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Sample records for high-temperature jet flow

  1. High Temperature Ceramic Guide Vane Temperature and Pressure Distribution Calculation for Flow with Cooling Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Rakesh

    2004-01-01

    A ceramic guide vane has been designed and tested for operation under high temperature. Previous efforts have suggested that some cooling flow may be required to alleviate the high temperatures observed near the trailing edge region. The present report describes briefly a three-dimensional viscous analysis carried out to calculate the temperature and pressure distribution on the blade surface and in the flow path with a jet of cooling air exiting from the suction surface near the trailing edge region. The data for analysis was obtained from Dr. Craig Robinson. The surface temperature and pressure distribution along with a flowfield distribution is shown in the results. The surface distribution is also given in a tabular form at the end of the document.

  2. Numerical Study of High-Temperature Jet Flow Using RANS/LES and PANS Formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Elmiligui, Alaa

    2005-01-01

    Two multi-scale-type turbulence models are implemented in the PAB3D solver. The models are based on modifying the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The first scheme is a hybrid RANS/LES model utilizing the two-equation (k(epsilon)) model with a RANS/LES transition function dependent on grid spacing and the computed turbulence length scale. The second scheme is a modified version of the Partially Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) model, where the unresolved kinetic energy parameter (f(sub k)) is allowed to vary as a function of grid spacing and the turbulence length scale. This parameter is estimated based on a novel two-stage procedure to efficiently estimate the level of scale resolution possible for a given flow on a given grid for Partial Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS). It has been found that the prescribed scale resolution can play a major role in obtaining accurate flow solutions. The parameter f(sub k) varies between zero and one and equal to one in the viscous sub layer, and when the RANS turbulent viscosity becomes smaller than the LES viscosity. The formulation, usage methodology, and validation examples are presented to demonstrate the enhancement of PAB3D's time-accurate and turbulence modeling capabilities. The accurate simulations of flow and turbulent quantities will provide valuable tool for accurate jet noise predictions. Solutions from these models are compared to RANS results and experimental data for high-temperature jet flows. The current results show promise for the capability of hybrid RANS/LES and PANS in simulating such flow phenomena.

  3. Calculations of High-Temperature Jet Flow Using Hybrid Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes Formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Giriamaji, Sharath S.

    2008-01-01

    Two multiscale-type turbulence models are implemented in the PAB3D solver. The models are based on modifying the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes equations. The first scheme is a hybrid Reynolds-averaged- Navier Stokes/large-eddy-simulation model using the two-equation k(epsilon) model with a Reynolds-averaged-Navier Stokes/large-eddy-simulation transition function dependent on grid spacing and the computed turbulence length scale. The second scheme is a modified version of the partially averaged Navier Stokes model in which the unresolved kinetic energy parameter f(sub k) is allowed to vary as a function of grid spacing and the turbulence length scale. This parameter is estimated based on a novel two-stage procedure to efficiently estimate the level of scale resolution possible for a given flow on a given grid for partially averaged Navier Stokes. It has been found that the prescribed scale resolution can play a major role in obtaining accurate flow solutions. The parameter f(sub k) varies between zero and one and is equal to one in the viscous sublayer and when the Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes turbulent viscosity becomes smaller than the large-eddy-simulation viscosity. The formulation, usage methodology, and validation examples are presented to demonstrate the enhancement of PAB3D's time-accurate turbulence modeling capabilities. The accurate simulations of flow and turbulent quantities will provide a valuable tool for accurate jet noise predictions. Solutions from these models are compared with Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes results and experimental data for high-temperature jet flows. The current results show promise for the capability of hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes and large eddy simulation and partially averaged Navier Stokes in simulating such flow phenomena.

  4. Flow-field characteristics of high-temperature annular buoyant jets and their development laws influenced by ventilation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Yanqiu; Liu, Jiaping; Wang, Hai; Liu, Qiuhan

    2013-01-01

    The flow-field characteristics of high-temperature annular buoyant jets as well as the development laws influenced by ventilation system were studied using numerical methods to eliminate the pollutants effectively in this paper. The development laws of high-temperature annular buoyant jets were analyzed and compared with previous studies, including radial velocity distribution, axial velocity and temperature decay, reattachment position, cross-section diameter, volumetric flow rate, and velocity field characteristics with different pressures at the exhaust hood inlet. The results showed that when the ratio of outer diameter to inner diameter of the annulus was smaller than 5/2, the flow-field characteristics had significant difference compared to circular buoyant jets with the same outer diameter. For similar diameter ratios, reattachment in this paper occurred further downstream in contrast to previous study. Besides, the development laws of volumetric flow rate and cross-section diameter were given with different initial parameters. In addition, through analyzing air distribution characteristics under the coupling effect of high-temperature annular buoyant jets and ventilation system, it could be found that the position where maximum axial velocity occurred was changing gradually when the pressure at the exhaust hood inlet changed from 0 Pa to -5 Pa.

  5. Flow-Field Characteristics of High-Temperature Annular Buoyant Jets and Their Development Laws Influenced by Ventilation System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaping; Wang, Hai; Liu, Qiuhan

    2013-01-01

    The flow-field characteristics of high-temperature annular buoyant jets as well as the development laws influenced by ventilation system were studied using numerical methods to eliminate the pollutants effectively in this paper. The development laws of high-temperature annular buoyant jets were analyzed and compared with previous studies, including radial velocity distribution, axial velocity and temperature decay, reattachment position, cross-section diameter, volumetric flow rate, and velocity field characteristics with different pressures at the exhaust hood inlet. The results showed that when the ratio of outer diameter to inner diameter of the annulus was smaller than 5/2, the flow-field characteristics had significant difference compared to circular buoyant jets with the same outer diameter. For similar diameter ratios, reattachment in this paper occurred further downstream in contrast to previous study. Besides, the development laws of volumetric flow rate and cross-section diameter were given with different initial parameters. In addition, through analyzing air distribution characteristics under the coupling effect of high-temperature annular buoyant jets and ventilation system, it could be found that the position where maximum axial velocity occurred was changing gradually when the pressure at the exhaust hood inlet changed from 0 Pa to −5 Pa. PMID:24000278

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROCARBON JET FUELS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AIRCRAFT ENGINE OILS, *AVIATION FUELS, *HYDROCARBONS, *JET ENGINE FUELS, *LUBRICANTS, *POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS, ALKYL RADICALS, BENZENE, CATALYSIS...CHEMICAL REACTIONS , COMBUSTION, CUMENES, DECOMPOSITION, ETHYLENES, FORMALDEHYDE, FRAGMENTATION, HIGH TEMPERATURE, HYDROGENATION, NAPHTHALENES, PHYSICAL

  7. Prediction, Measurement, and Suppression of High Temperature Supersonic Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, John M.; Bhat, T. R. S.; Jansen, Bernard J.

    1999-01-01

    The photograph in figure 1 displays a water cooled round convergent-divergent supersonic nozzle operating slightly overexpanded near 2460 F. The nozzle is designed to produce shock free flow near this temperature at Mach 2. The exit diameter of this nozzle is 3.5 inches. This nozzle is used in the present study to establish properties of the sound field associated with high temperature supersonic jets operating fully pressure balanced (i.e. shock free) and to evaluate capability of the compressible Rayleigh model to account for principle physical features of the observed sound emission. The experiment is conducted statically (i.e. M(sub f) = 0.) in the NASA/LaRC Jet Noise Laboratory. Both aerodynamic and acoustic measurements are obtained in this study along with numerical plume simulation and theoretical prediction of jet noise. Detailed results from this study are reported previously by Seiner, Ponton, Jansen, and Lagen.

  8. High-speed mixture fraction and temperature imaging of pulsed, turbulent fuel jets auto-igniting in high-temperature, vitiated co-flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorge, Michael J.; Arndt, Christoph; Fuest, Frederik; Meier, Wolfgang; Sutton, Jeffrey A.

    2014-07-01

    In this manuscript, we describe an experimental approach to simultaneously measure high-speed image sequences of the mixture fraction and temperature fields during pulsed, turbulent fuel injection into a high-temperature, co-flowing, and vitiated oxidizer stream. The quantitative mixture fraction and temperature measurements are determined from 10-kHz-rate planar Rayleigh scattering and a robust data processing methodology which is accurate from fuel injection to the onset of auto-ignition. In addition, the data processing is shown to yield accurate temperature measurements following ignition to observe the initial evolution of the "burning" temperature field. High-speed OH* chemiluminescence (CL) was used to determine the spatial location of the initial auto-ignition kernel. In order to ensure that the ignition kernel formed inside of the Rayleigh scattering laser light sheet, OH* CL was observed in two viewing planes, one near-parallel to the laser sheet and one perpendicular to the laser sheet. The high-speed laser measurements are enabled through the use of the unique high-energy pulse burst laser system which generates long-duration bursts of ultra-high pulse energies at 532 nm (>1 J) suitable for planar Rayleigh scattering imaging. A particular focus of this study was to characterize the fidelity of the measurements both in the context of the precision and accuracy, which includes facility operating and boundary conditions and measurement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The mixture fraction and temperature fields deduced from the high-speed planar Rayleigh scattering measurements exhibited SNR values greater than 100 at temperatures exceeding 1,300 K. The accuracy of the measurements was determined by comparing the current mixture fraction results to that of "cold", isothermal, non-reacting jets. All profiles, when properly normalized, exhibited self-similarity and collapsed upon one another. Finally, example mixture fraction, temperature, and OH* emission

  9. Jet engine powers large, high-temperature wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benham, T. F.; Mulliken, S. R.

    1967-01-01

    Wind tunnel for large component testing uses a jet engine with afterburner to provide high temperatures /1200 degrees to 2000 degrees F/ and controlled high velocity gas. This economical wind tunnel can accommodate parts ten feet by ten feet or larger, and is a useful technique for qualitative information.

  10. Turbulent Flow past High Temperature Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmedagic, Igbal; Thangam, Siva; Carlucci, Pasquale; Buckley, Liam; Carlucci, Donald

    2014-11-01

    Flow over high-temperature surfaces subject to wall heating is analyzed with applications to projectile design. In this study, computations are performed using an anisotropic Reynolds-stress model to study flow past surfaces that are subject to radiative flux. The model utilizes a phenomenological treatment of the energy spectrum and diffusivities of momentum and heat to include the effects of wall heat transfer and radiative exchange. The radiative transport is modeled using Eddington approximation including the weighted effect of nongrayness of the fluid. The time-averaged equations of motion and energy are solved using the modeled form of transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy and the scalar form of turbulence dissipation with an efficient finite-volume algorithm. The model is applied for available test cases to validate its predictive capabilities for capturing the effects of wall heat transfer. Computational results are compared with experimental data available in the literature. Applications involving the design of projectiles are summarized. Funded in part by U.S. Army, ARDEC.

  11. Characterization and validation of an anechoic facility for high-temperature jet noise studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Joseph

    In response to the increasing demand for jet noise studies performed at realistic conditions, the Florida Center For Advanced Aero-Propulsion at Florida State University has recently brought online an upgraded Anechoic High-Temperature Jet Facility. The function of this facility is to accurately simulate and characterize the aeroacoustic properties of exhaust from jet engines at realistic temperatures and flow speeds. This new addition is a blow-down facility supplied by a 3500 kPa, 114 cubic meter compressed dry air system and a sudden-expansion ethylene burner that is capable of producing ideally expanded jets up to Mach 2.6 and stagnation temperatures up to 1500 K. The jet exhausts into a fully anechoic chamber which is equipped to acquire acoustic and flow measurements including the temperature and pressure of the jet. The facility is capable of operating under free jet as well as in various impinging jet configurations pertinent to sea- and land-based aircraft, such as the F-35B. Compared to the original facility, the updated rig is capable of longer run times at higher temperatures. In this paper we demonstrate the facility's experimental capabilities and document jet aeroacoustic characteristics at various flow and temperature conditions. The anechoic chamber was characterized using ISO (3745:2003) guidelines and the lower cutoff frequency of the chamber was determined to be 315 Hz. Aeroacoustic properties of jets operating at subsonic conditions and supersonic Mach numbers ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 at temperatures of 300 K to 1300 K are documented. Where available, very good agreement was found when the present results were compared with data in the jet noise literature.

  12. High-temperature counter-flow recuperator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudloff, F.

    1981-05-01

    The commercial potential of a helical recuperator design in recovering waste heat from industrial furnaces is reported. The helical recuperator concept consists of a cylindrical column with an interior helical interface which separates the preheat air and the combustion gas. The column operates in a teer flow mode and is formed from modular sections. The material evaluation consisted of exposing material samples to a soda-lime glass furnace environment for a fifteen week period. ECP-3, X-81, and Unichrome were the best suited for use in a soda-lime environment and ECP-3 was the best candidate with respect to manufacturing. Two potential design modifications were identified: a finned design and a double helix design. For materials that showed the greatest potential for use in the glass environment, the double helix design made from ECP-3 was the most economical producing payback periods of 6 to 14 years.

  13. Enhancement of USM3D Unstructured Flow Solver for High-Speed High-Temperature Shear Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandya, Mohagna J.; Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Frink, Neal T.

    2009-01-01

    Large temperature and pressure fluctuations have a profound effect on turbulence development in transonic and supersonic jets. For high-speed, high-temperature jet flows, standard turbulence models lack the ability to predict the observed mixing rate of a shear layer. Several proposals to address this deficiency have been advanced in the literature to modify the turbulence transport equations in a variety of ways. In the present study, some of the most proven and simple modifications to two-equation turbulence models have been selected and implemented in NASA's USM3D tetrahedral Navier-Stokes flow solver. The modifications include the addition of compressibility correction and pressure dilatation terms in the turbulence transport equations for high-speed flows, and the addition of a simple modification to the Boussinesq's closure model coefficient for high-temperature jets. The efficacy of the extended models is demonstrated by comparison with experimental data for two supersonic axisymmetric jet test cases at design pressure ratio.

  14. Properties of thin films for high temperature flow sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, Sacharia

    1991-01-01

    Requirements of material parameters of high temperature flow sensors are identified. Refractory metal silicides offer high temperature sensitivity and high frequency response and are stable up to 1000 C. Intrinsic semiconductors of high band gap are also considered as sensor elements. SiC and diamond are identified. Combined with substrates of low thermal and electrical conductivity, such as quartz or Al2O3, these materials meet several requirements of high sensitivity and frequency response. Film deposition and patterning techniques suitable for these materials are identified.

  15. Marangoni Flow and Surface Tension of High Temperature Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibiya, Taketoshi; Ozawa, Shumpei

    Marangoni flow plays an important role in the heat and mass transport for highly value-added high-temperature processes, such as crystal growth, welding, casting, and electron beam melting. For silicon single crystal growth, the effect of the oscillatory Marangoni flow on the introduction of growth striation was discussed by Chen and Wilcox for the first time in 1972 [1]. The existence of the Marangoni flow within molten silicon was proved through microgravity experiments in space on board a sounding rocket in 1983 by Eyer et al. [2], who found formation of growth striation in single crystals even under microgravity, where buoyancy-driven flow was suppressed. To explain the Marangoni effect at the melt surface, surface tension is essential. Keene [3] discussed the oxygen contamination in the surface tension measurement and recommended the use of a levitation technique, which is a containerless process and assures the contamination-free condition from measurement devices. It is well known that flow direction in the weld pool is dependent on surface contamination and that this is related to weldability [4, 5]. Flow direction is controlled by the temperature coefficient of surface tension for molten steels; contaminants are oxygen and sulfur. In the electron beam button melting system, the Marangoni flow is dominant because of intense heating at the melt surface [5]. In this chapter, surface tension of high temperature metallic melts is discussed from the viewpoint of the Marangoni effect in the value-added high temperature processes, particularly from the viewpoint of the effect of oxygen and sulfur. Theoretical treatment for oxygen adsorption is also discussed.

  16. Flux-flow resistivity of three high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Y.S.; Evans, D.J.; Hull, J.R.; Seol, S.Y.

    1996-10-01

    Results of experiments on flux-flow resistivity (the relationship of voltage to current) of three high-temperature superconductors are described. The superconductors are a melt-cast BSCCO 2212 rod, a single filament BSCCO powder-in-tube (PIT) tape, and a multifilament PIT tape. The flux-flow resistivity of these superconductors was measured at three temperatures: 77 K (saturated liquid nitrogen), 87 K (saturated liquid argon), and 67 K (subcooled liquid nitrogen). Implications of the present results for practical applications are discussed.

  17. High-temperature zirconia microthruster with an integrated flow sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekholm, Ville; Persson, Anders; Palmer, Kristoffer; Ericson, Fredric; Thornell, Greger

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and characterization of a ceramic, heated cold-gas microthruster device made with silicon tools and high temperature co-fired ceramic processing. The device contains two opposing thrusters, each with an integrated calorimetric propellant flow sensor and a heater in the stagnation chamber of the nozzle. The exhaust from a thruster was photographed using schlieren imaging to study its behavior and search for leaks. The heater elements were tested under a cyclic thermal load and to the maximum power before failure. The nozzle heater was shown to improve the efficiency of the thruster by 6.9%, from a specific impulse of 66 to 71 s, as calculated from a decrease of the flow rate through the nozzle of 13%, from 44.9 to 39.2 sccm. The sensitivity of the integrated flow sensor was measured to 0.15 mΩ sccm-1 in the region of 0-15 sccm and to 0.04 mΩ sccm-1 above 20 sccm, with a zero-flow sensitivity of 0.27 mΩ sccm-1. The choice of yttria-stabilized zirconia as a material for the devices makes them robust and capable of surviving temperatures locally exceeding 1000 °C.

  18. Studies of volatile high temperature corrosion products via the free-jet MBMS technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, N.S.

    1995-03-01

    In high temperature applications such as heat engines, heat exchangers, and chemical process plants, metal and ceramic structural materials are exposed to harsh chemical environments. It is important to understand the mechanism of corrosion of these materials under such conditions. Most laboratory studies of corrosion involve a sensitive microbalance with the sample suspended in a furnace and particular gas atmosphere (thermogravimetric apparatus--TGA). This system allows one to follow the kinetics of reaction and then characterize the corrosion products. Corrosion products are often condensed phase oxides, sulfides, carbides, etc. However, they may often be volatile products such as volatile oxides, hydroxides, chlorides, and oxychlorides. In a TGA, these form as down-stream deposits, which must be chemically analyzed after an experiment. In such a {open_quotes}pseudo-transpiration{close_quotes} experiment, speculations can then be made regarding the composition of these vapor species. Clearly, an in-situ mass spectrometric sampling method is far superior for such analysis. The free-jet expansion, molecular beam mass spectrometric technique allows direct identification of these species. The features of this technique--a rapid transition to collisionless flow, beam cooling, and a high velocity molecular beam--preserve the chemical and dynamic integrity of the beam. In this paper, several studies on volatile corrosion products will be summarized. It will be shown how the mass spectrometric results are combined with other data to elucidate the reaction mechanism. These studies fall into two categories: volatile chlorides and oxychlorides, and volatile hydroxides. Corrosion by chlorine occurs in waste incineration and chemical process plants; formation of volatile hydroxides occurs in combustion environments since water is always a product of combustion.

  19. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    DOEpatents

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  20. Structure, electrical characteristics, and high-temperature stability of aerosol jet printed silver nanoparticle films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md Taibur; McCloy, John; Ramana, C. V.; Panat, Rahul

    2016-08-01

    Printed electronics has emerged as a versatile eco-friendly fabrication technique to create sintered nanoparticle (NP) films on arbitrary surfaces with an excellent control over the film microstructure. While applicability of such films for high-temperature applications is not explored previously, herein we report the high-temperature electrical stability of silver (Ag) metal NP films fabricated using an Aerosol Jet based printing technique and demonstrate that this behavior is dictated by changes in the film microstructure. In-situ high temperature (24-500 °C) impedance spectroscopy measurements show that the real part of the impedance increases with increasing temperature up to 150 °C, at which point a decreasing trend prevails until 300 °C, followed again by an increase in impedance. The electrical behavior is correlated with the in-situ grain growth of the Ag NP films, as observed afterwards by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and could be tailored by controlling the initial microstructure through sintering conditions. Using combined diffraction and spectroscopic analytical methods, it is demonstrated the Aerosol Jet printed Ag NP films exhibit enhanced thermal stability and oxidation resistance. In addition to establishing the conditions for stability of Ag NP films, the results provide a fundamental understanding of the effect of grain growth and reduction in grain boundary area on the electrical stability of sintered NP films.

  1. Structure, electrical characteristics, and high-temperature stability of aerosol jet printed silver nanoparticle films

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Md Taibur; McCloy, John; Panat, Rahul E-mail: rvchintalapalle@utep.edu; Ramana, C. V. E-mail: rvchintalapalle@utep.edu

    2016-08-21

    Printed electronics has emerged as a versatile eco-friendly fabrication technique to create sintered nanoparticle (NP) films on arbitrary surfaces with an excellent control over the film microstructure. While applicability of such films for high-temperature applications is not explored previously, herein we report the high-temperature electrical stability of silver (Ag) metal NP films fabricated using an Aerosol Jet based printing technique and demonstrate that this behavior is dictated by changes in the film microstructure. In-situ high temperature (24–500 °C) impedance spectroscopy measurements show that the real part of the impedance increases with increasing temperature up to 150 °C, at which point a decreasing trend prevails until 300 °C, followed again by an increase in impedance. The electrical behavior is correlated with the in-situ grain growth of the Ag NP films, as observed afterwards by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and could be tailored by controlling the initial microstructure through sintering conditions. Using combined diffraction and spectroscopic analytical methods, it is demonstrated the Aerosol Jet printed Ag NP films exhibit enhanced thermal stability and oxidation resistance. In addition to establishing the conditions for stability of Ag NP films, the results provide a fundamental understanding of the effect of grain growth and reduction in grain boundary area on the electrical stability of sintered NP films.

  2. Flow cytometer jet monitor system

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger

    1997-01-01

    A direct jet monitor illuminates the jet of a flow cytometer in a monitor wavelength band which is substantially separate from the substance wavelength band. When a laser is used to cause fluorescence of the substance, it may be appropriate to use an infrared source to illuminate the jet and thus optically monitor the conditions within the jet through a CCD camera or the like. This optical monitoring may be provided to some type of controller or feedback system which automatically changes either the horizontal location of the jet, the point at which droplet separation occurs, or some other condition within the jet in order to maintain optimum conditions. The direct jet monitor may be operated simultaneously with the substance property sensing and analysis system so that continuous monitoring may be achieved without interfering with the substance data gathering and may be configured so as to allow the front of the analysis or free fall area to be unobstructed during processing.

  3. High strain rate and high temperature behaviour of metallic materials for jet engine turbine containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, F.; Cendón, D.; Enfedaque, A.; Sánchez-Gálvez, V.

    2006-08-01

    This work presents a study on the mechanical characterisation of the materials involved in air jet engine turbines. The final objective is to analyse the phenomenon of a turbine blade off failure, to verify the requirements of the case containment. The materials in the turbine are under high temperatures, ranging from 400circC to 800circC and when the fail of the blade occurs if impacts against the case, reaching strain rates up to 103 s - 1. To obtain the behaviour of the materials, testing at high strain rate and high temperature at one time is necessary. The experimental set-up used was a split Hopkinson pressure bar, with a high temperature furnace adapted. The bars used on the device were high strength nickel alloys with a cooling system to decrease the temperature of the measurement devices. The effect of wave dispersion due to the temperature gradient has been also studied to correct the measurements if necessary. The material tested has been the FV535 stainless steel used on the case. The full stress-strain curves at different temperatures and at strain rates up to 103 s-1 have been obtained. The experimental results show a marked influence of the strain rate and the temperature that cannot be neglected. The Johnson-Cook material model has been used to fit the results of the material tests.

  4. Arc Jet Testing of Hafnium Diboride Based Ultra High Temperature Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, Don; Beckman, Sarah; Irby, Edward; Squire, Tom; Olejniczak, Joe; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Gusman, Michael; Gasch, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Hafnium Diboride (HFB,) based materials have shown promise for use in a number of high temperature aerospace applications, including rocket nozzles and as leading edges on hypersonic reentry vehicles. The stability of the materials in relevant environments is key to determining their suitability for a particular application. In this program we have been developing HfB2/SiC materials for use as sharp leading edges. The program as a whole included processing and characterization of the HfBJSiC materials. The specific work discussed here will focus on studies of the materials oxidation behavior in simulated reentry environments through arc jet testing. Four flat face models were tested to examine the influence of heat flux and stagnation pressure on the materials oxidation behavior. The results from arc jet testing of two HfB2/SiC cone models will also be discussed. Each cone model was run multiple times with gradually increasing heat fluxes. Total run times on a single cone model exceeded 80 minutes. For both the flat face and cone models surface temperatures well in excess of 2200 C were measured. Post test microstructural examination of the models and correlations with measured temperatures will be discussed.

  5. Jet flows of reacting gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Farkhadzhan; Zhumaev, Zair Sh.

    The book presents fundamentals of the aerodynamic theory and calculation of straight gas jets. The discussion focuses on the flow structure and turbulent combustion of unmixed gases and thermal characteristics of the jet. The following three types of problems are considered: motion of unmixed chemically active gases; gas motion under conditions of chemical equilibrium; and motion of gases under conditions of finite-rate chemical reactions.

  6. Flowmeter measures flow rates of high temperature fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1966-01-01

    Flowmeter in which flow rate is determined by measuring the position and thus the displacement of an internal float acted upon by the flowing fluid determines the flow rates of various liquid metals at elevated temperatures. Viscous forces cause the float to move from its mounted position, affording several means for measuring this motion and the flow rate.

  7. Arc Jet Screening Tests Of Phase 1 Orbiter Tile Repair Materials and Uncoated RSI High Temperature Emittance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelPapa, Steven V.

    2005-01-01

    Arc jet tests of candidate tile repair materials and baseline Orbiter uncoated reusable surface insulation (RSI) were performed in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Atmospheric Reentry Materials and Structures Evaluation Facility (ARMSEF) from June 23, 2003, through August 19, 2003. These tests were performed to screen candidate tile repair materials by verifying the high temperature performance and determining the thermal stability. In addition, tests to determine the surface emissivity at high temperatures and the geometric shrinkage of bare RSI were performed. In addition, tests were performed to determine the surface emissivity at high temperatures and the geometric shrinkage of uncoated RSI.

  8. High Temperature Supersonic Jet Noise - Fundamental Studies and Control using Advanced Actuation Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-24

    grant, is continuing under an NSF grant. Bibliography 1. Crow, S. and Champagne, F. H., “Orderly structure in jet turbulence,” Journal of Fluid...that coherent structures are one of the dominant sources of jet noise for both supersonic as well as subsonic jets. These structures are generally...Previous research has shown that coherent structures are one of the dominant sources of jet noise for both supersonic as well as subsonic jets. These

  9. Nonintrusive fast response oxygen monitoring system for high temperature flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Daniel B.; Stanton, Alan C.

    1993-01-01

    A new technique has been developed for nonintrusive in situ measurement of oxygen concentration, gas temperature, and flow velocity of the test media in hypersonic wind tunnels. It is based on absorption of near-infrared radiation from inexpensive GaAlAs laser diodes used in optoelectronics industry. It is designed for simultaneous measurements along multiple lines of sight accessed by fiber optics. Molecular oxygen concentration is measured from the magnitude of absorption signals; rotational gas temperature is measured from the intensity ratio of two oxygen absorption lines; and the flow velocity is measured from the Doppler shift of the absorption line positions. This report describes the results of an extensive series of tests of the prototype instrument in laboratory flames emphasizing assessment of the instruments capabilities for quantitative measurement of O2 concentration (mole fraction) and gas temperature.

  10. Computational Study of Nonequilibrium Chemistry in High Temperature Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doraiswamy, Sriram

    Recent experimental measurements in the reflected shock tunnel CUBRC LENS-I facility raise questions about our ability to correctly model the recombination processes in high enthalpy flows. In the carbon dioxide flow, the computed shock standoff distance over the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) shape was less than half of the experimental result. For the oxygen flows, both pressure and heat transfer data on the double cone geometry were not correctly predicted. The objective of this work is to investigate possible reasons for these discrepancies. This process involves systematically addressing different factors that could possibly explain the differences. These factors include vibrational modeling, role of electronic states and chemistry-vibrational coupling in high enthalpy flows. A state-specific vibrational model for CO2, CO, O2 and O system is devised by taking into account the first few vibrational states of each species. All vibrational states with energies at or below 1 eV are included in the present work. Of the three modes of vibration in CO2 , the antisymmetric mode is considered separately from the symmetric stretching mode and the doubly degenerate bending modes. The symmetric and the bending modes are grouped together since the energy transfer rates between the two modes are very large due to Fermi resonance. The symmetric and bending modes are assumed to be in equilibrium with the translational and rotational modes. The kinetic rates for the vibrational-translation energy exchange reactions, and the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational-vibrational energy exchange reactions are based on experimental data to the maximum extent possible. Extrapolation methods are employed when necessary. This vibrational model is then coupled with an axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics code to study the expansion of CO2 in a nozzle. The potential role of low lying electronic states is also investigated. Carbon dioxide has a single excited state just below

  11. Modeling jets in cross flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.

    1994-01-01

    Various approaches to the modeling of jets in cross flow are reviewed. These are grouped into four classes, namely: empirical models, integral models, perturbation models, and numerical models. Empirical models depend largely on the correlation of experimental data and are mostly useful for first-order estimates of global properties such as jet trajectory and velocity and temperature decay rates. Integral models are based on some ordinary-differential form of the conservation laws, but require substantial empirical calibration. They allow more details of the flow field to be obtained; simpler versions have to assume similarity of velocity and temperature profiles, but more sophisticated ones can actually calculate these profiles. Perturbation models require little empirical input, but the need for small parameters to ensure convergent expansions limits their application to either the near-field or the far-field. Therefore, they are mostly useful for the study of flow physics. Numerical models are based on conservation laws in partial-differential form. They require little empirical input and have the widest range of applicability. They also require the most computational resources. Although many qualitative and quantitative features of jets in cross flow have been predicted with numerical models, many issues affecting accuracy such as grid resolution and turbulence model are not completely resolved.

  12. Study of Solid Particle Behavior in High Temperature Gas Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, A.; Bauder, U.; Stindl, T.; Fertig, M.; Herdrich, G.; Röser, H.-P.

    2009-01-01

    The Euler-Lagrangian approach is used for the simulation of solid particles in hypersonic entry flows. For flow field simulation, the program SINA (Sequential Iterative Non-equilibrium Algorithm) developed at the Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme is used. The model for the effect of the carrier gas on a particle includes drag force and particle heating only. Other parameters like lift Magnus force or damping torque are not taken into account so far. The reverse effect of the particle phase on the gaseous phase is currently neglected. Parametric analysis is done regarding the impact of variation in the physical input conditions like position, velocity, size and material of the particle. Convective heat fluxes onto the surface of the particle and its radiative cooling are discussed. The variation of particle temperature under different conditions is presented. The influence of various input conditions on the trajectory is explained. A semi empirical model for the particle wall interaction is also discussed and the influence of the wall on the particle trajectory with different particle conditions is presented. The heat fluxes onto the wall due to impingement of particles are also computed and compared with the heat fluxes from the gas.

  13. Synthetic Jets in Cross-flow. Part 1; Round Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Milanovic, Ivana M.

    2003-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation on synthetic jets from round orifices with and without cross-flow are presented. Jet Reynolds number up to 46,000 with a fully turbulent approach boundary layer, and Stokes number up to 400. are covered. The threshold of stroke length for synthetic jet formation. in the absence of the cross-flow, is found to be Lo /D approximately 0.5. Above Lo /D is approximately 10, the profiles of normalized centerline mean velocity appear to become invariant. It is reasoned that the latter threshold may be related to the phenomenon of saturation of impulsively generated vortices. In the presence of the cross-flow, the penetration height of a synthetic jet is found to depend on the momentum- flux ratio . When this ratio is defined in terms of the maximum jet velocity and the cross-flow velocity. not only all data collapse but also the jet trajectory is predicted well by correlation equation available for steady jets-in-cross-flow. Distributions of mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as turbulence intensity for a synthetic jet in cross-flow are found to be similar to those of a steady jet-in-cross-flow. A pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, corresponding to the bound vortex pair of the steady case, is clearly observed. Mean velocity distribution exhibits a dome of low momentum fluid pulled up from the boundary layer, and the entire domain is characterized by high turbulence.

  14. Skin friction measurements in high temperature high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Diller, Thomas E.; Wicks, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to measure skin friction along the chamber walls of supersonic combustors. A direct force measurement device was used to simultaneously measure an axial and transverse component of the small tangential shear force passing over a non-intrusive floating element. The floating head is mounted to a stiff cantilever beam arrangement with deflection due to the flow on the order of 0.00254 mm (0.0001 in.). This allowed the instrument to be a non-nulling type. A second gauge was designed with active cooling of the floating sensor head to eliminate non-uniform temperature effects between the sensor head and the surrounding wall. Samples of measurements made in combustor test facilities at NASA Langley Research Center and at the General Applied Science Laboratory (GASL) are presented. Skin friction coefficients between 0.001 - 0.005 were measured dependent on the facility and measurement location. Analysis of the measurement uncertainties indicate an accuracy to within +/- 10-15 percent of the streamwise component.

  15. Two-phase Flow Patterns in High Temperature Generator of Absorption Chiller / Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Masahiro; Kanuma, Hitoshi; Sekoguchi, Kotohiko; Takeishi, Masayuki

    There is a lack of information about vapor-liquid two-phase flow patterns determined using void signals in high temperature generator of absorption chiller/heater. Sensing void fraction has been hampered because lithium bromide aqueous solution of strong alkalinity is employed as working fluid at high temperature and high level of vacuum. New void sensor applicable to such difficult conditions was developed. The void Fractions at 48 locations in a high temperature generator were measured simultaneously in both cooling and heating operations. Analysis of void signals detected reveals that the most violent boiling occurs at the upper part of rear plate of combustion chamber and the first line of vertical tubes located in the flue. The flow patterns are strongly affected by the system pressure difference between the cooling and heating operations: there appear bubbly, slug and froth flows in the cooling operation, but only bubbly flow in the heating operation.

  16. Aeroacoustic Characteristics of Model Jet Test Facility Flow Conditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Haskin, Harry H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of flow conditioning devices used to suppress internal rig noise in high speed, high temperature experimental jet facilities is discussed. The aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of a number of devices including pressure loss and extraneous noise generation are measured. Both aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics are strongly dependent on the porosity of the flow conditioner and the closure ratio of the duct system. For unchoked flow conditioners, the pressure loss follows conventional incompressible flow models. However, for choked flow conditioners, a compressible flow model where the duct and flow conditioner system is modeled as a convergent-divergent nozzle can be used to estimate pressure loss. Choked flow conditioners generate significantly more noise than unchoked conditioners. In addition, flow conditioners with small hole diameters or sintered metal felt material generate less self-noise noise compared to flow conditioners with larger holes.

  17. High-temperature and high-speed oxidation of 4H-SiC by atmospheric pressure thermal plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafusa, Hiroaki; Ishimaru, Ryosuke; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2017-04-01

    The application of atmospheric pressure thermal plasma jet (TPJ) annealing to the high-temperature and high-speed thermal oxidation of Si-face of 4H-SiC wafer is reported. A high SiO2 film growth rate of 288 nm min‑1 was obtained at an oxidation temperature of 1640 °C without intentional dry O2 gas feeding. Ambient analysis suggested that ozone generated from oxygen in the ambient air by the plasma irradiation was supplied to the SiC surface. It is implied that a mono-oxygen decomposed from ozone was diffused into the oxide growth interface. As a result, high-speed oxidation occurred by combination of high-temperature TPJ annealing and ozone feeding.

  18. Jet flow in steadily swimming adult squid.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Erik J; Grosenbaugh, Mark A

    2005-03-01

    Although various hydrodynamic models have been used in past analyses of squid jet propulsion, no previous investigations have definitively determined the fluid structure of the jets of steadily swimming squid. In addition, few accurate measurements of jet velocity and other jet parameters in squid have been reported. We used digital particle imaging velocimetry (DPIV) to visualize the jet flow of adult long-finned squid Loligo pealei (mantle length, L(m)=27.1+/-3.0 cm, mean +/-S.D.) swimming in a flume over a wide range of speeds (10.1-59.3 cm s(-1), i.e. 0.33-2.06 L(m) s(-1)). Qualitatively, squid jets were periodic, steady, and prolonged emissions of fluid that exhibited an elongated core of high speed flow. The development of a leading vortex ring common to jets emitted from pipes into still water often appeared to be diminished and delayed. We were able to mimic this effect in jets produced by a piston and pipe arrangement aligned with a uniform background flow. As in continuous jets, squid jets showed evidence of the growth of instability waves in the jet shear layer followed by the breakup of the jet into packets of vorticity of varying degrees of coherence. These ranged from apparent chains of short-lived vortex rings to turbulent plumes. There was some evidence of the complete roll-up of a handful of shorter jets into single vortex rings, but steady propulsion by individual vortex ring puffs was never observed. Quantitatively, the length of the jet structure in the visualized field of view, L(j), was observed to be 7.2-25.6 cm, and jet plug lengths, L, were estimated to be 4.4-49.4 cm using average jet velocity and jet period. These lengths and an average jet orifice diameter, D, of 0.8 cm were used to calculate the ratios L(j)/D and L/D, which ranged from 9.0 to 32.0 and 5.5 to 61.8, respectively. Jets emitted from pipes in the presence of a background flow suggested that the ratio between the background flow velocity and the jet velocity was more

  19. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of High Speed High-Temperature Jet Interaction Flowfields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-31

    paints, where the PtOEP based paint was found to be more temperature sensitive than the pyrene based paint. 10 2.2.2 Jets Issuing from a Body of...Pyrene based ( PtOEP ) pressure sensitive paint was used to map the surface pressure distribution over the missile model. The Pixelvision SpectraVideo

  20. The flow feature of transverse hydrogen jet in presence of micro air jets in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzegar Gerdroodbary, M.; Amini, Younes; Ganji, D. D.; Takam, ​M. Rahimi

    2017-03-01

    Scramjet is found to be the efficient method for the space shuttle. In this paper, numerical simulation is performed to investigate the fundamental flow physics of the interaction between an array of fuel jets and multi air jets in a supersonic transverse flow. Hydrogen as a fuel is released with a global equivalence ratio of 0.5 in presence of micro air jets on a flat plate into a Mach 4 crossflow. The fuel and air are injected through streamwise-aligned flush circular portholes. The hydrogen is injected through 4 holes with 7dj space when the air is injected in the interval of the hydrogen jets. The numerical simulation is performed by using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with Menter's Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. Both the number of air jets and jet-to-freestream total pressure ratio are varied in a parametric study. The interaction of the fuel and air jet in the supersonic flow present extremely complex feature of fuel and air jet. The results present various flow features depending upon the number and mass flow rate of micro air jets. These flow features were found to have significant effects on the penetration of hydrogen jets. A variation of the number of air jets, along with the jet-to-freestream total pressure ratio, induced a variety of flow structure in the downstream of the fuel jets.

  1. Cooperative Investigation of Jet Flows.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    high and low Reynolds number jets. Controlling the jet with pure tone excitation, that enhances the helical mode of its instability, resulted in a... helical modes and upstream influence appear to be key mechanisms in our findings 3.- -- - Disatributio~n/ Availit- UNCLASSIFIED 89CUMIIY CLAWIPCAT OF...and low Reynolds number*’ jets. Controlling the jet with pure tone excitation, that enhances the helical mode of its instability, resulted in a

  2. Jet flow and premixed jet flame control by plasma swirler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Jiang, Xi; Zhao, Yujun; Liu, Cunxi; Chen, Qi; Xu, Gang; Liu, Fuqiang

    2017-04-01

    A swirler based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators is designed and its effectiveness in both jet flow and premixed jet flame control is demonstrated. In contrast to traditional spanwise-oriented actuators, plasma actuators are placed along the axial direction of the injector to induce a circumferential velocity to the main flow and create a swirl flow without any insertion or moving part. In the DBD plasma swirl injector, the discharge does not ignite the mixture nor does it induce flashback. Flame visualization is obtained by cameras while velocity profiles are obtained by Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements. The results obtained indicate the effectiveness of the new design.

  3. An experimental study of turbulent flow in attachment jet combustors by LDV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Wu, Cheng-Kang

    1993-12-01

    Flame stabilization in attachment jet combustors is based on the existence of the high temperature recirculation zone, provided by the Coanda effect of an attachment jet. The single attachment jet in a rectangular channel is a fundamental form of this type of flow. In this paper, the detailed characteristics of turbulent flow of a single attachment jet were experimentally studied by using a 2-D LDV. The flowfield consists of a forward flow and two reverse flows. The forward one is composed of a curved and a straight section. The curved section resembles a bent turbulent free jet, and the straight part is basically a section of turbulent wall jet. A turbulent counter-gradient transport region exists at the curved section. According to the results, this kind of combustor should have a large sudden enlargement ratio and not too narrow in width.

  4. Jet flow on ribbed curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashkov, Iu. A.; Sokolova, I. N.; Shumilkina, E. A.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of using microribbing to reduce turbulent friction in Coanda flows over curved surfaces. It is shown that ribs make it possible to reduce the effect of a jet impinging on an obstacle and to prevent the Coanda effect when jet attachment is undesirable. The optimal rib parameters are determined.

  5. Evaluation of Turbulence-Model Performance in Jet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, S. L.; Seiner, J. M.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Erlebacher, G.

    2001-01-01

    The importance of reducing jet noise in both commercial and military aircraft applications has made jet acoustics a significant area of research. A technique for jet noise prediction commonly employed in practice is the MGB approach, based on the Lighthill acoustic analogy. This technique requires as aerodynamic input mean flow quantities and turbulence quantities like the kinetic energy and the dissipation. The purpose of the present paper is to assess existing capabilities for predicting these aerodynamic inputs. Two modern Navier-Stokes flow solvers, coupled with several modern turbulence models, are evaluated by comparison with experiment for their ability to predict mean flow properties in a supersonic jet plume. Potential weaknesses are identified for further investigation. Another comparison with similar intent is discussed by Barber et al. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a reliable flow solver applicable to the low-noise, propulsion-efficient, nozzle exhaust systems being developed in NASA focused programs. These programs address a broad range of complex nozzle geometries operating in high temperature, compressible, flows. Seiner et al. previously discussed the jet configuration examined here. This convergent-divergent nozzle with an exit diameter of 3.6 inches was designed for an exhaust Mach number of 2.0 and a total temperature of 1680 F. The acoustic and aerodynamic data reported by Seiner et al. covered a range of jet total temperatures from 104 F to 2200 F at the fully-expanded nozzle pressure ratio. The aerodynamic data included centerline mean velocity and total temperature profiles. Computations were performed independently with two computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, ISAAC and PAB3D. Turbulence models employed include the k-epsilon model, the Gatski-Speziale algebraic-stress model and the Girimaji model, with and without the Sarkar compressibility correction. Centerline values of mean velocity and mean temperature are

  6. Computational Flow Predictions for the Lower Plenum of a High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2006-11-01

    Advanced gas-cooled reactors offer the potential advantage of higher efficiency and enhanced safety over present day nuclear reactors. Accurate simulation models of these Generation IV reactors are necessary for design and licensing. One design under consideration by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) program is a modular, prismatic gas-cooled reactor. In this reactor, the lower plenum region may experience locally high temperatures that can adversely impact the plant’s structural integrity. Since existing system analysis codes cannot capture the complex flow effects occurring in the lower plenum, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are being employed to model these flows [1]. The goal of the present study is to validate the CFD calculations using experimental data.

  7. Computational Flow Predictions for the Lower Plenum of a High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-11-01

    Advanced gas-cooled reactors offer the potential advantage of higher efficiency and enhanced safety over present day nuclear reactors. Accurate simulation models of these Generation IV reactors are necessary for design and licensing. One design under consideration by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) program is a modular, prismatic gas-cooled reactor. In this reactor, the lower plenum region may experience locally high temperatures that can adversely impact the plant's structural integrity. Since existing system analysis codes cannot capture the complex flow effects occurring in the lower plenum, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are being employed to model these flows [1]. The goal of the present study is to validate the CFD calculations using experimental data.

  8. Research of products of high temperature synthesis flowing in the rotation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksandopulo, G.; Baideldinova, A.; Riabikin, Y.; Mukhina, L.; Ponomareva, E.; Vasilieva, N.

    2017-02-01

    The method of production of materials by out-furnace process of self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), flowing in the conditions of action of centrifugal force, is developed presently. The primary purpose of working is achievement high level of generating of energy and use of it for forming of steady meta-stable crystalline phases with an uncommon set of physical and chemical properties.

  9. The decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane: Studies in a high-temperature flow reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Melius, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), a common silicon carbide precursor, in a high-temperature flow reactor are presented. The results indicate that methane and hydrogen chloride are major products of the decomposition. No chlorinated silane products were observed. Hydrogen carrier gas was found to increase the rate of MTS decomposition. The observations suggest a radical-chain mechanism for the decomposition. The implications for silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition are discussed.

  10. Field of Flow About a Jet and Effect of Jets on Stability of Jet-Propelled Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribner, Herbert S.

    1946-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted on jet-induced flow deviation. Analysis is given of flow inclination induced outside cold and hot jets and jet deflection caused by angle of attack. Applications to computation of effects of jet on longitudinal stability and trim are explained. Effect of jet temperature on flow inclination was found small when thrust coefficient is used as criterion for similitude. The average jet-induced downwash over tail plane was obtained geometrically.

  11. Motion of water droplets in the counter flow of high-temperature combustion products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, R. S.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental studies of the deceleration, reversal, and entrainment of water droplets sprayed in counter current flow to a rising stream of high-temperature (1100 K) combustion gases. The initial droplets velocities 0.5-2.5 m/s, radii 10-230 μm, relative volume concentrations 0.2·10-4-1.8·10-4 (m3 of water)/(m3 of gas) vary in the ranges corresponding to promising high-temperature (over 1000 K) gas-vapor-droplet applications (for example, polydisperse fire extinguishing using water mist, fog, or appropriate water vapor-droplet veils, thermal or flame treatment of liquids in the flow of combustion products or high-temperature air; creating coolants based on flue gas, vapor and water droplets; unfreezing of granular media and processing of the drossed surfaces of thermal-power equipment; ignition of liquid and slurry fuel droplets). A hardware-software cross-correlation complex, high-speed (up to 105 fps) video recording tools, panoramic optical techniques (Particle Image Velocimetry, Particle Tracking Velocimetry, Interferometric Particle Imagine, Shadow Photography), and the Tema Automotive software with the function of continuous monitoring have been applied to examine the characteristics of the processes under study. The scale of the influence of initial droplets concentration in the gas flow on the conditions and features of their entrainment by high-temperature gases has been specified. The dependencies Red = f(Reg) and Red' = f(Reg) have been obtained to predict the characteristics of the deceleration of droplets by gases at different droplets concentrations.

  12. High temperature corrosion of welded ferritic stainless steel in flowing CO2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Nurul Atikah; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Jalar, Azman; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2013-05-01

    The high temperature corrosion of welded structure of Ferritic Stainless Steel (FSS) in flowing Ar-75%CO2 gas at 700°C has been investigated. The welded structure of FSS joint using ER 308L filler metal by GTAW. The soundness of welded joint has been clarified by X-Ray CT Scan. Prior the high temperature exposure, the welded FSS compulsory passed the standard of ASME. The welded structure of FSS was heated in flowing CO2 gas for 50 h at 1 atm. The morphology and microstructure of oxide formation on welded FSS alloy was characterized by using SEM. The result shows that the different oxide morphologies were observed on parent and fusion metal. The formation of different oxide and element properties at the interface were revealed by X-Ray Diffraction. The differences of the physical condition and morphology microstructure of welded and parent metal were observed to respond to different exposure times. This phenomenon perhaps explained due to the differences of the minor alloying elements on both parent and filler metals. The high temperature corrosion behaviour was discussed in details in this paper regarding on the physical properties, morphology and the microstructure.

  13. Flowing afterglow apparatus for the study of ion{endash}molecule reactions at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hierl, P.M.; Friedman, J.F.; Miller, T.M.; Dotan, I.; Menendez-Barreto, M.; Seeley, J.V.; Williamson, J.S.; Dale, F.; Mundis, P.L.; Morris, R.A.; Paulson, J.F.; Viggiano, A.A.

    1996-06-01

    We describe two versions of a high temperature flowing afterglow apparatus. With a stainless steel flow tube wrapped with heating tape we have obtained data over the range 300{endash}1300 K. In a version with a ceramic flow tube in a commercial furnace we have obtained data over the range 300{endash}1600 K. The ceramic version is designed to take data up to 1800 K, but we have encountered experimental problems at the upper temperature range. The design modifications to a standard flowing afterglow needed to make measurements at elevated temperatures are described in detail, as are problems associated with operating at elevated temperatures. Samples of data are given. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. High temperature behavior of nanostructured Al powders obtained by mechanical alloying under NH3 flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, E. S.; Cintas, J.; Cuevas, F. G.; Montes, J. M.; Herrera-García, M.

    2015-03-01

    Aluminium powder was mechanically alloyed under ammonia gas flow for different times (1-5 h) in order to produce a second-phase reinforcement, mainly by aluminium nitride (AlN). After milling, powders were consolidated by cold uniaxial pressing and vacuum sintering. A small amount of copper powder was added to the Al milled powder to improve its sintering behavior. Hardness and indirect tensile test were carried out at room and high temperature to evaluate the mechanical properties evolution. Results showed an remarkable hardness increase with the second phases content, even at high temperature (up to 229 HB at 400 °C). However, the high content of second phases of ceramic nature decreases the ductility, resulting in low values of tensile strength (lower than 160 MPa).

  15. Engine panel seals for hypersonic engine applications: High temperature leakage assessments and flow modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Mutharasan, Rajakkannu; Du, Guang-Wu; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Ko, Frank

    1992-01-01

    A critical mechanical system in advanced hypersonic engines is the panel-edge seal system that seals gaps between the articulating horizontal engine panels and the adjacent engine splitter walls. Significant advancements in seal technology are required to meet the extreme demands placed on the seals, including the simultaneous requirements of low leakage, conformable, high temperature, high pressure, sliding operation. In this investigation, the seal concept design and development of two new seal classes that show promise of meeting these demands will be presented. These seals include the ceramic wafer seal and the braided ceramic rope seal. Presented are key elements of leakage flow models for each of these seal types. Flow models such as these help designers to predict performance-robbing parasitic losses past the seals, and estimate purge coolant flow rates. Comparisons are made between measured and predicted leakage rates over a wide range of engine simulated temperatures and pressures, showing good agreement.

  16. Demonstration of a stabilized alumina/ethanol colloidal dispersion technique for seeding high temperature air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.

    1995-01-01

    Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.

  17. Doping Effect on High-Temperature Plastic Flow in Fine-grained Alumina (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, H.; Ikuhara, Y.; Sakuma, T.

    2010-12-01

    High-temperature plastic flow controlled by matter transport in the grain boundaries of Al2O3 is briefly introduced with a special interest in the effect of cation doping. According to the deformation mechanism map compiled for polycrystalline Al2O3, the predominant deformation mechanism in Al2O3 with a grain size of less than 10μm is grain boundary diffusional creep at temperatures of 1100-1400°C and an applied stress of less than 100MPa. The grain boundary sliding becomes important in the deformation mechanism when the grain size is smaller than several microns. Our group has found that the high-temperature creep rate in Al2O3 with an average grain size of less than 5μm is sensitively influenced by the doping of a small amount of cations at the doping level of 0.1mol%. For instance, the high-temperature creep rate in Al2O3 with a grain size of 1μm is retarded by a factor of 200 at 1250°C by the doping of 0.1mol% Y3+ or Lu3+. We performed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations and chemical analysis by an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer using an electron probe size of 1nm on samples of various kinds of cation-doped Al2O3s. The microstructure investigation revealed that the doped cations tend to segregate in the vicinity of the grain boundaries of the Al2O3; grain boundaries in the cation-doped Al2O3s are clean without any second phase particles or amorphous layer, and are essentially solid/solid boundaries. The segregation of the Y or Lu cations in the grain boundaries probably suppresses the grain boundary diffusion of Al2O3 and accordingly reduces the creep rate at high temperatures.

  18. Prediction of Ablation Rates from Solid Surfaces Exposed to High Temperature Gas Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Coote, David

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model and a solution algorithm is developed to study the physics of high temperature heat transfer and material ablation and identify the problems associated with the flow of hydrogen gas at very high temperatures and velocities through pipes and various components of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motors. Ablation and melting can be experienced when the inner solid surface of the cooling channels and the diverging-converging nozzle of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motor is exposed to hydrogen gas flow at temperatures around 2500 degrees Kelvin and pressures around 3.4 MPa. In the experiments conducted on typical NTR motors developed in 1960s, degradation of the cooling channel material (cracking in the nuclear fuel element cladding) and in some instances melting of the core was observed. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study based on two types of physics based mathematical models that were developed to simulate the thermal-hydrodynamic conditions that lead to ablation of the solid surface of a stainless steel pipe exposed to high temperature hydrogen gas near sonic velocities. One of the proposed models is one-dimensional and assumes the gas flow to be unsteady, compressible and viscous. An in-house computer code was developed to solve the conservations equations of this model using a second-order accurate finite-difference technique. The second model assumes the flow to be three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible and viscous. A commercial CFD code (Fluent) was used to solve the later model equations. Both models assume the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hydrogen gas to be temperature dependent. In the solution algorithm developed for this study, the unsteady temperature of the pipe is determined from the heat equation for the solid. The solid-gas interface temperature is determined from an energy balance at the interface which includes heat transfer from or to the interface by conduction, convection, radiation, and

  19. Prediction of Ablation Rates from Solid Surfaces Exposed to High Temperature Gas Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyuzlu, Kazim M.; Coote, David

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model and a solution algorithm is developed to study the physics of high temperature heat transfer and material ablation and identify the problems associated with the flow of hydrogen gas at very high temperatures and velocities through pipes and various components of Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motors. Ablation and melting can be experienced when the inner solid surface of the cooling channels and the diverging-converging nozzle of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) motor is exposed to hydrogen gas flow at temperatures around 2500 degrees Kelvin and pressures around 3.4 MPa. In the experiments conducted on typical NTR motors developed in 1960s, degradation of the cooling channel material (cracking in the nuclear fuel element cladding) and in some instances melting of the core was observed. This paper presents the results of a preliminary study based on two types of physics based mathematical models that were developed to simulate the thermal-hydrodynamic conditions that lead to ablation of the solid surface of a stainless steel pipe exposed to high temperature hydrogen gas near sonic velocities. One of the proposed models is one-dimensional and assumes the gas flow to be unsteady, compressible and viscous. An in-house computer code was developed to solve the conservations equations of this model using a second-order accurate finite-difference technique. The second model assumes the flow to be three-dimensional, unsteady, compressible and viscous. A commercial CFD code (Fluent) was used to solve the later model equations. Both models assume the thermodynamic and transport properties of the hydrogen gas to be temperature dependent. In the solution algorithm developed for this study, the unsteady temperature of the pipe is determined from the heat equation for the solid. The solid-gas interface temperature is determined from an energy balance at the interface which includes heat transfer from or to the interface by conduction, convection, radiation, and

  20. Transport coefficients and heat fluxes in non-equilibrium high-temperature flows with electronic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.

    2017-02-01

    The influence of electronic excitation on transport processes in non-equilibrium high-temperature ionized mixture flows is studied. Two five-component mixtures, N 2 / N2 + / N / N + / e - and O 2 / O2 + / O / O + / e - , are considered taking into account the electronic degrees of freedom for atomic species as well as the rotational-vibrational-electronic degrees of freedom for molecular species, both neutral and ionized. Using the modified Chapman-Enskog method, the transport coefficients (thermal conductivity, shear viscosity and bulk viscosity, diffusion and thermal diffusion) are calculated in the temperature range 500-50 000 K. Thermal conductivity and bulk viscosity coefficients are strongly affected by electronic states, especially for neutral atomic species. Shear viscosity, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients are not sensible to electronic excitation if the size of excited states is assumed to be constant. The limits of applicability for the Stokes relation are discussed; at high temperatures, this relation is violated not only for molecular species but also for electronically excited atomic gases. Two test cases of strongly non-equilibrium flows behind plane shock waves corresponding to the spacecraft re-entry (Hermes and Fire II) are simulated numerically. Fluid-dynamic variables and heat fluxes are evaluated in gases with electronic excitation. In inviscid flows without chemical-radiative coupling, the flow-field is weakly affected by electronic states; however, in viscous flows, their influence can be more important, in particular, on the convective heat flux. The contribution of different dissipative processes to the heat transfer is evaluated as well as the effect of reaction rate coefficients. The competition of diffusion and heat conduction processes reduces the overall effect of electronic excitation on the convective heating, especially for the Fire II test case. It is shown that reliable models of chemical reaction rates are of great

  1. Snowmass 2001: Jet energy flow project

    SciTech Connect

    C. F. Berger et al.

    2002-12-05

    Conventional cone jet algorithms arose from heuristic considerations of LO hard scattering coupled to independent showering. These algorithms implicitly assume that the final states of individual events can be mapped onto a unique set of jets that are in turn associated with a unique set of underlying hard scattering partons. Thus each final state hadron is assigned to a unique underlying parton. The Jet Energy Flow (JEF) analysis described here does not make such assumptions. The final states of individual events are instead described in terms of flow distributions of hadronic energy. Quantities of physical interest are constructed from the energy flow distribution summed over all events. The resulting analysis is less sensitive to higher order perturbative corrections and the impact of showering and hadronization than the standard cone algorithms.

  2. SparkJet Actuators for Flow Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    DISTRIBUTION I AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Effective manipulation of a flow field can lead to a number of significant...demonstrated the ability to produce a synthetic jet with high exhaust velocities, and hence holds the promise of manipulating high-speed flows without...for advanced high-speed flight vehicles. Effective manipulation of a flow field can lead to a number of significant benefits to aerospace vehicle

  3. Experimental Studies of Coaxial Jet Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrouzi, Parviz; McGuirk, James J.

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effect of coaxial nozzle operating conditions on near-field jet plume development. The study was conducted in a low speed water tunnel as well as in a high-speed airflow nozzle test facility. Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques were employed to identify the flow structure as well as the mean velocity and turbulence structure of a coaxial nozzle under low speed flow conditions. Schlieren flow visualization, LDA and nozzle wall static pressure measurement surveys were performed in high speed flows. The effect of a nozzle shroud on jet development was studied and found very effective on suppression of the shock cells and on reduction of turbulence levels within the core region. The effect of the outer and inner Nozzle Pressure Ratios on shock cell structure and the nozzle internal wall pressure field were documented. LDA measurements in the water tunnel confirmed that the flow pattern produced of the Reynolds numbers and velocity ratios selected for this study was typical of practically occurring developing jet flow fields. Sufficient measured profiles of velocities, turbulence quantities and nozzle wall static pressures as well as jet plume images have been captured to serve as benchmark validation data for time-averaged turbulence-model-based RANS CFD predictions.

  4. Plasma flow reactor for steady state monitoring of physical and chemical processes at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroglu, Batikan; Mehl, Marco; Armstrong, Michael R.; Crowhurst, Jonathan C.; Weisz, David G.; Zaug, Joseph M.; Dai, Zurong; Radousky, Harry B.; Chernov, Alex; Ramon, Erick; Stavrou, Elissaios; Knight, Kim; Fabris, Andrea L.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rose, Timothy P.

    2017-09-01

    We present the development of a steady state plasma flow reactor to investigate gas phase physical and chemical processes that occur at high temperature (1000 < T < 5000 K) and atmospheric pressure. The reactor consists of a glass tube that is attached to an inductively coupled argon plasma generator via an adaptor (ring flow injector). We have modeled the system using computational fluid dynamics simulations that are bounded by measured temperatures. In situ line-of-sight optical emission and absorption spectroscopy have been used to determine the structures and concentrations of molecules formed during rapid cooling of reactants after they pass through the plasma. Emission spectroscopy also enables us to determine the temperatures at which these dynamic processes occur. A sample collection probe inserted from the open end of the reactor is used to collect condensed materials and analyze them ex situ using electron microscopy. The preliminary results of two separate investigations involving the condensation of metal oxides and chemical kinetics of high-temperature gas reactions are discussed.

  5. Fluctuating pressures in flow fields of jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. C.; Haviland, J. K.

    1976-01-01

    The powered lift configurations under present development for STOL aircraft are the externally blown flap (EBF), involving direct jet impingement on the aircraft flaps, and the upper surface blown (USB), where the jet flow is attached on the upper surface of the wing and directed downwards. Towards the goal of developing scaling laws to predict unsteady loads imposed on the structural components of these STOL aircraft from small model tests, the near field fluctuating pressure behavior for the simplified cases of a round free cold jet and the same jet impinging on a flat plate was investigated. Examples are given of coherences, phase lags (giving convection velocities), and overall fluctuating pressure levels measured. The fluctuating pressure levels measured on the flat plate are compared to surface fluctuating pressure levels measured on full-scale powered-lift configuration models.

  6. Experiments on confined turbulent jets in cross flow. [longitudinal and transverse distributions of velocity and temperature for jet flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamotani, Y.; Greber, I.

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of experiments on the effects of an opposite wall on the characteristics of turbulent jets injected into a cross flow, for unheated and heated jets. Longitudinal and transverse distributions of velocity and temperature are presented for single and multiple circular jets, and trajectories are presented for two-dimensional jets. The opposite wall has relatively little effect on a single jet unless the ratio of jet to cross flow momentum flux is large enough for the jet to impinge on the opposite wall. For a row of jets aligned perpendicularly to the cross flow, the opposite wall exerts progressively larger influence as the spacing between jets decreases. Much of the effect of jet and wall proximity can be understood by considering the interaction of the vortex flow which is the major feature of the structure of a single jet in a cross flow. Smoke photographs are shown to elucidate some of the interaction patterns.

  7. Highly Inclined Jets in Cross Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milanovic, I. M.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    2003-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of flow field generated by pitched and yawed jets discharging from a flat plate into a cross-flow are presented. The circular jet was pitched at alpha = 20deg and 45deg and yawed between Beta = 0deg and 90deg in increments of 15deg. The measurements were performed with two ×-wires providing all three components of velocity and turbulent stresses. These data were obtained at downstream locations of x = 3, 5, 10 and 20, where the distance x, normalized by the jet diameter, is measured from the center of the orifice. Data for all configurations were acquired at a momentum-flux ratio J = 8. Additionally, for selected angles and locations, surveys were conducted for J = 1.5, 4, and 20. As expected, the jet penetration is found to be higher at larger alpha. With increasing beta the jet spreads more. The rate of reduction of peak streamwise vorticity, ? max, with the downstream distance is significantly less at higher Beta but is found to be practically independent of alpha. Thus, at the farthest measurement station x = 20, ?xmax is about five times larger for Beta = 75deg compared to the levels at Beta = 0deg. Streamwise velocity within the jet-vortex structure is found to depend on the parameter J. At J = 1.5 and 4, 'wake-like' velocity profiles are observed. In comparison, a 'jet-like' overshoot is present at higher J. Distributions of turbulent stresses for various cases are documented. Peak normal stresses are found to occur within the core of the streamwise vortices. With yaw, at lower values of J, high turbulence is also observed in the boundary layer underneath the jet-vortex structure

  8. Experimental and Analytic Study on the Core Bypass Flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schultz

    2012-04-01

    Core bypass flow has been one of key issues in the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design for securing core thermal margins and achieving target temperatures at the core exit. The bypass flow in a prismatic VHTR core occurs through the control element holes and the radial and axial gaps between the graphite blocks for manufacturing and refueling tolerances. These gaps vary with the core life cycles because of the irradiation swelling/shrinkage characteristic of the graphite blocks such as fuel and reflector blocks, which are main components of a core's structure. Thus, the core bypass flow occurs in a complicated multidimensional way. The accurate prediction of this bypass flow and counter-measures to minimize it are thus of major importance in assuring core thermal margins and securing higher core efficiency. Even with this importance, there has not been much effort in quantifying and accurately modeling the effect of the core bypass flow. The main objectives of this project were to generate experimental data for validating the software to be used to calculate the bypass flow in a prismatic VHTR core, validate thermofluid analysis tools and their model improvements, and identify and assess measures for reducing the bypass flow. To achieve these objectives, tasks were defined to (1) design and construct experiments to generate validation data for software analysis tools, (2) determine the experimental conditions and define the measurement requirements and techniques, (3) generate and analyze the experimental data, (4) validate and improve the thermofluid analysis tools, and (5) identify measures to control the bypass flow and assess its performance in the experiment.

  9. Investigation on the Core Bypass Flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, Yassin

    2013-10-22

    Uncertainties associated with the core bypass flow are some of the key issues that directly influence the coolant mass flow distribution and magnitude, and thus the operational core temperature profiles, in the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR). Designers will attempt to configure the core geometry so the core cooling flow rate magnitude and distribution conform to the design values. The objective of this project is to study the bypass flow both experimentally and computationally. Researchers will develop experimental data using state-of-the-art particle image velocimetry in a small test facility. The team will attempt to obtain full field temperature distribution using racks of thermocouples. The experimental data are intended to benchmark computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes by providing detailed information. These experimental data are urgently needed for validation of the CFD codes. The following are the project tasks: • Construct a small-scale bench-top experiment to resemble the bypass flow between the graphite blocks, varying parameters to address their impact on bypass flow. Wall roughness of the graphite block walls, spacing between the blocks, and temperature of the blocks are some of the parameters to be tested. • Perform CFD to evaluate pre- and post-test calculations and turbulence models, including sensitivity studies to achieve high accuracy. • Develop the state-of-the art large eddy simulation (LES) using appropriate subgrid modeling. • Develop models to be used in systems thermal hydraulics codes to account and estimate the bypass flows. These computer programs include, among others, RELAP3D, MELCOR, GAMMA, and GAS-NET. Actual core bypass flow rate may vary considerably from the design value. Although the uncertainty of the bypass flow rate is not known, some sources have stated that the bypass flow rates in the Fort St. Vrain reactor were between 8 and 25 percent of the total reactor mass flow rate. If bypass flow rates are on the

  10. Jet vortex generators for turbulent flow separation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, G.; Lin, J.; Howard, F.

    1990-01-01

    A parametric study was performed with jet vortex generators to determine their effectiveness in controlling flow separation associated with low-speed turbulent flow over a two-dimensional rearward-facing ramp. Results indicate that flow separation control can be accomplished with the level of control achieved being a function of jet speed, jet orientation (with respect to the free-stream direction), and orifice pattern (double row of jets vs. single row). Compared to slot blowing, jet vortex generators can provide an equivalent level of flow control over a larger spanwise region (for constant jet flow area and speed).

  11. Jet vortex generators for turbulent flow separation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, Gregory; Lin, J.; Howard, F.

    1990-01-01

    A parametric study was performed with jet vortex generators to determine their effectiveness in controlling flow separation associated with low speed turbulent flow over a two dimensional rearward-facing ramp. Results indicate that flow separation control can be accomplished with the level of control achieved being a function of jet speed, jet orientation (with respect to the free stream direction), and orifice pattern (double row of jets vs. single row). Compared to slot blowing, jet vortex generators can provide an equivalent level of flow control over a larger spanwise region (for constant jet flow area and speed).

  12. High temperature gradient micro-sensor for wall shear stress and flow direction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghouila-Houri, C.; Claudel, J.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Gallas, Q.; Garnier, E.; Merlen, A.; Viard, R.; Talbi, A.; Pernod, P.

    2016-12-01

    We present an efficient and high-sensitive thermal micro-sensor for near wall flow parameters measurements. By combining substrate-free wire structure and mechanical support using silicon oxide micro-bridges, the sensor achieves a high temperature gradient, with wires reaching 1 mm long for only 3 μm wide over a 20 μm deep cavity. Elaborated to reach a compromise solution between conventional hot-films and hot-wire sensors, the sensor presents a high sensitivity to the wall shear stress and to the flow direction. The sensor can be mounted flush to the wall for research studies such as turbulence and near wall shear flow analysis, and for technical applications, such as flow control and separation detection. The fabrication process is CMOS-compatible and allows on-chip integration. The present letter describes the sensor elaboration, design, and micro-fabrication, then the electrical and thermal characterizations, and finally the calibration experiments in a turbulent boundary layer wind tunnel.

  13. Boundary Conditions for Jet Flow Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayder, M. E.; Turkel, E.

    1994-01-01

    Ongoing activities are focused on capturing the sound source in a supersonic jet through careful large eddy simulation (LES). One issue that is addressed is the effect of the boundary conditions, both inflow and outflow, on the predicted flow fluctuations, which represent the sound source. In this study, we examine the accuracy of several boundary conditions to determine their suitability for computations of time-dependent flows. Various boundary conditions are used to compute the flow field of a laminar axisymmetric jet excited at the inflow by a disturbance given by the corresponding eigenfunction of the linearized stability equations. We solve the full time dependent Navier-Stokes equations by a high order numerical scheme. For very small excitations, the computed growth of the modes closely corresponds to that predicted by the linear theory. We then vary the excitation level to see the effect of the boundary conditions in the nonlinear flow regime.

  14. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silcox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  15. Coronal Jet Collimation by Nonlinear Induced Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Hejazi, S. M.

    2017-08-01

    Our objective is to study the collimation of solar jets by nonlinear forces corresponding to torsional Alfvén waves together with external forces. We consider a straight, initially non-rotating, untwisted magnetic cylinder embedded in a plasma with a straight magnetic field, where a shear between the internal and external flows exists. By implementing magnetohydrodynamic theory and taking into account the second-order thin flux tube approximation, the balance between the internal nonlinear forces is visualized. The nonlinear differential equation containing the ponderomotive, magnetic tension, and centrifugal forces in the presence of the shear flow is obtained. The solution presents the scale of influence of the propagating torsional Alfvén wave on compressive perturbations. Explicit expressions for the compressive perturbations caused by the forces connected to the torsional Alfvén wave show that, in the presence of a shear flow, the magnetic tension and centrifugal forces do not cancel each other’s effects as they did in its absence. This shear flow plays in favor of the magnetic tension force, resulting in a more efficient collimation. Regarding the ponderomotive force, the shear flow has no effect. The phase relations highlight the interplay of the shear flow and the plasma-β. As the shear flow and plasma-β increase, compressive perturbation amplitudes emerge. We conclude that the jet collimation due to the torsional Alfvén wave highly depends on the location of the jet. The shear flow tightens the collimation as the jet elevates up to the solar corona.

  16. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  17. On some flow characteristics of conventional and excited jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    Improved correlations of jet centerline velocity and static temperature decay data for convergent nozzles are developed. From these empirical correlations, a relationship was devised by which the static temperature decay for a nonisothermal jet plume can be determined from cold-flow jet centerline velocity decay data or prediction. This relationship is shown to apply as well to jet plumes for various nozzle shapes. It is assumed, by analogy, that this relationship also applies to acoustically excited jet plumes. Jet plume spreading with and without excitation is discussed. Finally, the radial velocity and temperature profiles for conventional and enhanced mixing jet flows are shown and their implication for excited flows is discussed.

  18. High-Flow Jet Exit Rig Designed and Fabricated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Robert J.; Trimarchi, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center is designed to test single flow jet nozzles and to measure the appropriate thrust and noise levels. The rig has been designed for the maximum hot condition of 16 lbm/sec of combustion air at 1960 R (maximum) and to produce a maximum thrust of 2000 lb. It was designed for cold flow of 29.1 lbm/sec of air at 530 R. In addition, it can test dual-flow nozzles (nozzles with bypass flow in addition to core flow) with independent control of each flow. The High- Flow Jet Exit Rig was successfully fabricated in late 2001 and is being readied for checkout tests. The rig will be installed in Glenn's Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The High-Flow Jet Exit Rig consists of the following major components: a single component force balance, the natural-gas-fueled J-79 combustor assembly, the plenum and manifold assembly, an acoustic/instrumentation/seeding (A/I/S) section, a table, and the research nozzles. The rig will be unique in that it is designed to operate uncooled. The structure survives the 1960 R test condition because it uses carefully selected high temperature alloy materials such as Hastelloy-X. The lower plenum assembly was designed to operate at pressures to 450 psig at 1960 R, in accordance with the ASME B31.3 piping code. The natural gas-fueled combustor fires directly into the lower manifold. The hot air is directed through eight 1-1/2-in. supply pipes that supply the upper plenum. The flow is conditioned in the upper plenum prior to flowing to the research nozzle. The 1-1/2-in. supply lines are arranged in a U-shaped design to provide for a flexible piping system. The combustor assembly checkout was successfully conducted in Glenn's Engine Component Research Laboratory in the spring of 2001. The combustor is a low-smoke version of the J79 combustor used to power the F4 Phantom military aircraft. The natural gas-fueled combustor demonstrated high-efficiency combustion over a wide range of operating

  19. PVD Cu trench-fill by viscous flow at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhiyuan

    The scaling of integrated circuits has led to new challenges in Cu interconnect fabrication. It is getting difficult to fill narrow trenches, e.g. 20 nm wide, by Cu electroplating. In this work, a high temperature PVD Cu viscous flow trench fill process was explored to overcome the difficulties of filling narrow and high aspect ratio trenches. We have tested and found TaN and MoN to be good barriers, and Ru a good wetting surface for Cu. The three metals, Ta, Mo and Ru, are thus suitable for use as a thin liner to provide adhesion between the filled Cu and the dielectrics. We have therefore studied and compared Cu viscous flow trench filling on Ru, Mo and Ta liners. Cross-sectional TEM was employed to examine the trench fill profiles under different viscous flow conditions. We have found that a continuous Cu seed deposited at room temperature was essential to allow successful Cu viscous flow. The liner material's effect on Cu seed agglomeration was thus critical. It was shown that viscous flow on a Ru liner with a continuous Cu seed can fill narrow trenches (300 nm wide) at a high aspect ratio (a/r = 5), and produce maximized Cu grain size without post-fill annealing. A thicker Cu seed is required on the Mo liner for a successful viscous fill. However, on a Ta liner, because of poor Cu wetting, it is difficult to maintain a continuous Cu seed coverage at high temperatures, and the viscous fill was unsuccessful. To fill ultra-narrow (≤ 48 nm wide) and high aspect ratio (a/r ≥ 4) trenches, a lower deposition rate was needed. Agglomeration of the whole Cu fill at high temperatures is a key issue, which still remains to be overcome. Computer simulations of the viscous flow trench fill process were carried out, taking into account the effects of incoming flux divergence and Cu seed coverage. Our simulations indicated that a successful viscous trench fill relies on a continuous Cu seed coverage and a high surface mobility. Viscous flow is not sensitive to the

  20. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Shorey, Mark W.; Steinetz, Bruce (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 lb payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs. During the first phase of this program the existing launch vehicle control surface sealing concepts were reviewed, the aerothermal environment for a high temperature seal design was analyzed and a mock up of an arc-jet test fixture for evaluating seal concepts was fabricated.

  1. Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Judith H.; Wernet, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. The technique is not limited to alumina/ethanol and is also demonstrated with an alumina/H2O system. Other ceramic powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(sub pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined.

  2. Safety aspects of forced flow cooldown transients in Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kroger, P.G. )

    1993-05-01

    During some of the design basis accidents in Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (MHTGRs), the main Heat Transport System (HTS) and the Shutdown Cooling System n removed by the passive Reactor (SCS) are assumed to have failed. Decay heat is the Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) only. If either forced flow cooling system becomes available during such a transient, its restart could significantly reduce the down-time. This report used the THATCH code to examine whether such restart, during a period of elevated core temperatures, can be accomplished within safe limits for fuel and metal component temperatures. If the reactor is scrammed, either system can apparently be restarted at any time, without exceeding any safe limits. However, under unscrammed conditions a restart of forced cooling can lead to recriticality, with fuel and metal temperatures significantly exceeding the safety limits.

  3. Apparatus and method for generating large mass flow of high temperature air at hypersonic speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabol, A. P.; Stewart, R. B. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    High temperature, high mass air flow and a high Reynolds number test air flow in the Mach number 8-10 regime of adequate test flow duration is attained by pressurizing a ceramic-lined storage tank with air to a pressure of about 100 to 200 atmospheres. The air is heated to temperatures of 7,000 to 8,000 R prior to introduction into the tank by passing the air over an electric arc heater means. The air cools to 5,500 to 6,000 R while in the tank. A decomposable gas such as nitrous oxide or a combustible gas such as propane is injected into the tank after pressurization and the heated pressurized air in the tank is rapidly released through a Mach number 8-10 nozzle. The injected gas medium upon contact with the heated pressurized air effects an exothermic reaction which maintains the pressure and temperature of the pressurized air during the rapid release.

  4. Control of jet flow mixing and stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chih-Chung

    This dissertation examines the effect of feedback controllers on mixing and stabilization of unstable two-dimensional jet flows. The mixing enhancement control law uses a pair of actuators at the jet nozzle exit acting on the shear layers near the corners by blowing and subtracting fluid in an anti-symmetric fashion with a zero net mass flux. The sensor measures the pressure difference across the nozzle diameter and is either located at downstream or at the nozzle exit with time delay. If the length/time scale is long enough and the feedback gain is sufficiently large, this control strategy will provide a constant vortex generation pattern that successfully improves mixing. The evolution of a passive scalar and mixing of particles with mass in jet flows are visualized and quantified. Probability Density Functions based on the particle/scalar distribution are constructed as measures of mixing. The stabilization control law employs filaments with distributed sensors and actuators in the jet flow. The sensors measure the local pressure difference across nozzle diameter and the actuators act as a reaction body force in the normal direction. The instability is damped with sufficiently large feedback gain. The Reynolds numbers of jet flows studied are 100 and 150 that are in the transient range. The results are obtained by means of Direct Numerical Simulation. The Navier-Stokes equations are spatially discretized by second order finite-difference method and advanced in time using a fractional step technique with a hybrid Runge-Kutta/Crank-Nicolson time discretization. This hybrid technique is developed to gain a larger time step while numerical stability is maintained. Stretched and staggered grids are used in both stream-wise and normal directions. The simulation results are validated by comparison with previous works and through self-similar analysis.

  5. The oblique impingement of an axisymmetric jet. [flow characteristics of jet flow over flat plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, J. F.; Kleis, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanics of the oblique impingement of an axisymmetric jet on a plane surface are examined in detail. The stagnation point is discussed. A schematic drawing of the problem and coordinate system used to describe the flow field are given. The kinematic features of the flow above the plate are examined in the context of the conservation of mass, the vorticity of the jet, and the vorticity introduced by the jetplate interaction. The dynamic features of the flow are examined in terms of the surface pressure distribution and the cause-effect relationships which exist between the pressure and velocity/vorticity distributions. Flow calculations performed are given. The investigation is relevant to the flow resulting from the interaction of the propulsion jet with the main airfoil (STOL aircraft), and is appropriate to an over- or under- wing configuration.

  6. Control of Structure in Turbulent Flows: Bifurcating and Blooming Jets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-10

    by Lee and Reynolds (1985a; see Appendix A) in a study of mechanically-excited water jets at a Reynolds number of 4,000. The axial excitation was...round air jets is described. The jet evolution and of mechanically-perturbed round water jets at a structure is documented by flow visualization at

  7. Fiber-optic flow sensors for high-temperature environment operation up to 800°C.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongzhang; Yan, Aidong; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Kevin P

    2014-07-01

    This Letter presents an all-optical high-temperature flow sensor based on hot-wire anemometry. High-attenuation fibers (HAFs) were used as the heating elements. High-temperature-stable regenerated fiber Bragg gratings were inscribed in HAFs and in standard telecom fibers as temperature sensors. Using in-fiber light as both the heating power source and the interrogation light source, regenerative fiber Bragg grating sensors were used to gauge the heat transfer from an optically powered heating element induced by the gas flow. Reliable gas flow measurements were demonstrated between 0.066  m/s and 0.66  m/s from the room temperature to 800°C. This Letter presents a compact, low-cost, and multiflexible approach to measure gas flow for high-temperature harsh environments.

  8. An approximation technique for jet impingement flow

    SciTech Connect

    Najafi, Mahmoud; Fincher, Donald; Rahni, Taeibi; Javadi, KH.; Massah, H.

    2015-03-10

    The analytical approximate solution of a non-linear jet impingement flow model will be demonstrated. We will show that this is an improvement over the series approximation obtained via the Adomian decomposition method, which is itself, a powerful method for analysing non-linear differential equations. The results of these approximations will be compared to the Runge-Kutta approximation in order to demonstrate their validity.

  9. The effects of temperatures on the pebble flow in a pebble bed high temperature reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, R. S.; Cogliati, J. J.; Gougar, H. D.

    2012-07-01

    The core of a pebble bed high temperature reactor (PBHTR) moves during operation, a feature which leads to better fuel economy (online refueling with no burnable poisons) and lower fuel stress. The pebbles are loaded at the top and trickle to the bottom of the core after which the burnup of each is measured. The pebbles that are not fully burned are recirculated through the core until the target burnup is achieved. The flow pattern of the pebbles through the core is of importance for core simulations because it couples the burnup distribution to the core temperature and power profiles, especially in cores with two or more radial burnup 'zones '. The pebble velocity profile is a strong function of the core geometry and the friction between the pebbles and the surrounding structures (other pebbles or graphite reflector blocks). The friction coefficient for graphite in a helium environment is inversely related to the temperature. The Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR) operated in Germany between 1983 and 1989. It featured a two-zone core, an inner core (IC) and outer core (OC), with different fuel mixtures loaded in each zone. The rate at which the IC was refueled relative to the OC in THTR was designed to be 0.56. During its operation, however, this ratio was measured to be 0.76, suggesting the pebbles in the inner core traveled faster than expected. It has been postulated that the positive feedback effect between inner core temperature, burnup, and pebble flow was underestimated in THTR. Because of the power shape, the center of the core in a typical cylindrical PBHTR operates at a higher temperature than the region next to the side reflector. The friction between pebbles in the IC is lower than that in the OC, perhaps causing a higher relative flow rate and lower average burnup, which in turn yield a higher local power density. Furthermore, the pebbles in the center region have higher velocities than the pebbles next to the side reflector due to the

  10. Biomass-oxygen gasification in a high-temperature entrained-flow gasifier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinsong; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Hui; Cao, Xiaowei; Mei, Qinfeng; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2009-01-01

    The technology associated with indirect biomass liquefaction is currently arousing increased attention, as it could ensure a supply of transportation fuels and reduce the use of petroleum. The characteristics of biomass-oxygen gasification in a bench-scale laminar entrained-flow gasifier were studied in the paper. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of some key factors, including reaction temperature, residence time and oxygen/biomass ratio, on the gasification. The results indicated that higher temperature favored H2 and CO production. Cold gas efficiency was improved by N10% when the temperature was increased from 1000 to 1400 degrees C. The carbon conversion increased and the syngas quality was improved with increasing residence time. A shorter residence resulted in incomplete gasification. An optimal residence time of 1.6 s was identified in this study. The introduction of oxygen to the gasifier strengthened the gasification and improved the carbon conversion, but lowered the lower heating value and the H2/CO ratio of the syngas. The optimal oxygen/biomass ratio in this study was 0.4. The results of this study will help to improve our understanding of syngas production by biomass high-temperature gasification.

  11. Numerical models of jet disruption in cluster cooling flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loken, Chris; Burns, Jack O.; Roettiger, Kurt; Norman, Mike

    1993-01-01

    We present a coherent picture for the formation of the observed diverse radio morphological structures in dominant cluster galaxies based on the jet Mach number. Realistic, supersonic, steady-state cooling flow atmospheres are evolved numerically and then used as the ambient medium through which jets of various properties are propagated. Low Mach number jets effectively stagnate due to the ram pressure of the cooling flow atmosphere while medium Mach number jets become unstable and disrupt in the cooling flow to form amorphous structures. High Mach number jets manage to avoid disruption and are able to propagate through the cooling flow.

  12. Flow and failure of an aluminium alloy from low to high temperature and strain rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Rafael; Cendón, David; Gálvez, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical behaviour of an aluminium alloy is presented in this paper. The study has been carried out to analyse the flow and failure of the aluminium alloy 7075-T73. An experimental study has been planned performing tests of un-notched and notched tensile specimens at low strain rates using a servo-hydraulic machine. High strain rate tests have been carried out using the same geometry in a Hopkinson Split Tensile Bar. The dynamic experiments at low temperature were performed using a cryogenic chamber, and the high temperature ones with a furnace, both incorporated to the Hopkinson bar. Testing temperatures ranged from - 50 ∘C to 100 ∘C and the strain rates from 10-4 s-1 to 600 s-1. The material behaviour was modelled using the Modified Johnson-Cook model and simulated using LS-DYNA. The results show that the Voce type of strain hardening is the most accurate for this material, while the traditional Johnson-Cook is not enough accurate to reproduce the necking of un-notched specimens. The failure criterion was obtained by means of the numerical simulations using the analysis of the stress triaxiality versus the strain to failure. The diameters at the failure time were measured using the images taken with an image camera, and the strain to failure was computed for un-notched and notched specimens. The numerical simulations show that the analysis of the evolution of the stress triaxiality is crucial to achieve accurate results. A material model using the Modified Johnson-Cook for flow and failure is proposed.

  13. High-temperature reactive flow of combustion gases in an expansion turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Godin, T.; Harvey, S.; Stouffs, P.

    1997-07-01

    The analysis of the chemical behavior of the working fluid in gas turbines is usually restricted to the combustion chamber sections. However, the current trend toward higher Turbine Inlet Temperatures (TIT), in order to achieve improved thermal efficiency, will invalidate the assumption of frozen composition of the gases in the first stages of the expansion process. It will become necessary to consider the recombination reactions of the dissociated species, resulting in heat release during expansion. In order to quantify the influence of this reactivity on the performance of high TIT gas turbines, a one-dimensional model of the reactive flow has been developed. Preliminary results were reported in a previous paper. The authors concluded that, in the case of expansion of combustion gases in a subsonic static uncurved distributor nozzle, the residual reactivity must be taken into account above a temperature threshold of around 2,000 K. The present study extend these results by investigating the reactive flow in a complete multistage turbine set, including a transonic first-stage nozzle. A key result of this study is that heat release during the expansion process itself will be considerable in future high-temperature gas turbines, and this will have significant implications for turbine design techniques. Furthermore, they show that, at the turbine exit, the fractions of NO and CO are very different from the values computed at the combustor outlet. In particular, NO production in the early part of the expansion process is very high. Finally, the effects of temperature fluctuations at the turbine inlet are considered. They show that residual chemical reactivity affects the expansion characteristics in gas turbines with TITs comparable to those attained by modern high-performance machines.

  14. Demonstration of a Fiber Optic Regression Probe in a High-Temperature Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    empirically anchoring any analysis geared towards lifetime qualification. Erosion rate data over an operating envelope could also be useful in the modeling detailed physical processes. The sensor has been embedded in many regressing media to demonstrate the capabilities in a number of regressing environments. In the present work, sensors were installed in the eroding/regressing throat region of a converging-diverging flow, with the working gas heated to high temperatures by means of a high-pressure arc discharge at steady-state discharge power levels up to 500 kW. The amount of regression observed in each material sample was quantified using a later profilometer, which was compared to the in-situ erosion measurements to demonstrate the efficacy of the measurement technique in very harsh, high-temperature environments.

  15. Investigation of non-symmetric jets in cross flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fan-Ming

    1987-05-01

    Non-symmetric jets in crossflow were studied with various jet geometries, jet orientations, jet characteristics, and jet to crossflow velocity ratios. Four different cross-section geometry jets were studied and compared with a circular jet with identical jet port cross-sectional area. Standard dye and laser induced fluorescent flow visualization techniques were used to identify the existence of various vortices in the flow field. Among the many forms of secondary vortices produced, three major vortex systems were identified: main jet vortices, wake vortices, and spinoff vortices. A reconstruction of the asymmetric flow field based on observations and its evolution and relationships with established symmetric jets in the crossflow were made. The large scale rolled-up vortex structure which was found at low jet to crossflow velocity ratio is very similar to the hair-pin vortex structure. This observation provides a potential research tool on the study of the structure of turbulent boundary layers. Unsteady jets created by pulsation of the jet flow at low pulsation frequencies give the increase of the depth of penetration. However, the introducing of swirl into jets by passive methods reduces the depth of penetration.

  16. Subsonic Round and Rectangular Twin Jet Flow Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Rick; Wernet, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Subsonic and supersonic aircraft concepts proposed by NASAs Fundamental Aeronautics Program have integrated propulsion systems with asymmetric nozzles. The asymmetry in the exhaust of these propulsion systems creates asymmetric flow and acoustic fields. The flow asymmetries investigated in the current study are from two parallel round, 2:1, and 8:1 aspect ratio rectangular jets at the same nozzle conditions. The flow field was measured with streamwise and cross-stream particle image velocimetry (PIV). A large dataset of single and twin jet flow field measurements was acquired at subsonic jet conditions. The effects of twin jet spacing and forward flight were investigated. For round, 2:1, and 8:1 rectangular twin jets at their closest spacings, turbulence levels between the two jets decreased due to enhanced jet mixing at near static conditions. When the flight Mach number was increased to 0.25, the flow around the twin jet model created a velocity deficit between the two nozzles. This velocity deficit diminished the effect of forward flight causing an increase in turbulent kinetic energy relative to a single jet. Both of these twin jet flow field effects decreased with increasing twin jet spacing relative to a single jet. These variations in turbulent kinetic energy correlate with changes in far-field sound pressure level.

  17. Experimental study of forced convection heat transfer during upward and downward flow of helium at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco Valentin; Narbeh Artoun; Masahiro Kawaji; Donald M. McEligot

    2015-08-01

    Fundamental high pressure/high temperature forced convection experiments have been conducted in support of the development of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. The experiments utilize a high temperature/high pressure gas flow test facility constructed for forced convection and natural circulation experiments. The test section has a single 16.8 mm ID flow channel in a 2.7 m long, 108 mm OD graphite column with four 2.3kW electric heater rods placed symmetrically around the flow channel. This experimental study presents the role of buoyancy forces in enhancing or reducing convection heat transfer for helium at high pressures up to 70 bar and high temperatures up to 873 degrees K. Wall temperatures have been compared among 10 cases covering the inlet Re numbers ranging from 500 to 3,000. Downward flows display higher and lower wall temperatures in the upstream and downstream regions, respectively, than the upward flow cases due to the influence of buoyancy forces. In the entrance region, convection heat transfer is reduced due to buoyancy leading to higher wall temperatures, while in the downstream region, buoyancyinduced mixing causes higher convection heat transfer and lower wall temperatures. However, their influences are reduced as the Reynolds number increases. This experimental study is of specific interest to VHTR design and validation of safety analysis codes.

  18. Jet Magnetically Accelerated from Advection Dominated Accretion Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Zhi-Xiong

    2014-08-01

    A jet model for the jet power arising from a steady, optically thin, advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF) around a Kerr black hole (BH) is proposed. We investigate the typical numerical solutions of ADAF, and calculate the jet power from an ADAF using a general relativistic version of electronic circuit theory. It is shown that the jet power concentrates in the inner region of the accretion flow, and the higher the degree to which the flow advection-dominated is, the lower the jet power from the ADAF is.

  19. Investigations of eddy coherence in jet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yule, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    In turbulent shear flow the term coherent structures refers to eddies which are both spatially coherent, i.e., large eddies, aand also temporally coherent, i.e., they retain their identities for times which are long compared with their time scales in fixed point measurements. In transitional flows, the existence of such structures is evident from flow visualizations. In many other flows, such structures are not so evident. The reasons for the existence of these two classes of flows are discussed and attention is focused upon the more difficult flows, where coherent structures are not so evident. Techniques by which the existence (or nonexistence) of such structures in these flows can be established from point measurements, are also discussed. A major problem is shown to be the need to discriminate between real losses in eddy coherence and apparent losses in coherence introduced by phase scrambling effects which 'smear' multipoint correlations. The analysis of multiprobe time dependent data in cold and reacting round turbulent jets is described and it is shown how evidence of strong eddy coherence can be extracted from data.

  20. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for

  1. Rectangular subsonic jet flow field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Swan, David H.

    1990-01-01

    Flow field measurements of three subsonic rectangular cold air jets are presented. The three cases had aspect ratios of 1x2, 1x4 at a Mach number of 0.09 and an aspect ratio of 1x2 at a Mach number of 0.9. All measurements were made using a 3-D laser Doppler anemometer system. The data includes the mean velocity vector, all Reynolds stress tensor components, turbulent kinetic energy and velocity correlation coefficients. The data are presented in tabular and graphical form. No analysis of the measured data or comparison to other published data is made.

  2. Away-from-jet energy flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfi, Andrea; Marchesini, Giuseppe; Smye, Graham

    2002-08-01

    We consider interjet observables in hard QCD processes given by the energy flow Eout in a region away from all hard jets. Here the QCD radiation is depleted (Eout << Q), and therefore these observables provide ideal means to study non-perturbative effects. We derive an evolution equation (in the large Nc limit) which resums, for large Q/Eout, all leading terms arising from large angle soft emission (double logarithms are absent). We discuss the analytical features of the result and identify universal and geometry-dependent contributions. Our analysis confirms features found using numerical methods by Dasgupta and Salam.

  3. Synthetic Jet Flow Field Database for CFD Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Chung-Sheng; Chen, Fang Jenq; Neuhart, Dan; Harris, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    An oscillatory zero net mass flow jet was generated by a cavity-pumping device, namely a synthetic jet actuator. This basic oscillating jet flow field was selected as the first of the three test cases for the Langley workshop on CFD Validation of Synthetic Jets and Turbulent Separation Control. The purpose of this workshop was to assess the current CFD capabilities to predict unsteady flow fields of synthetic jets and separation control. This paper describes the characteristics and flow field database of a synthetic jet in a quiescent fluid. In this experiment, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and hot-wire anemometry were used to measure the jet velocity field. In addition, the actuator operating parameters including diaphragm displacement, internal cavity pressure, and internal cavity temperature were also documented to provide boundary conditions for CFD modeling.

  4. High-temperature, large-volume, lavalike ash-flow tuffs without calderas in southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ekren, E.B.; McIntyre, David H.; Bennett, Earl H.

    1984-01-01

    Rhyolitic rocks were erupted from vents in and adjacent to the Owyhee Mountains and Owyhee Plateau of southwestern Idaho from 16 m.y. ago to about 10 m.y. ago. They were deposited on a highly irregular surface developed on a variety of basement rocks that include granitic rocks of Cretaceous age, quartz latite and rhyodacite tuffs and lava flows of Eocene age, andesitic and basaltic lava flows of Oligocene age, and latitic and basaltic lava flows of early Miocene age. The rhyolitic rocks are principally welded tuffs that, regardless of their source, have one feature in common-namely internal characteristics indicating en-masse, viscous lavalike flowage. The flowage features commonly include considerable thicknesses of flow breccia at the bases of various cooling units. On the basis of the tabular nature of the rhyolitic deposits, their broad areal extents, and the local preservation of pyroclastic textures at the bases, tops, and distal ends of some of the deposits, we have concluded that the rocks were emplaced as ash flows at extremely high temperatures and that they coalesced to liquids before final emplacement and cooling. Temperatures of l090?C and higher are indicated by iron-titanium oxide compositions. Rhyolites that are about 16 m.y. old are preserved mostly in the downdropped eastern and western flanks of the Silver City Range and they are inferred to have been erupted from the Silver City Range. They rarely contain more than about 2 percent phenocrysts that consist of quartz and subequal amounts of plagioclase and alkali feldspar; commonly, they contain biotite, and they are the only rhyolitic rocks in the area to do so. The several rhyolitic units that are 14 m.y. to about 10 m.y. old contain only pyroxene-principally ferriferous and intermediate pigeonites-as mafic constituents. The rhyolites of the Silver City Range comprise many cooling units, none of which can be traced for great distances. Rocks erupted from the Owyhee Plateau include two sequences

  5. Analysis of multiple jets in a cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaac, K. M.; Schetz, J. A.

    1982-12-01

    The analysis of Campbell and Schetz (1973) is extended to the study of multiple jets in a cross flow, where the interaction of two jets is taken into account by a modification of the drag coefficient that is sensed by each jet. Results show that the rear jet trajectory is significantly modified by the presence of the front one even when the jets are spaced far apart. The analysis is applicable to such phenomena as the exhaust of chimney stack smoke into a wind and the lift jets of a V/STOL aircraft during takeoff or landing in strong winds.

  6. Jet-mixing of initially stratified flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Stuart; Markides, Christos; Matar, Omar

    2015-11-01

    Low pipeline velocities in the oil-and-gas industry generally lead to liquid-liquid flows stratifying due to density differences. Pipeline stratified flows inherently have no single point for sub-sampling and phase slip leads to in situ phase fractions differing from input volume fractions. Establishing representative or average properties and phase fractions is therefore difficult for industry. This leads to sampling errors through measurement uncertainty. In-line mixing overcomes liquid-liquid stratification, establishing a liquid-liquid dispersion that minimises slip between phases. Here, we use jets-in-crossflow (JICF) as a means of mixing. We present results of CFD simulations using the volume-of- fluid method that demonstrate the breakup of stratification as a result of the application of JICF. A number of simple jet configurations are described, and their effectiveness in generating dispersions is compared. We also present preliminary experimental results based on the use of a matched-refractive-index method, laser-induced fluorescence, particle-tracking- and particle-image-velocimetry. Funding from Cameron for Ph.D. studentship (SW) gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Instability arisen on liquid jet penetrated in flowing liquid bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Naoto; Ueno, Ichiro

    2009-11-01

    We carry out an experimental study with a special interest on a penetration process and an instability on a liquid jet impinged to a flowing liquid pool. The impinged jet penetrates into the flowing bath accompanying with an entrainment of the ambient immiscible gas without coalescing with the liquid in the pool until the air wrap around the jet collapses. The wrapping air controls instabilities arisen on the jet. We observe the dynamic behaviors of the penetrated jet and the departure of the bubble of the wrapping gas at the tip of the collapsing jet by use of a high-speed camera in order to categorize the behaviors as functions of the velocities of the jet and flow in the pool. We also evaluate an averaged thickness of the wrapping gas through the observation.

  8. Isothermal and Reactive Turbulent Jets in Cross-Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim; Bush, Scott; Ibrahim, Irene

    2004-11-01

    Jets in cross flow have numerous applications including vertical/short takeoff/landing (V/STOL) aircraft, cooling jets for gas turbine blades and combustion air supply inlets in gas turbine engine. The properties exhibited by these jets are dictated by complex three dimensional turbulence structures which form due to the interaction of the jet with the freestream. The isothermal tests are conducted in a wind tunnel measuring the characteristics of air jets injected perpendicular into an otherwise undisturbed air stream. Different nozzle exit geometries of the air jets were tested including circular, triangular and elongated configurations. Jets are injected in single and paired combinations with other jets to measure the effect of mutual interaction on the parameters mentioned. Quantitative velocity fields are obtained using PIV. The data obtained allows the extraction of flow parameters such as jet structure, penetration and mixing. The reacting tests include separate and combined jets of fuel/air mixture utilized to explore the stabilization of combustion at various operating conditions. Different geometrical configurations of transverse jets are tested to determine the shape and combination of jets that will optimize the jets ability to successfully stabilize a flame.

  9. Maintenance of Multiple Jets in a Baroclinic Flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sukyoung

    1997-07-01

    This article describes the generation and maintenance of persistent zonal jets in a two-layer quasigeostrophic, -plane channel model, focusing on the transition from a one to a two jet state. For weak and moderate values of surface friction and supercriticality, the transition occurs abruptly as the width of the baroclinically unstable region of the initial flow is gradually increased. Across the transition point, the persistent two jet state is characterized by a smaller value of eddy energy than that for the one jet state. This reduction in eddy energy is due to increased barotropic energy conversion from the eddies to the zonal mean flow. Consistent with this result, the abrupt emergence of two persistent jets is accompanied by sharply defined eddy momentum flux divergence maxima at the critical latitudes between the two jet maxima. Essentially the same behavior is found in the transition from two to three, and three to four jets.When two or more jets are present, baroclinically growing waves are found to exist along inter-jet minima, which are referred to as `inter-jet disturbances.' More importantly, the momentum fluxes of the interjet disturbances diverge at the interjet minimum, further decelerating the jets. Unstable normal modes similar to the inter-jet disturbances are also found. It is argued that the systematic wave absorption at the critical latitudes and the momentum flux divergence by the interjet disturbances may play a central role in the persistence of the multiple jets.

  10. Experimental and numerical investigations of high temperature gas heat transfer and flow in a VHTR reactor core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentin Rodriguez, Francisco Ivan

    High pressure/high temperature forced and natural convection experiments have been conducted in support of the development of a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. VHTRs are designed with the capability to withstand accidents by preventing nuclear fuel meltdown, using passive safety mechanisms; a product of advanced reactor designs including the implementation of inert gases like helium as coolants. The present experiments utilize a high temperature/high pressure gas flow test facility constructed for forced and natural circulation experiments. This work examines fundamental aspects of high temperature gas heat transfer applied to VHTR operational and accident scenarios. Two different types of experiments, forced convection and natural circulation, were conducted under high pressure and high temperature conditions using three different gases: air, nitrogen and helium. The experimental data were analyzed to obtain heat transfer coefficient data in the form of Nusselt numbers as a function of Reynolds, Grashof and Prandtl numbers. This work also examines the flow laminarization phenomenon (turbulent flows displaying much lower heat transfer parameters than expected due to intense heating conditions) in detail for a full range of Reynolds numbers including: laminar, transition and turbulent flows under forced convection and its impact on heat transfer. This phenomenon could give rise to deterioration in convection heat transfer and occurrence of hot spots in the reactor core. Forced and mixed convection data analyzed indicated the occurrence of flow laminarization phenomenon due to the buoyancy and acceleration effects induced by strong heating. Turbulence parameters were also measured using a hot wire anemometer in forced convection experiments to confirm the existence of the flow laminarization phenomenon. In particular, these results demonstrated the influence of pressure on delayed transition between laminar and turbulent flow. The heat

  11. A granular-biomass high temperature pyrolysis model based on the Darcy flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jian; Qi, Guoli; Dong, Peng

    2015-03-01

    We established a model for the chemical reaction kinetics of biomass pyrolysis via the high-temperature thermal cracking of liquid products. We divided the condensable volatiles into two groups, based on the characteristics of the liquid prdoducts., tar and biomass oil. The effects of temperature, residence time, particle size, velocity, pressure, and other parameters on biomass pyrolysis and high-temperature tar cracking were investigated numerically, and the results were compared with experimental data. The simulation results showed a large endothermic pyrolysis reaction effect on temperature and the reaction process. The pyrolysis reaction zone had a constant temperature period in several layers near the center of large biomass particles. A purely physical heating process was observed before and after this period, according to the temperature index curve.

  12. High Temperature Semiconductor Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A sputtering deposition system capable of depositing large areas of high temperature superconducting materials was developed by CVC Products, Inc. with the support of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) program. The system was devleoped for NASA to produce high quality films of high temperature superconducting material for microwave communication system components. The system is also being used to deposit ferroelectric material for capacitors and the development of new electro-optical materials.2002103899

  13. Heat transfer coefficient distribution over the inconel plate cooled from high temperature by the array of water jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Z.; Telejko, T.; Cebo-Rudnicka, A.; Szajding, A.; Rywotycki, M.; Hadała, B.

    2016-09-01

    The industrial rolling mills are equipped with systems for controlled water cooling of hot steel products. A cooling rate affects the final mechanical properties of steel which are strongly dependent on microstructure evolution processes. In case of water jets cooling the heat transfer boundary condition can be defined by the heat transfer coefficient. In the present study one and three dimensional heat conduction models have been employed in the inverse solution to heat transfer coefficient. The inconel plate has been heated to about 900oC and then cooled by one, two and six water jets. The plate temperature has been measured by 30 thermocouples. The heat transfer coefficient distributions at plate surface have been determined in time of cooling.

  14. A novel 2.45 GHz/200 W Microwave Plasma Jet for High Temperature Applications above 3600 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopp, C.; Nachtrodt, F.; Heuermann, H.; Scherer, U. W.; Mostacci, D.; Finger, T.; Tietsch, W.

    2012-12-01

    State of the art atmosphere plasma sources are operated with frequencies in kHz/MHz regions and all high power plasma jets make use of tungsten electrodes. A microwave plasma torch has been developed at FH Aachen for the application in various fields. The advantages over other plasma jet technologies are the high efficiency combined with a maintenance-free compact design and non-tungsten electrodes. In this paper the development of a 200 W torch is described. Argon is used as the primary plasma gas and a second gas can be applied for additional purposes. For the plasma generation a microwave at 2.45 GHz is sent through the torch. The special internal topology causes a high electric field that ignites the plasma at the tip and leads to the ionization of the passing Argon atoms which are emitted as a jet. By designing the copper electrode as a cannula it is possible to gain plasma temperatures higher than the electrode's melting point. The electric field simulations are made with Ansoft HFSS. Experiments were carried out to verify the simulations. The upcoming steps in the development will be the scale-up to higher power levels of several kW with a magnetron as power source.

  15. Experimental Study of Impinging Jets Flow-Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-27

    the jet plumes and outwash flow . Lift plate surface pressure measurements have also been made. The unsteady flow , known to have significant large...contributed to the identification and measurement of the major features of the flow -field generated by the two parallel impinging model jets. These...and outwash flow . 3 Laser Doppler Velocimeter Measurements Highlights of the LDV measurements are presented in the next two figures

  16. Rectangular subsonic jet flow field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Gerald L.; Swan, David H.

    1989-01-01

    Flow field measurements are presented of 3 subsonic rectangular cold air jets. The 3 cases presented had aspect ratios of 1 x 2, 1 x 4 at a Mach number of 0.09 and an aspect ratio of 1 x 2 at a Mach number of 0.9. All measurements were made using a 3-D laser Doppler anemoneter system. The presented data includes the mean velocity vector, all Reynolds stress tensor components, turbulent kinetic energy and velocity correlation coefficients. The data is presented in tabular and graphical form. No analysis of the measured data or comparison to other published data is made. All tabular data are available in ASCII format on MS-DOS compatible disks.

  17. Effect of Friction Models and Parameters on the Lagrangian Flow Fields in High-Temperature Compression Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundalkar, Deepak; Singh, Rajkumar; Tewari, Asim

    2017-07-01

    Friction plays an important role in high-temperature deformation process. Friction affects local displacement field in the tool-workpiece interface region, thus affecting the overall material flow. Under high-temperature compression, macro-indicators like bulge radius and load displacement curves are not sensitive enough to distinguish subtle differences between various friction models. Hence, a new approach to match the experimental Lagrangian flow field with flow field obtained from FE simulation is proposed. For this uniaxial barreling, compression tests at constant temperature were conducted on Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator. The compression tests were conducted at different strain, strain rate and friction conditions. Finite element simulations employing various friction models and parameters were performed for matching the experimental conditions. Experimental Lagrangian flow fields were obtained from the grain flow lines observed on high-resolution larger area micrographs of the specimen. It was observed that all the investigated friction models provided equally good fit with the macro-experimental indicators (bulge radius and load displacement curves). However, Coulomb friction model was the only friction model that provided the closest fit with the experimentally obtained Lagrangian flow fields. Coulomb friction model provided the best agreement between experimental and numerical simulation for both lubricated and non-lubricated conditions using friction coefficients μ = 0.2993 and μ = 0.3895, respectively.

  18. Flow Separation Control Over a Ramp Using Sweeping Jet Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koklu, Mehti; Owens, Lewis R.

    2014-01-01

    Flow separation control on an adverse-pressure-gradient ramp model was investigated using various flow-control methods in the NASA Langley 15-Inch Wind Tunnel. The primary flow-control method studied used a sweeping jet actuator system to compare with more classic flow-control techniques such as micro-vortex generators, steady blowing, and steady- and unsteady-vortex generating jets. Surface pressure measurements and a new oilflow visualization technique were used to characterize the effects of these flow-control actuators. The sweeping jet actuators were run in three different modes to produce steady-straight, steady-angled, and unsteady-oscillating jets. It was observed that all of these flow-control methods are effective in controlling the separated flows on the ramp model. The steady-straight jet energizes the boundary layer by momentum addition and was found to be the least effective method for a fixed momentum coefficient. The steady-angled jets achieved better performance than the steady-straight jets because they generate streamwise vortices that energize the boundary layer by mixing high-momentum fluid with near wall low-momentum fluid. The unsteady-oscillating jets achieved the best performance by increasing the pressure recovery and reducing the downstream flow separation. Surface flow visualizations indicated that two out-of-phase counter-rotating vortices are generated per sweeping jet actuator, while one vortex is generated per vortex-generating jets. The extra vortex resulted in increased coverage, more pressure recovery, and reduced flow separation.

  19. VTOL in-ground effect flows for closely spaced jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siclari, M. J.; Hill, W. G., Jr.; Jenkins, R. C.; Migdal, D.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of two vertically impinging incompressible jets is studied through the invention of physical flow models that approximate the behavior of colliding wall jets as the incident jets are brought closer together. The mechanism for upwash formation is studied and momentum models for the upwash sheet are postulated. An approximate method for computing the ground isobar pattern of jet and upwash deflection zones is presented and compared with test data. A method for computing the upwash impingement force in the absence of secondary induced flow effects is also presented and reasonably good agreement is achieved with experimental data for cylindrical fuselage shapes of circular and rectangular cross section.

  20. Noise from Supersonic Coaxial Jets. Part 1; Mean Flow Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent theories for supersonic jet noise have used an instability wave noise generation model to predict radiated noise. This model requires a known mean flow that has typically been described by simple analytic functions for single jet mean flows. The mean flow of supersonic coaxial jets is not described easily in terms of analytic functions. To provide these profiles at all axial locations, a numerical scheme is developed to calculate the mean flow properties of a coaxial jet. The Reynolds-averaged, compressible, parabolic boundary layer equations are solved using a mixing length turbulence model. Empirical correlations are developed to account for the effects of velocity and temperature ratios and Mach number on the shear layer spreading. Both normal velocity profile and inverted velocity profile coaxial jets are considered. The mixing length model is modified in each case to obtain reasonable results when the two stream jet merges into a single fully developed jet. The mean flow calculations show both good qualitative and quantitative agreement with measurements in single and coaxial jet flows.

  1. Flow visualization of lateral jet injection into swirling crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, G. B.; Aoki, K.; Lilley, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Flow visualization experiments have been conducted to characterize the time-mean flowfield of a deflected turbulent jet in a confining cylindrical crossflow. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of 2, 4, and 6 were investigated, under crossflow inlet swirler vane angles of 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 degrees. Smoke, neutrally-buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, and multi-spark flow visualization were employed to highlight interesting features of the deflected jet, as well as the trajectory and spread pattern of the jet. Gross flowfield characterization was obtained for a range of lateral jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios and a range of inlet swirl strengths in the main flow. The flow visualization results agree well with the measurements obtained elsewhere with the six-orientation single hot-wire method.

  2. Flow visualization of lateral jet injection into swirling crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, G. B.; Aoki, K.; Lilley, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Flow visualization experiments have been conducted to characterize the time-mean flowfield of a deflected turbulent jet in a confining cylindrical crossflow. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of 2, 4, and 6 were investigated, under crossflow inlet swirler vane angles of 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 degrees. Smoke, neutrally-buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, and multi-spark flow visualization were employed to highlight interesting features of the deflected jet, as well as the trajectory and spread pattern of the jet. Gross flowfield characterization was obtained for a range of lateral jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios and a range of inlet swirl strengths in the main flow. The flow visualization results agree well with the measurements obtained elsewhere with the six-orientation single hot-wire method.

  3. Jet-flow from shock tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingery, Charles N.; Gion, Edmund J.

    1989-07-01

    This project was designed to map the magnitude and extent of the high velocity jet flow exiting shock tubes. The flow was measured by installing stagnation probes along three blast lines and by supplementing these measurements with calibrated displacement cubes. The side-on and stagnation overpressure versus time were measured, and from that, the side-on and stagnation impulse were calculated. The stagnation impulse showed a large drop in magnitude as the blast line was moved from the zero line to a 1.5 and then to a 3-diameter offset. A helium driver was used in the 2.54-cm-diameter shock tube to simulate an explosion in a storage magazine. Results are presented in the form of stagnation impulse versus distance along the three blast lines. The significance of these findings is that the present quantity-distance criteria for munitions stored in underground magazines are based on side-on peak overpressure, but our results show that the peak stagnation pressure and impulse are much greater. At a distance where 10.3-kPa (1.5 psi) side-on pressure was measured, a 49.6-kPa (7.2 psi) stagnation pressure was measured. At the same distance, a side-on impulse was 12.6 kPa-ms (1.83 psi-ms), while the stagnation impulse was 134 kPa-ms (20.2 psi-ms)--a dramatic difference.

  4. Jet Dipolarity: Top Tagging with Color Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, Anson; Jankowiak, Martin; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    A new jet observable, dipolarity, is introduced that can distinguish whether a pair of subjets arises from a color singlet source. This observable is incorporated into the HEPTopTagger and is shown to improve discrimination between top jets and QCD jets for moderate to high p{sub T}. The impressive resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors means that a typical QCD jet at the LHC deposits energy in {Omicron}(10-100) calorimeter cells. Such fine-grained calorimetry allows for jets to be studied in much greater detail than previously, with sophisticated versions of current techniques making it possible to measure more than just the bulk properties of jets (e.g. event jet multiplicities or jet masses). One goal of the LHC is to employ these techniques to extend the amount of information available from each jet, allowing for a broader probe of the properties of QCD. The past several years have seen significant progress in developing such jet substructure techniques. A number of general purpose tools have been developed, including: (i) top-tagging algorithms designed for use at both lower and higher p{sub T} as well as (ii) jet grooming techniques such as filtering, pruning, and trimming, which are designed to improve jet mass resolution. Jet substructure techniques have also been studied in the context of specific particle searches, where they have been shown to substantially extend the reach of traditional search techniques in a wide variety of scenarios, including for example boosted Higgses, neutral spin-one resonances, searches for supersymmetry, and many others. Despite these many successes, however, there is every reason to expect that there remains room for refinement of jet substructure techniques.

  5. Swirling-flow jet noise suppressors for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the effects of swirling the jet exhausts of small turbofan and turbojet engines have indicated significant progress towards predicting and attaining substantial jet noise abatement with minimum thrust losses in large aircraft engines. Systematic variations of the important swirl vane and swirling flow parameters were conducted to determine their effects on jet noise reduction and engine performance. Since swirling flow becomes more effective in reducing jet noise as the density and temperature gradients increase, the significant trends in noise reduction and engine performance that were established by these parametric studies could be projected into potentially greater reductions of sound pressure levels with minimum thrust losses by controlled swirling of the jets of high thrust engines. The density and temperature gradients in the jet exhausts of high thrust engines are larger by comparison with gradients in small engines.

  6. Development of an Empirical Methods for Predicting Jet Mixing Noise of Cold Flow Rectangular Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James W.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an empirical method for predicting the jet mixing noise levels of cold flow rectangular jets. The report presents a detailed analysis of the methodology used in development of the prediction method. The empirical correlations used are based on narrow band acoustic data for cold flow rectangular model nozzle tests conducted in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. There were 20 separate nozzle test operating conditions. For each operating condition 60 Hz bandwidth microphone measurements were made over a frequency range from 0 to 60,000 Hz. Measurements were performed at 16 polar directivity angles ranging from 45 degrees to 157.5 degrees. At each polar directivity angle, measurements were made at 9 azimuth directivity angles. The report shows the methods employed to remove screech tones and shock noise from the data in order to obtain the jet mixing noise component. The jet mixing noise was defined in terms of one third octave band spectral content, polar and azimuth directivity, and overall power level. Empirical correlations were performed over the range of test conditions to define each of these jet mixing noise parameters as a function of aspect ratio, jet velocity, and polar and azimuth directivity angles. The report presents the method for predicting the overall power level, the average polar directivity, the azimuth directivity and the location and shape of the spectra for jet mixing noise of cold flow rectangular jets.

  7. Simulation of Sweep-Jet Flow Control, Single Jet and Full Vertical Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, Robert E.; Stremel, Paul M.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Heineck, James T.; Kushner, Laura K.; Storms, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a simulation technology demonstrator, of sweep jet flow control used to suppress boundary layer separation and increase the maximum achievable load coefficients. A sweep jet is a discrete Coanda jet that oscillates in the plane parallel to an aerodynamic surface. It injects mass and momentum in the approximate streamwise direction. It also generates turbulent eddies at the oscillation frequency, which are typically large relative to the scales of boundary layer turbulence, and which augment mixing across the boundary layer to attack flow separation. Simulations of a fluidic oscillator, the sweep jet emerging from a nozzle downstream of the oscillator, and an array of sweep jets which suppresses boundary layer separation are performed. Simulation results are compared to data from a dedicated validation experiment of a single oscillator and its sweep jet, and from a wind tunnel test of a full-scale Boeing 757 vertical tail augmented with an array of sweep jets. A critical step in the work is the development of realistic time-dependent sweep jet inflow boundary conditions, derived from the results of the single-oscillator simulations, which create the sweep jets in the full-tail simulations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver Overow, with high-order spatial discretization and a range of turbulence modeling. Good results were obtained for all flows simulated, when suitable turbulence modeling was used.

  8. An atmospheric pressure high-temperature laminar flow reactor for investigation of combustion and related gas phase reaction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oßwald, Patrick; Köhler, Markus

    2015-10-15

    A new high-temperature flow reactor experiment utilizing the powerful molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) technique for detailed observation of gas phase kinetics in reacting flows is presented. The reactor design provides a consequent extension of the experimental portfolio of validation experiments for combustion reaction kinetics. Temperatures up to 1800 K are applicable by three individually controlled temperature zones with this atmospheric pressure flow reactor. Detailed speciation data are obtained using the sensitive MBMS technique, providing in situ access to almost all chemical species involved in the combustion process, including highly reactive species such as radicals. Strategies for quantifying the experimental data are presented alongside a careful analysis of the characterization of the experimental boundary conditions to enable precise numeric reproduction of the experimental results. The general capabilities of this new analytical tool for the investigation of reacting flows are demonstrated for a selected range of conditions, fuels, and applications. A detailed dataset for the well-known gaseous fuels, methane and ethylene, is provided and used to verify the experimental approach. Furthermore, application for liquid fuels and fuel components important for technical combustors like gas turbines and engines is demonstrated. Besides the detailed investigation of novel fuels and fuel components, the wide range of operation conditions gives access to extended combustion topics, such as super rich conditions at high temperature important for gasification processes, or the peroxy chemistry governing the low temperature oxidation regime. These demonstrations are accompanied by a first kinetic modeling approach, examining the opportunities for model validation purposes.

  9. An atmospheric pressure high-temperature laminar flow reactor for investigation of combustion and related gas phase reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Oßwald, Patrick; Köhler, Markus

    2015-10-01

    A new high-temperature flow reactor experiment utilizing the powerful molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) technique for detailed observation of gas phase kinetics in reacting flows is presented. The reactor design provides a consequent extension of the experimental portfolio of validation experiments for combustion reaction kinetics. Temperatures up to 1800 K are applicable by three individually controlled temperature zones with this atmospheric pressure flow reactor. Detailed speciation data are obtained using the sensitive MBMS technique, providing in situ access to almost all chemical species involved in the combustion process, including highly reactive species such as radicals. Strategies for quantifying the experimental data are presented alongside a careful analysis of the characterization of the experimental boundary conditions to enable precise numeric reproduction of the experimental results. The general capabilities of this new analytical tool for the investigation of reacting flows are demonstrated for a selected range of conditions, fuels, and applications. A detailed dataset for the well-known gaseous fuels, methane and ethylene, is provided and used to verify the experimental approach. Furthermore, application for liquid fuels and fuel components important for technical combustors like gas turbines and engines is demonstrated. Besides the detailed investigation of novel fuels and fuel components, the wide range of operation conditions gives access to extended combustion topics, such as super rich conditions at high temperature important for gasification processes, or the peroxy chemistry governing the low temperature oxidation regime. These demonstrations are accompanied by a first kinetic modeling approach, examining the opportunities for model validation purposes.

  10. Wake Oscillation of Column Wall Jet in Uniform Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yohei; Sato, Kotaro; Ono, Yoichi

    Both experiment and calculation demonstrated to clarify the effect of a column wall jet in uniform fluid flow on the characteristic of wake oscillation. The vortex intensity decreased and the oscillations attenuated when the jet direction matched the uniform flow. When the jet flow was reversed, the vortex intensity grew and the oscillations increased in magnitude. It has been found that the Strouhal number based on the half width of the flow velocity distribution was nearly constant. Also, the frequency depended on the vortex structure of the wake, which was further dependent on the jet flow velocity. In addition, the situations that gave twin peaks in the oscillation spectrum were found both in experiment and in calculation.

  11. Characteristics of inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling air flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, R. M. C.; Ahmed, S. A.

    1984-04-01

    An experimental program to study the characteristics of inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling flows to obtain detailed and accurate data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport modeling for combustor flows is discussed. The work was also motivated by the need to investigate and quantify the influence of confinement and swirl on the characteristics of inhomogeneous jets. The flow facility was constructed in a simple way which allows easy interchange of different swirlers and the freedom to vary the jet Reynolds number. The velocity measurements were taken with a one color, one component DISA Model 55L laser-Doppler anemometer employing the forward scatter mode. Standard statistical methods are used to evaluate the various moments of the signals to give the flow characteristics. The present work was directed at the understanding of the velocity field. Therefore, only velocity and turbulence data of the axial and circumferential components are reported for inhomogeneous jets in confined swirling air flows.

  12. Dynamics of Laboratory Astrophysical Jets with Magnetized Helical Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2014-10-01

    A triple electrode planar plasma gun (MOCHI LabJet) designed to study the dynamics of magnetized helical flows in plasma jets provides boundary conditions and dimensionless numbers relevant to astrophysical jets. The goal is to observe the effect of current and flow profiles on the collimation and stability of jets to address the questions: why are jets collimated and long? How are jet irregularities related to plasma instabilities? The current and azimuthal flow profiles of the jets are tailored by biasing the electrodes at different potentials. High-speed camera images, high-resolution Ḃ probe measurements, and 3D vector tomography of plasma flows will map a stability space for varying current and flow profiles. An analytical stability space is derived with Newcomb's variational analysis applied to collimated magnetic flux tubes with skin and core currents. Two numerical stability spaces are also computed by integrating the Euler-Lagrange equation and applying a shooting method to the ideal MHD eigenvalue problem. The eigenvalue problem is generalized to include azimuthal flows and computed with a monotonicity condition for minimizing the required scanning of the complex eigenvalue space. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  13. Recession behavior of Lu2SiO5 under a high speed steam jet at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, Akira; Ohji, Tatsuki; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2011-01-01

    Study of recession behavior of Lu{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} bulk was performed in high speed steam jet with a velocity of {approx}50 m/s temperature range between 1300 and 1500 C for 100 h. X-ray results showed that no phase change was observed for all samples after steam exposure. Detailed scanning electron microscopy examinations showed some cracks formation was observed on the bulk surface for the samples of 1400 and 1500 C. Also, porous structure was formed on the bulk surface for the samples of 1300 and 1400 C. As for 1500 C sample, the porous structure disappeared after exposure test. The high magnification images of 1300 C sample showed the depletion of grain boundary glassy phase. However, for 1400 C sample, boundary phase was formed again, and the grain growth can be identified for the sample of 1500 C. The recession mechanism can be explained by a mass transfer of evaporated species from the bulk surface and the weight loss rate measured can be expressed by Arrhenius plot.

  14. Study of Convection Heat Transfer in a Very High Temperature Reactor Flow Channel: Numerical and Experimental Results

    DOE PAGES

    Valentin, Francisco I.; Artoun, Narbeh; Anderson, Ryan; ...

    2016-12-01

    Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs) are one of the Generation IV gas-cooled reactor models proposed for implementation in next generation nuclear power plants. A high temperature/pressure test facility for forced and natural circulation experiments has been constructed. This test facility consists of a single flow channel in a 2.7 m (9’) long graphite column equipped with four 2.3kW heaters. Extensive 3D numerical modeling provides a detailed analysis of the thermal-hydraulic behavior under steady-state, transient, and accident scenarios. In addition, forced/mixed convection experiments with air, nitrogen and helium were conducted for inlet Reynolds numbers from 500 to 70,000. Our numerical resultsmore » were validated with forced convection data displaying maximum percentage errors under 15%, using commercial finite element package, COMSOL Multiphysics. Based on this agreement, important information can be extracted from the model, with regards to the modified radial velocity and property gas profiles. Our work also examines flow laminarization for a full range of Reynolds numbers including laminar, transition and turbulent flow under forced convection and its impact on heat transfer under various scenarios to examine the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that could occur during both normal operation and accident conditions.« less

  15. Study of Convection Heat Transfer in a Very High Temperature Reactor Flow Channel: Numerical and Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Valentin, Francisco I.; Artoun, Narbeh; Anderson, Ryan; Kawaji, Masahiro; McEligot, Donald M.

    2016-12-01

    Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs) are one of the Generation IV gas-cooled reactor models proposed for implementation in next generation nuclear power plants. A high temperature/pressure test facility for forced and natural circulation experiments has been constructed. This test facility consists of a single flow channel in a 2.7 m (9’) long graphite column equipped with four 2.3kW heaters. Extensive 3D numerical modeling provides a detailed analysis of the thermal-hydraulic behavior under steady-state, transient, and accident scenarios. In addition, forced/mixed convection experiments with air, nitrogen and helium were conducted for inlet Reynolds numbers from 500 to 70,000. Our numerical results were validated with forced convection data displaying maximum percentage errors under 15%, using commercial finite element package, COMSOL Multiphysics. Based on this agreement, important information can be extracted from the model, with regards to the modified radial velocity and property gas profiles. Our work also examines flow laminarization for a full range of Reynolds numbers including laminar, transition and turbulent flow under forced convection and its impact on heat transfer under various scenarios to examine the thermal-hydraulic phenomena that could occur during both normal operation and accident conditions.

  16. Testing of a Shrouded, Short Mixing Stack Gas Eductor Model Using High Temperature Primary Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    are installed in conjuction with the gas turbine geerator sets 4 -- used to provide shipboard electrical power and aot with the 20 main proplusion...pumped head P - Po (Pa-Pot) for the tertiary flow to the driving head (U Z /2gc) ofp t thz primary flow t t p2 2gc a flow rate ratio, secondary to W_...44 CP 𔃾 E-1 0 N1- 99, 5-4 x 4 00 ’a.a w I- 100. i’-U" IS !.1.° -1 -- ,4 LA W2 % 4k 101 E-44 00 1-44 1020 141 I I £ Z 0 170 r’U 103 U ~ S. ri I 0 -Co

  17. Increasing synchrony of high temperature and low flow in western North American streams: double trouble for coldwater biota?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Johnson, Sherri L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Haggerty, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Flow and temperature are strongly linked environmental factors driving ecosystem processes in streams. Stream temperature maxima (Tmax_w) and stream flow minima (Qmin) can create periods of stress for aquatic organisms. In mountainous areas, such as western North America, recent shifts toward an earlier spring peak flow and decreases in low flow during summer/fall have been reported. We hypothesized that an earlier peak flow could be shifting the timing of low flow and leading to a decrease in the interval between Tmax_w and Qmin. We also examined if years with extreme low Qmin were associated with years of extreme high Tmax_w. We tested these hypotheses using long32 term data from 22 minimally human-influenced streams for the period 1950-2010. We found trends toward a shorter time lag between Tmax_w and Qmin over time and a strong negative association between their magnitudes. Our findings show that aquatic biota may be increasingly experiencing narrower time windows to recover or adapt between these extreme events of low flow and high temperature. This study highlights the importance of evaluating multiple environmental drivers to better gauge the effects of the recent climate variability in freshwaters.

  18. Simulation of high-temperature water-CO2 flows in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Andrey

    2010-05-01

    Coupled water and carbon dioxide flows in porous media can take place both in natural volcanic environments and in industrial processes, for example, underground carbon dioxide storage or geothermal energy recovery. Pressures and temperatures in these flows can considerably exceed their values in critical point of water. Nowadays there are no adequate mathematical models that can in aggregate describe both water and water-carbon dioxide mixture properties in sub- and supercritical regions and the dynamics of their flows in such conditions. Thereby the influence of critical conditions on water flows in porous media is not well understood. In the paper cubic equation of state is used to describe water-carbon dioxide mixture in wide range of conditions including critical conditions for mixture. The equation generalizes well known Peng-Robinson equation and can be used to describe properties not only of hydrocarbons but also of carbon-dioxide and water. The real mixture properties measurements are used to determine the equation coefficients. Comparison between experimental measurements and data calculated via the equation of state shows a good agreement between the data. For example the error in water density calculation is less than 10% in the whole range of pressure-enthalpy conditions. Effective and fast algorithms for phase equilibrium calculation via pressure, enthalpy and mixture composition where developed. These thermodynamic variables are the most suitable for trans-critical flow simulations. The developed numerical model that is based on mass and energy conservation laws was used to study hydrothermal system in Solfatara volcano (Campi Flegrei). The flows in porous media that take place in the system are forced by presence of magmatic chamber located at depth of 9 km. Magma degassing makes a hot supercritical plume of water-carbon dioxide mixture that ascends to shallow layers where magmatic fluid mixes with cold meteoric water. The model assumes a source of

  19. On the flow structures and hysteresis of laminar swirling jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogus, G.; Baelmans, M.; Vanierschot, M.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper different flow patterns of an annular jet with a stepped-conical nozzle as well as the transition between these patterns are numerically investigated as a function of the swirl number S which is the ratio of tangential momentum flux to axial momentum flux. The Reynolds number of the jet based on the axial velocity and the nozzle hydraulic diameter is 180. The 3D Navier Stokes equations are solved using the direct numerical simulation. Four different flow patterns are identified and their associated flow structures are discussed. Starting from an annular jet at zero swirl, spinning vortices around the central axis originate with increasing swirl. As the swirl is further increased, the onset of vortex breakdown occurs, followed by jet attachment to the nozzle. Decreasing the swirl number back from this flow pattern, the Coanda effect near the nozzle outlet creates a wall jet. This wall jet remains till the decreasing swirl number equals to zero, showing hysteresis in flow patterns between an increase and a subsequent decrease in swirl. The determined flow states are experimentally validated. Potential applications related to these flow patterns and their hysteretic behavior are also briefly discussed.

  20. Butterfly valve with metal seals controls flow of hydrogen from cryogenic through high temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. D.

    1967-01-01

    Butterfly valve with metal seals operates over a temperature range of minus 423 degrees to plus 440 degrees F with hydrogen as a medium and in a radiation environment. Media flow is controlled by an internal butterfly disk which is rotated by an actuation shaft.

  1. Jets.

    PubMed

    Rhines, Peter B.

    1994-06-01

    This is a discussion of concentrated large-scale flows in planetary atmospheres and oceans, argued from the viewpoint of basic geophysical fluid dynamics. We give several elementary examples in which these flows form jets on rotating spheres. Jet formation occurs under a variety of circumstances: when flows driven by external stress have a rigid boundary which can balance the Coriolis force, and at which further concentration can be caused by the beta effect; when there are singular lines like the line of vanishing windstress or windstress-curl, or the Equator; when compact sources of momentum, heat or mass radiate jet-like beta plumes along latitude circles; when random external stirring of the fluid becomes organized by the beta effect into jets; when internal instability of the mass field generates zonal flow which then is concentrated into jets; when bottom topographic obstacles radiate jets, and when frontogenesis leads to shallow jet formation. Essential to the process of jet formation in stratified fluids is the baroclinic life cycle described in geostrophic turbulence studies; there, conversion from potential to kinetic energy generates eddy motions, and these convert to quasibarotropic motions which then radiate and induce jet-like large-scale circulation. Ideas of potential vorticity stirring by eddies generalize the notion of Rossby-wave radiation, showing how jets embedded in an ambient potential vorticity gradient (typically due to the spherical geometry of the rotating planet) gain eastward momentum while promoting broader, weaker westward circulation. Homogenization of potential vorticity is an important limit point, which many geophysical circulations achieve. This well-mixed state is found in subdomains of the terrestrial midlatitude oceans, the high-latitude circumpolar ocean, and episodically in the middle atmosphere. Homogenization expels potential vorticity gradients vertically to the top and bottom of the fluid, and sideways to the edges of

  2. Lower-crustal flow and detachment in the North American Cordillera: a consequence of Cordillera-wide high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyndman, R. D.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, I make the case for widespread lower-crustal detachment and flow in the North American Cordillera. An indicator that geologically recent flow has occurred comes from seismic structure data showing the crust in most of the Cordillera from Mexico to Alaska is uniformly thin, 33 ± 3 km, with a remarkably flat Moho. The flat Moho is in spite of extensive normal faulting and shortening that might be expected to deform the Moho. It has been concluded previously that the high topographic elevations are due to thermal expansion from Cordillera-wide high temperatures compared to stable areas, not due to a crustal root. I argue that the constant crustal thickness and flat Moho also are a consequence of temperatures sufficiently hot for flow in the lower crust. Lower-crust detachment and flow has previously been inferred for Tibet and the high Andes where the crust is thick such that unusually high temperatures are expected. More surprising is the similar conclusion for the Basin and Range of western USA where the crust is thin, but high temperatures have been inferred to result from current extension. There are now adequate data to conclude the Basin and Range is not unique in crustal thickness or in temperature. The crust in most of the Cordillera is similarly hot in common with many other backarcs. Five thermal constraints are discussed that indicate that for most of the Cordillera, the temperature at the Moho is 800-850 °C compared to 400-450 °C in stable areas. At these temperatures, the effective viscosity is low enough for flow near the base of the crust. The backarc Moho may be viewed as a boundary between almost 'liquid' lower crust over a higher viscosity, but still weak upper mantle. The temperatures are sufficiently high for the Moho to relax to a nearly horizontal gravitational equipotential over a few tens of millions of years. The inference of a weak lower crust also suggests that topography over horizontal scales of over 100 km must be short

  3. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    DOEpatents

    Pollock, George G.

    1997-01-01

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  4. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    DOEpatents

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  5. Two-, three-, and four-poster jets in cross flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukits, Thomas J.; Sullivan, John P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1993-01-01

    In connection with the problems of the ingestion of hot exhaust gases in engines of V/STOL and STOVL aircraft in ground effect, a series of studies have been undertaken. Ground impinging, two- and three-poster jets operating in the presence of cross flow were studied. The current paper is divided into two parts. The first part is a comparison of the low speed, two-, three-, and four-poster jet cases, with respect to the flowfield in the region of interaction between the forward and the jet flows. These include cases with mass balanced inlet suction. An analysis of the inlet entry plane of the low speed two- and three-poster jet cases is also given. In the second part, high speed results for a two jet configuration without inlet suction are given. The results are based on quantitative, marker concentration distributions obtained by digitizing video images.

  6. A New Constitutive Model for the High-Temperature Flow Behavior of 95CrMo Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bao-Sheng; Cai, Qing-Wu; Wei, Yu; Xu, Li-Xiong; Zhen, Ning

    2016-12-01

    The compressive deformation behavior of 95CrMo steel, one of the worldwide used hollow steels, was investigated on a Gleeble-3500 thermo-simulation machine within temperature range of 1073-1323 K and strain rate range of 0.1-10 s-1. Considering the influence of work-hardening, dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization, a new constitutive model for high-temperature flow stress was established in this paper. The calculated values predicted by the new constitutive model lie fairly close to the experimental values with a correlation coefficient ( R) of generally above 0.99 and an average absolute relative error of 3.00%, proving a good predictability of the new constitutive model. Also, a modified Sellars-Tegart-Garofalo model (STG model) was introduced to verify the precision of the new constitutive model. Compared to the modified STG model, the new constitutive model has a higher accuracy, which implies it is a reliable tool for predicting flow stress at high temperatures not only under equilibrium state, but also under transient deformation conditions. Besides, the new constitutive model was proved still viable in the initial stage of plastic deformation where plastic strain is lower than 0.05.

  7. Transient wall-jet flowing over a circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danon, Ron; Gregory, James W.; Greenblatt, David

    2016-09-01

    The transient flow of a two-dimensional wall-jet over a circular cylinder, following rapid initiation and termination, was investigated experimentally. Unsteady surface pressures and unsteady pressure-sensitive paint were used to gain a basic understanding of the flow physics. Jet initiation produced a starting vortex, upstream of which the Coandă flow developed, producing a large low-pressure peak. Immediately following jet termination, the pressure increased over the first quarter of the circumference, while the downstream separation region remained virtually unaffected. Simplifying analyses and dimensional arguments were used to show that the timescales characterizing the transient development of the integrated loads depend only on the square of the slot height and the kinematic viscosity and are thus independent of the jet velocity. Following jet initiation, the resulting loads varied according to a linear transient model, while small nonlinearities were observed following jet termination. Unsteady pressure-sensitive paint showed that the starting jet emerges from the slot in a two-dimensional manner and that streamwise streaks, identified as Görtler vortices, form well before the flow reaches steady state. During termination, the streamwise structures dissipate downstream initially, with the dissipation propagating upstream.

  8. Constitutive Modeling of High-Temperature Flow Behavior of Al-0.62Mg-0.73Si Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Ye, W. H.; Hu, L. X.

    2016-04-01

    The high-temperature flow behavior of an aerospace structural material Al-0.62 Mg-0.73Si aluminum alloy was researched in this work. The isothermal compression tests were carried out in the temperature range of 683-783 K and strain rate range of 0.001-1 s-1. Based on the obtained true stress-true strain curves, the constitutive relationship of the alloy was revealed by establishing the Arrhenius-type constitutive model and a modified Johnson-Cook model. It was found that the flow characteristics were closely related to deformation temperature and strain rate. The activation energy of the studied material was calculated to be approximately 174 kJ mol-1. A comparative study has been conducted on the accuracy and reliability of the proposed models using statistics analysis method. It was proved by error analysis that the Arrhenius-type model had a better performance than the modified Johnson-Cook model.

  9. Optical experiments on thermophoretically augmented submicron particle deposition from 'dusty' high temperature gas flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Daniel E.; Kim, Sang-Soo

    1984-01-01

    A real-time laser reflectivity method and Pt ribbon targets are used to obtain experimental data on the initial deposition rate of MgO(s) particles of approximately 700 nm diameter from otherwise clean combustion products as a function of target temperature (about 950-1450 K) and mainstream gas temperature (about 1500-1600 K). These preliminary data are used to demonstrate the dominant role of thermophoresis (particle drift down a temperature gradient) and to assess the utility of recently developed theoretical methods for predicting and correlating the temperature dependence of thermophoretically augmented convective-diffusion 'dust' deposition rates from flowing hot gases.

  10. Characteristics of heat exchange in the region of injection into a supersonic high-temperature flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakirov, F. G.; Shaykhutdinov, Z. G.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the local heat transfer coefficient distribution during gas injection into the supersonic-flow portion of a Laval nozzle is discussed. The controlling dimensionless parameters of the investigated process are presented in terms of a generalized relation for the maximum value of the heat transfer coefficient in the nozzle cross section behind the injection hole. Data on the heat transfer coefficient variation along the nozzle length as a function of gas injection rate are also presented, along with the heat transfer coefficient distribution over a cross section of the nozzle.

  11. Characteristics of heat exchange in the region of injection into a supersonic high-temperature flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirov, F. G.; Shaykhutdinov, Z. G.

    1985-04-01

    An experimental investigation of the local heat transfer coefficient distribution during gas injection into the supersonic-flow portion of a Laval nozzle is discussed. The controlling dimensionless parameters of the investigated process are presented in terms of a generalized relation for the maximum value of the heat transfer coefficient in the nozzle cross section behind the injection hole. Data on the heat transfer coefficient variation along the nozzle length as a function of gas injection rate are also presented, along with the heat transfer coefficient distribution over a cross section of the nozzle.

  12. Cryostabilization of high-temperature superconducting magnets with subcooled flow in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Choi, U. S.

    1992-07-01

    Subcooled flow of liquid nitrogen in microchannels is proposed as a means to enhance the stability of a superconducting magnet. Analysis shows high current density or a low stabilizer fraction is obtainable in a cryostable magnet. Increase in stability (using the Stekley criterion) is directly related to coolant velocity and coolant channel aspect ratio, however, there is a corresponding increase in pressure drop of the system. Another constraint is the coolant temperature rise, which is found to be a function of coolant residence time and the coolant to conductor ratio.

  13. Synthetic Jet Interaction With A Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Douglas R.

    2002-01-01

    Perhaps one of the more notable advances to have occurred in flow control technology in the last fifteen years is the application of surface-issuing jets for separation control on aerodynamic surfaces. The concept was introduced by Johnston and Night (1990) who proposed using circular jets, skewed and inclined to the wall, to generate streamwise vortices for the purpose of mitigating boundary layer separation. The skew and inclination angles have subsequently been shown to affect the strength and sign of the ensuing vortices. With a non-circular orifice, in addition to skew and inclination, the yaw angle of the major axis of the orifice can influence the flow control effectiveness of the jet. In particular, a study by Chang arid Collins (1997) revealed that a non-circular orifice, yawed relative to the freestream, can be used to control the size and strength of the vortices produced by the control jet. This early work used jets with only a steady injection of mass. Seifert et al. revealed that an unsteady blowing jet, could be as effective at separation control as a steady jet but with less mass flow. Seifert et al. showed that small amplitude blowing oscillations superimposed on a low momentum steady jet Was the most effective approach to delaying separation on a NACA 0015 airfoil at post-stall angles of attack. More recent work suggests that perhaps the most efficient jet control effect comes from a synthetic (oscillatory) jet where the time-averaged mass flux through the orifice is zero, but the net wall normal momentum is non-zero. The control effectiveness of synthetic jets has been demonstrated for several internal and external flow fields used synthetic jet control on a thick, blunt-nosed airfoil to delay stall well beyond the stall angles for the uncontrolled airfoil and with a dramatic increase in the lift-to-drag performance. Amitay et al. used an array of synthetic jets to mitigate flow separation in curved and diffusing ducts. While the control

  14. AC electrified jets in a flow-focusing device: Jet length scaling

    PubMed Central

    García-Sánchez, Pablo; Alzaga-Gimeno, Javier; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    We use a microfluidic flow-focusing device with integrated electrodes for controlling the production of water-in-oil drops. In a previous work, we reported that very long jets can be formed upon application of AC fields. We now study in detail the appearance of the long jets as a function of the electrical parameters, i.e., water conductivity, signal frequency, and voltage amplitude. For intermediate frequencies, we find a threshold voltage above which the jet length rapidly increases. Interestingly, this abrupt transition vanishes for high frequencies of the signal and the jet length grows smoothly with voltage. For frequencies below a threshold value, we previously reported a transition from a well-behaved uniform jet to highly unstable liquid structures in which axisymmetry is lost rather abruptly. These liquid filaments eventually break into droplets of different sizes. In this work, we characterize this transition with a diagram as a function of voltage and liquid conductivity. The electrical response of the long jets was studied via a distributed element circuit model. The model allows us to estimate the electric potential at the tip of the jet revealing that, for any combination of the electrical parameters, the breakup of the jet occurs at a critical value of this potential. We show that this voltage is around 550 V for our device geometry and choice of flow rates. PMID:27375826

  15. AC electrified jets in a flow-focusing device: Jet length scaling.

    PubMed

    Castro-Hernández, Elena; García-Sánchez, Pablo; Alzaga-Gimeno, Javier; Tan, Say Hwa; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Ramos, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    We use a microfluidic flow-focusing device with integrated electrodes for controlling the production of water-in-oil drops. In a previous work, we reported that very long jets can be formed upon application of AC fields. We now study in detail the appearance of the long jets as a function of the electrical parameters, i.e., water conductivity, signal frequency, and voltage amplitude. For intermediate frequencies, we find a threshold voltage above which the jet length rapidly increases. Interestingly, this abrupt transition vanishes for high frequencies of the signal and the jet length grows smoothly with voltage. For frequencies below a threshold value, we previously reported a transition from a well-behaved uniform jet to highly unstable liquid structures in which axisymmetry is lost rather abruptly. These liquid filaments eventually break into droplets of different sizes. In this work, we characterize this transition with a diagram as a function of voltage and liquid conductivity. The electrical response of the long jets was studied via a distributed element circuit model. The model allows us to estimate the electric potential at the tip of the jet revealing that, for any combination of the electrical parameters, the breakup of the jet occurs at a critical value of this potential. We show that this voltage is around 550 V for our device geometry and choice of flow rates.

  16. Effects of rotating flows on combustion and jet noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental investigations of combustion in rotating (swirling) flow have shown that the mixing and combustion processes were accelerated, flame length and noise levels significantly decreased, and flame stability increased relative to that obtained without rotation. Unsteady burning accompanied by a pulsating flame, violent fluctuating jet, and intense noise present in straight flow burning were not present in rotating flow burning. Correlations between theory and experiment show good agreement. Such effects due to rotating flows could lead to suppressing jet noise, improving combustion, reducing pollution, and decreasing aircraft engine size. Quantitative analysis of the aero-acoustic relationship and noise source characteristics are needed.-

  17. Study of flow channel geometry using current distribution measurement in a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Justo; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A.; Pinar, F. Javier; Úbeda, Diego

    To improve fuel cell design and performance, research studies supported by a wide variety of physical and electrochemical methods have to be carried out. Among the different techniques, current distribution measurement owns the desired feature that can be performed during operation, revealing information about internal phenomena when the fuel cell is working. Moreover, short durability is one of the main problems that is hindering fuel cell wide implementation and it is known to be related to current density heterogeneities over the electrode surface. A good flow channel geometry design can favor a uniform current density profile, hence hypothetically extending fuel cell life. With this, it was thought that a study on the influence of flow channel geometry on the performance of a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell using current distribution measurement should be a very solid work to optimize flow field design. Results demonstrate that the 4 step serpentine and pin-type geometries distribute the reactants more effectively, obtaining a relatively flat current density map at higher current densities than parallel or interdigitated ones and yielding maximum powers up to 25% higher when using oxygen as comburent. If air is the oxidant chosen, interdigitated flow channels perform almost as well as serpentine or pin-type due to that the flow conditions are very important for this geometry.

  18. Forward jets and energy flow in hadronic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deak, M.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kutak, K.

    2012-04-01

    We observe that at the Large Hadron Collider, using forward + central detectors, it becomes possible for the first time to carry out calorimetric measurements of the transverse energy flow due to "mini-jets" accompanying production of two jets separated by a large rapidity interval. We present parton-shower calculations of energy flow observables in a high-energy factorized Monte Carlo framework, designed to take into account QCD logarithmic corrections both in the large rapidity interval and for hard transverse momentum. Considering events with a forward and a central jet, we examine the energy flow in the interjet region and in the region away from the jets. We discuss the role of these observables to analyze multiple parton collision effects.

  19. A jet-driven dynamo (JEDD) from jet-inflated bubbles in cooling flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    2017-04-01

    I suggest that the main process that amplifies magnetic fields in cooling flows in clusters and group of galaxies is a jet-driven dynamo (JEDD). The main processes that are behind the JEDD is the turbulence that is formed by the many vortices formed in the inflation processes of bubbles, and the large scale shear formed by the propagating jet. It is sufficient that a strong turbulence exits in the vicinity of the jets and bubbles, just where the shear is large. The typical amplification time of magnetic fields by the JEDD near the jets and bubbles is approximately hundred million years. The amplification time in the entire cooling flow region is somewhat longer. The vortices that create the turbulence are those that also transfer energy from the jets to the intra-cluster medium, by mixing shocked jet gas with the intra-cluster medium gas, and by exciting sound waves. The JEDD model adds magnetic fields to the cyclical behaviour of energy and mass in the jet-feedback mechanism in cooling flows.

  20. A jet-driven dynamo (JEDD) from jets-inflated bubbles in cooling flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    2017-01-01

    I suggest that the main process that amplifies magnetic fields in cooling flows in clusters and group of galaxies is a jet-driven dynamo (JEDD). The main processes that are behind the JEDD is the turbulence that is formed by the many vortices formed in the inflation processes of bubbles, and the large scale shear formed by the propagating jet. It is sufficient that a strong turbulence exits in the vicinity of the jets and bubbles, just where the shear is large. The typical amplification time of magnetic fields by the JEDD near the jets and bubbles is approximately hundred million years. The amplification time in the entire cooling flow region is somewhat longer. The vortices that create the turbulence are those that also transfer energy from the jets to the intra-cluster medium, by mixing shocked jet gas with the intra-cluster medium gas, and by exciting sound waves. The JEDD model adds magnetic fields to the cyclical behavior of energy and mass in the jet-feedback mechanism (JFM) in cooling flows.

  1. Passive jet control of flow around a circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Li; Gao, Dong-Lai; Yuan, Wen-Yong; Li, Hui; Hu, Hui

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, a passive flow control method, which is featured by passive windward suction combined with leeward jet over a circular cylinder for drag reduction and dynamic wind loading suppression, was experimentally investigated to manipulate unsteady wake vortex shedding from a circular cylinder. Four perforated pipe designs with different numbers of suction/jet holes (i.e., from 2 to 24 suction/jet holes) were used to create flow communicating channels between the windward and leeward stagnation points of a cylindrical test model. The experimental study was performed in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number of Re = 4.16 × 104 based on the cylinder diameter and oncoming airflow speed. In addition to measuring surface pressure distributions to determine the dynamic wind loads acting on the test model, a digital particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was also used to quantify the wake flow characteristics in order to assess the effectiveness of the passive jet control method with different perforated pipe designs, in comparison with a baseline case without passive jet control. It was found that the passive jet control method is very effective in manipulating the wake vortex shedding process from the circular cylinder. The perforated pipe designs with more suction/jet holes were found to be more effective in reducing drag and suppressing fluctuating amplitude of the dynamic wind loads acting on the test model. With 24 suction/jet holes evenly distributed over the cylindrical test model (i.e., the N13 design of the present study), the passive jet control method was found to be able to achieve up to 33.7 % in drag reduction and 90.6 % in fluctuating wind loading suppression, in comparison with the baseline case. The PIV measurement results revealed clearly that the passive jet control method would cause airflow jets into the cylinder wake and change the shedding modes of the wake vortex structures from the cylindrical test model. Because of the dynamic

  2. Propulsive jet influence on generic launcher base flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, S.; Wu, J.; Radespiel, R.

    2015-12-01

    Afterbody flow phenomena represent a significant source of uncertainties in the design of a launcher. Therefore, there is a demand for measuring such flows in wind tunnels. For propulsive jet simulation a new jet facility was integrated into a hypersonic/supersonic wind tunnel. The jet simulation resembles the generic model of a staged rocket launcher. The design and the qualification of the facility are reported. This includes measurements of pressure, temperature and Mach number distribution. Pressure and Schlieren measurements are conducted in the wake of the generic launcher. The unsteady pressure characteristics at the generic rocket base and fairing are analyzed for supersonic and hypersonic freestream. The influence of the under-expanded jet is reported and the jet temperatures are varied. On the base fluctuations at a Strouhal number around 0.25 dominates supersonic freestream flows. Additionally, a fluctuation level increase on the base is observed for Strouhal numbers above 0.75 in hypersonic flow regime, which is attributed to the interactions of wake flow and jet.

  3. Flow field and noise characteristics of a supersonic impinging jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krothapalli, A.; Rajkuperan, E.; Alvi, F.; Lourenco, L.

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a study examining the flow and acoustic characteristics of an axisymmetric supersonic jet issuing from a sonic and a Mach 1.5 converging diverging (C D) nozzle and impinging on a ground plane. Emphasis is placed on the Mach 1.5 nozzle with the sonic nozzle used mainly for comparison. A large-diameter circular plate was attached at the nozzle exit to measure the forces generated on the plate owing to jet impingement. The experimental results described in this paper include lift loss, particle image velocimetry (PIV) and acoustic measurements. Suckdown forces as high as 60% of the primary jet thrust were measured when the ground plane was very close to the jet exit. The PIV measurements were used to explain the increase in suckdown forces due to high entrainment velocities. The self-sustained oscillatory frequencies of the impinging jet were predicted using a feedback loop that uses the measured convection velocities of the large-scale coherent vortical structures in the jet shear layer. Nearfield acoustic measurements indicate that the presence of the ground plane increases the overall sound pressure levels (OASPL) by approximately 8 dB relative to a corresponding free jet. For moderately underexpanded jets, the influence of the shock cells on the important flow features was found to be negligible except for close proximity of the ground plane.

  4. Measurements in a large angle oblique jet impingement flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The flow field associated with the oblique impingement of an axisymmetric jet was investigated in the externally blown flap configuration for the STOL aircraft. The passive and active spreading characteristics of the shallow angle (a greater than or = approximately to 15 degrees) oblique impingement flow, the role of the initially azimuthal vorticity field, and the stagnation point region were studied, and compared to the large ( a = 45 degres) oblique jet impingement flow. A description of the characteristics of the large angle impingement flow is presented: A flow field near the plate as showing two distinct patterns, one near the location of the maximum surface pressure, and another about the geometric intersection of the jet axis with the plate; and turbulence in the region above the plate which is greater than the one accounted for by the convection of turbulence energy by the mean motion.

  5. Flash flow pyrolysis: mimicking flash vacuum pyrolysis in a high-temperature/high-pressure liquid-phase microreactor environment.

    PubMed

    Cantillo, David; Sheibani, Hassan; Kappe, C Oliver

    2012-03-02

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) is a gas-phase continuous-flow technique where a substrate is sublimed through a hot quartz tube under high vacuum at temperatures of 400-1100 °C. Thermal activation occurs mainly by molecule-wall collisions with contact times in the region of milliseconds. As a preparative method, FVP is used mainly to induce intramolecular high-temperature transformations leading to products that cannot easily be obtained by other methods. It is demonstrated herein that liquid-phase high-temperature/high-pressure (high-T/p) microreactor conditions (160-350 °C, 90-180 bar) employing near- or supercritical fluids as reaction media can mimic the results obtained using preparative gas-phase FVP protocols. The high-T/p liquid-phase "flash flow pyrolysis" (FFP) technique was applied to the thermolysis of Meldrum's acid derivatives, pyrrole-2,3-diones, and pyrrole-2-carboxylic esters, producing the expected target heterocycles in high yields with residence times between 10 s and 10 min. The exact control over flow rate (and thus residence time) using the liquid-phase FFP method allows a tuning of reaction selectivities not easily achievable using FVP. Since the solution-phase FFP method does not require the substrate to be volatile any more--a major limitation in classical FVP--the transformations become readily scalable, allowing higher productivities and space-time yields compared with gas-phase protocols. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements and extensive DFT calculations provided essential information on pyrolysis energy barriers and the involved reaction mechanisms. A correlation between computed activation energies and experimental gas-phase FVP (molecule-wall collisions) and liquid-phase FFP (molecule-molecule collisions) pyrolysis temperatures was derived.

  6. Convective heat transfer studies at high temperatures with pressure gradient for inlet flow Mach number of 0.45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedrosa, A. C. F.; Nagamatsu, H. T.; Hinckel, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Heat transfer measurements were determined for a flat plate with and without pressure gradient for various free stream temperatures, wall temperature ratios, and Reynolds numbers for an inlet flow Mach number of 0.45, which is a representative inlet Mach number for gas turbine rotor blades. A shock tube generated the high temperature and pressure air flow, and a variable geometry test section was used to produce inlet flow Mach number of 0.45 and accelerate the flow over the plate to sonic velocity. Thin-film platinum heat gages recorded the local heat flux for laminar, transition, and turbulent boundary layers. The free stream temperatures varied from 611 R (339 K) to 3840 R (2133 K) for a T(w)/T(r,g) temperature ratio of 0.87 to 0.14. The Reynolds number over the heat gages varied from 3000 to 690,000. The experimental heat transfer data were correlated with laminar and turbulent boundary layer theories for the range of temperatures and Reynolds numbers and the transition phenomenon was examined.

  7. Numerical simulation of particle laden coaxial turbulent jet flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza

    2010-11-01

    The study of coaxial turbulent particle laden jets has been of interest due to its importance in many applications such as industrial burners, and mixing devices. The addition of the second phase to the continuous phase jet can change the already complicated flow pattern and turbulent characteristics of the jets. Albeit the vast research efforts that have been devoted to understand such phenomena, demand for detailed investigation of particle laden flows remains an active area of research. The advent of laser diagnostics has helped to quantify the myriad details of the jet flow fields in more details. In parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide additional information by further investigating such flows with an acceptable level of accuracy. In this work, numerical simulations results are presented for the flow and turbulent characteristics of a coaxial jet with and without the dispersed phase. The results are compared with the experimental data measured using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry diagnostic technique. The key objective of this work is to undermine the flow field details that are difficult if not impossible to measure.

  8. Flow visualisation studies on growth of area of deflected jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivadas, V.; Pani, B. S.; Bütefisch, K. A.; Meier, G. E. A.

    Laser light sheet visualisation, coupled with image processing, was utilised to understand the effect of exit geometry on the integral properties of jets in cross flow. The study involved jets emanating from circular and rectangular nozzles of different aspect ratios deflected by a uniform free-stream. The investigation considers incompressible momentum jets with exit Reynolds number in the range of 4400-9200, the velocity ratios being 3.9, 5.9 and 7.8. In contrast to a deflected circular jet, those jets emanating from blunt configurations tend to have higher growth rates initially and are devoid of the horse-shoe or the bound vortex system in their cross section.

  9. LIF Measurement of Interacting Gas Jet Flow with Plane Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, A.; Kurihara, S.; Yamazaki, S.; Ota, M.; Maeno, K.

    2011-05-01

    Discharging rarefied gas jets in low-pressure conditions are interesting and important phenomena from an engineering point of view. For example they relate to the attitude control of the space satellite, or the semiconductor technology. The jets, however, deform to the complicated shapes by interacting with solid walls. In this paper we have performed the experiments the flow visualization as a first step by applying the LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) method on the jet-wall interaction. Jet is spouting out from a φ1.0 mm circular hole into the low pressure air chamber, impinging on a flat plate. The LIF visualization of interacting rarefied gas jet is carried out by using the iodine (I2) tracer and argon ion laser.

  10. Discharge effects on gas flow dynamics in a plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Yu Bin; Hasnain Qaisrani, M.; Yue, Yuan Fu; Lu, Xin Pei

    2016-10-01

    Plasma is used as a flow visualization method to display the gas flow of a plasma jet. Using this method, it is found that a discharge in a plasma jet promotes the transition of the gas flow to turbulence. A discharge at intermediate frequency (˜6 kHz in this paper) has a stronger influence on the gas flow than that at lower or higher frequencies. Also, a higher discharge voltage enhances the transition of the gas flow to turbulence. Analysis reveals that pressure modulation induced both by the periodically directed movement of ionized helium and Ohmic heating on the gas flow plays an important role in inducing the transition of the helium flow regime. In addition, since the modulations induced by the high- and low-frequency discharges are determined by the frequency-selective effect, only intermediate-frequency (˜6 kHz) discharges effectively cause the helium flow transition from the laminar to the turbulent flow. Moreover, a discharge with a higher applied voltage makes a stronger impact on the helium flow because it generates stronger modulations. These conclusions are useful in designing cold plasma jets and plasma torches. Moreover, the relationship between the discharge parameters and the gas flow dynamics is a useful reference on active flow control with plasma actuators.

  11. Navier Stokes analysis methods for turbulent jet flows with application to aircraft exhaust nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; DeBonis, James R.

    2006-07-01

    This article presents the current status of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods as applied to the simulation of turbulent jet flowfields issuing from aircraft engine exhaust nozzles. For many years, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods have been used routinely to calculate such flows, including very complex nozzle configurations. RANS methods replace all turbulent fluid dynamic effects with a turbulence model. Such turbulence models have limitations for jets with significant three-dimensionality, compressibility, and high temperature streams. In contrast to the RANS approach, direct numerical simulation (DNS) methods calculate the entire turbulent energy spectrum by resolving all turbulent motion down to the Kolmogorov scale. Although this avoids the limitations associated with turbulence modeling, DNS methods will remain computationally impractical in the foreseeable future for all but the simplest configurations. Large-Eddy simulation (LES) methods, which directly calculate the large-scale turbulent structures and reserve modeling only for the smallest scales, have been pursued in recent years and may offer the best prospects for improving the fidelity of turbulent jet flow simulations. A related approach is the group of hybrid RANS/LES methods, where RANS is used to model the small-scale turbulence in wall boundary layers and LES is utilized in regions dominated by the large-scale jet mixing. The advantages, limitations, and applicability of each approach are discussed and recommendations for further research are presented.

  12. Rethinking the process of detrainment: jets in obstructed natural flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossa, Michele; de Serio, Francesca

    2016-12-01

    A thorough understanding of the mixing and diffusion of turbulent jets released in porous obstructions is still lacking in literature. This issue is undoubtedly of interest because it is not strictly limited to vegetated flows, but also includes outflows which come from different sources and which spread among oyster or wind farms, as well as aerial pesticide treatments sprayed onto orchards. The aim of the present research is to analyze this process from a theoretical point of view. Specifically, by examining the entrainment coefficient, it is deduced that the presence of a canopy prevents a momentum jet from having an entrainment process, but rather promotes its detrainment. In nature, detrainment is usually associated with buoyancy-driven flows, such as plumes or density currents flowing in a stratified environment. The present study proves that detrainment occurs also when a momentum-driven jet is issued in a not-stratified obstructed current, such as a vegetated flow.

  13. Rethinking the process of detrainment: jets in obstructed natural flows

    PubMed Central

    Mossa, Michele; De Serio, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the mixing and diffusion of turbulent jets released in porous obstructions is still lacking in literature. This issue is undoubtedly of interest because it is not strictly limited to vegetated flows, but also includes outflows which come from different sources and which spread among oyster or wind farms, as well as aerial pesticide treatments sprayed onto orchards. The aim of the present research is to analyze this process from a theoretical point of view. Specifically, by examining the entrainment coefficient, it is deduced that the presence of a canopy prevents a momentum jet from having an entrainment process, but rather promotes its detrainment. In nature, detrainment is usually associated with buoyancy-driven flows, such as plumes or density currents flowing in a stratified environment. The present study proves that detrainment occurs also when a momentum-driven jet is issued in a not-stratified obstructed current, such as a vegetated flow. PMID:27974835

  14. Rethinking the process of detrainment: jets in obstructed natural flows.

    PubMed

    Mossa, Michele; De Serio, Francesca

    2016-12-15

    A thorough understanding of the mixing and diffusion of turbulent jets released in porous obstructions is still lacking in literature. This issue is undoubtedly of interest because it is not strictly limited to vegetated flows, but also includes outflows which come from different sources and which spread among oyster or wind farms, as well as aerial pesticide treatments sprayed onto orchards. The aim of the present research is to analyze this process from a theoretical point of view. Specifically, by examining the entrainment coefficient, it is deduced that the presence of a canopy prevents a momentum jet from having an entrainment process, but rather promotes its detrainment. In nature, detrainment is usually associated with buoyancy-driven flows, such as plumes or density currents flowing in a stratified environment. The present study proves that detrainment occurs also when a momentum-driven jet is issued in a not-stratified obstructed current, such as a vegetated flow.

  15. Experimental Study of the Effects of Collision of Water Droplets in a Flow of High-Temperature Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, D. V.; Volkov, R. S.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Using high-speed video recording and cross-correlation "tracer" visualization, the authors have investigated the regularities of the processes of collision of water droplets (characteristic parameters: radii 0.025-0.25 mm, velocities of motion 0.5-12 m/s, and relative concentration 0.001-0.0012 m3 of liquid droplets in 1 m3 of the gas) in their motion in a flow of high-temperature (about 1100 K) gases. The characteristic effects of collision of two droplets, at which combined droplets are formed (coagulation occurs) and conditions for spreading or fragmentation of the latter are implemented, have been singled out. The values of the Weber and Reynolds numbers for droplets before and after the collisions have been established. The influences of the velocities of motion, the dimensions, and the angles of intersection of mechanical trajectories of droplets on the effects of collisions have been determined.

  16. System overview and characterization of a high-temperature, high-pressure, entrained-flow, laboratory-scale gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Madison A.; Jakulewicz, Micah S.; Dreyer, Christopher B.; Parker, Terence E.; Porter, Jason M.

    2015-05-01

    The high-temperature, high-pressure, entrained-flow, laboratory-scale gasifier at the Colorado School of Mines, including the primary systems and the supporting subsystems, is presented. The gasifier is capable of operating at temperatures and pressures up to 1650 °C and 40 bar. The heated section of the reactor column has an inner diameter of 50 mm and is 1 m long. Solid organic feedstock (e.g., coal, biomass, and solid waste) is ground into batches with particle sizes ranging from 25 to 90 μm and is delivered to the reactor at feed rates of 2-20 g/min. The maximum useful power output of the syngas is 10 kW, with a nominal power output of 1.2 kW. The initial characterization and demonstration results of the gasifier system with a coal feedstock are also reported.

  17. Characterization and reduction of flow separation in jet pumps for laminar oscillatory flows.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Michael A G; Oosterhuis, Joris P; Bühler, Simon; Wilcox, Douglas; van der Meer, Theo H

    2016-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the oscillatory flow through tapered cylindrical tube sections (jet pumps). The asymmetric shape of jet pumps results in a time-averaged pressure drop that can be used to suppress Gedeon streaming in closed-loop thermoacoustic devices. However, previous work has shown that flow separation in the diverging flow direction counteracts the time-averaged pressure drop. In this work, the characteristics of flow separation in jet pumps are identified and coupled with the observed jet pump performance. Furthermore, it is shown that the onset of flow separation can be shifted to larger displacement amplitudes by designs that have a smoother transition between the small opening and the tapered surface of the jet pump. These design alterations also reduce the duration of separated flow, resulting in more effective and robust jet pumps. To make the proposed jet pump designs more compact without reducing their performance, the minimum big opening radius that can be implemented before the local minor losses have an influence on the jet pump performance is investigated. To validate the numerical results, they are compared with experimental results for one of the proposed jet pump designs.

  18. Pitched and Yawed Circular Jets in Cross-Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milanovic, Ivana M.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Reddy, D. R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of flow field generated by pitched and yawed jets discharging from a flat plate into a cross-flow are presented. The circular jet was pitched at alpha = 20 degrees and 45 degrees and yawed between beta = 0 degrees and 90 degrees in increments of 15 degrees. The measurements were performed with two X-wires providing all three components of velocity and turbulence intensity. These data were obtained at downstream locations of x = 3, 5, 10 and 20, where the distance x normalized by the jet diameter, is measured from the center of the orifice. Data for all configurations were acquired at a momentum-flux ratio J = 8. Additionally, for selected angles and locations, surveys were conducted for J = 1.5, 4, and 20. As expected, the jet penetration is found to be higher at larger alpha. With increasing beta the jet spreads more. The rate of reduction of peak streamwise vorticity, with the downstream distance is significantly lessened at higher alpha but is found to be practically independent of alpha. Thus, at the farthest measurement station x = 20, omega(sub xmax) is about five times larger for beta = 0 degrees compared to the levels at beta = 0 degrees. Streamwise velocity within the jet-vortex structure is found to depend on the parameter J. At J = 1.5 and 4, 'wake-like' velocity profiles are observed. In comparison, a 'jet-like' overshoot is present at higher J.

  19. Computational method to predict thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties for the modified Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, S.; Hunt, L. Roane; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1992-01-01

    The Langley 8 foot high temperature tunnel (8 ft HTT) is used to test components of hypersonic vehicles for aerothermal loads definition and structural component verification. The test medium of the 8 ft HTT is obtained by burning a mixture of methane and air under high pressure; the combustion products are expanded through an axisymmetric conical contoured nozzle to simulate atmospheric flight at Mach 7. This facility was modified to raise the oxygen content of the test medium to match that of air and to include Mach 4 and Mach 5 capabilities. These modifications will facilitate the testing of hypersonic air breathing propulsion systems for a wide range of flight conditions. A computational method to predict the thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of the equilibrium chemically reacting oxygen enriched methane-air combustion products was implemented in a computer code. This code calculates the fuel, air, and oxygen mass flow rates and test section flow properties for Mach 7, 5, and 4 nozzle configurations for given combustor and mixer conditions. Salient features of the 8 ft HTT are described, and some of the predicted tunnel operational characteristics are presented in the carpet plots to assist users in preparing test plans.

  20. Computational method to predict thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties for the modified Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswaran, S.; Hunt, L. Roane; Prabhu, Ramadas K.

    1992-07-01

    The Langley 8 foot high temperature tunnel (8 ft HTT) is used to test components of hypersonic vehicles for aerothermal loads definition and structural component verification. The test medium of the 8 ft HTT is obtained by burning a mixture of methane and air under high pressure; the combustion products are expanded through an axisymmetric conical contoured nozzle to simulate atmospheric flight at Mach 7. This facility was modified to raise the oxygen content of the test medium to match that of air and to include Mach 4 and Mach 5 capabilities. These modifications will facilitate the testing of hypersonic air breathing propulsion systems for a wide range of flight conditions. A computational method to predict the thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of the equilibrium chemically reacting oxygen enriched methane-air combustion products was implemented in a computer code. This code calculates the fuel, air, and oxygen mass flow rates and test section flow properties for Mach 7, 5, and 4 nozzle configurations for given combustor and mixer conditions. Salient features of the 8 ft HTT are described, and some of the predicted tunnel operational characteristics are presented in the carpet plots to assist users in preparing test plans.

  1. Numerical study of twin-jet impingement upwash flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegues, W. J.; Vanka, S. P.

    1990-01-01

    Two horizontally spaced jets impinging normally on a flat surface create a fountain upwash flow due to the collision of the radially flowing wall jets. This fountain flow is of importance to the dynamics and propulsion of STOVL aircraft. The fountain flow influences the lift forces on the aircraft and the ingestion of hot gases and debris by the engine inlet. In this paper, a multigrid based finite-difference numerical procedure has been applied to solve the equations governing this three-dimensional flow. The standard k-epsilon turbulence model has been used. Comparisons with experimental data reveal that while the mean velocities are predicted with reasonable accuracy, the turbulent kinetic energies are seriously in error. The reasons for this discrepancy could be the intense unsteadiness and large-scale structures of the flow in the near-wall region, which cannot be captured well by any Reynolds-averaged turbulence model.

  2. Refraction of high frequency noise in an arbitrary jet flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Krejsa, Eugene A.

    1994-01-01

    Refraction of high frequency noise by mean flow gradients in a jet is studied using the ray-tracing methods of geometrical acoustics. Both the two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) formulations are considered. In the former case, the mean flow is assumed parallel and the governing propagation equations are described by a system of four first order ordinary differential equations. The 3D formulation, on the other hand, accounts for the jet spreading as well as the axial flow development. In this case, a system of six first order differential equations are solved to trace a ray from its source location to an observer in the far field. For subsonic jets with a small spreading angle both methods lead to similar results outside the zone of silence. However, with increasing jet speed the two prediction models diverge to the point where the parallel flow assumption is no longer justified. The Doppler factor of supersonic jets as influenced by the refraction effects is discussed and compared with the conventional modified Doppler factor.

  3. Oscillatory jet flow in electrospinning of polymer nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripatanasuwan, Sureeporn; Reneker, Darrell

    2008-03-01

    The flow of polymer solution into an electrospinning jet can be controlled by the pressure applied to the fluid, and the flow out can be controlled by the electrical potential of the fluid. When the average flow rate of solution carried away by the jet was smaller than the rate at which the liquid was forced through the orifice into the jet, the solution flow rate and the electrical current both oscillated in time. The amount of fluid near the orifice grew larger and caused the flow out of that region to increase, and the amount of fluid near the orifice decreased. Then the cycle repeated. The oscillatory phenomena were demonstrated using a jet of polyethylene oxide in water (Molecular weight, 400k, concentration about 5%) flowing through a tube with a diameter of 0.7 mm. The pressure was 500 to 2500 Pascals, and the applied potential was around 5 kV. The frequency of oscillation (about 0.5 Hertz) was affected by the resistivity of the polymer solution (around 4500 ohm-meters).

  4. Interaction of multiple supersonic jets with a transonic flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seginer, A.; Manela, J.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of multiple high pressure, supersonic, radial or tangential jets, that are injected from the circumference of the base plane of an axisymmetric body, on its longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients in transonic flow is studied experimentally. The interaction of the jets with the body flow field increases the pressures on the forebody, thus altering its lift and static stability characteristics. It is shown that, within the range of parameters studied. This interaction has a stabilizing effect on the body. The contribution to lift and stability is significant at small angles of attack and decreases nonlinearly at higher angles when the crossflow mechanism becomes dominant.

  5. Dripping to jetting transition for cross-flowing liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrandias, A.; Duval, H.; Casalinho, J.; Giorgi, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    We experimentally study drops formed from a nozzle into an immiscible, cross-flowing phase. Depending on the operating conditions, drops are generated either in dripping or jetting mode. We investigate the impact of the continuous and dispersed phase velocities, dispersed phase viscosity, and interfacial tension on the drop generation mode and size. We find that a dripping to jetting transition (DJT) takes place at a critical inner Weber number, a function of the outer capillary and Ohnesorge numbers. Two jetting regimes occur depending on the phase velocity ratio. When the continuous phase velocity is significantly greater (respectively lower) than the dispersed phase velocity, jet narrowing (respectively widening) occurs. In jet widening, the critical inner Weber number depends little on the outer capillary number whereas in jet narrowing, it sharply decreases as the outer capillary number increases. We propose a comprehensive model to describe the DJT based on the attached drop equation of motion. The model satisfactorily predicts the DJT and the effect of the outer capillary number on the critical inner Weber number. It also well accounts for the drop diameter in jet narrowing.

  6. Active Control of Jet Engine Inlet Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-31

    Department at Texas A&M University. The other CFD package employed was Gambit and Fluent , a commercial grid generation and flow solution code currently...Locations F 4t Figure 48: Streamlines Produced by the UNS3D) Flow Solver Showing Second Bend Vortex Formation 49 Gambit and Fluent Grid Generation The use of... Fluent and an in-house code in order to predict the flow characteristics as well as estimate the effects of flow control. Experiments run using the

  7. SIMULATION AND MOCKUP OF SNS JET-FLOW TARGET WITH WALL JET FOR CAVITATION DAMAGE MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, Mark W; Geoghegan, Patrick J; Felde, David K

    2014-01-01

    Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory induce cavitation damage on the stainless steel target container. The cavitation damage is thought to limit the lifetime of the target for power levels at and above 1 MW. Severe through-wall cavitation damage on an internal wall near the beam entrance window has been observed in spent-targets. Surprisingly though, there is very little damage on the walls that bound an annular mercury channel that wraps around the front and outside of the target. The mercury flow through this channel is characterized by smooth, attached streamlines. One theory to explain this lack of damage is that the uni-directional flow biases the direction of the collapsing cavitation bubble, reducing the impact pressure and subsequent damage. The theory has been reinforced by in-beam separate effects data. For this reason, a second-generation SNS mercury target has been designed with an internal wall jet configuration intended to protect the concave wall where damage has been observed. The wall jet mimics the annular flow channel streamlines, but since the jet is bounded on only one side, the momentum is gradually diffused by the bulk flow interactions as it progresses around the cicular path of the target nose. Numerical simulations of the flow through this jet-flow target have been completed, and a water loop has been assembled with a transparent test target in order to visualize and measure the flow field. This paper presents the wall jet simulation results, as well as early experimental data from the test loop.

  8. Scaling approach and thermal-hydraulic analysis in the reactor cavity cooling system of a high temperature gas -cooled reactor and thermal-jet mixing in a sodium fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotowa, Olumuyiwa A.

    This dissertation develops and demonstrates the application of the top-down and bottom-up scaling methodologies to thermal-hydraulic flows in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) of the high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and upper plenum of the sodium fast reactor (SFR), respectively. The need to integrate scaled separate effects and integral tests was identified. Experimental studies and computational tools (CFD) have been integrated to guide the engineering design, analysis and assessment of this scaling methods under single and two-phase flow conditions. To test this methods, two applicable case studies are considered, and original contributions are noted. Case 1: "Experimental Study of RCCS for the HTGR". Contributions include validation of scaling analysis using the top-down approach as guide to a ¼-scale integral test facility. System code, RELAP5, was developed based on the derived scaling parameters. Tests performed included system sensitivity to decay heat load and heat sink inventory variations. System behavior under steady-state and transient scenarios were predicted. Results show that the system has the capacity to protect the cavity walls from over-heating during normal operations and provide a means for decay heat removal under accident scenarios. A full width half maximum statistical method was devised to characterize the thermal-hydraulics of the non-linear two-phase oscillatory behavior. This facilitated understanding of the thermal hydraulic coupling of the loop segments of the RCCS, the heat transfer, and the two-phase flashing flow phenomena; thus the impact of scaling overall. Case 2: "Computational Studies of Thermal Jet Mixing in SFR". In the pool-type SFR, susceptible regions to thermal striping are the upper instrumentation structure and the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). We investigated the thermal mixing above the core to UIS and the potential impact due to poor mixing. The thermal mixing of dual-jet flows at different

  9. Transverse jet injection into a supersonic turbulent cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Z. A.; Thornber, B.; Drikakis, D.

    2011-04-01

    Jet injection into a supersonic cross-flow is a challenging fluid dynamics problem in the field of aerospace engineering which has applications as part of a rocket thrust vector control system for noise control in cavities and fuel injection in scramjet combustion chambers. Several experimental and theoretical/numerical works have been conducted to explore this flow; however, there is a dearth of literature detailing the instantaneous flow which is vital to improve the efficiency of the mixing of fluids. In this paper, a sonic jet in a Mach 1.6 free-stream is studied using a finite volume Godunov type implicit large eddy simulations technique, which employs fifth-order accurate MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme with modified variable extrapolation and a three-stage second-order strong-stability-preserving Runge-Kutta scheme for temporal advancement. A digital filter based turbulent inflow data generation method is implemented in order to capture the physics of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer. This paper details the averaged and instantaneous flow features including vortex structures downstream of the jet injection, along with the jet penetration, jet mixing, pressure distributions, turbulent kinetic energy, and Reynolds stresses in the downstream flow. It demonstrates that Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities in the upper jet shear layer are primarily responsible for mixing of the two fluids. The results are compared to experimental data and recently performed classical large eddy simulations (LES) with the same initial conditions in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical methods and utility of the inflow generation method. Results here show equivalent accuracy for 1/45th of the computational resources used in the classical LES study.

  10. A computational model for three-dimensional incompressible wall jets with large cross flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, W. D.; Shankar, V.; Malmuth, N. D.

    1979-01-01

    A computational model for the flow field of three dimensional incompressible wall jets prototypic of thrust augmenting ejectors with large cross flow is presented. The formulation employs boundary layer equations in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. Simulation of laminar as well as turbulen wall jets is reported. Quantification of jet spreading, jet growth, nominal separation, and jet shrink effects due to corss flow are discussed.

  11. Characterization of Three-Stream Jet Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Flow-field measurements were conducted on single-, dual- and three-stream jets using two-component and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The flow-field measurements complimented previous acoustic measurements. The exhaust system consisted of externally-plugged, externally-mixed, convergent nozzles. The study used bypass-to-core area ratios equal to 1.0 and 2.5 and tertiary-to-core area ratios equal to 0.6 and 1.0. Axisymmetric and offset tertiary nozzles were investigated for heated and unheated high-subsonic conditions. Centerline velocity decay rates for the single-, dual- and three-stream axisymmetric jets compared well when axial distance was normalized by an equivalent diameter based on the nozzle system total exit area. The tertiary stream had a greater impact on the mean axial velocity for the small bypass-to-core area ratio nozzles than for large bypass-to-core area ratio nozzles. Normalized turbulence intensities were similar for the single-, dual-, and three-stream unheated jets due to the small difference (10 percent) in the core and bypass velocities for the dual-stream jets and the low tertiary velocity (50 percent of the core stream) for the three-stream jets. For heated jet conditions where the bypass velocity was 65 percent of the core velocity, additional regions of high turbulence intensity occurred near the plug tip which were not present for the unheated jets. Offsetting the tertiary stream moved the peak turbulence intensity levels upstream relative to those for all axisymmetric jets investigated.

  12. Characterization of Three-Stream Jet Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Flow-field measurements were conducted on single-, dual- and three-stream jets using two-component and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The flow-field measurements complimented previous acoustic measurements. The exhaust system consisted of externally-plugged, externally-mixed, convergent nozzles. The study used bypass-to-core area ratios equal to 1.0 and 2.5 and tertiary-to-core area ratios equal to 0.6 and 1.0. Axisymmetric and offset tertiary nozzles were investigated for heated and unheated high-subsonic conditions. Centerline velocity decay rates for the single-, dual- and three-stream axisymmetric jets compared well when axial distance was normalized by an equivalent diameter based on the nozzle system total exit area. The tertiary stream had a greater impact on the mean axial velocity for the small bypass-to-core area ratio nozzles than for large bypass-to-core area ratio nozzles. Normalized turbulence intensities were similar for the single-, dual-, and three-stream unheated jets due to the small difference (10%) in the core and bypass velocities for the dual-stream jets and the low tertiary velocity (50% of the core stream) for the three-stream jets. For heated jet conditions where the bypass velocity was 65% of the core velocity, additional regions of high turbulence intensity occurred near the plug tip which were not present for the unheated jets. Offsetting the tertiary stream moved the peak turbulence intensity levels upstream relative to those for all axisymmetric jets investigated.

  13. Experiments and modeling of dilution jet flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results of the mixing of single, double, and opposed rows of jets with an isothermal or variable-temperature main stream in a straight duct are presented. This study was performed to investigate flow and geometric variations typical of the complex, three-dimensional flow field in the dilution zone of gas-turbine-engine combustion chambers. The principal results, shown experimentally and analytically, were the following: (1) variations in orifice size and spacing can have a significant effect on the temperature profiles; (2) similar distributions can be obtained, independent of orifice diameter, if momentum-flux ratio and orifice spacing are coupled; (3) a first-order approximation of the mixing of jets with a variable-temperature main stream can be obtained by superimposing the main-stream and jets-in-an-isothermal-crossflow profiles; (4) the penetration of jets issuing mixing is slower and is asymmetric with respect to the jet centerplanes, which shift laterally with increasing downstream distance; (5) double rows of jets give temperature distributions similar to those from a single row of equally spaced, equal-area circular holes; (6) for opposed rows of jets, with the orifice centerlines in line, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is one-half the optimum value for single-side injection at the same momentum-flux ratiol and (7) for opposed rows of jets, with the orifice centerlines staggered, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is twice the optimum value for single-side injection at the same momentum-flux ratio.

  14. Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Flow Measurements Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cliff; Wernet, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Modern aircraft design often puts the engine exhaust in close proximity to the airframe surfaces. Aircraft noise prediction tools must continue to develop in order to meet the challenges these aircraft present. The Jet-Surface Interaction Tests have been conducted to provide a comprehensive quality set of experimental data suitable for development and validation of these exhaust noise prediction methods. Flow measurements have been acquired using streamwise and cross-stream particle image velocimetry (PIV) and fluctuating surface pressure data acquired using flush mounted pressure transducers near the surface trailing edge. These data combined with previously reported far-field and phased array noise measurements represent the first step toward the experimental data base. These flow data are particularly applicable to development of noise prediction methods which rely on computational fluid dynamics to uncover the flow physics. A representative sample of the large flow data set acquired is presented here to show how a surface near a jet affects the turbulent kinetic energy in the plume, the spatial relationship between the jet plume and surface needed to generate surface trailing-edge noise, and differences between heated and unheated jet flows with respect to surfaces.

  15. Variable-Density Co-Flowing Jet Simulations with BHR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Daniel M.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments by the Extreme Fluids team at Los Alamos National Laboratory have examined a jet of SF6 injected into co-flowing air. The experiment is designed to aquire detailed diagnostics for comparision to turbulence models. Simultaneous PIV/PLIF is used to measure the Reynolds stress and velicty-density correlations. In the current work, the BHR RANS model is being implemented in an incompressible variable-density code, and compared to the experimental results. Since the jet is not self-similar, both due to co-flow and variable density effects, careful attenstion is payed to the role of inflow conditions. Also, some multi-jet configurations are explored.

  16. Flow effects on jet energy loss with detailed balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Luan; Liu, Jia; Wang, EnKe

    2014-11-01

    In the presence of collective flow a new model potential describing the interaction of the hard jet with scattering centers is derived based on the static color-screened Yukawa potential. The flow effect on jet quenching with detailed balance is investigated in pQCD. It turns out, considering the collective flow with velocity v z along the jet direction, the collective flow decreases the LPM destructive interference comparing to that in the static medium. The gluon absorption plays a more important role in the moving medium. The collective flow increases the energy gain from gluon absorption, however, decreases the energy loss from gluon radiation, which is (1 - v z ) times as that in the static medium to the first order of opacity. In the presence of collective flow, the second order in opacity correction is relatively small compared to the first order. So that the total effective energy loss is decreased. The flow dependence of the energy loss will affect the suppression of high p T hadron spectrum and anisotropy parameter v 2 in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  17. Global stability of the focusing effect of fluid jet flows.

    PubMed

    Montanero, J M; Rebollo-Muñoz, N; Herrada, M A; Gañán-Calvo, A M

    2011-03-01

    The global stability of the steady jetting mode of liquid jets focused by coaxial gas streams is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. Numerical simulations allow one to identify the physical mechanisms responsible for instability in the low viscosity and very viscous regimes of the focused liquid. The characteristic flow rates for which global instability takes place are estimated by a simple scaling analysis. These flow rates do not depend on the pressure drop (energy) applied to the system to produce the microjet. Their dependencies on the liquid viscosity are opposite for the two extremes studied: the characteristic flow rate increases (decreases) with viscosity for very low (high) viscosity liquids. Experiments confirmed the validity of these conclusions. The minimum flow rates below which the liquid meniscus becomes unstable are practically independent of the applied pressure drop for sufficiently large values of this quantity. For all the liquids analyzed, there exists an optimum value of the capillary-to-orifice distance for which the minimum flow rate attains a limiting value. That limiting value represents the lowest flow rate attainable with a given experimental configuration in the steady jetting regime. A two-dimensional stability map with a high degree of validity is plotted on the plane defined by the Reynolds and capillary numbers based on the limiting flow rate.

  18. Control of low-speed turbulent separated flow using jet vortex generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, G. V.; Lin, J. C.; Howard, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    A parametric study has been performed with jet vortex generators to determine their effectiveness in controlling flow separation associated with low-speed turbulent flow over a two-dimensional rearward-facing ramp. Results indicate that flow-separation control can be accomplished, with the level of control achieved being a function of jet speed, jet orientation (with respect to the free-stream direction, and jet location (distance from the separation region in the free-stream direction). Compared to slot blowing, jet vortex generators can provide an equivalent level of flow control over a larger spanwise region (for constant jet flow area and speed).

  19. Drag reduction research in supersonic flow with opposing jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yisheng, Rong

    2013-10-01

    A CFD study on drag reduction in supersonic flow with opposing jet has been conducted. Flowfield parameters, reattachment point position and surface pressure distributions are obtained and validated with experiments. From the analysis on the physical mechanism of drag reduction, it shows the phenomenon that, when the opposing jet blows, the high pressure region is located between the bow shock wave and the Mach disk, which makes the nose region much lower pressure. As the pressure ratio increases, the high pressure region is gradually pushed away from the surface. Larger the total pressure ratio is, the lower of the drag coefficient is. To study the effect of the intensity of opposing jet more reasonably, a new parameter RPA has been introduced by combining the flux and the total pressure ratio. The study shows that the same shock wave position and drag coefficient can be obtained with the same RPA with different fluxes and the total pressures, which means the new parameter could stand for the intensity of opposing jet and could be used to analyze the influence of opposing jet on flow field and aerodynamic force.

  20. Design, analysis, and initial testing of a fiber-optic shear gage for three-dimensional, high-temperature flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Matthew W.

    This investigation concerns the design, analysis, and initial testing of a new, two-component wall shear gage for 3D, high-temperature flows. This gage is a direct-measuring, non-nulling design with a round head surrounded by a small gap. Two flexure wheels are used to allow small motions of the floating head. Fiber-optic displacement sensors measure how far the polished faces of counterweights on the wheels move in relation to a fixed housing as the primary measurement system. No viscous damping was required. The gage has both fiber-optic instrumentation and strain gages mounted on the flexures for validation of the newer fiber optics. The sensor is constructed of Haynes RTM 230RTM, a high-temperature nickel alloy. The gage housing is made of 316 stainless steel. All components of the gage in pure fiber-optic form can survive to a temperature of 1073 K. The bonding methods of the backup strain gages limit their maximum temperature to 473 K. The dynamic range of the gage is from 0--500 Pa (0--10g) and higher shears can be measured by changing the floating head size. Extensive use of finite element modeling was critical to the design and analysis of the gage. Static structural, modal, and thermal analyses were performed on the flexures using the ANSYS finite element package. Static finite element analysis predicted the response of the flexures to a given load, and static calibrations using a direct force method confirmed these results. Finite element modal analysis results were within 16.4% for the first mode and within 30% for the second mode when compared with the experimentally determined modes. Vibration characteristics of the gage were determined from experimental free vibration data after the gage was subjected to an impulse. Uncertainties in the finished geometry make this level of error acceptable. A transient thermal analysis examined the effects of a very high heat flux on the exposed head of the gage. The 100,000 W/m2 heat flux used in this analysis is

  1. Numerical Simulation of a High Mach Number Jet Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1993-01-01

    The recent efforts to develop accurate numerical schemes for transition and turbulent flows are motivated, among other factors, by the need for accurate prediction of flow noise. The success of developing high speed civil transport plane (HSCT) is contingent upon our understanding and suppression of the jet exhaust noise. The radiated sound can be directly obtained by solving the full (time-dependent) compressible Navier-Stokes equations. However, this requires computational storage that is beyond currently available machines. This difficulty can be overcome by limiting the solution domain to the near field where the jet is nonlinear and then use acoustic analogy (e.g., Lighthill) to relate the far-field noise to the near-field sources. The later requires obtaining the time-dependent flow field. The other difficulty in aeroacoustics computations is that at high Reynolds numbers the turbulent flow has a large range of scales. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) cannot obtain all the scales of motion at high Reynolds number of technological interest. However, it is believed that the large scale structure is more efficient than the small-scale structure in radiating noise. Thus, one can model the small scales and calculate the acoustically active scales. The large scale structure in the noise-producing initial region of the jet can be viewed as a wavelike nature, the net radiated sound is the net cancellation after integration over space. As such, aeroacoustics computations are highly sensitive to errors in computing the sound sources. It is therefore essential to use a high-order numerical scheme to predict the flow field. The present paper presents the first step in a ongoing effort to predict jet noise. The emphasis here is in accurate prediction of the unsteady flow field. We solve the full time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations by a high order finite difference method. Time accurate spatial simulations of both plane and axisymmetric jet are presented. Jet Mach

  2. Free stream turbulence and density ratio effects on the interaction region of a jet in a cross flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wark, C. E.; Foss, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Jets of low temperature air are introduced into the aft sections of gas turbine combustors for the purpose of cooling the high temperature gases and quenching the combustion reactions. Research studies, motivated by this complex flow field, have been executed by introducing a heated jet into the cross stream of a wind tunnel. The investigation by Kamotani and Greber stands as a prime example of such investigations and it serves as the principal reference for the present study. The low disturbance level of the cross stream, in their study and in similar research investigations, is compatible with an interest in identifying the basic features of this flow field. The influence of the prototypes' strongly disturbed cross flow is not, however, made apparent in these prior investigations.

  3. Flow behaviour of negatively buoyant jets in immiscible ambient fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, A.; Phillips, J. C.; Mier-Torrecilla, M.; Idelsohn, S. R.; Oñate, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate experimentally the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid. Experiments are carried out by injecting a jet of dyed fresh water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. The fountain inlet flow rate and nozzle diameter were varied to cover a wide range of Richardson Ri (8 × 10-4 < Ri < 1.98), Reynolds Re (467 < Re < 5,928) and Weber We (2.40 < We < 308.56) numbers. Based on the Re, Ri and We values for the experiments, we have determined a regime map to define how these values may control the occurrence of the observed flow types. Whereas Ri plays a stronger role when determining the maximum penetration height, the effect of the Reynolds number is stronger predicting the flow behaviour for a specific nozzle diameter and injection velocity.

  4. Large-eddy simulation of turbulent circular jet flows

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S. C.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sale, M. J.

    2002-07-01

    This report presents a numerical method for carrying out large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent free shear flows and an application of a method to simulate the flow generated by a nozzle discharging into a stagnant reservoir. The objective of the study was to elucidate the complex features of the instantaneous flow field to help interpret the results of recent biological experiments in which live fish were exposed to the jet shear zone. The fish-jet experiments were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program. The experiments were designed to establish critical thresholds of shear and turbulence-induced loads to guide the development of innovative, fish-friendly hydropower turbine designs.

  5. Three dimensional direct numerical simulation of complex jet flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seungwon; Kahouadji, Lyes; Juric, Damir; Chergui, Jalel; Craster, Richard; Matar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    We present three-dimensional simulations of two types of very challenging jet flow configurations. The first consists of a liquid jet surrounded by a faster coaxial air flow and the second consists of a global rotational motion. These computations require a high spatial resolution and are performed with a newly developed high performance parallel code, called BLUE, for the simulation of two-phase, multi-physics and multi-scale incompressible flows, tested on up to 131072 threads with excellent scalability performance. The method for the treatment of the fluid interfaces uses a hybrid Front Tracking/Level Set technique that defines the interface both by a discontinuous density field as well as by a local triangular Lagrangian mesh. Coriolis forces are taken into account and solved via an exact time-integration method that ensures numerical accuracy and stability. EPSRC UK Programme Grant EP/K003976/1.

  6. Zonal Flow as Pattern Formation: Merging Jets and the Ultimate Jet Length Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey B. Parker and John A. Krommes

    2013-01-30

    Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. It is shown that for statisti- cally averaged equations of quasigeostrophic turbulence on a beta plane, zonal flows and inhomoge- neous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the zonal flow wavelength is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

  7. Gas evolution in eruptive conduits: Combining insights from high temperature and pressure decompression experiments with steady-state flow modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangan, M.; Mastin, L.; Sisson, T.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we examine the consequences of bubble nucleation mechanism on eruptive degassing of rhyolite magma. We use the results of published high temperature and pressure decompression experiments as input to a modified version of CONFLOW, the numerical model of Mastin and Ghiorso [(2000) U.S.G.S. Open-File Rep. 00-209, 53 pp.] and Mastin [(2002) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 3, 10.1029/2001GC000192] for steady, two-phase flow in vertical conduits. Synthesis of the available experimental data shows that heterogeneous nucleation is triggered at ??P 120-150 MPa, and leads to disequilibrium degassing at extreme H2O supersaturation. In this latter case, nucleation is an ongoing process controlled by changing supersaturation conditions. Exponential bubble size distributions are often produced with number densities of 106-109 bubbles/cm3. Our numerical analysis adopts an end-member approach that specifically compares equilibrium degassing with delayed, disequilibrium degassing characteristic of homogeneously-nucleating systems. The disequilibrium simulations show that delaying nucleation until ??P =150 MPa restricts degassing to within ???1500 m of the surface. Fragmentation occurs at similar porosity in both the disequilibrium and equilibrium modes (???80 vol%), but at the distinct depths of ???500 m and ???2300 m, respectively. The vesiculation delay leads to higher pressures at equivalent depths in the conduit, and the mass flux and exit pressure are each higher by a factor of ???2.0. Residual water contents in the melt reaching the vent are between 0.5 and 1.0 wt%, roughly twice that of the equilibrium model. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Inlet Flow Conditions on Crossflow Jet Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liscinsky, D. S.; True, B.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of mainstream turbulence, mainstream swirl and non-symmetric mass addition has been conducted for the isothermal mixing of multiple jets injected into a confined rectangular crossflow. Jet penetration and mixing in the near field was studied using planar Mie scattering to measure time-averaged mixture fraction distributions. Orifice configurations were used that were optimized for mixing performance based on previous experimental and computational results for a homogeneous approach flow. Mixing effectiveness, determined using a spatial unmixedness parameter based on the variance of the mean jet concentration distributions, was found to be minimally affected by free-stream turbulence but significantly influenced by the addition of swirl to the mainstream. The results for non-symmetric mass addition indicate that the concentration distribution of the flowfield can be tailored if desired.

  9. Micrometer-thickness liquid sheet jets flowing in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinis, Gediminas; Strucka, Jergus; Barnard, Jonathan C. T.; Braun, Avi; Smith, Roland A.; Marangos, Jon P.

    2017-08-01

    Thin liquid sheet jet flows in vacuum provide a new platform for performing experiments in the liquid phase, for example X-ray spectroscopy. Micrometer thickness, high stability, and optical flatness are the key characteristics required for successful exploitation of these targets. A novel strategy for generating sheet jets in vacuum is presented in this article. Precision nozzles were designed and fabricated using high resolution (0.2 μm) 2-photon 3D printing and generated 1.49 ± 0.04 μm thickness, stable, and <λ /20-flat jets in isopropanol under normal atmosphere and under vacuum at 5 × 10-1 mbar. The thin sheet technology also holds great promise for advancing the fields of high harmonic generation in liquids, laser acceleration of ions as well as other fields requiring precision and high repetition rate targets.

  10. Reynolds stress closure in jet flows using wave models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    Ways of implementing the turbulence closure scheme based on modeling the large scale coherent structures as instability waves were sought. The computational tools necessary to apply this scheme to jets of arbitrary geometry were developed. The model, developed earlier, was extended to the shock structure of supersonic jets of arbitrary geometry and multiple jets. It was found that though the qualititate features of the unsteady flow field could be predicted there were always difficulties with some of the quantitative features. This led to the new formation of the closure scheme. The schemes for computations tools which were developed are efficient and represent the application of the very powerful mathematical tools to the problems of practical significance.

  11. Structure and Mixing Characterization of Variable Density Transverse Jet Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorkyan, Levon

    (CVP) and the generation of strong upstream shear layer instability. In contrast, weak, convectively unstable upstream shear layers corresponded with asymmetries in the jet cross-sectional shape and/or lack of a CVP structure. While momentum flux ratio J and density ratio S most significantly determined the strength of the instabilities and CVP structures, an additional dependence on jet Reynolds number for CVP formation was found, with significant increases in jet Reynolds number resulting in enhanced symmetry and CVP generation. The mixing characteristics of Rej = 1900 jets of various J, S, and injector type were explored in detail in the present studies using jet centerplane and cross-sectional PLIF measurements. Various mixing metrics such as the jet fluid centerline concentration decay, Unmixedness, and Probability Density Function (PDF) were applied systematically using a novel method for comparing jets with different mass flux characteristics. It was found that when comparing mixing metrics along the jet trajectory, strengthening the upstream shear layer instability by reducing J, and achieving absolutely unstable conditions, enhanced overall mixing. Reducing density ratio S for larger J values, which under equidensity (S = 1.00) conditions would create a convectively unstable shear layer, was also observed to enhance mixing. On the other hand, reducing S for low J conditions, which are known to produce absolutely unstable upstream shear layers even for equidensity cases, was actually observed to reduce mixing, a result attributed to a reduction in crossfiow fluid entrainment into shear layer vortex cores as jet density was reduced. Comparing injectors, the flush-mounted pipe was generally the best mixer, whereas the worst mixer was the nozzle that was elevated above the crossfiow boundary layer due to upstream shear layer co-flow generated by the elevated nozzle contour; this co-flow was observed here and in prior studies to stabilize the shear layer. The

  12. A rate- and state-dependent flow law of halite as determined with a high-temperature biaxial machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, H.; Shimamoto, T.

    2008-12-01

    A phrase, "rate- and state-dependent law" (r-s law) is nowadays frequently used to describe the complex mechanical property of a fault after Dieterich [1979] and Ruina [1983]. This phrase was also used to describe the mechanical behavior of ductile deformation of a crystalline material [e.g. Chapter 1 of Frost, 1959], but a ductile flow law in such a framework at large shear strain is not studied very well. On the other hand, geological observations such as repeated overprinting of textures of pseudotachylytes and mylonites [Lin et al., 2005] suggest that a ductile flow law and the combination with a frictional constitutive law are important in the interseismic stress accumulation process, the earthquake cycle, and the fault behavior around the down- dip limit of the seismogenic zone. In order to investigate how to combine brittle and ductile flow laws, it is important to know both of the end-members, but a ductile flow law comparable to the r-s frictional law has not yet established. Halite is almost only one rock-forming mineral known to cross the brittle-ductile transition under experimentally convenient condition [Shimamoto, 1986; Kawamoto and Shimamoto, 1997, 1998]. Previous experimental studies mainly concentrated on the steady state frictional resistance or construction of the strength profile of a crust without paying much attention to the transient behavior on a change in the slip rate. In this work, we have conducted velocity-stepping tests for a simulated halite shear zone at a range of temperatures and loading velocities or strain rates including the ductile regime where the dependency of the resistance to the normal stress almost vanishes with using a high-temperature biaxial deformation apparatus at Hiroshima University. Then, we have tested several constitutive laws if they can be fit to the mechanical data reasonably, considering the spring-slide model. We used an iterative least-squares method [Reinen and Weeks, 1994]. Specifically, we adopt a

  13. Flow field topology of submerged jets with fractal generated turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cafiero, Gioacchino; Discetti, Stefano; Astarita, Tommaso

    2015-11-01

    Fractal grids (FGs) have been recently an object of numerous investigations due to the interesting capability of generating turbulence at multiple scales, thus paving the way to tune mixing and scalar transport. The flow field topology of a turbulent air jet equipped with a square FG is investigated by means of planar and volumetric particle image velocimetry. The comparison with the well-known features of a round jet without turbulence generators is also presented. The Reynolds number based on the nozzle exit section diameter for all the experiments is set to about 15 000. It is demonstrated that the presence of the grid enhances the entrainment rate and, as a consequence, the scalar transfer of the jet. Moreover, due to the effect of the jet external shear layer on the wake shed by the grid bars, the turbulence production region past the grid is significantly shortened with respect to the documented behavior of fractal grids in free-shear conditions. The organization of the large coherent structures in the FG case is also analyzed and discussed. Differently from the well-known generation of toroidal vortices due to the growth of azimuthal disturbances within the jet shear layer, the fractal grid introduces cross-wise disturbs which produce streamwise vortices; these structures, although characterized by a lower energy content, have a deeper streamwise penetration than the ring vortices, thus enhancing the entrainment process.

  14. Flow Field and Acoustic Predictions for Three-Stream Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Shaun Patrick; Henderson, Brenda S.; Khavaran, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was used to analyze a three-stream nozzle parametric design space. The study varied bypass-to-core area ratio, tertiary-to-core area ratio and jet operating conditions. The flowfield solutions from the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code Overflow 2.2e were used to pre-screen experimental models for a future test in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Flowfield solutions were considered in conjunction with the jet-noise-prediction code JeNo to screen the design concepts. A two-stream versus three-stream computation based on equal mass flow rates showed a reduction in peak turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) for the three-stream jet relative to that for the two-stream jet which resulted in reduced acoustic emission. Additional three-stream solutions were analyzed for salient flowfield features expected to impact farfield noise. As tertiary power settings were increased there was a corresponding near nozzle increase in shear rate that resulted in an increase in high frequency noise and a reduction in peak TKE. As tertiary-to-core area ratio was increased the tertiary potential core elongated and the peak TKE was reduced. The most noticeable change occurred as secondary-to-core area ratio was increased thickening the secondary potential core, elongating the primary potential core and reducing peak TKE. As forward flight Mach number was increased the jet plume region decreased and reduced peak TKE.

  15. Comparison of cryogenic and differential flow (forward and reverse fill/flush) modulators and applications to the analysis of heavy petroleum cuts by high-temperature comprehensive gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Chloé; Cardinael, Pascal; Peulon-Agasse, Valérie; Firor, Roger; Pascaud, Laurent; Semard-Jousset, Gaëlle; Giusti, Pierre; Livadaris, Vincent

    2015-03-27

    The development of new efficient conversion processes to transform heavy petroleum fractions into valuable products, such as diesel, requires improved chemical knowledge of the latter. High-temperature comprehensive gas chromatography (HT-GC × GC) has proven to be a powerful technique for characterizing such complex samples. This paper reports on an evaluation of the performances of four different differential flow modulators, including two original ones that have not been previously described in the literature, in terms of dispersion, peak intensity, peak capacity and overloading. These modulators, all of which are based on Agilent capillary flow technology (CFT), are forward fill/flush (FFF) differential flow modulators with an integrated collection channel or an adjustable channel (new) and reverse fill/flush (RFF) differential flow modulators with an integrated collection channel (new) or an adjustable channel. First, the optimization of the collection channel dimensions is described. Second, an RFF and an FFF differential flow modulator possessing the same collection channel were compared. The reverse differential flow modulation significantly reduced band broadening compared to forward differential flow modulation, and the peak intensity doubled for every modulated peak when an RFF differential flow modulator was used. Then, an RFF differential flow modulator and CO2 dual-jet modulator were compared. Whereas the percentages of separation space used were similar (61% with the HT-GC × GC method using a cryogenic modulator and 59% with the method using an RFF differential flow modulator), the peak capacities were at least three times more important with differential flow modulation due to the greater length of the column used in the second dimension. The results demonstrate that the RFF differential flow modulator is an excellent tool for studying heavy petroleum cuts. It demonstrates the best performances and it is the most versatile modulator. In its two

  16. Numerical Analysis of Pelton Nozzle Jet Flow Behavior Considering Elbow Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chongji, Zeng; Yexiang, Xiao; Wei, Xu; Tao, Wu; Jin, Zhang; Zhengwei, Wang; Yongyao, Luo

    2016-11-01

    In Pelton turbine, the dispersion of cylindrical jet have a great influence on the energy interaction of jet and buckets. This paper simulated the internal flow of nozzle and the downstream free jet flow at 3 different needle strokes. The nozzle model consists of the elbow pipe and the needle rod which supported by 4 ribs. Homogenous model and SST k-ω model were adopted to simulate the unsteady two-phase jet flow. The development of free flow, including a contraction process followed by an expansion process, was analysed detailed as well as the influence of the nozzle geometry on the jet flow pattern. The increase of nozzle opening results in a more dispersion jet, which means a higher hydraulic loss. Upstream bend and ribs induce the secondary flow in the jet and decrease the jet concentration.

  17. An Investigation of Transonic Flow Fields Surrounding Hot and Cold Sonic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, George

    1961-01-01

    An investigation at free-stream Mach numbers of 0.90 t o 1.10 was made to determine (1) the jet boundaries and the flow fields around hot and cold jets, and (2) whether a cold-gas jet could adequately simulate the boundary and flow field of hot-gas jet. Schlieren photographs and static-pressure surveys were taken in the vacinity of a sonic jet which was operated over a range of jet pressure ratios of 1 to 6, specific heat ratios at the nozzle exit of 1.29 and 1.40, and jet temperatures up to 2600 R.

  18. Gas Flow and Electric Field Characterization in Plasma Jets for Biomedical Applications: From Single Jet to Multi Jet Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Eric

    2015-09-01

    This work reports first on time-resolved measurement of longitudinal and radial electric fields (EF) associated with plasma propagation in dielectric capillaries. Plasma propagation occurs in a region where longitudinal EF exists ahead the ionization front position revealed from plasma emission with ICCD measurement. The ionization front propagation induces the sudden rise of a radial EF component. Both of these EF components have a few kV/cm in amplitude for helium or neon plasmas. Their amplitude is kept almost constant along a few tens of cm long capillary. The key role of the voltage pulse polarity and the drastic impact of the presence of a target in front of the plasma jet are discussed from Schlieren images. All these experimental measurements are in excellent agreement with model calculations which are used to infer EF data on capillary axis. EF diagnostics in the plasma plume in the free jet mode but also in contact with various targets is proposed. The combination of intense transient EF, both of ns and µs duration, together with significant transient reactive species generation during plasma jet treatments may be reconsidered. Typical EF amplitudes likely to induce electrostimulation, electroporation are indeed probably achieved in many in vivo protocols. Stimulation of tissue oxygenation, blood flow rate modulation and more recently immune system triggering may be examples where EF could play a significant role. The second part of this work is dedicated to the development of multi jets, using two different setups, based on a single plasma source. Plasma splitting in dielectric tubes drilled with sub millimetric orifices, but also plasma transfer across metallic tubes equipped with such orifices are analyzed from ICCD imaging and time resolved EF measurements. This allows for the design of plasma jet arrays but also emphasizes the necessity to account for voltage pulse polarity, target potential status, consecutive helium flow modulation and

  19. 3D Evolution of Jets in Clusters of Galaxies - A comparison with Herbig-Haro Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Camenzind; Martin, Krause; Markus, Thiele

    A comparison is drawn between jet propagation in molecular clouds and jets launched by galaxies in clusters. The biggest difference between the two types of jets is found in the density contrast. While the cocoon plasma in extragalactic jets has now been detected in X-rays, the corresponding cocoon gas for Herbig-Haro flows is barely visible.

  20. Analysis of the injection of a heated turbulent jet into a cross flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Schetz, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a theoretical model is investigated of the incompressible jet injection process. The discharge of a turbulent jet into a cross flow was mathematically modeled by using an integral method which accounts for natural fluid mechanisms such as turbulence, entrainment, buoyancy, and heat transfer. The analytical results are supported by experimental data and demonstrate the usefulness of the theory for estimating the trajectory and flow properties of the jet for a variety of injection conditions. The capability of predicting jet flow properties, as well as two- and three-dimensional jet paths, was enhanced by obtaining the jet cross-sectional area during the solution of the conservation equations. Realistic estimates of temperature in the jet fluid were acquired by accounting for heat losses in the jet flow due to forced convection and to entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet.

  1. Conceptual design of a 20-kA current lead using forced-flow cooling and Ag-alloy-sheathed Bi-2223 high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Reinhard; Hull, John R.

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS's), consisting of Bi-2223 HTS tapes sheathed with Ag alloys are proposed for a 20-kA current lead for the planned stellarator WENDELSTEIN 7-X. Forced-flow He cooling is used, and 4-K He cooling of the whole lead as well as 60-K He cooling of the copper part of the lead, is discussed. Power consumption and behavior in case of loss of He flow are given.

  2. Characterization of high molecular weight polyethylenes using high temperature asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with on-line infrared, light scattering, and viscometry detection.

    PubMed

    Mes, E P C; de Jonge, H; Klein, T; Welz, R R; Gillespie, D T

    2007-06-22

    High temperature asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (HTAF4) coupled to infrared (IR), multi-angle light scattering (MALS), and viscometry (Visc) detection is introduced as a tool for the characterization of high molecular weight polyethylenes. The high molecular weight fraction strongly affects the rheological behaviour and processability of polyethylene materials and can often not be accurately resolved by current technology such as high temperature size-exclusion chromatography (HTSEC). Molecular weight (M), radius of gyration (Rg), and intrinsic viscosity [eta] of linear high density polyethylene (HDPE) and branched low density polyethylene (LDPE) samples are studied in detail by HTAF4 and are compared to HTSEC. HTAF4 showed a better separation and mass recovery than HTSEC for very high molecular weight fractions in HDPE and LDPE samples. As no stationary phase is present in an HTAF4 channel, the technique does not show the typical drawbacks associated with HTSEC analysis of high molecular weight polyethylenes, such as, exclusion effects, shear degradation, and anomalous late elution of highly branched material. HTAF4 is applied to study the relation between the molecular weight and the zero shear viscosity eta0 for high molecular weight HDPE. It was found that the zero shear viscosity values predicted from HTAF4 results are in good qualitative agreement with measured values obtained from dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMS) experiments, whereas eta0 values predicted from HTSEC do not show a strong correlation. The low molecular weight cutoff of HTAF4 is approximately 5x10(4) as a result of relatively large pores in the HTAF4 channel membrane. HTAF4 is, therefore, currently not suited to analyze low molecular weight materials.

  3. Measurements of the flow and thermal characteristics of turbulet jets in cross flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, S. A.

    An experimental investigation of the flow, turbulence, and thermal characteristics of heated, cooled, and isothermal turbulent jets in cross flow is reported. The experiments were carried out in a water channel facility of the recirculation type. Hot or cold water was injected verically upward from a circular pipe located near the channel bottom to the cross-flowing stream in the channel. Hot and cold-film anemometers along with appropriate linearizers, bridges, filters, and probes were used. A new signal analysis method was developed for resolving the complex three-dimensional structure of the mean turbulent flow field resulting from the interaction between the free stream and the jet. A rotatable probe technique was used to measure the size components for the Reynolds stress tensor in isothermal flows of any turbulence intensity. New experssions that correct for the temperature contamination of the velocity signals in nonisothermal flows were developed for both the linearized and unlinearized anemometer responses. Mean velocity and turbulence intensity data were obtained for the isothermal jet at jet-to-free stream velocity ratios of 2, 4, and 6 both in and outside the jet plane of symmetry.

  4. Collective Interaction of a Compressible Periodic Parallel Jet Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    1997-01-01

    A linear instability model for multiple spatially periodic supersonic rectangular jets is solved using Floquet-Bloch theory. The disturbance environment is investigated using a two dimensional perturbation of a mean flow. For all cases large temporal growth rates are found. This work is motivated by an increase in mixing found in experimental measurements of spatially periodic supersonic rectangular jets with phase-locked screech. The results obtained in this paper suggests that phase-locked screech or edge tones may produce correlated spatially periodic jet flow downstream of the nozzles which creates a large span wise multi-nozzle region where a disturbance can propagate. The large temporal growth rates for eddies obtained by model calculation herein are related to the increased mixing since eddies are the primary mechanism that transfer energy from the mean flow to the large turbulent structures. Calculations of growth rates are presented for a range of Mach numbers and nozzle spacings corresponding to experimental test conditions where screech synchronized phase locking was observed. The model may be of significant scientific and engineering value in the quest to understand and construct supersonic mixer-ejector nozzles which provide increased mixing and reduced noise.

  5. Mean Flow Perturbation Analysis of an Underexpanded Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaumik, Swagata; Gaitonde, Datta; Shen, Hao; Acoustics Technology, Boeing Research; Technology, Boeing Company Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Here, we illustrate a novel method to predict sound generated by imperfectly expanded jets where the resulting shock-cells can yield significant broadband noise in the far-field. We describe continued development of mean flow perturbation method to analyze the response of an underexpanded jet to small perturbations. This method originates from the work of Touber & Sandham (Theor. Comput. Fluid. Dyn., 2009) for nominally 2D shock-wave turbulent-boundary layer interactions. This method is an initial boundary value problem and is equally applicable to flows with sharp gradients. It degenerates into the LST, global and PSE analysis under suitable conditions. We use this method to study finer details of the noise generation mechanisms of an under-expanded round jet at M = 1 . 0 . Preliminary results on time-averaged mean turbulent flow-field perturbed by an annular multi-periodic excitation close to the nozzle-exit plane show interaction of downstream propagating disturbances with the feet of the shock-cells. This causes significant amplification of disturbances resulting in the formation of toroidal vortical structures. This further destabilize the shock-cells, finally resulting in acoustic wave propagation in two distinct downstream and upstream directions.

  6. The Analysis of Underexpanded Jet Flows for Hypersonic Aerodynamic Experiments in Vacuum Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabov, V. V.; Fedoseyev, A. I.

    Underexpanded jets have become widely used in studies of rarefied-gas flows [1]- [3] and aerodynamics of hypersonic probes in wind tunnels [4]-[7]. The objective of the present study is to analyze shapes and flow parameters in internal regions of hypersonic underexpanded viscous jets, and to apply the jet theory to hypersonic studies

  7. Jet flow control at the blade scale to manipulate lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braud, Caroline; Guilmineau, Emmanuel

    2016-09-01

    The turbulent atmospheric boundary layer in which wind turbines are implemented is strongly inhomogeneous and unsteady. This induces unsteady mechanical loads at different characteristic time scales from seconds to minutes which limits significantly their life time. Different control strategies have been proposed in the framework of the French ANR SmartEole project to alleviate the impact of these upstream fluctuations at the farm, wind turbine and blade scales (i.e. characteristic time scales from seconds to minutes). The present work, which is part of this ANR project, focuses on the flow control strategies at the blade scale, to manipulate lift and thus alleviate fatigue loads. The design of a NACA654-421 airfoil profile has been modified to be able to implement jet control. Slotted jet and discrete jet configurations were implemented numerically and experimentally respectively. Results show the ability of both configurations to increase the lift by up to 30% using a significant redistribution of the mean shear. Efficiency seems to be more important using slotted jets, which however needs to be confirmed from 3D simulations.

  8. Three electrode atmospheric pressure plasma jet in helium flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletic, Dejan; Puac, Nevena; Malovic, Gordana; Petrovic, Zoran Lj.

    2015-09-01

    Plasma jets are widely used in various types of applications and lately more and more in the field of plasma medicine. However, it is not only their applicability that distinguishes them from other atmospheric plasma sources, but also the behavior of the plasma. It was shown that plasma plume is not continuous, but discrete set of plasma packages. Here we present iCCD images and current voltage characteristics of a three electrode plasma jet. Our plasma jet has a simple design with body made of glass tube and two transparent electrodes wrapped around it. The additional third metal tip electrode was positioned at 10 and 25 mm in front of the jet nozzle and connected to the same potential as the powered electrode. Power transmitted to the plasma was from 0.5 W to 4.0 W and the helium flow rate was kept constant at 4 slm. For the 10 mm configuration plasma is ignited on the metal tip in the whole period of the excitation signal and in the positive half cycle plasma ``bullet'' is propagating beyond the metal tip. In contrast to that, for the 25 mm configuration at the tip electrode plasma can be seen only in the minimum and maximum of the excitation signal, and there is no plasma ``bullet'' formation. This research has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia, under projects ON171037 and III41011.

  9. Experimental parametric study of jet vortex generators for flow separation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, Gregory

    1991-01-01

    A parametric wind-tunnel study was performed with jet vortex generators to determine their effectiveness in controlling flow separation associated with low-speed turbulence flow over a two-dimensional rearward-facing ramp. Results indicate that flow-separation control can be accomplished, with the level of control achieved being a function of jet speed, jet orientation (with respect to the free-stream direction), and orifice pattern (double row of jets vs. single row). Compared to slot blowing, jet vortex generators can provide an equivalent level of flow control over a larger spanwise region (for constant jet flow area and speed). Dye flow visualization tests in a water tunnel indicated that the most effective jet vortex generator configurations produced streamwise co-rotating vortices.

  10. Plasma-induced flow instabilities in atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lietz, Amanda M.; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2017-09-01

    Pulsed plasma excitation of rare gases flowing into air has been shown to impact the stability of the flow in non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs). In this paper, the results from a numerical modeling investigation of the stability of a round He APPJ with a powered electrode exposed to the gas flow are discussed. Localized gas heating at the powered electrode occurs on the time scale of the voltage pulse, tens to 100 ns, which is short compared to the fluid timescales. An acoustic wave propagates from this heated, expanding gas and exits the jet. The wave disturbs the shear layer between the He and surrounding humid air, exciting a shear instability which grows downstream with the flow and increases the mixing of the humid air into the He. The effects of the eddy-dominated flow on ionization wave (IW) propagation in an APPJ were investigated. The IW followed the regions of the highest helium concentration, resulting in an increased production of NO, HO2, and NO2.

  11. Some aspects of flow control over a NACA0015 airfoil using synthetic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, T.; Das, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    Flow control for performance enhancement over airfoils has become an increasingly important topic. This work details the characteristics of flow control using synthetic jets over a NACA0015 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 896,000 based on the chord length and free stream velocity, and at 20° angle of attack wherein the flow is separated. Numerical simulations were performed to help understand the behaviour of the controlled flow for a range of synthetic jet parameters. Analysis of key flow parameters such as phase averaged pressure and streamline profiles indicate that the synthetic jet is efficient in increasing the lift coefficient; more so for larger jet amplitudes and at smaller angles of jet injection. Behaviour of the flow characteristics for controlled cases has been analysed from the flow structures obtained from the same. This work serves as a platform to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the effects of the jet parameters on the separated flow over the airfoil.

  12. Role of jet asymmetry in glottal flow aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, Joel; Krane, Michael; Medvitz, Richard

    2008-11-01

    Finite element computations of flow through a constriction are used to illuminate the role of the Coanda effect in glottal flow and voice production. Steady-state computations were performed for a series of constriction openings. One set of simulations enforced transverse flow symmetry, while the other allowed the flow to develop naturally. Comparisons of measures relevant to vocal fold vibration and sound production are presented. These comparisons show that the Coanda effect primarily affects the differential transverse force on the vocal fold walls, while the axial force differs little from the symmetric case. These results suggest strongly that the primary role of the Coanda effect in speech is to drive asymmetric vocal fold vibration patterns, and that glottal jet instability contributes to voice perturbations and fluctuations.

  13. Analysis of Flow From Arc-Jet Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, H. E.; Scott, Carl D.

    1997-01-01

    Materials testing is carried out at the JSC Atmospheric Reentry Materials and Structures Facility. A flow diagnostics program is under development to characterize the energy distribution in arc-jet flows used to simulate atmospheric entry. Heat transfer to materials depends on flow properties which includes the composition of and energy distribution among the atoms, ions, molecules, and molecular ions which make up the flow. This project involves analysis of shock layer characteristics from the radiation emitted and experimentally collected from near the front of the shock to near the surface of the material. The analysis has yielded information on relative populations of neutral molecules and molecular ions within the layer. In determining non-equilibrium temperatures within the layer, some insight into the spectral constants used to compute radiative emission has been gained.

  14. Driving Flows in Laboratory Astrophysical Plasma Jets: The Mochi.LabJet Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Evan G.

    Mochi.Labjet is a new experiment at the University of Washington developed to investigate the interaction of shear flows in plasma jets with boundary conditions similar to an accretion disc system. This thesis details the engineering design and first plasmas of the Mochi.Labjet experiment. The experiment required construction of a new three electrode plasma gun with azimuthal symmetric gas injection, two optically-isolated pulsed power supplies for generating and sustaining plasma, and one optically-isolated pulsed power supply for generating a background magnetic field. Optical isolation is achieved with four custom circuits: the TTL-optical transmitter, optical-TTL receiver, optical-relay, and optical-tachometer circuits. First plasmas, during the commissioning phase of the apparatus, show evidence of flared jet structures with significant azimuthal symmetry.

  15. On the Scaling Laws and Similarity Spectra for Jet Noise in Subsonic and Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    The scaling laws for the simulation of noise from subsonic and ideally expanded supersonic jets are reviewed with regard to their applicability to deduce full-scale conditions from small-scale model testing. Important parameters of scale model testing for the simulation of jet noise are identified, and the methods of estimating full- scale noise levels from simulated scale model data are addressed. The limitations of cold-jet data in estimating high-temperature supersonic jet noise levels are discussed. New results are presented showing the dependence of overall sound power level on the jet temperature ratio at various jet Mach numbers. A generalized similarity spectrum is also proposed, which accounts for convective Mach number and angle to the jet axis.

  16. High temperature storage loop :

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  17. Prediction of jet flows from the axisymmetric supersonic nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Kendall, M. A. F.; Costigan, G.; Bellhouse, B. J.

    This study is motivated by the authors' interest in developing a needle-free powdered vaccine delivery device, the Epidermal Powdered Injection system(EPI). The behaviour of a supersonic jet, which accelerates powdered vaccines in micro-form to a sufficient momentum to penetrate the outer layer of human skin or mucosal tissue, is therefore of great importance. In this paper, a well established Modified Implicit Flux Vector Splitting (MIFVS) solver for the Navier-Stokes equations is extended to numerically study the transient supersonic jet flows of interest. A low Reynolds number k-ɛ turbulence model, with the compressibility effect considered, is integrated into MIFVS solver to the prediction of the turbulent structures and interactions with inherent shock systems. The results for the NASA validation case NPARC, Contoured Shock Tube and Venturi of EPI system are discussed.

  18. Phased-Array Measurements of Single Flow Hot Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Lee, Sang Soo

    2005-01-01

    A 16 microphone phased-array system has been successfully applied to measure jet noise source distributions. In this study, a round convergent nozzle was tested at various hot and cold flow conditions: acoustic Mach numbers are between 0.35 and 1.6 and static temperature ratios are varied from cold to 2.7. The classical beamforming method was applied on narrowband frequencies. From the measured source distributions locations of peak strength were tracked and found to be very consistent between adjacent narrowband frequencies. In low speed heated and unheated jets, the peak source locations vary smoothly from the nozzle exit to downstream as the frequency is decreased. When the static temperature ratio was kept constant, the peak source position moved downstream with increasing acoustic Mach number for the Strouhal numbers smaller than about 1.5. It was also noted that the peak source locations of low frequencies occur farther downstream than the end of potential core.

  19. Investigation on Plasma Jet Flow Phenomena During DC Air Arc Motion in Bridge-Type Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Guofu; Bo, Kai; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Xue; Qiao, Xinlei

    2016-05-01

    Arc plasma jet flow in the air was investigated under a bridge-type contacts in a DC 270 V resistive circuit. We characterized the arc plasma jet flow appearance at different currents by using high-speed photography, and two polished contacts were used to search for the relationship between roughness and plasma jet flow. Then, to make the nature of arc plasma jet flow phenomena clear, a simplified model based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory was established and calculated. The simulated DC arc plasma was presented with the temperature distribution and the current density distribution. Furthermore, the calculated arc flow velocity field showed that the circular vortex was an embodiment of the arc plasma jet flow progress. The combined action of volume force and contact surface was the main reason of the arc jet flow. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51307030, 51277038)

  20. Gravitational Effects on Near Field Flow Structure of Low Density Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yep, Tze-Wing; Agrawal, Ajay K.; Griffin, DeVon; Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in Earth gravity and microgravity to acquire quantitative data on near field flow structure of helium jets injected into air. Microgravity conditions were simulated in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA Glenn Research Center. The jet flow was observed by quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry, a non-intrusive line of site measurement technique for the whole field. The flow structure was characterized by distributions of angular deflection and helium mole percentage obtained from color schlieren images taken at 60 Hz. Results show that the jet flow was significantly influenced by the gravity. The jet in microgravity was up to 70 percent wider than that in Earth gravity. The jet flow oscillations observed in Earth gravity were absent in microgravity, providing direct experimental evidence that the flow instability in the low density jet was buoyancy induced. The paper provides quantitative details of temporal flow evolution as the experiment undergoes a change in gravity in the drop tower.

  1. Wall jet analysis for circulation control aerodynamics. Part 2: Zonal modeling concepts for wall jet/potential flow coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, Frank A.; Dash, Sanford M.

    1987-01-01

    Work currently in progress to update an existing transonic circulation control airfoil analysis method is described. Existing methods suffer from two dificiencies: the inability to predict the shock structure of the underexpanded supersonic jets; and the insensitivity of the calculation to small changes in the Coanda surface geometry. A method developed for the analysis of jet exhaust plumes in supersonic flow is being modified for the case of the underexpanded wall jet. In the subsonic case, the same wall jet model was modified to include the calculation of the normal pressure gradient. This model is currently being coupled with the transonic circulation control airfoil analysis.

  2. Co and Fe-catalysts supported on sepiolite: effects of preparation conditions on their catalytic behaviors in high temperature gas flow treatment of dye.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiangfeng; Fang, Jian; Chen, Menglin; Huang, Zhi; Su, Chengyuan

    2016-08-01

    An efficient adsorbent/catalyst Co and Fe-catalysts loaded on sepiolite (Co-Fe/sepiolite) was successfully prepared for high temperature gas flow catalytic reaction by a simple impregnation method. The impact of preparation conditions (such as pH value of impregnation solution, impregnation time, calcination temperature, and time) on catalytic activity was studied. We found that the catalytic activity of Co-Fe/sepiolite was strongly influenced by all the investigated parameters. The regeneration efficiency (RE) was used to evaluate the catalytic activity. The RE is more noticeable at pH 5.0 of impregnation solution, impregnation time 18 h, calcination temperature 650 °C, and calcination time 3 h. This Co-Fe/sepiolite has great adsorption capacity in absorbing dye. It is used for an adsorbent to adsorb dye from wastewater solution under dynamic adsorption and saturated with dye, then regenerated with high temperature gas flow for adsorption/oxidation cycles. The Co-Fe/sepiolite acts as a catalyst to degrade the dye during regeneration under high temperature gas flow. Hence, the Co-Fe/sepiolite is not only an adsorbent but also a catalyst. The Co-Fe/sepiolite is more stable than sepiolite when applied in the treatment of plant's wastewater. The Co-Fe/sepiolite can be reused in adsorption-regeneration cycle. The results indicate the usability of the proposed combined process, dye adsorption on Co-Fe/sepiolite followed by the catalytic oxidation in high temperature gas flow.

  3. Flow of supersonic jets across flat plates: Implications for ground-level flow from volcanic blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orescanin, Mara M.; Prisco, David; Austin, Joanna M.; Kieffer, Susan W.

    2014-04-01

    We report on laboratory experiments examining the interaction of a jet from an overpressurized reservoir with a canonical ground surface to simulate lateral blasts at volcanoes such as the 1980 blast at Mount St. Helens. These benchmark experiments test the application of supersonic jet models to simulate the flow of volcanic jets over a lateral topography. The internal shock structure of the free jet is modified such that the Mach disk shock is elevated above the surface. In elevation view, the width of the shock is reduced in comparison with a free jet, while in map view the dimensions are comparable. The distance of the Mach disk shock from the vent is in good agreement with free jet data and can be predicted with existing theory. The internal shock structures can interact with and penetrate the boundary layer. In the shock-boundary layer interaction, an oblique shock foot is present in the schlieren images and a distinctive ground signature is evident in surface measurements. The location of the oblique shock foot and the surface demarcation are closely correlated with the Mach disk shock location during reservoir depletion, and therefore, estimates of a ground signature in a zone devastated by a blast can be based on the calculated shock location from free jet theory. These experiments, combined with scaling arguments, suggest that the imprint of the Mach disk shock on the ground should be within the range of 4-9 km at Mount St. Helens depending on assumed reservoir pressure and vent dimensions.

  4. Measurements in a large angle oblique jet impingement flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Velocity and surface pressure measurements, in the flow field of an obliquely impinging jet, and their interpretation as regards the governing mechanics and the aerodynamic noise generation characteristics of such a flow are reported. A computer controlled probe positioning mechanism allowed the measurement of the velocity magnitude and direction in the plane parallel to the plate. The mean velocity and Reynolds stress components were recorded. Measures of the terms in the momentum equation reveal the character of the pressure gradients in the neighborhood of the stagnation point. The effects of the stagnation streamline location on the vorticity field and the vortex sound considerations are discussed in relationship to the aerodynamic noise generation effects of this flow.

  5. Fluid dynamic aspects of jet noise generation. [noise measurement of jet blast effects from supersonic jet flow in convergent-divergent nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barra, V.; Panunzio, S.

    1976-01-01

    Jet engine noise generation and noise propagation was investigated by studying supersonic nozzle flow of various nozzle configurations in an experimental test facility. The experimental facility was constructed to provide a coaxial axisymmetric jet flow of unheated air. In the test setup, an inner primary flow exhausted from a 7 in. exit diameter convergent--divergent nozzle at Mach 2, while a secondary flow had a 10 in. outside diameter and was sonic at the exit. The large dimensions of the jets permitted probes to be placed inside the jet core without significantly disturbing the flow. Static pressure fluctuations were measured for the flows. The nozzles were designed for shock free (balanced) flow at Mach 2. Data processing techniques and experimental procedures were developed in order to study induced disturbances at the edge of the supersonic flows, and the propagation of those disturbances throughout the flows. Equipment used (specifications are given) to record acoustic levels (far field noise) is described. Results and conclusions are presented and discussed. Diagrams of the jet flow fields are included along with photographs of the test stand.

  6. Measurements of the flow and turbulence characteristics of round jets in cross flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, S. A.; Pletcher, R. H.

    1986-05-01

    Measurements of the velocity and turbulence characteristics of a round turbulent jet in cross flow are reported. The experiments were conducted in a water channel, 8.53 m long, 0.61 m wide, and 1.067 m deep, of the recirculation type. Water was injected vertically upward from a circular pipe located near the channel bottom to simulate the turbulent jet. Normal and 45 deg-slanted fiber-film probes along with appropriate anemometers and bridges were operated in the constant temperature mode to measure mean velocities, turbulence intensities, Reynolds stresses, structural parameters, correlation coefficients, and the turbulent kinetic energy. The measurements were carried out in the jet and its wake both in and outside the jet plane of symmetry.

  7. Mixed exhaust flow supersonic jet engine and method

    SciTech Connect

    Klees, G.W.

    1993-06-08

    A method of operating a supersonic jet engine installation is described comprising (a) providing an engine having a variable area air inlet means and an outlet to discharge engine exhaust; (b) providing a secondary air passageway means; (c) receiving ambient air in the air inlet means and providing the ambient air as primary air to the engine inlet and secondary air to the secondary air passageway means; (d) providing a mixing section having an inlet portion and an exit portion, utilizing the mixing section in directing the exhaust from the engine to primary convergent/divergent exit passageway segments, where the exhaust is discharged at supersonic velocity as primary flow components, and directing secondary air flow from the secondary air passageway means to secondary exit passageway segments which are interspersed with the primary segments and from which the secondary air is discharged at subsonic velocity as secondary flow components; and (e) providing an exhaust section to receive the primary and secondary flow components in a mixing region and causing the primary and secondary flow components to mix to create a supersonic mixed flow, the exhaust section having a variable area final nozzle through which the mixed flow is discharged.

  8. High temperature probe

    DOEpatents

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  9. An experimental investigation of gas jets in confined swirling air flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mongia, H.; Ahmed, S. A.; Mongia, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The fluid dynamics of jets in confined swirling flows which is of importance to designers of turbine combustors and solid fuel ramjets used to power missiles fired from cannons were examined. The fluid dynamics of gas jets of different densities in confined swirling flows were investigated. Mean velocity and turbulence measurements are made with a one color, one component laser velocimeter operating in the forward scatter mode. It is shown that jets in confined flow with large area ratio are highly dissipative which results in both air and helium/air jet centerline velocity decays. For air jets, the jet like behavior in the tube center disappears at about 20 diameters downstream of the jet exit. This phenomenon is independent of the initial jet velocity. The turbulence field at this point also decays to that of the background swirling flow. A jet like behavior in the tube center is noticed even at 40 diameters for the helium/air jets. The subsequent flow and turbulence field depend highly on the initial jet velocity. The jets are fully turbulent, and the cause of this difference in behavior is attributed to the combined action swirl and density difference. This observation can have significant impact on the design of turbine combustors and solid fuel ramjets subject to spin.

  10. Flow Visualization and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Liquid Jet Impingement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafar, Farial A.; Thorpe, Graham R.; Turan, Özden F.

    2012-07-01

    Equipment used to cool horticultural produce often involves three-phase porous media. The flow field and heat transfer processes that occur in such equipment are generally quantified by means of empirical relationships amongst dimensionless groups. This work represents a first step towards the goal of harnessing the power of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to better understand the heat transfer processes that occur in beds of irrigated horticultural produce. The primary objective of the present study is to use numerical predictions towards reducing the energy and cooling water requirement in cooling horticultural produce. In this paper, flow and heat transfer predictions are presented of a single slot liquid jet impinging on flat and curved surfaces using a CFD code (FLUENT) for 2D configurations. The effects of Reynolds number, nozzle to plate spacing, nozzle width, and target surface configuration have been studied. Reynolds numbers of 250, 375, 500, 700, 1000, 1500, 1800, and 1900 are studied where the liquid medium is water. Here, the Reynolds number is defined in terms of the hydraulic nozzle diameter, inlet jet velocity, and fluid kinematic viscosity. The results show that Reynolds numbers, nozzle to plate spacing, and nozzle width have a significant effect on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics, whereas the target surface configuration at the stagnation area has no substantial impact. The use of a numerical tool has resulted in a detailed investigation of these characteristics, which has not been available in the literature previously.

  11. Optimized Flow Sheet for a Reference Commercial-Scale Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; E. A. Harvego; J. S. Herring

    2007-11-01

    This report presents results from the development and optimization of a reference commercialscale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540° C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4.176 × 10 6 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 49.07% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.45 kg/s with the high-temperature helium-cooled reactor concept. The information presented in this report is intended to establish an optimized design for the reference nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant so that parameters can be compared with other hydrogen production methods and power cycles to evaluate relative performance characteristics and plant economics.

  12. Increasing synchrony of high temperature and low flow in western North American streams: Double trouble for coldwater biota?

    Treesearch

    Ivan Arismendi; Mohammad Safeeq; Sherri L. Johnson; Jason B Dunham; Roy. Haggerty

    2013-01-01

    Flow and temperature are strongly linked environmental factors driving ecosystem processes in streams. Stream temperature maxima (Tmax_w) and stream flow minima (Qmin) can create periods of stress for aquatic organisms. In mountainous areas, such as western North America, recent shifts toward an earlier spring peak flow and...

  13. Study of lubricant jet flow phenomena in spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, L. S.; Townsend, D. P.; Mross, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Lubricant jet flow impingement and penetration depth into a gear tooth space were measured at 4920 and 2560 rpm using a 8.89 cm (3.5 inch) pitch diameter 8 pitch spur gear at oil pressures from 70,000 to 410,000 n/sqm (10 psi to 60 psi). A high speed motion picture camera was used with xenon and high speed stroboscopic lights to slow down and stop the motion of the oil jet. An analytical model was developed for the vectorial impingement dept and for the impingement depth with tooth space windage effects included. The windage effects for oil drop size greater than .0076 cm (.003 inches). The analytical impingement dept compared favorably with experimental results above an oil jet pressure of 70,000 n/sqm (10psi). There was further penetration into the tooth space after impingement, but much of this oil was thrown out of the tooth space without further contacting the gear teeth.

  14. The Development of an INL Capability for High Temperature Flow, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Energy Storage with Applications in Advanced Small Modular Reactors, High Temperature Heat Exchangers, Hybrid Energy Systems, and Dynamic Grid Energy Storage C

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Kim, Inhun; O'Brien, James; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to support Idaho National Laboratory in developing a new advanced high temperature multi fluid multi loop test facility that is aimed at investigating fluid flow and heat transfer, material corrosion, heat exchanger characteristics and instrumentation performance, among others, for nuclear applications. Specifically, preliminary research has been performed at The Ohio State University in the following areas: 1. A review of fluoride molten salts’ characteristics in thermal, corrosive, and compatibility performances. A recommendation for a salt selection is provided. Material candidates for both molten salt and helium flow loop have been identified. 2. A conceptual facility design that satisfies the multi loop (two coolant loops [i.e., fluoride molten salts and helium]) multi purpose (two operation modes [i.e., forced and natural circulation]) requirements. Schematic models are presented. The thermal hydraulic performances in a preliminary printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) design have been estimated. 3. An introduction of computational methods and models for pipe heat loss analysis and cases studies. Recommendations on insulation material selection have been provided. 4. An analysis of pipe pressure rating and sizing. Preliminary recommendations on pipe size selection have been provided. 5. A review of molten fluoride salt preparation and chemistry control. An introduction to the experience from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been provided. 6. A review of some instruments and components to be used in the facility. Flowmeters and Grayloc connectors have been included. This report primarily presents the conclusions drawn from the extensive review of literatures in material selections and the facility design progress at the current stage. It provides some useful guidelines in insulation material and pipe size selection, as well as an introductory review of facility process and components.

  15. Propulsive jet simulation with air and helium in launcher wake flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Sören; Radespiel, Rolf

    2016-12-01

    The influence on the turbulent wake of a generic space launcher model due to the presence of an under-expanded jet is investigated experimentally. Wake flow phenomena represent a significant source of uncertainties in the design of a space launcher. Especially critical are dynamic loads on the structure. The wake flow is investigated at supersonic (M=2.9 ) and hypersonic (M=5.9 ) flow regimes. The jet flow is simulated using air and helium as working gas. Due to the lower molar mass of helium, higher jet velocities are realized, and therefore, velocity ratios similar to space launchers can be simulated. The degree of under-expansion of the jet is moderate for the supersonic case (p_e/p_∞ ≈ 5 ) and high for the hypersonic case (p_e/p_∞ ≈ 90 ). The flow topology is described by Schlieren visualization and mean-pressure measurements. Unsteady pressure measurements are performed to describe the dynamic wake flow. The influences of the under-expanded jet and different jet velocities are reported. On the base fluctuations at a Strouhal number, around St_D ≈ 0.25 dominate for supersonic free-stream flows. With air jet, a fluctuation-level increase on the base is observed for Strouhal numbers above St_D ≈ 0.75 in hypersonic flow regime. With helium jet, distinct peaks at higher frequencies are found. This is attributed to the interactions of wake flow and jet.

  16. Propulsive jet simulation with air and helium in launcher wake flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Sören; Radespiel, Rolf

    2017-06-01

    The influence on the turbulent wake of a generic space launcher model due to the presence of an under-expanded jet is investigated experimentally. Wake flow phenomena represent a significant source of uncertainties in the design of a space launcher. Especially critical are dynamic loads on the structure. The wake flow is investigated at supersonic (M=2.9) and hypersonic (M=5.9) flow regimes. The jet flow is simulated using air and helium as working gas. Due to the lower molar mass of helium, higher jet velocities are realized, and therefore, velocity ratios similar to space launchers can be simulated. The degree of under-expansion of the jet is moderate for the supersonic case (p_e/p_∞ ≈ 5) and high for the hypersonic case (p_e/p_∞ ≈ 90). The flow topology is described by Schlieren visualization and mean-pressure measurements. Unsteady pressure measurements are performed to describe the dynamic wake flow. The influences of the under-expanded jet and different jet velocities are reported. On the base fluctuations at a Strouhal number, around St_D ≈ 0.25 dominate for supersonic free-stream flows. With air jet, a fluctuation-level increase on the base is observed for Strouhal numbers above St_D ≈ 0.75 in hypersonic flow regime. With helium jet, distinct peaks at higher frequencies are found. This is attributed to the interactions of wake flow and jet.

  17. Survey of Turbulence Models for the Computation of Turbulent Jet Flow and Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, N.

    1999-01-01

    The report presents an overview of jet noise computation utilizing the computational fluid dynamic solution of the turbulent jet flow field. The jet flow solution obtained with an appropriate turbulence model provides the turbulence characteristics needed for the computation of jet mixing noise. A brief account of turbulence models that are relevant for the jet noise computation is presented. The jet flow solutions that have been directly used to calculate jet noise are first reviewed. Then, the turbulent jet flow studies that compute the turbulence characteristics that may be used for noise calculations are summarized. In particular, flow solutions obtained with the k-e model, algebraic Reynolds stress model, and Reynolds stress transport equation model are reviewed. Since, the small scale jet mixing noise predictions can be improved by utilizing anisotropic turbulence characteristics, turbulence models that can provide the Reynolds stress components must now be considered for jet flow computations. In this regard, algebraic stress models and Reynolds stress transport models are good candidates. Reynolds stress transport models involve more modeling and computational effort and time compared to algebraic stress models. Hence, it is recommended that an algebraic Reynolds stress model (ASM) be implemented in flow solvers to compute the Reynolds stress components.

  18. On the Scaling Laws for Jet Noise in Subsonic and Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce; Kandula, Max

    2003-01-01

    The scaling laws for the simulation of noise from subsonic and ideally expanded supersonic jets are examined with regard to their applicability to deduce full scale conditions from small-scale model testing. Important parameters of scale model testing for the simulation of jet noise are identified, and the methods of estimating full-scale noise levels from simulated scale model data are addressed. The limitations of cold-jet data in estimating high-temperature supersonic jet noise levels are discussed. It is shown that the jet Mach number (jet exit velocity/sound speed at jet exit) is a more general and convenient parameter for noise scaling purposes than the ratio of jet exit velocity to ambient speed of sound. A similarity spectrum is also proposed, which accounts for jet Mach number, angle to the jet axis, and jet density ratio. The proposed spectrum reduces nearly to the well-known similarity spectra proposed by Tam for the large-scale and the fine-scale turbulence noise in the appropriate limit.

  19. Nonlinear interactions in planar jet flow with high frequency excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutzfeldt, Timothy

    An experimental active flow control study was conducted involving excitation of a tabletop planar turbulent jet with a high frequency piezoelectric actuator. The excitation frequencies considered corresponded to the dissipative subrange of turbulent kinetic energy and were orders of magnitude greater than classical shear layer instability modes. Single-wire and dual-wire hot wire probes were used to determine how excitation induces alterations to bulk flow quantities as well as nonlinear interactions. Differences in flow receptivity to high frequency excitation were investigated by varying the development length of the turbulent jet at a Reynolds number of 8,700 and Strouhal number of 21.3. Excitation of developed turbulent flow yielded larger increases in the energy dissipation rate and higher magnitude velocity power spectrum peaks at the forcing frequency than undeveloped turbulent flow. Further tests with excitation of reduced mean velocity flow at a Reynolds number of 6,600 and a Strouhal number of 27.8 demonstrated that high frequency forcing resulted in transfer of energy from large to small scales in the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. This phenomenon appeared to support past literature that indicated that the mechanics of high frequency forcing are fundamentally different from conventional instability-based forcing. Theoretical arguments are presented to support these experimental observations where it is shown that coupling between the applied forcing and background turbulent fluctuations is enhanced. An eddy viscosity model first proposed under the assumption of instability-based forcing was shown to be an effective approximation for the experimental measurements presented here in which the flow was forced directly at turbulence scales. Dimensional analysis of the coupling between the induced oscillations and the turbulent fluctuations supported experimental findings that receptivity to excitation was increased for forced flow with higher turbulent

  20. Penetration Characteristics of Air, Carbon Dioxide and Helium Transverse Sonic Jets in Mach 5 Cross Flow

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Erinc; Kontis, Konstantinos; Saravanan, Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation of sonic air, CO2 and Helium transverse jets in Mach 5 cross flow was carried out over a flat plate. The jet to freestream momentum flux ratio, J, was kept the same for all gases. The unsteady flow topology was examined using high speed schlieren visualisation and PIV. Schlieren visualisation provided information regarding oscillating jet shear layer structures and bow shock, Mach disc and barrel shocks. Two-component PIV measurements at the centreline, provided information regarding jet penetration trajectories. Barrel shocks and Mach disc forming the jet boundary were visualised/quantified also jet penetration boundaries were determined. Even though J is kept the same for all gases, the penetration patterns were found to be remarkably different both at the nearfield and the farfield. Air and CO2 jet resulted similar nearfield and farfield penetration pattern whereas Helium jet spread minimal in the nearfield. PMID:25494348

  1. Parametric Testing of Chevrons on Single Flow Hot Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Brown, Clifford A.

    2004-01-01

    A parametric family of chevron nozzles have been studied, looking for relationships between chevron geometric parameters, flow characteristics, and far-field noise. Both cold and hot conditions have been run at acoustic Mach number 0.9. Ten models have been tested, varying chevron count, penetration, length, and chevron symmetry. Four comparative studies were defined from these datasets which show: that chevron length is not a major impact on either flow or sound; that chevron penetration increases noise at high frequency and lowers it at low frequency, especially for low chevron counts; that chevron count is a strong player with good low frequency reductions being achieved with high chevron count without strong high frequency penalty; and that chevron asymmetry slightly reduces the impact of the chevron. Finally, it is shown that although the hot jets differ systematically from the cold one, the overall trends with chevron parameters is the same.

  2. Analysis of screeching in a cold flow jet experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, M. E.; Slone, R. M., Jr.; Robertson, J. E.; Keefe, L.

    1975-01-01

    The screech phenomenon observed in a one-sixtieth scale model space shuttle test of the solid rocket booster exhaust flow noise has been investigated. A critical review is given of the cold flow test data representative of Space Shuttle launch configurations to define those parameters which contribute to screech generation. An acoustic feedback mechanism is found to be responsible for the generation of screech. A simple equation which permits prediction of screech frequency in terms of basic testing parameters such as the jet exhaust Mach number and the separating distance from nozzle exit to the surface of model launch pad is presented and is found in good agreement with the test data. Finally, techniques are recommended to eliminate or reduce the screech.

  3. Structure of supersonic jet flow and its radiated sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, Reda R.; Hayer, M. Ehtesham; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper explores the use of large-eddy simulations as a tool for predicting noise from first principles. A high-order numerical scheme is used to perform large-eddy simulations of a supersonic jet flow with emphasis on capturing the time-dependent flow structure representating the sound source. The wavelike nature of this structure under random inflow disturbances is demonstrated. This wavelike structure is then enhanced by taking the inflow disturbances to be purely harmonic. Application of Lighthill's theory to calculate the far-field noise, with the sound source obtained from the calculated time-dependent near field, is demonstrated. Alternative approaches to coupling the near-field sound source to the far-field sound are discussed.

  4. Synthetic Jets Flow Control on a vertical stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathay, Nicholas; Boucher, Matthew; Amitay, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The vertical stabilizer on most commercial transport aircraft is much larger than required for stability and control. The tail is significantly oversized in order to maintain controllability in the event of asymmetric engine failure and meet flying qualities requirements related to dynamic motion. Using aerodynamic flow control techniques, it may be possible to reduce the size of the tail while maintaining similar control authority during inclement flight conditions. Reducing the size of the tail decreases the weight and the drag of the airplane, which results in considerable savings in fuel costs. In this work, it is shown that synthetic jet (zero-net-mass-flux) actuators are capable of reattaching the separated flow on the rudder and augmenting the performance of the stabilizer. Experiments were conducted in an open-return wind tunnel on a 1/25th scale model of a vertical stabilizer and a partial fuselage section. The surface pressure, aerodynamic loads and data acquired with a Stereo PIV system were used to investigate the effectiveness of this technology as well as provide a more detailed analysis of the flowfield and showed that the synthetic jets are capable of augmenting the side-force by up to 20%.

  5. Predicting the stability of a compressible periodic parallel jet flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey H.

    1996-01-01

    It is known that mixing enhancement in compressible free shear layer flows with high convective Mach numbers is difficult. One design strategy to get around this is to use multiple nozzles. Extrapolating this design concept in a one dimensional manner, one arrives at an array of parallel rectangular nozzles where the smaller dimension is omega and the longer dimension, b, is taken to be infinite. In this paper, the feasibility of predicting the stability of this type of compressible periodic parallel jet flow is discussed. The problem is treated using Floquet-Bloch theory. Numerical solutions to this eigenvalue problem are presented. For the case presented, the interjet spacing, s, was selected so that s/omega =2.23. Typical plots of the eigenvalue and stability curves are presented. Results obtained for a range of convective Mach numbers from 3 to 5 show growth rates omega(sub i)=kc(sub i)/2 range from 0.25 to 0.29. These results indicate that coherent two-dimensional structures can occur without difficulty in multiple parallel periodic jet nozzles and that shear layer mixing should occur with this type of nozzle design.

  6. Effect of Inner Nozzle Lip Thickness on Co-flow Jet Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasarao, T.; Murthy, I. Dakshina; Lovaraju, P.; Rathakrishnan, E.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of subsonic and underexpanded sonic jets delivered from a central nozzle surrounded by a co-flow. The role of central nozzle lip thickness on the co-flow jet characteristics has been studied. The jet-mixing enhancement is achieved in the case of jet from the thick-lip nozzle compared to that of thin-lip nozzle. The extent of supersonic zone for the thick-lip is much shorter than the thin-lip jet.

  7. Three dimensional flow field measurements of a 4:1 aspect ratio subsonic jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Swan, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Flow field measurements for a subsonic rectangular cold air jet with an aspect ratio of 4:1 (12.7 x 50.8 mm) at a Mach number of 0.09 and Re of 100,000 have been carried out using a three-dimensional laser Doppler anemometer system. Mean velocity measurements show that the jet width spreads more rapidly along the minor axis than along the major axis. The outward velocities, however, are not significantly different for the two axes, indicating the presence of enhanced mixing along the minor axis. The jet slowly changes from a rectangular jet to a circular jet as the flow progresses downstream.

  8. Three dimensional flow field measurements of a 4:1 aspect ratio subsonic jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. L.; Swan, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Flow field measurements for a subsonic rectangular cold air jet with an aspect ratio of 4:1 (12.7 x 50.8 mm) at a Mach number of 0.09 and Re of 100,000 have been carried out using a three-dimensional laser Doppler anemometer system. Mean velocity measurements show that the jet width spreads more rapidly along the minor axis than along the major axis. The outward velocities, however, are not significantly different for the two axes, indicating the presence of enhanced mixing along the minor axis. The jet slowly changes from a rectangular jet to a circular jet as the flow progresses downstream.

  9. Dilution jets in accelerated cross flows. Ph.D. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipshitz, A.; Greber, I.

    1984-01-01

    Results of flow visualization experiments and measurements of the temperature field produced by a single jet and a row of dilution jets issued into a reverse flow combustor are presented. The flow in such combustors is typified by transverse and longitudinal acceleration during the passage through its bending section. The flow visualization experiments are designed to examine the separate effects of longitudinal and transverse acceleration on the jet trajectory and spreading rate. A model describing a dense single jet in a lighter accelerating cross flow is developed. The model is based on integral conservation equations, including the pressure terms appropriate to accelerating flows. It uses a modified entrainment correlation obtained from previous experiments of a jet in a cross stream. The flow visualization results are compared with the model calculations in terms of trajectories and spreading rates. Each experiment is typified by a set of three parameters: momentum ratio, density ratio and the densimetric Froude number.

  10. High-Flow PMR-Polymide Composites Developed With Mechanical Properties Comparable to Other High-Temperature Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    PMR polyimides, in particular PMR-15, are well known for their excellent high-temperature stability and performance, and solvent resistance. However, the processing of these materials is limited, for the most part, to prepreg-based methods, such as compression or autoclave processing. These methods involve substantial amounts of hand labor, and as a result, manufacturing costs for components made from PMR polyimides can be high. In cost-sensitive applications, these high manufacturing costs can make the use of PMR polyimide-based components cost prohibitive. Lower cost manufacturing methods, such as resin transfer molding (RTM) and resin film infusion, have been demonstrated to reduce manufacturing costs by as much as 50 percent over prepreg-based methods. However, these processes are only amenable to materials with melt viscosities below 30 poise. Most PMR polyimides have melt viscosities on the order of 100 poise or higher. Recent efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center have focused on chemical modifications to PMR polyimides to reduce their melt viscosity to the point where they could be processed by these low-cost manufacturing methods without adversely affecting their high-temperature properties and performance. These efforts have led to a new family of PMR polyimides that have melt viscosities significantly lower than that of PMR-15. Reductions in melt viscosity are brought about through the introduction of molecular twists in the polymer backbone. Carbon fiber (T650- 35) composites were prepared from one of these polyimides, designated PMR-Flex, by compression molding. The properties of these composites are presented below and compared with comparable composites made from PMR-15 and PETI-RTM, a new low-melt-viscosity polyimide.

  11. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology.

  12. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology.

  13. Dilution Jet Behavior in the Turn Section of a Reverse Flow Combuster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddlebaugh, S. M.; Lipshitz, A.; Greber, I.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the temperature field produced by a single jet and a row of dilution jets issued into a reverse flow combustor are presented. The temperature measurements are presented in the form of consecutive normalized temperature profiles, and jet trajectories. Single jet trajectories were swept toward the inner wall of the turn, whether injection was from the inner or outer wall. This behavior is explained by the radially inward velocity component necessary to support irrotational flow through the turn. Comparison between experimental results and model calculations showed poor agreement due to the model's not including the radial velocity component. A widely spaced row of jets produced trajectories similar to single jets at similar test conditions, but as spacing ratio was reduced, penetration was reduced to the point where the dilution jet flow attached to the wall.

  14. Vortex flows with suspended separation regions and long-range untwisted central jets

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovich, G.N.; Trofimov, R.S.

    1988-05-01

    A study is made of possible physicoaerodynamic configurations of vortical flow with suspended separation regions and untwisted central jets. Such flows are encountered in power plants (heat exchangers, combustion chambers, and chemical reactors) and in nature (tornadoes). The basic configurations of several flows of this type are described, including the structure of a flow formed by coaxial cocurrent twisted jets, the flow in a conical swirl chamber with the formation of an untwisted long-range axial jet, the flow pattern in a gas turbine engine chamber, and some considerations regarding the aerodynamics of a tornado.

  15. Modeling Acoustic Effects on shear-Coaxial Jet Flow Utilizing Molecular Dynamic Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    two models. Model A is a second order equation while Model B is a simpler first order equation with a general slip coefficient , b, included in the...Acceleration Ai Inner jet area Ao Outer jet area b General slip coefficient c Propagation speed Di Inner jet diameter Do Outer jet...injectors exhausting parallel to the main flow field operating closely enough so their mixing zones interfere (Schetz, 1980:137). The second definition

  16. Mechanisms of high-temperature, solid-state flow in minerals and ceramics and their bearing on the creep behavior of the mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, S.H.; Raleigh, C.B.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of applying laboratory silicate-flow data to the mantle, where conditions can be vastly different, is approached through a critical review of high-temperature flow mechanisms in ceramics and their relation to empirical flow laws. The intimate association of solid-state diffusion and high-temperature creep in pure metals is found to apply to ceramics as well. It is shown that in ceramics of moderate grain size, compared on the basis of self-diffusivity and elastic modulus, normalized creep rates compare remarkably well. This comparison is paralleled by the near universal occurrence of similar creep-induced structures, and it is thought that the derived empirical flow laws can be associated with dislocation creep. Creep data in fine-grained ceramics, on the other hand, are found to compare poorly with theories involving the stress-directed diffusion of point defects and have not been successfully correlated by self-diffusion rates. We conclude that these fine-grained materials creep primarily by a quasi-viscous grain-boundary sliding mechanism which is unlikely to predominate in the earth's deep interior. Creep predictions for the mantle reveal that under most conditions the empirical dislocation creep behavior predominates over the mechanisms involving the stress-directed diffusion of point defects. The probable role of polymorphic transformations in the transition zone is also discussed. ?? 1973.

  17. Flow and acoustic characteristics of non-axisymmetric jets at subsonic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Puja; Valentich, Griffin; Kumar, Rajan; Alvi, Farrukh

    2017-05-01

    Flow and acoustic behavior of two asymmetric, rectangular (AR = 4) and elliptic (AR = 2.5), jets are studied and compared to an equivalent area round jet. The jets are operated at a Mach number of 0.9 and temperature ratio of 1. Time-averaged flow field measurements are carried out using planar and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. In addition, far-field microphone measurements are performed to compare jet acoustics. Mean flow field results demonstrate that for the given Mach number and aspect ratios, rectangular and elliptic jet properties are somewhat modified compared to the round jet. The elliptic jet exhibits properties that are intermediate between two geometric extremes. Moderately enhanced mixing in asymmetric jets as a result of weak streamwise vortices is evidenced by overall shorter potential core, faster centerline velocity decay, and higher shear layer growth rates. Centerline turbulence levels and transverse shear stress distribution also show enhanced fluctuations for non-circular jets. Compared to their major axis planes, relatively higher turbulence levels are measured in the minor axis planes for both rectangular and elliptic jets. Far-field acoustic measurements reveal the asymmetric nature of the sound field. Compared to the round jet, major axis orientation for asymmetric jets is observed to provide moderate acoustic benefit in the downstream direction. However, enhanced fluctuations in the minor axis plane result in a marginal noise augmentation at moderate to high frequencies in this plane for downstream polar angles.

  18. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Frederick F.; Ciancone, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configurations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  19. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.; Ciancone, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configutations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  20. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Frederick F.; Ciancone, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configurations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  1. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Frederick F.; Ciancone, Michael L.

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configurations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  2. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, F. F.; Ciancone, M. L.

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configutations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  3. Turbulent flow structure at a discordant river confluence: Asymmetric jet dynamics with implications for channel morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhodolov, Alexander N.; Krick, Julian; Sukhodolova, Tatiana A.; Cheng, Zhengyang; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Constantinescu, George S.

    2017-06-01

    Only a handful of field studies have examined turbulent flow structure at discordant confluences; the dynamics of flow at such confluences have mainly been examined in the laboratory. This paper reports results of a field-based investigation of turbulent flow structure at a discordant river confluence. These results support the hypothesis that flow at a discordant alluvial confluence with a velocity ratio greater than 2 exhibits jet-like characteristics. Scaling analysis shows that the dynamics of the jet core are quite similar to those of free jets but that the complex structure of flow at the confluence imposes strong effects that can locally suppress or enhance the spreading rate of the jet. This jet-like behavior of the flow has important implications for morphodynamic processes at these types of confluences. The highly energetic core of the jet at this discordant confluence is displaced away from the riverbed, thereby inhibiting scour; however, helical motion develops adjacent to the jet, particularly at high flows, which may promote scour. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the presence or absence of a depositional wedge at the mouth of the tributary can strongly influence detachment of the jet from the bed and the angle of the jet within the confluence.

  4. Velocity field of a round jet in a cross flow for various jet injection angles and velocity ratios. [Langley V/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fearn, R. L.; Weston, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    A subsonic round jet injected from a flat plate into a subsonic crosswind of the same temperature was investigated. Velocity and pressure measurements in planes perpendicular to the path of the jet were made for nominal jet injection angles of 45 deg, 60 deg, 75 deg, 90 deg, and 105 deg and for jet/cross flow velocity ratios of four and eight. The velocity measurements were obtained to infer the properties of the vortex pair associated with a jet in a cross flow. Jet centerline and vortex trajectories were determined and fit with an empirical equation that includes the effects of jet injection angle, jet core length, and jet/cross flow velocity ratios.

  5. Optimal Micro-Jet Flow Control for Compact Air Vehicle Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Miller, Daniel N.; Addington, Gregory A.; Agrell, Johan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study on micro-jet secondary flow control is to demonstrate the viability and economy of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to optimally design micro-jet secondary flow control arrays, and to establish that the aeromechanical effects of engine face distortion can also be included in the design and optimization process. These statistical design concepts were used to investigate the design characteristics of "low mass" micro-jet array designs. The term "low mass" micro-jet may refers to fluidic jets with total (integrated) mass flow ratios between 0.10 and 1.0 percent of the engine face mass flow. Therefore, this report examines optimal micro-jet array designs for compact inlets through a Response Surface Methodology.

  6. Gravitational Effects on Near Field Flow Structure of Low Density Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, D. W.; Yep, T. W.; Agrawal, A. K.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in Earth gravity and microgravity to acquire quantitative data on near field flow structure of helium jets injected into air. Microgravity conditions were simulated in the 2.2- second drop tower at NASA Glenn Research Center. The jet flow was observed by quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry, a non-intrusive line of site measurement technique for the whole field. The flow structure was characterized by distributions of angular deflection and helium mole percentage obtained from color schlieren images taken at 60 Hz. Results show that the jet in microgravity was up to 70 percent wider than that in Earth gravity. The global jet flow oscillations observed in Earth gravity were absent in microgravity, providing direct experimental evidence that the flow instability in the low density jet was buoyancy induced. The paper provides quantitative details of temporal flow evolution as the experiment undergoes change in gravity in the drop tower.

  7. Flow and Acoustic Properties of Low Reynolds Number Underexpanded Supersonic Jets. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Tieh-Feng

    1981-01-01

    Jet noise on underexpanded supersonic jets are studied with emphasis on determining the role played by large scale organized flow fluctuations in the flow and acoustic processes. The experimental conditions of the study were chosen as low Reynolds number (Re=8,000) Mach 1.4 and 2.1, and moderate Reynolds number (Re=68,000) Mach 1.6 underexpanded supersonic jets exhausting from convergent nozzles. At these chosen conditions, detailed experimental measurements were performed to improve the understanding of the flow and acoustic properties of underexpanded supersonic jets.

  8. On the near field mean flow structure of transverse jets issuing into a supersonic freestream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickmann, Dean Anthony

    The near field mean flow structure of transverse jets issuing from a surface into supersonic crossflow is examined using numerical methods and separation topology. The Navier-Stokes solver Falcon, developed at Lockheed Martin, was used to simulate the interaction between the jet and freestream over a flat plate and a generic missile body. The near field flow structure included a lambda bow shock upstream of the jet interacting with the approaching boundary layer that forms a pair of horseshoe vortices while another lambda-structure closer to the jet formed a second pair of horseshoe vortices. As the jet was turned downstream by the crossflow, the so-called barrel shock terminates in a Mach disk while vortices formed within the jet plume. Downstream of the jet exit, new flow structure was identified in the form of three pairs of vortices. Horn, near field and far field wake vortices were present downstream of the jet as well as a series of compression waves resulting in a gradual pressure rise downstream of the jet overexpansion. The wave formations and the vortices formed from them affected separation topology, performance parameters and amplification coefficients. The current understanding of the flow structure in the near field of a transverse jet in supersonic flow must be amended to include these newly identified vortices and compression waves.

  9. Effect of Gravity on the Near Field Flow Structure of Helium Jet in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Ajay K.; Parthasarathy, Ramkumar; Griffin, DeVon

    2002-01-01

    Experiments have shown that a low-density jet injected into a high-density surrounding medium undergoes periodic oscillations in the near field. Although the flow oscillations in these jets at Richardson numbers about unity are attributed to the buoyancy, the direct physical evidence has not been acquired in the experiments. If the instability were indeed caused by buoyancy, the near-field flow structure would undergo drastic changes upon removal of gravity in the microgravity environment. The present study was conducted to investigate this effect by simulating microgravity environment in the 2.2-second drop tower at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The non-intrusive, rainbow schlieren deflectometry technique was used for quantitative measurements of helium concentrations in buoyant and non-buoyant jets. Results in a steady jet show that the radial growth of the jet shear layer in Earth gravity is hindered by the buoyant acceleration. The jet in microgravity was 30 to 70 percent wider than that in Earth gravity. The microgravity jet showed typical growth of a constant density jet shear layer. In case of a self-excited helium jet in Earth gravity, the flow oscillations continued as the jet flow adjusted to microgravity conditions in the drop tower. The flow oscillations were however not present at the end of the drop when steady microgravity conditions were reached.

  10. A Flow-Through High-Pressure Electrical Conductance Cell for Determining of Ion Association of Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions at High Temperature and Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, H.; Ho, P.C.; Palmer, D.A.; Wood, R.H.

    1999-09-12

    A flow-through high-pressure electrical conductance cell was designed and constructed to measure limiting molar conductances and ion association constants of dilute aqueous solutions with high precision at high temperatures and pressures. The basic concept of the cell employs the principle developed at the University of Delaware in 1995, but overall targets higher temperatures (to 600 C) and pressures (to 300 MPa). At present the cell has been tested by measuring aqueous NaCl and LiOH solutions (10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}5} mol.kg{sup {minus}1}) to 405 C and 33 MPa with good results.

  11. Determination of the Velocity, Density, Maximum Flux and Enthaply Profiles for a Very High Temperature Arc Jet Nozzle Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    ILL r NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California o0 <TIC E GTE SFEB 14199 .THESIS DETERMINATION OF THE VELOCITY, DENSITY, MAXIMUM FLUX AND...Advisor: Prof Richard Wood Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. r .A ’t ’" 0 Unlssified Security Omifiafio of this Pae REPORT...Mmitorng Orgamizatio Report Number(s) 6a Nan of Petfonnirg Organization 6b Office Symbol 7a Nome of Moitoi r o Naval Postgraduate School 31 Naval

  12. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  13. The structure of supersonic jet flow and its radiated sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mankbadi, Reda R.; Hayder, M. E.; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1993-01-01

    Large-eddy simulation of a supersonic jet is presented with emphasis on capturing the unsteady features of the flow pertinent to sound emission. A high-accuracy numerical scheme is used to solve the filtered, unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations while modelling the subgrid-scale turbulence. For random inflow disturbance, the wave-like feature of the large-scale structure is demonstrated. The large-scale structure was then enhanced by imposing harmonic disturbances to the inflow. The limitation of using the full Navier-Stokes equation to calculate the far-field sound is discussed. Application of Lighthill's acoustic analogy is given with the objective of highlighting the difficulties that arise from the non-compactness of the source term.

  14. Modelling of the material flow of Nd-Fe-B magnets under high temperature deformation via finite element simulation method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ju; Lee, Yen-I; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Hsiao, Po-Jen; You, Jr-Shian; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wei, Chia-Min

    2017-01-01

    Hot deformation of Nd-Fe-B magnets has been studied for more than three decades. With a good combination of forming processing parameters, the remanence and (BH)max values of Nd-Fe-B magnets could be greatly increased due to the formation of anisotropic microstructures during hot deformation. In this work, a methodology is proposed for visualizing the material flow in hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets via finite element simulation. Material flow in hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets could be predicted by simulation, which fitted with experimental results. By utilizing this methodology, the correlation between strain distribution and magnetic properties enhancement could be better understood.

  15. Effect of electronic excitation on high-temperature flows of ionized nitrogen and oxygen mixtures behind strong shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.

    2016-11-01

    Strongly non-equilibrium flows of reacting five-component ionized mixtures of nitrogen (N2/N2+/N /N+/e-) and oxygen (O2/O2+/O /O+/e-) behind the plane shock wave are studied taking into account electronic degrees of freedom of both neutral and ionized species. The kinetic scheme includes non-equilibrium reactions of ionization, dissociation, recombination and charge-transfer. Two test cases corresponding to the spacecraft re-entry (Hermes and Fire II experiments) are considered; fluid-dynamic variables, transport coefficients and heat flux are calculated, and different contribution to the heat flux are analyzed. The effect of electronic excitation on the heat transfer is governed by the competition of diffusion and heat conduction; it becomes weak if diffusive processes prevail. An important role of thermal diffusion in ionized flows is emphasized. The influence of dissociation rates on the heat flux is assessed.

  16. Modelling of the material flow of Nd-Fe-B magnets under high temperature deformation via finite element simulation method

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Ju; Lee, Yen-I; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Hsiao, Po-Jen; You, Jr-Shian; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Wei, Chia-Min

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hot deformation of Nd-Fe-B magnets has been studied for more than three decades. With a good combination of forming processing parameters, the remanence and (BH)max values of Nd-Fe-B magnets could be greatly increased due to the formation of anisotropic microstructures during hot deformation. In this work, a methodology is proposed for visualizing the material flow in hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets via finite element simulation. Material flow in hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets could be predicted by simulation, which fitted with experimental results. By utilizing this methodology, the correlation between strain distribution and magnetic properties enhancement could be better understood. PMID:28970869

  17. Influence of gas flow and applied voltage on interaction of jets in a cross-field helium plasma jet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Meng; Liu, Feng; Fang, Zhi; Zhang, Bo; Wan, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet arrays can greatly enhance the treatment area to fulfill the need for large-scale surface processing, while the spatial uniformity of the plasma jet array is closely related to the interactions of the adjacent jets. In this paper, a three-tube one-dimensional (1D) He plasma jet array with a cross-field needle-ring electrode structure is used to investigate the influences of the gas flow rate and applied voltage on the interactions of the adjacent jets through electrical, optical, and fluid measurements. The repulsion of the adjacent plume channels is observed using an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) and the influence of the gas flow rate and applied voltage on the electrostatic repulsion force, Coulomb force, is discussed. It is found that electrical coupling, mainly electrostatic repulsion force, exists among the jets in the array, which causes both the divergence of the lateral plumes and the nonlinear changes of the discharge power and the transport charge. The deflection angle of the lateral plumes with respect to the central plume in the optical images increases with the increase of applied voltage and decreases with the increase of gas flow rate. The deflection angle of the lateral plumes in the optical images is obviously larger than that of the lateral gas streams in the Schlieren images under the same experimental conditions, and the unconformity of the deflection angles is mainly attributed to the electrostatic repulsion force in adjacent plasma plume channels. The experimental results can help understand the interaction mechanisms of jets in the array and design controllable and scalable plasma jet arrays.

  18. Effects of turbulence model on convective heat transfer of coolant flow in a prismatic very high temperature reactor core

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. N.; Tak, N. I.; Kim, M. H.; Noh, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    The existing study of Spall et al. shows that only {nu}{sup 2}-f turbulence model well matches with the experimental data of Shehata and McEligot which were obtained under strongly heated gas flows. Significant over-predictions in those literatures were observed in the convective heat transfer with the other famous turbulence models such as the k-{epsilon} and k-{omega} models. In spite of such good evidence about the performance of the{nu}{sup 2}-f model, the application of the {nu}{sup 2}-f model to the thermo-fluid analysis of a prismatic core is very rare. In this paper, therefore, the convective heat transfer of the coolant flow in a prismatic core has been investigated using the {nu}{sup 2}-f model. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations have been carried out for the typical unit cell geometry of a prismatic fuel column with typical operating conditions of prismatic designs. The tested Reynolds numbers of the coolant flow are 10,000, 20,000, 30,000 and 50,000. The predicted Nusselt numbers with the {nu}{sup 2}-f model are compared with the results by the other turbulence models (k-{epsilon} and SST) as well as the empirical correlations. (authors)

  19. Incident shock strength evolution in overexpanded jet flow out of rocket nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silnikov, Mikhail V.; Chernyshov, Mikhail V.

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of the incident shock in the plane overexpanded jet flow or in the axisymmetric one is analyzed theoretically and compared at the whole range of governing flow parameters. Analytical results can be applied to avoid jet flow instability and self-oscillation effects at rocket launch, to improve launch safety and to suppress shock-wave induced noise harmful to environment and personnel. The mathematical model of ;differential conditions of dynamic compatibility; was applied to the curved shock in non-uniform plane or axisymmetrical flow. It allowed us to study such features of the curved incident shock and flow downstream it as shock geometrical curvature, jet boundary curvature, local increase or decrease of the shock strength, flow vorticity rate (local pressure gradient) in the vicinity of the nozzle lip, static pressure gradient in the compressed layer downstream the shock, and many others. All these quantities sufficiently depend on the flow parameters (flow Mach number, jet overexpansion rate, nozzle throat angle, and ration of gas specific heats). These dependencies are sometimes unusual, especially at small Mach numbers. It was also surprising that there is no great difference among all these flowfield features in the plane jet and in the axisymmetrical jet flow out of a nozzle with large throat angle, but all these parameters behave in a quite different way in an axisymmetrical jet at small and moderate nozzle throat angles.

  20. Constitutive Modeling of High-Temperature Flow Behavior of an Nb Micro-alloyed Hot Stamping Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiqi; Feng, Ding; Huang, Yunhua; Wei, Shizhong; Mohrbacher, Hardy; Zhang, Yue

    2016-03-01

    The thermal deformation behavior and constitutive models of an Nb micro-alloyed 22MnB5 steel were investigated by conducting isothermal uniaxial tensile tests at the temperature range of 873-1223 K with strain rates of 0.1-10 s-1. The results indicated that the investigated steel showed typical work hardening and dynamic recovery behavior during hot deformation, and the flow stress decreased with a decrease in strain rate and/or an increase in temperature. On the basis of the experimental data, the modified Johnson-Cook (modified JC), modified Norton-Hoff (modified NH), and Arrhenius-type (AT) constitutive models were established for the subject steel. However, the flow stress values predicted by these three models revealed some remarkable deviations from the experimental values for certain experimental conditions. Therefore, a new combined modified Norton-Hoff and Arrhenius-type constitutive model (combined modified NH-AT model), which accurately reflected both the work hardening and dynamic recovery behavior of the subject steel, was developed by introducing the modified parameter k ɛ. Furthermore, the accuracy of these constitutive models was assessed by the correlation coefficient, the average absolute relative error, and the root mean square error, which indicated that the flow stress values computed by the combined modified NH-AT model were highly consistent with the experimental values (R = 0.998, AARE = 1.63%, RMSE = 3.85 MPa). The result confirmed that the combined modified NH-AT model was suitable for the studied Nb micro-alloyed hot stamping steel. Additionally, the practicability of the new model was also verified using finite element simulations in ANSYS/LS-DYNA, and the results confirmed that the new model was practical and highly accurate.

  1. PAB3D: Its History in the Use of Turbulence Models in the Simulation of Jet and Nozzle Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Pao, S. Paul; Hunter, Craig A.; Deere, Karen A.; Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa

    2006-01-01

    This is a review paper for PAB3D s history in the implementation of turbulence models for simulating jet and nozzle flows. We describe different turbulence models used in the simulation of subsonic and supersonic jet and nozzle flows. The time-averaged simulations use modified linear or nonlinear two-equation models to account for supersonic flow as well as high temperature mixing. Two multiscale-type turbulence models are used for unsteady flow simulations. These models require modifications to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The first scheme is a hybrid RANS/LES model utilizing the two-equation (k-epsilon) model with a RANS/LES transition function, dependent on grid spacing and the computed turbulence length scale. The second scheme is a modified version of the partially averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) formulation. All of these models are implemented in the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code PAB3D. This paper discusses computational methods, code implementation, computed results for a wide range of nozzle configurations at various operating conditions, and comparisons with available experimental data. Very good agreement is shown between the numerical solutions and available experimental data over a wide range of operating conditions.

  2. In vitro investigation of contrast flow jet timing in patient-specific intracranial aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Virendra R.; Britz, Garvin W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The direction and magnitude of intra-aneurysmal flow jet are significant risk factors of subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the change of flow jet during an endovascular procedure has been used for prediction of aneurysm occlusion or whether an additional flow diverter (FD) is warranted. However, evaluation of flow jets is often unreliable due to a large variation of flow jet on the digital subtraction angiograms, and this flow pattern variation may result in incorrect clinical diagnosis Therefore, factors contributing to the variation in flow jet are examined at an in vitro setting, and the findings can help us to understand the nature of flow jet and devise a better plan to quantify the aneurysmal hemodynamics accurately. Methods Intra-aneurysmal flows in three patient-specific aneurysms between 11 and 25 mm were investigated in vitro, and a FD was deployed in each aneurysm model. X-ray imaging of these models were performed at injection rates between 0.2 and 2 mL/s. Pulsatile blood pump and aneurysm model were imaged together to determine the timing of flow jet. Results The contrast bolus arrives at the aneurysm early at high contrast injection rates. The flow patterns with slow injection rates exhibit strong inertia that is associated with the systole flow. Flow jets arrive at the aneurysms at the peak systole when the bolus is injected at 0.2 mL/s. The contrast-to-signal ratio is the highest at the injection rate of 0.5 mL/s. Effect of flow diversion can only be assessed at an injection rate greater than 0.5 mL/s. Conclusions Intra-aneurysmal flow jet is highly dependent on the injection rate of the contrast agent. For the internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms, the systolic flows can be visualized at slow injection rates (<0.5 mL/s), while the diastolic flow jets are visible at higher injection rates (>1 mL/s). Dependence of flow jet on the contrast injection rate has serious clinical implications and needs to be considered during diagnostic procedures

  3. Modeling the Effects of Cu Content and Deformation Variables on the High-Temperature Flow Behavior of Dilute Al-Fe-Si Alloys Using an Artificial Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Shakiba, Mohammad; Parson, Nick; Chen, X.-Grant

    2016-01-01

    The hot deformation behavior of Al-0.12Fe-0.1Si alloys with varied amounts of Cu (0.002–0.31 wt %) was investigated by uniaxial compression tests conducted at different temperatures (400 °C–550 °C) and strain rates (0.01–10 s−1). The results demonstrated that flow stress decreased with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, while flow stress increased with increasing Cu content for all deformation conditions studied due to the solute drag effect. Based on the experimental data, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to study the relationship between chemical composition, deformation variables and high-temperature flow behavior. A three-layer feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network with 20 neurons in a hidden layer was established in this study. The input parameters were Cu content, temperature, strain rate and strain, while the flow stress was the output. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using the K-fold cross-validation method. The results showed excellent generalization capability of the developed model. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the strain rate is the most important parameter, while the Cu content exhibited a modest but significant influence on the flow stress. PMID:28773658

  4. Modeling the Effects of Cu Content and Deformation Variables on the High-Temperature Flow Behavior of Dilute Al-Fe-Si Alloys Using an Artificial Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Shakiba, Mohammad; Parson, Nick; Chen, X-Grant

    2016-06-30

    The hot deformation behavior of Al-0.12Fe-0.1Si alloys with varied amounts of Cu (0.002-0.31 wt %) was investigated by uniaxial compression tests conducted at different temperatures (400 °C-550 °C) and strain rates (0.01-10 s(-1)). The results demonstrated that flow stress decreased with increasing deformation temperature and decreasing strain rate, while flow stress increased with increasing Cu content for all deformation conditions studied due to the solute drag effect. Based on the experimental data, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed to study the relationship between chemical composition, deformation variables and high-temperature flow behavior. A three-layer feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network with 20 neurons in a hidden layer was established in this study. The input parameters were Cu content, temperature, strain rate and strain, while the flow stress was the output. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using the K-fold cross-validation method. The results showed excellent generalization capability of the developed model. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the strain rate is the most important parameter, while the Cu content exhibited a modest but significant influence on the flow stress.

  5. Fluid-flow of a row of jets in crossflow - A numerical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.-W.; Benson, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed computer-visualized flow field of a row of jets in a confined crossflow is presented. The Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite volume method that incorporates a partial differential equation for incremental pressure to obtain a divergence-free flow field. The turbulence is described by a multiple-time-scale turbulence model. The computational domain includes the upstream region of the circular jet so that the interaction between the jet and the crossflow is simulated accurately. It is shown that the row of jets in the crossflow is characterized by a highly complex flow field that includes a horse-shoe vortex and two helical vortices whose secondary velocity components are co-rotating in space. It is also shown that the horse-shoe vortex is a ring of reversed flows located along the circumference of the jet exit.

  6. Investigation of the effect of laterally ejected gas jets on flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patz, G.

    1986-02-01

    The effect of a gas jet, ejected through a hole in the wall, on the supersonic flow along that wall was simulated in a model measuring chamber in a shock tube. A head wave with an obliquely detaching shock was formed, accompanied by a pressure increase in front of the jet. This effect can be used for missile control. In the shock tube, the flow about a plane plate with a slit through which a gas jet was laterally ejected, was simulated. Flow visualization and wall pressure measurements in front of and behind the nozzle slit show the effect of the jet on the flow, and allow the analysis of the initial phase and the evaluation of the forces resulting from the wall pressure which add to the jet thrust.

  7. The ground vortex flow field associated with a jet in a cross flow impinging on a ground plane for uniform and annular turbulent axisymmetric jets. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavage, William M.; Kuhlman, John M.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted of the impingement of a single circular jet on a ground plane in a cross flow. This geometry is a simplified model of the interaction of propulsive jet exhaust from a V/STOL aircraft with the ground in forward flight. Jets were oriented normal to the cross flow and ground plane. Jet size, cross flow-to-jet velocity ratio, ground plane-to-jet board spacing, and jet exit turbulence level and mean velocity profile shape were all varied to determine their effects on the size of the ground vortex interaction region which forms on the ground plane, using smoke injection into the jet. Three component laser Doppler velocimeter measurements were made with a commercial three color system for the case of a uniform jet with exit spacing equal to 5.5 diameters and cross flow-to-jet velocity ratio equal to 0.11. The flow visualization data compared well for equivalent runs of the same nondimensional jet exit spacing and the same velocity ratio for different diameter nozzles, except at very low velocity ratios and for the larger nozzle, where tunnel blockage became significant. Variation of observed ground vortex size with cross flow-to-jet velocity ratio was consistent with previous studies. Observed effects of jet size and ground plane-to-jet board spacing were relatively small. Jet exit turbulence level effects were also small. However, an annular jet with a low velocity central core was found to have a significantly smaller ground vortex than an equivalent uniform jet at the same values of cross flow-to-jet velocity ratio and jet exit-to-ground plane spacing. This may suggest a means of altering ground vortex behavior somewhat, and points out the importance of proper simulation of jet exit velocity conditions. LV data indicated unsteady turbulence levels in the ground vortex in excess of 70 percent.

  8. Discharge characteristics and hydrodynamics behaviors of atmospheric plasma jets produced in various gas flow patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setsuhara, Yuichi; Uchida, Giichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi; Takenaka, Kosuke; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric nonequilibrium plasma jets have been widely employed in biomedical applications. For biomedical applications, it is an important issue to understand the complicated mechanism of interaction of the plasma jet with liquid. In this study, we present analysis of the discharge characteristics of a plasma jet impinging onto the liquid surface under various gas flow patterns such as laminar and turbulence flows. For this purpose, we analyzed gas flow patters by using a Schlieren gas-flow imaging system in detail The plasma jet impinging into the liquid surface expands along the liquid surface. The diameter of the expanded plasma increases with gas flow rate, which is well explained by an increase in the diameter of the laminar gas-flow channel. When the gas flow rate is further increased, the gas flow mode transits from laminar to turbulence in the gas flow channel, which leads to the shortening of the plasm-jet length. Our experiment demonstrated that the gas flow patterns strongly affect the discharge characteristics in the plasma-jet system. This study was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ``Plasma Medical Innovation'' (24108003) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT).

  9. Active flow control of subsonic flow in an adverse pressure gradient using synthetic jets and passive micro flow control devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denn, Michael E.

    Several recent studies have shown the advantages of active and/or passive flow control devices for boundary layer flow modification. Many current and future proposed air vehicles have very short or offset diffusers in order to save vehicle weight and create more optimal vehicle/engine integration. Such short coupled diffusers generally result in boundary layer separation and loss of pressure recovery which reduces engine performance and in some cases may cause engine stall. Deployment of flow control devices can alleviate this problem to a large extent; however, almost all active flow control devices have some energy penalty associated with their inclusion. One potential low penalty approach for enhancing the diffuser performance is to combine the passive flow control elements such as micro-ramps with active flow control devices such as synthetic jets to achieve higher control authority. The goal of this dissertation is twofold. The first objective is to assess the ability of CFD with URANS turbulence models to accurately capture the effects of the synthetic jets and micro-ramps on boundary layer flow. This is accomplished by performing numerical simulations replicating several experimental test cases conducted at Georgia Institute of Technology under the NASA funded Inlet Flow Control and Prediction Technologies Program, and comparing the simulation results with experimental data. The second objective is to run an expanded CFD matrix of numerical simulations by varying various geometric and other flow control parameters of micro-ramps and synthetic jets to determine how passive and active control devices interact with each other in increasing and/or decreasing the control authority and determine their influence on modification of boundary layer flow. The boundary layer shape factor is used as a figure of merit for determining the boundary layer flow quality/modification and its tendency towards separation. It is found by a large number of numerical experiments and

  10. Buoyancy Effects on Flow Transition in Low-Density Inertial Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasumarthi, Kasyap S.; Agrawal, Ajay K.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of buoyancy on transition from laminar to turbulent flow are presented for momentum-dominated helium jet injected into ambient air. The buoyancy was varied in a 2.2-sec drop tower facility without affecting the remaining operating parameters. The jet flow in Earth gravity and microgravity was visualized using the rainbow schlieren deflectometry apparatus. Results show significant changes in the flow structure and transition behavior in the absence of buoyancy.

  11. Parametric Study of Synthetic-Jet-Based Flow Control on a Vertical Tail Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastero, Marianne; Lindstrom, Annika; Beyar, Michael; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Separation control over the rudder of the vertical tail of a commercial airplane using synthetic-jet-based flow control can lead to a reduction in tail size, with an associated decrease in drag and increase in fuel savings. A parametric, experimental study was undertaken using an array of finite span synthetic jets to investigate the sensitivity of the enhanced vertical tail side force to jet parameters, such as jet spanwise spacing and jet momentum coefficient. A generic wind tunnel model was designed and fabricated to fundamentally study the effects of the jet parameters at varying rudder deflection and model sideslip angles. Wind tunnel results obtained from pressure measurements and tuft flow visualization in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Subsonic Wind Tunnel show a decrease in separation severity and increase in model performance in comparison to the baseline, non-actuated case. The sensitivity to various parameters will be presented.

  12. An experimental study of the flow field surrounding a subsonic jet in a cross flow. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Robert Foster

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the flow interaction of a 5.08 cm (2.00 in.) diameter round subsonic jet exhausting perpendicularly to a flat plate in a subsonic cross flow was conducted in the NASA Ames 7x1O ft. Wind Tunnel Number One. Flat plate surface pressures were measured at 400 locations in a 30.48 cm (12.0 in.) concentric circular array surrounding the jet exit. Results from these measurements are provided in tabular and graphical form for jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios ranging from 4 to 12, and for jet exit Mach numbers ranging from 0.50 to 0.93. Laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) three component velocity measurements were made in selected regions in the developed jet plume and near the flat plate surface, at a jet Mach number of 0.50 and jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of 6 and 8. The results of both pressure and LDV measurements are compared with the results of previous experiments. In addition, pictures of the jet plume shape at jet velocity ratios ranging from 4 to 12 were obtained using schleiren photography. The LDV measurements are consistent with previous work, but more extensive measurements will be necessary to provide a detailed picture of the flow field. The surface pressure results compare closely with previous work and provide a useful characterization of jet induced surface pressures. The results demonstrate the primary influence of jet velocity ratio and the secondary influence of jet Mach number in determining such surface pressures.

  13. The effect of a turbulent jet on gas transport during oscillatory flow.

    PubMed

    Kamm, R D; Bullister, E T; Keramidas, C

    1986-08-01

    Axial mass transport due to the combined effects of flow oscillation and a turbulent jet was studied both experimentally and with a simple theoretical model. The experiments show that the distance over which turbulence enhances transport is greatly increased by flow oscillation, and is particularly sensitive to tidal volume. The jet flow rate and jet configuration are relatively less important. To analyze the results, the region influenced by the jet is divided into two zones: a near field in which the time-mean flow velocities are larger than the turbulent fluctuations, and a far field where the time-mean flow is essentially zero. In the far field, axial mass transport is increased due to the turbulence which decays in strength away from the jet. When oscillatory flow is superimposed upon the steady jet flow, the turbulence in the far field interacts with the flow oscillations to augment the transport of turbulence energy and of mass. This transport enhancement is modeled by introducing an effective axial diffusivity analogous to that used in laminar oscillatory flow.

  14. Scientists discover massive jet streams flowing inside the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-07-01

    These new findings will help them understand the famous sunspot cycle and associated increases in solar activity that can affect the Earth with power and communications disruptions. The observations are the latest made by the Solar Oscillations Investigation (SOI) group at Stanford University, CA, and they build on discoveries by the SOHO science team over the past year. "We have detected motion similar to the weather patterns in the Earth's atmosphere", said Dr. Jesper Schou of Stanford. "Moreover, in what is a completely new discovery, we have found a jet-like flow near the poles. This flow is totally inside the Sun. It is completely unexpected, and cannot be seen at the surface." "These polar streams are on a small scale, compared to the whole Sun, but they are still immense compared to atmospheric jet streams on the Earth", added Dr. Philip Scherrer, the SOI principal investigator at Stanford. "Ringing the Sun at about 75 degrees latitude, they consist of flattened oval regions about 30,000 kilometres across where material moves about ten percent (about 130 km/h) faster than its surroundings. Although these are the smallest structures yet observed inside the Sun, each is still large enough to engulf two Earths." Additionally, there are features similar to the Earth's trade winds on the surface of the Sun. The Sun rotates much faster at the equator than at the poles. However, Stanford researchers Schou and Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev have found that there are belts in the northern and southern hemispheres where currents flow at different speeds relative to each other. Six of these gaseous bands move slightly faster than the material surrounding them. The solar belts are more than 65 thousand km across and they contain "winds" that move about 15 kilometres per hour relative to their surroundings. The first evidence of these belts was found more than a decade ago by Dr. Robert Howard of the Mount Wilson Observatory. The Stanford researchers have now shown that

  15. Scientists discover massive jet streams flowing inside the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-08-01

    These new findings will help them understand the famous sunspot cycle and associated increases in solar activity that can affect the Earth with power and communications disruptions. The observations are the latest made by the Solar Oscillations Investigation (SOI) group at Stanford University, CA, and they build on discoveries by the SOHO science team over the past year. "We have detected motion similar to the weather patterns in the Earth's atmosphere", said Dr. Jesper Schou of Stanford. "Moreover, in what is a completely new discovery, we have found a jet-like flow near the poles. This flow is totally inside the Sun. It is completely unexpected, and cannot be seen at the surface." "These polar streams are on a small scale, compared to the whole Sun, but they are still immense compared to atmospheric jet streams on the Earth", added Dr. Philip Scherrer, the SOI principal investigator at Stanford. "Ringing the Sun at about 75 degrees latitude, they consist of flattened oval regions about 30,000 kilometres across where material moves about ten percent (about 130 km/h) faster than its surroundings. Although these are the smallest structures yet observed inside the Sun, each is still large enough to engulf two Earths." Additionally, there are features similar to the Earth's trade winds on the surface of the Sun. The Sun rotates much faster at the equator than at the poles. However, Stanford researchers Schou and Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev have found that there are belts in the northern and southern hemispheres where currents flow at different speeds relative to each other. Six of these gaseous bands move slightly faster than the material surrounding them. The solar belts are more than 65 thousand km across and they contain "winds" that move about 15 kilometres per hour relative to their surroundings. The first evidence of these belts was found more than a decade ago by Dr. Robert Howard of the Mount Wilson Observatory. The Stanford researchers have now shown that

  16. In situ analysis of proteins at high temperatures mediated by capillary-flow hydrothermal UV-vis spectrophotometer with a water-soluble chromogenic reagent.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kunio; Nagayoshi, Hiroki; Yao, Toshio

    2010-05-14

    In situ monitoring of quantities, interactions, and conformations of proteins is essential for the study of biochemistry under hydrothermal environments and the analysis of hyperthermophilic organisms in natural hydrothermal systems on Earth. We have investigated the potential of a capillary-flow hydrothermal UV-vis spectrophotometer (CHUS) for performing in situ measurements of proteins and determining their behavior at extremely high temperatures, in combination with a chromogenic reagents probe, which interacts with the proteins. The spectral shift obtained using a combination of water-soluble porphyrin (TPPS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was the best among the spectral shifts obtained using different combinations of chromogenic reagents and proteins. The association behavior of TPPS with BSA was investigated in detail using CHUS at temperatures up to 175 degrees C and the association constant (K(ass)) of TPPS with BSA was successfully determined at temperatures up to 100 degrees C. The lnK(ass) values were inversely proportional to the T(-1) values in the temperature range 50-100 degrees C. These analyses showed for the first time that the decrease of association of TPPS with BSA is due to the conformational change, fragmentation, and/or denaturing of BSA rather than the decrease of the hydrophobic association between TPPS and BSA. This study conclusively demonstrates the usability of the CHUS system with a chromogenic reagent as an in situ detection and measurement system for thermostable proteins at extremely high temperatures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Ambient and Oxygen Temperature on Flow Field Characteristics of Coherent Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fuhai; Zhu, Rong; Dong, Kai; Hu, Shaoyan

    2016-02-01

    The coherent jets are now used widely in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to increase the stirring ability, reaction rates, and energy efficiency. However, there has been limited research on the basic physics of the coherent jets. In the present study, the characteristics of flow field of supersonic coherent jet in hot and cold condition were studied. The total temperature and axial velocity were measured by combustion experiment. Flow field characteristics of supersonic coherent jet were simulated by Fluent software. The detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is presently used for the modeling of reactions. It consists of 53 species, plus Ar and N2, for a total of 325 reversible reactions. The present study showed that the shrouding flame decreases the entrainment of the ambient gas to the central supersonic jet, which results in a low expansion rate for the coherent supersonic jet. The higher ambient temperature can prolong the potential core of coherent jet and conventional jet. However, the potential core of coherent jet reduces with oxygen temperature increasing, which is opposite to conventional jet.

  18. Mean flow characteristics for the oblique impingement of an axisymmetric jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, J. F.; Kleis, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    The oblique impingement of an axisymmetric jet has been investigated. A summary of the data and the analytical interpretations of the dominant mechanisms which influence the flow are reported. The major characteristics of the shallow angle oblique jet impingement flow field are: (1) minimal dynamic spreading as revealed by the surface pressure field, (2) pronounced kinematic spreading as revealed by the jet flow velocity field, (3) a pronounced upstream shift of the stagnation point from the maximum pressure point, (4) the production of streamwise vorticity by the impingement process.

  19. Investigation of differential diffusion in turbulent jet flows using planar laser Rayleigh scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Dibble, Robert W.; Long, Marshall B.

    2005-12-01

    A series of laser Rayleigh-scattering experiments has been performed to investigate the effects of differential molecular diffusion in turbulent nonreacting jet flows. A turbulent jet of a mixture of Freon and H{sub 2} exiting into coflowing air was studied at various Reynolds numbers. In laminar flow, Rayleigh scattering clearly showed H{sub 2} diffusing ahead of Freon. In turbulent flow, the instantaneous Rayleigh images showed differential diffusion at the many interfaces between jet fluid and entrained air. Yet, ensemble averages of instantaneous images showed no average diffusion of H{sub 2} ahead of Freon.

  20. Two-dimensional over-expanded jet flow parameters in supersonic nozzle lip vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Uskov, V. N.

    2014-04-01

    The mathematical model for two-dimensional (plane or axis-symmetric) over-expanded jet flow parameters analysis in the vicinity of supersonic nozzle lip is proposed. The variation of the key parameters of this problem (e.g., the geometrical curvature of oblique shock emanating from the nozzle edge) is studied parametrically depending of jet flow parameters, such as Mach number, jet incalculability, and the ratio of gas specific heats. It was proved that differential parameters of the flow field crucially depend not only of the key parameters, but on the symmetry type as well.

  1. Study on Flow Field Characteristics of Nozzle Water Jet in Hydraulic cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Wen-tao; Deng, Xiao-yu

    2017-08-01

    Based on the theory of hydrodynamics, a mathematical model of nozzle water jet flow field in hydraulic cutting is established. By numerical simulation, the effects of nozzle convergence angle, nozzle outlet diameter and cylindrical section length on water jet flow impact is obtained, and the influence of three factors on the nozzle water jet flow field is analyzed. The optimal nozzle parameters are obtained by simulation as follows: convergence angle is 13 °, cylindrical section length is 8 mm and nozzle outlet diameter is 2 mm. Under this optimal nozzle parameters, hydraulic cutting has the best comprehensive effect.

  2. Flow Visualization and Radial Velocity Measurements of Entrainment in an Axisymmetric Turbulent Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, Anthony M.; Cataldo, Joseph C.

    1998-11-01

    A submerged, axisymmetric turbulent jet of water was studied using a laser Doppler anemometer (LDA). Mean radial and turbulent radial velocity profiles within the irrotational ambient region (external to the jet) and rotational region (within the jet) were measured up to 40 jet diameters. Flow visualization studies (photographs and video) were conducted using incandescent light sheets with LDA tracer particles. These visual observations reveal detailed turbulent flow structure. Trailing ends of turbulent eddies at the jet edge travel opposite to the mean axial flow. The intermittency surface undulates irregularly and resembles a violently perturbed boundary layer between two immiscible liquids. Irrotational ambient fluid follows parabolic streamlines into the jet, but only when perceived as a time average. Mean radial velocity profiles, measured with an LDA, followed typical "Double S" curves. The mean radial velocity in the irrotational region of the jet was found to be an inverse function of radial distance measured from the jet axis, for any given axial location. This evidence proves there is no entrainment velocity that is directly proportional to the local axial velocity: the key assumption to jet entrainment theory.

  3. Application of Synthetic Jets to Reduce Stator Flow Separation in a Low Speed Axial Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Culley, Dennis E.; Zaman, Khairul B.M.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Flow control using synthetic jet injection has been applied in a low speed axial compressor. The synthetic jets were applied from the suction surface of a stator vane via a span-wise row of slots pitched in the streamwise direction. Actuation was provided externally from acoustic drivers coupled to the vane tip via flexible tubing. The acoustic resonance characteristics of the system, and the resultant jet velocities were obtained. The effects on the separated flow field for various jet velocities and frequencies were explored. Total pressure loss reductions across the vane passage were measured. The effect of synthetic jet injection was shown to be comparable to that of pulsatory injection with mass addition for stator vanes which had separated flow. While only a weak dependence of the beneficial effect was noted based on the excitation frequency, a strong dependence on the amplitude was observed at all frequencies.

  4. Flow Characteristics of Plane Wall Jet with Side Walls on Both Sides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imao, Shigeki; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Kozato, Yasuaki; Hayashi, Takayasu

    Flow characteristics of a two-dimensional jet with side walls have been studied experimentally. Three kinds of cylindrical walls and a flat wall were provided as the side walls, and they were combined and attached to a nozzle. Nine types of side wall conditions were investigated. Velocity was measured by a hot-wire probe and the separation point was measured by a Pitot tube. Mean velocity profiles, the growth of the jet half-width, the decay of jet maximum velocity, and the attachment distance were clarified. When cylindrical walls with different radii are installed, the flow pattern changes markedly depending on the velocity of the jet. A striking increase in the jet half-width is related to the separation of flow from the smaller cylindrical wall just behind the nozzle.

  5. Reynolds stress closure in jet flows using wave models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Philip J.

    1990-01-01

    A collection of papers is presented. The outline of this report is as follows. Chapter three contains a description of a weakly nonlinear turbulence model that was developed. An essential part of the application of such a closure scheme to general geometry jets is the solution of the local hydrodynamic stability equation for a given jet cross-section. Chapter four describes the conformal mapping schemes used to map such geometries onto a simple computational domain. Chapter five describes a solution of a stability problem for circular, elliptic, and rectangular geometries. In chapter six linear models for the shock shell structure in non-circular jets is given. The appendices contain reprints of papers also published during this study including the following topics: (1) instability of elliptic jets; (2) a technique for predicting the shock cell structure in non-circular jets using a vortex sheet model; and (3) the resonant interaction between twin supersonic jets.

  6. Contribution of heat transfer to turbine blades and vanes for high temperature industrial gas turbines. Part 2: Heat transfer on serpentine flow passage.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, K; Aoki, S

    2001-05-01

    The improvement of the heat transfer coefficient of the 1st row blades in high temperature industrial gas turbines is one of the most important issues to ensure reliable performance of these components and to attain high thermal efficiency of the facility. This paper deals with the contribution of heat transfer to increase the turbine inlet temperature of such gas turbines in order to attain efficient and environmentally benign engines. Following the experiments described in Part 1, a set of trials was conducted to clarify the influence of the blade's rotating motion on the heat transfer coefficient for internal serpentine flow passages with turbulence promoters. Test results are shown and discussed in this second part of the contribution.

  7. Laminar and turbulent nozzle-jet flows and their acoustic near-field

    SciTech Connect

    Bühler, Stefan; Obrist, Dominik; Kleiser, Leonhard

    2014-08-15

    We investigate numerically the effects of nozzle-exit flow conditions on the jet-flow development and the near-field sound at a diameter-based Reynolds number of Re{sub D} = 18 100 and Mach number Ma = 0.9. Our computational setup features the inclusion of a cylindrical nozzle which allows to establish a physical nozzle-exit flow and therefore well-defined initial jet-flow conditions. Within the nozzle, the flow is modeled by a potential flow core and a laminar, transitional, or developing turbulent boundary layer. The goal is to document and to compare the effects of the different jet inflows on the jet flow development and the sound radiation. For laminar and transitional boundary layers, transition to turbulence in the jet shear layer is governed by the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. With the turbulent nozzle boundary layer, the jet flow development is characterized by a rapid changeover to a turbulent free shear layer within about one nozzle diameter. Sound pressure levels are strongly enhanced for laminar and transitional exit conditions compared to the turbulent case. However, a frequency and frequency-wavenumber analysis of the near-field pressure indicates that the dominant sound radiation characteristics remain largely unaffected. By applying a recently developed scaling procedure, we obtain a close match of the scaled near-field sound spectra for all nozzle-exit turbulence levels and also a reasonable agreement with experimental far-field data.

  8. Laminar and turbulent nozzle-jet flows and their acoustic near-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Stefan; Obrist, Dominik; Kleiser, Leonhard

    2014-08-01

    We investigate numerically the effects of nozzle-exit flow conditions on the jet-flow development and the near-field sound at a diameter-based Reynolds number of ReD = 18 100 and Mach number Ma = 0.9. Our computational setup features the inclusion of a cylindrical nozzle which allows to establish a physical nozzle-exit flow and therefore well-defined initial jet-flow conditions. Within the nozzle, the flow is modeled by a potential flow core and a laminar, transitional, or developing turbulent boundary layer. The goal is to document and to compare the effects of the different jet inflows on the jet flow development and the sound radiation. For laminar and transitional boundary layers, transition to turbulence in the jet shear layer is governed by the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. With the turbulent nozzle boundary layer, the jet flow development is characterized by a rapid changeover to a turbulent free shear layer within about one nozzle diameter. Sound pressure levels are strongly enhanced for laminar and transitional exit conditions compared to the turbulent case. However, a frequency and frequency-wavenumber analysis of the near-field pressure indicates that the dominant sound radiation characteristics remain largely unaffected. By applying a recently developed scaling procedure, we obtain a close match of the scaled near-field sound spectra for all nozzle-exit turbulence levels and also a reasonable agreement with experimental far-field data.

  9. CFD Assessment of Orifice Aspect Ratio and Mass Flow Ratio on Jet Mixing in Rectangular Ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bain, D. B.; Smith, C. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Isothermal CFD analysis was performed on axially opposed rows of jets mixing with cross flow in a rectangular duct. Laterally, the jets' centerlines were aligned with each other on the top and bottom walls. The focus of this study was to characterize the effects of orifice aspect ratio and jet-to-mainstream mass flow ratio on jet penetration and mixing. Orifice aspect ratios (L/W) of 4-to-1, 2-to-1, and 1-to-1, along with circular holes, were parametrically analyzed. Likewise, jet-to-mainstream mass flow ratios (MR) of 2.0, 0.5, and 0.25 were systematically investigated. The jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio (J) was maintained at 36 for all cases, and the orifice spacing-to-duct height (S/H) was varied until optimum mixing was attained for each configuration. The numerical results showed that orifice aspect ratio (and likewise orifice blockage) had little effect on jet penetration and mixing. Based on mixing characteristics alone, the 4-to-1 slot was comparable to the circular orifice. The 4-to-1 slot has a smaller jet wake which may be advantageous for reducing emissions. However, the axial length of a 4-to-1 slot may be prohibitively long for practical application, especially for MR of 2.0. The jet-to-mainstream mass flow ratio had a more significant effect on jet penetration and mixing. For a 4-to-1 aspect ratio orifice, the design correlating parameter for optimum mixing (C = (S/H)(sq. root J)) varied from 2.25 for a mass flow ratio of 2.0 to 1.5 for a mass flow ratio of 0.25.

  10. Jet mixing into a heated cross flow in a cylindrical duct - Influence of geometry and flow variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatch, M. S.; Sowa, W. A.; Samuelson, G. S.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    To examine the mixing characteristics of jets in an axi-symmetric can geometry, temperature measurements were obtained downstream of a row of cold jets injected into a heated cross stream. Parametric, non-reacting experiments were conducted to determine the influence of geometry and flow variations on mixing patterns in a cylindrical configuration. Results show that jet to mainstream momentum flux ratio and orifice geometry significantly impact the mixing characteristics of jets in a can geometry. For a fixed number of orifices, the coupling between momentum flux ratio and injector determines (1) the degree of jet penetration at the injection plane, and (2) the extent of circumferential mixing downstream of the injection plane. The results also show that, at a fixed momentum flux ratio, jet penetration decreases with (1) an increase in slanted slot aspect ratio, and (2) an increase in the angle of the slots with respect to the mainstream direction.

  11. Jet mixing into a heated cross flow in a cylindrical duct: Influence of geometry and flow variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatch, M. S.; Sowa, W. A.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    To examine the mixing characteristics of jets in an axi-symmetric can geometry, temperature measurements were obtained downstream of a row of cold jets injected into a heated cross stream. Parametric, non-reacting experiments were conducted to determine the influence of geometry and flow variations on mixing patterns in a cylindrical configuration. Results show that jet to mainstream momentum flux ratio and orifice geometry significantly impact the mixing characteristics of jets in a can geometry. For a fixed number of orifices, the coupling between momentum flux ratio and injector determines (1) the degree of jet penetration at the injection plane, and (2) the extent of circumferential mixing downstream of the injection plane. The results also show that, at a fixed momentum flux ratio, jet penetration decreases with (1) an increase in slanted slot aspect ratio, and (2) an increase in the angle of the slots with respect to the mainstream direction.

  12. Jet flow issuing from an axisymmetric pipe-cavity-orifice nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broučková, Zuzana; Pušková, Pavlína; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Šafařík, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    An axisymmetric air jet flow is experimentally investigated under passive flow control. The jet issues from a pipe of the inner diameter and length of 10 mm and 150 mm which is equipped with an axisymmetric cavity at the pipe end. The cavity operates as a resonator creating self-sustained acoustic excitations of the jet flow. A mechanism of excitations is rather complex - in comparison with a common Helmholtz resonator. The experiments were performed using flow visualization, microphone measurements and time-mean velocity measurements by the Pitot probe. The power spectral density (PSD) and the sound pressure level (SPL) were evaluated from microphone measurements. The jet Reynolds number ranged Re = 1600-18 000. Distinguishable peaks in PSD indicated a function of the resonator. Because the most effective acoustic response was found at higher Re, a majority of experiments focused on higher Re regime. The results demonstrate effects of the passive control on the jet behavior. Fluid mixing and velocity decay along the axis is intensified. It causes shortening of the jet transition region. On the other hand, an inverse proportionality of the velocity decay (u ~ 1/x) in the fully developed region is not changed. The momentum and kinetic energy fluxes decrease more intensively in the controlled jets in comparison with common jets.

  13. A numerical investigation on the vortex formation and flow separation of the oscillatory flow in jet pumps.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Joris P; Bühler, Simon; van der Meer, Theo H; Wilcox, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the oscillatory flow through a tapered cylindrical tube section (jet pump) placed in a larger outer tube. Due to the shape of the jet pump, an asymmetry in the hydrodynamic end effects will exist which will cause a time-averaged pressure drop to occur that can be used to cancel Gedeon streaming in a closed-loop thermoacoustic device. The performance of two jet pump geometries with different taper angles is investigated. A specific time-domain impedance boundary condition is implemented in order to simulate traveling acoustic wave conditions. It is shown that by scaling the acoustic displacement amplitude to the jet pump dimensions, similar minor losses are observed independent of the jet pump geometry. Four different flow regimes are distinguished and the observed flow phenomena are related to the jet pump performance. The simulated jet pump performance is compared to an existing quasi-steady approximation which is shown to only be valid for small displacement amplitudes compared to the jet pump length.

  14. Alkyne-azide cycloadditions with copper powder in a high-pressure continuous-flow reactor: high-temperature conditions versus the role of additives.

    PubMed

    Ötvös, Sándor B; Mándity, István M; Kiss, Lóránd; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2013-04-01

    A safe and efficient flow-chemistry-based procedure is presented for 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions between organic azides and acetylenes. This simple and inexpensive technique eliminates the need for costly special apparatus and utilizes Cu powder as a plausible Cu(I) source. To maximize the reaction rates, high-pressure/high-temperature conditions are utilized; alternatively, the harsh reaction conditions can be moderated at room temperature by the joint application of basic and acidic additives. A comparison of the performance of these two approaches in a series of model reactions has resulted in the formation of useful 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles in excellent yields. The risks that are associated with the handling of azides are lowered, thanks to the benefits of flow processing, and gram-scale production has been safely implemented. The synthetic capability of this continuous-flow technique is demonstrated by the efficient syntheses of some highly functionalized derivatives of the antifungal cispentacin. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Prediction of Drag Reduction in Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows with Counterflow Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daso, Endwell O.; Beaulieu, Warren; Hager, James O.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics solutions of the flowfield of a truncated cone-cylinder with and without counterflow jets have been obtained for the short penetration mode (SPM) and long penetration mode (LPM) of the freestream-counterflow jet interaction flowfield. For the case without the counterflow jet, the comparison of the normalized surface pressures showed very good agreement with experimental data. For the case with the SPM jet, the predicted surface pressures did not compare as well with the experimental data upstream of the expansion corner, while aft of the expansion corner, the comparison of the solution and the data is seen to give much better agreement. The difference in the prediction and the data could be due to the transient character of the jet penetration modes, possible effects of the plasma physics that are not accounted for here, or even the less likely effect of flow turbulence, etc. For the LPM jet computations, one-dimensional isentropic relations were used to derived the jet exit conditions in order to obtain the LPM solutions. The solution for the jet exit Mach number of 3 shows a jet penetration several times longer than that of the SPM, and therefore much weaker bow shock, with an attendant reduction in wave drag. The LPM jet is, in essence, seen to be a "pencil" of fluid, with much higher dynamic pressure, embedded in the oncoming supersonic or hypersonic freestream. The methodology for determining the conditions for the LPM jet could enable a practical approach for the design and application of counterflow LPM jets for the reduction of wave drag and heat flux, thus significantly enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics and aerothermal performance of supersonic and hypersonic vehicles. The solutions show that the qualitative flow structure is very well captured. The obtained results, therefore, suggest that counterflowing jets are viable candidate technology concepts that can be employed to give significant reductions in wave drag, heat

  16. Using the VentCam and Optical Plume Velocimetry to Measure High-Temperature Hydrothermal Fluid Flow Rates in the ASHES Vent Field on Axial Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, T. J.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Fornari, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid flow rates through high-temperature mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents are likely quite sensitive to poroelastic forcing mechanisms such as tidal loading and tectonic activity. Because poroelastic deformation and flow perturbations are estimated to extend to considerable depths within young oceanic crust, observations of flow rate changes at seafloor vents have the potential to provide constraints on the flow geometry and permeability structure of the underlying hydrothermal systems, as well as the quantities of heat and chemicals they exchange with overlying ocean, and the potential biological productivity of ecosystems they host. To help provide flow rate measurements in these challenging environments, we have developed two new optical flow oriented technologies. The first is a new form of Optical Plume Velocimetry (OPV) which relies on single-frame temporal cross-correlation to obtain time-averaged image velocity fields from short video sequences. The second is the VentCam, a deep sea camera system that can collect high-frame-rate video sequences at focused hydrothermal vents suitable for analysis with OPV. During the July 2014 R/V Atlantis/Alvin expedition to Axial Seamount, we deployed the VentCam at the ~300C Phoenix vent within the ASHES vent field and positioned it with DSRV Alvin. We collected 24 seconds of video at 50 frames per second every half-hour for approximately 10 days beginning July 22nd. We are currently applying single-frame lag OPV to these videos to estimate relative and absolute fluid flow rates through this vent. To explore the relationship between focused and diffuse venting, we deployed a second optical flow camera, the Diffuse Effluent Measurement System (DEMS), adjacent to this vent at a fracture within the lava carapace where low-T (~30C) fluids were exiting. This system collected video sequences and diffuse flow measurements at overlapping time intervals. Here we present the preliminary results of our work with VentCam and OPV

  17. Mean Flow and Noise Prediction for a Separate Flow Jet With Chevron Mixers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Bridges, James; Khavaran, Abbas

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results are presented here for a separate flow nozzle employing chevrons arranged in an alternating pattern on the core nozzle. Comparisons of these results demonstrate that the combination of the WIND/MGBK suite of codes can predict the noise reduction trends measured between separate flow jets with and without chevrons on the core nozzle. Mean flow predictions were validated against Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), pressure, and temperature data, and noise predictions were validated against acoustic measurements recorded in the NASA Glenn Aeroacoustic Propulsion Lab. Comparisons are also made to results from the CRAFT code. The work presented here is part of an on-going assessment of the WIND/MGBK suite for use in designing the next generation of quiet nozzles for turbofan engines.

  18. Computational analysis for dry-ice sublimation assisted CO2 jet impingement flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Songmi; Lee, Jaeseon

    2015-11-01

    The flow and heat transfer characteristics of the novel gas-solid two-phase jet impingement are investigated computationally. When the high pressure carbon dioxide (CO2) flow passes through a nozzle or orifice, it experiences the sudden expansion and the rapid temperature drop occurred by Joule-Thomson effect. This temperature drop causes the lower bulk jet fluid temperature than the CO2 sublimation line, so dry-ice becomes formed. By using CO2 gas-solid mixture as a working fluid of jet impingement, it is expected the heat transfer enhancement can be achieved due to the low bulk temperature and the additional phase change latent heat. In this study, 2D CFD model is created to predict the cooling effect of gas-solid CO2 jet. The gas-solid CO2 flow is considered by Euler-Lagrangian approach of mixed phase and the additional heat transfer module is embedded to account for the sublimation phenomena of the solid state CO2. The jet flow and heat transfer performance of gas-solid CO2 jet is investigated by the variance of flow parameter like Reynolds number, solid phase concentration and jet geometries.

  19. Flow-structure interaction effects on a jet emanating from a flexible nozzle

    PubMed Central

    Murugappan, S.; Gutmark, E. J.; Lakhamraju, R. R.; Khosla, S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a wide variety of applications have been found for the use of pulsed jets in the area of flow control. The goal of the current study was to identify the flow field and mixing characteristics associated with an incompressible elongated jet emitted from a flexible nozzle. The shape of the nozzle was that of a high aspect ratio jet deforming from a fully opened to a completely closed configuration. The jet was characterized by a pulsatile flow that was self-excited by the motion of the flexible tube. The frequency of excitation was found to be between 150 and 175 Hz and the Strouhal number (nondimensional frequency) varied from 0.17 to 0.45. The jet flow was dominated by vortices that were shed from the nozzle with an axis parallel to the major axis. The vortices in the near field were quasi-two-dimensional so that measurements performed at the center plane represented the dynamics of the entire vortex. The nozzle excited two different modes depending on the tension applied to the flexible nozzle and the volumetric flow through it. The first was a flapping mode, which was associated with alternate shedding of vortices. This caused strong steering of the jet to one side or the other. The second mode was a symmetric mode that was associated with the formation of counter-rotating vortex pairs. Turbulence and jet spread in the measured planes were much larger in the first mode than the second one. PMID:19547723

  20. Flow-structure interaction effects on a jet emanating from a flexible nozzle.

    PubMed

    Murugappan, S; Gutmark, E J; Lakhamraju, R R; Khosla, S

    2008-11-01

    In recent years, a wide variety of applications have been found for the use of pulsed jets in the area of flow control. The goal of the current study was to identify the flow field and mixing characteristics associated with an incompressible elongated jet emitted from a flexible nozzle. The shape of the nozzle was that of a high aspect ratio jet deforming from a fully opened to a completely closed configuration. The jet was characterized by a pulsatile flow that was self-excited by the motion of the flexible tube. The frequency of excitation was found to be between 150 and 175 Hz and the Strouhal number (nondimensional frequency) varied from 0.17 to 0.45. The jet flow was dominated by vortices that were shed from the nozzle with an axis parallel to the major axis. The vortices in the near field were quasi-two-dimensional so that measurements performed at the center plane represented the dynamics of the entire vortex. The nozzle excited two different modes depending on the tension applied to the flexible nozzle and the volumetric flow through it. The first was a flapping mode, which was associated with alternate shedding of vortices. This caused strong steering of the jet to one side or the other. The second mode was a symmetric mode that was associated with the formation of counter-rotating vortex pairs. Turbulence and jet spread in the measured planes were much larger in the first mode than the second one.

  1. A Parametric Study of Jet Interactions with Rarefied Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional computational techniques, in particular the uncoupled CFD-DSMC of the present study, are available to be applied to problems such as jet interactions with variable density regions ranging from a continuum jet to a rarefied free stream. When the value of the jet to free stream momentum flux ratio approximately greater than 2000 for a sharp leading edge flat plate forward separation vortices induced by the jet interaction are present near the surface. Also as the free stream number density n (infinity) decreases, the extent and magnitude of normalized pressure increases and moves upstream of the nozzle exit. Thus for the flat plate model the effect of decreasing n (infinity) is to change the sign of the moment caused by the jet interaction on the flat plate surface.

  2. Buoyancy Effects on Flow Structure and Instability of Low-Density Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasumarthi, Kasyap Sriramachandra

    2004-01-01

    A low-density gas jet injected into a high-density ambient gas is known to exhibit self-excited global oscillations accompanied by large vortical structures interacting with the flow field. The primary objective of the proposed research is to study buoyancy effects on the origin and nature of the flow instability and structure in the near-field of low-density gas jets. Quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Linear stability analysis were the techniques employed to scale the buoyancy effects. The formation and evolution of vortices and scalar structure of the flow field are investigated in buoyant helium jets discharged from a vertical tube into quiescent air. Oscillations at identical frequency were observed throughout the flow field. The evolving flow structure is described by helium mole percentage contours during an oscillation cycle. Instantaneous, mean, and RMS concentration profiles are presented to describe interactions of the vortex with the jet flow. Oscillations in a narrow wake region near the jet exit are shown to spread through the jet core near the downstream location of the vortex formation. The effects of jet Richardson number on characteristics of vortex and flow field are investigated and discussed. The laminar, axisymmetric, unsteady jet flow of helium injected into air was simulated using CFD. Global oscillations were observed in the flow field. The computed oscillation frequency agreed qualitatively with the experimentally measured frequency. Contours of helium concentration, vorticity and velocity provided information about the evolution and propagation of vortices in the oscillating flow field. Buoyancy effects on the instability mode were evaluated by rainbow schlieren flow visualization and concentration measurements in the near-field of self-excited helium jets undergoing gravitational change in the microgravity environment of 2.2s drop tower at NASA John H. Glenn Research Center. The jet

  3. Numerical Study of a Continuum Sonic Jet Interacting with a Rarefield Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Christoper E.

    1997-01-01

    The results of a numerical study with flow and boundary conditions based on an experiment of a continuum sonic jet interacting with rarefied flow about a sharp leading edge flat plate at zero incidence are presented. Comparisons are made between computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) solutions which provide an assessment of applying each technique to the flow conditions of the experiment. An analysis of the CFD results revealed a correlation between the interaction interface of the jet continuum breakdown surface and a non-dimensional parameter derived from jet and free stream flow conditions. Using the breakdown surface from the correlation, the continuum jet was uncoupled from the interaction, thus allowing an uncoupled CFD-DSMC solution to be obtained. Also, a nearest neighbor collision algorithm, similar to the subcell technique, was implemented in the DSMC solution technique. The comparison between CFD and DSMC results shows good qualitative agreement in the interaction region and good quantitative agreement elsewhere.

  4. A CFD study of gas-solid jet in a CFB riser flow

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Guenther, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a gas–solid jet in a high-density riser flow were conducted. The impact of gas–solid injection on the riser flow hydrodynamics was investigated with respect to voidage, tracer mass fractions, and solids velocity distribution. The behaviors of a gas–solid jet in the riser crossflow were studied through the unsteady numerical simulations. Substantial separation of the jetting gas and solids in the riser crossflow was observed. Mixing of the injected gas and solids with the riser flow was investigated and backmixing of gas and solids was evaluated. In the current numerical study, both the overall hydrodynamics of riser flow and the characteristics of gas–solid jet were reasonably predicted compared with the experimental measurements made at NETL.

  5. High temperature reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulera, I. V.; Sinha, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of high temperature reactors, nuclear energy, in addition to producing electricity, has shown enormous potential for the production of alternate transport energy carrier such as hydrogen. High efficiency hydrogen production processes need process heat at temperatures around 1173-1223 K. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), is currently developing concepts of high temperature reactors capable of supplying process heat around 1273 K. These reactors would provide energy to facilitate combined production of hydrogen, electricity, and drinking water. Compact high temperature reactor is being developed as a technology demonstrator for associated technologies. Design has been also initiated for a 600 MWth innovative high temperature reactor. High temperature reactor development programme has opened new avenues for research in areas like advanced nuclear fuels, high temperature and corrosion resistant materials and protective coatings, heavy liquid metal coolant technologies, etc. The paper highlights design of these reactors and their material related requirements.

  6. Flow topologies and turbulence scales in a jet-in-cross-flow

    DOE PAGES

    Oefelein, Joseph C.; Ruiz, Anthony M.; Lacaze, Guilhem

    2015-04-03

    This study presents a detailed analysis of the flow topologies and turbulence scales in the jet-in-cross-flow experiment of [Su and Mungal JFM 2004]. The analysis is performed using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique with a highly resolved grid and time-step and well controlled boundary conditions. This enables quantitative agreement with the first and second moments of turbulence statistics measured in the experiment. LES is used to perform the analysis since experimental measurements of time-resolved 3D fields are still in their infancy and because sampling periods are generally limited with direct numerical simulation. A major focal point is the comprehensivemore » characterization of the turbulence scales and their evolution. Time-resolved probes are used with long sampling periods to obtain maps of the integral scales, Taylor microscales, and turbulent kinetic energy spectra. Scalar-fluctuation scales are also quantified. In the near-field, coherent structures are clearly identified, both in physical and spectral space. Along the jet centerline, turbulence scales grow according to a classical one-third power law. However, the derived maps of turbulence scales reveal strong inhomogeneities in the flow. From the modeling perspective, these insights are useful to design optimized grids and improve numerical predictions in similar configurations.« less

  7. Flow topologies and turbulence scales in a jet-in-cross-flow

    SciTech Connect

    Oefelein, Joseph C.; Ruiz, Anthony M.; Lacaze, Guilhem

    2015-04-03

    This study presents a detailed analysis of the flow topologies and turbulence scales in the jet-in-cross-flow experiment of [Su and Mungal JFM 2004]. The analysis is performed using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique with a highly resolved grid and time-step and well controlled boundary conditions. This enables quantitative agreement with the first and second moments of turbulence statistics measured in the experiment. LES is used to perform the analysis since experimental measurements of time-resolved 3D fields are still in their infancy and because sampling periods are generally limited with direct numerical simulation. A major focal point is the comprehensive characterization of the turbulence scales and their evolution. Time-resolved probes are used with long sampling periods to obtain maps of the integral scales, Taylor microscales, and turbulent kinetic energy spectra. Scalar-fluctuation scales are also quantified. In the near-field, coherent structures are clearly identified, both in physical and spectral space. Along the jet centerline, turbulence scales grow according to a classical one-third power law. However, the derived maps of turbulence scales reveal strong inhomogeneities in the flow. From the modeling perspective, these insights are useful to design optimized grids and improve numerical predictions in similar configurations.

  8. Effect of flow rate on the spray characteristics of impinging water jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassallo, P.; Ashgriz, N.; Boorady, F. A.

    1992-10-01

    An experimental study of the spray characteristics of impinging turbulent water jets is conducted using a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). Both two and four impinging jet injectors are examined. The Reynolds number of the jets is varied in the range 3000-7500. Detailed distribution of diameter, velocity number density, and volume flux for each case is reported. For the injector with two jets impinging on each other at a 90-deg angle, mean drop size reduces, and mean velocity and number density increase as the jet velocities increase. The volume flux increases or decreases depending on the location on the cross section of the spray. The four-impinging-jet injector is made up of two parallel jets at the center and two other side jets, at the same plane, impinging on them at 45-deg angle. For this injector, as the flow rate of two parallel jets increases, a critical flow rate is obtained, below which the mean drop size and velocity increase and above which they decrease.

  9. Wing shielding of high velocity jet and shock-associated noise with cold and hot flow jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U.; Groesbeck, D.; Wagner, J.

    1976-01-01

    Jet exhaust noise shielding data are presented for cold and hot flows (ambient to 1,100 K) and pressure ratios from 1.7 to 2.75. A nominal 9.5-cm diameter conical nozzle was used with simple shielding surfaces that were varied in length from 28.8 to 114.3 cm. The nozzle was located 8.8 cm above the surfaces. The acoustic data with the various sheilding lengths are compared to each other and to that for the nozzle alone. In general, short shielding surfaces that provided shielding for subsonic jets did not provide as much shielding for jets with shock noise, however, long shielding surfaces did shield shock noise effectively.

  10. Wing shielding of high-velocity jet and shock-associated noise with cold and hot flow jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Glahn, U.; Groesbeck, D.; Wagner, J.

    1976-01-01

    Jet exhaust noise shielding data are presented for cold and hot flows (ambient to 1100 K) and pressure ratios from 1.7 to 2.75. A nominal 9.5-cm diameter conical nozzle was used with simple shielding surfaces that were varied in length from 28.8 to 114.3 cm. The nozzle was located 8.8 cm above the surfaces. The acoustic data with the various shielding lengths are compared to each other and to that for the nozzle alone. In general, short shielding surfaces that provided shielding for subsonic jets did not provide as much shielding for jets with shock noise; however, long shielding surfaces did shield shock noise effectively.

  11. Wing shielding of high-velocity jet and shock-associated noise with cold and hot flow jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Glahn, U.; Groesbeck, D.; Wagner, J.

    1976-01-01

    Jet exhaust noise shielding data are presented for cold and hot flows (ambient to 1100 K) and pressure ratios from 1.7 to 2.75. A nominal 9.5-cm diameter conical nozzle was used with simple shielding surfaces that were varied in length from 28.8 to 114.3 cm. The nozzle was located 8.8 cm above the surfaces. The acoustic data with the various shielding lengths are compared to each other and to that for the nozzle alone. In general, short shielding surfaces that provided shielding for subsonic jets did not provide as much shielding for jets with shock noise; however, long shielding surfaces did shield shock noise effectively.

  12. Flow and far field acoustic amplification properties of heated and unheated jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.; Bayliss, A.

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of an acoustic pulse with the experimentally determined mean flow field of a spreading jet is simulated numerically. The simulation is obtained through solving the Euler equations linearized about the spreading jet. The model reveals a small, sustained oscillation long after the original pulse has passed. This remnant is considered a continual shedding of vortices from the nozzle lip, together with the generation of acoustic ripples. IT is shown that the jet also acts as an amplifier of sound. This amplification is traced to the jet's stability characteristics. It is demonstrated that some of the observed differences in the spectra of heated and unheated jets can be attributed to differences in the stability characteristics of the jets.

  13. High-temperature thermodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margrave, J. L.

    1967-01-01

    High temperature thermodynamics requiring species and phases identification, crystal structures, molecular geometries and vibrational, rotational and electronic energy levels and equilibrium constants

  14. Cold Flow Diluent Mixing Study Using Radial High Density Ratio Jets into a Circular Freestream

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    CAD) solid models. From the CAD model, computational grids are generated for the CFD simulations using Gridgen v.15. Appropriate flow modeling...release, Distribution is unlimited 4 Figure 2: Geometry and Mesh Boundaries in Water Jet Simulations Grid Generation and Flow Model GRIDGEN v.15...generated using GRIDGEN v.15. Figure 4 shows the computational domain for the dual-jet configuration. The modeled domain contains 1.3 to 1.8

  15. Experiments on the flow and acoustic properties of a moderate-Reynolds-number supersonic jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troutt, T. R.; Mclaughlin, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Flow and acoustic properties of a jet at Reynolds number of 70,000 were studied at Mach 2.1. Measurements in a free jet test facility were made with pitot tubes and hot-wire anemometry. Center-line Mach number distributions for natural and excited jets were obtained. A slow initial growth rate was in the potential core region of the jet, indicating a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in moderate Reynolds number jets. The transition occurred within the first 2-3 diameters. Spectral components were calculated for the fluctuating flowfield, and sound pressure levels were measured for the overall near-field noise. The centroid of noise was located about 8 nozzle diameters downstream. The growth rates of instabilities were determined to be in agreement with linear stability theory predictions over a broad frequency range.

  16. Gravitational Effects on Flow Instability and Transition in Low Density Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal A. K.; Parthasarathy, K.; Pasumarthi, K.; Griffin, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that low-density gas jets injected into a high-density ambient gas undergo an instability mode, leading to highly-periodic oscillations in the flow-field for certain conditions. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow in these jets is abrupt, without the gradual change in scales. Even the fine scale turbulent structure repeats itself with extreme regularity from cycle to cycle. Similar observations were obtained in buoyancy-dominated and momentum-dominated jets characterized by the Richardson numbers, Ri = [gD(rho(sub a)-rho(sub j))/rho(sub j)U(sub j)(exp 2) ] where g is the gravitational acceleration, D is the jet diameter, rho(sub a) and rho(sub a) are, respectively, the free-stream and jet densities, and U(sub j) is the mean jet exit velocity. At high Richardson numbers, the instability is presumably caused by buoyancy since the flow-oscillation frequency (f) or the Strouhal number, St = [fD/U(sub j)] scales with Ri. In momentum-dominated jets, however, the Strouhal number of the oscillating flow is relatively independent of the Ri. In this case, a local absolute instability is predicted in the potential core of low-density jets with S [= rho(sub j)/rho(sub a)] < 0.7, which agrees qualitatively with experiments. Although the instability in gas jets of high Richardson numbers is attributed to buoyancy, direct physical evidence has not been acquired in experiments. If the instability is indeed caused by buoyancy, the near-field flow structure of the jet will change significantly when the buoyancy is removed, for example, in the microgravity environment. Thus, quantitative data on the spatial and temporal evolutions of the instability, length and time scale of the oscillating mode and its effects on the mean flow and breakdown of the potential core are needed in normal and microgravity to delineate gravitational effects in buoyant jets. In momentum dominated low-density jets, the instability is speculated to originate in the

  17. Gravitational Effects on Flow Instability and Transition in Low Density Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal A. K.; Parthasarathy, K.; Pasumarthi, K.; Griffin, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that low-density gas jets injected into a high-density ambient gas undergo an instability mode, leading to highly-periodic oscillations in the flow-field for certain conditions. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow in these jets is abrupt, without the gradual change in scales. Even the fine scale turbulent structure repeats itself with extreme regularity from cycle to cycle. Similar observations were obtained in buoyancy-dominated and momentum-dominated jets characterized by the Richardson numbers, Ri = [gD(rho(sub a)-rho(sub j))/rho(sub j)U(sub j)(exp 2) ] where g is the gravitational acceleration, D is the jet diameter, rho(sub a) and rho(sub a) are, respectively, the free-stream and jet densities, and U(sub j) is the mean jet exit velocity. At high Richardson numbers, the instability is presumably caused by buoyancy since the flow-oscillation frequency (f) or the Strouhal number, St = [fD/U(sub j)] scales with Ri. In momentum-dominated jets, however, the Strouhal number of the oscillating flow is relatively independent of the Ri. In this case, a local absolute instability is predicted in the potential core of low-density jets with S [= rho(sub j)/rho(sub a)] < 0.7, which agrees qualitatively with experiments. Although the instability in gas jets of high Richardson numbers is attributed to buoyancy, direct physical evidence has not been acquired in experiments. If the instability is indeed caused by buoyancy, the near-field flow structure of the jet will change significantly when the buoyancy is removed, for example, in the microgravity environment. Thus, quantitative data on the spatial and temporal evolutions of the instability, length and time scale of the oscillating mode and its effects on the mean flow and breakdown of the potential core are needed in normal and microgravity to delineate gravitational effects in buoyant jets. In momentum dominated low-density jets, the instability is speculated to originate in the

  18. CFD simulations of closely spaced jets in shallow flowing ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Ishita; Adams, E. Eric

    2016-11-01

    In shallow water bodies, multiple closely spaced jets are often used to discharge industrial effluents such as brine from desalination plants, heated water from thermal power plants and wastewater from wastewater treatment plants. The jets interact with each other due to effects of dynamic pressure and result in jet trajectories and mixing that are significantly different from non-interfering jets. Here, we look at the case of a unidirectional diffuser, which consists of a linear array of jets discharging horizontally in the direction perpendicular to the diffuser. Dilution through such an arrangement of jets depends on various discharge and ambient parameters, such as effluent buoyancy, water depth and ambient current. We present results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and compare them with experimental observations to examine the effects of shallowness, shoreline separation and ambient currents on the mixing of a unidirectional diffuser. We observe that shallow depth, shoreline proximity and crossflow, all result in increased interaction among the jets and reduced mixing.

  19. Performance Enhancement of a Vertical Tail Using Synthetic Jet Actuators: Flow Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathay, Nicholas; Whalen, Edward; Amitay, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Using aerodynamic flow control techniques, it is possible to reduce the severity or even eliminate the flow separation that occurs over the rudder of a vertical tail on a commercial airplane when it is deflected to high angles. Decreasing the extent of separated flow would result in a larger side force generated by the tail. This could allow for the size of the tail to be reduced, decreasing the overall weight and drag, and potentially creating considerable savings in fuel costs. In this work, wind tunnel experiments were conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute on a 1/19th scale model of a vertical tail. It was shown that synthetic jet (zero-net-mass-flux) actuators were capable of decreasing the separated flow over the rudder and increasing the side force. Furthermore, Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry was used to understand the interaction of the synthetic jets with the flow over the rudder. The measurements showed regions of reduced and enhanced velocity (relative to the baseline) in the vicinity of the jet trajectory. These regions were believed to in part be the result of an interaction between the synthetic jets' edge vortices and the crossflow. The data suggested that in this application the synthetic jet flow control system could more effective at augmenting side force if the jet orifices were designed or aligned in such a way to modify the weighted contribution of these vortices.

  20. Three-dimensional flow over a conical afterbody containing a centered propulsive jet: A numerical simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiwert, G. S.; Rothmund, H.

    1984-01-01

    The supersonic flow field over a body of revolution incident to the free stream is simulated numerically on a large, array processor (the CDC CYBER 205). The configuration is composed of a cone-cylinder forebody followed by a conical afterbody from which emanates a centered, supersonic propulsive jet. The free-stream Mach number is 2, the jet-exist Mach number is 2.5, and the jet-to-free-stream static pressure ratio is 3. Both the external flow and the exhaust are ideal air at a common total temperature.

  1. Development of an Abrasive Water Jet Optimum Abrasive Flow Rate Model for Titanium Alloy Cutting (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    AFRL-ML-WP-TP-2006-433 DEVELOPMENT OF AN ABRASIVE WATER JET OPTIMUM ABRASIVE FLOW RATE MODEL FOR TITANIUM ALLOY CUTTING (PREPRINT) S.J...Preprint 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-04-C-5704 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ABRASIVE WATER JET OPTIMUM ABRASIVE FLOW...disclose the work by or on behalf of the U. S. Government. PAO Case Number: AFRL/WS 06-1319, 16 May 2006. 14. ABSTRACT As the abrasive water jet (AWJ

  2. Effect of the Ammonia Flow on the Formation of Microstructure Defects in GaN Layers Grown by High-Temperature Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchuk, M.; Lukin, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Röder, C.; Motylenko, M.; Pätzold, O.; Heitmann, J.; Kortus, J.; Rafaja, D.

    2016-12-01

    High-temperature vapor phase epitaxy (HTVPE) is a physical vapor transport technology for a deposition of gallium nitride (GaN) layers. However, little is known about the influence of the deposition parameters on the microstructure of the layers. In order to fill this gap, the influence of the ammonia (NH3) flow applied during the HTVPE growth on the microstructure of the deposited GaN layers is investigated in this work. Although the HTVPE technology is intended to grow GaN layers on foreign substrates, the GaN layers under study were grown on GaN templates produced by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy in order to be able to separate the growth defects from the defects induced by the lattice misfit between the foreign substrate and the GaN layer. The microstructure of the layers is characterized by means of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. In samples deposited at low ammonia flow, planar defects were detected, along which the nitrogen atoms are found to be substituted by impurity atoms. The interplay between these planar defects and the threading dislocations is discussed. A combination of XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals the presence of compressive residual stress in the samples.

  3. Effect of the Ammonia Flow on the Formation of Microstructure Defects in GaN Layers Grown by High-Temperature Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchuk, M.; Lukin, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Röder, C.; Motylenko, M.; Pätzold, O.; Heitmann, J.; Kortus, J.; Rafaja, D.

    2017-03-01

    High-temperature vapor phase epitaxy (HTVPE) is a physical vapor transport technology for a deposition of gallium nitride (GaN) layers. However, little is known about the influence of the deposition parameters on the microstructure of the layers. In order to fill this gap, the influence of the ammonia (NH3) flow applied during the HTVPE growth on the microstructure of the deposited GaN layers is investigated in this work. Although the HTVPE technology is intended to grow GaN layers on foreign substrates, the GaN layers under study were grown on GaN templates produced by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy in order to be able to separate the growth defects from the defects induced by the lattice misfit between the foreign substrate and the GaN layer. The microstructure of the layers is characterized by means of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. In samples deposited at low ammonia flow, planar defects were detected, along which the nitrogen atoms are found to be substituted by impurity atoms. The interplay between these planar defects and the threading dislocations is discussed. A combination of XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals the presence of compressive residual stress in the samples.

  4. Modulating flow and aerodynamic characteristics of a square cylinder in crossflow using a rear jet injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rong F.; Hsu, Ching M.; Chen, Yu T.

    2017-01-01

    The temporally evolved flow behaviors around a square cylinder subject to modulation of a planar jet issued from the cylinder's downstream surface into the wake were studied using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization method and synchronized hot-wire anemometers. The drag force asserted on the square cylinder was obtained by measuring the surface pressures. Four characteristic flow modes (wake-dominated, transitional, critical, and jet-dominated) were observed in different regimes of freestream Reynolds number and jet injection ratio. In the wake-dominated mode, the jet swung periodically back and forth on the downstream surface due to the wake vortex shedding. In the transitional mode, the vortex shedding in the wake vanished so that the flow around the cylinder presented no periodic oscillations. In the critical mode, the wake width became smaller and therefore made the vortex shedding frequency larger than that observed in the wake dominated mode. In the jet-dominated mode, the jet had a large momentum that entrained wake fluids and therefore stabilized the instabilities of the wake, separated boundary layers on lateral surfaces, and stagnation point on the upstream surface. Two standing vortices appeared in the near wake beside the high-momentum jet. The width of the wake was decreased substantially by jet entrainment. The drag coefficient decreased with an increase in the jet injection ratio. The downstream surface jet injection caused the pressure coefficients to decrease at the upstream surface and to increase at the downstream surface. Therefore, the drag coefficients were decreased significantly by 26%, 33%, and 38% at the injection ratios of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5, respectively.

  5. Cooled High-Temperature Radial Turbine Program. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    proposed for advanced engines with high power-to-weight and inproved SFC requirements. The addition of cooling to the blades of a metal radial turbine ...4 secl/2 ) 62.2 Blade - jet Speed Ratio 0.66 Adiabatic Efficiency (T-to-T, %) 87.0 Cooling flows for the gasifier turbine section are set at 5.7%. The...Way Cincinnati, OH 45215-6301 85 COOLED HIGH-TEMPERATURE RADIAL TURBINE PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION LIST Number Qf Copies General Electric Aircraft Engines

  6. Flow Physics of Synthetic Jet Interactions on a Sweptback Model with a Control Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastero, Marianne; Amitay, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Active flow control using synthetic jets can be used on aerodynamic surfaces to improve performance and increase fuel efficiency. The flowfield resulting from the interaction of the jets with a separated crossflow with a spanwise component must be understood to determine actuator spacing for aircraft integration. The current and previous work showed adjacent synthetic jets located upstream of a control surface hingeline on a sweptback model interact with each other under certain conditions. Whether these interactions are constructive or destructive is dependent on the spanwise spacing of the jets, the severity of separation over the control surface, and the magnitude of the spanwise flow. Measuring and understanding the detailed flow physics of the flow structures emanating from the synthetic jet orifices and their interactions with adjacent jets of varying spacings is the focus of this work. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Subsonic Wind Tunnel using stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV) and pressure measurements to study the effect that varying the spanwise spacing has on the overall performance. Initial SPIV data gave insight into defining and understanding the mechanisms behind the beneficial or detrimental jets interactions.

  7. Investigation of mean flow and turbulence for a variable-density jet near transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovitz, Stephen; Mastin, Larry; Viggiano, Bianca; Dib, Tamara; Ali, Nasim; Cal, Raul; Volcanic Plume Research Team Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Plumes can vary widely in size and speed in geophysical systems, with Reynolds numbers (Re) extending from thousands to billions. Concurrently, their densities also have significant deviations, resulting in Richardson numbers (Ri) from negligible levels to near one. To investigate a range of these flow conditions more closely, a laboratory-scale experiment considered helium jets exhausting into air. The tests considered Re from 1500 to 10000 and Ri magnitudes near 0.001, which encompasses a series of jet conditions near the exit, including laminar, transitioning, and turbulent flow. Using particle image velocimetry (PIV), instantaneous velocity fields were acquired, and these were used to determine the mean velocity, entrainment, and turbulent statistics. The laminar jet showed very little development or entrainment, with only minor fluctuations. Turbulent jets had rapid flow development, nearing fully-developed conditions earlier than similar non-buoyant jets. For the transitioning jet, the entrainment and turbulent stresses were significantly larger than even the fully turbulent jet, with axial normal stresses more than doubled. Examining the instantaneous flow fields, these increases coincided with large, non-axisymmetric eddies in the shear layer. Supported by NSF Grant #: EAR-1346580.

  8. Background noise measurements from jet exit vanes designed to reduced flow pulsations in an open-jet wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.; Martin, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Many open jet wind tunnels experience pulsations of the flow which are typically characterized by periodic low frequency velocity and pressure variations. One method of reducing these fluctuations is to install vanes around the perimeter of the jet exit to protrude into the flow. Although these vanes were shown to be effective in reducing the fluctuation content, they can also increase the test section background noise level. The results of an experimental acoustic program in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel is presented which evaluates the effect on tunnel background noise of such modifications to the jet exit nozzle. Noise levels for the baseline tunnel configuration are compared with those for three jet exit nozzle modifications, including an enhanced noise reduction configuration that minimizes the effect of the vanes on the background noise. Although the noise levels for this modified vane configuration were comparable to baseline tunnel background noise levels in this facility, installation of these modified vanes in an acoustic tunnel may be of concern because the noise levels for the vanes could be well above background noise levels in a quiet facility.

  9. High temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Maw-Kuen

    1987-01-01

    The two principle objectives are to develop materials that superconduct at higher temperatures and to better understand the mechanisms behind high temperature superconductivity. Experiments on the thermal reaction, structure, and physical properties of materials that exhibit superconductivity at high temperatures are discussed.

  10. High temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  11. A high-temperature wideband pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the development of a pressure transducer for measurement of the pressure fluctuations in the high temperature environment of a jet exhaust is reported. A condenser microphone carrier system was adapted to meet the specifications. A theoretical analysis is presented which describes the operation of the condenser microphone in terms of geometry, materials, and other physical properties. The analysis was used as the basis for design of a prototype high temperature microphone. The feasibility of connecting the microphone to a converter over a high temperature cable operating as a half-wavelength transmission line was also examined.

  12. VTOL in ground effect flows for closely spaced jets. [to predict pressure and upwash forces on aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migdal, D.; Hill, W. G., Jr.; Jenkins, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a series of in ground effect twin jet tests are presented along with flow models for closely spaced jets to help predict pressure and upwash forces on simulated aircraft surfaces. The isolated twin jet tests revealed unstable fountains over a range of spacings and jet heights, regions of below ambient pressure on the ground, and negative pressure differential in the upwash flow field. A separate computer code was developed for vertically oriented, incompressible jets. This model more accurately reflects fountain behavior without fully formed wall jets, and adequately predicts ground isobars, upwash dynamic pressure decay, and fountain lift force variation with height above ground.

  13. Flow of a Two-Dimensional Liquid Metal Jet in a Strong Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molokov, S.; Reed, C. B.

    2002-01-01

    A combined effect of surface tension, gravity, inertia and a transverse nonuniform magnetic field on the steady, two-dimensional jet (or curtain) flow is studied with reference to liquid metal divertors of tokamaks and coating flows. Here main fundamental aspects of the flow are presented. More details on the assumptions, analysis and results are given in. Consider a steady flow of a viscous, electrically conducting, incompressible fluid in a jet pouring downward in the x-asterisk-direction (the direction of gravity) from a nozzle.

  14. MULTIPHASE FLOW CONCENTRATION CHARACTERIZATION IN SLURRIES DURING PULSE JET MIXING

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.

    2012-07-08

    Obtaining real-time, in situ slurry concentration measurements during unsteady mixing can provide increased understanding into mixer performance. During tests of an operating pulse jet mixing system, an ultrasonic attenuation sensor was inserted into a mixing vessel to measure the slurry concentration during unsteady mixing in real time. Pulse jet mixing tests to suspend noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid were conducted at three geometric scales. To understand the solids suspension process and resulting solids distribution, the concentration of solids in the cloud was measured at various elevations and radial positions during the pulse jet mixer cycle. This paper presents transient concentration data obtained at three scales at the tank center to provide insight into pulse jet mixer performance.

  15. The noise and flow characteristics of inverted-profile coannular jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanna, H. K.; Tester, B. J.; Lau, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    A basic understanding of the noise reduction mechanisms in shock-free inverted-velocity-profile coannular jets was studied. Acoustic measurements are first conducted in an anechoic facility to isolate the effects of inverted velocity and inverted temperature for coannular jets having constant total thrust, mass flow rate and exit area. To obtain physical explanations of the measured noise changes, several types of experiments are conducted. These include (1) source location experiments using the polar correlation technique, (2) mean flow surveys using a combination pressure/temperature probe, and (3) detailed mean flow and turbulence measurements using a two-point four-channel laser velocimeter. The results from these experiments are presented and discussed in detail. Finally, the measured variations of coannular jet mixing noise with fan-to-primary velocity ratio and static temperature ratio are interpreted by utilizing the results from the various experimental phases in conjunction with the existing Lockheed single jet noise prediction model.

  16. Numerical Investigation of the Interaction of Counterflowing Jets and Supersonic Capsule Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Ito, Yasushi; Cheng, Gary; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2011-01-01

    Use of counterflowing jets ejected into supersonic freestreams as a flow control concept to modify the external flowfield has gained renewed interest with regards to potential retropropulsion applications pertinent to entry, descent, and landing investigations. This study describes numerical computations of such a concept for a scaled wind-tunnel capsule model by employing the space-time conservation element solution element viscous flow solver with unstructured meshes. Both steady-state and time-accurate computations are performed for several configurations with different counterflowing jet Mach numbers. Axisymmetric computations exploring the effect of the jet flow rate and jet Mach number on the flow stability, jet interaction with the bow shock and its subsequent impact on the aerodynamic and aerothermal loads on the capsule body are carried out. Similar to previous experimental findings, both long and short penetration modes exist at a windtunnel Mach number of 3.48. It was found that both modes exhibit non-stationary behavior and the former is much more unstable than the latter. It was also found that the unstable long penetration mode only exists in a relatively small range of the jet mass flow rate. Solution-based mesh refinement procedures are used to improve solution accuracy and provide guidelines for a more effective mesh generation procedure for parametric studies. Details of the computed flowfields also serve as a means to broaden the knowledge base for future retropropulsion design studies.

  17. How non-parallel flow affects the low frequency sound of supersonic heated jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsar, Mohammed; Sescu, Adrian

    2015-11-01

    Experiements show that the peak noise of heated supersonic jets is lower than the peak noise associated with isothermal jets at all observation angles. Attempts to explain this reduction via acoustic analogy approaches were based on theories in which the enthalpy or momentum flux co-variance (coupling term) reduces the acoustic spectrum at small observation angles. These results, that were derived using a parallel flow assumption and determined using a low frequency asymptotic analysis, indicate that the propagator in the coupling term possesses an odd power of inverse Doppler factors that change sign at small observation angles to the jet axis for supersonic jets. This result, however, does not take into account mean flow spreading. In this study, we extend a previously developed asymptotic theory for the propagator in non-parallel flows, to heated jets. Our calculations show that, non-parallelism re-distributes the spatial structure of the propagator at small observation angles for supersonic jets. Rather than introducing cancellation in the acoustic spectrum, as parallel flow asymptotics predict, the non-parallel flow asymptotic analysis suggests that heating shifts the propagator's peak much further downstream, into regions where turbulence becomes weak.

  18. Revision of capillary cone-jet physics: electrospray and flow focusing.

    PubMed

    Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Montanero, José M

    2009-06-01

    Capillary cone jets are natural microfluidic structures arising in steady capillary tip streaming, whose paradigms are electrospray and flow focusing phenomena. In this work, we make a profound revision of the basic underlying physics of generic cone jets from thousands of experimental measurements, most of them reported in the literature. First, the boundaries of the stability region of steady jetting are calculated. We describe these limitations by instability mechanisms associated with the local flow structure in the tip and the issuing jet and with the global behavior of the meniscus. Second, to undertake a general physical treatment of cone jets in steady regime, we analyze the energy balance taking place in the tips of both flow focusing and electrospray. This analysis yields a fundamental result: if the electrospray data are expressed in terms of an effective pressure drop, both phenomena satisfy the same scaling law for the droplet size, which exhibits nearly complete similarity in the parameter window where quasimonodisperse sprays are produced. That effective pressure drop is a function of the liquid properties exclusively, i.e., it does not depend on the operational parameters (flow rate and applied voltage). Moreover, the stability limits of the operational regimes are analyzed in detail, finding fundamental coincidences between flow focusing and electrospray as well. These results provide most useful general description and predictive scaling laws for nearly monodisperse microspraying or nanospraying based on steady cone jets, of immediate applicability in analytical chemistry, chemical engineering, biochemistry, pharmaceutical and food technologies, painting, and many other technological fields.

  19. On the performance and flow characteristics of jet pumps with multiple orifices.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, Joris P; Timmer, Michael A G; Bühler, Simon; van der Meer, Theo H; Wilcox, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    The design of compact thermoacoustic devices requires compact jet pump geometries, which can be realized by employing jet pumps with multiple orifices. The oscillatory flow through the orifice(s) of a jet pump generates asymmetric hydrodynamic end effects, which result in a time-averaged pressure drop that can counteract Gedeon streaming in traveling wave thermoacoustic devices. In this study, the performance of jet pumps having 1-16 orifices is characterized experimentally in terms of the time-averaged pressure drop and acoustic power dissipation. Upon increasing the number of orifices, a significant decay in the jet pump performance is observed. Further analysis shows a relation between this performance decay and the diameter of the individual holes. Possible causes of this phenomenon are discussed. Flow visualization is used to study the differences in vortex ring interaction from adjacent jet pump orifices. The mutual orifice spacing is varied and the corresponding jet pump performance is measured. The orifice spacing is shown to have less effect on the jet pump performance compared to increasing the number of orifices.

  20. Ureteric jets: evaluation of normal flow dynamics with color Doppler sonography.

    PubMed

    Cox, I H; Erickson, S J; Foley, W D; Dewire, D M

    1992-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate a variety of sonographic features of ureteric jets in order to define patterns of flow and ranges of flow values in an asymptomatic population. The following features of ureteric jets were measured during a period of up to 30 min in a group of 15 asymptomatic volunteers after oral hydration (the mean value was calculated on each side): peak velocity (mean, 57 cm/sec); jet duration (mean, 4.6 sec); and number of peaks and subpeaks (mean, 2.2). Several flow patterns were observed, including discrete jets, ureteric streaming, and rest periods. For each patient the ratios of values obtained on the left and right sides were calculated for peak velocity (1.00-1.74; mean, 1.26); jet duration (1.00-4.69; mean, 1.83); and jet frequency (1.00-1.21; mean, 1.11). The interjet interval (period between jets) ranged from 2 to 150 sec. Bolus volume and jet frequency showed simultaneous moment-to-moment variation. The frequency and velocity rather than the duration ratios may be of greatest value in identifying patients with normal ureterodynamics. Our findings challenge two current concepts of renal pelvic and ureteral response to changes in urine output: (1) ureters have a fixed maximal discharge rate and (2) bolus volumes do not change until this rate is achieved. Asymmetric moment-to-moment fluctuations observed in jet frequency suggest that prolonged examination may be necessary to confirm normal symmetry of jet frequency in some patients with suspected ureteric obstruction.

  1. Viscous reacting flows with wall slip and catalysis applied to spheres in arc jets and flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of wall slip and catalytic atom-recombination on the flow field and wall heat flux are calculated for high altitude flight and arc jet flow conditions. Boundary equations, which include velocity slip, temperature jump, and wall catalytic atom recombination, are coupled to the viscous reacting multicomponent Navier-Stokes equations. These equations are solved using a time-dependent finite difference technique applied to spheres in an arc jet flow (Reynolds number of 550) and a high altitude flight case representative of the Space Shuttle Orbiter (Reynolds number of 450). The results indicate that catalysis strongly influences the temperature jump, but not the velocity slip. Slip increases the atom fraction and temperature at both the wall and the flow field. Likewise, the shock stand-off distance, the wall heat flux, and friction coefficient are increased over the nonslip cases. The reacting gas calculations confirm the chemically frozen nature of the shock layer in arc jet flows.

  2. Gravitational Effects on Flow Instability and Transition in Low Density Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Ajay K.; Parthasarathy, Ramkumar

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in Earth gravity and microgravity to acquire quantitative data on near field flow structure of helium jets injected into air. Microgravity conditions were simulated in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA Glenn Research Center. The jet flow was observed by quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry, a non-intrusive line of sight measurement technique suited for the microgravity environment. The flow structure was characterized by distributions of helium mole fraction obtained from color schlieren images taken at 60 Hz. Results show that the jet in microgravity was up to 70 percent wider than that in Earth gravity. Experiments reveal that the global flow oscillations observed in Earth gravity are absent in microgravity. The report provides quantitative details of flow evolution as the experiment undergoes change in gravity in the drop tower.

  3. Global Artificial Boundary Conditions for Computation of External Flow Problems with Propulsive Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsynkov, Semyon; Abarbanel, Saul; Nordstrom, Jan; Ryabenkii, Viktor; Vatsa, Veer

    1998-01-01

    We propose new global artificial boundary conditions (ABC's) for computation of flows with propulsive jets. The algorithm is based on application of the difference potentials method (DPM). Previously, similar boundary conditions have been implemented for calculation of external compressible viscous flows around finite bodies. The proposed modification substantially extends the applicability range of the DPM-based algorithm. In the paper, we present the general formulation of the problem, describe our numerical methodology, and discuss the corresponding computational results. The particular configuration that we analyze is a slender three-dimensional body with boat-tail geometry and supersonic jet exhaust in a subsonic external flow under zero angle of attack. Similarly to the results obtained earlier for the flows around airfoils and wings, current results for the jet flow case corroborate the superiority of the DPM-based ABC's over standard local methodologies from the standpoints of accuracy, overall numerical performance, and robustness.

  4. A numerical study of the FENE-CR model applied to a jet flow problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, G. S.; Oishi, C. M.; Tomé, M. F.

    2013-10-01

    The FENE-CR model is investigated through a numerical algorithm to simulate the time-dependent moving free surface flow produced by a jet impinging on a flat surface. The objective is to demonstrate that by increasing the extensibility parameter L, the numerical solutions converge to the solutions obtained with the Oldroyd-B model. The governing equations are solved by an established free surface flow solver based on the finite difference and marker-and-cell methods. Numerical predictions of the extensional viscosity obtained with several values of the parameter L are presented. The results show that if the extensibility parameter L is sufficiently large then the extensional viscosities obtained with the FENE-CR model approximate the corresponding Oldroyd-B viscosity. Moreover, the flow from a jet impinging on a flat surface is simulated with various values of the extensibility parameter L and the fluid flow visualizations display convergence to the Oldroyd-B jet flow results.

  5. The silent base flow and the sound sources in a laminar jet.

    PubMed

    Sinayoko, Samuel; Agarwal, Anurag

    2012-03-01

    An algorithm to compute the silent base flow sources of sound in a jet is introduced. The algorithm is based on spatiotemporal filtering of the flow field and is applicable to multifrequency sources. It is applied to an axisymmetric laminar jet and the resulting sources are validated successfully. The sources are compared to those obtained from two classical acoustic analogies, based on quiescent and time-averaged base flows. The comparison demonstrates how the silent base flow sources shed light on the sound generation process. It is shown that the dominant source mechanism in the axisymmetric laminar jet is "shear-noise," which is a linear mechanism. The algorithm presented here could be applied to fully turbulent flows to understand the aerodynamic noise-generation mechanism.

  6. Optimization of jet parameters to control the flow on a ramp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilmineau, Emmanuel; Duvigneau, Régis; Labroquère, Jérémie

    2014-06-01

    This study deals with the use of optimization algorithms to determine efficient parameters of flow control devices. To improve the performance of systems characterized by detached flows and vortex shedding, the use of flow control devices such as oscillatory jets are intensively studied. However, the determination of efficient control parameters is still a bottleneck for industrial problems. Therefore, we propose to couple a global optimization algorithm with an unsteady flow simulation to derive efficient flow control rules. We consider as a test case a backward-facing step with a slope of 25°, including a synthetic jet actuator. The aim is to reduce the time-averaged recirculation length behind the step by optimizing the jet blowing/suction amplitude and frequency.

  7. The Effects of Sweeping Jet Actuator Parameters on Flow Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koklu, Mehti

    2015-01-01

    A parametric experimental study was performed with sweeping jet actuators (fluidic oscillators) to determine their effectiveness in controlling flow separation on an adverse pressure gradient ramp. Actuator parameters that were investigated include blowing coefficients, operation mode, pitch and spreading angles, streamwise location, aspect ratio, and scale. Surface pressure measurements and surface oil flow visualization were used to characterize the effects of these parameters on the actuator performance. 2D Particle Image Velocimetry measurements of the flow field over the ramp and hot-wire measurements of the actuator's jet flow were also obtained for selective cases. In addition, the sweeping jet actuators were compared to other well-known flow control techniques such as micro-vortex generators, steady blowing, and steady vortex-generating jets. The results confirm that the sweeping jet actuators are more effective than steady blowing and steady vortex-generating jets. The results also suggest that an actuator with a larger spreading angle placed closer to the location where the flow separates provides better performance. For the cases tested, an actuator with an aspect ratio, which is the width/depth of the actuator throat, of 2 was found to be optimal. For a fixed momentum coefficient, decreasing the aspect ratio to 1 produced weaker vortices while increasing the aspect ratio to 4 reduced coverage area. Although scaling down the actuator (based on the throat dimensions) from 0.25 inch x 0.125 inch to 0.15 inch x 0.075 inch resulted in similar flow control performance, scaling down the actuator further to 0.075 inch x 0.0375 inch reduced the actuator efficiency by reducing the coverage area and the amount of mixing in the near-wall region. The results of this study provide insight that can be used to design and select the optimal sweeping jet actuator configuration for flow control applications.

  8. Numerical simulation of supersonic jet flow using a modified k-ɛ model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandra, D. S.; Kaliazine, A.; Cormack, D. E.; Tran, H. N.

    2006-01-01

    Many papers have reported that the standard k-ɛ model fails to accurately predict the mean velocity profile of turbulent axisymmetric jets (Thies and Tam, Computation of turbulent axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric jet flows using the K-ɛ model, AIAA J., 1996, 34(2), 309 316; Pope, Turbulent Flows, 2002 (Cambridge University press: Cambridge). As the jet velocity increases, the deviation of the model with respect to the experimental measurements also increases. This work is aimed at the development of a modified k-ɛ model that can be used to predict the mean properties of an axisymmetric jet as it (i) flows as a free jet, (ii) propagates between walls, and (iii) impinges on a solid object. Three additional terms are proposed to improve the standard k-ɛ model predictions. They are Durbin realizable, Heinz turbulence production and Sarkar compressibility correction terms. The performance of the modified model in predicting the velocity and the impact pressure profiles of a free jet with an exit Mach number range of 0.6 2.8 has been confirmed by its close agreement with the experimental measurements. In addition, the study suggests that the model is also capable of predicting the impact pressure of a supersonic jet propagating between smooth walls and impinging on the front edge of the wall in various degrees of intensity.

  9. Schlieren Measurements of Buoyancy Effects on Flow Transition in Low-Density Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasumarthi, Kasyap S.; Agrawal, Ajay K.

    2005-01-01

    The transition from laminar to turbulent flow in helium jets discharged into air was studied using Rainbow Schlieren Deflectometry technique. In particular, the effects of buoyancy on jet oscillations and flow transition length were considered. Experiments to simulate microgravity were conducted in the 2.2s drop tower at NASA Glenn Research Center. The jet Reynolds numbers varied from 800 to1200 and the jet Richardson numbers ranged between 0.01 and 0.004. Schlieren images revealed substantial variations in the flow structure during the drop. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of the data obtained in Earth gravity experiments revealed the existence of a discrete oscillating frequency in the transition region, which matched the frequency in the upstream laminar regime. In microgravity, the transition occurred farther downstream indicating laminarization of the jet in the absence of buoyancy. The amplitude of jet oscillations was reduced by up to an order of magnitude in microgravity. Results suggest that jet oscillations were buoyancy induced and that the brief microgravity period may not be sufficient for the oscillations to completely subside.

  10. Schlieren Measurements of Buoyancy Effects on Flow Transition in Low-Density Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasumarthi, Kasyap S.; Agrawal, Ajay K.

    2005-01-01

    The transition from laminar to turbulent flow in helium jets discharged into air was studied using Rainbow Schlieren Deflectometry technique. In particular, the effects of buoyancy on jet oscillations and flow transition length were considered. Experiments to simulate microgravity were conducted in the 2.2s drop tower at NASA Glenn Research Center. The jet Reynolds numbers varied from 800 to1200 and the jet Richardson numbers ranged between 0.01 and 0.004. Schlieren images revealed substantial variations in the flow structure during the drop. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis of the data obtained in Earth gravity experiments revealed the existence of a discrete oscillating frequency in the transition region, which matched the frequency in the upstream laminar regime. In microgravity, the transition occurred farther downstream indicating laminarization of the jet in the absence of buoyancy. The amplitude of jet oscillations was reduced by up to an order of magnitude in microgravity. Results suggest that jet oscillations were buoyancy induced and that the brief microgravity period may not be sufficient for the oscillations to completely subside.

  11. Shock tunnel measurement of the interaction amplification factor for a hot gas side jet in a supersonic cross flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havermann, M.; Ende, H.; Seiler, F.; Schwenzer, M.

    An efficient method for the steering of bodies flying at high Mach numbers is the lateral jet control. Compared to fins, no drag is induced when the jet is inactive and there is no risk of aerothermal problems. Additionally, conventional fins are quite inefficient at high altitudes due to the low stagnation pressures. A disadvantage of the lateral control jet, however, is the complex flow pattern that is formed around the active jet. In front of the lateral jet, a bow shock in conjunction with a separation shock is formed. Behind the jet, a wake with a low-pressure zone exists (Fig. 1). In addition to the jet thrust, an aerodynamic force resulting from the flow interactions around the jet is acting on the body, which makes an accurate side force prediction very difficult. It is common to define an interaction amplification factor that takes into account both types of forces: the jet thrust as well as the interaction force.

  12. Oxidation-Strengthened High-Temperature Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclemore, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Shear strength of titanium-niobium rivets improves with oxidation. Ti-Nb rivets developed for fastening parts of Space Shuttle thrustors may be suitable also for other high-temperature applications in oxidizing environments--for example, in burner cans of commercial jet engines and boilers and retorts for coal gasification systems.

  13. Conceptual design of a forced-flow-cooled 20-kA current lead using Ag-alloy-sheathed Bi-2223 high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, R.; Hull, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    The use of high-temperature superconductors in current leads to reduce refrigeration power has been investigated by many groups in the past. Most used YBCO and Bi-2212 bulk superconductors, although their critical current density is not very high. In this paper, BI-2223 HTSC tapes sheathed with Ag alloys are used in the design of a 20-kA current lead because of their higher critical current in medium magnetic fields. The lead current of 20 kA is related to the coil current of the planned stellarator WENDELSTEIN 7-X. Forced-now helium cooling has been used in the design, allowing position-independent and well-controlled operation. The design characteristics of the lead are presented and 4-K helium cooling of the whole lead, as well as 60-K helium cooling of the copper part of the lead, is discussed. The power consumption at zero current, and the lead`s behaviour in case of loss of coolant flow, are given, The results of the design allow extrapolation to current leads of the 50-kA range.

  14. A Comparative Study on Improved Arrhenius-Type and Artificial Neural Network Models to Predict High-Temperature Flow Behaviors in 20MnNiMo Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chun-tang; Liu, Ying-ying; Xia, Yu-feng

    2014-01-01

    The stress-strain data of 20MnNiMo alloy were collected from a series of hot compressions on Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator in the temperature range of 1173∼1473 K and strain rate range of 0.01∼10 s−1. Based on the experimental data, the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model and the artificial neural network (ANN) model were established to predict the high temperature flow stress of as-cast 20MnNiMo alloy. The accuracy and reliability of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the trained ANN model were further evaluated in terms of the correlation coefficient (R), the average absolute relative error (AARE), and the relative error (η). For the former, R and AARE were found to be 0.9954 and 5.26%, respectively, while, for the latter, 0.9997 and 1.02%, respectively. The relative errors (η) of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the ANN model were, respectively, in the range of −39.99%∼35.05% and −3.77%∼16.74%. As for the former, only 16.3% of the test data set possesses η-values within ±1%, while, as for the latter, more than 79% possesses. The results indicate that the ANN model presents a higher predictable ability than the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model. PMID:24688358

  15. A comparative study on improved Arrhenius-type and artificial neural network models to predict high-temperature flow behaviors in 20MnNiMo alloy.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guo-zheng; Yu, Chun-tang; Liu, Ying-ying; Xia, Yu-feng

    2014-01-01

    The stress-strain data of 20MnNiMo alloy were collected from a series of hot compressions on Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator in the temperature range of 1173 ∼ 1473 K and strain rate range of 0.01 ∼ 10 s(-1). Based on the experimental data, the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model and the artificial neural network (ANN) model were established to predict the high temperature flow stress of as-cast 20MnNiMo alloy. The accuracy and reliability of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the trained ANN model were further evaluated in terms of the correlation coefficient (R), the average absolute relative error (AARE), and the relative error (η). For the former, R and AARE were found to be 0.9954 and 5.26%, respectively, while, for the latter, 0.9997 and 1.02%, respectively. The relative errors (η) of the improved Arrhenius-type model and the ANN model were, respectively, in the range of -39.99% ∼ 35.05% and -3.77% ∼ 16.74%. As for the former, only 16.3% of the test data set possesses η-values within ± 1%, while, as for the latter, more than 79% possesses. The results indicate that the ANN model presents a higher predictable ability than the improved Arrhenius-type constitutive model.

  16. High-temperature fast-flow-reactor kinetics study of the reaction AlO + CO/sub 2/. -->. AlO/sub 2/ + CO. Thermochemical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Rogowski, D.F.; English, A.J.; Fontijn, A.

    1986-04-10

    The title reaction has been studied in a high-temperature fast-flow reactor (HTFFR) at temperatures from 500 to 1300 K. Laser-induced fluorescence was used to monitor relative (AlO). k(T) was determined to be (2.5 +/- 1.3) x 10/sup -14/ exp((400 +/- 280)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ (confidence level > 95%). The reaction probably proceeds via an intermediate complex which preferentially dissociates to the reactants. The negative activation energy implies D(O-AlO) greater than or equal to D(O-CO) = 127 kcal mol/sup -1/, which is incompatible with the O-AlO dissociation energy obtained for AlO/sub 2/ from Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ evaporation-mass spectrometry studies. It is argued that the latter AlO/sub 2/ may have a different structure from that of the present work. 19 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  17. Determination of Pinning Parameters in Flux Creep-Flow Model for E-J characteristics of High Temperature Superconductors by using Differential Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otabe, E. S.; Taguchi, T.; Tsuruda, Y.; Funaki, R.

    2017-07-01

    The pinning parameters such as strength of pinning force, temperature dependence of pinning force and so on using in flux creep-flow model to explain electric field vs current density (E-J) characteristics were determined by Differential Evolution (DE). DE is one of the methods in Evolutionary Computation (EC) to find an optimization of a problem. First, a model data of E-J characteristics in which the pinning parameters were given was prepared, and it was confirmed that DE can find the given pinning parameters from the model data. Then, DE and mesh method were used to determine the pinning parameters in experimental E-J characteristics of GdBa2CuO7-δ high temperature superconductor. In mesh method, the all combinations of pinning parameters with constant interval for each parameter are calculated, and best set of pinning parameters is selected. It was found that DE shows better performance than mesh method in terms of calculation time and accuracy for determining pinning parameters.

  18. Three-dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry for Turbulence Applications: Case of a Jet Flow.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Tae; Kim, David; Liberzon, Alex; Chamorro, Leonardo P

    2016-02-27

    3D-PTV is a quantitative flow measurement technique that aims to track the Lagrangian paths of a set of particles in three dimensions using stereoscopic recording of image sequences. The basic components, features, constraints and optimization tips of a 3D-PTV topology consisting of a high-speed camera with a four-view splitter are described and discussed in this article. The technique is applied to the intermediate flow field (5 jet at Re ≈ 7,000. Lagrangian flow features and turbulence quantities in an Eulerian frame are estimated around ten diameters downstream of the jet origin and at various radial distances from the jet core. Lagrangian properties include trajectory, velocity and acceleration of selected particles as well as curvature of the flow path, which are obtained from the Frenet-Serret equation. Estimation of the 3D velocity and turbulence fields around the jet core axis at a cross-plane located at ten diameters downstream of the jet is compared with literature, and the power spectrum of the large-scale streamwise velocity motions is obtained at various radial distances from the jet core.

  19. Flow characteristics in free impinging jet reactor by particle image velocimetry (PIV) investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Youzhi; Qi, Guisheng; Jiao, Weizhou; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-08-01

    The flow characteristics in free impinging jet reactors (FIJRs) were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The effects of the Reynolds number (Re) and the ratio of jet distance to jet diameter (w/d) on flow behavior were discussed for equal volumetric flow rates of the two jets. The impingement plane, instantaneous velocity, mean velocity, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) distribution of FIJRs are measured from captured images using the PIV technique. As Re increases, the average diameter of the impingement plane linearly increases. The instability of the liquid is closely related to the jet velocity or the Re. However, the stagnation point is insensitive to the variation of the Re. The droplets break up from the turbulent liquid in the ‘wall-free’ environment of FIJRs, so that the liquid back-flow found in confined impinging jet reactors (CIJRs) is not observed. Increasing the Re from 1800-4100 or decreasing the w/d from 20-6 plays a similar role in increasing the TKE values and intensifying turbulence, which promotes the momentum transfer and mixing efficiency in FIJRs.

  20. Numerical simulation on macro-instability of coupling flow field structure in jet-stirred tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, D. Y.; Lu, J. P.; Bu, Q. X.; Zhang, S. F.; Zheng, S. X.

    2016-05-01

    The velocity field macro-instability (MI) can help to improve the mixing efficiency. In this work, the MI features of flow field induced by jet-stirred coupling action is studied by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The numerical simulation method of jet-stirred model was established based on standard turbulent equations, and the impeller rotation was modeled by means of the Sliding Mesh (SM) technology. The numerical results of test fluid (water) power consumption were compared with the data obtained by power test experiments. The effects of jet flow velocity and impeller speed on MI frequency were analyzed thoroughly. The results show that the calculated values of power consumption agree well with the experiment measured data, which validates the turbulent model, and the flow structure and MI frequency distribution are affected by both impeller speed and jet flow rate. The amplitude of MI frequency increases obviously with the increasing rotation speed of impeller and the eccentric jet rate, and it can be enhanced observably by eccentric jet rate, in condition of comparatively high impeller speed. At this time, the MI phenomenon disappears with the overall chaotic mixing.

  1. Flow characteristics and spillage mechanisms of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Dai, Guan-Zhong

    2010-11-01

    The flow characteristics and oil mist spillages of wall-mounted and jet-isolated range hoods were studied experimentally. Flow patterns were examined using a laser-light, sheet-assisted, smoke flow visualization technique. Spillages were diagnosed by the locally averaged tracer gas concentration test method. Tracer gas concentration test results correlated well with those of flow visualizations. For the wall-mounted hood, primary leakages occur around the region near the front edge of a countertop due to boundary layer separation, as well as the region just below the lower edge of the side panels of the hood due to the expansion effect of plumes. Increasing the suction flow rate above some critical values may help to reduce leakages out of the lateral planes but would increase spillages around the front edge of the countertop. For the jet-isolated range hood, oil mists spread widely and present unsteady motions with a high degree of turbulence because insufficient free air is allowed to enter the space enclosed by the jets and rear wall. Spillages across the jets into the environment due to turbulent dispersion become significant. Increasing the suction flow rate above some critical values may help to reduce spillages, while increasing the jet velocity would increase turbulent dispersion and thus lead to larger leakages.

  2. Molten Salts for High Temperature Reactors: University of Wisconsin Molten Salt Corrosion and Flow Loop Experiments -- Issues Identified and Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Piyush Sabharwall; Matt Ebner; Manohar Sohal; Phil Sharpe; Thermal Hydraulics Group

    2010-03-01

    Considerable amount of work is going on regarding the development of high temperature liquid salts technology to meet future process needs of Next Generation Nuclear Plant. This report identifies the important characteristics and concerns of high temperature molten salts (with lesson learned at University of Wisconsin-Madison, Molten Salt Program) and provides some possible recommendation for future work

  3. Trajectory measurements of a wall jet impinging onto a forward facing step entering a cross-flow.

    PubMed

    Langer, D C; Fleck, B A; Wilson, D J

    2010-04-15

    This study examines a horizontal wall jet impinging onto a forward facing step in a cross-flow. Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) experiments in a water channel indicate that the wall-jet flow after impinging onto the step, becomes a vertical jet with an elliptical cross section. Experiments indicate that the jet trajectory scales with the perimeter of the elliptical jet issuing vertically into the cross-flow. The trajectory consists of three regions: the near-field region which is well described by a power law with an exponent of 1/2, the mid-field region where the jet is fully bent over which is described by a power law with an exponent of 1/3, and a far-field region where the jet is dominated by the cross-flow. This paper provides a prediction of the plume behaviour based on the geometric and initial conditions of the jet (diameter, step height, distance from jet to step, and velocity ratio) alone. The Briggs entrainment model for a round jet was also used to predict the trajectories of the jet in the cross-flow. It was found that the entrainment coefficients, alpha and beta, for the elliptical jet case had average values of 0.15 and 0.58 respectively. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Johnson

    2008-11-05

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors — materials that carry electrical c

  5. Reynold stress closure in jet flows using wave models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    Research program efforts have continued to concentrate on the development of the numerical methods that will form the computational part of the turbulence closure scheme. Studies have continued on the wave model for the two dimensional shear layer. This configuration is being used as a test case for the closure schemes. Several numerical schemes for the solution of the non-separable Rayleigh equation were developed. This solution is required for the closure scheme in more complex geometries. The most efficient method found is a Hybrid scheme that combines both pseudospectral and finite difference techniques. In addition, conformal transformation techniques were developed to transform the arbitrary geometry of the jet to a simple computational domain. The study of the shock structure in arbitrary geometry jets and multiple jets. These developments are described briefly.

  6. High-temperature electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Seng, Gary T.

    1990-01-01

    To meet the needs of the aerospace propulsion and space power communities, the high temperature electronics program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high temperature semiconductor material. This program supports a major element of the Center's mission - to perform basic and developmental research aimed at improving aerospace propulsion systems. Research is focused on developing the crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of SiC devices.

  7. High-temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  8. High temperature refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  9. High temperature furnace

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  10. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul; Scandrol, Roy O.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  11. RAXJET- TRANSONIC, AXISYMMETRIC FLOW OVER NOZZLE AFTERBODIES WITH SUPERSONIC JET EXHAUSTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    The nozzle afterbody is one of the main drag-producing components of an aircraft propulsion system. Thus, considerable effort has been devoted to developing techniques for predicting the afterbody flow field and drag. The RAXJET computer program was developed to predict the transonic, axisymmetric flow over nozzle afterbodies with supersonic jet exhausts and includes the effects of boundary-layer displacement, separation, jet entrainment, and inviscid jet plume blockage. RAXJET iteratively combines the South-Jameson relaxation procedure, the Reshotko-Tucker boundary-layer solution, the Presz separation model, the Dash-Pergament mixing model, and the Dash-Thorpe inviscid plume model into a single, comprehensive model. The approach taken in the RAXJET program requires considerably less computational time than the Navier-Stokes solutions and generally yields results of comparable accuracy. In RAXJET, the viscous-inviscid interaction model is constructed by dividing the afterbody flow field into six separate computational regions: (1) The inviscid external flow solution is based on the relaxation procedure of South and Jameson for solving the exact nonlinear potential flow equation in nonconservative form. (2) The flow field in the inviscid jet exhaust is solved by explicit spatial marching of the conservative finite-difference form of the inviscid flow equations for a uniform composition gas mixture. (3) The properties in the attached boundary-layer region are solved by a modified version of the Reshotko-Tucker integral method for turbulent flows. (4) The analysis of the separated flow region consists of predicting the separation location and calculating the discriminating streamline shape. (5) The jet wake region is determined by either a simple extrapolation model or by an integral method that accounts for entrainment effects. (6) The displacement-thickness distribution arising from entrainment into the jet mixing layer is calculated by the overlaid mixing model

  12. RAXJET- TRANSONIC, AXISYMMETRIC FLOW OVER NOZZLE AFTERBODIES WITH SUPERSONIC JET EXHAUSTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    The nozzle afterbody is one of the main drag-producing components of an aircraft propulsion system. Thus, considerable effort has been devoted to developing techniques for predicting the afterbody flow field and drag. The RAXJET computer program was developed to predict the transonic, axisymmetric flow over nozzle afterbodies with supersonic jet exhausts and includes the effects of boundary-layer displacement, separation, jet entrainment, and inviscid jet plume blockage. RAXJET iteratively combines the South-Jameson relaxation procedure, the Reshotko-Tucker boundary-layer solution, the Presz separation model, the Dash-Pergament mixing model, and the Dash-Thorpe inviscid plume model into a single, comprehensive model. The approach taken in the RAXJET program requires considerably less computational time than the Navier-Stokes solutions and generally yields results of comparable accuracy. In RAXJET, the viscous-inviscid interaction model is constructed by dividing the afterbody flow field into six separate computational regions: (1) The inviscid external flow solution is based on the relaxation procedure of South and Jameson for solving the exact nonlinear potential flow equation in nonconservative form. (2) The flow field in the inviscid jet exhaust is solved by explicit spatial marching of the conservative finite-difference form of the inviscid flow equations for a uniform composition gas mixture. (3) The properties in the attached boundary-layer region are solved by a modified version of the Reshotko-Tucker integral method for turbulent flows. (4) The analysis of the separated flow region consists of predicting the separation location and calculating the discriminating streamline shape. (5) The jet wake region is determined by either a simple extrapolation model or by an integral method that accounts for entrainment effects. (6) The displacement-thickness distribution arising from entrainment into the jet mixing layer is calculated by the overlaid mixing model

  13. Enhancement in counterflow drag reduction by supersonic jet in high enthalpy flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Vinayak; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2008-01-01

    Counterflow drag reduction by supersonic jet for a 60° apex angle blunt cone flying at hypersonic Mach number is investigated for two different flow enthalpies using conventional and free piston driven hypersonic shock tunnels. Enhancement in drag reduction has been observed with increase in freestream stagnation enthalpy. It is shown that the percentage of drag reduction goes up by a factor of 2 when the flow enthalpy increases by a factor of 2.5 for a given ratio of total pressure of supersonic jet and freestream flow.

  14. Use of arc-jet hypersonic blunted wedge flows for evaluating performance of Orbiter TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochelle, W. C.; Battley, H. H.; Gallegos, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    Arc-jet tests at NASA/JSC have been conducted recently to evaluate the performance of the Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) on three critical areas of the side and top of the Orbiter fuselage: (1) cargo bay door, (2) crew access door, and (3) LRSI/FRSI joint regions. Test articles corresponding to these three areas on the Orbiter were mounted in an arc-jet test chamber in a blunted-wedge holder and exposed to hypersonic flow at various angles of attack. The effects of flow direction, heating load, and overtemperature were investigated. In addition, the reuse capability of the TPS materials was evaluated, along with the protection of the pressure seals within the test articles. Thermal match model predictions correlated well with primary structure thermocouple data. Heating rate and pressure predictions based on a nonequilibrium flow field computer program showed good agreement with arc-jet test data and existing hypersonic flow theories.

  15. Gravitational Effects on Near-Field Flow Structure of Low-Density Gas Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yep, Tze-Wing; Agrawal, Ajay K.; Griffin, DeVon

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in earth gravity and micro gravity to acquire quantitative data on near field flow structure of helium jets injected into air. Microgravity conditions were simulated in the 2.2 s drop tower at NASA John H. Glenn Research Center. The jet flow was observed by quantitative rainbow schlieren deflectometry, a non-intrusive line of sight measurement technique suited for the microgravity environment. The flow structure was characterized by distribution of helium mole fraction obtained from color schlieren images taken at 60 Hz. Results show that the jet in microgravity was up to 70% wider than that in Earth gravity. Experiments reveal that the global flow oscillations observed in Earth are absent in microgravity. Quantitative deatails are provided of the evolution as the experiment undergoes changes in gravity in the drop tower.

  16. Three-dimensional evolution of flow structures in transitional circular and chevron jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violato, Daniele; Scarano, Fulvio

    2011-12-01

    The three-dimensional behavior of flow transition in circular and 6-chevron jets at Re = 5000 is investigated with experiments conducted on a free water jet by time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. The emphasis is on the unsteady organization of coherent flow structures, which play a role in the generation of acoustic noise. Shedding and pairing of vortices are the most pronounced phenomena observed in the near field of the circular jet. The first and second pairing amplify the axial pulsatile motion in the jet column and lead to the growth of azimuthal waves culminating in the breakup of the vortex ring. Streamwise vortices of axial and radial vorticity are observed in the outer region and move inward and outward under the effect of the vortex rings. In the jet with chevrons, the axisymmetric ring-like coherence of the circular jet is not encountered. Instead, streamwise flow structures of azimuthal vorticity emanate from the chevron apices, and counter-rotating streamwise vortices of axial and radial vorticity develop from the chevron notches. The decay of streamwise vortices is accompanied by the formation of C-shaped structures. The three-dimensional analysis allows quantifying the vortex stretching and tilting activity, which, for the circular jet exit, is related to the azimuthal instabilities and the streamwise vortices connecting the vortex rings. In the chevron jet, stretching and tilting peak during the formation of C-structures. Following Powell's aeroacoustic analogy, the spatial distribution of the source term is mapped, evaluating the temporal derivative of the Lamb vector. The spatio-temporal evolution of such source term is visualized revealing that the events of highest activity are associated with the processes of vortex-ring pairing and vortex-ring disruption for the circular jet, and with the decay of streamwise instabilities and the formation of C-shaped structures for the chevron case.

  17. Dripping and jetting in microfluidic multiphase flows applied to particle and fiber synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, J K; Tsai, S S H; Wan, J; Stone, H A

    2013-01-01

    Dripping and jetting regimes in microfluidic multiphase flows have been investigated extensively, and this review summarizes the main observations and physical understandings in this field to date for three common device geometries: coaxial, flow-focusing and T-junction. The format of the presentation allows for simple and direct comparison of the different conditions for drop and jet formation, as well as the relative ease and utility of forming either drops or jets among the three geometries. The emphasis is on the use of drops and jets as templates for microparticle and microfiber syntheses, and a description is given of the more common methods of solidification and strategies for achieving complex multicomponent microparticles and microfibers. PMID:23626378

  18. Computational Analysis of the Flow and Acoustic Effects of Jet-Pylon Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Thomas, Russell H.; Abdol-Hamid, K. S.; Pao, S. Paul; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Massey, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    Computational simulation and prediction tools were used to understand the jet-pylon interaction effect in a set of bypass-ratio five core/fan nozzles. Results suggest that the pylon acts as a large scale mixing vane that perturbs the jet flow and jump starts the jet mixing process. The enhanced mixing and associated secondary flows from the pylon result in a net increase of noise in the first 10 diameters of the jet s development, but there is a sustained reduction in noise from that point downstream. This is likely the reason the pylon nozzle is quieter overall than the baseline round nozzle in this case. The present work suggests that focused pylon design could lead to advanced pylon shapes and nozzle configurations that take advantage of propulsion-airframe integration to provide additional noise reduction capabilities.

  19. Buoyancy Effects on Flow Transition in Hydrogen Gas Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, Burt W.; Agrawal, Ajay K.; Griffin, DeVon (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were performed in earth-gravity to determine how buoyancy affected transition from laminar to turbulent flow in hydrogen gas jet diffusion flames. The jet exit Froude number characterizing buoyancy in the flame was varied from 1.65 x 10(exp 5) to 1.14 x 10(exp 8) by varying the operating pressure and/or burner inside diameter. Laminar fuel jet was discharged vertically into ambient air flowing through a combustion chamber. Flame characteristics were observed using rainbow schlieren deflectometry, a line-of-site optical diagnostic technique. Results show that the breakpoint length for a given jet exit Reynolds number increased with increasing Froude number. Data suggest that buoyant transitional flames might become laminar in the absence of gravity. The schlieren technique was shown as effective in quantifying the flame characteristics.

  20. Influence of the initial conditions on axisymmetric jets in a parallel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navoznov, O. I.; Pavelev, A. A.

    1980-07-01

    The paper deals with an experimental investigation of the flow in the initial portion of axisymmetric helium, air, and Freon-12 jets in turbulent mixing layers. Measurements of the mean and pulsation velocities and temperature are presented, along with flow pattern photographs.

  1. Optimization of the shapes of obstacles in jet-separation flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monakhov, V. N.; Gubkina, E. V.

    2007-05-01

    The model of an ideal incompressible fluid is used to study the solvability of optimal control problems for the shape of a nozzle which discharges free-boundary fluid flow with and without accounting for gravity (internal aerodynamics) and shape optimization problems for an obstacle with jet separation (external aerodynamics). The qualitative properties of such flows are studied.

  2. On the reverse flow ceiling jet in pool fire-ventilation crossflow interactions in a simulated aircraft cabin interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwack, E. Y.; Bankston, C. P.; Shakkottai, P.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of the reverse flow ceiling jet against the ventilation flow from 0.58 to 0.87 m/s was investigated in a 1/3 scale model of a wide body aircraft interior. For all tests, strong reverse-flow ceiling jets of hot gases were detected well upstream of the fire. Both thicknesses of the reverse-flow ceiling jet and the smoke layer increased with the fire-crossflow parameter. The thickness of the smoke layer where the smoke flows along the main flow below the reverse-flow ceiling jet was almost twice that of the reverse-flow ceiling jet. Detailed spatial and time-varying temperatures of the gas in the test section were measured, and velocity profiles were also measured using a temperature compensated hot film.

  3. On the reverse flow ceiling jet in pool fire-ventilation crossflow interactions in a simulated aircraft cabin interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwack, E. Y.; Bankston, C. P.; Shakkottai, P.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of the reverse flow ceiling jet against the ventilation flow from 0.58 to 0.87 m/s was investigated in a 1/3 scale model of a wide body aircraft interior. For all tests, strong reverse-flow ceiling jets of hot gases were detected well upstream of the fire. Both thicknesses of the reverse-flow ceiling jet and the smoke layer increased with the fire-crossflow parameter. The thickness of the smoke layer where the smoke flows along the main flow below the reverse-flow ceiling jet was almost twice that of the reverse-flow ceiling jet. Detailed spatial and time-varying temperatures of the gas in the test section were measured, and velocity profiles were also measured using a temperature compensated hot film.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Properties of Supersonic Helium-Air Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.; Veltin, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Heated high speed subsonic and supersonic jets operating on- or off-design are a source of noise that is not yet fully understood. Helium-air mixtures can be used in the correct ratio to simulate the total temperature ratio of heated air jets and hence have the potential to provide inexpensive and reliable flow and acoustic measurements. This study presents a combination of flow measurements of helium-air high speed jets and numerical simulations of similar helium-air mixture and heated air jets. Jets issuing from axisymmetric convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles are investigated, and the results show very strong similarity with heated air jet measurements found in the literature. This demonstrates the validity of simulating heated high speed jets with helium-air in the laboratory, together with the excellent agreement obtained in the presented data between the numerical predictions and the experiments. The very close match between the numerical and experimental data also validates the frozen chemistry model used in the numerical simulation.

  5. Transition to turbulence and noise radiation in heated coaxial jet flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gloor, Michael Bühler, Stefan; Kleiser, Leonhard

    2016-04-15

    Laminar-turbulent transition and noise radiation of a parametrized set of subsonic coaxial jet flows with a hot primary (core) stream are investigated numerically by Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and direct noise computation. This study extends our previous research on local linear stability of heated coaxial jet flows by analyzing the nonlinear evolution of initially laminar flows disturbed by a superposition of small-amplitude unstable eigenmodes. First, a baseline configuration is studied to shed light on the flow dynamics of coaxial jet flows. Subsequently, LESs are performed for a range of Mach and Reynolds numbers to systematically analyze the influences of the temperature and the velocity ratios between the primary and the secondary (bypass) stream. The results provide a basis for a detailed analysis of fundamental flow-acoustic phenomena in the considered heated coaxial jet flows. Increasing the primary-jet temperature leads to an increase of fluctuation levels and to an amplification of far-field noise, especially at low frequencies. Strong mixing between the cold bypass stream and the hot primary stream as well as the intermittent character of the flow field at the end of the potential core lead to a pronounced noise radiation at an aft angle of approximately 35{sup ∘}. The velocity ratio strongly affects the shear-layer development and therefore also the noise generation mechanisms. Increasing the secondary-stream velocity amplifies the dominance of outer shear-layer perturbations while the disturbance growth rates in the inner shear layer decrease. Already for r{sub mic} > 40R{sub 1}, where r{sub mic} is the distance from the end of the potential core and R{sub 1} is the core-jet radius, a perfect 1/r{sub mic} decay of the sound pressure amplitudes is observed. The potential-core length increases for higher secondary-stream velocities which leads to a shift of the center of the dominant acoustic radiation in the downstream direction.

  6. Transition to turbulence and noise radiation in heated coaxial jet flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloor, Michael; Bühler, Stefan; Kleiser, Leonhard

    2016-04-01

    Laminar-turbulent transition and noise radiation of a parametrized set of subsonic coaxial jet flows with a hot primary (core) stream are investigated numerically by Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and direct noise computation. This study extends our previous research on local linear stability of heated coaxial jet flows by analyzing the nonlinear evolution of initially laminar flows disturbed by a superposition of small-amplitude unstable eigenmodes. First, a baseline configuration is studied to shed light on the flow dynamics of coaxial jet flows. Subsequently, LESs are performed for a range of Mach and Reynolds numbers to systematically analyze the influences of the temperature and the velocity ratios between the primary and the secondary (bypass) stream. The results provide a basis for a detailed analysis of fundamental flow-acoustic phenomena in the considered heated coaxial jet flows. Increasing the primary-jet temperature leads to an increase of fluctuation levels and to an amplification of far-field noise, especially at low frequencies. Strong mixing between the cold bypass stream and the hot primary stream as well as the intermittent character of the flow field at the end of the potential core lead to a pronounced noise radiation at an aft angle of approximately 35∘. The velocity ratio strongly affects the shear-layer development and therefore also the noise generation mechanisms. Increasing the secondary-stream velocity amplifies the dominance of outer shear-layer perturbations while the disturbance growth rates in the inner shear layer decrease. Already for rmic > 40R1, where rmic is the distance from the end of the potential core and R1 is the core-jet radius, a perfect 1/rmic decay of the sound pressure amplitudes is observed. The potential-core length increases for higher secondary-stream velocities which leads to a shift of the center of the dominant acoustic radiation in the downstream direction.

  7. A Model for the Vortex Pair Associated with a Jet in a Cross Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, William L.

    1975-01-01

    A model is presented for the contrarotating vortex pair that is formed by a round, turbulent, subsonic jet directed normally into a uniform, subsonic cross flow. The model consists of a set of algebraic equations that describe the properties of the vortex pair as a function of their location in the jet plume. The parameters of the model are physical characteristics of the vortices such as the vortex strength, spacing, and core size. These parameters are determined by velocity measurements at selective points in the jet plume.

  8. Surface Characterization of LMMS Molybdenum Disilicide Coated HTP-8 Using Arc- Jet Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.

    2000-01-01

    Surface properties for an advanced Lockheed Martin Missile and Space (LMMS) molybdenum disilicide coated insulation (HTP-8) were determined using arc-jet flow to simulate Earth entry at hypersonic speeds. The catalytic efficiency (atom recombination coefficients) for this advanced thermal protection system was determined from arc-jet data taken in both oxygen and nitrogen streams at temperatures ranging from 1255 K to roughly 1600 K. In addition, optical and chemical stability data were obtained from these test samples.

  9. On the correspondence between flow structures and convective heat transfer augmentation for multiple jet impingement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzis, Alexandros

    2016-09-01

    The correspondence between local fluid flow structures and convective heat transfer is a fundamental aspect that is not yet fully understood for multiple jet impingement. Therefore, flow field and heat transfer experiments are separately performed investigating mutual-jet interactions exposed in a self-gained crossflow. The measurements are taken in two narrow impingement channels with different cross-sectional areas and a single exit design. Hence, a gradually increased crossflow momentum is developed from the spent air of the upstream jets. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and liquid crystal thermography (LCT) are used in order to investigate the aerothermal characteristics of the channel with high spatial resolution. The PIV measurements are taken at planes normal to the target wall and along the centreline of the jets, providing quantitative flow visualisation of jet and crossflow interactions. Spatially resolved heat transfer coefficient distributions on the target plate are evaluated with transient techniques and a multi-layer of thermochromic liquid crystals. The results are analysed aiming to provide a better understanding about the impact of near-wall flow structures on the convective heat transfer augmentation for these complex flow phenomena.

  10. Water-Shale interactions in bench-top and high pressure/high temperature autoclave experiments: Identifying geochemical reaction controlling flow back water chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, I. L.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Willson, C. S.; Gerhard, J.

    2011-12-01

    An important side effect of hydraulic fracturing (HF) in shale gas wells is the production of saline flow-back water. This water often contains total dissolved soil (TDS) concentrations greater than 100,000 ppm which requires expensive treatment and disposal of the produced water. Possible origins of the high TDS content include: 1. Mixing of fresh HF-fluids with highly saline pore fluids in the targeted shale. 2. Migration and mixing of saline brines by newly-formed fractures into the HF-water from neighboring formations. 3. Water rock interactions between the targeted shale and HF-water that include mineral dissolution, pyrite oxidation buffered by carbonate dissolution and cation exchange in newly hydrated clay minerals.. These possibilities are not mutually exclusive and all may be operating to alter flow-back water chemistry. This study will examine geochemical reactions between a productive Gulf Coast shale and manufactured HF-waters using sealed bench top experiments and high temperature/high pressure autoclave experiments. The samples of the shale were collected from core material housed at The Bureau of Economic Geology collected from two wells. The manufactured HF-waters were produced by mixing NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 salts with De-ionized water at approximately 0, 2000 and 20,000 ppm. During experiments, elements that show large increases in aqueous concentrations are Na, Cl, Ca and SO4. Simultaneous increases in Na and Cl, coupled with high Cl/Br ratios, suggest halite dissolution rather than pore space brine is responsible for Na and Cl concentrations. Simultaneous increase in Ca and SO4 suggest anhydrite dissolution. (SEM imaging shows that anhydrite crystals are usually embedded with the framework mineral grains, rather than precipitated in pores during sample drying, which suggests mineral source of Ca and SO4, possibly for Na and Cl as well). Pyrite oxidation and calcium carbonate dissolution were not significant due to no decrease in pH and no

  11. Water-Shale interactions in bench-top and high pressure/high temperature autoclave experiments: Identifying geochemical reaction controlling flow back water chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickler, P. J.; Lu, J.; Nicot, J.

    2013-12-01

    An important side effect of hydraulic fracturing (HF) in shale gas wells is the production of saline flow-back water. This water often contains total dissolved soil (TDS) concentrations greater than 100,000 ppm which requires expensive treatment and disposal of the produced water. Possible origins of the high TDS content include: 1. Mixing of fresh HF-fluids with highly saline pore fluids in the targeted shale. 2. Migration and mixing of saline brines by newly-formed fractures into the HF-water from neighboring formations. 3. Water rock interactions between the targeted shale and HF-water that include mineral dissolution, pyrite oxidation buffered by carbonate dissolution and cation exchange in newly hydrated clay minerals.. These possibilities are not mutually exclusive and all may be operating to alter flow-back water chemistry. This study will examine geochemical reactions between a productive Gulf Coast shale and manufactured HF-waters using sealed bench top experiments and high temperature/high pressure autoclave experiments. The samples of the shale were collected from core material housed at The Bureau of Economic Geology collected from two wells. The manufactured HF-waters were produced by mixing NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 salts with De-ionized water at approximately 0, 2000 and 20,000 ppm. During experiments, elements that show large increases in aqueous concentrations are Na, Cl, Ca and SO4. Simultaneous increases in Na and Cl, coupled with high Cl/Br ratios, suggest halite dissolution rather than pore space brine is responsible for Na and Cl concentrations. Simultaneous increase in Ca and SO4 suggest anhydrite dissolution. (SEM imaging shows that anhydrite crystals are usually embedded with the framework mineral grains, rather than precipitated in pores during sample drying, which suggests mineral source of Ca and SO4, possibly for Na and Cl as well). Pyrite oxidation and calcium carbonate dissolution were not significant due to no decrease in pH and no

  12. A comparative study of sound generation by laminar, combusting and non-combusting jet flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talei, Mohsen; Brear, Michael J.; Hawkes, Evatt R.

    2014-08-01

    Sound production by two-dimensional, laminar jet flows with and without combustion is studied numerically and theoretically. The compressible Navier-Stokes, energy and progress variable equations are solved by resolving both the near field and the acoustics. The combusting jet flows are compared to non-combusting jets of the same jet Mach number, with the non-combusting, non-isothermal jets having the same steady temperature difference as the combusting jets. This infers that the magnitude of entropic and density disturbances is similar in some of the combusting and non-combusting cases. The flows are perturbed by a sinusoidal inlet velocity fluctuation at different Strouhal numbers. The computational domain is resolved to the far field in all cases, allowing direct examination of the sound radiated and its sources. Lighthill's acoustic analogy is then solved numerically using Green's functions. The radiated sound calculated using Lighthill's equation is in good agreement with that from the simulations for all cases, validating the numerical solution of Lighthill's equation. The contribution of the source terms in Dowling's reformulation of Lighthill's equation is then investigated. It is shown that the source term relating to changes in the momentum of density inhomogeneities is the dominant source term for all non-reacting, non-isothermal cases. Further, this source term has similar magnitude in the combusting cases and is one of the several source terms that have similar magnitude to the source term involving fluctuations in the heat release rate.

  13. Reduction of Jet Penetration in a Cross-Flow by Using Tabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    A tab placed suitably on a nozzle that produces a jet in a cross-flow can reduce the penetration of the jet. This effect, achieved when the tab is placed on the windward side of the nozzle relative to the cross flow, may be of interest in film cooling applications. Wind tunnel experiments are carried out, in the momentum ratio (J) range of 10-90, to investigate the tab geometry that would maximize this effect. The preliminary results show that a 'delta tab' having a base width approximately fifty percent of the nozzle diameter may be considered optimum. With a given tab size, the effect is more pronounced at higher J. Reduction in jet penetration by as much as 40% is observed. Comparable reduction in jet penetration is also obtained when a triangular shaped tab is placed flush with the tunnel wall or with its apex tilted down into the jet nozzle (the 'delta tab' being the configuration in which the apex is tilted up). However, the delta tab involves the least flow blockage and pressure loss. Relative to the baseline case, the lateral spreading of the jet is found to be more with the delta tab but less with other orientations of the tab.

  14. Optimization of a synthetic jet actuator for flow control around an airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazer, E.; Mirzaei, M.; Salami, E.; Ward, T. A.; Romli, F. I.; Kazi, S. N.

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of a synthetic jet actuator parameters in the control flow around the NACA0015 airfoil at two angles of attack: 13° (i.e. the stall angle of NACA0015) and 16° (i.e. the post stall angle of NACA0015) to maximize the aerodynamic performance of the airfoil. Synthetic jet actuator is a zero mass flux-active flow control device that alternately injects and removes fluid through a small slot at the input movement frequency of a diaphragm. The movement of the diaphragm and also the external flow around the airfoil were simulated using numerical approach. The objective of the optimization process function was maximum lift-drag ratio (L/D) and the optimization variables were jet frequency, length of the jet slot and jet location along the chord. The power coefficient of the jet was considered as a constraint. The response surface optimization method was employed to achieve the optimal parameters. The results showed that the actuator is more effective for post stall angles of attack that can lead to an enhancement of 66% in L/D.

  15. Viscous-inviscid calculations of jet entrainment effects on the subsonic flow over nozzle afterbodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    A viscous-inviscid interaction model was developed to account for jet entrainment effects in the prediction of the subsonic flow over nozzle afterbodies. The model is based on the concept of a weakly interacting shear layer in which the local streamline deflections due to entrainment are accounted for by a displacement-thickness type of correction to the inviscid plume boundary. The entire flow field is solved in an iterative manner to account for the effects on the inviscid external flow of the turbulent boundary layer, turbulent mixing and chemical reactions in the shear layer, and the inviscid jet exhaust flow. The components of the computational model are described, and numerical results are presented to illustrate the interactive effects of entrainment on the overall flow structure. The validity of the model is assessed by comparisons with data obtained form flow-field measurements on cold-air jet exhausts. Numerical results and experimental data are also given to show the entrainment effects on nozzle boattail drag under various jet exhaust and free-stream flow conditions.

  16. Atmospheric plasma jet array in parallel electric and gas flow fields for three-dimensional surface treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Z.; Walsh, J. L.; Kong, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    This letter reports on electrical and optical characteristics of a ten-channel atmospheric pressure glow discharge jet array in parallel electric and gas flow fields. Challenged with complex three-dimensional substrates including surgical tissue forceps and sloped plastic plate of up to 15°, the jet array is shown to achieve excellent jet-to-jet uniformity both in time and in space. Its spatial uniformity is four times better than a comparable single jet when both are used to treat a 15° sloped substrate. These benefits are likely from an effective self-adjustment mechanism among individual jets facilitated by individualized ballast and spatial redistribution of surface charges.

  17. Numerical study of an impinging jet to a turbulent channel flow in a T-Junction configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Michail; Papalexandris, Miltiadis

    2016-11-01

    In this talk we report on Large Eddy Simulations of an impinging planar jet to a turbulent channel flow in a T-Junction configuration. Due to its capacity for mixing and heat transfer enhancement, this type of flow is encountered in various industrial applications. In particular, our work is related to the emergency cooling systems of pressurized water reactors. As is well known, this type of flow is dominated by a large separation bubble downstream the jet impingement location. Secondary regions of flow separation are predicted both upstream and downstream the impinging jet. We describe how these separation regions interact with the shear layer that is formed by the injection of the jet to the crossflow, and how they affect the mixing process. In our talk we further examine the influence of the jet's velocity to characteristic quantities of the jet, such as penetration length and expansion angle, as well as to the first and second-order statistics of the flow.

  18. Mixing and NO(x) Emission Calculations of Confined Reacting Jet Flows in a Cylindrical Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Oechsle, Victor L.

    2003-01-01

    Rapid mixing of cold lateral jets with hot cross-stream flows in confined configurations is of practical interest in gas turbine combustors as it strongly affects combustor exit temperature quality, and gaseous emissions in for example rich-lean combustion. It is therefore important to further improve our fundamental understanding of the important processes of dilution jet mixing especially when the injected jet mass flow rate exceeds that of the cross-stream. The results reported in this report describe some of the main flow characteristics which develop in the mixing process in a cylindrical duct. A 3-dimensional tool has been used to predict the mixing flow field characteristics and NOx emission in a quench section of an RQL combustor, Eighteen configurations have been analyzed in a circular geometry in a fully reacting environment simulating the operating condition of an actual RQL gas turbine combustion liner. The evaluation matrix was constructed by varying three parameters: 1) jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio (J), 2) orifice shape or orifice aspect ratio, and 3) slot slant angle. The results indicate that the mixing flow field significantly varies with the value of the jet penetration and subsequently, slanting elongated slots generally improve the mixing uniformity at high J conditions. Round orifices produce more uniform mixing and low NO(x) emissions at low J due to the strong and adequate jet penetration. No significant correlation was found between the NO(x) production rates and the mixing deviation parameters, however, strong correlation was found between NO(x) formation and jet penetration. In the computational results, most of the NO(x) formation occurred behind the orifice starting at the orifice wake region. Additional NO(x) is formed upstream of the orifice in certain configurations with high J conditions due to the upstream recirculation.

  19. Unsteady phenomena of an oscillating turbulent jet flow inside a cavity: Effect of aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataoui, A.; Schiestel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Self-sustained oscillatory phenomena in confined flow may occur when a turbulent plane jet is discharging into a rectangular cavity. An experimental set-up was developed and the flow analysis has been made using mainly hot-wire measurements, which were complemented by visualisation data. Previous studies confirmed that periodic oscillations may occur, depending on the location of the jet exit nozzle inside the cavity, and also the distance between the side-walls. The present study deals with the symmetrical interaction between a turbulent plane jet and a rectangular cavity and the influence of the geometrical characteristics of the cavity on the oscillatory motion. The size and aspect ratio of the cavity were varied together with the jet width compared to that of the cavity. The study is carried out both numerically and experimentally. The numerical method solves the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS) together with the continuity equation for an incompressible fluid. The closure of the flow equations system is achieved using a two-scale energy-flux model at high Reynolds number in the core flow coupled with a wall function treatment in the vicinity of the wall boundaries. The fundamental frequency of the oscillatory flow was found to be practically independent of the cavity length. Moreover, the oscillations are attenuated as the cavity width increases, until they disappear for a critical value of the cavity width. Contour maps of the instantaneous flow field are drawn to show the flow pattern evolution at the main phases of oscillation. They are given for several aspect ratios of the cavity, keeping constant values for the cavity width and the jet thickness. The proposed approach may help to investigate further the oscillation mechanisms and the entrainment process occurring in pressure driven jet-cavity interactions.

  20. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

    1997-03-18

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs.

  1. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Reichert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  2. Shear flow control of cold and heated rectangular jets by mechanical tabs. Volume 1: Results and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. H.; Ahuja, K. K.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of mechanical protrusions on the jet mixing characteristics of rectangular nozzles for heated and unheated subsonic and supersonic jet plumes were studied. The characteristics of a rectangular nozzle of aspect ratio 4 without the mechanical protrusions were first investigated. Intrusive probes were used to make the flow measurements. Possible errors introduced by intrusive probes in making shear flow measurements were also examined. Several scaled sizes of mechanical tabs were then tested, configured around the perimeter of the rectangular jet. Both the number and the location of the tabs were varied. From this, the best configuration was selected. The conclusions derived were: (1) intrusive probes can produce significant errors in the measurements of the velocity of jets if they are large in diameter and penetrate beyond the jet center; (2) rectangular jets without tabs, compared to circular jets of the same exit area, provide faster jet mixing; and (3) further mixing enhancement is possible by using mechanical tabs.

  3. Penetration process and instabilities arisen on a liquid jet impinged to a liquid flowing in a channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Kaoru; Ueno, Ichiro

    2010-11-01

    We conduct a series of experiments with a special interest on a penetration process and instabilities arisen on a liquid jet impinged to a liquid of the same kind flowing in a channel. The impinged jet penetrates into the flowing bath accompanying with entrainment of the ambient immiscible gas, which results in the impinged jet wrapped by the entrained gas as a "sheath." This sheath formation enables the impinged jet to survive in the fluid in the channel without coalescing until the entrained-air sheath breaks down. Occasionally a "cap" of the entrained air is formed at the tip of the penetrated jet, and the jet elongates like a long balloon. Dynamic behaviors of the penetrated jet and the departure of the bubble of warring gas at the tip of the collapsing jet observed by use of a high-speed camera are discussed.

  4. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  5. Jet shielding of jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study was conducted to develop a validated first principle analysis for predicting the jet noise reduction achieved by shielding one jet exhaust flow with a second, closely spaced, identical jet flow. A generalized fuel jet noise analytical model was formulated in which the acoustic radiation from a source jet propagates through the velocity and temperature discontinuity of the adjacent shielding jet. Input variables to the prediction procedure include jet Mach number, spacing, temperature, diameter, and source frequency. Refraction, diffraction, and reflection effects, which control the dual jet directivity pattern, are incorporated in the theory. The analysis calculates the difference in sound pressure level between the dual jet configuration and the radiation field based on superimposing two independent jet noise directivity patterns. Jet shielding was found experimentally to reduce noise levels in the common plane of the dual jet system relative to the noise generated by two independent jets.

  6. Investigation of flow structure and heat transfer characteristics in an array of impinging slot jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozmen, Yucel; Ipek, Gokhan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an experimental and numerical study is carried out to investigate flow field and heat transfer characteristics of unconfined and confined arrays of four turbulent slot air jets issuing from the lower surface and impinging normally on the upper surface. Pressure and temperature distributions on the surfaces were obtained for the nozzle-to-plate spacing (H/W) of 1-10 and for the Reynolds numbers in the range of 5000-15,000 at the jet-to-jet centerline spacing (S/W) of 9. The effects of jet confinement, Reynolds number and nozzle-to-plate spacing on the flow structure and heat transfer were investigated. Pressure distributions are obtained experimentally and numerically, while heat transfer distributions are computed numerically. It is observed that the surface pressure distributions on both impingement and confinement plates are independent from the Reynolds number, while they have been largely affected from the nozzle-to-plate spacing. Jet confinement causes a considerable difference at the flow field especially for small nozzle-to-plate spacings. Subatmospheric regions are not observed for unconfined jet. However three different types of subatmospheric pressure regions occur on both impingement and confinement plates for confined jet. Nusselt distributions on the impingement plate for both unconfined and confined jet configurations depend on the Reynolds number and nozzle-to-plate spacing. It is concluded that there is a strong correlation between subatmospheric regions and secondary peaks in Nusselt distributions. The numerical results obtained using the Realizable k-ɛ turbulence model is in good accordance with the experimental results for moderate values of nozzle-to-plate spacings.

  7. Dynamic, High-Temperature, Flexible Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Sirocky, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    New seal consists of multiple plies of braided ceramic sleeves filled with small ceramic balls. Innermost braided sleeve supported by high-temperature-wire-mesh sleeve that provides both springback and preload capabilities. Ceramic balls reduce effect of relatively high porosity of braided ceramic sleeves by acting as labyrinth flow path for gases and thereby greatly increasing pressure gradient seal can sustain. Dynamic, high-temperature, flexible seal employed in hypersonic engines, two-dimensional convergent/divergent and vectorized-thrust exhaust nozzles, reentry vehicle airframes, rocket-motor casings, high-temperature furnaces, and any application requiring non-asbestos high-temperature gaskets.

  8. Dynamic, High-Temperature, Flexible Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Sirocky, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    New seal consists of multiple plies of braided ceramic sleeves filled with small ceramic balls. Innermost braided sleeve supported by high-temperature-wire-mesh sleeve that provides both springback and preload capabilities. Ceramic balls reduce effect of relatively high porosity of braided ceramic sleeves by acting as labyrinth flow path for gases and thereby greatly increasing pressure gradient seal can sustain. Dynamic, high-temperature, flexible seal employed in hypersonic engines, two-dimensional convergent/divergent and vectorized-thrust exhaust nozzles, reentry vehicle airframes, rocket-motor casings, high-temperature furnaces, and any application requiring non-asbestos high-temperature gaskets.

  9. 3D numerical study of a feed jet in a rotating flow-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, D. J.; Zeng, S.

    2016-09-01

    A contribution of a feed drive in the total counter-current flow in a gas centrifuge for isotope separation is an important problem in optimization of its separation performance. A 3D model is used to simulate flow structures of a feed jet in a rotating flow-field. By using a CFD code, the details of a feed jet are obtained under the axial feed jet boundary condition. It is demonstrated that because of the vacuum regime in the region near the axis of rotation, the results of numerical simulation of a CFD code bring errors. The 3D DSMC simulation is a feasible method to overcome this problem in the future.

  10. An experimental and numerical study of particle-laden coaxial jet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed experimental and numerical study of the developing region of coaxial jet flows with and without glass beads is performed. A two-component phase/Doppler interferometer is used to measure mean and fluctuating velocity components for each phase and particle-number density. The numerical calculation is based on a stochastic Lagrangian treatment for the particles and a recently proposed two-equation turbulence model for two-phase flows. Results show that the particle-number density profile becomes narrower than the corresponding profile for round jet flow and that the particles attain a uniform velocity across the jet radius. The particles attenuate the level of gas turbulence and increase their anisotropy level. The numerical calculations yield reasonable and encouraging agreement with the measurements.

  11. Dilution jet configurations in a reverse flow combustor. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zizelman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Results of measurements of both temperature and velocity fields within a reverse flow combustor are presented. Flow within the combustor is acted upon by perpendicularly injected cooling jets introduced at three different locations along the inner and outer walls of the combustor. Each experiment is typified by a group of parameters: density ratio, momentum ratio, spacing ratio, and confinement parameter. Measurements of both temperature and velocity are presented in terms of normalized profiles at azimuthal positions through the turn section of the combustion chamber. Jet trajectories defined by minimum temperature and maximum velocity give a qualitative indication of the location of the jet within the cross flow. Results of a model from a previous temperature study are presented in some of the plots of data from this work.

  12. Flow control on a 3D backward facing ramp by pulsed jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Pierric; Bortolus, Dorian; Grasso, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of flow separation control over a 3D backward facing ramp by means of pulsed jets. Such geometry has been selected to reproduce flow phenomena of interest for the automotive industry. The base flow has been characterised using PIV and pressure measurements. The results show that the classical notchback topology is correctly reproduced. A control system based on magnetic valves has been used to produce the pulsed jets whose properties have been characterised by hot wire anemometry. In order to shed some light on the role of the different parameters affecting the suppression of the slant recirculation area, a parametric study has been carried out by varying the frequency and the momentum coefficient of the jets for several Reynolds numbers. xml:lang="fr"

  13. An experimental and numerical study of particle-laden coaxial jet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Mongia, H. C.; Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed experimental and numerical study of the developing region of coaxial jet flows with and without glass beads is performed. A two-component phase/Doppler interferometer is used to measure mean and fluctuating velocity components for each phase and particle-number density. The numerical calculation is based on a stochastic Lagrangian treatment for the particles and a recently proposed two-equation turbulence model for two-phase flows. Results show that the particle-number density profile becomes narrower than the corresponding profile for round jet flow and that the particles attain a uniform velocity across the jet radius. The particles attenuate the level of gas turbulence and increase their anisotropy level. The numerical calculations yield reasonable and encouraging agreement with the measurements.

  14. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Apart from the hydrogeological conditions, high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. After one year of planning, construction, and the successful drilling of a research well to 495 m b.s.l. the first large scale heat storage test in the Malm aquifer was finished just before Christmas 2014. An enormous technical challenge was the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10-50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. About 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary to achieve the desired water temperatures. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for the analysis of the concentration of the tracers and the cation concentrations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analyzed for major ions and trace elements in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger proved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating

  15. An experimental study of the oscillatory flow structure of tone-producing supersonic impinging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark

    2005-10-01

    An experimental investigation into the structure of a supersonic jet impinging on a large plate is presented. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), shadowgraph photography and acoustic measurements are used to understand the relationship between the unsteady jet structure and the production of tones for nozzle-to-plate spacings between 1 and 5 nozzle exit diameters at a nozzle pressure ratio equal to 4. Results indicate that the instability of the jet depends on the location of the plate in the shock cell structure of the corresponding free jet and the strength of the standoff shock wave, rather than on the occurrence of recirculation zones in the impingement region. Phase-locked studies show streamwise displacements of the stand-off shock wave, a moving recirculation zone in the subsonic flow in front of the plate, and significant oscillations of both the compression and expansion regions in the peripheral supersonic flow when tones are produced. Sound is shown to be generated by periodic pulsing of the wall jet boundary resulting from periodic motion of the flow in the impingement and near-wall regions of the flow.

  16. Mixing characteristics of pulsed air-assist liquid jet into an internal subsonic cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Inchul; Kang, Youngsu; Koo, Jaye

    2010-04-01

    Penetration depth, spray dispersion angle, droplet sizes in breakup processes and atomization processes are very important parameters in combustor of air-breathing engine. These processes will enhance air/fuel mixing inside the combustor. Experimental results from the pulsed air-assist liquid jet injected into a cross-flow are investigated. And experiments were conducted to a range of cross-flow velocities from 42˜136 m/s. Air is injected with 0˜300kPa, with air-assist pulsation frequency of 0˜20Hz. Pulsation frequency was modulated by solenoid valve. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer(PDPA) was utilized to quantitatively measuring droplet characteristics. High-speed CCD camera was used to obtain injected spray structure. Pulsed air-assist liquid jet will offer rapid mixing and good liquid jet penetration. Air-assist makes a very fine droplet which generated mist-like spray. Pulsed air-assist liquid jet will introduce additional supplementary turbulent mixing and control of penetration depth into a cross-flow field. The results show that pulsation frequency has an effect on penetration, transverse velocities and droplet sizes. The experimental data generated in these studies are used for a development of active control strategies to optimize the liquid jet penetration in subsonic cross-flow conditions and predict combustion low frequency instability.

  17. Bactericidal effect of plasma jet with helium flowing through 3% hydrogen peroxide against Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin-Cai; Li, Yu-Lan; Liu, De-Xi; Cao, Ying-Guang; Lu, Xin-Pei

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of plasma jet with helium (He) flowing through 3% hydrogen peroxide in root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. A total of 42 single-rooted anterior teeth were prepared, sterilized, inoculated with an E. faecalis suspension and incubated for 7 days. Next, the teeth were randomly divided into six experimental groups (including groups treated by plasma jet with or without He for different time durations) and one control group treated without plasma. The number of surviving bacteria in each canal was determined by counting the colony forming units (CFU)/ml on nutrient agar plates. The results indicated that statistically significant reduction in CFU/ml (P<0.005) existed for all treatment groups relative to the control group. The greatest reductions in CFU/ml were observed for Group 3 (7.027 log unit reduction) and Group 2 (6.237 log unit reduction), which were treated by plasma jet sterilization with He flowing through 3% hydrogen peroxide for 4 min or for 2 min, respectively. In addition, the reduction in Group 3 was significantly greater compared with that in Group 2 or in the groups treated by plasma jet sterilization without He flowing through 3% hydrogen peroxide for 1, 2 or 4 min. In conclusion, plasma jet with or without He flowing through 3% hydrogen peroxide can effectively sterilized root canals infected with E. faecalis and should be considered as an alternative method for root canal disinfection in endodontic treatments.

  18. On the trajectory scaling of tandem twin jets in cross-flow in close proximity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    New, T. H.; Zang, B.

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study has been conducted on tandem twin jets in cross-flow (JICF) in close proximity to investigate the relationships between their trajectories, separation distances and velocity ratios. Results show that the front and rear jets, each with initially distinct jet trajectory, merge into a single trajectory shortly after they exhaust into the cross-flow. Furthermore, the merged tandem JICF attains deeper cross-flow penetration than that of a single JICF at the same velocity ratio. The front jet is also observed to provide `shielding' for the rear jet such that the latter penetrates relatively deeper into the cross-flow, which corroborates observations made by earlier studies. In particular, the present study demonstrates that it is possible to collapse the tandem JICF merged trajectories by ` rD'-scaling, where A and B coefficients show slight reductions and increments, respectively, with increasing separation distance. Collapsing the merged trajectories by using single JICF A and B coefficients leads to the notion of effective velocity ratio for tandem JICF, which enable the authors to propose a modification in the ` rD'-scaling law for tandem JICF. Lastly, the modified ` rD'-scaling law is applied to trajectory data from an earlier tandem JICF study, and its validity is demonstrated by the resulting good collapse.

  19. Visualization of the flow field in a confined and submerged impinging jet

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.A.; Garimella, S.V.

    1997-07-01

    The high heat transfer rates that can be obtained through the use of jet impingement cooling have led to its use in a variety of applications, including paper drying, glass manufacturing, turbine-blade cooling, and electronics cooling. Here, the flow field of a normally impinging, axisymmetric, confined and submerged liquid kit is studied using flow visualization. The results are compared with computations and experimental measurements of the flow field, and are used to describe the position of the recirculating toroid in the outflow region which is characteristic of the confined flow field. Changes in the features of the recirculation pattern due to changes in Reynolds number, nozzle diameter and nozzle-to-target plate spacing are documented. Results are presented for nozzle diameters of 3.18, 6.35, and 12.7 mm, at jet Reynolds numbers in the range of 2,000 to 23,000, and nozzle-to-target plate spacings of 1, 2, 3, and 4 jet diameters. Up to three interacting vertical structures are observed in the confinement region at the smaller Reynolds numbers. The center of the primary recirculation pattern moves away from the centerline of the jet with an increase in Reynolds number, nozzle diameter, and nozzle-to-target plate spacing. As the recirculating toroid moves away from the jet axis, more of the ambient fluid is entrained into the confinement region.

  20. Sound propagation through a real jet flow field with scattering due to interaction with turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.; Liu, C. H.; Ting, L.; Gunzburger, M.

    1974-01-01

    The sound propagation through a nonuniform turbulent jet flow field is studied by means of a system of linearized equations governing the acoustic variables. These equations depend on the fluctuating flow-field variables which are prescribed by experimental results. It is shown that the redistribution of the acoustic energy in the far field depends on space-time correlation of the turbulent velocities and on the mean flow variables and their gradients.

  1. Mach reflection associated with over-expanded nozzle free jet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, W. L.; Chang, I. S.

    1975-01-01

    The occurrence of Mach reflection within the over-expanded nozzle free jet flow has been examined. A flow model emphasizing the interaction between the outer and central core streams has been developed to deal with flow situations where detailed inviscid calculations of the flowfield with Mach reflexion are not possible. The results obtained show reasonably good agreement with the available experimental data. This method has also produced comparable results where detailed calculations of the flowfield are possible.

  2. Studies on the mixing of liquid jets and pre-atomized sprays in confined swirling air flows for lean direct injection combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jun-Young

    A lean direct injection (LDI) combustion concept was introduced recently to obtain both low NOsbx emissions and high performance for advanced aircraft gas turbine engines. It was reported that pollutant emissions, especially NOsbx, in a lean combustion mode depend significantly on the degree of mixing (mixedness) of supplied air and liquid fuel droplets. From a viewpoint of environmental protection, therefore, uniform mixing of fuel and air in a very short period of time, i.e., well-stirred mixing, is crucially important in the LDI combustion mode. In the present study, as the first stage toward understanding the combustion phenomena in a lean direct injection (LDI) mode, the hydrodynamic behavior of liquid jets and pre-atomized sprays in confined swirling air flows is investigated. Laser-based flow visualization and image analysis techniques are applied to analyze the instantaneous motion of the mixing process of the jets and pre-atomized sprays. Statistical analysis system (SAS) software is utilized to analyze the experimental data, and correlate experimental parameters. Statistical parameters, such as centrality, degree of spread, and total area ratio of particles, are defined in this study, and used to quantify the mixedness (degree of mixing) of liquid particles in confined geometry. Two empirical equations are obtained to predict jet intact lengths and spray angles, respectively, in confined swirling air flows. It is found that initial jet characteristics, such as intact length and spray angle, determine the mixing of the liquid particles resulting from the jet. It is verified that image analysis is feasible in quantitative determination of the mixedness of liquid particles. Even though substantial improvements in liquid fuel injector systems are required before they can be considered adequate for LDI combustion at high pressure and high temperature, the results and ideas obtained from the present study will help engineers find better mixing methods for LDI

  3. Active Flow Control Using Sweeping Jet Actuators on a Semi-Span Wing Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, LaTunia Pack; Koklu, Mehti

    2016-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments were performed using active flow control on an unswept semispan wing model with a 30% chord trailing edge flap to aid in the selection of actuators for a planned high Reynolds number experiment. Two sweeping jet actuator sizes were investigated to determine the influence of actuator size on the active flow control system efficiency. Sweeping jet actuators with orifice sizes of 1 mm x 2 mm and 2 mm x 4 mm were selected because of the differences in actuator jet sweep angle. The parameters that were varied include actuator momentum, freestream velocity, and trailing edge flap deflection angle. Steady and unsteady pressure data, Particle Image Velocimetry data, and force and moment data were acquired to assess the performance of the two actuators. In addition to the wind tunnel experiments, benchtop studies of the actuators were performed to characterize the jets produced by each actuator. Benchtop investigations of the smaller actuator reveal that the jet exiting the actuator has a reduced sweep angle compared to published data for larger versions of this type of actuator. The larger actuator produces an oscillating jet that attaches to the external di?user walls at low supply pressures and produces the expected sweep angles. The AFC results using the smaller actuators show that while the actuators can control flow separation, the selected spacing of 3.3 cm may be too large due to the reduced sweep angle. In comparison, the spacing for the larger actuators, 6.6 cm, appears to be optimal for the Mach numbers investigated. Particle Image Velocimetry results are presented and show how the wall jets produced by the actuators cause the flow to attach to the flap surface.

  4. Flow Field Characterization of an Angled Supersonic Jet Near a Bluff Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, John D.; Childs, Robert; Wernet, Mark P.; Shestopalov, Andrea; Melton, John E.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was performed to acquire data from a hot supersonic jet in cross flow for the purpose of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence modeling relevant to the Orion Launch Abort System. Hot jet conditions were at the highest temperature and pressure that could be acquired in the test facility. The nozzle pressure ratio was 28.5, and the nozzle temperature ratio was 3. These conditions are different from those of the flight vehicle, but sufficiently high to model the observed turbulence features. Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) data and capsule pressure data are presented. Features of the flow field are presented and discussed

  5. Propulsive-jet flow field analysis using the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been applied to the analysis of flow fields containing propulsive jets. Specifically, the application was made to a flow field containing a supersonic jet injected at an angle of 90 degrees to a subsonic free stream. Although wind tunnel data were available, the computational results were not readily comparable to the experimental data because of significant differences between the two plume trajectories. Reasons for the differences are suggested in the report and include: (1) incomplete convergence, (2) inadequate grid resolution in the high gradient regions, and (3) use of a low-order turbulence closure model.

  6. Large eddy simulation in a turbulent jet exhausting into a submerged space or a cocurrent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, K. N.

    2011-01-01

    Results of large eddy simulations in a subsonic isothermal turbulent jet exhausting from a circular nozzle into a submerged space or a cocurrent flow are presented. The flow is described by space-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and by the RNG model of subgrid scale viscosity. Results computed for different values of the cocurrency parameter are compared with available results of numerical simulations and experimental data. The results obtained are found to agree well with measured data and to confirm the basic laws of variation of gas-dynamic and fluctuating parameters of submerged and cocurrent jets.

  7. Flow distribution in a roller jet bit determined from hot-wire anemometry measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gavignet, A.A.; Bradbury, L.J.; Quetier, F.P.

    1987-03-01

    In current practice, the optimization of drilling hydraulics consists of the selection of nozzle sizes that maximize either jet impact or hydraulic power at the nozzle. But what is required for a real optimization is the knowledge of the hydraulic forces available for cleaning at the rock face, not at the nozzle. This paper shows the results of hot-wire anemometry experiments that provide insight into the flow distribution in a jet bit. Direct measurements of the flow field, including turbulence levels, are reported and discussed.

  8. Simultaneous velocity and concentration measurements of a turbulent jet mixing flow.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui; Saga, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Toshio; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2002-10-01

    A method for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and passive scalar concentration fields by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and planar laser induced florescence (PLIF) techniques is described here. An application of the combined PIV-PLIF system is demonstrated by performing simultaneous velocity and concentration measurements in the near field of a turbulent jet mixing flow. The distributions of the ensemble-averaged velocity and concentration, turbulent velocity fluctuation, concentration standard deviation, and the correlation terms between the fluctuating velocities and concentration in the near field of the turbulent jet flow are presented as the measurement results of the simultaneous PIV-PLIF system.

  9. Three-dimensional study of turbulent flow characteristics of an offset plane jet with variable density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assoudi, Ali; Habli, Sabra; Mahjoub Saïd, Nejla; Bournot, Hervé; Le Palec, Georges

    2016-11-01

    An experimental and numerical investigation of the flow field of variable density turbulent offset jet is presented. The velocity measurements are performed using a Velocimetry Laser Doppler technique for an offset height h. Three cases of variable-density turbulent plane jets discharging from a rectangular nozzle into a quiescent medium are studied. The variation density jets considered were revealed at different Reynolds numbers. In the second step of this work, a numerical three-dimensional model of the problem is simulated through the resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations by means of the finite volume method and the Reynolds stress model second-order turbulent closure model. A non-uniform mesh system tightened close to the emitting nozzle and both the vertical and horizontal walls is also adopted. A good level of agreement was achieved, between the experiments and the calculations. Once the model validated, our model allowed the evaluation of the influence of the variation density on the characterizing features of the resulting flow filed. It is found that the centerline velocity and concentration of the heavier jet decays much faster than in the two other jets, and a similar behavior for the vertical profiles in the three variable-density jets is well reproduced in the simulation.

  10. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema

    Peter Johnson

    2016-07-12

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors — materials that carry electrical c

  11. Multi-specie isothermal flow calculations of widely-spaced co-axial jets in a confined sudden expansion, with the central jet dominant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgess, G. J.; Syed, S. A.

    1982-06-01

    A numerical simulation is made of the flow in the Wright Aeronautical Propulsion Laboratory diffusion flame research combustor operating with a strong central jet of carbon dioxide in a weak and removed co-axial jet of air. The simulation is based on a finite difference solution of the time-average, steady-state, elliptic form of the Reynolds equations. Closure for these equations is provided by a two-equation turbulence model. Comparisons between measurements and predictions are made for centerline axial velocities and radial profiles of CO2 concentration. Earlier findings for a single specie, constant density, single jet flow that a large expansion ratio confined jet behaves initially as if it were unconfined, are confirmed for the multiple-specie, variable density, multiple-jet system. The lack of universality in the turbulence model constants and the turbulent Schmidt/Prandtl number is discussed.

  12. A Conceptual Model to Link Anomalously High Temperature Gradients in the Cerros del Rio Volcanic Field to Regional Flow in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingham, E. J.; Keller, S. N.; McCullough, K. R.; Watters, J.; Weitering, B.; Wilce, A. M.; Folsom, M.; Kelley, S.; Pellerin, L.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature-depth well data along with electromagnetic (EM) data were collected by students of the Summer of Applied Geophysics Experience (SAGE) 2015 field season in the Espanola Basin, New Mexico. The data from this year, in addition to data acquired since 2013, were used to construct a conceptual east-west cross-section of the Espanola Basin and the adjacent highlands in order to evaluate the regional flow system. Vertical geothermal gradients from several monitoring wells were measured using a thermistor. Anomalously warm geothermal gradients were mapped in the Cerros del Rio volcanic field in the basin just east of the Rio Grande. Temperature gradients are up to 70℃/km, while the background geothermal gradients in the Rio Grande rift zone generally show 28℃-35℃/km. This anomaly extends to the Buckman well field, which supplies water to the city of Santa Fe. Overpumping of this well field has led to subsidence in the past. However, discharge temperature plots indicate that the temperature gradients of the Buckman field may be rebounding as pumping is reduced. Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) data were acquired in the vicinity of three monitoring wells. TEM and AMT methods complement each other with the former having depths of investigation of less than ten to hundreds of meters and AMT having depths of investigation comparable to the wells deeper than 500m. These datasets were used collectively to image the subsurface stratigraphy and, more specifically, the hydrogeology related to shallow aquifers. The EM data collected at these wells showed a trend indicating a shallow aquifer with a shallower resistive layer of approximately 100 ohm-m at 70-100 meters depth. Beneath this resistive layer we resolved a more conductive, clay-rich layer of 10 ohm-m. These resistivity profiles compliment the electrical logs provided by Jet West, which indicate shallower sandstone interbedded with silt on top of more silt-dominant layers. Our

  13. Heat transfer and flow characteristics of jets impinging on a concave hemispherical plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrycak, P.

    1982-01-01

    The present study is concerned with an experimental investigation of the flow characteristics and heat transfer from turbulent air jets impinging normally on a concave hemispherical plate (CHP). It is found that the incompressible, turbulent jets impinging on a CHP are in many respects similar to the jets impinging on a flat plate. The observed differences are due to effects of curvature and to a slightly higher turbulence level inside of the CHP. Attention is given to the experimental apparatus, aspects of inner boundary layer development, the maximum velocity decay in a wall jet, the derivation of a maximum velocity decay formula, the influence of curvature on stagnation point heat transfer, and heat transfer calculations for a concave hemispherical plate.

  14. Characterization of jet formation and flow field produced by tandem bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen; Koff, Andrew S.; Yuan, Fang; Zhong, Pei; Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Chahine, Georges L.

    2017-03-01

    Tandem bubble (TB) interactions have been shown to produce directional jets that can be used to create membrane poration on single cells. Jet speed and associated flow field produced around the TB have been postulated to play an important role in TB-induced bioeffects. In this study, dynamics of tandem bubble interaction in a microfluidic channel (25 µm in height) was analyzed by high-speed imaging and simulated using 3DYNAFS-BEM© (DYNAFLOW, INC.). The results suggest that jet size and geometry are primarily controlled by the maximum diameter of the first bubble (D1) while jet speed is about linearly correlated with maximum diameter of the second bubble (D2).

  15. A study of jet impingement on curved surfaces followed by oblique introduction into a freestream flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatom, J. W.; Schnurr, N. M.; Williamson, J. W.; Dunlap, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the temperature and velocity fields generated by a two-dimensional transverse jet was conducted. An approximate analysis of a deflected radial plane jet was developed. An analytical model of aircraft ingestion was extended to include computation of the inlet flow field. An investigation of the use of flaps as thrust reversers was initiated. Analyses of the impingement of a round incompressible and a round compressible jet on a arbitrary axisymmetric surface were completed. A computer study of the effects on performance of thrust reverser geometry was completed and the results compared with existing data. An experimental investigation of three-dimensional jet impingement on nonplane surfaces was also initiated.

  16. RAXJET: A computer program for predicting transonic, axisymmetric flow over nozzle afterbodies with supersonic jet exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmoth, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    A viscous-inviscid interaction method to calculate the subsonic and transonic flow over nozzle afterbodies with supersonic jet exhausts was developed. The method iteratively combines a relaxation solution of the full potential equation for the inviscid external flow, a shock capturing-shock fitting inviscid jet solution, an integral boundary layer solution, a control volume method for treating separated flows, and an overlaid mixing layer solution. A computer program called RAXJET which incorporates the method, illustrates the predictive capabilities of the method by comparison with experimental data is described, a user's guide to the computer program is provided. The method accurately predicts afterbody pressures, drag, and flow field properties for attached and separated flows for which no shock induced separation occurs.

  17. Flow instabilities in non-uniformly heated helium jet arrays used for divertor PFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Youchison, Dennis L.

    2015-07-30

    In this study, due to a lack of prototypical experimental data, little is known about the off-normal behavior of recently proposed divertor jet cooling concepts. This article describes a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study on two jet array designs to investigate their susceptibility to parallel flow instabilities induced by non-uniform heating and large increases in the helium outlet temperature. The study compared a single 25-jet helium-cooled modular divertor (HEMJ) thimble and a micro-jet array with 116 jets. Both have pure tungsten armor and a total mass flow rate of 10 g/s at a 600 °C inlet temperature. We investigated flow perturbations caused by a 30 MW/m2 off-normal heat flux applied over a 25 mm2 area in addition to the nominal 5 MW/m2 applied over a 75 mm2 portion of the face. The micro-jet array exhibited lower temperatures and a more uniform surface temperature distribution than the HEMJ thimble. We also investigated the response of a manifolded nine-finger HEMJ assembly using the nominal heat flux and a 274 mm2 heated area. For the 30 MW/m2 case, the micro-jet array absorbed 750 W in the helium with a maximum armor surface temperature of 1280 °C and a fluid/solid interface temperature of 801 °C. The HEMJ absorbed 750 W with a maximum armor surface temperature of 1411 °C and a fluid/solid interface temperature of 844 °C. For comparison, both the single HEMJ finger and the micro-jet array used 5-mm-thick tungsten armor. The ratio of maximum to average temperature and variations in the local heat transfer coefficient were lower for the micro-jet array compared to the HEMJ device. Although high heat flux testing is required to validate the results obtained in these simulations, the results provide important guidance in jet design and manifolding to increase heat removal while providing more even temperature distribution and minimizing non-uniformity in the gas flow and thermal stresses at the

  18. High temperature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1991-03-01

    In recent years, the aerospace propulsion and space power communities have acknowledged a growing need for electronic devices that are capable of sustained high-temperature operation. Aeropropulsion applications for high-temperature electronic devices include engine ground test instrumentation such as multiplexers, analog-to-digital converters, and telemetry systems capable of withstanding hot section engine temperatures in excess of 600 C. Uncooled operation of control and condition monitoring systems in advanced supersonic aircraft would subject the electronics to temperatures in excess of 300 C. Similarly, engine-mounted integrated electronic sensors could reach temperatures which exceed 500 C. In addition to aeronautics, there are many other areas that could benefit from the existence of high-temperature electronic devices. Space applications include power electronic devices for space platforms and satellites. Since power electronics require radiators to shed waste heat, electronic devices that operate at higher temperatures would allow a reduction in radiator size. Terrestrial applications include deep-well drilling instrumentation, high power electronics, and nuclear reactor instrumentation and control. To meet the needs of the applications mentioned previously, the high-temperature electronics (HTE) program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high-temperature semiconductor material. Research is focused on developing the crystal growth, growth modeling, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of SiC devices. Interest in SiC has grown dramatically in recent years due to solid advances in the technology. Much research remains to be performed, but SiC appears ready to emerge as a useful semiconductor material.

  19. Synchronal measurement of flow structure and heat transfer of impingement jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Shoichi; Saji, Naomichi; Yaga, Minoru; Ishikawa, Masaaki; Oyakawa, Kenyu

    2010-06-01

    This paper will present the characteristics of flow behavior and thermal field of both free and impingement jet issued from a circular orifice nozzle at Re = 8900. The flow behavior of a single round jet and impingement jet was observed by smoke flow visualization recorded by a high speed camera using 5000 frame per second. Heat transfer coefficient on the impingement surface was measured by means of infrared camera (TVS-8500, Avio) with a two-dimensional array of Indeum-Antimony (In Sb) sensors varying in the separation distance between the nozzle and the target plate. The heat transfer coefficient changes in time and spatial. Therefore, the root mean square distribution of the heat transfer was obtained from the data. As a result, it was confirmed that the longitudinal vortex was observed outside of the ring vortex, and then the longitudinal vortex was penetrated in the jet flow. Moreover, the high value of root mean square of the heat transfer coefficient has spread radially in stripy manner, which is caused as the results of the longitudinal vortexes flowing in the radial direction on the impingement plate.

  20. Propagation of atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet into ambient air at laminar gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinchuk, M.; Stepanova, O.; Kurakina, N.; Spodobin, V.

    2017-05-01

    The formation of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) in a gas flow passing through the discharge gap depends on both gas-dynamic properties and electrophysical parameters of the plasma jet generator. The paper presents the results of experimental and numerical study of the propagation of the APPJ in a laminar flow of helium. A dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) generated inside a quartz tube equipped with a coaxial electrode system, which provided gas passing through it, served as a plasma source. The transition of the laminar regime of gas flow into turbulent one was controlled by the photography of a formed plasma jet. The corresponding gas outlet velocity and Reynolds numbers were revealed experimentally and were used to simulate gas dynamics with OpenFOAM software. The data of the numerical simulation suggest that the length of plasma jet at the unvarying electrophysical parameters of DBD strongly depends on the mole fraction of ambient air in a helium flow, which is established along the direction of gas flow.

  1. Interactions of a finite span synthetic jet with a cross flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Chia Min; van Buren, Tyler; Whalen, Edward; Amitay, Michael; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Team; Boeing Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    A synthetic jet is a zero-net-mass-flux flow control actuator that produces alternating ejection and suction of fluid momentum across an orifice. It has been used in numerous applications as an active flow control device to improve aerodynamic performance. Though their aerodynamic performance effects are well known, this present study seeks to understand the fluid dynamic effects of synthetic jets. Specifically, the work investigates the interactions of a finite span synthetic jet with a zero-pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer. This study was performed in a small-scale subsonic wind tunnel with an adjustable test section upper wall that was used to generate a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer. Several finite span rectangular orifices were chosen for this study. Time and phase-averaged Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) measurements were acquired at multiple planes upstream and downstream of the synthetic jet orifice to explore the interaction of the synthetic jet with the cross flow. The effects of the orifice aspect ratio (12, 18, and 24) and blowing ratio (0.5, 1, and 1.5) were investigated. The unsteady vortical structures observed in the near field and the steady structures in the far field are discussed.

  2. Thermal Protection System Evaluation Using Arc-jet Flows: Flight Simulation or Research Tool?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The arc-jet has been used to evaluate thermal protection systems (TPS) and materials for the past forty years. Systems that have been studied in this environmerd include ablators, active, and passive TPS concepts designed for vehicles entering planetary and Earth atmospheres. The question of whether arc-jet flow can simulate a flight environment or is it a research tool that provides an aero-thermodynamic heating environment to obtain critical material properties will be addressed. Stagnation point tests in arc-jets are commonly used to obtain material properties such as mass loss rates, thermal chemical stability data, optical properties, and surface catalytic efficiency. These properties are required in computational fluid dynamic codes to accurately predict the performance of a TPS during flight. Special facilities have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to approximate the flow environment over the mid-fuselage and body flap regions of proposed space-planes type vehicles. This paper compares flow environments generated in flight over a vehicle with those created over an arc-jet test articles in terms of scale, chemistry, and fluid dynamic properties. Flight experiments are essential in order to validate the material properties obtained from arc-jet tests and used to predict flight performance of any TPS being considered for use on a vehicle entering the Earth atmosphere at hypersonic speed.

  3. Modeling Variable-Density Jets with Co-Flow Using BHR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The two-fluid jet in a co-flow has two similarity breaking features which make it more interesting, and challenging, than the simple self-similar jet. First, it transitions from strong jet to weak jet, and second, from shear driven to buoyancy driven. These two simultaneous mechanisms make it a strong test for a turbulence model. The Extreme Fluids team at Los Alamos National Laboratory has an on-going experimental campaign examining an SF6 jet injected downwards into a co-flowing air stream. Using simultaneous PIV/PLIF they have obtained measurements of important turbulence quantities, including the Reynolds stresses, and the velocity-density correlations. In the current work, these measurements are used to validate the BHR turbulence model. The BHR model (Besnard et al., 1992) is a variable-density turbulence model similar to the LRR model for shear flows, but with additional transport equations for ρai = ρ'ui' ' ̲ and b = ρ'v' ̲ . Here we examine both the conventional model form, as well as a new version (Schwarzkopf et al., 2016) which include two length-scale equations: one for the dissipation scale, and one for the turbulent transport scale.

  4. Thermal Protection System Evaluation Using Arc-jet Flows: Flight Simulation or Research Tool?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The arc-jet has been used to evaluate thermal protection systems (TPS) and materials for the past forty years. Systems that have been studied in this environmerd include ablators, active, and passive TPS concepts designed for vehicles entering planetary and Earth atmospheres. The question of whether arc-jet flow can simulate a flight environment or is it a research tool that provides an aero-thermodynamic heating environment to obtain critical material properties will be addressed. Stagnation point tests in arc-jets are commonly used to obtain material properties such as mass loss rates, thermal chemical stability data, optical properties, and surface catalytic efficiency. These properties are required in computational fluid dynamic codes to accurately predict the performance of a TPS during flight. Special facilities have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to approximate the flow environment over the mid-fuselage and body flap regions of proposed space-planes type vehicles. This paper compares flow environments generated in flight over a vehicle with those created over an arc-jet test articles in terms of scale, chemistry, and fluid dynamic properties. Flight experiments are essential in order to validate the material properties obtained from arc-jet tests and used to predict flight performance of any TPS being considered for use on a vehicle entering the Earth atmosphere at hypersonic speed.

  5. The Time-Resolved Flow Field of a Spatially Oscillating Jet in Crossflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, F.; Woszidlo, R.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.

    2016-11-01

    Spatially oscillating jets in crossflow emitted by fluidic oscillators have been proven beneficial for flow control applications in recent studies. However, the driving mechanism behind the efficacy remains unknown. The presented study examines the fundamental, time-resolved flow field of a spatially oscillating jet in crossflow. The inclination angle between oscillation plane and crossflow is 90°. The underlying experimental dataset is acquired plane-by-plane by a traversable stereoscopic particle image velocimetry system. Phase-averaging reduces stochastic noise, compensates low sampling rates, and allows combining the individual planes to a time-resolved three-dimensional flow field. The trajectory of the oscillating jet is much shallower than a steady jet. Two counter-rotating streamwise vortices are revealed. The sense of rotation is opposite to that of the counter-rotating vortex pair of steady jets in crossflow. This sense of rotation enables the vortices to prevail far downstream because they push each other toward the wall. The strength of the vortices is alternating. This vortex pair is a promising candidate to be the driving mechanism behind the high efficacy in separation control. PhD Student.

  6. An investigation of bimodal jet trajectory in flow through scaled models of the human vocal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2006-05-01

    Pulsatile two-dimensional flow through static divergent models of the human vocal folds is investigated. Although the motivation for this study is speech production, the results are generally applicable to a variety of engineering flows involving pulsatile flow through diffusers. Model glottal divergence angles of 10, 20, and 40° represent various geometries encountered in one phonation cycle. Frequency and amplitude of the flow oscillations are scaled with physiological Reynolds and Strouhal numbers typical of human phonation. Glottal velocity trajectories are measured along the anterior-posterior midline by using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry to acquire 1,000 realizations at ten discrete instances in the phonation cycle. The angular deflection of the glottal jet from the streamwise direction (symmetric configuration) is quantified for each realization. A bimodal flow configuration is observed for divergence angles of 10 and 20°, with the flow eventually skewing and attaching to the vocal fold walls. The deflection of the flow toward the vocal fold walls occurs when the forcing function reaches maximum velocity and zero acceleration. For a divergence angle of 40°, the flow never attaches to the vocal fold walls; however, there is increased variability in the glottal jet after the forcing function reaches maximum velocity and zero acceleration. The variation in the jet trajectory as a function of divergence angle is explained by performance maps of diffuser flow regimes. The smaller angle cases are in the unstable transitory stall regime while the 40° divergent case is in the fully developed two-dimensional stall regime. Very small geometric variations in model size and surface finish significantly affect the flow behavior. The bimodal, or flip-flopping, glottal jet behavior is expected to influence the dipole contribution to sound production.

  7. Numerical investigation of multiphase flow in flue gas desulphurization system with rotary jet stirring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Runkun; Wang, Hongxing; Chen, Songying; Qu, Yanpeng; Wang, Chao

    There exits multiphase flow of oxygenized air, lime slurry and limestone particles in power plant flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. A rotary jet stirring device (RJSD) is installed in the slurry pond at the bottom center of absorption tank to get an appropriate mixing flow field so far as possible to get off sulfur dioxide. By employing the standard k-ε turbulence model and the Eulerian multiphase model, numerical investigations for liquid-solid and liquid-solid-gas flow field are presented to discuss the distribution of flow hydrodynamic parameters under a certain operational condition, respectively. In liquid-solid flow, limestone particle concentration shows a decreasing trend with the increase of the rotation angular velocity. The core jet length of the rotary mixer tend to be much longer with the increase of jet velocity under the surrounding pressure, but the dispersed slurry velocity tends to reduce after an initial increasing during the starting period due to the inadequate mixing process. This phenomenon shows that the stirring down-stream is more important than the advection stream in liquid-solid condition. Compared to the liquid-solid condition, the distribution of the air volume of fraction in gas-liquid-solid flow is getting uniform because of the participation of the solid phase, and the down-stream plays an important role in air lateral distribution. The concentration of the limestone particle in liquid-solid condition is higher than in the multiphase flow field. The reason is that the particle distributing velocity near the tank wall is lower and the vertical velocity is higher than in the liquid-solid condition when the jet down-stream velocity is equal. The numerical results could be a useful exploration for an attempt usage of rotary jet device in FGD system.

  8. Large-scale turbulent structures in jets and in flows over cavities and their relationship to entrainment and mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarohia, V.; Massier, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Large scale structures in jets and in flows over cavities were investigated experimentally to determine their role in entrainment, mixing, and noise production. The presence of these structures resulted in growth of the shear layer and entrainment. Merging of adjacent large scale structures caused the near field pressure signal in excited flows. It is believed that both the entrained fluid as well as its eventual mixing with the jet flow can be controlled by introducing pulsation in the jet flow at a frequency for which the flow is most unstable.

  9. Numerical Study of Noise Characteristics in Overexpanded Jet Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-05

    study of shock-cell noise in underexpanded supersonic jets”, AIAA 2013-2080 [17]. Tam, C. K. W., Viswanathan, K., K. K. Ahuja And J. Panda , “The sources...Suda, H., Manning, T. A., Kaji, S., “Transition of Oscillation Modes of Rectangular Supersonic Jet in Screech”, AIAA-93-4323. [24]. Panda , J., “Shock...1998, pp. 45–106. [28]. Panda , J., “An Experimental Investigation of Screech Noise Generation,” Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1999, Vol. 378, pp. 71–96

  10. Flow field and near and far sound field of a subsonic jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1986-01-01

    Flow and sound field data are presented for a 2.54 cm diameter air jet at a Mach number of 0.50 and a Reynolds number of 300,000. Distributions of mean velocity, turbulence intensities, Reynolds stress, spectral components of turbulence as well as of the near field pressure, together with essential characteristics of the far field sound are reported. This detailed set of data for one particular flow, erstwhile unavailable in the literature, is expected to help promoote and calibrate subsonic jet noise theories. 'Source locations' in terms of the turbulence maxima, coupling between the entrainment dynamics and the near pressure field, the sound radiation paths, and the balance in mass, momentum and sound energy fluxes are discussed. The results suggest that the large scale coherent structures of the jet govern the 'source locations' by controlling the turbulence and also strongly influence the near field pressure fluctuations.

  11. The influence of inlet flow condition on the frequency of self-excited jet precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, J.; Nathan, G. J.; Wong, C. Y.

    2006-01-01

    A precessing jet flow can be generated naturally by a fluidic nozzle comprising a cylindrical nozzle-chamber with a large sudden expansion at its inlet and a small lip at its outlet. Such a precessing jet flow is offset with respect to the chamber axis, about which it rotates. The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of the chamber-inlet configuration on the frequency of such precession. Three different inlet configurations, classified as long pipe, smooth contraction, and sharp-edged orifice plate, are tested. It is found that the frequency of precession from the orifice is highest, whereas that of the pipe jet is lowest. These differences appear to result partly from the distinct differences in their respective initial boundary layers.

  12. Numerical investigation and optimization on mixing enhancement factors in supersonic jet-to-crossflow flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li; Huang, Wei; Li, Hao; Zhang, Tian-tian

    2016-10-01

    Sufficient mixing between the supersonic airstream and the injectant is critical for the design of scramjet engines. The information in the two-dimensional supersonic jet-to-crossflow flow field has been explored numerically and theoretically, and the numerical approach has been validated against the available experimental data in the open literature. The obtained results show that the extreme difference analysis approach can obtain deeper information than the variance analysis method, and the optimal strategy can be generated by the extreme difference analysis approach. The jet-to-crossflow pressure ratio is the most important influencing factor for the supersonic jet-to-crossflow flow field, following is the injection angle, and all the design variables have no remarkable impact on the separation length and the height of Mach disk in the range considered in the current study.

  13. A study of the round jet/plane wall flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, J. F.; Kleis, S. J.

    1971-01-01

    Impingement angles, between the axisymmetric jet axis and the plane wall, from zero to 15 degrees have been examined for nozzle heights of 0.75, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 diameters and for: (1) a fully developed pipe flow, and (2) a relatively uniform exit velocity condition. Velocity measurements have been used to define isotach contours and to determine mass, momentum and energy flux values for the near field (within five diameters) of the jet. Surface pressure measurements have been used to define surface pressure forces and jet centerline trajectories. The geometric and flow conditions examined and the interpretation of the results have been motivated by the externally blown flap STOL aircraft application.

  14. Jet reconstruction and performance using particle flow with the ATLAS Detector.

    PubMed

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