media specialists and teachers should be equally divided between teaching and professional planning-four hours of instructional supervision and four…

  1. The Impact of High-Stakes Testing on Latina/o Students' College Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Jessica M.; Arellano, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence high-stakes testing has on Latina/o student aspirations and subsequent college enrollment. It quantitatively examines the critical juncture of high school exit and college entry at a school district serving a predominately Latino population. Findings confirm a strong correlation between the math and English…

  2. Understanding the Interaction between High-Stakes Graduation Tests and English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilig, Julian Vasquez

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: The prevailing theory of action underlying No Child Left Behind's high-stakes testing and accountability ratings is that schools and students held accountable to these measures will automatically increase educational output as educators try harder, schools will adopt more effective methods, and students will learn more. In…

  3. Negotiating Identity and Science Teaching in a High-Stakes Testing Environment: An Elementary Teacher's Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar

    2009-01-01

    This study draws upon a qualitative case study to investigate the impact of the high-stakes test environment on an elementary teacher's identities and the influence of identity maintenance on science teaching. Drawing from social identity theory, I argue that we can gain deep insight into how and why urban elementary science teachers engage in…

  4. High-Stakes Testing: Implications for Career and Technical Education. The Highlight Zone: Research @ Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, James T.; Mahlman, Robert A.

    The topic of high-stakes testing (HST) is important because HST has direct and indirect effects on career-technical education (CTE) programs and timely because HST increasingly enters public discussion and has produced a large body of research and practice that generalizes to CTE. A review of HST has identified two persisting dilemmas: policy and…

  5. Four Effects of the High-Stakes Testing Movement on African American K-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gail L.; Allen, Tawannah G.

    2012-01-01

    In order to ensure that American students are competitive with students in other countries, since the 1980s, U.S. policymakers have been trying to improve the K-12 public school system. Recent reform efforts have led to the current high-stakes testing movement, which measures student achievement and school effectiveness mainly by standardized test…

  6. High-Stakes Testing Hasn't Brought Education Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianis, Judith Browne; Jackson, John H.; Noguera, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The only thing that more testing will tell us is what we already know: The schools that disadvantaged children attend are not being given the supports necessary to produce achievement gains. Students cannot be tested out of poverty, and while NCLB did take us a step forward by requiring schools to produce evidence that students were learning, it…

  7. Adult Learning and High-Stakes Testing: Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Grace

    2004-01-01

    In this world of increasing competition for jobs and accountability in the workplace, adults are facing many new pressures, one of which is passing tests as part of the application process. This is especially difficult for adults who are academically challenged or did not go far enough with their education to feel comfortable in testing…

  8. Educational Technology Integration and High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Tracy Demetrie

    2012-01-01

    Determining if the investment in educational technology will improve student achievement is complicated and multifarious. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of teacher technology integration on student achievement as measured by the Mississippi Subject Area Testing Program (SATP) and to explore the relationship between…

  9. Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP): A Historical Analysis of Louisiana's High Stakes Testing Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuir, Erica L.

    2012-01-01

    High stakes testing is popularly examined in educational research, but contemporary analyses tend to reflect a qualitative or quantitative research design (e.g., Au, 2007; Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2006; Gamble, 2010). Exhaustive debate over the relative success or failure of high stakes testing is often framed between competing visions of…

  10. How does high stakes testing influence teachers' classroom instruction?: Institutional pressures and classroom instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Mika Yoder

    2011-12-01

    This study examined how a total of eight math and science elementary school teachers changed their classroom instruction in response to high stakes and low stakes testing in one school district. The district introduced new assessment in the school year of 2005--06 to meet the requirement set forth by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)---that the assessment should be aligned with the state academic standards. I conducted interviews with teachers and school administrators at two elementary schools, district officials, and a representative of a non-profit organization during the school year 2007--08 to examine how the new assessment introduced in 2005--06 had shaped classroom instruction. Concepts from New Institutional Theory and cognitive approaches to policy implementation guided the design of this study. This study focused on how materials and activities associated with high stakes testing promoted ideas about good instruction, and how these ideas were carried to teachers. The study examined how teachers received messages about instruction and how they responded to the messages. The study found that high stakes testing influenced teachers' classroom instruction more than low stakes testing; however, the instructional changes teachers made in response to state testing was at the content level. The teachers' instructional strategies did not change. The teachers' instructional changes varied with the degree of implementation of existing math curriculum and with the degree of support they received in understanding the meaning of assessment results. The study concluded that, among the six teachers I studied, high stakes testing was not a sufficient intervention for changing teachers' instructional strategies. The study also addressed the challenges of aligning instructional messages across assessment, standards, and curriculum.

  11. Introducing Computer-Based Testing in High-Stakes Exams in Higher Education: Results of a Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Boevé, Anja J; Meijer, Rob R; Albers, Casper J; Beetsma, Yta; Bosker, Roel J

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of computer-based testing in high-stakes examining in higher education is developing rather slowly due to institutional barriers (the need of extra facilities, ensuring test security) and teacher and student acceptance. From the existing literature it is unclear whether computer-based exams will result in similar results as paper-based exams and whether student acceptance can change as a result of administering computer-based exams. In this study, we compared results from a computer-based and paper-based exam in a sample of psychology students and found no differences in total scores across the two modes. Furthermore, we investigated student acceptance and change in acceptance of computer-based examining. After taking the computer-based exam, fifty percent of the students preferred paper-and-pencil exams over computer-based exams and about a quarter preferred a computer-based exam. We conclude that computer-based exam total scores are similar as paper-based exam scores, but that for the acceptance of high-stakes computer-based exams it is important that students practice and get familiar with this new mode of test administration. PMID:26641632

  12. Introducing Computer-Based Testing in High-Stakes Exams in Higher Education: Results of a Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Boevé, Anja J; Meijer, Rob R; Albers, Casper J; Beetsma, Yta; Bosker, Roel J

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of computer-based testing in high-stakes examining in higher education is developing rather slowly due to institutional barriers (the need of extra facilities, ensuring test security) and teacher and student acceptance. From the existing literature it is unclear whether computer-based exams will result in similar results as paper-based exams and whether student acceptance can change as a result of administering computer-based exams. In this study, we compared results from a computer-based and paper-based exam in a sample of psychology students and found no differences in total scores across the two modes. Furthermore, we investigated student acceptance and change in acceptance of computer-based examining. After taking the computer-based exam, fifty percent of the students preferred paper-and-pencil exams over computer-based exams and about a quarter preferred a computer-based exam. We conclude that computer-based exam total scores are similar as paper-based exam scores, but that for the acceptance of high-stakes computer-based exams it is important that students practice and get familiar with this new mode of test administration.

  13. School-Based Assessments in High-Stakes Examinations in Bhutan: A Question of Trust? Exploring Inconsistencies between External Exam Scores, School-Based Assessments, Detailed Teacher Ratings, and Student Self-Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Hans; Dolkar, Dechen

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the validity of school-based assessments when they serve to supplement scores on central tests in high-stakes examinations. The school-based continuous assessment (CA) marks are compared to the marks scored on the central written Bhutan Certificate of Secondary Education (BCSE) examination, to detailed teacher ratings of…

  14. Heightened Test Anxiety among Young Children: Elementary School Students' Anxious Responses to High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segool, Natasha K.; Carlson, John S.; Goforth, Anisa N.; von der Embse, Nathan; Barterian, Justin A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in test anxiety on high-stakes standardized achievement testing and low-stakes testing among elementary school children. This is the first study to directly examine differences in young students' reported test anxiety between No Child Left Behind (NCLB) achievement testing and classroom testing. Three hundred…

  15. Do the Guideline Violations Influence Test Difficulty of High-Stake Test?: An Investigation on University Entrance Examination in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atalmis, Erkan Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-choice (MC) items are commonly used in high-stake tests. Thus, each item of such tests should be meticulously constructed to increase the accuracy of decisions based on test results. Haladyna and his colleagues (2002) addressed the valid item-writing guidelines to construct high quality MC items in order to increase test reliability and…

  16. The Influence of High Stakes Testing and Test Preparation on High School Students' Perspectives on Education and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    With the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in January of 2002, curricula in high schools in the United States have adjusted to make room for test preparation activities and high stakes testing. This involves teaching skills and content in the format of the test only, drilling students on specific skills and content areas that will be…

  17. High-Stakes Trouble.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold II

    2000-01-01

    Critiquing Nina and Sol Horowitz's article advocating high-stakes tests, the author deplores deleterious effects of too-rigorous standards on poor students and recent immigrants. Without large-scale initiatives to affect their lives out of school, urban youngsters' prospects are dim. A National Research Council report offers testing guidelines.…

  18. Mastery Learning and Assessment: Implications for Students and Teachers in an Era of High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Barry J.; Dibenedetto, Maria K.

    2008-01-01

    Federal efforts to improve American students' achievement through high-stakes testing have led to significant concerns about the fairness and effectiveness of standardized tests. We attribute these concerns to the use of summative tests to assess academic progress without the benefits of an effective formative model of assessment and instruction,…

  19. Redefining Accessibility on High-Stakes Tests for Postsecondary College Students with Learning Disabilities in an Era of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Manju; Gregg, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Unprecedented increases in the use of technologies throughout postsecondary education and the workplace are redefining traditional concepts of accessibility during testing for college students with learning disabilities. High stakes testing practices are under pressure to change. The challenge for professionals is to ensure that tests are designed…

  20. High School Students with Learning Disabilities: Mathematics Instruction, Study Skills, and High Stakes Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews characteristics of high school students with learning disabilities and presents instructional modifications and study skills to help them succeed in algebra and geometry courses and on high stakes mathematics assessments.

  1. Neither Fair nor Accurate: Research-Based Reasons Why High-Stakes Tests Should Not Be Used to Evaluate Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Current and former leaders of many major urban school districts, including Washington, D.C.'s Michelle Rhee and New Orleans' Paul Vallas, have sought to use tests to evaluate teachers. In fact, the use of high-stakes standardized tests to evaluate teacher performance in the manner of value-added measurement (VAM) has become one of the cornerstones…

  2. Teaching under the New Taylorism: High-Stakes Testing and the Standardization of the 21st Century Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The application of the principles of scientific management within the structure, organization, and curriculum of public schools in the US became dominant during the early 1900s. Based upon research evidence from the modern day era of high-stakes testing in US public education, the fundamental logics guiding scientific management have resurfaced…

  3. High-Stakes Tests: Comparative Study Examining the Impact on the Achievement Gap that Causes Minority Students Continued Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Smith, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative qualitative study examined the impact of the achievement gap on the lack of highly qualified teachers instructing African American students consistently from K-12th grades and its effects on high-stakes testing. In addition, the study examined teacher perceptions that could also be contributing factors of the…

  4. Between Education and the Economy: High-Stakes Testing and the Contradictory Location of the New Middle Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the contradictory location of the professional and managerial new middle class within the rising tension between old systems of the industrial capitalist model of education, epitomized by a reliance on high-stakes, standardized testing and the newer forms of production associated with the "fast" capitalism of the global…

  5. The Consortium and the Commissioner: A Grass Roots Tale of Fighting High Stakes Graduation Testing in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Doug

    2007-01-01

    The following paper provides a case study of the resistance of the New York Performance Standards Consortium to the state's unitary high stakes testing policy from 1998 to 2006. After detailing the history of the grass roots actions undertaken by the group of alternative high schools called "The Consortium," the analysis seeks to apply…

  6. Exploring Relationships between the Use of Affect in Science Instruction and the Pressures of a High-Stakes Testing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Diane C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored how science teachers and school administrators perceive the use of the affective domain during science instruction situated within a high-stakes testing environment. Through a multimethodological inquiry using phenomenology and critical ethnography, the researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with six fifth-grade…

  7. Science Curriculum in Practice: Student Teachers' Use of Hands-On Activities in High-Stakes Testing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the influence of recently adopted high-stakes testing on the curriculum and instruction of 12 secondary science student teachers (or interns). The study, which used a postpositivist, qualitative method with researcher as participant as the university supervisor, focused on interns' abilities to implement hands-on,…

  8. Diving in or Guarding the Tower: Mina Shaughnessy's Resistance and Capitulation to High-Stakes Writing Tests at City College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Mina Shaughnessy continues to exert powerful influences over Basic Writing practices, discourses and pedagogy thirty-five years after her death: Basic Writing remains in some ways trapped by Shaughnessy's legacy in what Min-Zhan Lu labeled as essentialism, accommodationism and linguistic innocence. High-stakes writing tests, a troubling hallmark…

  9. Depth and Breadth: Bridging the Gap between Scientific Inquiry and High-Stakes Testing with Diverse Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Jee Sun Emily

    2009-01-01

    This study explored how inquiry-based teaching and learning processes occurred in two teachers' diverse 8th grade Physical Science classrooms in a Program Improvement junior high school within the context of high-stakes standardized testing. Instructors for the courses examined included not only the two 8th grade science teachers, but also…

  10. Depth and breadth: Bridging the gap between scientific inquiry and high-stakes testing with diverse junior high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jee Sun Emily

    This study explored how inquiry-based teaching and learning processes occurred in two teachers' diverse 8th grade Physical Science classrooms in a Program Improvement junior high school within the context of high-stakes standardized testing. Instructors for the courses examined included not only the two 8th grade science teachers, but also graduate fellows from a nearby university. Research was drawn from inquiry-based instruction in science education, the achievement gap, and the high stakes testing movement, as well as situated learning theory to understand how opportunities for inquiry were negotiated within the diverse classroom context. Transcripts of taped class sessions; student work samples; interviews of teachers and students; and scores from the California Standards Test in science were collected and analyzed. Findings indicated that the teachers provided structured inquiry in order to support their students in learning about forces and to prepare them for the standardized test. Teachers also supported students in generating evidence-based explanations, connecting inquiry-based investigations with content on forces, proficiently using science vocabulary, and connecting concepts about forces to their daily lives. Findings from classroom data revealed constraints to student learning: students' limited language proficiency, peer counter culture, and limited time. Supports were evidenced as well: graduate fellows' support during investigations, teachers' guided questioning, standardized test preparation, literacy support, and home-school connections. There was no statistical difference in achievement on the Forces Unit test or science standardized test between classes with graduate fellows and without fellows. There was also no statistical difference in student performance between the two teachers' classrooms, even though their teaching styles were very different. However, there was a strong correlation between students' achievement on the chapter test and

  11. The Impact of the Correlation between the No Child Left Behind Act's High Stakes Testing and the High Drop-Out Rates of Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walden, Lavada M.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    The author looks at critical dialogue surrounding the causes for the alarming high numbers of high school dropouts in states that use high stakes standardized testing mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act, and investigates the perceived correlations between high stakes testing and high numbers of high school dropouts of minority students.

  12. Exploring the Influence of High-Stakes Testing and Accountability on Teachers' Professional Identities through the Factors of Instructional Practice, Work Environment, and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Janet Harmon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of high-stakes testing and accountability on teachers' perceptions of their professional identities. Teachers' instructional practice, work environments, and personal factors are now immersed in the context of high-stakes testing and accountability. This context colors the decisions teachers make…

  13. Is the Physical Being Taken out of Physical Education? On the Possible Effects of High-Stakes Testing on an Embattled Profession's Curriculum Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Clancy; Garrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Building on recent discussions regarding how current national standards for physical education promote cognitive outcomes over physical outcomes, the authors explore how a new era in high-stakes testing is also contributing to an emphasis on the cognitive, over the physical. While high-stakes testing has been linked to reducing the amount of…

  14. Performance of Students with Visual Impairments on High-Stakes Tests: A Pennsylvania Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Students with disabilities participate in high-stakes assessments to meet NCLB's newer proficiency standards. This study explored performance in reading and math on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA), Pennsylvania's grade-level assessment, to provide a foundational baseline on performance and accommodations used by…

  15. How does implementation of inquiry-based science instruction in a high-stakes testing environment affect fifth-grade student science achievement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessner, Micheal J.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the affects of hands-on, inquiry-based instruction on student science achievement in a high-stakes testing environment. Hands-on, inquiry-based science has become a popular way of teaching science because it is inviting and interesting for students. However, the question remains: Does implementation of inquiry-based science instruction in a high-stakes testing environment affect fifth-grade student science achievement? A quasi-experimental design employing quantitative and qualitative methods was used. The quantitative portion consisted of data collected from Student Surveys and individual science achievement scores for fifth-grade students at three participating schools in a large, suburban school district. The qualitative portion consisted of data collected using a Science Kit Usage Checklist, an open ended Teacher Survey of 5 fifth-grade science teachers, and Teacher Interviews for 3 fifth-grade science teachers. Descriptive analysis was utilized, and emerging codes and themes were identified for teacher education, science kit training, and understanding and implementation of science kits. Data and methods triangulation were employed (Berg, 2006; Patten, 2005) All data were utilized to determine if implementation of Science Kits impacted science achievement scores in a high stakes testing environment. Results indicated a general improvement of students meeting mastery of the fifth-grade science state assessment when kits were implemented. Teacher fidelity and high implementation were validated with Student and Teacher Surveys. Themes emerged involving training, time, student response, impact on instruction, impact on achievement scores, instructional organization, and instructional changes in future implementation. District supported training and materials led to teacher and student enjoyment of science kits, which led to implementation. Implementation then led to higher fifth-grade science achievement scores.

  16. The Potential Impacts of Upcoming High-Stakes Testing on the Teaching of Science in Elementary Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pringle, Rose M.; Martin, Sarah Carrier

    2005-09-01

    In 1983, the National Commission on Excellence in Education in the United States issued a report called A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform. This report and other policy initiatives such as the No Child Left Behind Legislation recommended that the individual states institute assessments to hold schools accountable. This research explored the potential impact of impending standardised testing on teaching science in elementary schools in one school district in Florida. We explored the teachers' concerns about the upcoming high-stakes tests in science, possible impact on their curriculum and what changes, if any, will be made in the approach to science teaching and learning in their classrooms. As the teachers look toward the implementation of high-stakes testing in science, they have recognised the need to teach science. This recognition is not borne out of the importance of science learning for elementary school children, but rather out of fear of failure and the effects of tangible rewards or punishments that accompany high-stakes testing. In anticipation, the teachers are preparing to align their teaching to the science standards while aggressively searching for test preparatory materials. Schools are also involved in professional development and structural changes to facilitate teaching of science.

  17. High Stakes in the Classroom, High Stakes on the Street: The Effects of Community Violence on Students' Standardized Test Performance. Working Paper #03-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkey, Patrick; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Lacoe, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of exposure to violent crime on students' standardized test performance among a sample of students in New York City public schools. To identify the effect of exposure to community violence on children's test scores, we compare students exposed to an incident of violent crime on their own blockface in the week prior…

  18. A moderated mediated path analysis of factors influencing student performance on a standardized high-stakes science test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelkey, Ramona K.

    Gender, ethnicity, family economic status, reading score, mathematics score, and number of science semesters successfully completed were examined for their contributory role to a student's science score on a high-stakes, high school exit examination. Path analysis and analysis of variance procedures were used to quantify each variable's influence on science score. Gender, ethnicity, and family economic status were found to be moderators while reading proved to mediate within the model. The path model was created using a calibration sample and cross-validated using a hold-out validation sample. Bootstrapping was used to verify the goodness of fit of the model. A predictive equation explained 66% (R2 = .66) of the variance in observed TAKS science score.

  19. Pressures of the Season: An Examination of Classroom Quality and High-Stakes Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Stephen B.; Condliffe, Barbara Falk

    2013-01-01

    High-stakes tests are the most heavily weighted measures in accountability systems developed in response to No Child Left Behind. While some studies show high-stakes accountability being related to test score gains, others suggest these policies do not improve achievement and often result in unintended consequences. To understand mechanisms…

  20. Teacher Competency Whitewash: How One High-Stakes Test Eliminates Diversity from the Teaching Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flippo, Rona F.; Canniff, Julie G.

    2000-01-01

    Based on ethnic group differences in Massachusetts Educator Certification Test (MECT) scores, argues that performance-based assessments should be as important as a paper-and-pencil test of cognitive and content skills. Asserts that rather than screening out minorities from the teaching force, the state should be looking for ways to ensure that…

  1. High-Stakes Testing in Education: Science and Practice in K-12 Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovaird, James A., Ed.; Geisinger, Kurt F., Ed.; Buckendahl, Chad W., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Educational assessment and, more broadly, educational research in the United States have entered into an era characterized by a dramatic increase in the prevalence and importance of test score use in accountability systems. This volume covers a selection of contemporary issues about testing science and practice that impact the nation's public…

  2. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  3. Importance of Equating High-Stakes Educational Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chulu, Bob Wajizigha; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    Many examination agencies, policy makers, media houses, and the public at large make high-stakes decisions based on test scores. Unfortunately, in some cases educational tests are not statistically equated to account for test differences over time, which leads to inappropriate interpretations of students' performance. In this study we illustrate…

  4. Exploring relationships between the use of affect in science instruction and the pressures of a high-stakes testing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerome, Diane C.

    This study explored how science teachers and school administrators perceive the use of the affective domain during science instruction situated within a high-stakes testing environment. Through a multimethodological inquiry using phenomenology and critical ethnography, the researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with six fifth-grade science teachers and two administrators from two Texas school districts. Data reconstructions from interviews formed a bricolage of diagrams that trace the researcher's steps through a reflective exploration of these phenomena. This study addressed the following research questions: (a) What are the attitudes, interests, and values (affective domain) that fifth-grade science teachers integrate into science instruction? (b) How do fifth-grade science teachers attempt to integrate attitudes, interests and values (affective domain) in science instruction? and (c) How do fifth-grade science teachers manage to balance the tension from the seeming pressures caused by a high-stakes testing environment and the integration of attitudes, interests and values (affective domain) in science instruction? The findings from this study indicate that as teachers tried to integrate the affective domain during science instruction, (a) their work was set within a framework of institutional values, (b) teaching science for understanding looked different before and after the onset of the science Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), and (c) upon administration of the science TAKS---teachers broadened their aim, raised their expectations, and furthered their professional development. The integration of the affective domain fell into two distinct categories: 1) teachers targeted student affect and 2) teachers modeled affective behavior.

  5. High Schools and High Stakes Testing in California: Size and Income Do Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rector, L. D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the size of high schools, their percentage of SED (socio-economic disadvantaged) students, and API (academic performance index) scores in California, and determine if teacher preparation is a contributing factor. The 2010 API scores and median income of all 52 counties, and the 2010…

  6. The Impact of High-Stakes Testing on Student Proficiency in Low-Stakes Subjects: Evidence from Florida's Elementary Science Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus A.; Trivitt, Julie R.; Greene, Jay P.

    2010-01-01

    An important criticism of high-stakes testing policies--policies that reward or sanction schools based on their students' performance on standardized tests--is that they provide schools with an incentive to focus on those subjects that play a role in the accountability system while decreasing attention to those subjects that are not part of the…

  7. "I Like to Read, but I Know I'm Not Good at It": Children's Perspectives on High-Stakes Testing in a High-Poverty School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutro, Elizabeth; Selland, Makenzie

    2012-01-01

    A significant body of research articulates concerns about the current emphasis on high-stakes testing as the primary lever of education reform in the United States. However, relatively little research has focused on how children make sense of the assessment policies in which they are centrally located. In this article, we share analyses of…

  8. High Stakes: Children, Testing, and Failure in American Schools. A Year in the Life of One Rural School and Its Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale D.; Johnson, Bonnie

    This book connects the educational conditions created by high-stakes testing to the students and teachers who are influenced or victimized by the currents driving this movement. The authors left their positions as teacher-educators and taught grades 3 and 4 for 1 year as regular teachers in one of America's most impoverished schools. Redbud…

  9. Policy Implications for Continuous Employment Decisions of High School Principals: An Alternative Methodological Approach for Using High-Stakes Testing Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. Phillip; Fawcett, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Several teacher models exist for using high-stakes testing outcomes to make continuous employment decisions for principals. These models are reviewed, and specific flaws are noted if these models are retrofitted for principals. To address these flaws, a different methodology is proposed on the basis of actual field data. Specially addressed are…

  10. Differential Outcomes in High-Stakes Eleven Plus Testing: The Role of Gender, Geography, and Assessment Design in Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lisle, Jerome; Smith, Peter; Keller, Carol; Jules, Vena

    2012-01-01

    High-stakes placement testing at eleven plus remains a central and constant feature of education systems in the Anglophone Caribbean. In the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, the Eleven Plus has been retained well into the era of universal secondary education, with a perceived legitimacy founded on the belief that examinations provide the fairest…

  11. Using Formative Assessment Despite the Constraints of High Stakes Testing and Limited Resources: A Case Study of Chemistry Teachers in Anglophone Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akom, George Viche

    2010-01-01

    Formative assessment, as a strategy used to improve student learning, encounters several obstacles in its implementation. This study explores changes in teachers' views and practices as they are introduced to formative assessment in a high stakes testing and limited resource environment. The study examines the extent to which teachers use the…

  12. The Fallibility of High Stakes "11-Plus" Testing in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John; Cowan, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This paper sets out the findings from a large-scale analysis of the Northern Ireland Transfer Procedure Tests, used to select pupils for grammar schools. As it was not possible to get completed test scripts from government agencies, over 3000 practice scripts were completed in simulated conditions and were analysed to establish whether the tests…

  13. Relationships between high-stakes clinical skills exam scores and program director global competency ratings of first-year pediatric residents

    PubMed Central

    Langenau, Erik E.; Pugliano, Gina; Roberts, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Responding to mandates from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and American Osteopathic Association (AOA), residency programs have developed competency-based assessment tools. One such tool is the American College of Osteopathic Pediatricians (ACOP) program directors’ annual report. High-stakes clinical skills licensing examinations, such as the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE), also assess competency in several clinical domains. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between program director competency ratings of first-year osteopathic residents in pediatrics and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores from 2005 to 2009. Methods The sample included all 94 pediatric first-year residents who took COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE and whose training was reviewed by the ACOP for approval of training between 2005 and 2009. Program director competency ratings and COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores (domain and component) were merged and analyzed for relationships. Results Biomedical/biomechanical domain scores were positively correlated with overall program director competency ratings. Humanistic domain scores were not significantly correlated with overall program director competency ratings, but did show moderate correlation with ratings for interpersonal and communication skills. The six ACGME or seven AOA competencies assessed empirically by the ACOP program directors’ annual report could not be recovered by principal component analysis; instead, three factors were identified, accounting for 86% of the variance between competency ratings. Discussion A few significant correlations were noted between COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE scores and program director competency ratings. Exploring relationships between different clinical skills assessments is inherently difficult because of the heterogeneity of tools used and overlap of constructs within the AOA

  14. Georgia High-Stakes Testing: The Correlation between Eighth Grade and Ninth Grade Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Venita L.

    2011-01-01

    Standardized tests are an education reality and an important accountability consideration in most states and school systems. Most states require standardized assessments to meet requirements of the federal "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. Changes to curriculum and instruction and to the school culture frequently occur through a school…

  15. Highly Qualified Minority Teachers: Do High-Stakes Teacher Tests Weed out Those We Need Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie Esparza

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of standardized teacher tests as demonstration of licensure competencies for diverse candidates in Oregon and nationally. The following four areas and their accompanying questions guide the development of this paper: (1) Why would a diverse teacher workforce help close the achievement gap?; (2) What…

  16. A High-Stakes-Test Intervention: Moon-Phase Models as Viewed from Earth and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Castro, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Schools are under increasing pressure to meet accountability requirements and show growth in student achievement across tested content areas. As a result, throughout the school year, student achievement data are analyzed to discover data trends that highlight both student gains and gaps in learning. Achievement gaps are identified and addressed…

  17. Teachers' Knowledge of Accommodations as a Validity Issue in High-Stakes Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Keith; Tindal, Gerald; Almond, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 166 regular and special-education teachers concerning allowable accommodations on statewide assessment tests found only 21% reported that they used allowed accommodations. Teachers' knowledge of allowable accommodations was low and suggests some students are unnecessarily exempted from participation. Results support preservice and…

  18. Professional Identity of a Reading Teacher: Responding to High-Stakes Testing Pressures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaf, Lori Czop

    2008-01-01

    This case study explores the professional identity of one reading specialist, Marsha, who struggled with testing pressures at her urban elementary school in the U.S. It offers an in-depth look at how Marsha's instructional decisions and practices in a pull-out reading program aimed at helping English Language Learners (ELL) shifted when she was…

  19. Comparability of Student Performance Between Regular and Oral Administrations for a High-Stakes Mathematics Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Huynh; Meyer, J. Patrick; Gallant, Dorinda J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effect of oral administration accommodations on test structure and student performance on the mathematics portion of the South Carolina High School Exit Examination (HSEE). The examination was given at Grade 10 and was untimed. Three groups of students were studied. Two groups took the regular form. One group had recorded…

  20. Relying on High-Stakes Standardized Tests to Evaluate Schools and Teachers: A Bad Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Hani

    2016-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the use of standardized tests as the primary means to evaluate schools and teachers in the United States has contributed to severe dilemmas, including misleading information on what students know, lower-level instruction, cheating, less collaboration, unfair treatment of teachers, and biased teaching. This article…

  1. Detection of Answer Copying Based on the Structure of a High-Stakes Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the Variable Match Index (VM-Index), a new statistic for detecting answer copying. The power of the VM-Index relies on two-dimensional conditioning as well as the structure of the test. The asymptotic distribution of the VM-Index is analyzed by reduction to Poisson trials. A computational study comparing the VM-Index with the…

  2. The Evolution of High-Stakes Testing at the School-University Interface in the Former Republics of the USSR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethell, George; Zabulionis, Algirdas

    2012-01-01

    Since the break up of the USSR, its former republics have seen the emergence and rapid expansion of an examinations industry that was, to all intents and purposes, unknown in Soviet times. New national assessment agencies have been established and been charged with, amongst other things, developing high-stakes exams to replace the diverse and…

  3. To Be or Not to Be: Exploring the Nature of Positively and Negatively Keyed Personality Items in High-Stakes Testing.

    PubMed

    McLarnon, Matthew J W; Goffin, Richard D; Schneider, Travis J; Johnston, Norman G

    2016-01-01

    Including equal numbers of positively and negatively keyed items is common in Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality measures. Much literature has demonstrated the presence of positive and negative keying factors in low-stakes testing situations, but there is a dearth of research investigating these factors in high-stakes testing. To address this gap, we investigated whether an FFM measure used in high-stakes testing was influenced by positive and negative keying factors. We also examined the overlap of the positive and negative keying factors with social desirability, rule-consciousness, acquiescence, and cognitive ability. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the inclusion of distinct factors associated with positively and negatively keyed items and suggested that the keying factors accounted for a substantial portion of variation in responses to FFM items. Social desirability and rule-consciousness were found to have significant relations with both keying factors, whereas acquiescence was only related to the negative keying factor. Implications for the construct validity of FFM measures used in high-stakes testing and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:27153340

  4. An Investigation of the Gender Differential Performance on a High-Stakes Language Proficiency Test in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karami, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    There has been a growing consensus among the educational measurement experts and psychometricians that test taker characteristics may unduly affect the performance on tests. This may lead to construct-irrelevant variance in the scores and thus render the test biased. Hence, it is incumbent on test developers and users alike to provide evidence…

  5. Using Reading Rate and Comprehension CBM to Predict High-Stakes Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kelli Caldwell; Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve

    2015-01-01

    Because of the increased emphasis on standardized testing results, scores from a high-stakes, end-of-year test (Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program [TCAP] Reading Composite) were used as the standard against which scores from a group-administered, curriculum-based measure (CBM), Monitoring Instructional Responsiveness: Reading (MIR:R), were…

  6. Using formative assessment despite the constraints of high stakes testing and limited resources: A case study of chemistry teachers in Anglophone Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akom, George Viche

    Formative assessment, as a strategy used to improve student learning, encounters several obstacles in its implementation. This study explores changes in teachers' views and practices as they are introduced to formative assessment in a high stakes testing and limited resource environment. The study examines the extent to which teachers use the technique of formative assessment to engage students in authentic learning even while not sacrificing high test scores on summative assessments. A case study methodology was employed to address the research topic. Science teachers in the West African country of Cameroon were engaged in a process of lesson planning and implementation to collaboratively build lessons with large amounts of formative assessment. Qualitative data from written surveys, group discussions, classroom and workshop observations, and from teacher reflections reveal the extent to which lesson fidelity is preserved from views to planning to implementation. The findings revealed that though the teachers possess knowledge of a variety of assessment methods they do not systematically use these methods to collect information which could help in improving student learning. Oral questioning remained the dominant method of student assessment. The study also showed that the teachers made minimal to big changes depending on the particular aspect of formative assessment being considered. For aspects which needed just behavioral adaptations, the changes were significant but for those which needed acquisition of more pedagogic knowledge and skills the changes were minimal. In terms of constraints in the practice of formative assessment, the teachers cited large class size and lack of teaching materials as common ones. When provided with the opportunity to acquire teaching materials, however, they did not effectively utilize the opportunity. The study revealed a need for the acquisition of inquiry skills by the teachers which can serve as a platform for the

  7. Examining High-Stakes Testing--Forum. "Education Next" Talks with Joshua P. Starr and Margaret Spellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Joshua P.; Spellings, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    More than 40 states plan to assess student performance with new tests tied to the Common Core State Standards. In summer 2013, results from Common Core-aligned tests in New York showed a steep decline in outcomes. Common Core advocates hailed the scores as an honest accounting of school and student performance, while others worried that they…

  8. Is South Korea a Case of High-Stakes Testing Gone Too Far? Information Capsule. Volume 1107

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2012-01-01

    South Korea's students consistently outperform their counterparts in almost every country in reading and math. Experts have concluded, however, that the South Korean education system has produced students who score well on tests, but fall short on creativity and innovative thinking. They blame these shortcomings on schools' emphasis on rote…

  9. High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), standardized test scores are the indicator used to hold schools and school districts accountable for student achievement. Each state is responsible for constructing an accountability system, attaching consequences--or stakes--for student performance. The theory of action implied by this…

  10. Motivating High School Students to Score Proficient on State Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah Lee

    2015-01-01

    The researcher interviewed two groups of eleventh grade students, in a rural Appalachian setting, who tended to score low on the state mandated high stakes/low stakes test to discover their efforts on the test, specifically in reading, and to obtain their opinions concerning the effects of a specific incentive or consequence. Before the eleventh…

  11. The Reflective Discussion Group: Focused Discussion in a High-Stakes Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passman, Roger; McKnight, Katherine S.

    High stakes testing presents a significant problem for the design of effective professional development. The absurdity of asking teachers and administrators to raise test scores constantly encourages teachers to teach to the test without regard for the intellectual development of students. This case study from Texas describes the reflective…

  12. What's in a Topic? Exploring the Interaction between Test-Taker Age and Item Content in High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Jayanti; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this article investigates differential item functioning (DIF) in a listening comprehension test. The study explores the relationship between test-taker age and the items' language domains across multiple test forms. The data comprise test-taker responses (N = 2,861) to a total of 133 unique items, 46 items of which were…

  13. Do Examinees Have Similar Test-Taking Effort? A High-Stakes Question for Low-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Carol L.; Horst, S. Jeanne; Finney, Sara J.; Brown, Allison R.; Kopp, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Given the prevalence of low-stakes testing internationally (e.g., NAEP, TIMSS, PIRLS), it is crucial to try to better understand examinee motivation in these contexts. In the current study, mixture modeling results supported three different profiles of test-taking effort over the course of five tests. Classes 1 and 2 had varying levels of effort…

  14. Test-Taking Strategies for a High-Stakes Writing Test: An Exploratory Study of 12 Chinese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yun; Wu, Zunmin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative research study into the test-taking strategies employed in completing two picture prompt writing tasks--Situational Writing and Interpretational Writing in the Beijing Matriculation English Test. Think-aloud and retrospective interview protocols were collected from twelve Chinese students representing two key…

  15. Taking and Teaching the Test Are Not the Same: A Case Study of First-Year Teachers' Experiences in High-Stakes Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Policymakers' use of high-stakes exams to improve students' academic achievement affects teachers and their tenure in the field at all levels of schooling. Novice teachers now being inducted into the field have been educated almost exclusively in these high-stakes learning environments. Yet, how their familiarity with these contexts…

  16. Validity Considerations Ensuing from Examinees' Perceptions about High-Stakes National Examinations in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Michalis P.

    2014-01-01

    Student examinees are key stakeholders in large-scale, high-stakes, public examination systems. How they perceive the purpose, comprehend the technical characteristics of testing and how they interpret scores influence their response to the system demands and their preparation for the examinations; this information relates to intended and…

  17. Integrating a school-based health intervention in times of high-stakes testing: lessons learned from full court press.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Merrill

    2009-04-01

    Because of the growing focus on the production of favorable academic standardized test scores, schools have become increasingly resistant to sponsoring nonacademic programming, such as tobacco cessation services for students. Nevertheless, the need for such programs has not diminished. The purpose of this article is to provide descriptive information about the logistics of establishing and delivering a health intervention in schools that are resistant to nonacademic programming. The data were collected as part of a qualitative retrospective process evaluation of Full Court Press, a 5-year youth tobacco demonstration project funded by the Robert Woods Johnson Foundation and implemented in Tucson, Arizona. Lessons learned about recruiting schools, integrating programs, and managing facilitators are presented.

  18. Research in the high-stakes era.

    PubMed

    Tuerk, Peter W

    2005-06-01

    The federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB; 2001), mandating standardized testing in public schools, provides researchers with unprecedented opportunities for scientific comparison. At the same time, the climate of high-stakes testing encouraged by the law merits empirical scrutiny from psychologists across an array of specialties. If researchers wish to advance policy through psychological science, they must take care to construct research designs that are meaningful to policymakers and professionals in other disciplines. The present study used data from 1,450 Virginia schools to provide a model of scientifically grounded research that is also informed by current legal and political contexts. Results indicate that student poverty and geography are associated with differential access to highly qualified teachers, and that differential access to qualified teachers is uniquely associated with performance on high-stakes achievement tests. Psychologists, with their unique training, are encouraged to take a more active role in using NCLB data.

  19. High-Stakes Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Administrators and teachers in several large districts nationwide have cheated on standardized tests to make achievement levels look better than they actually were. The offenses range from giving students advance answers to questions on standardized tests, to erasing and changing unsatisfactory answers. As a result of district and state…

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of the Impact of High Stakes Testing on Instructional Content, Instructional Strategies, Motivation and Morale, and Pressure to Improve Student Performance in Relation to Their Views on Accountability and Its Effect on Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Chauncey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine teachers' perceptions of the impact of high stakes testing on instructional content, instructional strategies, motivation and morale, and pressure to improve student performance in relation to their views on accountability. It also sought to identify teachers' perceptions of the effect of high…

  1. The Validity and Incremental Validity of Knowledge Tests, Low-Fidelity Simulations, and High-Fidelity Simulations for Predicting Job Performance in Advanced-Level High-Stakes Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lievens, Filip; Patterson, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    In high-stakes selection among candidates with considerable domain-specific knowledge and experience, investigations of whether high-fidelity simulations (assessment centers; ACs) have incremental validity over low-fidelity simulations (situational judgment tests; SJTs) are lacking. Therefore, this article integrates research on the validity of…

  2. Racial Profiling and Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: How Zero Tolerance Policies and High Stakes Testing Subvert Academic Excellence and Racial Equity. Research Report [and] Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tammy; Boyden, Jennifer Emiko; Pittz, William J.

    This report analyzes current public education policies, procedures, and practices that compound racial inequities by profiling students of color. Such practices divert resources away from proven solutions that advance academic excellence. Bias in high-stakes testing serves to increase student achievement gaps. Zero-tolerance and maximum-security…

  3. High-Stakes Testing in the Warm Heart of Africa: The Challenges and Successes of the Malawi National Examinations Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakwera, Elias; Khembo, Dafter; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, tests are held to high standards of quality. In developing countries such as Malawi, psychometricians must deal with these same high standards as well as several additional pressures such as widespread cheating, test administration difficulties due to challenging landscapes and poor resources, difficulties in reliably scoring…

  4. L2 Learners' Engagement with High Stakes Listening Tests: Does Technology Have a Beneficial Role to Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin; King, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In the listening component of the IELTS examination candidates hear the input once, delivered at "normal" speed. This format for listening can be problematic for test takers who often perceive normal speed input to be too fast for effective comprehension. The study reported here investigated whether using computer software to slow down the tempo…

  5. The Perceived Value of Maths and Academic Self-Efficacy in the Appraisal of Fear Appeals Used Prior to a High-Stakes Test as Threatening or Challenging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David William; Symes, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has examined how messages communicated to students prior to high-stakes exams, that emphasise the importance of avoiding failure for subsequent life trajectory, may be appraised as threatening. In two studies, we extended this work to examine how students may also appraise such messages as challenging or disregard them as being of…

  6. Sophisticated Epistemologies of Physics versus High-Stakes Tests: How Do Elite High School Students Respond to Competing Influences about How to Learn Physics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Elby, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how elite Turkish high school physics students claim to approach learning physics when they are simultaneously (i) engaged in a curriculum that led to significant gains in their epistemological sophistication and (ii) subject to a high-stakes college entrance exam. Students reported taking surface (rote) approaches to…

  7. The Impact of Communication and Collaboration between Test Developers and Teachers on a High-Stakes ESL Exam: Aligning External Assessment and Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, May; Turner, Carolyn E.

    2015-01-01

    In Quebec the high-stakes Secondary Five ESL exit writing exam developed by the Education Ministry (MELS) is administered and corrected by classroom teachers. In this distinctive situation, the MELS works toward aligning classroom-based assessment (CBA) and the writing exam by making ongoing teacher involvement part of its development and…

  8. To Follow, Reject, or Flip the Script: Managing Instructional Tension in an Era of High-Stakes Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillman, Jamy; Anderson, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research indicates that high-stakes accountability policies have the capacity to influence language arts instruction, particularly in urban, high-needs schools where pressure to increase test scores tends to be most acute. This article utilizes Cultural Historical Activity Theory to critically examine the constraints and affordances…

  9. Digitizing Practical Production Work for High-Stakes Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, C. Paul; Tarricone, Pina

    2014-01-01

    High-stakes external assessment for practical courses is fraught with problems impacting on the manageability, validity and reliability of scoring. Alternative approaches to assessment using digital technologies have the potential to address these problems. This paper describes a study that investigated the use of these technologies to create and…

  10. Upgrading High-Stakes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterhof, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Because of the large number of students involved, statewide assessments used throughout the United States are designed to be highly efficient with respect to administration and scoring. This constrains the formats that can be used and consequently limits testing to a subset of competencies typically associated with the education standards being…

  11. Validate High Stakes Inferences by Designing Good Experiments, Not Audit Items: A Comment on "Self-Monitoring Assessments Educational Accountability Systems"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.

    2010-01-01

    The use of large-scale assessments for making high stakes inferences about students and the schools in which they are situated is premised on the assumption that tests are sensitive to good instruction. An increase in the quality of classroom instruction should cause, on the average, an increase in test scores. In work with a number of colleagues…

  12. High-Rank Stakeholders' Perspectives on High-Stakes University Entrance Examinations Reform: Priorities and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiany, Gholam Reza; Shayestefar, Parvaneh; Samar, Reza Ghafar; Akbari, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    A steady stream of studies on high-stakes tests such as University Entrance Examinations (UEEs) suggests that high-stakes tests reforms serve as the leverage for promoting quality of learning, standards of teaching, and credible forms of accountability. However, such remediation is often not as effective as hoped and success is not necessarily…

  13. How Standardized Tests Shape--and Limit--Student Learning. A Policy Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The term "standardized" tests is often heard along with "high-stakes." Standardized tests are administered, scored, and interpreted in a consistent way, so that the performances of large groups of students can be compared. They are not in themselves high-stakes, but they are often used for high-stakes purposes such as…

  14. Sophisticated epistemologies of physics versus high-stakes tests: How do elite high school students respond to competing influences about how to learn physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Elby, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates how elite Turkish high school physics students claim to approach learning physics when they are simultaneously (i) engaged in a curriculum that led to significant gains in their epistemological sophistication and (ii) subject to a high-stakes college entrance exam. Students reported taking surface (rote) approaches to learning physics, largely driven by college entrance exam preparation and therefore focused on algorithmic problem solving at the expense of exploring concepts and real-life examples more deeply. By contrast, in recommending study strategies to "Arzu," a hypothetical student who doesn't need to take a college entrance exam and just wants to understand physics deeply, the students focused more on linking concepts and real-life examples and on making sense of the formulas and concepts—deep approaches to learning that reflect somewhat sophisticated epistemologies. These results illustrate how students can epistemically compartmentalize, consciously taking different epistemic stances—different views of what counts as knowing and learning—in different contexts even within the same discipline.

  15. Student Reactions to Being Wrongly Informed of Failing a High-Stakes Test: The Case of the Minnesota Basic Standards Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey G.; Krosnick, Jon A.; Chang, LinChiat

    2006-01-01

    How do students react to being told that they have failed a test required for high school graduation? In 2000, 7,989 students were wrongly informed that they had failed the Minnesota Basic Standards Test in mathematics. The authors conducted a survey of 911 of these students to assess the psychosocial impact of this event. More than 80% of…

  16. High Stakes Supervision: We Must Do More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepeda, Sally J.

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the emerging and existing teaching force are explored in relation to supervision Key trends that exacerbate teacher shortages include out-of-field teaching, increases in student population, critical subject-area shortages, attrition, and retirement. This paper calls for a high-stakes form of supervision as a long-term…

  17. Using Rasch Measurement to Score, Evaluate, and Improve Examinations in an Anatomy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Gilliland, Kurt O.; Kernick, Edward T.

    2014-01-01

    Any examination that involves moderate to high stakes implications for examinees should be psychometrically sound and legally defensible. Currently, there are two broad and competing families of test theories that are used to score examination data. The majority of instructors outside the high-stakes testing arena rely on classical test theory…

  18. University Students' Attainment and Perceptions of Computer Delivered Assessment; A Comparison between Computer-Based and Traditional Tests in a "High-Stakes" Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escudier, M. P.; Newton, T. J.; Cox, M. J.; Reynolds, P. A.; Odell, E. W.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared higher education dental undergraduate student performance in online assessments with performance in traditional paper-based tests and investigated students' perceptions of the fairness and acceptability of online tests, and showed performance to be comparable. The project design involved two parallel cross-over trials, one in…

  19. The Performance Levels and Associated Cut Scores on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Mathematics and Reading Tests: A Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwerling, Harris L.

    In the context of controversy over the use of high stakes testing, the Pennsylvania State Education Association (PSEA) asked for an evaluation of the performance levels and cut score of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics and reading tests. While awaiting technical documentation from the Pennsylvania Department of…

  20. High-Stakes, Minimum-Competency Exams: How Competent Are They for Evaluating Teacher Competence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Gay; Arbona, Consuelo; Dominguez de Rameriz, Romilia

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, teacher educators recommend authentic, performance-related measures for evaluating teacher candidates. Nevertheless, more states are requiring teachers to pass high-stakes, minimum-competency exams. This study examined the relation between teacher candidate scores on authentic measures and their scores on certification exams required…

  1. Wise Social Studies in an Age of High-Stakes Testing: Essays on Classroom Practices and Possibilities. Research in Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Elizabeth Anne, Ed.; Davis, O. L., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The chapters in this volume illustrate how teachers are bringing creativity, higher-order thinking, and meaningful learning activities into particular school settings despite pressures of standards and testing. The editors chose the word wise for the title of this book, and they use it frequently to describe the pedagogical practices they have…

  2. The Differences among Three-, Four-, and Five-Option-Item Formats in the Context of a High-Stakes English-Language Listening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, HyeSun; Winke, Paula

    2013-01-01

    We adapted three practice College Scholastic Ability Tests (CSAT) of English listening, each with five-option items, to create four- and three-option versions by asking 73 Korean speakers or learners of English to eliminate the least plausible options in two rounds. Two hundred and sixty-four Korean high school English-language learners formed…

  3. Perceived Effects of State-Mandated Testing Programs on Teaching and Learning: Findings from Interviews with Educators in Low-, Medium-, and High-Stakes States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Marguerite; Shore, Arnold; Rhoades, Kathleen; Abrams, Lisa; Miao, Jing; Li, Jie

    The goal of this study was to identify the effects of state-level standards-based reform on teaching and learning, paying particular attention to the state test and associated stakes. On-site interviews were conducted with 360 educators (elementary, middle, and high school teachers) in 3 states (120 in each state) attaching different stakes to the…

  4. High-Stakes Testing and the Decline of Teaching and Learning: The Real Crisis in Education. Critical Education Policy and Politics #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursh, David

    2008-01-01

    This book examines the changes in educational policy in the U.S. and Britain over the last twenty-five years. The author contends that education in the States and Britain has been significantly transformed, through efforts to create curricular standards, increased emphasis on accountability measured by standardized tests, and efforts to introduce…

  5. Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

  6. Descriptive Study of High-Stakes Science Assessments: Prevalence, Content, and the Possible Effect of Incorporating Innovative Item Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Shani Malaika

    Framed by a discussion of the heightened importance of science education in the U.S., this paper describes the prevalence, content, and format of high-stakes science assessments in the U.S. and explores the possibility that differences in assessment format may affect score gaps among student subgroups. An analysis of proficiency rates for 2010-11 high school exit exams in science was inconclusive; however, score gaps among ethnic subgroups on the 2009 grade 12 NAEP science assessment were larger for multiple choice items than for performance-based components. Further, a comparison of subgroup score gaps on the 2009 NAEP science assessment and those on the ACT science subtest suggest that the assessment with more diverse and innovative items resulted in a smaller gap in subgroup test scores. These findings point to the need for greater investigation of the extent to which item type affects subgroup score differences on science assessments.

  7. Beyond the Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Janice J.

    1985-01-01

    A diagnostic-prescriptive scheme is illustrated using subtests of the Slingerland Screening Tests for Identifying Children with Specific Language Disability and the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude. The scheme is intended to focus on the child's learning style by examining the task and the strategies employed. (CL)

  8. Simulation as a high stakes assessment tool in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Fenton

    2015-04-01

    The Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) will introduce high stakes simulation-based summative assessment in the form of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) into the Fellowship Examination from 2015. Miller's model emphasises that, no matter how realistic the simulation, it is still a simulation and examinees do not necessarily behave as in real life. OSCEs are suitable for assessing the CanMEDS domains of Medical Expert, Communicator, Collaborator and Manager. However, the need to validate the OSCE is emphasised by conflicting evidence on correlation with long-term faculty assessments, between essential actions checklists and global assessment scores and variable interrater reliability within individual OSCE stations and for crisis resource management skills. Although OSCEs can be a valid, reliable and acceptable assessment tool, the onus is on the examining body to ensure construct validity and high interrater reliability. PMID:25690440

  9. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  10. High-Stakes Assessment in England and Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Kelvin; Clarke, Marguerite

    2003-01-01

    Presents an overview of the English and Singaporean education systems, focusing on the high stakes assessment systems operating at the elementary level in both countries. The effects of these high stakes assessments on teachers and students are described, noting potential lessons for U.S. educators related to establishing credibility, engaging the…

  11. Academically Buoyant Students Are Less Anxious about and Perform Better in High-Stakes Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Daly, Anthony L.; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Sadreddini, Shireen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prior research has shown that test anxiety is negatively related to academic buoyancy, but it is not known whether test anxiety is an antecedent or outcome of academic buoyancy. Furthermore, it is not known whether academic buoyancy is related to performance on high-stakes examinations. Aims: To test a model specifying reciprocal…

  12. Automated Simultaneous Assembly of Multistage Testlets for a High-Stakes Licensing Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breithaupt, Krista; Hare, Donovan R.

    2007-01-01

    Many challenges exist for high-stakes testing programs offering continuous computerized administration. The automated assembly of test questions to exactly meet content and other requirements, provide uniformity, and control item exposure can be modeled and solved by mixed-integer programming (MIP) methods. A case study of the computerized…

  13. Contexts Matter: Two Teachers' Language Arts Instruction in This High-Stakes Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, Caitlin McMunn; Assaf, Lori Czop

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective cross-case analysis compares two fourth-grade language arts teachers' beliefs and practices as they respond to an influx of high-stakes tests, including district-mandated benchmark testing systems. One teacher works in a suburban school, the other in an urban school. Results from the study show that the teachers' beliefs about…

  14. EDUCATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST SCORES

    PubMed Central

    Pershad, Dwarka; Verma, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    Education, a long neglected variable affecting psychological test score, is in search of reemphasis. Some evidence for this has accumulated on the psychological tests constructed and standardized here at the department of Psychiatry, P.G.I., Chandigarh. Tentative norms prepared education wise on WAIS-Verbal section, PGI-Memory Scale, Proverb and Similarity Tests, Psychoticism Questionnaire, and PGI MQN 2, for adults, in the age range of 16-50, are reported. The results showed marked difference in the mean scores of different educational categories and thus stressed the need for reporting norms separately for different educational levels. PMID:22064617

  15. Education and psychological test scores.

    PubMed

    Pershad, D; Verma, S K

    1980-04-01

    Education, a long neglected variable affecting psychological test score, is in search of reemphasis. Some evidence for this has accumulated on the psychological tests constructed and standardized here at the department of Psychiatry, P.G.I., Chandigarh. Tentative norms prepared education wise on WAIS-Verbal section, PGI-Memory Scale, Proverb and Similarity Tests, Psychoticism Questionnaire, and PGI MQN 2, for adults, in the age range of 16-50, are reported. The results showed marked difference in the mean scores of different educational categories and thus stressed the need for reporting norms separately for different educational levels. PMID:22064617

  16. Selfish play increases during high-stakes NBA games and is rewarded with more lucrative contracts.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    High-stakes team competitions can present a social dilemma in which participants must choose between concentrating on their personal performance and assisting teammates as a means of achieving group objectives. We find that despite the seemingly strong group incentive to win the NBA title, cooperative play actually diminishes during playoff games, negatively affecting team performance. Thus team cooperation decreases in the very high stakes contexts in which it is most important to perform well together. Highlighting the mixed incentives that underlie selfish play, personal scoring is rewarded with more lucrative future contracts, whereas assisting teammates to score is associated with reduced pay due to lost opportunities for personal scoring. A combination of misaligned incentives and psychological biases in performance evaluation bring out the "I" in "team" when cooperation is most critical. PMID:24763384

  17. Selfish play increases during high-stakes NBA games and is rewarded with more lucrative contracts.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Barnes, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    High-stakes team competitions can present a social dilemma in which participants must choose between concentrating on their personal performance and assisting teammates as a means of achieving group objectives. We find that despite the seemingly strong group incentive to win the NBA title, cooperative play actually diminishes during playoff games, negatively affecting team performance. Thus team cooperation decreases in the very high stakes contexts in which it is most important to perform well together. Highlighting the mixed incentives that underlie selfish play, personal scoring is rewarded with more lucrative future contracts, whereas assisting teammates to score is associated with reduced pay due to lost opportunities for personal scoring. A combination of misaligned incentives and psychological biases in performance evaluation bring out the "I" in "team" when cooperation is most critical.

  18. Selfish Play Increases during High-Stakes NBA Games and Is Rewarded with More Lucrative Contracts

    PubMed Central

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Barnes, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    High-stakes team competitions can present a social dilemma in which participants must choose between concentrating on their personal performance and assisting teammates as a means of achieving group objectives. We find that despite the seemingly strong group incentive to win the NBA title, cooperative play actually diminishes during playoff games, negatively affecting team performance. Thus team cooperation decreases in the very high stakes contexts in which it is most important to perform well together. Highlighting the mixed incentives that underlie selfish play, personal scoring is rewarded with more lucrative future contracts, whereas assisting teammates to score is associated with reduced pay due to lost opportunities for personal scoring. A combination of misaligned incentives and psychological biases in performance evaluation bring out the “I” in “team” when cooperation is most critical. PMID:24763384

  19. You sneeze, you lose:: The impact of pollen exposure on cognitive performance during high-stakes high school exams.

    PubMed

    Bensnes, Simon Søbstad

    2016-09-01

    Pollen is known to cause allergic reactions and affect cognitive performance in around 20% of the population. Although pollen season peaks when students take high-stakes exams, the effect of pollen allergies on school performance has received nearly no attention from economists. Using a student fixed effects model and administrative Norwegian data, this paper finds that increasing the ambient pollen levels by one standard deviation at the mean leads to a 2.5% standard deviation decrease in test scores, with potentially larger effects for allergic students. There also appear to be longer-run effects. The findings imply that random increases in pollen counts reduce test scores for allergic students relative to their peers, who consequently will be at a disadvantage when competing for jobs or higher education. This paper contributes to the literature by illuminating the interplay between individual health and human capital accumulation, which in turn can impact long-run economic growth. PMID:27315202

  20. Whose IQ is it?--Assessor bias variance in high-stakes psychological assessment.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Paul A; Watkins, Marley W; Rhoad, Anna M

    2014-03-01

    Assessor bias variance exists for a psychological measure when some appreciable portion of the score variation that is assumed to reflect examinees' individual differences (i.e., the relevant phenomena in most psychological assessments) instead reflects differences among the examiners who perform the assessment. Ordinary test reliability estimates and standard errors of measurement do not inherently encompass assessor bias variance. This article reports on the application of multilevel linear modeling to examine the presence and extent of assessor bias in the administration of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) for a sample of 2,783 children evaluated by 448 regional school psychologists for high-stakes special education classification purposes. It was found that nearly all WISC-IV scores conveyed significant and nontrivial amounts of variation that had nothing to do with children's actual individual differences and that the Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension Index scores evidenced quite substantial assessor bias. Implications are explored. PMID:24188149

  1. Systematic Decision Making and Growth in Reading in High-Stakes Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margo, Desiree Marie

    2013-01-01

    The intense focus on standards and accountability is rapidly altering the education environment. Often the gauge for measuring school effectiveness is performance on high-stake state tests. In this retrospective cohort comparison study, I observe the relation between the use of curriculum-based measures (CBMs) for reading and change on a state…

  2. Overtested: How High-Stakes Accountability Fails English Language Learners. Language & Literacy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Jessica Zacher

    2011-01-01

    This timely book explores what is often overlooked in policy debates about the education of English language learners: how the day-to-day dynamics of the classroom are affected by high-stakes testing and the pressures students and teachers experience and internalize as a result. The author presents and analyzes classroom observations, student…

  3. High-Stakes Hustle: Public Schools and the New Billion Dollar Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence A.; Stanley, Gregory Kent

    2004-01-01

    High-stakes testing costs up to $50 billion per annum, has no impact on student achievement, and has changed the focus of American public schools. This article analyzes the benefits and costs of the accountability movement, as well as discusses its roots in the eugenics movements of the early 20th century.

  4. High Stakes Accountability and Policy Implementation: Teacher Decision Making in Bilingual Classrooms in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Deborah; Rangel, Virginia Snodgrass

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to an emerging body of literature on the impact of high stakes testing accountability policies on implementation and teaching practice. It uses a theory of implementation, sense-making, to highlight the process by which policy and context shape teacher decision making. We focus on teachers in bilingual classrooms in an…

  5. Mindfulness, anxiety, and high-stakes mathematics performance in the laboratory and classroom.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, David B; DeCaro, Marci S; Ralston, Patricia A S

    2015-12-01

    Mindfulness enhances emotion regulation and cognitive performance. A mindful approach may be especially beneficial in high-stakes academic testing environments, in which anxious thoughts disrupt cognitive control. The current studies examined whether mindfulness improves the emotional response to anxiety-producing testing situations, freeing working memory resources, and improving performance. In Study 1, we examined performance in a high-pressure laboratory setting. Mindfulness indirectly benefited math performance by reducing the experience of state anxiety. This benefit occurred selectively for problems that required greater working memory resources. Study 2 extended these findings to a calculus course taken by undergraduate engineering majors. Mindfulness indirectly benefited students' performance on high-stakes quizzes and exams by reducing their cognitive test anxiety. Mindfulness did not impact performance on lower-stakes homework assignments. These findings reveal an important mechanism by which mindfulness benefits academic performance, and suggest that mindfulness may help attenuate the negative effects of test anxiety. PMID:26372885

  6. Mindfulness, anxiety, and high-stakes mathematics performance in the laboratory and classroom.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, David B; DeCaro, Marci S; Ralston, Patricia A S

    2015-12-01

    Mindfulness enhances emotion regulation and cognitive performance. A mindful approach may be especially beneficial in high-stakes academic testing environments, in which anxious thoughts disrupt cognitive control. The current studies examined whether mindfulness improves the emotional response to anxiety-producing testing situations, freeing working memory resources, and improving performance. In Study 1, we examined performance in a high-pressure laboratory setting. Mindfulness indirectly benefited math performance by reducing the experience of state anxiety. This benefit occurred selectively for problems that required greater working memory resources. Study 2 extended these findings to a calculus course taken by undergraduate engineering majors. Mindfulness indirectly benefited students' performance on high-stakes quizzes and exams by reducing their cognitive test anxiety. Mindfulness did not impact performance on lower-stakes homework assignments. These findings reveal an important mechanism by which mindfulness benefits academic performance, and suggest that mindfulness may help attenuate the negative effects of test anxiety.

  7. Content Standards: High Stakes Anti-Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder-Davis, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Currently, American schooling, driven by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and standardized tests, emphasizes development of intelligence. Because of this, teachers must heavily emphasize acquisition of foundational information (facts) in lectures, assessments, and of course, time-consuming test preparation, at the expense of intellect, that…

  8. Rethinking Validation in Complex High-Stakes Assessment Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Martha J.; DeLuca, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this article we rethink validation within the complex contexts of high-stakes assessment. We begin by considering the utility of existing models for validation and argue that these models tend to overlook some of the complexities inherent to assessment use, including the multiple interpretations of assessment purposes and the potential…

  9. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  10. Smoothing Methods for Estimating Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Estimation/smoothing methods that are flexible enough to fit a wide variety of test score distributions are reviewed: kernel method, strong true-score model-based method, and method that uses polynomial log-linear models. Applications of these methods include describing/comparing test score distributions, estimating norms, and estimating…

  11. Using Automatic Item Generation to Meet the Increasing Item Demands of High-Stakes Educational and Occupational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The use of new test administration technologies such as computerized adaptive testing in high-stakes educational and occupational assessments demands large item pools. Classic item construction processes and previous approaches to automatic item generation faced the problems of a considerable loss of items after the item calibration phase. In this…

  12. A Case Study of Co-Teaching in an Inclusive Secondary High-Stakes World History I Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hover, Stephanie; Hicks, David; Sayeski, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide increasing support for students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms in high-stakes testing contexts, some schools have implemented co-teaching models. This qualitative case study explores how 1 special education teacher (Anna) and 1 general education history teacher (John) make sense of working together in an inclusive…

  13. High-Stakes Choice: Achievement and Accountability in the Nation's Oldest Urban Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Carlson, Deven E.; Fleming, David J.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of a high-stakes testing and reporting requirement on students using publicly funded vouchers to attend private schools. We describe how such a policy was implemented during the course of a previously authorized multi-year evaluation of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, which provided us with data on voucher…

  14. Washback Effects from a High-Stakes Examination on Out-of-Class English Learning: Insights from Possible Self Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhan, Ying; Andrews, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    There is still limited understanding of the impact of high-stakes examinations on students' out-of-class learning. The current study attempts to fill this research gap by addressing this issue in the context of tertiary education in Mainland China. The study examines how far the revised College English Test Band 4 (CET-4) actually influenced…

  15. 10 Tips for Higher Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priestley, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Ten suggestions to help students increase standardized test scores include: read directions carefully; peek at the questions before reading stories or articles; note key words; use parts of questions to help plan answers; look back at the text; think before writing; write clearly and legibly; pay attention to how the test is scored; manage time…

  16. Interpreting Standardized Test Scores: Some Fine Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William J.

    1980-01-01

    An essential function of the school guidance worker is the translation of test results into plain language and/or concrete recommendations. To do so requires a thorough understanding of the various test scores publishers provide. (Author)

  17. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. PMID:26283476

  18. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment.

  19. Comparison of Physical Therapy Anatomy Performance and Anxiety Scores in Timed and Untimed Practical Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sarah M.; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating…

  20. Understanding the Reading Attributes and Their Cognitive Relationships on a High-Stakes Biology Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlusyk, Kevin James

    Test items used to assess learners' knowledge on high-stakes science examinations contain contextualized questions that unintentionally assess reading skill along with conceptual knowledge. Therefore, students who are not proficient readers are unable to comprehend the text within the test item to demonstrate effectively their level of science knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to understand what reading attributes were required to successfully answer the Biology 30 Diploma Exam. Furthermore, the research sought to understand the cognitive relationships among the reading attributes through quantitative analysis structured by the Attribute Hierarchy Model (AHM). The research consisted of two phases: (1) Cognitive development, where the cognitive attributes of the Biology 30 Exam were specified and hierarchy structures were developed; and (2) Psychometric analysis, that statistically tested the attribute hierarchy using the Hierarchy Consistency Index (HCI), and calculate attribute probabilities. Phase one of the research used January 2011, Biology 30 Diploma Exam, while phase two accessed archival data for the 9985 examinees who took the assessment on January 24th, 2011. Phase one identified ten specific reading attributes, of which five were identified as unique subsets of vocabulary, two were identified as reading visual representations, and three corresponded to general reading skills. Four hierarchical cognitive model were proposed then analyzed using the HCI as a mechanism to explain the relationship among the attributes. Model A had the highest HCI value (0.337), indicating an overall poor data fit, yet for the top achieving examinees the model had an excellent model fit with an HCI value of 0.888, and for examinees that scored over 60% there was a moderate model fit (HCI = 0.592). Linear regressions of the attribute probability estimates suggest that there is a cognitive relationship among six of the ten reading attributes (R2 = 0.958 and 0

  1. Equating Scores from Adaptive to Linear Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    Two local methods for observed-score equating are applied to the problem of equating an adaptive test to a linear test. In an empirical study, the methods were evaluated against a method based on the test characteristic function (TCF) of the linear test and traditional equipercentile equating applied to the ability estimates on the adaptive test…

  2. School Awards Programs and Accountability in Massachusetts: Misusing MCAS Scores To Assess School Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock, Anne

    This paper makes the case that the high-stakes testing and accountability program currently in place in Massachusetts misuses scores from the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) to select particular schools as exemplary. School awards and recognition programs in Massachusetts imply that score gains are equivalent to school…

  3. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  4. Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

  5. The Measurement Invariance of the Student Opinion Scale across English and Non-English Language Learner Students within the Context of Low- and High-Stakes Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Immekus, Jason C.; McGee, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Student effort on large-scale assessments has important implications on the interpretation and use of scores to guide decisions. Within the United States, English Language Learners (ELLs) generally are outperformed on large-scale assessments by non-ELLs, prompting research to examine factors associated with test performance. There is a gap in the literature regarding the test-taking motivation of ELLs compared to non-ELLs and whether existing measures have similar psychometric properties across groups. The Student Opinion Scale (SOS; Sundre, 2007) was designed to be administered after completion of a large-scale assessment to operationalize students’ test-taking motivation. Based on data obtained on 5,257 (41.8% ELL) 10th grade students, study purpose was to test the measurement invariance of the SOS across ELLs and non-ELLs based on completion of low- and high-stakes assessments. Preliminary item analyses supported the removal of two SOS items (Items 3 and 7) that resulted in improved internal consistency for each of the two SOS subscales: Importance, Effort. A subsequent multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) supported the measurement invariance of the scale’s two-factor model across language groups, indicating it met strict factorial invariance (Meredith, 1993). A follow-up latent means analysis found that ELLs had higher effort on both the low- and high-stakes assessment with a small effect size. Effect size estimates indicated negligible differences on the importance factor. Although the instrument can be expected to function similarly across diverse language groups, which may have direct utility of test users and research into factors associated with large-scale test performance, continued research is recommended. Implications for SOS use in applied and research settings are discussed.

  6. The Measurement Invariance of the Student Opinion Scale across English and Non-English Language Learner Students within the Context of Low- and High-Stakes Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Immekus, Jason C.; McGee, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Student effort on large-scale assessments has important implications on the interpretation and use of scores to guide decisions. Within the United States, English Language Learners (ELLs) generally are outperformed on large-scale assessments by non-ELLs, prompting research to examine factors associated with test performance. There is a gap in the literature regarding the test-taking motivation of ELLs compared to non-ELLs and whether existing measures have similar psychometric properties across groups. The Student Opinion Scale (SOS; Sundre, 2007) was designed to be administered after completion of a large-scale assessment to operationalize students’ test-taking motivation. Based on data obtained on 5,257 (41.8% ELL) 10th grade students, study purpose was to test the measurement invariance of the SOS across ELLs and non-ELLs based on completion of low- and high-stakes assessments. Preliminary item analyses supported the removal of two SOS items (Items 3 and 7) that resulted in improved internal consistency for each of the two SOS subscales: Importance, Effort. A subsequent multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) supported the measurement invariance of the scale’s two-factor model across language groups, indicating it met strict factorial invariance (Meredith, 1993). A follow-up latent means analysis found that ELLs had higher effort on both the low- and high-stakes assessment with a small effect size. Effect size estimates indicated negligible differences on the importance factor. Although the instrument can be expected to function similarly across diverse language groups, which may have direct utility of test users and research into factors associated with large-scale test performance, continued research is recommended. Implications for SOS use in applied and research settings are discussed. PMID:27672375

  7. The Measurement Invariance of the Student Opinion Scale across English and Non-English Language Learner Students within the Context of Low- and High-Stakes Assessments.

    PubMed

    Immekus, Jason C; McGee, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Student effort on large-scale assessments has important implications on the interpretation and use of scores to guide decisions. Within the United States, English Language Learners (ELLs) generally are outperformed on large-scale assessments by non-ELLs, prompting research to examine factors associated with test performance. There is a gap in the literature regarding the test-taking motivation of ELLs compared to non-ELLs and whether existing measures have similar psychometric properties across groups. The Student Opinion Scale (SOS; Sundre, 2007) was designed to be administered after completion of a large-scale assessment to operationalize students' test-taking motivation. Based on data obtained on 5,257 (41.8% ELL) 10th grade students, study purpose was to test the measurement invariance of the SOS across ELLs and non-ELLs based on completion of low- and high-stakes assessments. Preliminary item analyses supported the removal of two SOS items (Items 3 and 7) that resulted in improved internal consistency for each of the two SOS subscales: Importance, Effort. A subsequent multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) supported the measurement invariance of the scale's two-factor model across language groups, indicating it met strict factorial invariance (Meredith, 1993). A follow-up latent means analysis found that ELLs had higher effort on both the low- and high-stakes assessment with a small effect size. Effect size estimates indicated negligible differences on the importance factor. Although the instrument can be expected to function similarly across diverse language groups, which may have direct utility of test users and research into factors associated with large-scale test performance, continued research is recommended. Implications for SOS use in applied and research settings are discussed. PMID:27672375

  8. Using VAM in High-Stakes Employment Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Value-added models (VAMs) are becoming an important tool in improving teacher evaluation. VAMs' premise is that they can statistically isolate a teacher's effect on a student's test score. In other words, we can attribute a student's growth to a particular teacher, and VAMs' proponents contend that they should be used to make a host of personnel…

  9. High Noon for High Stakes: Alfie Kohn at Middlebury College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, Ed

    2002-01-01

    The tougher standards movement has five fatal flaws. An emphasis on scores limits student willingness to experiment and be challenged. The "basic skills" approach to teaching--pouring knowledge down student throats--has never worked well. Standardized testing necessarily creates winners and losers. Accountability is coercive and unnecessarily…

  10. Teacher Greetings Increase College Students' Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio; Alexander, Ralph; Stewart, Megan

    2009-01-01

    The current study is an extension of a previous investigation dealing with teacher greetings to students. The present investigation used teacher greetings with college students and academic performance (test scores). We report data using university students and in-class test performance. Students in introductory psychology who received teachers'…

  11. High-Stakes Testing in South Africa: Friend or Foe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The Jomtien conference in 1990 on Education for All is seen by many as a turning point for the introduction of increased monitoring and evaluation of the quality of education systems around the world. Internationally, debates have arisen about the nature and frequency of assessment and its impact on education systems with its intended and…

  12. What Do Test Score Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, James; Munk, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyse a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-1955, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has…

  13. Testing Our Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempel, Melissa Bollow

    2012-01-01

    Computerized testing, including the widely used MAP test, has infiltrated the public schools in Milwaukee and across the nation, bringing with it a frightening future for public education. High-stakes standardized tests can be scored almost immediately via the internet, and testing companies can now easily link districts to their online data…

  14. New Tests Put States on Spot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujifusa, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    As states begin to demand more rigor on their high-stakes tests--and the tests evolve to incorporate revised academic standards--many officials are gambling that an initial wave of lower scores will give way to greater student achievement in the future. Changes to statewide tests and subsequent plummeting scores sparked controversy and emergency…

  15. Critical Thinking: More than Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vernon G.; Szymanski, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This article is for practicing or aspiring school administrators. The demand for excellence in public education has lead to an emphasis on standardized test scores. This article explores the development of a professional enhancement program designed to prepare teachers to teach higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking is the primary…

  16. Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2012-01-01

    Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

  17. Teacher Use of Achievement Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Department of Education (WDE) has invested time and money developing standardized achievement test score reports designed to give teachers data about each of their students' levels of mastery of particular concepts in order to differentiate their instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

  18. Leveraging Gender Differences to Boost Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Bill

    2008-01-01

    According to the 2004 National Assessment of Educational Progress, males who have made it through 12 years of school have significantly poorer reading skills than their female peers. In every age group, boys have been scoring lower than girls annually for more than three decades on U.S. Department of Education reading tests. The longer boys are in…

  19. Children of Reform: The Impact of High-Stakes Education Reform on Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher Pierce

    2010-01-01

    High-stakes standards-based accountability reforms are changing teacher education. A key set of participants in this process who have been affected by these reforms are the teacher candidates. Many were educated almost entirely in high-stakes education systems. Yet, little is known about how their experiences as students affect their conceptions…

  20. The Theil-Sen Slope for High-Stakes Decisions from Progress Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannest, Kimberly J.; Parker, Richard I.; Davis, John L.; Soares, Denise A.; Smith, Stacey L.

    2012-01-01

    More and more, schools are considering the use of progress monitoring data for high-stakes decisions such as special education eligibility, program changes to more restrictive environments, and major changes in educational goals. Those high-stakes types of data-based decisions will need methodological defensibility. Current practice for…

  1. Validating Test Score Meaning and Defending Test Score Use: Different Aims, Different Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in validity theory and alacrity in validation practice have suffered because the term "validity" has been used to refer to two incompatible concerns: (1) the degree of support for specified interpretations of test scores (i.e. intended score meaning) and (2) the degree of support for specified applications (i.e. intended test…

  2. Teachers' Use of Background Knowledge to Interpret Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Kenneth C. W.

    1976-01-01

    An examination of how teachers interpret standardized test scores reveals that in using the score the teacher embeds it in the subjective kinds of knowledge the test scores are supposed to replace. (Author/DE)

  3. The Impact of SIM on FCAT Reading Scores of Special Education and At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matyo-Cepero, Jude

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if special education and at-risk students educated exclusively in a school-within-a-school setting showed improved high-stakes standardized reading test scores after learning the strategic instruction model (SIM) inference strategy. This study was focused on four groups of eighth-grade students attending…

  4. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  5. Standardized Tests: A Teacher's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, MaryJane

    2005-01-01

    This article offers an explanation of standardized tests so that parents may understand the significance of their children's tests scores. Definitions of terms such as "percentile ranking," "norming group" and "criterion-referenced" are given. The author also questions the validity of high-stakes tests as a true measure of student knowledge.

  6. Let's Poem: The Essential Guide to Teaching Poetry in a High-Stakes, Multimodal World (Middle through High School). Language & Literacy Practitioners Bookshelf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This cutting-edge guide presents multiple approaches to teaching poetry at the middle and high school levels. The author provides field-tested activities with detailed how-to instructions, as well as advice for how educators can "justify" their teaching within a high-stakes curriculum environment. "Let's Poem" will show pre- and inservice teachers…

  7. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  8. Impact of Accumulated Error on Item Response Theory Pre-Equating with Mixed Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Lisa A.; Keller, Robert; Cook, Robert J.; Colvin, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    The equating of tests is an essential process in high-stakes, large-scale testing conducted over multiple forms or administrations. By adjusting for differences in difficulty and placing scores from different administrations of a test on a common scale, equating allows scores from these different forms and administrations to be directly compared…

  9. Adapting Educational Measurement to the Demands of Test-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Accountability has become a primary function of large-scale testing in the United States. The pressure on educators to raise scores is vastly greater than it was several decades ago. Research has shown that high-stakes testing can generate behavioral responses that inflate scores, often severely. I argue that because of these responses, using…

  10. ACT/SAT Test Preparation and Coaching Programs. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Most colleges and universities in the United States require students to take the SAT or ACT as part of the college application process. These tests are high stakes in at least three ways. First, most universities factor scores on these tests into admissions decisions. Second, higher scores can increase a student's chances of being admitted to…

  11. Investigating the Impact of Compromised Anchor Items on IRT Equating under the Nonequivalent Anchor Test Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurich, Daniel P.; DeMars, Christine E.; Goodman, Joshua T.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of high-stakes test scores as a basis for significant decisions necessitates the dissemination of accurate and fair scores. However, the magnitude of these decisions has created an environment in which examinees may be prone to resort to cheating. To reduce the risk of cheating, multiple test forms are commonly administered. When…

  12. Is Test Anxiety a Peril for Students with Intellectual Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the most confronting issues in modern times with the increase in the number of standardised and high-stakes testing. Research has established that there is a direct link between test anxiety and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to determine the test anxiety scores of the students with intellectual disabilities in…

  13. Estimating Total-Test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

    1980-01-01

    The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students and 60 items of the 110-item Stanford Mental Arithmetic Test. Three methods yielded fairly good estimates of the total-test score. (Author/RL)

  14. Verbal Reasoning Test Scores and Their Stability over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primrose, Alison F.; Fuller, Mary; Littledyke, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Stability of verbal reasoning test scores was measured for 146 students aged 8-13. Results suggest that reasoning test scores are not constant and vary considerably over time. Scores are not finite measures of intellectual capacity but of current verbal functioning, reflecting education and experiences to that point. (SK)

  15. Testing Intelligently Includes Double-Checking Wechsler IQ Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuentzel, Jeffrey G.; Hetterscheidt, Lesley A.; Barnett, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The rigors of standardized testing make for numerous opportunities for examiner error, including simple computational mistakes in scoring. Although experts recommend that test scoring be double-checked, the extent to which independent double-checking would reduce scoring errors is not known. A double-checking procedure was established at a…

  16. Comparability of Computer Delivered versus Traditional Paper and Pencil Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strader, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    There are many advantages supporting the use of computers as an alternate mode of delivery for high stakes testing: cost savings, increased test security, flexibility in test administrations, innovations in items, and reduced scoring time. The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of computers as the mode of delivery had any…

  17. Does Test Preparation Work? Implications for Score Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2013-01-01

    This article reports an empirical study that examined the pattern of test preparation for College English Test Band 4 (CET4) and the differential effects of test preparation practices on its scores, thereby drawing implications for CET4 score validity. Data collection involved 1,003 test takers of CET4. A pretest was administered at the beginning…

  18. The creation of a pedagogy of promise: Examples of educational excellence in high-stakes science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollough, Cherie A.

    The current reform movement in education has two forces that appear contradictory in nature. The first is an emphasis on rigor and accountability that is assessed through high-stakes testing. The second is the recommendation to have student centered approaches to teaching and learning, especially those that emphasize inquiry methodology and constructivist pedagogy. Literature reports that current reform efforts involving accountability through high-stakes tests are detrimental to student learning and are contradictory to student-centered teaching approaches. However, by focusing attention on those teachers who "teach against the grain" and raise the achievement levels of students from diverse backgrounds, instructional strategies and personal characteristics of exemplary teachers can be identified. This mixed-methods research study investigated four exemplary urban high school science teachers in high-stakes (TAKS) tested science classrooms. Classroom observations, teacher and student interviews, pre-/postcontent tests and the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) (Johnson & McClure, 2004) provided the main data sources. The How People Learn (National Research Council, 2000) theoretical framework provided evidence of elements of inquiry-based, student-centered teaching. Descriptive case analysis (Yin, 1994) and quantitative analysis of pre/post tests and the CLES revealed the following results. First, all participating teachers included elements of learner-centeredness, knowledge-centeredness, assessment-centeredness and community-centeredness in their teaching as recommended by the National Research Council, (2000), thus creating student-centered classroom environments. Second, by establishing a climate of caring where students felt supported and motivated to learn, teachers managed tensions resulting from the incorporation of student-centered elements and the accountability-based instructional mandates outlined by their school district and state

  19. The Relationship between Music and Visual Arts Formal Study and Academic Achievement on the Eighth-Grade Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard Allen, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the policy implications allowing administrators to exempt a student from required arts instruction if the student obtained unsatisfactory scores on the high-stake state mandated tests in English and mathematics. This study examined English language arts and math test scores for 37,222 eighth grade students…

  20. The District Effect: Systemic Responses to High Stakes Accountability Policies in Six Southern States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opfer, V. Darleen; Henry, Gary T.; Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    High stakes accountability (HSA) reforms were enacted in state after state and federally through the No Child Left Behind law, based on the belief that incentives that have consequences attached are effective ways to motivate educators to improve student performance. Our focus for this article is on school district level responses to HSA reforms…

  1. "Natural Philosophy" as a Foundation for Science Education in an Age of High-Stakes Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Cory; Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Science curriculum and instruction in K-12 settings in the United States is currently dominated by an emphasis on the science standards movement of the 1990s and the resulting standards-based high-stakes assessment and accountability movement of the 2000s. We argue that this focus has moved the field away from important philosophical…

  2. The Disproportionate Erosion of Local Control: Urban School Boards, High-Stakes Accountability, and Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Tina M.

    2013-01-01

    This case study of an urban school board's experiences under high-stakes accountability demonstrates how the district leaders eschewed democratic governance processes in favor of autocratic behaviors. They possessed narrowly defined goals for teaching and learning that emphasized competitive, individualized means of achievement. Their decision…

  3. Use of a Measure of Reading Comprehension to Enhance Prediction on the State High Stakes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Edward S.; Solari, Emily; Petscher, Yaacov

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the diagnostic accuracy of two screening measures of risk for future difficulties in reading comprehension, as well as the degree to which adding a screening measure of reading comprehension enhanced the prediction of Oral Reading Fluency to outcomes of student reading performance on the state high stakes assessment for…

  4. Negotiating the Literacy Block: Constructing Spaces for Critical Literacy in a High Stakes Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paugh, Patricia; Carey, Jane; King-Jackson, Valerie; Russell, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the evolution of the classroom literacy block as a learning space where teachers and students renegotiated activities for independent vocabulary and word work within a high-stakes reform environment. When a second grade classroom teacher and literacy support specialist decided to co-teach, they invited all students in the…

  5. Rattling the Rafters: High Stakes Gambling Threatens the Peace of the Longhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Describes the controversy over high stakes gambling operations on Tuscarora and Mohawk reservation lands that has shaken Iroquois communities. Outlines the arguments of both sides, and suggests that tribal ownership and control of gambling operations, which has worked satisfactorily for the Seneca, may provide a resolution. (SV)

  6. Defensible Progress Monitoring Data for Medium- and High-Stakes Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.; Clemens, Nathan H.

    2012-01-01

    Within a response to intervention model, educators increasingly use progress monitoring (PM) to support medium- to high-stakes decisions for individual students. For PM to serve these more demanding decisions requires more careful consideration of measurement error. That error should be calculated within a fixed linear regression model rather than…

  7. High Stakes and Low Stakes in Assigning and Responding to Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbow, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Argues that college teachers will have an easier and more productive experience with student writing if they make and communicate the distinction between high-stakes and low-stakes assignments and between high- and low-stakes ways of responding to student writing. Specific suggestions are made for communicating assignments and commenting on them.…

  8. Investigating Changes in High-Stakes Mathematics Examinations: A Discursive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Candia; Sfard, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the theoretical-methodological question of how to identify reform-induced changes in school mathematics. The issue arose in our project The Evolution of the Discourse of School Mathematics (EDSM), in which we studied transformations in high-stakes examinations taken by students in England at the end of compulsory schooling.…

  9. New Teachers, High-Stakes Diversity, and the Performance-Based Conundrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the impact of high-stakes gate-keeping assessments (of both K-12 students and new teachers) on teacher development of equitable teaching practices. Drawing from two studies of field experiences in Washington State--one of teacher interns and one of cooperating teachers--findings include that state level policies in response…

  10. Do High-Stakes Placement Exams Predict College Success? CCRC Working Paper No. 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges are typically assumed to be nonselective, open-access institutions. Yet access to college-level courses at such institutions is far from guaranteed: the vast majority of two-year institutions administer high-stakes exams to entering students that determine their placement into either college-level or remedial education. Despite…

  11. The Impact of High-Stakes Accountability Policies on Native American Learners: Evidence from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines research on the impacts of high-stakes accountability policies in the USA--in particular, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001--on Native American learners. NCLB's goals are laudable: close the achievement gap by making schools accountable for learning among all student groups, and by ensuring that all students are…

  12. Minding the Gate: Challenges of High-Stakes Assessment and Literacy Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Susan D.; Chase, Maggie; Cahill, Mary Ann; Gregory, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    As four teacher educators teaching a course associated with state-mandated assessment of literacy subject matter knowledge and instructional practices, we conducted a self-study of our experiences. In this article, we describe how high-stakes assessment further compounds the problematic nature of teaching and learning literacy in coursework. We…

  13. Using Digital Technologies to Improve the Authenticity of Performance Assessment for High-Stakes Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, C. Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the outcomes of a three-year study investigating the use of digital technologies to increase the authenticity of high-stakes summative assessment in four Western Australian senior secondary courses. The study involved 82 teachers and 1015 students and a range of digital forms of assessment using computer-based exams, digital…

  14. Reliability of Total Test Scores When Considered as Ordinal Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Ajoy Kumar

    2006-01-01

    This article studies the ordinal reliability of (total) test scores. This study is based on a classical-type linear model of observed score (X), true score (T), and random error (E). Based on the idea of Kendall's tau-a coefficient, a measure of ordinal reliability for small-examinee populations is developed. This measure is extended to large…

  15. A Review of Scoring Algorithms for Ability and Aptitude Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Shirley A.

    In conventional practice, most educators and educational researchers score cognitive tests using a dichotomous right-wrong scoring system. Although simple and straightforward, this method does not take into consideration other factors, such as partial knowledge or guessing tendencies and abilities. This paper discusses alternative scoring models:…

  16. Unintended Consequences: High Stakes Can Result in Low Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlstein, Linda

    2010-01-01

    In all the elementary schools in the county, benchmark assessments were given six times a year in math and three times in reading; they were modeled after the questions anticipated on the Maryland School Assessment (MSA). Although results were sent to the school board, there were no cosmic consequences for the hourlong tests; they were supposed to…

  17. The New Educational Privatization: Educational Contracting and High Stakes Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Patricia Ellen

    2006-01-01

    The institutional landscape of K-12 educational contracting is fundamentally changing. Based on industry and district data, this study identifies three distinct shifts in the content and structure of interactions between suppliers of instructional goods and local school systems. These shifts include 1) elevation of test-related services and…

  18. Estimating Total-test Scores from Partial Scores in a Matrix Sampling Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachar, Jane; Suppes, Patrick

    It is sometimes desirable to obtain an estimated total-test score for an individual who was administered only a subset of the items in a total test. The present study compared six methods, two of which utilize the content structure of items, to estimate total-test scores using 450 students in grades 3-5 and 60 items of the ll0-item Stanford Mental…

  19. Investigation of Response Changes in the GRE Revised General Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Bridgeman, Brent; Gu, Lixiong; Xu, Jun; Kong, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Research on examinees' response changes on multiple-choice tests over the past 80 years has yielded some consistent findings, including that most examinees make score gains by changing answers. This study expands the research on response changes by focusing on a high-stakes admissions test--the Verbal Reasoning and Quantitative Reasoning measures…

  20. Estimating the Reliability of a Test Battery Composite or a Test Score Based on Weighted Item Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.

    2004-01-01

    In some settings, the validity of a battery composite or a test score is enhanced by weighting some parts or items more heavily than others in the total score. This article describes methods of estimating the total score reliability coefficient when differential weights are used with items or parts.

  1. Testing for Accountability: A Balancing Act That Challenges Current Testing Practices and Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Koretz, in his article published in this issue, provides compelling arguments that the high stakes currently associated with accountability testing lead to behavioral changes in students, teachers, and other stakeholders that often have negative consequences, such as inflated scores. Koretz goes on to argue that these negative consequences require…

  2. Involving Diverse Communities of Practice to Minimize Unintended Consequences of Test-Based Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behizadeh, Nadia; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In his focus article, Koretz (this issue) argues that accountability has become the primary function of large-scale testing in the United States. He then points out that tests being used for accountability purposes are flawed and that the high-stakes nature of these tests creates a context that encourages score inflation. Koretz is concerned about…

  3. Improving Scores on the IELTS Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issitt, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…

  4. Equating Test Scores (without IRT). Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    This booklet grew out of a half-day class on equating that author Samuel Livingston teaches for new statistical staff at Educational Testing Service (ETS). The class is a nonmathematical introduction to the topic, emphasizing conceptual understanding and practical applications. The class consists of illustrated lectures, interspersed with…

  5. Fuzzy Math: A Meditation on Test Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacks, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    As a public school English teacher, the author observes standardized testing season each year with a sort of grim fascination. "So this is it," she thinks as she paces around her silent classroom, peering over kids' shoulders at articles about parasailing. Line graphs tracking the rainfall in Tulsa. Parts of speech. Functions of "x." "These are…

  6. Accountability Is More than a Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnipseed, Stephan; Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The number one quality business leaders look for in employees is creativity and yet the U.S. education system undermines the development of the higher-order skills that promote creativity by its dogged focus on multiple-choice tests. Stephan Turnipseed and Linda DarlingHammond discuss the kind of rich accountability system that will help students…

  7. Test Scores and the Graduate Admission of Older Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mary Jo

    This paper examined test scores and information about test takers collected from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) national test administration files, GRE validity study data provided by institutional users, and survey questionnaires sent to test repeaters. Data were collected from 200,000 men and women who took the GRE General Test in June…

  8. A Validation Study of the Grade Six Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Using the Test of Reading Comprehension-Fourth Edition and the STAR Reading Test as Criterion Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    With the increase of high-stakes testing and the subsequent consequences it is essential that educators understand the validity and the inferences based on the scores produced by these tests. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between the underlying constructs of the grade six reading TAKS, the Test of Reading…

  9. The PRAXIS I Math Study Guide Questions and the PRAXIS I Math Skills Test Questions: A Statistical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, M. Elaine

    2012-01-01

    In 2001, No Child Left Behind introduced the highly qualified status for k-12 teachers, which mandated the successful scores on a series of high-stakes test; within this series is the Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST) or PRAXIS I. The PPST measures basic k-12 skills for reading, writing, and mathematics. The mathematics sub-test is a national…

  10. Test Score Decline Among High Achievers: Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jerrold; Hsia, Jayjia

    Since 1967, the mean Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score has declined. Likewise, the numbers of candidates receiving high SAT scores have been decreasing steadily. The same downward trend in student achievement can be seen among student groups from grade 4 through post graduate studies. In recent years, policy has been directed towards making…

  11. Missing the Mark: What Test Scores Really Tell Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, John R.

    2011-01-01

    State test scores administered for accountability purposes are regularly used to adjust instruction in nuanced ways. This is no accident--No Child Left Behind demanded that students' scores be returned quickly to teachers in order that this might be the case, and the idea of data-driven decision making continues as one way the promise of education…

  12. The Mathematics Assessment Collaborative: Performance Testing to Improve Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, David; Noyce, Pendred

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a collaborative effort involving 30 school districts in California's Silicon Valley that are seeking to overcome the ill effects of mandatory high-stakes standardized testing in mathematics. These districts administer, score, and analyze a common set of performance assessments in mathematics in a way that…

  13. Can Practice Calibrating by Test Topic Improve Public School Students' Calibration Accuracy and Performance on Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Rose M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a calibration strategy requiring students to predict their scores for each topic on a high stakes test was investigated. The utility of self-efficacy towards predicting achievement and calibration accuracy was also explored. One hundred and ten sixth grade math students enrolled in an urban middle school participated. Students were…

  14. TOEFL Test and Score Manual, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ.

    This manual has been prepared for those responsible for interpreting scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). In addition to test interpretation information, the manual describes the test, explains the TOEFL program, and discusses program research activities. The TOEFL was developed in 1963 to test the English-language…

  15. Test Scores and What They Mean. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Howard B.

    The first edition of this book was written to give information about testing to people whose work gave them access to test results, but whose training included little or nothing about the use and interpretation of tests. Later editions have been intended for a broader audience as the need for understanding what test scores really mean has…

  16. Using a State Teacher Certification Test to Assess an Inquiry-Based Science Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Charlotte A.; Everett, Susan A.; Moyer, Richard H.; Zitzewitz, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we looked at the impact of our specially designed inquiry-based science courses for pre-service elementary teachers on their science content knowledge as measured by a high-stakes state certification test for elementary education. We conducted a pre/post-analysis of the certification test scores of 1,003 pre-service teachers. Cohort…

  17. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability.

  18. Wage and Test Score Dispersion: Some International Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Kelly; Ferrall, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Compares the distribution of test scores at age 13 in 1964 and 1982 and wages later in life across 11 countries. Finds that wage dispersion later in life is never greater than test-score dispersion. For three countries (U.S., UK, and Japan), finds evidence of skill-biased changes in wage dispersion between the early 1970s and the late 1980s.…

  19. Making Sense of Test Scores. Assessment Brief. Number 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Lincoln

    2004-01-01

    It is challenging for parents and the general public to make sense of the reports on test scores that appear in the mass media. This article offers some things for readers to consider as they bring a critical eye to what is read in the papers. Usually reports on test scores in the media are quite short and focus on one or two aspects of test…

  20. Dearborn 1981-82 Achievement Test Scores (Fifth Annual Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearborn Public Schools, MI.

    The purpose of the fifth annual Dearborn Achievement Test Score report is to summarize and to help interpret the test results so that Dearborn citizens and educators will have a better understanding of the educational achievements of Dearborn students. The District-wide Testing Program assesses reading readiness, scholastic aptitude, academic…

  1. Interpreting Test Scores: More Complicated than You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Susannah

    2008-01-01

    As more colleges move to "test optional" admissions policies, the debate over the utility and interpretation of standardized-test scores continues. In this article, the author interviews Daniel Koretz, a professor of education at Harvard University and author of "Measuring Up: What Educational Testing Really Tells Us". Koretz shares his thoughts…

  2. Test Takers and the Validity of Score Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopriva, Rebecca J.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Perie, Marianne; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Clark, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that test takers are as integral to determining validity of test scores as defining target content and conditioning inferences on test use. A principled sustained attention to how students interact with assessment opportunities is essential, as is a principled sustained evaluation of evidence confirming the validity or calling…

  3. Two Language Screening Tests Compared with Developmental Sentence Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxley, Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The performance of 90 children between the ages of four and six years on two language screening tests was compared with their performance on Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) to determine the accuracy of these screening tests in identifying language impairments. The Bankson Language Screening Test was generally accurate in the identification of…

  4. A Mixture-Modeling Approach to Exploring Test-Taking Motivation in Large-Scale Low-Stakes Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, S. Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    Despite high-stakes applications of assessment findings, assessment data are frequently collected in situations that are of low-stakes to examinees. Because low-stakes tests are of little consequence to the examinees, test-taking motivation and thus the validity of inferences drawn from unmotivated examinees' scores are of concern. The current…

  5. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Pennsylvania's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 8 reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than on NAEP in…

  6. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Maryland's test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased at grades 4 and 8 in both reading and math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test than…

  7. Accountancy, teaching methods, sex, and American College Test scores.

    PubMed

    Heritage, J; Harper, B S; Harper, J P

    1990-10-01

    This study examines the significance of sex, methodology, academic preparation, and age as related to development of judgmental and problem-solving skills. Sex, American College Test (ACT) Mathematics scores, Composite ACT scores, grades in course work, grade point average (GPA), and age were used in studying the effects of teaching method on 96 students' ability to analyze data in financial statements. Results reflect positively on accounting students compared to the general college population and the women students in particular.

  8. Writing about testing worries boosts exam performance in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-01-14

    Two laboratory and two randomized field experiments tested a psychological intervention designed to improve students' scores on high-stakes exams and to increase our understanding of why pressure-filled exam situations undermine some students' performance. We expected that sitting for an important exam leads to worries about the situation and its consequences that undermine test performance. We tested whether having students write down their thoughts about an upcoming test could improve test performance. The intervention, a brief expressive writing assignment that occurred immediately before taking an important test, significantly improved students' exam scores, especially for students habitually anxious about test taking. Simply writing about one's worries before a high-stakes exam can boost test scores. PMID:21233387

  9. Writing about testing worries boosts exam performance in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-01-14

    Two laboratory and two randomized field experiments tested a psychological intervention designed to improve students' scores on high-stakes exams and to increase our understanding of why pressure-filled exam situations undermine some students' performance. We expected that sitting for an important exam leads to worries about the situation and its consequences that undermine test performance. We tested whether having students write down their thoughts about an upcoming test could improve test performance. The intervention, a brief expressive writing assignment that occurred immediately before taking an important test, significantly improved students' exam scores, especially for students habitually anxious about test taking. Simply writing about one's worries before a high-stakes exam can boost test scores.

  10. Effect of self-assessment on test scores: student perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Beatriz U

    2010-09-01

    After a sudden increase in most of the individual grades in a multiple-choice test, students were asked to rank the three most relevant factors responsible for this outcome. Among eight others, the availability of a test for self-assessment before the final test was by far the most frequently mentioned (82.4% of the students). Questions applied during different course activities did not have the same effect on student scores as the "online" self-assessment test.

  11. High Test Scores: The Wrong Road to National Economic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A widely held view is that good schools are essential to a nation's international economic success and that high test scores on international tests of academic skills and knowledge indicate how good a nation's schools are. The widespread belief that good schools are an important contributor to a nation's economic success in the world is supported…

  12. The Uses and Misuses of Test Scores: Technical Assistance Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echternacht, Gary

    The uses and misuses of standardized test results used for program evaluation as seen by a staff member of an Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I Technical Assistance Center are described. In ESEA Title I, test scores are used to select students for the program. Although federal requirements do not require using standardized test…

  13. Effort Analysis: Individual Score Validation of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Whenever the purpose of measurement is to inform an inference about a student's achievement level, it is important that we be able to trust that the student's test score accurately reflects what that student knows and can do. Such trust requires the assumption that a student's test event is not unduly influenced by construct-irrelevant factors…

  14. Negotiating the terrain of high-stakes accountability in science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, Isaak

    Teachers interact with their students on behalf of the entire educational system. The aim of this study is to explore how biology teachers understand and construct their practice in a high-stakes accountability environment that is likely to be riddled with tensions. By critically questioning the technical paradigms of accountability this study challenges the fundamental assumptions of accountability. Such a critical approach may help teachers develop empowerment strategies that can free them from the de-skilling effects of the educational accountability system. This interpretive case study of a high-school in Maryland is grounded in three streams of research literature: quality science instruction based on scientific inquiry, the effects of educational accountability on the curriculum, and the influence of policy on classroom practice with a specific focus on how teachers balance competing tensions. This study theoretically occurs at the intersection of educational accountability and pedagogy. In terms of data collection, I conduct two interviews with all six biology teachers in the school. I observe each teacher for at least fifteen class periods. I review high-stakes accountability policy documents from the federal, state, and district levels of the education system. Three themes emerge from the research. The first theme, "re-defining science teaching," captures how deeply accountability structures have penetrated the science curriculum. The second theme, "the pressure mounts," explores how high-stakes accountability in science has increased the stress placed on teachers. The third theme, "teaching-in-between," explores how teachers compromise between accountability mandates and their own understandings of quality teaching. Together, the three themes shed light on the current high-stakes climate in which teachers currently work. This study's findings inform the myriad paradoxes at all levels of the educational system. As Congress and advocacy groups battle over

  15. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. Methods In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Results Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all p<0.01). A score based on the relation HRR (bpm)+7.3×METs−10.5×ST depression (0=no; 1=yes) prognosticated 5-year cardiovascular mortality with a C-statistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77–0.79 before and 0.82–0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64–0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Conclusions Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise. PMID:26835142

  16. Does weight affect children's test scores and teacher assessments differently?

    PubMed

    Zavodny, Madeline

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased dramatically in the United States during the past three decades. This increase has adverse public health implications, but its implication for children's academic outcomes is less clear. This paper uses data from five waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten to examine how children's weight is related to their scores on standardized tests and to their teachers' assessments of their academic ability. The results indicate that children's weight is more negatively related to teacher assessments of their academic performance than to test scores.

  17. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 1: Rising Scores on State Tests and NAEP. Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles Massachusetts' test score trends through 2008-09. Between 2005 and 2009, the percentages of students reaching the proficient level on the state test and the basic level on NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) increased in grade 4 reading and math and grade 8 math. Average annual gains were larger on the state test…

  18. Subjective cues to deception/honesty in a high stakes situation: an exploratory approach.

    PubMed

    Wright Whelan, Clea; Wagstaff, Graham F; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The low ecological validity of much of the research on deception detection is a limitation recognized by researchers in the field. Consequently, the present studies investigated subjective cues to deception using the real life, high stakes situation of people making public appeals for help with missing or murdered relatives. It was expected that cues related to affect would be particularly salient in this context. Study 1 was a qualitative investigation identifying cues to deception reportedly used by people accurate at detecting deception. Studies 2 and 3 were then empirical investigations that mainly employed the cues reported in Study 1. A number of subjective cues were found to discriminate between honest and deceptive appeals, including some previously unidentified cues, and cues likely to be context-specific. Most could be categorized under the themes of authenticity of emotion, and negative and positive affective reactions to the appealer. It is concluded that some cues to deception may emerge only in real life, high stakes situations; however, it is argued that some of these may be influenced by observers' perceptions of the characteristics of offenders, rather than acts of deception per se. PMID:25975577

  19. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  20. Commentary on "Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Kane's paper "Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores" is the most complete and clearest discussion yet available of the argument-based approach to validation. At its most basic level, validation as formulated by Kane is fundamentally a simply-stated two-step enterprise: (1) specify the claims inherent in a particular interpretation…

  1. Between-District Test Score Variation, 2009-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahle, Erin; Reardon, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Describing the variation in test scores between and within school districts is critical for: (1) for policy-related and descriptive work that investigates the sorting of students among districts and the differential effectiveness of those districts; and (2) for methodological work planning future experiments or interventions. Intraclass…

  2. Univariate and Bivariate Loglinear Models for Discrete Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Paul W.; Thayer, Dorothy T.

    2000-01-01

    Applied the theory of exponential families of distributions to the problem of fitting the univariate histograms and discrete bivariate frequency distributions that often arise in the analysis of test scores. Considers efficient computation of the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters using Newton's Method and computationally efficient…

  3. Benefits of Coaching on Test Scores Seen as Negligible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Report on Education Research, 1983

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: A new study by a pair of Harvard University researchers discounts earlier findings that coaching can substantially improve student performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). "There is simply insufficient evidence that large score increases are a result of a coaching program," write Rebecca…

  4. Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2010-01-01

    We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

  5. America's Mediocre Test Scores: Education Crisis or Poverty Crisis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrilli, Michael J.; Wright, Brandon L.

    2016-01-01

    At a time when the national conversation is focused on lagging upward mobility, it is no surprise that many educators point to poverty as the explanation for mediocre test scores among U.S. students compared to those of students in other countries. If American teachers in struggling U.S. schools taught in Finland, says Finnish educator Pasi…

  6. Student Laptop Use and Scores on Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kposowa, Augustine J.; Valdez, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between ubiquitous laptop use and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that students with ubiquitous laptops would score on average higher on standardized tests than those without such computers. Methods: Data were obtained from two sources. First, demographic…

  7. What We Lose in Winning the Test Score Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    To achieve perpetually better test results each year as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), teachers in successful schools such as Leroy Anderson Elementary in San Jose, California, will "try anything" to raise scores, as the school's principal stated in an interview with "The San Jose Mercury News." In schools across California for…

  8. Scoring Rod-and-Frame Tests: Quantitative and Qualitative Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Otto; Edgington, Eugene S.

    1982-01-01

    Current scoring procedures depend on unrealistic assumptions about subjects' performance on the rod-and-frame test. A procedure is presented which corrects for constant error, is sensitive to response strategy and consistency, and examines qualitative and quantitative aspects of performance and individual differences in laterality bias as defined…

  9. Racial Differences in Mathematics Test Scores for Advanced Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Elizabeth Covay

    2016-01-01

    Research on achievement gaps has found that achievement gaps are larger for students who take advanced mathematics courses compared to students who do not. Focusing on the advanced mathematics student achievement gap, this study found that African American advanced mathematics students have significantly lower test scores and are less likely to be…

  10. Simplifying multivariate survival analysis using global score test methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz

    2015-12-01

    In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve multiple endpoints, and this situation further complicates the analysis of survival data. In the case of tumor patients, endpoints concerning survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For each patient, these endpoints are correlated, and the estimation of the correlation between two score statistics is fundamental in derivation of overall treatment advantage. In this paper, the bivariate survival analysis method using the global score test methodology is extended to multivariate setting.

  11. Which Test? Whose Scores? Comparing Standardized Critical Thinking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, after describing one approach for teaching critical thinking (CT) that was in place at Baker University from 1990 to 2008, the author describes their experience assessing CT using three standardized exams and shows why the choice of a standardized CT test can be problematic and the results misleading. These results can be…

  12. Predictors of verdict and punitive damages in high-stakes civil litigation.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Katherine V; Costanzo, Mark A; Berger, Dale E

    2008-01-01

    This research investigated demographic and attitudinal- psychological predictors of verdict and amount of punitive damages awarded in high-stakes civil litigation. Four hundred and forty-six surrogate jurors, selected to be representative of actual jurors, were exposed to realistic case presentations in insurance, tobacco, and pharmaceutical cases that were about to go to trial. Hierarchical regression revealed that perceptions of the existence of a litigation crisis predicted verdict in the tobacco and pharmaceutical cases after controlling for all other variables. Demographic variables predicted verdict and punitive damage awards only modestly and in different ways in the three cases. Need for cognition, strength of will and rationality, and a perception that there is a litigation crisis predicted the amount of punitive damages awarded in the tobacco case. Litigation crisis also predicted the amount of punitive damages awarded in the pharmaceutical case. Implications for jury selection are discussed.

  13. The Reliability of Essay Marking in High-Stakes Chinese Second Language Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Guanxin

    2007-01-01

    Essay marking is a subjective intellectual exercise in which the score reliability can be influenced by many factors such as the test design, the marker's interpretation of the marking criteria, the procedure, and the method used in the marking process. After conducting a literature review this study investigated the reliability of essay marking…

  14. Correlation of the Scores on Barron's Ego Strength Scale with the Scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The degree of relationship between scores on the Barron Ego Strength Scale and the scores on the Bender-Gestalt Test was investigated on a sample of college students. Correlations were moderate to low. Racial differences were observed on the Bender-Gestalt Test. (Author/JKS)

  15. Coming to Terms with Innovative High-Stakes Assessment Practice: Teachers' Viewpoints on Assessment Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Implementing assessment reform can be challenging. Proposed new assessments must be seen by stakeholders to be fit for purpose, and sometimes the perceptions of key stakeholders, such as teachers and students, may differ from the assessment developers. This article considers the recent introduction of a new high-stakes assessment of spoken…

  16. "I'm Just Going through the Motions": High-Stakes Accountability and Teachers' Access to Intrinsic Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Erin

    2015-01-01

    This article explores teachers' experiences under high-stakes accountability and shows how the narrowing of curriculum depleted teachers' intrinsic work rewards. The article analyzes data from an ethnographic study of teachers' work in two high-poverty urban public schools. The study shows that as instructional mandates emphasized a narrowed…

  17. The Enabling and Protective Role of Academic Buoyancy in the Appraisal of Fear Appeals Used Prior to High Stakes Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Wendy; Putwain, David W.; Remedios, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Prior to high stakes examinations, teachers may engage in instructional practices to encourage their students to prepare well for their exams, including the use of "fear appeals". The current study examined whether academic buoyancy played a role in student appraisals of fear appeals as threatening or challenging. High school students…

  18. School-Based English Language Assessment as a High-Stakes Examination Component in Hong Kong: Insights of Frontline Assessors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, David D.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, school-based assessment (SBA) has been incorporated into the English Language subject of a traditional high-stakes public examination, the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination. As reactions from various stakeholder groups have been mixed, it was necessary to review this new practice. This paper reports on a study of 33…

  19. Figuring out How to Be a Teacher in a High-Stakes Context: A Case Study of First-Year Teachers' Conceptual and Practical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Bay-Borelli, Debra E.; Scott, Jill

    2015-01-01

    High-stakes education reforms across the United States and the globe continue to alter the landscape of teaching and teacher education. One key but understudied aspect of this reform process is the experiences of first-year teachers, particularly those who participated in these high-stakes education systems as students and as a…

  20. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions.Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments.This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = -1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.8∼-0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = -1.1, 95% CI = -2.1∼-0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between hyperhomocysteinemia and other

  1. Digit symbol substitution test score and hyperhomocysteinemia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Chu, Yi-Chuan; Fung, Hon-Chung; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cognitive decline. This study enrolled subjects with normal serum levels of B12 and folate and performed thorough neuropsychological assessments to illuminate the independent role of homocysteine on cognitive functions. Participants between ages 50 and 85 were enrolled with Modified Hachinski ischemic score of <4, adequate visual and auditory acuity to allow neuropsychological testing, and good general health. Subjects with cognitive impairment resulting from secondary causes were excluded. Each of the participants completed evaluations of general intellectual function, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, Clinical Dementia Rating, and a battery of neuropsychological assessments. This study enrolled 225 subjects (90 subjects younger than 65 years and 135 subjects aged 65 years or older). The sex proportion was similar between the 2 age groups. Years of education were significantly fewer in the elderly (7.49 ± 5.40 years) than in the young (9.76 ± 4.39 years, P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in body mass index or levels of vitamin B12 and folate between the 2 age groups. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the elderly group compared to the younger group (10.8 ± 2.7 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5 μmol/L, respectively, P = 0.0006). After adjusting for age, sex, and education, only the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) score was significantly lower in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia (homocysteine >12 μmol/L) than those with homocysteine ≤12 μmol/L in the elderly group (DSS score: 7.1 ± 2.7 and 9.0 ± 3.0, respectively, beta = −1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −2.8∼−0.5, P = 0.001) and borderline significance was noted in the combined age group (beta = −1.1, 95% CI = −2.1∼−0.1, P = 0.04). We did not find an association between

  2. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality.

  3. Use of a Measure of Reading Comprehension to Enhance Prediction on the State High Stakes Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Edward S.; Solari, Emily; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the diagnostic accuracy of two screening measures of risk for future difficulties in reading comprehension, as well as the degree to which adding a screening measure of reading comprehension enhanced the prediction of Oral Reading Fluency to outcomes of student reading performance on the state high stakes assessment for grades 3 through 5. Data from fall and winter assessments of the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) and 4Sight Benchmark Assessment (4Sight) measures along with outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) across a total of 1000 students from 6 schools were examined using indices of diagnostic efficiency, ROC curve, and logistic regression analyses. Results showed that the addition of a measure of reading comprehension (4Sight) to DORF enhanced the decision making process for identifying students at risk for reading difficulties, especially for those students at higher elementary grades and those who achieved benchmark levels on the DORF. Although DORF alone showed a good level of prediction to the statewide assessment, the combination of the DORF plus 4Sight measures resulted consistently in the best predictive outcomes. Suggestions are made to consider alternative cut points for the DORF and 4Sight measures. PMID:26347390

  4. Hierarchical cultural values predict success and mortality in high-stakes teams.

    PubMed

    Anicich, Eric M; Swaab, Roderick I; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-02-01

    Functional accounts of hierarchy propose that hierarchy increases group coordination and reduces conflict. In contrast, dysfunctional accounts claim that hierarchy impairs performance by preventing low-ranking team members from voicing their potentially valuable perspectives and insights. The current research presents evidence for both the functional and dysfunctional accounts of hierarchy within the same dataset. Specifically, we offer empirical evidence that hierarchical cultural values affect the outcomes of teams in high-stakes environments through group processes. Experimental data from a sample of expert mountain climbers from 27 countries confirmed that climbers expect that a hierarchical culture leads to improved team coordination among climbing teams, but impaired psychological safety and information sharing compared with an egalitarian culture. An archival analysis of 30,625 Himalayan mountain climbers from 56 countries on 5,104 expeditions found that hierarchy both elevated and killed in the Himalayas: Expeditions from more hierarchical countries had more climbers reach the summit, but also more climbers die along the way. Importantly, we established the role of group processes by showing that these effects occurred only for group, but not solo, expeditions. These findings were robust to controlling for environmental factors, risk preferences, expedition-level characteristics, country-level characteristics, and other cultural values. Overall, this research demonstrates that endorsing cultural values related to hierarchy can simultaneously improve and undermine group performance.

  5. Cry me a river: identifying the behavioral consequences of extremely high-stakes interpersonal deception.

    PubMed

    Ten Brinke, Leanne; Porter, Stephen

    2012-12-01

    Deception evolved as a fundamental aspect of human social interaction. Numerous studies have examined behavioral cues to deception, but most have involved inconsequential lies and unmotivated liars in a laboratory context. We conducted the most comprehensive study to date of the behavioral consequences of extremely high-stakes, real-life deception--relative to comparable real-life sincere displays--via 3 communication channels: speech, body language, and emotional facial expressions. Televised footage of a large international sample of individuals (N = 78) emotionally pleading to the public for the return of a missing relative was meticulously coded frame-by-frame (30 frames/s for a total of 74,731 frames). About half of the pleaders eventually were convicted of killing the missing person on the basis of overwhelming evidence. Failed attempts to simulate sadness and leakage of happiness revealed deceptive pleaders' covert emotions. Liars used fewer words but more tentative words than truth-tellers, likely relating to increased cognitive load and psychological distancing. Further, each of these cues explained unique variance in predicting pleader sincerity. PMID:23205594

  6. Hierarchical cultural values predict success and mortality in high-stakes teams.

    PubMed

    Anicich, Eric M; Swaab, Roderick I; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-02-01

    Functional accounts of hierarchy propose that hierarchy increases group coordination and reduces conflict. In contrast, dysfunctional accounts claim that hierarchy impairs performance by preventing low-ranking team members from voicing their potentially valuable perspectives and insights. The current research presents evidence for both the functional and dysfunctional accounts of hierarchy within the same dataset. Specifically, we offer empirical evidence that hierarchical cultural values affect the outcomes of teams in high-stakes environments through group processes. Experimental data from a sample of expert mountain climbers from 27 countries confirmed that climbers expect that a hierarchical culture leads to improved team coordination among climbing teams, but impaired psychological safety and information sharing compared with an egalitarian culture. An archival analysis of 30,625 Himalayan mountain climbers from 56 countries on 5,104 expeditions found that hierarchy both elevated and killed in the Himalayas: Expeditions from more hierarchical countries had more climbers reach the summit, but also more climbers die along the way. Importantly, we established the role of group processes by showing that these effects occurred only for group, but not solo, expeditions. These findings were robust to controlling for environmental factors, risk preferences, expedition-level characteristics, country-level characteristics, and other cultural values. Overall, this research demonstrates that endorsing cultural values related to hierarchy can simultaneously improve and undermine group performance. PMID:25605883

  7. Hierarchical cultural values predict success and mortality in high-stakes teams

    PubMed Central

    Anicich, Eric M.; Swaab, Roderick I.; Galinsky, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    Functional accounts of hierarchy propose that hierarchy increases group coordination and reduces conflict. In contrast, dysfunctional accounts claim that hierarchy impairs performance by preventing low-ranking team members from voicing their potentially valuable perspectives and insights. The current research presents evidence for both the functional and dysfunctional accounts of hierarchy within the same dataset. Specifically, we offer empirical evidence that hierarchical cultural values affect the outcomes of teams in high-stakes environments through group processes. Experimental data from a sample of expert mountain climbers from 27 countries confirmed that climbers expect that a hierarchical culture leads to improved team coordination among climbing teams, but impaired psychological safety and information sharing compared with an egalitarian culture. An archival analysis of 30,625 Himalayan mountain climbers from 56 countries on 5,104 expeditions found that hierarchy both elevated and killed in the Himalayas: Expeditions from more hierarchical countries had more climbers reach the summit, but also more climbers die along the way. Importantly, we established the role of group processes by showing that these effects occurred only for group, but not solo, expeditions. These findings were robust to controlling for environmental factors, risk preferences, expedition-level characteristics, country-level characteristics, and other cultural values. Overall, this research demonstrates that endorsing cultural values related to hierarchy can simultaneously improve and undermine group performance. PMID:25605883

  8. An Investigation into the Relationships Between Cloze Test Scores and Informal Reading Inventory Scores of Fifth Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Richard Barry

    This study investigated the relationship between instructional level scores as determined by a cloze test and instructional level scores as determined by an informal reading inventory (IRI). Fifty male and 50 female subjects were randomly selected from the total fifth grade population of five schools chosen from a total of 22 midwestern elementary…

  9. The Relationship of Scores on Elizur's Hostility System on the Rorschach to the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between Elizur's Hostility Scoring on the Rorschach Test and the Acting-Out Score on the Hand Test was examined. Correlations between the two measures (using several scoring procedures) ranged from .40 to .64. (JKS)

  10. The Visual Aural Digit Span Test and Bender Gestalt Test as Predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa C.; Smith, Billy L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined Visual Aural Digit Span Test (VADS) and Bender-Gestalt (BG) scores as predictors of Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) scores among 115 elementary school students referred for low academic achievement. Divided children into three age groups. Results suggest BG and VADS Test can be effective screening devices for young children…

  11. Responses to Issues Raised about Validity, Bias, and Fairness in High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackett, Paul R.; Borneman, Matthew J.; Connelly, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    We are pleased that our article prompted this series of four commentaries and that we have this opportunity to respond. We address each in turn. Duckworth and Kaufman and Agars discussed, respectively, two broad issues concerning the validity of selection systems, namely, the expansion of the predictor domain to include noncognitive predictors of…

  12. Beyond High Stakes Testing: Rural High School Students and Their Yearbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lynn M.

    2005-01-01

    I conducted surveys, focus group interviews, and analyzed the yearbooks of fifty four yearbook students from five rural high schools to investigate students' process of yearbook construction and to determine what was meaningful and memorable to them throughout their high school experience. Chang's (1992) construct of an adolescent ethos, including…

  13. International Issues, High-Stakes Testing, and Border Pedagogy: Social Studies at Border High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Timothy G.; McDermott, Benjamin R.

    2013-01-01

    A recently constructed border wall stands within walking distance of Border High School (BHS) and was created to impede the flow of people, goods, fauna, and contraband from Mexico into the United States (U.S.). The reality, however, is that this geopolitical border is fluid, allowing connections between sociopolitical zones. The researchers…

  14. High Stakes Testing + Middle School Collaboration = Reading and Writing in 6th Grade Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvis, Vicki Welch

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience in teaching sixth grade Spanish at Autrey Mill Middle School in Alpharetta, Georgia. Through the school's implementation of the middle school teaming concept, the author and her colleague on the sixth grade team have teamed up with other teachers in order to provide reading and writing…

  15. High Stakes Testing, Bilingual Education and Language Endangerment: A Yup'ik Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Leisy; Marlow, Patrick; Andrew, Ciquyaq Fannie; Miller, Gayle; Nicholai, Cikigaq Rachel; Rearden, Yurrliq Nita

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of research documents how educational policies and accountability systems can open or close "ideological and implementational spaces" for bilingual education, shaping the language planning efforts of Indigenous communities. Using collaborative research, Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers investigated the intersection of…

  16. Writing Put to the Test: Teaching for the High Stakes Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy

    2006-01-01

    This book helps educators improve students' ability to write clear, coherent essays in response to on-demand writing prompts. While it focuses on students' abilities to succeed at on-demand writing, it also promotes the teaching of writing as an expression of art and self. For grades 4-12, it provides examples of responses to narrative and…

  17. Factors Affecting University Entrants' Performance in High-Stakes Tests: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uy, Chin; Manalo, Ronaldo A.; Cabauatan, Ronaldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, students seeking admission to a university are usually required to meet certain entrance requirements, including passing the entrance examinations with questions on IQ and English, mathematics, and science. This paper aims to determine the factors that affect the performance of entrants into business programmes in high-stakes…

  18. An Examination of Teachers' Perceptions of High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukucka, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    Mandates that follow from the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2002) led to changes to curriculum and classroom instruction. Teachers felt pressured to alter their curriculum and instructional practices. To ensure that students receive a quality education, teacher perceptions of instructional assessment and curriculum is of paramount concern,…

  19. Interactions between Bullying and High-Stakes Testing at the Elementary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazel, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Bullying, a prevalent form of school violence, threatens development and learning. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study conducted in an elementary school, designed to gain an ecological understanding of bullying perceptions of this school community. The three research questions were: (a) How do individuals and groups within…

  20. A Quantitative, Comparison Study: Oral Language Development and High Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Mercy C.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of oral language exposure a young child receives affects the child's reading-readiness skills. Factors that affect the increase of language and thus affect the reading success of children include oral language ability, learning opportunities, and behaviors that young children experience. Oral language development includes gaining…

  1. Homogeneous Grouping in the Context of High-Stakes Testing: Does It Improve Reading Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcedo-Gonzalez, Trena

    2012-01-01

    As accountability reform intensifies, urban school districts strive to meet No Child Left Behind mandates to avoid severe penalties. This study investigated the resurgence of homogeneous grouping methods as a means to increase reading achievement and meet English Language Arts Adequate Yearly Progress requirements. Specifically, this study…

  2. High-Stakes Testing: Does the California High School Exit Exam Measure up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callet, Valerie J.

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act. In addition to providing additional funding for schools and encouraging local autonomy, the new law focuses on accountability in an attempt to close the achievement gap for all students, leaving no child behind. Perhaps the most striking manifestation of Bush's new law is the…

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of High Stakes Testing Mandates in the Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inserra, Albert; Bossert, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, sponsored by President George W. Bush, calls for 100 percent proficiency in reading and mathematics by 2014. This Federal mandate has caused all public schools in the United States to examine the programs in use to meet these requirements. In addition, states across the country have implemented a series of…

  4. Teaching Music in an Era of High-Stakes Testing and Budget Reductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Chad

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is having an adverse effect on school music programs, particularly in schools that have not made "adequate yearly progress." In many instances, music programs are being reduced or eliminated, music teachers are being required to assist with the teaching of other subjects,…

  5. Rethinking the "Gap:" High-Stakes Testing and Spanish-Speaking Students in Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escamilla, Kathy; Chavez, Lorretta; Vigil, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This article challenges the pervasive notion that linguistic and ethnic diversity are causes of the perceived gap in achievement in schools highly affected by Spanish-speaking students participating in programs of bilingual education. The study examines existing data from the state of Colorado with regard to student achievement and compares these…

  6. Political Economy and the NCLB Regime: Accountability, Standards, and High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkison, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Focus and institutional policy under the No Child Left Behind Act [NCLB] (U.S. Department of Education 2001) has prioritized the individualistic, market-driven agenda. The NCLB regime has gained hegemony over the political space of public education, and the value and effectiveness of the educational process has become subject to the fetishism of…

  7. High-Stakes Testing, High School Graduation, and Limited English Proficient Students: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giambo, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    The educational accountability systems of both the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 and the state of Florida (as of 1999) were modeled after Texas' system, despite its flaws. NCLB reaches for all students to achieve academic proficiency and designates students with limited English proficiency (LEP) as an important subgroup. As we work with…

  8. Rethinking the Core: Teaching Theater and English in the High-Stakes Testing Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tonya, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to consolidate schools where enrollment have dropped significantly. In addition to financial concerns, effective and developmentally appropriate curriculum choices are important. The author states that the "core" academic courses must be offered no matter the configuration of the schools, but other classes…

  9. Mapping the Landscape of High-Stakes Testing and Accountability Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goertz, Margaret; Duffy, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Describes the types of state assessment and accountability policies in place when Congress enacted the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, noting how districts in eight states responded to these policies and identifying four challenges facing states and districts as they implement the NCLB (e.g., the need to expand the size and scope of state…

  10. Beyond March Madness: Fruitful Practices to Prepare for High-Stakes ELA Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.; Schweid, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Successful implementation of the Common Core State Standards (2010) will require an alignment between learning standards, effective instruction, and the new assessments designed by the Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness for College and Career (PARCC) and Smarter Balanced (SB) consortia. Both the CCSS and the new generation of assessments…

  11. Score Gains on "g"-Loaded Tests: No "g"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.; van der Flier, Henk

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen [Jensen, A. R. (1998a). "The g factor: The…

  12. Use of Practice Tests in the Prediction of GED Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Warren

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between success on the two new practice-test forms (EE and FF) developed by Steck-Vaughn and success on the General Educational Development (GED) test. Success with practice-form EE correlated with GED test scores; form FF failed to correlate. (JOW)

  13. Beyond the Scores: Using Candidate Responses on High Stakes Performance Assessment to Inform Teacher Preparation for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, George C.; Aguirre, Julia M.; Tellez, Kip

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the preparation of preservice candidates for quality teaching, both for mainstream students and for ELs, requires reliable and valid assessments that pay close attention to context, process, and reflection, factors that traditional evaluations of teaching either ignore or undervalue. In this article, the authors focus on one high-stakes…

  14. The Predictive Relation of a High School Mathematic GPA to High-Stakes Assessment Achievement Scores in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Course grades, which often include non-achievement factors such as effort and behavior and are subject to individual teacher grading philosophies, suffer from issues of unreliability. Yet, course grades continue to be utilized as a primary tool for reporting academic achievement to students and parents and are used by most colleges and…

  15. High-stakes species delimitation in eyeless cave spiders (Cicurina, Dictynidae, Araneae) from central Texas.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Marshal

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable radiation of completely eyeless, cave-obligate spider species (Cicurina) has been described from limestone caves of Texas. This radiation includes over 50 described species, with a large number of hypothesized single-cave endemics, and four species listed as US Federally Endangered. Because of this conservation importance, species delimitation in the group is 'high-stakes'- it is imperative that species hypotheses are data rich, objective, and robust. This study focuses on a complex of four cave-dwelling Cicurina distributed on the northwestern edge of Austin, Texas. Several of the existing species hypotheses in this complex are weak, based on morphological comparisons of small samples of adult female specimens; one species description (for C. wartoni) is based on a single adult specimen. Species limits in this group were newly assessed using morphological, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data evidence, analysed using a variety of approaches. All data support a clear lineage separation between C. buwata versus the C. travisae complex (including C. travisae, C. wartoni and C. reddelli). Observed congruence across multiple analyses indicate that the C. travisae complex represents a single species, and the formal species synonymy presented here has important conservation implications. The integrative framework utilized in this study serves as a potential model for other Texas cave Cicurina, including US Federally Endangered species. More generally, this study illustrates how and why taxon-focused conservation efforts must prioritize modern species delimitation research (if the existing taxonomy is weak), before devoting precious downstream resources to conservation efforts. The study also highlights the issue of taxonomic type II error that diversity biologists increasingly face as species delimitation moves into the genomics era. PMID:25492722

  16. High-stakes species delimitation in eyeless cave spiders (Cicurina, Dictynidae, Araneae) from central Texas.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Marshal

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable radiation of completely eyeless, cave-obligate spider species (Cicurina) has been described from limestone caves of Texas. This radiation includes over 50 described species, with a large number of hypothesized single-cave endemics, and four species listed as US Federally Endangered. Because of this conservation importance, species delimitation in the group is 'high-stakes'- it is imperative that species hypotheses are data rich, objective, and robust. This study focuses on a complex of four cave-dwelling Cicurina distributed on the northwestern edge of Austin, Texas. Several of the existing species hypotheses in this complex are weak, based on morphological comparisons of small samples of adult female specimens; one species description (for C. wartoni) is based on a single adult specimen. Species limits in this group were newly assessed using morphological, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data evidence, analysed using a variety of approaches. All data support a clear lineage separation between C. buwata versus the C. travisae complex (including C. travisae, C. wartoni and C. reddelli). Observed congruence across multiple analyses indicate that the C. travisae complex represents a single species, and the formal species synonymy presented here has important conservation implications. The integrative framework utilized in this study serves as a potential model for other Texas cave Cicurina, including US Federally Endangered species. More generally, this study illustrates how and why taxon-focused conservation efforts must prioritize modern species delimitation research (if the existing taxonomy is weak), before devoting precious downstream resources to conservation efforts. The study also highlights the issue of taxonomic type II error that diversity biologists increasingly face as species delimitation moves into the genomics era.

  17. Perceived Effects of State-Mandated Testing Programs on Teaching and Learning: Findings from a National Survey of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedulla, Joseph J.; Abrams, Lisa M.; Madaus, George F.; Russell, Michael K.; Ramos, Miguel A.; Miao, Jing

    Results from a national survey of teachers are reported for five types of state testing programs, those with: (1) high stakes for districts, schools, or teachers, and students; (2) high stakes for districts, schools, and teachers, and moderate stakes for students; (3) high stakes for districts, schools, and teachers, and low stakes for students;…

  18. Using Patterns of Summed Scores in Paper-and-Pencil Tests and Computer-Adaptive Tests to Detect Misfitting Item Score Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.

    2004-01-01

    Two new methods have been proposed to determine unexpected sum scores on sub-tests (testlets) both for paper-and-pencil tests and computer adaptive tests. A method based on a conservative bound using the hypergeometric distribution, denoted p, was compared with a method where the probability for each score combination was calculated using a…

  19. Test Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Wanda B., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    There's accountability and then there's the testing craze an iatrogenic practice that undermines real learning. Hedrick documents the negative effects of testing, giving teachers another weapon in their arsenal against mindless preparation for high-stakes tests.

  20. The Comparison of Accuracy Scores on the Paper and Pencil Testing vs. Computer-Based Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retnawati, Heri

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of the test scores as results of Test of English Proficiency (TOEP) based on paper and pencil test (PPT) versus computer-based test (CBT). Using the participants' responses to the PPT documented from 2008-2010 and data of CBT TOEP documented in 2013-2014 on the sets of 1A, 2A, and 3A for the Listening and…

  1. Test Scores Count! A Handbook for Teaching Test-Taking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenigs, Sharon

    This handbook provides guidelines for teaching test-taking skills to students of all grade levels to help the students raise their standardized test scores. Topics covered include: understanding instructions and following directions, efficient use of time, intelligent guessing, and application of special strategies for multiple-choice and…

  2. Test/score/report: Simulation techniques for automating the test process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary

  3. Developing Test Score Reports that Work: The Process and Best Practices for Effective Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zenisky, April L.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores matter these days. Test-takers want to understand how they performed, and test score reports, particularly those for individual examinees, are the vehicles by which most people get the bulk of this information. Historically, score reports have not always met the examinees' information or usability needs, but this is clearly changing…

  4. Tests That Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Nina; Hurwitz, Sol

    2000-01-01

    High-stakes testing is forcing debate over achieving both educational excellence and equity. A pragmatic, middle position claims high-stakes testing can work with clear but limited goals, flexibility, and the will to address at-risk students' problems. Texas, Chicago, and New York City programs and implementation steps are highlighted. (MLH)

  5. Evidence-Based Decision about Test Scoring Rules in Clinical Anatomy Multiple-Choice Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severo, Milton; Gaio, A. Rita; Povo, Ana; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2015-01-01

    In theory the formula scoring methods increase the reliability of multiple-choice tests in comparison with number-right scoring. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the formula scoring method in clinical anatomy multiple-choice examinations, and to compare it with that from the number-right scoring method, hoping to achieve an…

  6. The Formalization of Fairness: Issues in Testing for Measurement Invariance Using Subtest Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan; Borsboom, Denny

    2013-01-01

    Measurement invariance is an important prerequisite for the adequate comparison of group differences in test scores. In psychology, measurement invariance is typically investigated by means of linear factor analyses of subtest scores. These subtest scores typically result from summing the item scores. In this paper, we discuss 4 possible problems…

  7. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents’ Adherence to Dietary Recommendations—Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score

    PubMed Central

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents’ dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents’ adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen’s Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14–15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  8. A Diet Score Assessing Norwegian Adolescents' Adherence to Dietary Recommendations-Development and Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Score.

    PubMed

    Handeland, Katina; Kjellevold, Marian; Wik Markhus, Maria; Eide Graff, Ingvild; Frøyland, Livar; Lie, Øyvind; Skotheim, Siv; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Dahl, Lisbeth; Øyen, Jannike

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of adolescents' dietary habits is challenging. Reliable instruments to monitor dietary trends are required to promote healthier behaviours in this group. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess adolescents' adherence to Norwegian dietary recommendations with a diet score and to report results from, and test-retest reliability of, the score. The diet score involved seven food groups and one physical activity indicator, and was applied to answers from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered twice. Reproducibility of the score was assessed with Cohen's Kappa (κ statistics) at an interval of three months. The setting was eight lower-secondary schools in Hordaland County, Norway, and subjects were adolescents (n = 472) aged 14-15 years and their caregivers. Results showed that the proportion of adolescents consistently classified by the diet score was 87.6% (κ = 0.465). For food groups, proportions ranged from 74.0% to 91.6% (κ = 0.249 to κ = 0.573). Less than 40% of the participants were found to adhere to recommendations for frequencies of eating fruits, vegetables, added sugar, and fish. Highest compliance to recommendations was seen for choosing water as beverage and limit the intake of red meat. The score was associated with parental socioeconomic status. The diet score was found to be reproducible at an acceptable level. Health promoting work targeting adolescents should emphasize to increase the intake of recommended foods to approach nutritional guidelines. PMID:27483312

  9. Scoring and Testing Procedures Devoted to Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarello, Dario; D'Amico, Vera

    2015-03-01

    This review addresses long-term (tens of years) seismic ground-motion forecasting (seismic hazard assessment) in the presence of alternative computational models (the so-called epistemic uncertainty affecting hazard estimates). We review the different approaches that have been proposed to manage epistemic uncertainty in the context of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Ex- ante procedures (based on the combination of expert judgments about inherent characteristics of the PSHA model) and ex- post approaches (based on empirical comparison of model outcomes and observations) should not be considered as mutually exclusive alternatives but can be combined in a coherent Bayesian view. Therefore, we propose a procedure that allows a better exploitation of available PSHA models to obtain comprehensive estimates, which account for both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. We also discuss the respective roles of empirical ex-post scoring and testing of alternative models concurring in the development of comprehensive hazard maps. In order to show how the proposed procedure may work, we also present a tentative application to the Italian area. In particular, four PSHA models are evaluated ex-post against macroseismic effects actually observed in a large set of Italian municipalities during the time span 1957-2006. This analysis shows that, when the whole Italian area is considered, all the models provide estimates that do not agree with the observations. However, two of them provide results that are compatible with observations, when a subregion of Italy (Apulia Region) is considered. By focusing on this area, we computed a comprehensive hazard curve for a single locality in order to show the feasibility of the proposed procedure.

  10. Construct Validity and Test Re-Test Reliability of the Forgotten Joint Score.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon M; Salmon, Lucy J; Webb, Justin M; Pinczewski, Leo A; Roe, Justin P

    2015-11-01

    Consecutive patients undergoing knee arthroplasty completed questionnaires: FJS, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and WOMAC Score (mean 39 months after surgery), and were mailed a repeat questionnaire after 4 to 6 weeks. The test-retest reliability was almost perfect for the FJS (ICC = 0.97), and the FJS subdomains (ICC > 0.8). Convergent construct validity of the FJS was correlated with the KOOS Subscores of Quality of Life (0.63, P = 0.001), Symptom (0.33, P = 0.001), Pain (0.68, P = 0.001) and ADL (0.66, P = 0.001) and the Total WOMAC (0.70, P = 0.001). The FJS demonstrates high test-retest reliability and construct validity compared to the Normalised WOMAC and KOOS Subscales. The FJS does not demonstrate the ceiling effect of the WOMAC or KOOS pain scores so may have greater discriminatory ability following TKR.

  11. Relationships between Gender and Alberta Achievement Test Scores during a Four-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Gregory A.; Wentzel, Carolyn; Braden, Brigitta; Anderson, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate statistical relationships between gender and Alberta Achievement Testing Program scores. Achievement test scores from grades 3, 6, and 9 in all subject areas were investigated during a four-year period. Results showed statistically significant positive correlations between gender and scores in most…

  12. Difficulty and Discriminating Indices of Three-Multiple Choice Tests Using the Confidence Scoring Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omirin, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the comparison of the difficulty and discrimination incides of three multiple choice tests using the confidence scoring procedure (CSP). The study was also set to determine whether or not the difficulty and discrimination indices would be improved, if the tests were scored by the confidence scoring procedure. Two null…

  13. Situational Effects May Account for Gain Scores in Cognitive Ability Testing: A Longitudinal SEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matton, Nadine; Vautier, Stephane; Raufaste, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Mean gain scores for cognitive ability tests between two sessions in a selection setting are now a robust finding, yet not fully understood. Many authors do not attribute such gain scores to an increase in the target abilities. Our approach consists of testing a longitudinal SEM model suitable to this view. We propose to model the scores' changes…

  14. How Parents Can Help Kids Improve Test Scores: Taking the Stakes out of Literacy Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Steven

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the goals of No Child Left Behind, standardized testing is preeminent as the sole indicator determining whether states all across America demonstrate adequate yearly progress regarding the improvement of student achievement in literacy education. This book will help teachers and parents raise children's scores on standardized…

  15. Using Rasch measurement to score, evaluate, and improve examinations in an anatomy course.

    PubMed

    Royal, Kenneth D; Gilliland, Kurt O; Kernick, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    Any examination that involves moderate to high stakes implications for examinees should be psychometrically sound and legally defensible. Currently, there are two broad and competing families of test theories that are used to score examination data. The majority of instructors outside the high-stakes testing arena rely on classical test theory (CTT) methods. However, advances in item response theory software have made the application of these techniques much more accessible to classroom instructors. The purpose of this research is to analyze a common medical school anatomy examination using both the traditional CTT scoring method and a Rasch measurement scoring method to determine which technique provides more robust findings, and which set of psychometric indicators will be more meaningful and useful for anatomists looking to improve the psychometric quality and functioning of their examinations. Results produced by the more robust and meaningful methodology will undergo a rigorous psychometric validation process to evaluate construct validity. Implications of these techniques and additional possibilities for advanced applications are also discussed. PMID:24431324

  16. Improving Student Achievement: What State NAEP Test Scores Tell Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David; Flanagan, Ann; Kawata, Jennifer; Williamson, Stephanie

    This report uses data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) from 1990 through 1996 to estimate score gains nationally and by state. It also uses these data to estimate the effects of varying levels and uses of per-pupil expenditures. The report also estimates the cost-effectiveness of the major alternatives for using…

  17. Transiency, Test Scores, and the Public: One School District's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Research documents that transient students who change schools frequently oftensuffer from low academic achievement. This article investigates standardized group measures by disentangling elementary achievement scores. Located in a highly transient area outside of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Main Street School had their fifth grade Pennsylvania…

  18. Why African American College Students Miss the Perfect Test Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben; Stokes, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans were imbued with the cliché that they must work twice as hard as others to be a success in life. Entering college, students with this belief put extensive effort into earning top grades to ensure quality preparation for their chosen career; yet, some fail to earn top scores. Why? This is the million dollar question, but the…

  19. A Study of Methods for Estimating Distributions of Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Ronald T.; Kolen, Michael J.

    This study compared five density estimation techniques applied to samples from a population of 272,244 examinees' ACT English Usage and Mathematics Usage raw scores. Unsmoothed frequencies, kernel method, negative hypergeometric, four-parameter beta compound binomial, and Cureton-Tukey methods were applied to 500 replications of random samples of…

  20. The Effects of Changing Answers on Scores of Non-Test-Sophisticated Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The effects of answer changes on test scores of relatively non-test-sophisticated examinees was studied. Findings showed that a significantly greater number of changes were from wrong to right, thus increasing total test scores. Answer-changing behavior may reflect more than learned test-taking skill. (Author)

  1. Neuropsychological test scores, academic performance, and developmental disorders in Spanish-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, M; Ardila, A; Bateman, J R; Guzmán, M

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is currently available about performance of Spanish-speaking children on different neuropsychological tests. This study was designed to (a) analyze the effects of age and sex on different neuropsychological test scores of a randomly selected sample of Spanish-speaking children, (b) analyze the value of neuropsychological test scores for predicting school performance, and (c) describe the neuropsychological profile of Spanish-speaking children with learning disabilities (LD). Two hundred ninety (141 boys, 149 girls) 6- to 11-year-old children were selected from a school in Bogotá, Colombia. Three age groups were distinguished: 6- to 7-, 8- to 9-, and 10- to 11-year-olds. Performance was measured utilizing the following neuropsychological tests: Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test (FTT), Grooved Pegboard Test, Children's Category Test (CCT), California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C), Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), and Bateria Woodcock Psicoeducativa en Español (Woodcock, 1982). Normative scores were calculated. Age effect was significant for most of the test scores. A significant sex effect was observed for 3 test scores. Intercorrelations were performed between neuropsychological test scores and academic areas (science, mathematics, Spanish, social studies, and music). In a post hoc analysis, children presenting very low scores on the reading, writing, and arithmetic achievement scales of the Woodcock battery were identified in the sample, and their neuropsychological test scores were compared with a matched normal group. Finally, a comparison was made between Colombian and American norms.

  2. Can Machine Scoring Deal with Broad and Open Writing Tests as Well as Human Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the claim that machine scoring of writing test responses agrees with human readers as much as humans agree with other humans. These claims about the reliability of machine scoring of writing are usually based on specific and constrained writing tasks, and there is reason for asking whether machine scoring of writing requires…

  3. Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…

  4. D.C. Student Test Scores Show Uneven Progress. Data Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPre, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Over the past five years, both DC Public Schools (DCPS) and public charter schools (PCS) have seen significant growth in secondary reading and math scores on the state test known as the District of Columbia Comprehensive Assessment System (DC CAS). However, scores have not improved as much at the elementary level. Reading and math scores for DCPS…

  5. A Comparison of Three Methods of Scoring True-False Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1979-01-01

    Though the Paired-Item-Score (Eakin and Long) (EJ 174 780) method of scoring true-false tests has certain advantages over the traditional scoring methods (percentage right and right minus wrong), these advantages are attained at the cost of a larger risk of misranking the examinees. (Author/BW)

  6. The value of Bayes' theorem for interpreting abnormal test scores in cognitively healthy and clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Gavett, Brandon E

    2015-03-01

    The base rates of abnormal test scores in cognitively normal samples have been a focus of recent research. The goal of the current study is to illustrate how Bayes' theorem uses these base rates--along with the same base rates in cognitively impaired samples and prevalence rates of cognitive impairment--to yield probability values that are more useful for making judgments about the absence or presence of cognitive impairment. Correlation matrices, means, and standard deviations were obtained from the Wechsler Memory Scale--4th Edition (WMS-IV) Technical and Interpretive Manual and used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the base rates of abnormal test scores in the standardization and special groups (mixed clinical) samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to these estimates to identify probabilities of normal cognition based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. Abnormal scores were common in the standardization sample (65.4% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest) and more common in the mixed clinical sample (85.6% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest). Probabilities varied according to the number of abnormal test scores, base rates of normal cognition, and cutoff scores. The results suggest that interpretation of base rates obtained from cognitively healthy samples must also account for data from cognitively impaired samples. Bayes' theorem can help neuropsychologists answer questions about the probability that an individual examinee is cognitively healthy based on the number of abnormal test scores observed.

  7. What's Wrong with Teaching to the Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Dave

    2004-01-01

    Opponents of so-called high-stakes testing complain that such intense pressure causes teachers to devote virtually all classroom time and resources to preparing students for the standardized test. This phenomenon is called "teaching to the test." Proponents of high-stakes testing respond that that is exactly as it should be. They argue that the…

  8. Further Validation of the Qualitative Scoring System for the Modified Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannigan, Gary G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Compares the Qualitative Scoring System and the Developmental Scoring Systems, both Bender-Gestalt tests, in predicting achievement on the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT). In this study, first through fourth graders (n=409) from regular elementary schools were subjected to both tests; both systems correlated significantly with school…

  9. Are Score Comparisons across Language Proficiency Test Batteries Justified?: An IELTS-TOEFL Comparability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geranpayeh, Ardeshir

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if comparisons between scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing Service (IELTS) are justifiable. The test scores of 216 Iranian graduate students who took the TOEFL and IELTS, as well as the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Higher…

  10. Noncognitive Skills and the Gender Disparities in Test Scores and Teacher Assessments: Evidence from Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwell, Christopher; Mustard, David B.; Van Parys, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 1998-99 ECLS-K cohort, we show that the grades awarded by teachers are not aligned with test scores. Girls in every racial category outperform boys on reading tests, while boys score at least as well on math and science tests as girls. However, boys in all racial categories across all subject areas are not represented in…

  11. Score Reporting in Teacher Certification Testing: A Review, Design, and Interview/Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesch, Heather S.

    2010-01-01

    The reporting of scores on educational tests is at times misunderstood, misinterpreted, and potentially confusing to examinees and other stakeholders who may need to interpret test scores. In reporting test results to examinees, there is a need for clarity in the message communicated. As pressure rises for students to demonstrate performance at a…

  12. School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores. NBER Working Paper No. 16830

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Habyarimana, James; Krishnan, Pramila; Muralidharan, Karthik; Sundararaman, Venkatesh

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. We present a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and test its predictions in two very different low-income country…

  13. A Study of the Long-Term Stability of GRE General Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenneth M.

    1988-01-01

    A study of the long-term stability of Graduate Record Examination scores for graduate program admission purposes investigated the changes in scores among test repeaters. Results suggest that long-term test repeaters have greater gains on verbal than quantitative tests. Explanations and implications are considered. (MSE)

  14. Note on the Scoring of Foreign Language Speaking and Writing Fluency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    The problem of determining relative weights for quantity and quality in scoring foreign language speaking and writing fluency tests is studied. French speaking and writing fluency tests were administered to students of French in several schools in England. Data from these tests was analyzed to support the suggestion that scoring formulas should…

  15. Clinical Importance of the Heel Drop Test and a New Clinical Score for Adult Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Shin; Lee, Hyeji; Choi, Wookjin; Ahn, Ryeok; Hong, Jung-Suk; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Lim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We tried to evaluate the accuracy of the heel drop test in patients with suspected appendicitis and tried to develop a new clinical score, which incorporates the heel drop test and other parameters, for the diagnosis of this condition. Methods We performed a prospective observational study on adult patients with suspected appendicitis at two academic urban emergency departments between January and August 2015. The predictive characteristics of each parameter, along with heel drop test results were calculated. A composite score was generated by logistic regression analysis. The performance of the generated score was compared to that of the Alvarado score. Results Of the 292 enrolled patients, 165 (56.5%) had acute appendicitis. The heel drop test had a higher predictive value than rebound tenderness. Variables and their points included in the new (MESH) score were pain migration (2), elevated white blood cell (WBC) >10,000/μL (3), shift to left (2), and positive heel drop test (3). The MESH score had a higher AUC than the Alvarado score (0.805 vs. 0.701). Scores of 5 and 11 were chosen as cut-off values; a MESH score ≥5 compared to an Alvarado score ≥5, and a MESH score ≥8 compared to an Alvarado score ≥7 showed better performance in diagnosing appendicitis. Conclusion MESH (migration, elevated WBC, shift to left, and heel drop test) is a simple clinical scoring system for assessing patients with suspected appendicitis and is more accurate than the Alvarado score. Further validation studies are needed. PMID:27723842

  16. The Influence of Using TI-84 Calculators with Programs on Algebra I High Stakes Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Misty

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference in scores on the Mississippi Algebra I SATP2 when one group was allowed to use programs and the other group was not allowed to use programs on TI-84 calculators. An additional purpose of the study was also to determine if there was a significant difference in the…

  17. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  18. The Scoring of Matching Questions Tests: A Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancarík, Antonín; Kostelecká, Yvona

    2015-01-01

    Electronic testing has become a regular part of online courses. Most learning management systems offer a wide range of tools that can be used in electronic tests. With respect to time demands, the most efficient tools are those that allow automatic assessment. The presented paper focuses on one of these tools: matching questions in which one…

  19. Increases in Test Scores as a Function of Material Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuinman, J. Jaap; And Others

    From the entire population (N=341) of grades 7 and 8 in a rural Indiana junior high school, 160 subjects were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental and the control groups. Form A of the Nelson Reading Test was administered twice with a 4-week interval. While the control group was told only that the post-test was given to measure how…

  20. Hi Stakes Testing Polarization or Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, James J.

    High stakes testing is associated with controversy and dialogue in this era of calls for accountability on the part of educators, and the controversy has been strengthened by the national testing plans included in the Leave No Child Behind Act (Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2001). A look at the literature on high stakes testing and…

  1. Comparing Scores on Individual Intelligence Tests for Disabled Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Robert F.

    1981-01-01

    Concludes that the Slosson Intelligence Test and the Leiter International Performance Scale measure only limited aspects of reading disabled students' abilities as measured by the Weschsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised. (FL)

  2. Comparison of Two Scoring Systems for the Modified Version of the Bender-Gestalt Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Steven; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined relative utility of two scoring systems for Modified Version of Bender-Gestalt Test in predicting performance on Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Findings from 53 kindergarten and 47 first grade students indicated that Qualitative Scoring System was significantly better predictor of visual-motor integration skills than…

  3. Scoring Yes-No Vocabulary Tests: Reaction Time vs. Nonword Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer-Sanchez, Ana; Schmitt, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Despite a number of research studies investigating the Yes-No vocabulary test format, one main question remains unanswered: What is the best scoring procedure to adjust for testee overestimation of vocabulary knowledge? Different scoring methodologies have been proposed based on the inclusion and selection of nonwords in the test. However, there…

  4. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  5. The Influence of an NCLB Accountability Plan on the Distribution of Student Test Score Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on the effect of accountability programs on the distribution of student test score gains is decidedly mixed. This study examines the issue by estimating an educational production function in which test score gains are a function of the incentives schools have to focus instruction on below-proficient students. NCLB's threat of…

  6. AP Trends: Tests Soar, Scores Slip--Gaps between Groups Spur Equity Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    More students are taking Advanced Placement tests, but the proportion of tests receiving what is deemed a passing score has dipped, and the mean score is down for the fourth year in a row. Data released here this week by the New York City-based nonprofit organization that owns the AP brand shows that a greater-than-ever proportion of students…

  7. Correcting for Test Score Measurement Error in ANCOVA Models for Estimating Treatment Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy for estimating treatment effects in observational studies using individual student-level data is analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) or hierarchical variants of it, in which outcomes (often standardized test scores) are regressed on pretreatment test scores, other student characteristics, and treatment group indicators. Measurement…

  8. Kindergarten Black-White Test Score Gaps: Replicating and Updating Previous Findings with New National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, David

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence has shown large academic test score gaps between black and white students in early childhood. These gaps remain, and probably grow, as students progress through school. Many researchers have sought to explain these persistent test score gaps, and particularly, to understand the role of students' socio-economic status…

  9. Beyond Correlations: Usefulness of High School GPA and Test Scores in Making College Admissions Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions' selectivity and…

  10. Effects of Scoring by Section and Independent Scorers' Patterns on Scorer Reliability in Biology Essay Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebuoh, Casmir N.; Ezeudu, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of scoring by section, use of independent scorers and conventional patterns on scorer reliability in Biology essay tests. It was revealed from literature review that conventional pattern of scoring all items at a time in essay tests had been criticized for not being reliable. The study was true experimental study…

  11. An Investigation of Methods for Improving Estimation of Test Score Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Bradley A.

    Three methods of estimating test score distributions that may improve on using the observed frequencies (OBFs) as estimates of a population test score distribution are considered: the kernel method (KM); the polynomial method (PM); and the four-parameter beta binomial method (FPBBM). The assumption each method makes about the smoothness of the…

  12. The Influence of Foreign Language Learning during Early Childhood on Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Tommetta

    2010-01-01

    Increasing standardized test scores in reading and math is of high importance to the California Department of Education to meet requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. More research is needed to understand the best ways to improve tests scores to meet concerns of the NCLB act. The purpose of the study was to evaluate…

  13. The Effect of Misinformation, Partial Information, and Guessing on Expected Multiple-Choice Test Item Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    Six scoring methods for assigning weights to right or wrong responses according to various instructions given to test takers are analyzed with respect to expected change scores and the effect of various levels of information and misinformation. Three of the methods provide feedback to the test taker. (Author/CTM)

  14. Linking Scores from Tests of Similar Content Given in Different Languages: An Illustration Involving Methodological Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…

  15. The Dynamics of the Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Kitae

    2012-01-01

    We apply a quantile version of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to estimate the counterfactual distribution of the test scores of Black students. In the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), we find that the gap initially appears only at the top of the distribution of test scores. As children age, however,…

  16. The Effects of Accountability System Design on Teachers' Use of Test Score Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Many studies have concluded that educational accountability policies increase data use, but we know little about how to design accountability systems to encourage productive versus distortive uses of test score data. Purpose: I propose that five features of accountability systems affect how test score data are used and examine…

  17. The Effects of Developmental Placement and Early Retention on Children's Later Scores on Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Deborah C.; Welch, Edward L.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early school retention as a result of preschool and kindergarten developmental testing and children's later academic achievement (N=223). Results showed children who scored as immature on the Gesell Screening Test and who were retained a year had the lowest scores on all measures. (JAC)

  18. Peer Effects and the Indigenous/Non-Indigenous Early Test-Score Gap in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses the magnitude of the non-indigenous/indigenous test-score gap for third-year and fourth-year primary school pupils in Peru, in relation to the main family, school and peer inputs contributing to the test-score gap using the estimation method of feasible generalized least squares. The article then decomposes the gap into its…

  19. Linking Scores From Tests of Similar Content Given in Different Languages: An Illustration Involving Methodological Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascallar, Alicia S.; Dorans, Neil J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares two methods commonly used (concordance and prediction) to establish linkages between scores from tests of similar content given in different languages. Score linkages between the Verbal and Math sections of the SAT I and the corresponding sections of the Spanish-language admissions test, the Prueba de Aptitud Academica (PAA),…

  20. Analysis of Score Change Patterns of Examinees Repeating the Graduate Record Examinations General Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Neal; Turner, Nancy

    This investigation examines the impact the l98l Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test Format Revision had on the stability over time of the verbal, quantitative, and analytical scores. Scores were used from the self-selected group of repeaters who took the GRE General Test twice between October 1980 and June 1982. Examinees were divided…

  1. Many Children Left Behind? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya. NBER Working Paper No. 13300

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glewwe, Paul; Kremer, Michael; Moulin, Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    A randomized evaluation suggests that a program which provided official textbooks to randomly selected rural Kenyan primary schools did not increase test scores for the average student. In contrast, the previous literature suggests that textbook provision has a large impact on test scores. Disaggregating the results by students' initial academic…

  2. Are Mathematics and Science Test Scores Good Indicators of Labor-Force Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shiu-Sheng; Luoh, Ming-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), we investigate the link between test scores (mathematics and science) and cross-country income differences. We would like to know whether test scores are good indicators of labor-force quality. The…

  3. Improving behavior observation audiometry testing and scoring procedures.

    PubMed

    Gans, D P

    1987-04-01

    The need exists for improving behavioral testing of low-functioning children, particularly profoundly involved multiply handicapped children. In this study, behavior observation audiometry (BOA) was modified for systematic evaluation of childrens' responses to sound without observer bias. The data were analyzed statistically and a minimum response level was computed. This BOA technique was used to test the hearing of 82 profoundly involved handicapped children. Results suggested that BOA can be helpful in evaluating the hearing of low-functioning children.

  4. Monitoring scale scores over time via quality control charts, model-based approaches, and time series techniques.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; von Davier, Alina A

    2013-07-01

    Maintaining a stable score scale over time is critical for all standardized educational assessments. Traditional quality control tools and approaches for assessing scale drift either require special equating designs, or may be too time-consuming to be considered on a regular basis with an operational test that has a short time window between an administration and its score reporting. Thus, the traditional methods are not sufficient to catch unusual testing outcomes in a timely manner. This paper presents a new approach for score monitoring and assessment of scale drift. It involves quality control charts, model-based approaches, and time series techniques to accommodate the following needs of monitoring scale scores: continuous monitoring, adjustment of customary variations, identification of abrupt shifts, and assessment of autocorrelation. Performance of the methodologies is evaluated using manipulated data based on real responses from 71 administrations of a large-scale high-stakes language assessment. PMID:25106404

  5. An Item Analysis and Validity Investigation of Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Score Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    1971-01-01

    This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)

  6. Estimating Conditional Distributions of Scores on an Alternate Form of a Test. Research Report. ETS RR-15-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.; Chen, Haiwen H.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative information about test score reliability can be presented in terms of the distribution of equated scores on an alternate form of the test for test takers with a given score on the form taken. In this paper, we describe a procedure for estimating that distribution, for any specified score on the test form taken, by estimating the joint…

  7. Maintaining Equivalent Cut Scores for Small Sample Test Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of three approaches for maintaining equivalent performance standards across test forms with small samples: (1) common-item equating, (2) resetting the standard, and (3) rescaling the standard. Rescaling the standard (i.e., applying common-item equating methodology to standard setting ratings to account for…

  8. Test Scores and the Rural School and Community Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural School and Community Trust, Washington, DC.

    A number of studies suggests that the small size of many rural schools gives their students, especially the poorest, a leg up on academic achievement. This notion is supported by the standardized test results presented in this report, from a sample of the primarily small schools participating in the Rural School and Community Trust, a national…

  9. Allometric Scaling of Wingate Anaerobic Power Test Scores in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzler, Ronald K.; Stickley, Christopher D.; Kimura, Iris F.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we developed allometric exponents for scaling Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) power data that are reflective in controlling for body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and established a normative WAnT data set for college-age women. One hundred women completed a standard WAnT. Allometric exponents and percentile ranks for peak (PP)…

  10. Prevalence of low scores in children and adolescents on the test of verbal conceptualization and fluency.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; Koushik, Nikhil S; Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anya; Horton, Arthur MacNeill; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2013-01-01

    It is important to consider the prevalence of low scores when administering a battery of psychological tests. Understanding the prevalence of low scores is important for minimizing false-positive diagnoses of cognitive deficits in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to expand the literature on base rates for use in children and adolescents. Participants were 408 healthy children and adolescents (M(age) = 13.1 years, SD = 3.7) and 139 children and adolescents (M(age) = 12.4 years, SD = 3.1) diagnosed with a medical, neurological, or learning condition. All participants were administered the Test of Verbal Conceptualization and Fluency (TVCF; Reynolds & Horton, 2006 ). The clinical sample performed significantly lower compared with the healthy control participants on three of the five TVCF scores. When all scores were considered simultaneously, 38% of healthy children obtained one or more scores below the 16th percentile and 15% had one or more scores in the 5th percentile or lower. By comparison, significantly higher proportions of children in the clinical sample had low scores below each of the five cutoffs (i.e., 63% had one or more test scores below the 16th percentile and 37% had one or more scores in the 5th percentile or lower). Our findings illustrate the importance of considering the prevalence of low TVCF scores in everyday clinical practice with children and adolescents.

  11. Personnel Test Battery and Scoring Procedures. Memorandum No. L.S. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Barry L.

    The purpose of this memo is to present tests that comprise the test battery used to select Navy personnel to train marine mammals, and to describe the scoring procedures of the tests. The test battery consists of: Biosystems General Information Test (BGIT), Personnel History Questionnaire (PHQ), Gordon Personal Inventory, Gordon Personal Profile,…

  12. Testing the Teacher? Or Teaching the Test?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2001-08-01

    Tests, including those written by someone other than the teacher, are a good thing. They provide one useful measure of the success of a student, course, teacher, or school. But too much of a good thing can cause serious, long-term harm. Let us resolve to use tests judiciously, thoughtfully, and appropriately, and to influence others to do the same.

    Literature Cited

    1. High Stakes Testing for Tracking, Promotion, and Graduation; Heubert, J. P.; Hauser, R. M., Eds.; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1999; (accessed Jun 2001).
    2. Steinberg, J.; Henriques, D. B. None of the Above; The New York Times May 21, 2001, p A1; May 22, 2001, p A1.
    3. Glenn, T.; Akin, M. Questioning Testing; School Administrator 1996, 53, 26.
    4. Klein, S. P.; Hamilton, L. S.; McCaffrey, D. F.; Stecher, B. M. What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us? Educ. Policy Anal. Arch. 2000, 8 (49); (accessed Jun 2001).
    5. Morris, B. R. School Testing Bandwagon Spawns Web Coaching Sites; The New York Times May 24, 2001, p D6.
    6. Goodnough, A. High Stakes of Fourth-Grade Tests Are Driving Off Veteran Teachers; The New York Times June 14, 2001, p A1.

    7. Scoring Divergent Thinking Tests by Computer With a Semantics-Based Algorithm.

      PubMed

      Beketayev, Kenes; Runco, Mark A

      2016-05-01

      Divergent thinking (DT) tests are useful for the assessment of creative potentials. This article reports the semantics-based algorithmic (SBA) method for assessing DT. This algorithm is fully automated: Examinees receive DT questions on a computer or mobile device and their ideas are immediately compared with norms and semantic networks. This investigation compared the scores generated by the SBA method with the traditional methods of scoring DT (i.e., fluency, originality, and flexibility). Data were collected from 250 examinees using the "Many Uses Test" of DT. The most important finding involved the flexibility scores from both scoring methods. This was critical because semantic networks are based on conceptual structures, and thus a high SBA score should be highly correlated with the traditional flexibility score from DT tests. Results confirmed this correlation (r = .74). This supports the use of algorithmic scoring of DT. The nearly-immediate computation time required by SBA method may make it the method of choice, especially when it comes to moderate- and large-scale DT assessment investigations. Correlations between SBA scores and GPA were insignificant, providing evidence of the discriminant and construct validity of SBA scores. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are offered. PMID:27298632

    8. Wisconsin card sorting test: a new global score, with Italian norms, and its relationship with the Weigl sorting test.

      PubMed

      Laiacona, M; Inzaghi, M G; De Tanti, A; Capitani, E

      2000-10-01

      The Wisconsin card sorting test and the Weigl test are two neuropsychological tools widely used in clinical practice to assess frontal lobe functions. In this study we present norms useful for Italian subjects aged from 15 to 85 years, with 5-17 years of education. Concerning the Wisconsin card sorting test, a new measure of global efficiency (global score) is proposed as well as norms for some well known qualitative aspects of the performance, i.e. perseverative responses, failure to maintain the set and non-perseverative errors. In setting normative values, we followed a statistical methodology (equivalent scores) employed in Italy for other neuropsychological tests, in order to favour the possibility of comparison among these tests. A correlation study between the global score of the Wisconsin card sorting test and the score on the Weigl test was carried out and it emerges that some cognitive aspects are not overlapping in these two measures.

    9. Comparison of the Koppitz and Watkins Scoring Systems for the Bender Gestalt Test.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Johnston, Cris W.; Lanak, Brenda

      1985-01-01

      The Bender Gestalt Test was administered to 25 children (7-10 years old) referred for neuropsychological assessment and scored using the Koppitz system and the Watkins system. Although the scores obtained using the two different sets of criteria were highly correlated, the Watkins rules produced generally better performance. (Author/CL)

    10. Using Test Scores from Students with Disabilities in Teacher Effectiveness Indicators

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Buzick, Heather M.; Jones, Nathan D.

      2015-01-01

      The increased emphasis on using student growth measures in teacher evaluation has raised questions about how to treat test scores from students with disabilities. This study explores the consequences of three common approaches for treating scores from students with disabilities in statistical approaches to estimating teacher effectiveness: (1)…

    11. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

      2012-01-01

      Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

    12. See It, Be It, Write It: Using Performing Arts to Improve Writing Skills and Test Scores

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Blecher-Sass, Hope Sara; Moffitt, Maryellen

      2010-01-01

      Improve students' writing skills and boost their assessment scores while adding arts education, creativity, and fun to your writing curriculum. With this vibrant resource, improving writing skills goes hand-in-hand with improving test scores. Students learn how to use acting and visualization as prewriting activities to help them connect writing…

    13. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

      2011-01-01

      This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

    14. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

      2008-01-01

      What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

  1. Optimal Scoring Methods of Hand-Strength Tests in Patients with Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods…

  2. Language Variation and Score Variation in the Testing of English Language Learners, Native Spanish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Li, Min

    2009-01-01

    We investigated language variation and score variation in the testing of English language learners, native Spanish speakers. We gave students the same set of National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics items in both their first language and their second language. We examined the amount of score variation due to the main and interaction…

  3. Test Score or Student Progress? A Value-Added Evaluation of School Effectiveness in Urban China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Pai; Hochweber, Jan; Klieme, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    Outcome-oriented evaluation of school effectiveness is often based on student test scores in certain critical examinations. This study provides another method of evaluation--value-added--which is based on student achievement progress. This paper introduces the method of estimating the value-added score of schools in multi-level models. Based on…

  4. Use of Standardized Test Scores to Predict Success in a Computer Applications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robert V.; King, Stephanie B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship existed between American College Testing (ACT) scores (i.e., English, reading, mathematics, science reasoning, and composite) and student success in a computer applications course at a Mississippi community college. The study showed that while the ACT scores were excellent predictors of…

  5. Effects of Targeted Test Preparation on Scores of Two Tests of Oral English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of targeted test preparation, or coaching, on oral English as a second language test scores. The tests in question were the Basic English Skills Test Plus (BEST Plus), a scripted oral interview published by the Center for Applied Linguistics, and the Versant English Test (VET), a computer-administered and…

  6. Loanwords and Vocabulary Size Test Scores: A Case of Different Estimates for Different L1 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia; McLean, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The article investigated how the inclusion of loanwords in vocabulary size tests affected the test scores of two L1 groups of EFL learners: Hebrew and Japanese. New BNC- and COCA-based vocabulary size tests were constructed in three modalities: word form recall, word form recognition, and word meaning recall. Depending on the test modality, the…

  7. An Attempt to Revise Scoring Conventions for the Token and Reporter's Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Penelope K.; Jordan, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    Revised methods of scoring the Token Test and Reporter's Test were developed to accommodate specific types of errors committed by language-disordered children during a previous standardization study. Test modifications are explained as are the results of administering the revised tests to both normal and language-disordered school-aged children.…

  8. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ...-alone diagnostic test, or as a test to determine whether or not to proceed with surgery. Elsewhere in... assessment score test system is intended for use in those patients for whom surgery is planned, and should not be used to decide whether or not a patient should receive surgery. The test is used in...

  9. Estimating Achievement Gaps from Test Scores Reported in Ordinal "Proficiency" Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Andrew D.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2012-01-01

    Test scores are commonly reported in a small number of ordered categories. Examples of such reporting include state accountability testing, Advanced Placement tests, and English proficiency tests. This article introduces and evaluates methods for estimating achievement gaps on a familiar standard-deviation-unit metric using data from these ordered…

  10. Scoring Divergent Thinking Tests by Computer With a Semantics-Based Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Beketayev, Kenes; Runco, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Divergent thinking (DT) tests are useful for the assessment of creative potentials. This article reports the semantics-based algorithmic (SBA) method for assessing DT. This algorithm is fully automated: Examinees receive DT questions on a computer or mobile device and their ideas are immediately compared with norms and semantic networks. This investigation compared the scores generated by the SBA method with the traditional methods of scoring DT (i.e., fluency, originality, and flexibility). Data were collected from 250 examinees using the “Many Uses Test” of DT. The most important finding involved the flexibility scores from both scoring methods. This was critical because semantic networks are based on conceptual structures, and thus a high SBA score should be highly correlated with the traditional flexibility score from DT tests. Results confirmed this correlation (r = .74). This supports the use of algorithmic scoring of DT. The nearly-immediate computation time required by SBA method may make it the method of choice, especially when it comes to moderate- and large-scale DT assessment investigations. Correlations between SBA scores and GPA were insignificant, providing evidence of the discriminant and construct validity of SBA scores. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are offered. PMID:27298632

  11. A weighted generalized score statistic for comparison of predictive values of diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Andrzej S

    2013-03-15

    Positive and negative predictive values are important measures of a medical diagnostic test performance. We consider testing equality of two positive or two negative predictive values within a paired design in which all patients receive two diagnostic tests. The existing statistical tests for testing equality of predictive values are either Wald tests based on the multinomial distribution or the empirical Wald and generalized score tests within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. As presented in the literature, these test statistics have considerably complex formulas without clear intuitive insight. We propose their re-formulations that are mathematically equivalent but algebraically simple and intuitive. As is clearly seen with a new re-formulation we presented, the generalized score statistic does not always reduce to the commonly used score statistic in the independent samples case. To alleviate this, we introduce a weighted generalized score (WGS) test statistic that incorporates empirical covariance matrix with newly proposed weights. This statistic is simple to compute, always reduces to the score statistic in the independent samples situation, and preserves type I error better than the other statistics as demonstrated by simulations. Thus, we believe that the proposed WGS statistic is the preferred statistic for testing equality of two predictive values and for corresponding sample size computations. The new formulas of the Wald statistics may be useful for easy computation of confidence intervals for difference of predictive values. The introduced concepts have potential to lead to development of the WGS test statistic in a general GEE setting.

  12. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and the Hip Outcome Score

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Aoki, Stephen K.; Anderson, Mike B.; Kapron, Ashley L.; Peters, Christopher L.; Pelt, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The applicability and validity of many patient-reported outcome measures in the high-functioning population are not well understood. Purpose: To compare the psychometric properties of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) and sports (HOS-sports), and the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT). The hypotheses was that all instruments would perform well but that the LE CAT would show superiority psychometrically because a combination of CAT and a large item bank allows for a high degree of measurement precision. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Data were collected from 472 advanced-age, active participants from the Huntsman World Senior Games in 2012. Validity evidences were examined through item fit, dimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, differential item functioning, person raw score to measure correlation, and instrument coverage (ie, ceiling and floor effects), and reliability evidences were examined through Cronbach alpha and person separation index. Results: All instruments demonstrated good item fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and person raw score to measure correlations. The HOS-ADL had high ceiling effects of 36.02%, and the mHHS had ceiling effects of 27.54%. The LE CAT had ceiling effects of 8.47%, and the HOS-sports had no ceiling effects. None of the instruments had any floor effects. The mHHS had a very low Cronbach alpha of 0.41 and an extremely low person separation index of 0.08. Reliabilities for the LE CAT were excellent and for the HOS-ADL and HOS-sports were good. Conclusion: The LE CAT showed better psychometric properties overall than the HOS-ADL, HOS-sports, and mHHS for the senior population. The mHHS demonstrated pronounced ceiling effects and poor reliabilities that should be of concern. The high ceiling effects for the HOS-ADL were also of concern. The LE CAT was superior

  14. Deep Change: Cases and Commentary on Schools and Programs of Successful Reform in High Stakes States. Research in Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Gerald, Ed.; Strahan, David, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents cases of schools (Part One) and programs at the district level and beyond (Part Two) in which reform, while driven by high-stakes accountability, became larger and deeper through data-driven dialogue, culture change, organizational learning, and other elements of high performing cultures. Commentaries on cross-case patterns by…

  15. The Neo Personality Inventory-Revised: Factor Structure and Gender Invariance from Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in a High-Stakes Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Guenole, Nigel; Levine, Stephen Z.; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study presents new analyses of NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) responses collected from a large British sample in a high-stakes setting. The authors show the appropriateness of the five-factor model underpinning these responses in a variety of new ways. Using the recently developed exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM)…

  16. Keyboarding Compared with Handwriting on a High-Stakes Writing Assessment: Student Choice of Composing Medium, Raters' Perceptions, and Text Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whithaus, Carl; Harrison, Scott B.; Midyette, Jeb

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of keyboarding versus handwriting in a high-stakes writing assessment. Conclusions are based on data collected from a pilot project to move Old Dominion University's Exit Exam of Writing Proficiency from a handwritten format into a dual-option format (i.e., the students may choose to handwrite or keyboard the…

  17. Full Inclusion Programs for Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities: Can They Meet Student Needs in an Era of High Stakes Accountability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Issues related to full-time inclusive programs have been particularly controversial for elementary students with learning disabilities. The nature of this controversy has changed substantially over the last decade, given the emphasis on high stakes accountability for all students in the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and IDEA 2004. In spite of…

  18. An Exploratory Investigation of the Relations among Annual School Absences, Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement, and a High-Stakes State Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Ara; Balles, John; Venesky, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among annual school absences, data obtained from triennial reading curriculum-based measurement (R-CBM) screenings, including R-CBM slope, and a high-stakes state reading assessment. Participants included 106 third- and fourth-grade students for whom attendance and reading achievement data were available…

  19. The Relationship between School Quality and the Probability of Passing Standards-Based High-Stakes Performance Assessments. CSE Technical Report 644

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Pete; Martinez-Fernandez, Jose-Felipe

    2004-01-01

    We examine whether school quality affects passing the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE), which is a standards-based high-stakes performance assessment. We use 3-level hierarchical logistic and linear models to examine student probabilities of passing the CAHSEE to take advantage of the availability of student, teacher, and school level…

  20. High Stakes Principalship--Sleepless Nights, Heart Attacks and Sudden Death Accountabilities: Reading Media Representations of the United States Principal Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat; Blackmore, Jill; Sachs, Judyth; Tregenza, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Subjects a corpus of predominantly United States news articles to deconstructive narrative analysis and finds that the dominant media representation of principals' work is one of long hours, low salary, high stress, and sudden death from high stakes accountabilities. Notes that the media picture may perpetuate the problem, and that it is at odds…

  1. The Impact of High Stakes Accountability on Teachers' Professional Development: Evidence from the South. A Final Report to the Spencer Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Barnett; Turchi, Laura; Johnson, Dylan; Hare, Dwight; Owens, Deborah Duncan; Clements, Steve

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the case-study findings from a cross-state investigation focused on Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee, intended to deepen understanding around the influence of high stakes accountability on teacher learning and the capacity of districts and schools to support instructional practices…

  2. Optimal scoring methods of hand-strength tests in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods were used to present the strength scores. The smallest real difference was used to provide information on the measurement error. The smallest real difference percentage was used to compare the effect on minimizing the error. Using mean score of tests for nonspastic patients carried out at least twice was found to be advisable to minimize measurement errors in the grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch tests. However, the use of hand-strength tests for patients with spasticity is limited because of the relatively high measurement errors.

  3. Generalization of the Lord-Wingersky Algorithm to Computing the Distribution of Summed Test Scores Based on Real-Number Item Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seonghoon

    2013-01-01

    With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…

  4. Determining When Single Scoring for Constructed-Response Items Is as Effective as Double Scoring in Mixed-Format Licensure Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Moses, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The major purpose of this study is to assess the conditions under which single scoring for constructed-response (CR) items is as effective as double scoring in the licensure testing context. We used both empirical datasets of five mixed-format licensure tests collected in actual operational settings and simulated datasets that allowed for the…

  5. Test Score Stability and the Relationship of Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version Scores to External Variables among Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Peyton, Vicki; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 79 individuals participated in the present study to evaluate the test score stability (8-week test-retest interval) and construct validity of the scores of the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version, a new measure used to assess anxiety in college students, for application to graduate-level students. Results of the study…

  6. Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

  7. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. PMID:25867168

  8. A Model for Predicting Student Performance on High-Stakes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammann, Matthew Walter

    2010-01-01

    This research study examined the use of student achievement on reading and math state assessments to predict success on the science state assessment. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to test the prediction for all students in grades 5 and 8 in a mid-Atlantic state. The prediction model developed from the analysis explored the combined…

  9. Political Risk-Taking: Leading Literacy Education in an Era of High-Stakes Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylimaki, Rose M.

    2005-01-01

    In the current accountability environment, many school districts have mandated test preparation courses, canned programs, and otherwise limited teacher risk-taking in all but very high-performing schools. This article further suggests that extant literature on risk-taking as part of educational change is no longer sufficient for understanding…

  10. Finding Creativity and Flow in a High-Stakes Assessment Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Eric R.

    2013-01-01

    Remarks by the Minister for Education and Skills underscore the accountability that public institutions and the teaching profession carry for assuring the success of the nation's education enterprise. This article challenges assumptions about the nature of education that are critical to the accountability and testing regimens currently in favor…

  11. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…

  12. Instructions for additional qualitative scoring of the initial-letter Word-association Test.

    PubMed

    Zivković, M

    1994-04-01

    An additional scoring method is based on grouping test-words according to whether the same sign is given by subjects to the test-words. In this way five test-word categories are formed, Eros (test-words with double plus signs), demi-Eros (single plus sign), demi-Thanatos (single minus), Thanatos (double minus), and Deviant (+/- and theta signs). The next step in scoring is to count the number of test-words in a given scoring category whose meanings do not conform. The greater the discrepancy between the test-word category and its meaning, the less well adapted is the subject. Several illustrative protocols are discussed. PMID:8022674

  13. Test Scores in New Castle County, DE.--Before and After Busing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, William D., Comp.

    This analysis compares student test scores before and after school busing in New Castle County, Delaware, in an attempt to see if busing to achieve racial balance reduces the achievement gap between black and white students. School authorities pre-tested students with the California Achievement Test (CAT) in 1978-79, the first year of busing, and…

  14. The 5-Step Way to Raise Test Scores: Using the Data to Drive Your Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Pam C.

    2005-01-01

    Many teachers look at standardized tests as something to be dreaded. This author and teacher looks at standardized-test scores and sees a tool to bring students learning to new heights. This is a way for teachers to target instruction exactly where it's needed. A way to get students looking forward to end-of-the-year tests (really!) as a way to…

  15. Effects of Student Self-Corrective Measures on Learning and Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplin, Beth D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether students who graded and corrected their own test papers improved their learning and standardized test scores on the North Carolina end-of-course test in United States History. Four preexisting, intact classrooms of 11th grade United States History students in two different high schools formed the basis of this…

  16. The Relationship between Career Maturity Test Scores and Appropriateness of Career Choices: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbrook, Bert W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to replicate study determining relationship between appropriateness of career choices and career maturity test scores in rural ninth grade students (N=112) using Goal Selection scale of Career Maturity Inventory Competence Test and American College Testing Program Career Planning Program. Found two career maturity measures correlated…

  17. Demands on Users for Interpretation of Achievement Test Scores: Implications for the Evaluation Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Piana, Gabriel Mario; Gardner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Professional standards for validity of achievement tests have long reflected a consensus that validity is the degree to which evidence and theory support interpretations of test scores entailed by the intended uses of tests. Yet there are convincing lines of evidence that the standards are not adequately followed in practice, that…

  18. Commentary: Student Cognition, the Situated Learning Context, and Test Score Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Paul M.

    2006-01-01

    Although it is assumed that student cognition contributes to student performance on achievement tests, it may be that current testing models lack the degree of specification necessary to warrant such inferences. With test score interpretations as the referent, the authors in this special issue address the role of student cognition in learning and…

  19. How Does Emergency Department Crowding Affect Medical Student Test Scores and Clerkship Evaluations?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Grant; Arya, Rajiv; Ritz, Z. Trevor; He, Albert S.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A.; McCoy, Jonathan V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The effect of emergency department (ED) crowding has been recognized as a concern for more than 20 years; its effect on productivity, medical errors, and patient satisfaction has been studied extensively. Little research has reviewed the effect of ED crowding on medical education. Prior studies that have considered this effect have shown no correlation between ED crowding and resident perception of quality of medical education. Objective To determine whether ED crowding, as measured by the National ED Overcrowding Scale (NEDOCS) score, has a quantifiable effect on medical student objective and subjective experiences during emergency medicine (EM) clerkship rotations. Methods We collected end-of-rotation examinations and medical student evaluations for 21 EM rotation blocks between July 2010 and May 2012, with a total of 211 students. NEDOCS scores were calculated for each corresponding period. Weighted regression analyses examined the correlation between components of the medical student evaluation, student test scores, and the NEDOCS score for each period. Results When all 21 rotations are included in the analysis, NEDOCS scores showed a negative correlation with medical student tests scores (regression coefficient= −0.16, p=0.04) and three elements of the rotation evaluation (attending teaching, communication, and systems-based practice; p<0.05). We excluded an outlying NEDOCS score from the analysis and obtained similar results. When the data were controlled for effect of month of the year, only student test score remained significantly correlated with NEDOCS score (p=0.011). No part of the medical student rotation evaluation attained significant correlation with the NEDOCS score (p≥0.34 in all cases). Conclusion ED overcrowding does demonstrate a small but negative association with medical student performance on end-of-rotation examinations. Additional studies are recommended to further evaluate this effect. PMID:26594289

  20. Science Scores in Title I Elementary Schools in North Georgia: A Project Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frias, Ramon

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)'s emphasis of reading, language arts, and mathematics (RLA&M) and its de-emphasis of science has been a source of great concern among educators. Through an objectivist and constructionist framework, this study explored the unforeseen effects of the NCLB on public science education among Title I (TI) and non-Title I (NTI) students. The research questions focused on the effects of NCLB on Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in the high-stakes subjects of reading, language arts, mathematics and the low stakes subject of science among TI and NTI 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students in a north Georgia County during the 2010/2011 school year. This study also compared instructional time TI and NTI teachers dedicated to science. A causal-comparative quantitative methodology was used to analyze Georgia's public domain CRCT scores. Three independent-samples t tests showed that TI schools exhibited significantly lower Science CRCT scores than did NTI students at all grade levels (p < 0.0001). The data also showed CRCT scores in high-stakes subjects between TI and NTI students converging but science CRCT scores between TI and NTI students diverging. The self-report survey indicated no significant differences between TI and NTI teachers' instructional science time (t (107) = 1.49, p = 0.137). A teacher development project was designed to focus on improving teacher science content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge through a formal introduction to the nature of science. With increasing global science competition, science is more relevant than ever, and communities need students with strong science foundations. Further study is recommended to analyze the factors associated with this science gap between TI and NTI students.