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Sample records for higher income anglers

  1. Urban anglers in the Great Lakes region: Fish consumption patterns, influences, and responses to advisory messages.

    PubMed

    Bruce Lauber, T; Connelly, Nancy A; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2017-07-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and many state advisory programs consider urban anglers at high risk of being exposed to contaminants through fish consumption because the urban poor may be dependent on fish they catch for food and lack access to non-contaminated fishing sites. Past research has supported this characterization of urban anglers, but most studies have been site-specific and limited to subsets of urban anglers. We used a mail survey and focus groups to (a) explore how urban anglers living in the Great Lakes region of the United States differed from rural and suburban anglers and (b) characterize their fishing patterns, fish consumption, factors influencing their fish consumption, and response to fish consumption advisory messages. Although we detected some differences between licensed urban, suburban, and rural anglers, their magnitude was not striking. Lower income urban anglers tended to consume less purchased and sport-caught fish than higher income urban anglers and were not at high risk as a group. Nevertheless, focus group data suggested there may be subpopulations of urban anglers, particularly from immigrant populations, that consume higher amounts of potentially contaminated fish. Although urban anglers in general may not require a special approach for communicating fish consumption advice, subpopulations within this group may be best targeted by using community-based programs to communicate fish consumption advice.

  2. Temporal changes in fishing motivation among fishing club anglers in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L.; Gerard, P.D.

    2004-01-01

    Responses from freshwater anglers (n = 4287) to a nationwide survey of the US fishing club members were used to assess differences in the importance of 16 fishing motivation items between 1987 and 1997, dates that preceded and followed a period of substantial decline in recreational fishing participation in the US. Comparison of respondents' motivations for fishing in 1997 and 10 years earlier indicated consistency in the paramount importance of being outdoors, relaxation and the experience of the catch. However, the importance of family recreation and being with friends in 1987 were replaced by escape items in 1997. Anglers with fewer dependents and living in areas with higher population density were more likely to decrease the importance of family recreation. Younger anglers were more likely to decrease the importance of being with friends. Anglers who had higher household income, fished more and had higher fishing expenditures were more likely to decrease the importance of obtaining fish to eat. The results of this study suggest that managers should be less concerned about angler opposition to liberal regulations that allow anglers to harvest fish, and that heightened efforts to recruit and retain recreational anglers, which presently focus on family recreation, should be broadened to include outdoor experience, relaxation and escape aspects of fishing. ?? 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Higher income and uninsured: common or rare?

    PubMed

    Kuttner, Hanns; Rutledge, Matthew S

    2007-01-01

    Massachusetts plans to penalize those who do not have health insurance, targeting higher-income people. Are higher-income Americans a small or substantial share of the uninsured? The U.S. Census Bureau reports that one in three Americans without health insurance lived in a household with income greater than $50,000 in 2005. Many of these higher-income uninsured people do not fit the profile of free-riders who have the money but are unwilling to buy coverage. A majority have lower incomes but live with others; only together are they higher income. For others, higher income or lack of insurance is transient.

  4. American Higher Education and Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catharine B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that increasing income inequality can contribute to the trends we see in American higher education, particularly in the selective, private nonprofit and public sectors. Given these institutions' selective admissions and commitment to socioeconomic diversity, the paper demonstrates how increasing income inequality leads to…

  5. Youth physical activity opportunities in lower and higher income neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Richard Robert; Ding, Ding; Lee, Rebecca; May, Linda; Tota, Tonya; Dinius, David

    2011-08-01

    The presence of youth physical activity opportunities is one of the strongest environmental correlates of youth physical activity. More detailed information about such opportunities is needed to maximize their contributions to physical activity promotion especially in under resourced, lower income areas. The objectives of this study were to construct a comprehensive profile of youth physical activity opportunities and contrast profile characteristics between lower and higher income neighborhoods. Youth physical activity opportunities in eight lower (median household income <$36,000) and eight higher (>$36,000) income neighborhoods were identified and described using interviews, neighborhood tours, site visits, and systematic searches of various sources (e.g., Internet). Lower income neighborhoods had a greater number of locations offering youth physical activity opportunities but similar quantities of amenities. Lower income neighborhoods had more faith-based locations and court, trail/path, event, and water-type amenities. Higher income neighborhoods had significantly more for-profit businesses offering youth physical activity opportunities. Funding for youth physical activity opportunities in lower income neighborhoods was more likely to come from donations and government revenue (e.g., taxes), whereas the majority of youth physical activity opportunities in the higher income neighborhoods were supported by for-profit business revenue. Differences between lower and higher income neighborhoods in the type and amenities of youth physical activity opportunities may be driven by funding sources. Attention to these differences could help create more effective and efficient strategies for promoting physical activity among youth.

  6. Low-Income Students' Access to Selective Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eunkyoung

    2013-01-01

    The undermatch between low-income students' academic achievement and college destinations has become increasingly important in discussions of higher education access and equity. This study investigates whether low-income students are undermatched in their college choice, and if so, what factors are related to the undermatching. Specifically, this…

  7. Luring anglers to enhance fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Dustin R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Current fisheries management is, unfortunately, reactive rather than proactive to changes in fishery characteristics. Furthermore, anglers do not act independently on waterbodies, and thus, fisheries are complex socio-ecological systems. Proactive management of these complex systems necessitates an approach-adaptive fisheries management-that allows learning to occur simultaneously with management. A promising area for implementation of adaptive fisheries management is the study of luring anglers to or from specific waterbodies to meet management goals. Purposeful manipulation of anglers, and its associated field of study, is nonexistent in past management. Evaluation of different management practices (i.e., hypotheses) through an iterative adaptive management process should include both a biological and sociological survey to address changes in fish populations and changes in angler satisfaction related to changes in management. We believe adaptive management is ideal for development and assessment of management strategies targeted at angler participation. Moreover these concepts and understandings should be applicable to other natural resource users such as hunters and hikers.

  8. Luring anglers to enhance fisheries.

    PubMed

    Martin, Dustin R; Pope, Kevin L

    2011-05-01

    Current fisheries management is, unfortunately, reactive rather than proactive to changes in fishery characteristics. Furthermore, anglers do not act independently on waterbodies, and thus, fisheries are complex socio-ecological systems. Proactive management of these complex systems necessitates an approach--adaptive fisheries management--that allows learning to occur simultaneously with management. A promising area for implementation of adaptive fisheries management is the study of luring anglers to or from specific waterbodies to meet management goals. Purposeful manipulation of anglers, and its associated field of study, is nonexistent in past management. Evaluation of different management practices (i.e., hypotheses) through an iterative adaptive management process should include both a biological and sociological survey to address changes in fish populations and changes in angler satisfaction related to changes in management. We believe adaptive management is ideal for development and assessment of management strategies targeted at angler participation. Moreover these concepts and understandings should be applicable to other natural resource users such as hunters and hikers.

  9. Evaluation of angler reporting accuracy in an off-site survey to estimate statewide steelhead harvest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, J. L.; Whitney, D.; Schill, D. J.; Quist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Accuracy of angler-reported data on steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), harvest in Idaho, USA, was quantified by comparing data recorded on angler harvest permits to the numbers that the same group of anglers reported in an off-site survey. Anglers could respond to the off-site survey using mail or Internet; if they did not respond using these methods, they were called on the telephone. A majority of anglers responded through the mail, and the probability of responding by Internet decreased with increasing age of the respondent. The actual number of steelhead harvested did not appear to influence the response type. Anglers in the autumn 2012 survey overreported harvest by 24%, whereas anglers in the spring 2013 survey under-reported steelhead harvest by 16%. The direction of reporting bias may have been a function of actual harvest, where anglers harvested on average 2.6 times more fish during the spring fishery than the autumn. Reporting bias that is a function of actual harvest can have substantial management and conservation implications because the fishery will be perceived to be performing better at lower harvest rates and worse when harvest rates are higher. Thus, these findings warrant consideration when designing surveys and evaluating management actions.

  10. Condition of Access: Higher Education for Lower Income Students. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Donald E., Ed.

    Chapters in this collection discuss the state of access to U.S. higher education institutions for lower income students and the status of student aid programs. The chapters of part 1, "College Access Issues for Lower Income Students," contains: (1) "Educational Opportunity in America" (Brian K. Fitzgerald and Jennifer A. Delaney); and (2) "An…

  11. Lower-income families pay a higher share of income toward national health care spending than higher-income families do.

    PubMed

    Ketsche, Patricia; Adams, E Kathleen; Wallace, Sally; Kannan, Viji Diane; Kannan, Harini

    2011-09-01

    All health care spending from public and private sources, such as governments and businesses, is ultimately paid by individuals and families. We calculated the burden of US health care spending on families as a percentage of income and found that at the national level, lower-income families pay a larger share of their incomes toward health care than do higher-income families. Specifically, we found that payments made privately, such as those for health insurance or out-of-pocket spending for care, and publicly, through taxes and tax expenditures, consumed more than 20 percent of family income for families in the lowest-income quintile but no more than 16 percent for families in any other income quintile. Our analysis provides a framework for considering the equity of various initiatives under health reform. Although many effects remain to be seen, we find that, overall, the Affordable Care Act should reduce inequities in the burden of paying for national health care spending.

  12. Older adults with higher income or marriage have longer telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yung-Chieh; Lung, For-Wey

    2013-01-01

    Background: telomere length has been used to represent biological ageing and is found to be associated with various physiological, psychological and social factors. Objective: to explore the effects of income and marriage on leucocyte telomere length in a representative sample of older adults. Design and subjects: cross-sectional analysis among 298 adults, aged 65–74, randomly selected from the community by census. Methods: telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR. Participants provided information on sociodemographics, physical illness and completed questionnaires rating mental state and perceived neighbourhood experience. Results: telomere length was negatively associated with lower income [coefficient −0.141 (95% CI: −0.244 to −0.020), P = 0.021] and positively associated with the marital status [coefficient 0.111 (95% CI: −0.008 to 0.234), P = 0.067] when controlling for gender, age, educational level, physical diseases (including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular disease and Parkinson's disease), depressive symptoms, minor mental symptoms, cognitive impairment and perceived neighbourhood experience (including social support, perceived security and public facilities). Conclusions: these results indicate that older adults with higher income or being married have longer telomeres when other sociodemographics, physical diseases, mental status and neighbourhood experience are adjusted. PMID:22951603

  13. 50 CFR 600.1405 - Angler registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Angler registration. 600.1405 Section 600... United States § 600.1405 Angler registration. (a) Effective January 1, 2010, the requirements of this..., license or registration requirements; (7) Holds a commercial fishing license or permit issued by NMFS or...

  14. 50 CFR 600.1405 - Angler registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Angler registration. 600.1405 Section 600... United States § 600.1405 Angler registration. (a) Effective January 1, 2010, the requirements of this..., license or registration requirements; (7) Holds a commercial fishing license or permit issued by NMFS or...

  15. 50 CFR 600.1405 - Angler registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Angler registration. 600.1405 Section 600... United States § 600.1405 Angler registration. (a) Effective January 1, 2010, the requirements of this..., license or registration requirements; (7) Holds a commercial fishing license or permit issued by NMFS or...

  16. 50 CFR 600.1405 - Angler registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Angler registration. 600.1405 Section 600... United States § 600.1405 Angler registration. (a) Effective January 1, 2010, the requirements of this..., license or registration requirements; (7) Holds a commercial fishing license or permit issued by NMFS or...

  17. 50 CFR 600.1405 - Angler registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Angler registration. 600.1405 Section 600... United States § 600.1405 Angler registration. (a) Effective January 1, 2010, the requirements of this..., license or registration requirements; (7) Holds a commercial fishing license or permit issued by NMFS or...

  18. Recreational anglers' attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to catch-and-release practices of Pacific salmon in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Rudd, Murray A; Hinch, Scott G; Cooke, Steven J

    2013-10-15

    The fate of captured and released fish in recreational fisheries depends in large part on fisher handling and behavior. As such, there is a need for promoting adoption of responsible fishing practices. We interviewed recreational sockeye salmon anglers in the lower Fraser River, British Columbia, to assess their awareness of responsible fishing practices and identify gaps where improved education could promote conservation-oriented behaviors. Based on our interview data, we developed three latent class models of salmon angler typologies based on: 1) anglers' fishing behaviors and preferences, 2) anglers' perceived risks to salmon survival due to post-capture live release, and 3) anglers' level of support for education programs. In the first model, we identified salmon-only anglers (33% of sample), lake-species specialists (46%), and all-around anglers (21%). These classes were differentiated primarily by non-salmon fishing activities (e.g., other target species). In the second model, we found four classes of anglers who differed with regards to key factors they thought affected post-release survival: air exposure (39% of sample); water temperature (24%); hook location (22%); and revival effort (15%). In the third model, we found anglers were either supporters (73%) or non-supporters (27%) of angler education programs. Heterogeneity existed among anglers but we found no correlations in angler classes across models, nor any significant demographic or experiential predictors of class membership. Respondents generally had high awareness and application of catch-and-release best practices, with lake-species specialists rating a higher awareness and usage of recommended catch-and-release technique, and were significantly more likely to cut the line on deeply hooked fish than other groups. Our findings provide resource managers with important insight into the attitudes and behaviors of sockeye salmon anglers in the important lower Fraser River recreational fishery. Our

  19. Widening Income Inequalities: Higher Education's Role in Serving Low Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Jon C.; Crosby, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars argue that America is becoming a dangerously divided nation because of increasing inequality, especially in income distribution. This article examines the problem of widening income inequality with particular focus on the role that colleges and universities and their student affairs organizations play in serving low income students…

  20. Evaluation of angler effort and harvest of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Lake Scanewa, Washington, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    A creel evaluation was conducted in Lake Scanewa, a reservoir on the Cowlitz River, to monitor catch rates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and determine if the trout fishery was having negative impacts on juvenile anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the system. The trout fishery, which is supported by releases of 20,000 fish (2 fish per pound) per year from June to August, was developed to mitigate for the construction of the Cowlitz Falls Dam in 1994. The trout fishery has a target catch rate of at least 0.50 fish per hour. Interviews with 1,214 anglers during the creel evaluation found that most anglers targeted rainbow trout (52 percent) or Chinook and coho salmon (48 percent). The interviewed anglers caught a total of 1,866 fish, most of which were rainbow trout (1,213 fish; 78 percent) or coho salmon (311 fish; 20 percent). We estimated that anglers spent 17,365 hours fishing in Lake Scanewa from June to November 2010. Catch rates for boat anglers (1.39 fish per hour) exceeded the 0.50 fish per hour target, whereas catch rates for shore anglers (0.35 fish per hour) fell short of the goal. The combined catch rates for all trout anglers in the reservoir were 0.96 fish per hour. We estimated that anglers harvested 7,584 (95 percent confidence interval = 2,795-12,372 fish) rainbow trout during the study period and boat anglers caught more fish than shore anglers (5,975 and 1,609 fish, respectively). This estimate suggests that more than 12,000 of the 20,000 rainbow trout released into Lake Scanewa during 2010 were not harvested, and could negatively impact juvenile salmon in the reservoir through predation or competition. We examined 1,236 stomach samples from rainbow trout and found that 2.1 percent (26 fish) of these samples contained juvenile fish. Large trout (greater than 300 millimeters) had a higher incidence of predation than small trout (less than 300 millimeters; 8.50 and 0.06 percent, respectively). A total of 39 fish were found in rainbow

  1. Muskie lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

  2. Muskie Lunacy: Does the Lunar Cycle Influence Angler Catch of Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Mark R.; Angradi, Ted R.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge. PMID:24871329

  3. Muskie Lunacy: does the lunar cycle influence angler catch of muskellunge (Esox masquinongy)?

    PubMed

    Vinson, Mark R; Angradi, Ted R

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed angling catch records for 341,959 muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) from North America to test for a cyclic lunar influence on the catch. Using periodic regression, we showed that the number caught was strongly related to the 29-day lunar cycle, and the effect was consistent across most fisheries. More muskellunge were caught around the full and new moon than at other times. At night, more muskellunge were caught around the full moon than the new moon. The predicted maximum relative effect was ≈5% overall. Anglers fishing exclusively on the peak lunar day would, on average, catch 5% more muskellunge than anglers fishing on random days. On some lakes and at night, the maximum relative effect was higher. We obtained angler effort data for Wisconsin, Mille Lacs (MN), and Lake Vermilion (MN). For Lake Vermilion there was a significant effect of the lunar cycle on angler effort. We could therefore not conclude that the lunar effect on catch was due to an effect on fish behavior alone. Several factors affected the amount of variation explained by the lunar cycle. The lunar effect was stronger for larger muskellunge (>102 cm) than for smaller fish, stronger in midsummer than in June or October, and stronger for fish caught at high latitudes (>48°N) than for fish caught further south. There was no difference in the lunar effect between expert and novice muskellunge anglers. We argue that this variation is evidence that the effect of the lunar cycle on catch is mediated by biological factors and is not due solely to angler effort and reflects lunar synchronization in feeding. This effect has been attributed to variation among moon phases in lunar illumination, but our results do not support that hypothesis for angler-caught muskellunge.

  4. Personality Traits and Gender-Specific Income Expectations in Dutch Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Need, Ariana; de Jong, Uulkje

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine gender differences in income expectations of students in higher education. We found quite large gender differences. Men and women differ significantly in the income they expect to earn at the top of their career. We examined how much personality traits contribute to explain gender differences in income expectations, and…

  5. High economic inequality leads higher-income individuals to be less generous

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Stéphane; House, Julian; Willer, Robb

    2015-01-01

    Research on social class and generosity suggests that higher-income individuals are less generous than poorer individuals. We propose that this pattern emerges only under conditions of high economic inequality, contexts that can foster a sense of entitlement among higher-income individuals that, in turn, reduces their generosity. Analyzing results of a unique nationally representative survey that included a real-stakes giving opportunity (n = 1,498), we found that in the most unequal US states, higher-income respondents were less generous than lower-income respondents. In the least unequal states, however, higher-income individuals were more generous. To better establish causality, we next conducted an experiment (n = 704) in which apparent levels of economic inequality in participants’ home states were portrayed as either relatively high or low. Participants were then presented with a giving opportunity. Higher-income participants were less generous than lower-income participants when inequality was portrayed as relatively high, but there was no association between income and generosity when inequality was portrayed as relatively low. This research finds that the tendency for higher-income individuals to be less generous pertains only when inequality is high, challenging the view that higher-income individuals are necessarily more selfish, and suggesting a previously undocumented way in which inequitable resource distributions undermine collective welfare. PMID:26598668

  6. High economic inequality leads higher-income individuals to be less generous.

    PubMed

    Côté, Stéphane; House, Julian; Willer, Robb

    2015-12-29

    Research on social class and generosity suggests that higher-income individuals are less generous than poorer individuals. We propose that this pattern emerges only under conditions of high economic inequality, contexts that can foster a sense of entitlement among higher-income individuals that, in turn, reduces their generosity. Analyzing results of a unique nationally representative survey that included a real-stakes giving opportunity (n = 1,498), we found that in the most unequal US states, higher-income respondents were less generous than lower-income respondents. In the least unequal states, however, higher-income individuals were more generous. To better establish causality, we next conducted an experiment (n = 704) in which apparent levels of economic inequality in participants' home states were portrayed as either relatively high or low. Participants were then presented with a giving opportunity. Higher-income participants were less generous than lower-income participants when inequality was portrayed as relatively high, but there was no association between income and generosity when inequality was portrayed as relatively low. This research finds that the tendency for higher-income individuals to be less generous pertains only when inequality is high, challenging the view that higher-income individuals are necessarily more selfish, and suggesting a previously undocumented way in which inequitable resource distributions undermine collective welfare.

  7. Catch rates relative to angler party size with implications for monitoring angler success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Angler catch rates often are used to monitor angler success, assess the need for additional management actions, and evaluate the effectiveness of management practices. Potential linkages between catch rate and angler party size were examined to assess how party size might affect the use of catch rate as an index of angler success in recreational fisheries. Data representing 22,355 completed interviews conducted at access points in lakes and reservoirs throughout Mississippi during 1987-2003 were analyzed. Total party catch was not proportional to total party effort; thus, catch rate decreased as party size increased. Depending on the taxa targeted, the average catch rate per angler decreased 40-50% between parties of one and parties of two, although subsequent decreases were less substantial. Because party size accounted for a considerable portion of the variability in catch rate over time and space, failure to remove this variability weakens the manager's ability to detect differences or changes in catch rates. Therefore, the use of catch rates to monitor fisheries may be inappropriate unless party size is taken into account. Party size may influence the angler's ability to catch fish through a variety of processes, including partitioning a limited number of catchable fish among members of a party and party composition. When catch rates are used to estimate total catch rather than to index angler success, party size is not a concern.

  8. 78 FR 49478 - National Saltwater Angler Registry Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC403 National Saltwater Angler Registry Program... Angler Registry Program. DATES: The registration fee will be required effective August 1, 2013. ADDRESSES... final rule implementing the National Saltwater Angler Registry Program, 50 CFR part 600, subpart P,...

  9. Preferred Supportive Services for Middle to Higher Income Retirement Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnier, Victor; Gelwicks, Louis E.

    1981-01-01

    Reports the service and facility feature preferences for retirement housing of middle and upper income elderly. Mandatory services and activities which require physical exertion were rejected, while security, convenient retail services, public transportation, and emergency health services are preferred. Underscores the importance of supportive…

  10. Impacts of Daily Bag Limit Reductions on Angler Effort in Wisconsin Walleye Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, T.D.; Cox, S.P.; Carpenter, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Angler effort is an important factor affecting recreational fisheries. However, angler responses are rarely incorporated into recreational fisheries regulations or predictions. Few have attempted to examine how daily bag limit regulations affect total angling pressure and subsequent stock densities. Our paper develops a theoretical basis for predicting angler effort and harvest rate based on stock densities and bag limit regulations. We examined data from a management system that controls the total exploitation of walleyes Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) in northern Wisconsin lakes and compared these empirical results with the predictions from a theoretical effort and harvest rate response model. The data indicated that higher general angler effort occurs on lakes regulated with a 5-walleye daily limit than on lakes regulated with either a 2- or 3-walleye daily limit. General walleye catch rates were lower on lakes with a 5-walleye limit than on lakes with either a 2- or 3-walleye daily limit. An effort response model predicted a logarithmic relationship between angler effort and adult walleye density and that an index of attractiveness would be greater on lakes with high bag limits. Predictions from the harvest rate model with constant walleye catchability indicated that harvest rates increased nonlinearly with increasing density. When the effort model was fitted to data from northern Wisconsin, we found higher lake attractiveness at 5-walleye-limit lakes. We conclude that different groups of anglers respond differently to bag limit changes and that reliance on daily bag limits may not be sufficient to maintain high walleye densities in some lakes in this region.

  11. 76 FR 38619 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; National Saltwater Angler Registry and State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Saltwater Angler Registry and State Exemption Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... currently approved collection. The National Saltwater Angler Registry Program (Registry Program) was... fisheries surveys, including establishing a national saltwater angler and for-hire vessel registry,...

  12. Does higher income inequality adversely influence infant mortality rates? Reconciling descriptive patterns and recent research findings.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2015-04-01

    As the struggle continues to explain the relatively high rates of infant mortality (IMR) exhibited in the United States, a renewed emphasis is being placed on the role of possible 'contextual' determinants. Cross-sectional and short time-series studies have found that higher income inequality is associated with higher IMR at the state level. Yet, descriptively, the longer-term trends in income inequality and in IMR seem to call such results into question. To assess whether, over the period 1990-2007, state-level income inequality is associated with state-level IMR; to examine whether the overall effect of income inequality on IMR over this period varies by state; to test whether the association between income inequality and IMR varies across this time period. IMR data--number of deaths per 1000 live births in a given state and year--were obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Wonder database. Income inequality was measured using the Gini coefficient, which varies from zero (complete equality) to 100 (complete inequality). Covariates included state-level poverty rate, median income, and proportion of high school graduates. Fixed and random effects regressions were conducted to test hypotheses. Fixed effects models suggested that, overall, during the period 1990-2007, income inequality was inversely associated with IMR (β = -0.07, SE (0.01)). Random effects models suggested that when the relationship was allowed to vary at the state-level, it remained inverse (β = -0.05, SE (0.01)). However, an interaction between income inequality and time suggested that, as time increased, the effect of income inequality had an increasingly positive association with total IMR (β = 0.009, SE (0.002)). The influence of state income inequality on IMR is dependent on time, which may proxy for time-dependent aspects of societal context.

  13. 77 FR 37387 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Understanding Recreational Angler Attitudes and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ...; Understanding Recreational Angler Attitudes and Preferences for Saltwater Fishing AGENCY: National Oceanic and... attitudes, preferences, and concerns that recreational anglers hold towards saltwater fishing. The...

  14. 75 FR 53953 - The National Saltwater Angler Registry Program; Designation of Exempted States for Anglers, Spear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX66 The National Saltwater Angler Registry... Registry Program, 50 CFR subpart P, was published in the Federal Register on December 30, 2008. The final... numbers of the persons licensed or registered under a qualifying state license and/or registry program,...

  15. 76 FR 4092 - National Saltwater Angler Registry Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA131 National Saltwater Angler Registry Program... INFORMATION: The final rule implementing the National Saltwater Angler Registry Program, 50 CFR part 600... registered under a qualifying State license and/or registry program, or to provide catch and effort data...

  16. 76 FR 22082 - National Saltwater Angler Registry Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA368 National Saltwater Angler Registry Program... INFORMATION: The final rule implementing the National Saltwater Angler Registry Program, 50 CFR part 600... registered under a qualifying state license and/or registry program, or to provide catch and effort data...

  17. Higher Education, Real Income and Real Investment in China: Evidence from Granger Causality Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Smyth, Russell

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs cointegration and error-correction modelling to test the causal relationship between real income, real investment and tertiary education using data for the People's Republic of China over the period 1952-1999. To proxy tertiary education we use higher education enrolments and higher education graduates in alternative empirical…

  18. A Swiss paradox? Higher income inequality of municipalities is associated with lower mortality in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; Egger, Matthias; Spoerri, Adrian

    2015-08-01

    It has long been surmised that income inequality within a society negatively affects public health. However, more recent studies suggest there is no association, especially when analyzing small areas. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of income inequality on mortality in Switzerland using the Gini index on municipality level. The study population included all individuals >30 years at the 2000 Swiss census (N = 4,689,545) living in 2,740 municipalities with 35.5 million person-years of follow-up and 456,211 deaths over follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression models were adjusted for age, gender, marital status, nationality, urbanization, and language region. Results were reported as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. The mean Gini index across all municipalities was 0.377 (standard deviation 0.062, range 0.202-0.785). Larger cities, high-income municipalities and tourist areas had higher Gini indices. Higher income inequality was consistently associated with lower mortality risk, except for death from external causes. Adjusting for sex, marital status, nationality, urbanization and language region only slightly attenuated effects. In fully adjusted models, hazards of all-cause mortality by increasing Gini index quintile were HR = 0.99 (0.98-1.00), HR = 0.98 (0.97-0.99), HR = 0.95 (0.94-0.96), HR = 0.91 (0.90-0.92) compared to the lowest quintile. The relationship of income inequality with mortality in Switzerland is contradictory to what has been found in other developed high-income countries. Our results challenge current beliefs about the effect of income inequality on mortality on small area level. Further investigation is required to expose the underlying relationship between income inequality and population health.

  19. Overview of the diets of lower- and higher-income elderly and their food assistance options.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Joanne F; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    With the elderly becoming an ever-larger proportion of the American population, their dietary well-being is of increasing concern. In particular, lower-income elderly may face special challenges in maintaining a healthful diet. This group makes up a sizeable proportion of the elderly population; we estimate that almost 1 in 5 (19%) of the elderly have household incomes at or below 130% of the federal poverty level, the income level that generally qualifies a household to participate in the federal Food Stamp Program. Here we examine the dietary intakes and related behaviors, as well as the food security status, of lower- and higher-income elderly and review major US government food and nutrition assistance programs that can be of benefit to the elderly, particularly those of low income. Our subjects are individuals 60 years of age and over, living in community (noninstitutionalized) settings. Data on dietary intakes and behaviors were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994-96. Food security data were obtained from the 1999 Current Population Survey (CPS), conducted by the US Census Bureau. For both the CSFII and the CPS, sampling weights were used to generate nationally representative estimates. We found that lower-income elderly consume significantly fewer calories than higher-income elderly, fewer servings of major Food Guide Pyramid food groups, and most nutrients. Approximately 6% of elderly households report some degree of food insecurity. Although food and nutrition assistance programs can benefit elderly individuals, many do not participate. Many lower-income elderly also face physiological and social obstacles to obtaining a healthful diet. How best to meet these varied needs is a challenge for nutrition educators, researchers, and policy makers.

  20. Running in Place: Low-Income Students and the Dynamics of Higher Education Stratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Michael N.; Jaquette, Ozan

    2011-01-01

    The increasing concentration of wealthy students at highly selective colleges is widely perceived, but few analyses examine the underlying dynamics of higher education stratification over time. To examine these dynamics, the authors build an analysis data set of four cohorts from 1972 to 2004. They find that low-income students have made…

  1. Increasing Access for Low-Income Students and Making Financial Education a Priority for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2009-01-01

    While widespread financial illiteracy and reduced opportunities for low-income students to participate in higher education may seem unrelated, both challenges can be addressed through Individual Development Accounts (IDAs), an existing but widely underutilized tool. IDAs have the potential both to increase access and retention of low-income…

  2. Higher Education Financial Assistance Tools for Middle- and Upper-Income Taxpayers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, James V.; Prince, Lori H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes higher education financial assistance tools designed mainly for students of middle- and upper-income families who may not be eligible for financial aid from other sources. It includes the 2007 legislative updates for these tools, all of which have been devised and offered by either state or federal governments. The authors…

  3. Community fisheries in eastern South Dakota: Angler demographics, use, and factors influencing satisfaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greiner, Michael J.; Lucchesi, David O.; Chipps, Steven R.; Gigliotti, Larry M.

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed anglers on five community fishing lakes near Brookings, South Dakota to assess angler use and satisfaction. The community lakes attracted younger anglers when compared to statewide and national averages. Overall, satisfaction was generally high (74%) among anglers fishing community lakes. Logistic regression analysis showed that harvest rate, anglers targeting trout, familiarity with the lake, adults fishing with children, and fishing during open water periods were significantly related to angler satisfaction. Angler parties consisting of adults fishing with children were 1.7 times more likely to respond as “satisfied” compared with adults-only angler groups. Fishing opportunities provided by community lakes can enhance participation by younger anglers while simultaneously providing family-oriented recreation (i.e., adults fishing with children) that enhances trip satisfaction.

  4. Self-confidence of anglers in identification of freshwater sport fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, C.J.; Martin, D. R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have focused on how well anglers identify species using replicas and pictures, there has been no study assessing the confidence that can be placed in angler's ability to identify recreationally important fish. Understanding factors associated with low self-confidence will be useful in tailoring education programmes to improve self-confidence in identifying common species. The purposes of this assessment were to quantify the confidence of recreational anglers to identify 13 commonly encountered warm water fish species and to relate self-confidence to species availability and angler experience. Significant variation was observed in anglers self-confidence among species and levels of self-declared skill, with greater confidence associated with greater skill and with greater exposure. This study of angler self-confidence strongly highlights the need for educational programmes that target lower skilled anglers and the importance of teaching all anglers about less common species, regardless of skill level.

  5. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P < 0.05). Higher fast food and fruit and vegetable prices also contributed to higher risk of food insecurity (coefficient = 0.632, P < 0.01 for fast food; coefficient = 0.879, P < 0.01 for fruits and vegetables). However, increasing beverage prices, including the prices of soft drinks, orange juice, and coffee, had a protective effect on food security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.

  6. First-Generation, Low-Income College Students during the First Semester in Higher Education: Challenges and Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhen Stewart, Lee May

    2012-01-01

    Typically, studies first-generation, low-income students have focused on the financial aid and academic preparedness to enter college and persist. These researchers have found little data about first-generation, low-income students once they enter higher education. One question largely unexplored has been why some first-generation, low-income…

  7. Population dynamics and angler exploitation of the unique muskellunge population in Shoepack Lake, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frohnauer, N.K.; Pierce, C.L.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    2007-01-01

    A unique population of muskellunge Esox masquinongy inhabits Shoepack Lake in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Little is known about its status, dynamics, and angler exploitation, and there is concern for the long-term viability of this population. We used intensive sampling and mark-recapture methods to quantify abundance, survival, growth, condition, age at maturity and fecundity and angler surveys to quantify angler pressure, catch rates, and exploitation. During our study, heavy rain washed out a dam constructed by beavers Castor canadensis which regulates the water level at the lake outlet, resulting in a nearly 50% reduction in surface area. We estimated a population size of 1,120 adult fish at the beginning of the study. No immediate reduction in population size was detected in response to the loss of lake area, although there was a gradual, but significant, decline in population size over the 2-year study. Adults grew less than 50 mm per year, and relative weight (W r) averaged roughly 80. Anglers were successful in catching, on average, two fish during a full day of angling, but harvest was negligible. Shoepack Lake muskellunge exhibit much slower growth rates and lower condition, but much higher densities and angler catch per unit effort (CPUE), than other muskellunge populations. The unique nature, limited distribution, and location of this population in a national park require special consideration for management. The results of this study provide the basis for assessing the long-term viability of the Shoepack Lake muskellunge population through simulations of long-term population dynamics and genetically effective population size. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  8. Use of Recreation Specialization to Understand Resource Knowledge of Trout Anglers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Mark; Soucy, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    This study combined the activity involvement and place attachment scores of trout anglers at Montauk State Park (Missouri, USA) into a typology of recreation specialization. The framework was used to explain anglers' knowledge of park resources. Highly specialized anglers were more knowledgeable about the park than those who were less specialized.…

  9. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period…

  10. Comparing catch orientation among Minnesota walleye, northern pike, and bass anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the catch orientations of Minnesota walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) anglers. Results were derived from 2009, 2010, and 2012 surveys of anglers targeting these different species. Consistent with previous research, we identified four dimensions of anglers’ catch orientation: (a) catching something, (b) catching big fish, (c) catching many fish, and (d) keeping fish. Walleye anglers were the most motivated to keep fish, while northern pike anglers were more oriented toward catching big fish. Largemouth bass anglers, and to a lesser extent smallmouth bass anglers, were also oriented toward catching big fish. Bass anglers reported the lowest interest in keeping fish. An orientation to keep fish was negatively related to more restrictive management actions, regardless of species. A stronger orientation to catch big fish was associated with support for increased harvest restrictions only for northern pike and smallmouth bass.

  11. Do age-friendly characteristics influence the expectation to age in place? A comparison of low-income and higher income Detroit elders.

    PubMed

    Lehning, Amanda J; Smith, Richard J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2015-03-01

    Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place.

  12. Do Electronic Technologies Increase or Narrow Differences in Higher Education Quality between Low- and High-Income Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capshaw, Norman Clark

    2008-01-01

    The disruptive technologies of the Internet and computers are changing our world in myriad ways. These technologies are also increasingly being employed in higher education but to what effect? Are the effects on higher education quality measurable, and if so, what is the effect on the traditional gap between high-income and low- to middle-income…

  13. How Income Contingent Loans Could Affect the Returns to Higher Education: A Microsimulation of the French Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtioux, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    We assess the implementation of income contingent loan (ICL) schemes for higher education in a context characterized by two main features: a formerly tuition-free system and a great heterogeneity in the quality and cost of higher education. In that case, ICL implementation leads to a trade-off between increasing "career" equity in terms…

  14. Angler-caught piscivore diets reflect fish community changes in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Schaeffer, Jeff; Bright, Ethan; Fielder, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of angler-caught piscivore stomachs revealed that Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush, Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and Walleyes Sander vitreus altered theirdiets in response to unprecedented declines in Lake Huron's main-basin prey fish community.Diets varied by predator species, season, and location but were nearly always dominated numerically by some combination of Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax, Emerald Shiner Notropis atherinoides, Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus, or terrestrial insects. Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead), Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar had varied diets that reflected higher contributions of insects. Compared with an earlier (1983–1986) examination of angler-caught predator fishes from Lake Huron, the contemporary results showed an increase in consumption of nontraditional prey (including conspecifics), use of smaller prey, and an increase in insects in the diet, suggesting that piscivores were faced with chronic prey limitation during this study. The management of all piscivores in Lake Huron will likely require consideration of the pervasive effects of changes in food webs, especially if prey fish remain at low levels.

  15. Preferences, specialization, and management attitudes of trout anglers fishing in Tennessee tailwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutt, C.P.; Bettoli, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Efforts to manage several trout fisheries in Tennessee have been stymied by conflicts between management agencies and angler groups. To assist in preventing such conflicts in the future, we examined attitudes and motivations of trout anglers who fished eight tailwater fisheries in Tennessee during 2001-2002. Using a stratified random sampling design, anglers were contacted and interviewed on site (n = 2,643). Those anglers who agreed to complete a questionnaire (n = 1,942) were mailed a 10-page survey. Response rate to the mail survey was 55% after excluding surveys that were undeliverable. Angler subgroups were created using hierarchical cluster analyses of 14 variables related to experience, resource use, investment, and centrality of fishing to their lifestyle. Five subgroups of minimally to highly specialized anglers were identified, and nonhierarchical cluster analysis determined the size of each group (n = 178-369 anglers/group). Subgroups differed in the importance they attached to harvesting trout and catching trophy trout. The most disparate mean ratings among subgroups were for the motive of "obtaining fish to eat." Specialized anglers placed greater importance on catching a trophy fish, experiencing the catch, developing their skills, releasing fish, and restrictive regulations than did less-specialized anglers. Mean ratings for most of nine fishing regulations presented to anglers differed among tailwaters; however, bait restrictions and closed seasons received little support across all rivers. The Caney Fork, Clinch, and Hiwassee rivers had the most uniform distributions of anglers among the five subgroups and thus had a relatively high potential for conflicts over management decisions. The fisheries on the Elk, South Fork Holston, and Watauga rivers were dominated by the most specialized subgroups, indicating that the majority of anglers on those rivers would accept restrictive regulations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  16. Sport-caught fish consumption and conception delay in licensed Michigan anglers

    SciTech Connect

    Courval, J.M.; DeHoog, J.V.; Stein, A.D.; Tay, E.M.; He, J.; Paneth, N.; Humphrey, H.E.B.

    1999-02-01

    Between 1993 and 1995, the authors surveyed 4,931 licensed anglers aged 17--34 years residing in 10 Michigan counties bordering a Great Lake. Responses were received from 1,443 anglers and 844 of their partners. Lifetime sport-caught fish consumption was estimated as the number of sport-caught fish meals consumed in the previous 12 months times years since 1970 in which sport-caught fish were consumed. Analysis was restricted to currently married couples. Conception delay was reported by 13% of both men and women. Among men, the unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for conception delay were 1.2, 1.3, and 2.0 across the three increasing levels of sport-caught fish consumption compared to none (trend test P = 0.06). After adjustment for age, race, region of Michigan, household income, educational attainment, smoking, alcohol consumption, and partner`s sport fish consumption, the OR for conception delay in men were 1.4, 1.8, and 2.8, respectively. In women, unadjusted OR for conception delay were 0.9, 1.0, and 1.4 with increasing sport-caught fish consumption (trend test P = 0.35). With the same covariates and the sport-caught fish consumption of the woman`s partner included in the model, the OR were 0.8, 0.8, and 1.0, respectively. These data suggest a modest association, in men only, of sport-caught fish consumption with risk of conception delay.

  17. Angler awareness of aquatic nuisance species and potential transport mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gates, K.K.; Guy, C.S.; Zale, A.V.; Horton, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    The role anglers play in transporting aquatic nuisance species (ANS) is important in managing infestations and preventing introductions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) quantify angler movement patterns in southwestern Montana, ANS awareness and equipment cleaning practices; and (2) quantify the amount of soil transported on boots and waders. Mean distance travelled by residents from their home to the survey site was 115 km (??17, 95% CI). Mean distance travelled by non-residents was 1738 km (??74). Fifty-one percent of residents and 49% of non-residents reported occasionally, rarely or never cleaning their boots and waders between uses. Mean weight of soil carried on one boot leg was 8.39 g (??1.50). Movement and equipment cleaning practices of anglers in southwestern Montana suggest that future control of ANS dispersal may require restricting the use of felt-soled wading boots, requiring river-specific wading equipment or providing cleaning stations and requiring their use. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The influence of hook type, angler experience, and fish size on injury rates and the duration of capture in an Alaskan catch-and-release rainbow trout fishery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meka, Julie M.

    2004-01-01

    Owing to concerns about the high incidence of past hooking injuries in Alagnak River rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, fish were captured with spin- and fly-fishing gear with barbed and barbless circle and "J" hooks to determine gear types contributing to injury. Landing and hook removal times were measured for a portion of fish captured, and the anatomical hooking location, hooking scar locations, bleeding intensity, angler experience, and fish size were recorded for all captured fish. Approximately 62% of fish captured experienced at least one new hooking injury, and 29% of fish had at least one past hooking injury. Small fish sustained higher new injury and bleeding rates, but large fish had higher past injury rates. Injury rates were higher for barbed J hooks, barbed J hooks took longer to remove, and fish caught by spin-fishing were injured more frequently than fish caught by fly-fishing. Fewer fly-fishing-caught fish were injured using circle hooks, and circle hooks tended to hook fish in only one location, generally in the jaw. Barbed J hooks were more efficient at landing fish, and J hooks were more efficient at landing fish than circle hooks. Novice anglers injured proportionally more fish than experienced anglers, primarily during hook removal. Landing time was positively correlated with fish size, and experienced anglers took longer to land fish than novices because they captured larger fish. These results suggest that a reduction in hooking injuries may be achieved by using circle hooks as an alternative to J hooks and barbless J hooks to reduce injury and handling time, yet catch efficiency for both methods would be reduced. Although fish captured with barbless J hooks and circle hooks had fewer injuries, it is important to note that each hook type also caused significant injury, and angler education is recommended to promote proper hook removal techniques.

  19. Does higher quality early child care promote low-income children's math and reading achievement in middle childhood?

    PubMed

    Dearing, Eric; McCartney, Kathleen; Taylor, Beck A

    2009-01-01

    Higher quality child care during infancy and early childhood (6-54 months of age) was examined as a moderator of associations between family economic status and children's (N = 1,364) math and reading achievement in middle childhood (4.5-11 years of age). Low income was less strongly predictive of underachievement for children who had been in higher quality care than for those who had not. Consistent with a cognitive advantage hypothesis, higher quality care appeared to promote achievement indirectly via early school readiness skills. Family characteristics associated with selection into child care also appeared to promote the achievement of low-income children, but the moderating effect of higher quality care per se remained evident when controlling for selection using covariates and propensity scores.

  20. Reflections on Costing, Pricing and Income Measurement at UK Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduoza, Chike F.

    2009-01-01

    In these days of radical contraction of funding and expansion in student numbers, universities are under pressure to prioritise their resources, as well as to achieve effective costing and pricing to support judgement and decision making for funding and any external work undertaken. This study reviews costing, pricing and income measurement in…

  1. 78 FR 14775 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Charter Boat and Headboat Angler...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Charter Boat and Headboat Angler Interactions With Sea Turtles AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... species as the sea turtle. This collection will seek to better understand the nature and overall level of sea turtle interactions with recreational anglers on charter boat and headboats. The...

  2. 75 FR 68604 - National Saltwater Angler Registry Program Designation of Exempted States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XZ91 National Saltwater Angler Registry Program... INFORMATION: The final rule implementing the National Saltwater Angler Registry Program, 50 CFR Subpart P, was... under a qualifying state license and/or registry program, or to provide catch and effort data from...

  3. Voice, perceived fairness, agency trust, and acceptance of management decisions among Minnesota anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Although researchers agree that public participation in natural resource decision making is critical to institutional acceptance by stakeholders and the general public, the processes to gain public perceptions of fairness, agency trust, and acceptance of management decisions are not clear. Using results from a mail survey of Minnesota resident anglers, we used structural equation modeling to examine how instrumental versus symbolic motives related to anglers’ perceptions of agency fairness, trustworthiness, and ultimately acceptance of fisheries management decisions. We applied laboratory research on relationships among procedural fairness, trust, and management acceptance, and then tested models incorporating anglers’ perceptions of voice for anglers and nonanglers in management decisions. Results suggested that trust fully mediated the relationship between procedural fairness and management acceptance. Angler perceptions of angler and nonangler voice both related to views of procedural fairness, but angler voice was more strongly related and was also significantly related to acceptance of management decisions.

  4. The effects of regional angling effort, angler behavior, and harvesting efficiency on landscape patterns of overfishing.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Len M; Arlinghaus, Robert; Lester, Nigel; Kushneriuk, Rob

    2011-10-01

    We used a coupled social-ecological model to study the landscape-scale patterns emerging from a mobile population of anglers exploiting a spatially structured walleye (Sander vitreus) fishery. We systematically examined how variations in angler behaviors (i.e., relative importance of walleye catch rate in guiding fishing site choices), harvesting efficiency (as implied by varying degrees of inverse density-dependent catchability of walleye), and angler population size affected the depletion of walleye stocks across 157 lakes located near Thunder Bay (Ontario, Canada). Walleye production biology was calibrated using lake-specific morphometric and edaphic features, and angler fishing site choices were modeled using an empirically grounded multi-attribute utility function. We found support for the hypothesis of sequential collapses of walleye stocks across the landscape in inverse proportionality of travel cost from the urban residence of anglers. This pattern was less pronounced when the regional angler population was low, density-dependent catchability was absent or low, and angler choices of lakes in the landscape were strongly determined by catch rather than non-catch-related attributes. Thus, our study revealed a systematic pattern of high catch importance reducing overfishing potential at low and aggravating overfishing potential at high angler population sizes. The analyses also suggested that density-dependent catchability might have more serious consequences for regional overfishing states than variations in angler behavior. We found little support for the hypotheses of systematic overexploitation of the most productive walleye stocks and homogenized catch-related qualities among lakes sharing similar access costs to anglers. Therefore, one should not expect anglers to systematically exploit the most productive fisheries or to equalize catch rates among lakes through their mobility and other behaviors. This study underscores that understanding landscape

  5. Income and Expenditure Trends of Higher Education Institutions in South Africa: 1986-2003. Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Pierre; Steyn, Gert

    2006-01-01

    There is a world-wide trend to expect individuals to pay more of the cost of their higher education. This is also the case in South Africa since public funding of higher education decreased from 0.86% of GDP in 1986 to only 0.68% in 2005. Higher education institutions were forced to increase tuition fees to compensate for this "loss"…

  6. Flathead Lake Angler Survey; Monitoring Activities for the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Plan, 1992-1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Evarts, Les; Hansen, Barry; DosSantos, Joe

    1994-02-01

    A roving creel survey was conducted on Flathead Lake in northwestern Montana from May 17, 1992 to May 19, 1993. The primary objective of the survey was to quantify the baseline fishery and exploitation rates existing prior to Hungry Horse Dam mitigation efforts. Anglers were counted on 308 occasions, comprising 5,618 fishing boats, 515 shore anglers, and 2,191 ice anglers. The party interviews represented 4,410 anglers, made up of 2,613 boat anglers, 787 shore anglers, and 1,010 ice anglers. A total of 47,883 angler days (190,108 angler hours) of pressure and a harvest of 42,979 fish (including lake trout, lake whitefish, yellow perch, bull trout, and westslope cutthroat trout) were estimated. Pressure was distributed between shore, boat, and ice anglers as 4%, 87%, and 9%, respectively. Seventynine percent of the total effort was directed at lake trout during the study period. Limited comparisons were made to previous creel surveys on Flathead Lake due to differences in methods and radical changes in the fishery. Potential sources of bias are explained in detail. Future creel surveys must employ methods consistent with this survey to obtain estimates that are statistically distinguishable.

  7. 77 FR 54902 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Input From Hawaii's Boat-based Anglers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... information collection. The Magnuson- Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) requires anglers... regulations at 600 CFR 1415-17 need not register with NMFS. Under 600 CFR 1417, MSA allows NMFS to exempt...

  8. Minnesota anglers' fisheries-related value orientations and their stewardship of fish resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruskotter, J.T.; Fulton, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on natural resource-related values and value orientations has grown substantially over the past decade. However, existing studies have focused almost exclusively on value orientations related to wildlife and forests. This article reports data from two mail surveys of Minnesota anglers used to develop scales for measuring fisheries-related value orientations. We report results of regression analyses examining the relationship between anglers' value orientations and norms concerning fisheries stewardship and the use of technological aids to angling. Results indicate 10 items reliably measure three value orientations we termed utilitarianism, dominance, and protectionism. Regression analyses suggest anglers' stewardship norms are influenced by all three value orientation types, while support for the use of technological aids was related with protectionism and utilitarianism, but not dominance. Results suggest anglers' fisheries-related value orientations cannot be adequately captured using single domain scales. Implications for the study of natural resources-related value orientations are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  9. The Expenditure Impacts of London's Higher Education Institutions: The Role of Diverse Income Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermannsson, Kristinn; Lisenkova, Katerina; McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of London-based higher education institutions (HEIs) on the English economy. When we treat each of the HEIs as separate sectors in conventional input-output analysis, their expenditure impacts appear rather homogenous, with the apparent heterogeneity of their overall impacts being primarily driven by scale. However,…

  10. Gender Pay Equity in Higher Education: Salary Differentials and Predictors of Base Faculty Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates faculty gender pay equity in higher education. Using data from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty and drawing on human capital theory, structural theory, and the theory of comparable worth, this study uses cross-classified random effects modeling to explore what factors may be contributing to the pay…

  11. Lower- Versus Higher-Income Populations In The Alternative Quality Contract: Improved Quality And Similar Spending.

    PubMed

    Song, Zirui; Rose, Sherri; Chernew, Michael E; Safran, Dana Gelb

    2017-01-01

    As population-based payment models become increasingly common, it is crucial to understand how such payment models affect health disparities. We evaluated health care quality and spending among enrollees in areas with lower versus higher socioeconomic status in Massachusetts before and after providers entered into the Alternative Quality Contract, a two-sided population-based payment model with substantial incentives tied to quality. We compared changes in process measures, outcome measures, and spending between enrollees in areas with lower and higher socioeconomic status from 2006 to 2012 (outcome measures were measured after the intervention only). Quality improved for all enrollees in the Alternative Quality Contract after their provider organizations entered the contract. Process measures improved 1.2 percentage points per year more among enrollees in areas with lower socioeconomic status than among those in areas with higher socioeconomic status. Outcome measure improvement was no different between the subgroups; neither were changes in spending. Larger or comparable improvements in quality among enrollees in areas with lower socioeconomic status suggest a potential narrowing of disparities. Strong pay-for-performance incentives within a population-based payment model could encourage providers to focus on improving quality for more disadvantaged populations.

  12. 1985 Libby Reservoir Angler Census: May 13-October 31, 1987 [i.e. 1985] : Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Ian; Hamlin, Paul

    1987-05-01

    An intensive creel and economic survey was conducted on Libby Reservoir from May 13 through October 31, 1985. This research was part of a larger effort to quantify the existing reservoir fishery and the effects of dam operation on this fishery. Census techniques incorporated direct interviews and electronic car counters installed at all established boat ramp access sites. A total of 4243 angling party interviews, 2379 car counter interviews and 719 economic surveys were conducted on Libby Reservoir. Interviewed anglers fished for 52,146 hours. Estimated pressure was 518,916 hours or 93,500 angler days equivalent to 2.10 angler days per acre. Eight percent of the total estimated angler days or 7436 fishing grips occurred on the Canadian portion of the reservoir. Boat anglers expended over 96% of the total effort. Anglers caught an estimated 617,097 fish during the creel period, 97% (597,380 fish) of which were kokanee. The majority (98%) of the kokanee harvested were caught on the US portion of the reservoir. Harvest of Salmo spp. was estimated at 15,334 fish. Whitefish and brook trout harvest was estimated at 1273 and 48 fish, respectively. Nongame fish species were almost nonexistent in the creel and estimated harvest was less than 0.5% of the total harvest.

  13. Angler Survey Contributes to Socially Acceptable Modification of Harvest Regulations to Preserve Cutthroat Trout Fishery in Snake River, Wyoming, USA

    PubMed

    Hubert; Gipson

    1996-09-01

    This is a case study that describes a survey of anglers that was used to assist in modifying fishing regulations for indigenous trout in the Snake River, Wyoming. A mail survey of anglers who purchased 1991 Wyoming fishing licenses in the two counties adjacent to the Snake River was conducted during fall 1992. Differences in angler preferences were noted between anglers who purchased licenses in two adjacent counties with different socioeconomic structures, as well as between residents and nonresidents in each county. Anglers who purchased licenses in Teton County, where there is extensive tourism and immigration by relatively wealthy residents, tended to be more specialized and less harvest oriented. Anglers in Lincoln County, which is largely agricultural and has substantially less tourism and immigration of residents, tended to fish in many different ways and indicated more desire to harvest fish. Anglers from the two counties segregated themselves; those from Teton County primarily used the upstream portion of the study reach, and those from Lincoln County primarily used a short downstream portion of the reach. Modification of fishing regulations to reduce harvest of spawning-size cutthroat trout in the Snake River probably was acceptable to most anglers due to spatial segregation and their attitudes toward harvest.KEY WORDS: Rivers; Salmonidae; Trout; Anglers; Regulations; Wyoming

  14. Angler survey contributes to socially acceptable modification of harvest regulations to preserve cutthroat trout fishery in Snake River, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Wayne A.; Gipson, Robert D.

    1996-09-01

    This is a case study that describes a survey of anglers that was used to assist in modifying fishing regulations for indigenous trout in the Snake River, Wyoming. A mail survey of anglers who purchased 1991 Wyoming fishing licenses in the two counties adjacent to the Snake River was conducted during fall 1992. Differences in angler preferences were noted between anglers who purchased licenses in two adjacent counties with different socioeconomic structures, as well as between residents and nonresidents in each county. Anglers who purchased licenses in Teton County, where there is extensive tourism and immigration by relatively wealthy residents, tended to be more specialized and less harvest oriented. Anglers in Lincoln County, which is largely agricultural and has substantially less tourism and immigration of residents, tended to fish in many different ways and indicated more desire to harvest fish. Anglers from the two counties segregated themselves; those from Teton County primarily used the upstream portion of the study reach, and those from Lincoln County primarily used a short downstream portion of the reach. Modification of fishing regulations to reduce harvest of spawning-size cutthroat trout in the Snake River probably was acceptable to most anglers due to spatial segregation and their attitudes toward harvest.

  15. Take-Up of Public Insurance and Crowd-Out of Private Insurance under Recent CHIP Expansions to Higher Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Edgington, Sarah E; Laugesen, Miriam; Escarce, José J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effects of states' expansions of Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) eligibility to children in higher income families on health insurance coverage outcomes. Data Sources 2002–2009 Current Population Survey linked to multiple secondary data sources. Study Design Instrumental variables estimation of linear probability models. Outcomes are whether the child had any public insurance, any private insurance, or no insurance coverage during the year. Principal Findings Among children in families with incomes between two and four times the federal poverty line (FPL), four enrolled in CHIP for every 100 who became eligible. Roughly half of the newly eligible children who took up public insurance were previously uninsured. The upper bound “crowd-out” rate was estimated to be 46 percent. Conclusions The CHIP expansions to children in higher income families were associated with limited uptake of public coverage. Our results additionally suggest that there was crowd-out of private insurance coverage. PMID:22515792

  16. Interaction of ecological and angler processes: experimental stocking in an open access, spatially structured fishery.

    PubMed

    Mee, Jonathan A; Post, John R; Ward, Hillary; Wilson, Kyle L; Newton, Eric; Cantin, Ariane

    2016-09-01

    Effective management of socioecological systems requires an understanding of the complex interactions between people and the environment. In recreational fisheries, which are prime examples of socioecological systems, anglers are analogous to mobile predators in natural predator-prey systems, and individual fisheries in lakes across a region are analogous to a spatially structured landscape of prey patches. Hence, effective management of recreational fisheries across large spatial scales requires an understanding of the dynamic interactions among ecological density dependent processes, landscape-level characteristics, and angler behaviors. We focused on the stocked component of the open access rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishery in British Columbia (BC), and we used an experimental approach wherein we manipulated stocking densities in a subset of 34 lakes in which we monitored angler effort, fish abundance, and fish size for up to seven consecutive years. We used an empirically derived relationship between fish abundance and fish size across rainbow trout populations in BC to provide a measure of catch-based fishing quality that accounts for the size-abundance trade off in this system. We replicated our experimental manipulation in two regions known to have different angler populations and broad-scale access costs. We hypothesized that angler effort would respond to variation in stocking density, resulting in spatial heterogeneity in angler effort but homogeneity in catch-based fishing quality within regions. We found that there is an intermediate stocking density for a given lake or region at which angler effort is maximized (i.e., an optimal stocking density), and that this stocking density depends on latent effort and lake accessibility. Furthermore, we found no clear effect of stocking density on our measure of catch-based fishing quality, suggesting that angler effort homogenizes catch-related attributes leading to an eroded relationship between

  17. The importance of environmental quality and catch potential to fishing site selection by freshwater anglers in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L.; Gerard, P.D.; Gill, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We measured the importance of 24 fishing site attributes to Mississippi freshwater anglers. Factor analysis identified four multiattribute factors as important in the selection of fishing location: CLEAN ENVIRONMENT CATCH, COST AND HARVEST and AMENITIES AND SAFETY. In general, the importance of site selection factors differed little among anglers grouped by preferred type of fish, preferred fishing location (lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, ponds, or reservoir tailwaters), usual manner of fishing (engine-powered boat, nonpowered boat, or shore), or change in fishing frequency. COST AND HARVEST was more important to anglers with high harvest orientations. We found low correlations between site selection factor importance scores and angler age, fishing frequency, fishing expenditures, or fishing motivation factors. We suggest that the general lack of differences in site selection factors among angler groups indicates that management strategies to improve fishing site attributes should benefit all angler groups. Clean fishing environments and awareness of the availability of desired sport fishes were "very" or "extremely" important to fishing site selection by more than 70% of Mississippi freshwater anglers and should be priority management objectives.

  18. 77 FR 42189 - Marine Recreational Fisheries of the United States; National Saltwater Angler Registry and State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... price; or (2) A single state license that permits a group of fishing and hunting activities, including fishing in tidal waters, at a price that is less than the sum of the cost of the individual licenses... fishing promotion programs by which states allow new anglers to fish for a specified day without a...

  19. 76 FR 56219 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Shenandoah National Park Angler Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Shenandoah National Park Angler Survey AGENCY: National Park Service (NPS), Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (National Park Service, Shenandoah National Park) will ask the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  20. Sport fish consumption and body burden levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons: a study of Wisconsin anglers

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, B.J.; Anderson, H.A.; Hanrahan, L.P.; Olson, L.J.; Sonzogni, W.C.

    1989-03-01

    Sport-caught fish consumption is the major source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure for the general population. To assess this and 2,2'-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) exposure, we surveyed 801 Wisconsin anglers for fishing and consumption habits and comprehension of and compliance with the Wisconsin fish consumption health advisory. The mean annual number of sport-caught fish meals was 18. Seventy-two percent of anglers were familiar with the health advisory and 57% had changed their fishing or fish consumption habits as a result of the advisory. The mean PCB serum congener sum level for 192 anglers was 2.2 micrograms/l (range = nondetectable to 27.1 micrograms/l); mean DDE was 6.3 micrograms/l (range = nondetectable to 40.0 micrograms/l). Statistically significant positive Spearman correlations were observed between sport-caught fish meals and PCB and DDE sera levels (R = .21 and .14, respectively) and between kilograms of fish caught and PCB sera levels (R = .25). These results demonstrate that anglers may provide a population for assessment of PCBs and DDE associated morbidity and mortality.

  1. Using the internet to understand angler behavior in the information age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Dustin R.; Pracheil, Brenda M.; DeBoer, Jason A.; Wilde, Gene R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Declining participation in recreational angling is of great concern to fishery managers because fishing license sales are an important revenue source for protection of aquatic resources. This decline is frequently attributed, in part, to increased societal reliance on electronics. Internet use by anglers is increasing and fishery managers may use the Internet as a unique means to increase angler participation. We examined Internet search behavior using Google Insights for Search, a free online tool that summarizes Google searches from 2004 to 2011 to determine (1) trends in Internet search volume for general fishing related terms and (2) the relative usefulness of terms related to angler recruitment programs across the United States. Though search volume declined for general fishing terms (e.g., fishing, fishing guide), search volume increased for social media and recruitment terms (e.g., fishing forum, family fishing) over the 7-year period. We encourage coordinators of recruitment programs to capitalize on anglers’ Internet usage by considering Internet search patterns when creating web-based information. Careful selection of terms used in web-based information to match those currently searched by potential anglers may help to direct traffic to state agency websites that support recruitment efforts.

  2. Angler effort and catch within a spatially complex system of small lakes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Martin, Dustin R.; Barada, Tony J.; Schuckman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial layout of waterbodies and waterbody size can affect a creel clerk’s ability to intercept anglers for interviews and to accurately count anglers, which will affect the accuracy and precision of estimates of effort and catch. This study aimed to quantify angling effort and catch across a spatially complex system of 19 small (<100 ha) lakes, the Fremont lakes. Total (±SE) angling effort (hours) on individual lakes ranged from 0 (0) to 7,137 (305). Bank anglers utilized 18 of the 19 lakes, and their mean (±SE) trip lengths (hours) ranged from 0.80 (0.31) to 7.75 (6.75), depending on the waterbody. In contrast, boat anglers utilized 14 of the 19 lakes, and their trip lengths ranged from 1.39 (0.24) to 4.25 (0.71), depending on the waterbody. The most sought fishes, as indexed by number of lakes on which effort was exerted, were anything (17 of 19 lakes), largemouth bassMicropterus salmoides (15 of 19 lakes), and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (13 of 19 lakes). Bluegill Lepomis machrochirus, crappie Pomoxis spp., and largemouth bass were caught most frequently across the lakes, but catch rates varied considerably by lake. Of the 1,138 parties interviewed, most parties (93%) visited a single lake but there were 77 (7%) parties that indicated that they had visited multiple lakes during a single day. The contingent of parties that visited more than one lake a day were primarily (87%) bank anglers.. The number of lake-to-lake connections made by anglers visiting more than one waterbody during a single day was related to catch rates and total angling effort. The greater resolution that was achieved with a lake specific creel survey at Fremont lakes revealed a system of lakes with a large degree of spatial variation in angler effort and catch that would be missed by a coarser, system-wide survey that did not differentiate individual lakes.

  3. Income Affluence in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of income affluence (richness) in Poland during 1998-2007. Using household survey data, the paper estimates several statistical indices of income affluence including income share of the top percentiles, population share of individuals receiving incomes higher than the richness line, and measures that take into…

  4. Financing Higher Education: An Assessment of Income-Contingent Loan Options and Repayment Patterns over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Outlines design issues involved with introducing an income-contingent, college student-loan program and describes the solutions adopted by Australian and New Zealand governments. Uses dynamic microsimulation to simulate the likely future repayment profiles for two Australian ICL schemes and assesses the proportion of total debt repaid. (19…

  5. Family history of immigration from a tuberculosis endemic country and low family income are associated with a higher BCG vaccination coverage in Ile-de-France region, France.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Chauvin, Pierre; Le Strat, Yann; Soler, Marion; Fonteneau, Laure; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2013-11-19

    After withdrawal of multipuncture BCG device from the French market in January 2006, vaccination coverage (VC) with the intradermal device has dropped and since remained sub-optimal in Ile-de-France, the only region of mainland France where BCG is recommended to all children. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify socio-economic factors associated with BCG VC in children of Paris metropolitan area born after January 2006. Two-stage random sampling was used to include 425 children up to 5 years old from Paris and its suburbs. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and vaccination status confirmed by a vaccination document. Poisson regression analyzed the association between VC and potential determinants. VC of children from families with the lowest incomes (first quartile of family income/consumption unit (CU) (<883 €) was close to 100% regardless of family origin. In families with higher incomes (≥ 883 €/CU), VC was significantly higher among children born to families from a tuberculosis highly endemic country (98.2%) compared with other children (76.2%) (p=0.004). Children of low socio-economic background as well as those with a family history of immigration, regardless of family income, are correctly identified as being at high risk of tuberculosis and properly vaccinated with BCG in this area.

  6. Levels of nutrients in relation to fish consumption among older male anglers in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Krista Y.; Thompson, Brooke A.; Werner, Mark; Malecki, Kristen; Imm, Pamela; Anderson, Henry A.

    2016-01-01

    Fish are an important source of nutrients including omega-3 fatty acids, which may reduce risk of adverse health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease; however, fish may also contain significant amounts of environmental pollutants. The Wisconsin Departments of Health Services and Natural Resources developed a survey instrument, along with a strategy to collect human biological samples to assess the risks and benefits associated with long-term fish consumption among older male anglers in Wisconsin. The target population was men aged 50 years and older, who fish Wisconsin waters and live in the state of Wisconsin. Participants provided blood and hair samples and completed a detailed (paper) questionnaire, which included questions on basic demographics, health status, location of catch and species of fish caught/eaten, consumption of locally caught and commercially purchased fish, and awareness and source of information for local and statewide consumption guidelines. Biological samples were used to assess levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); vitamin D; and selenium in blood. Quantile regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between biomarker levels and self-reported consumption of fish from the Great Lakes and other areas of concern, other locally caught fish, and commercially purchased fish (meals per year). Respondents were largely non-Hispanic white men in their 60’s with at least some college education, and about half were retired. Fish consumption was high (median of 54.5 meals per year), with most fish meals coming from locally-caught fish. Multivariate regression models showed that the effect of supplement use was much greater than that of fish consumption, on nutrient levels, although consumption of fish from the Great Lakes and areas of concern was significantly associated with higher levels of vitamin D even after controlling for supplement usage. PMID:26296180

  7. Income inequality and happiness.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kesebir, Selin; Diener, Ed

    2011-09-01

    Using General Social Survey data from 1972 to 2008, we found that Americans were on average happier in the years with less national income inequality than in the years with more national income inequality. We further demonstrated that this inverse relation between income inequality and happiness was explained by perceived fairness and general trust. That is, Americans trusted other people less and perceived other people to be less fair in the years with more national income inequality than in the years with less national income inequality. The negative association between income inequality and happiness held for lower-income respondents, but not for higher-income respondents. Most important, we found that the negative link between income inequality and the happiness of lower-income respondents was explained not by lower household income, but by perceived unfairness and lack of trust.

  8. Response by anglers to a differential harvest regulation on three black bass species at Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Hyler, Randy G.; Fisher, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Angler responses to a differential harvest regulation on black bass, Micropterus spp. at Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma was assessed from 1997 to 1999. This regulation allowed anglers to harvest 15 spotted bass, M. punctulatus (Rafinesque) of any size and six largemouth bass, M. salmoides (Lacepède) and smallmouth bass, M. dolomieu Lacepède greater than 356 mm (in aggregate) per day. Anglers’ ability to differentiate spotted bass increased after the first year of the study, but their willingness to target or harvest spotted bass declined. Mean angler catch rates (number of fish per angling hour) for all three species remained steady throughout the study. Total harvest of largemouth bass and smallmouth bass was reduced by 1999 while total harvest of spotted bass remained steady throughout the study period. Despite the more liberal regulations as incentive, the regulation failed to accomplish the primary objective of increasing angler harvest of spotted bass because of high rates of voluntary catch and release.

  9. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  10. Willingness to pay for non angler recreation at the lower Snake River reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKean, J.R.; Johnson, D.; Taylor, R.G.; Johnson, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    This study applied the travel cost method to estimate demand for non angler recreation at the impounded Snake River in eastern Washington. Net value per person per recreation trip is estimated for the full non angler sample and separately for camping, boating, water-skiing, and swimming/picnicking. Certain recreation activities would be reduced or eliminated and new activities would be added if the dams were breached to protect endangered salmon and steelhead. The effect of breaching on non angling benefits was found by subtracting our benefits estimate from the projected non angling benefits with breaching. Major issues in demand model specification and definition of the price variables are discussed. The estimation method selected was truncated negative binomial regression with adjustment for self selection bias. Copyright 2005 National Recreation and Park Association.

  11. Quantifying the Seafood Consumption Patterns of Recreational Anglers in Charleston and Berkeley Counties, South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Perkinson, Matthew T.; Faith, Trevor D.; Vahey, Grace M.; Vena, John E.; Williams, Edith M.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to provide self-reported data on the frequency of fish consumption and shellfish consumption in Charleston and Berkeley (CB) counties, South Carolina. While commercial fishing and recreational fishing have played an important role in the culture and history of the area, information on the specific patterns of consumption by recreational anglers has been previously unavailable. The pilot data presented here will help determine the feasibility of a large-scale survey of seafood consumption in coastal South Carolina. The study’s sampling frame consisted of CB county anglers who had purchased a recreational saltwater fishing license for the 2005/2006 year with oversampling in North Charleston. Survey recipients were asked to provide information on fish consumption and shellfish consumption, general angling habits, perception of water and fishing quality, and demographics. Of the 2500 individuals who were sent questionnaires, about one-fourth responded. Respondents were generally white, middle, or upper class and highly educated. The majority fished by boat and most often ate flounder, spotted sea trout, and red drum. Most respondents ate shrimp several times a month and also supplemented their recreational catch with seafood purchased from grocery stores, markets, and restaurants. Almost all respondents had eaten some seafood in the last year, and more than one-fourth ate seafood twice a week or more. Most anglers responded positively about the area’s fishing and water qualities, but many referred to areas where they would hesitate to eat their catch. Further research may need to incorporate direct distribution of surveys to underrepresented groups and financial incentives to encompass a more diverse population of anglers. PMID:27891049

  12. Quantifying the Seafood Consumption Patterns of Recreational Anglers in Charleston and Berkeley Counties, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Perkinson, Matthew T; Faith, Trevor D; Vahey, Grace M; Vena, John E; Williams, Edith M

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to provide self-reported data on the frequency of fish consumption and shellfish consumption in Charleston and Berkeley (CB) counties, South Carolina. While commercial fishing and recreational fishing have played an important role in the culture and history of the area, information on the specific patterns of consumption by recreational anglers has been previously unavailable. The pilot data presented here will help determine the feasibility of a large-scale survey of seafood consumption in coastal South Carolina. The study's sampling frame consisted of CB county anglers who had purchased a recreational saltwater fishing license for the 2005/2006 year with oversampling in North Charleston. Survey recipients were asked to provide information on fish consumption and shellfish consumption, general angling habits, perception of water and fishing quality, and demographics. Of the 2500 individuals who were sent questionnaires, about one-fourth responded. Respondents were generally white, middle, or upper class and highly educated. The majority fished by boat and most often ate flounder, spotted sea trout, and red drum. Most respondents ate shrimp several times a month and also supplemented their recreational catch with seafood purchased from grocery stores, markets, and restaurants. Almost all respondents had eaten some seafood in the last year, and more than one-fourth ate seafood twice a week or more. Most anglers responded positively about the area's fishing and water qualities, but many referred to areas where they would hesitate to eat their catch. Further research may need to incorporate direct distribution of surveys to underrepresented groups and financial incentives to encompass a more diverse population of anglers.

  13. Bycatch, bait, anglers, and roads: quantifying vector activity and propagule introduction risk across lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Drake, D Andrew R; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2014-06-01

    Long implicated in the invasion process, live-bait anglers are highly mobile species vectors with frequent overland transport of fishes. To test hypotheses about the role of anglers in propagule transport, we developed a social-ecological model quantifying the opportunity for species transport beyond the invaded range resulting from bycatch during commercial bait operations, incidental transport, and release to lake ecosystems by anglers. We combined a gravity model with a stochastic, agent-based simulation, representing a 1-yr iteration of live-bait angling and the dynamics of propagule transport at fine spatiotemporal scales (i.e., probability of introducing n propagules per lake per year). A baseline scenario involving round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) indicated that most angling trips were benign; irrespective of lake visitation, anglers failed to purchase and transport propagules (benign trips, median probability P = 0.99912). However, given the large number of probability trials (4.2 million live-bait angling events per year), even the rarest sequence of events (uptake, movement, and deposition of propagules) is anticipated to occur. Risky trips (modal P = 0.00088 trips per year; approximately 1 in 1136) were sufficient to introduce a substantial number of propagules (modal values, Poisson model = 3715 propagules among 1288 lakes per year; zero-inflated negative binomial model = 6722 propagules among 1292 lakes per year). Two patterns of lake-specific introduction risk emerged. Large lakes supporting substantial angling activity experienced propagule pressure likely to surpass demographic barriers to establishment (top 2.5% of lakes with modal outcomes of five to 76 propagules per year; 303 high-risk lakes with three or more propagules, per year). Small or remote lakes were less likely to receive propagules; however, most risk distributions were leptokurtic with a long right tail, indicating the rare occurrence of high propagule loads to most waterbodies

  14. Private Higher Education in China: Access to Quality Higher Education and the Acquisition of Labour Market Qualifications by Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FengLiang, Li; Morgan, W. John

    2008-01-01

    The development of private higher education in China is an important area of policy concern and for academic research, especially under the conditions of globalization. This article reviews the current situation and forecasts the likely trend in several key areas, such as governmental regulation, funds and competition for enrolments. The article…

  15. A simple model for predicting survival of angler-caught and released largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, G.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a controlled experiment in the laboratory to assess the influence of anatomical hooking location and water temperature on survival of angler-caught and released largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Survival was 98% (58 of 59 fish) among fish that were hand-hooked within the oral cavity (including the gills), whereas survival was 66% (33 of 50 fish) among fish that were hand-hooked in the esophagus. Survival of hooked fish was not significantly influenced by water temperature (7-27??C) or the hooking location X water temperature interaction. We combined our results with prior research to develop a predictive model of largemouth bass survival, which was 98.3% (SD = 1.87%) for fish hooked in the oral cavity and 55.0% (SD = 9.70%) for fish hooked in the esophagus. The model is valid for water temperatures ranging from 7??C to 27??C and allows one to estimate, with known precision, the survival of angler-caught and released largemouth bass without the need for controlled studies or for holding fish in pens or cages to assess delayed mortality. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  16. Managing for Desired Experiences and Site Preferences: The Case of Fee-Fishing Anglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuett, Michael A.; Pierskalla, Chad D.

    2007-02-01

    Fee-fishing involves paying a fee for the privilege of fishing a body of water where fish populations are enhanced by stocking fish. Past literature on this activity has focused more on the operation of the enterprise and management of the fish than the people and site characteristics. The objectives of the study were to profile anglers and describe their site/management preferences. This study utilized an on-site interview and mail-back questionnaire at fee-fishing establishments in West Virginia ( n = 212). Factor analysis of desired recreation experiences yielded five factors: Experience nature & adventure, Stress release & relaxation, Trophy fishing, Escape, and Family time. Cluster analysis showed that these anglers can be segmented into two distinct clusters, differing by sociodemographic characteristics, fishing behavior, and site/management preferences. The findings from this study provide baseline data to aid public resource managers and fee-fishing business owners in determining how to provide satisfying outdoor experiences and deliver desired services on-site. Future research will be needed from additional fee-fishing sites to obtain more detail about this outdoor recreation cohort and be able to generalize to a larger population of participants.

  17. Usage and Evaluation of Nonformal Environmental Education Services at a State Park: Are Anglers Catching More than Fish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Mark; Soucy, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    Although park naturalists should be inclusive in their attempts to reach a variety of audiences, visitors having a consumptive resource orientation may get overlooked. The activity involvement, place attachment and resource knowledge scores of trout anglers at Montauk State Park (Missouri, USA) were combined into a typology that consisted of four…

  18. Using Tournament Angler Data to Rapidly Assess the Invasion Status of Alien Sport Fishes (Micropterus spp.) in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hargrove, John S.; Weyl, Olaf L. F.; Allen, Micheal S.; Deacon, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Fishes are one of the most commonly introduced aquatic taxa worldwide, and invasive fish species pose threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function in recipient waters. Considerable research efforts have focused on predicting the invasibility of different fish taxa; however, accurate records detailing the establishment and spread of invasive fishes are lacking for large numbers of fish around the globe. In response to these data limitations, a low-cost method of cataloging and quantifying the temporal and spatial status of fish invasions was explored. Specifically, angler catch data derived from competitive bass angling tournaments was used to document the distribution of 66 non-native populations of black bass (Micropterus spp.) in southern Africa. Additionally, catch data from standardized tournament events were used to assess the abundance and growth of non-native bass populations in southern Africa relative to their native distribution (southern and eastern United States). Differences in metrics of catch per unit effort (average number of fish retained per angler per day), daily bag weights (the average weight of fish retained per angler), and average fish weight were assessed using catch data from 14,890 angler days of tournament fishing (11,045 days from South Africa and Zimbabwe; 3,845 days from the United States). No significant differences were found between catch rates, average daily bag weight, or the average fish weight between countries, suggesting that bass populations in southern Africa reach comparable sizes and numbers relative to waters in their native distribution. Given the minimal cost associated with data collection (i.e. records are collected by tournament organizers), the standardized nature of the events, and consistent bias (i.e. selection for the biggest fish in a population), the use of angler catch data represents a novel approach to infer the status and distribution of invasive sport fish. PMID:26047487

  19. Using Tournament Angler Data to Rapidly Assess the Invasion Status of Alien Sport Fishes (Micropterus spp.) in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, John S; Weyl, Olaf L F; Allen, Micheal S; Deacon, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    Fishes are one of the most commonly introduced aquatic taxa worldwide, and invasive fish species pose threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function in recipient waters. Considerable research efforts have focused on predicting the invasibility of different fish taxa; however, accurate records detailing the establishment and spread of invasive fishes are lacking for large numbers of fish around the globe. In response to these data limitations, a low-cost method of cataloging and quantifying the temporal and spatial status of fish invasions was explored. Specifically, angler catch data derived from competitive bass angling tournaments was used to document the distribution of 66 non-native populations of black bass (Micropterus spp.) in southern Africa. Additionally, catch data from standardized tournament events were used to assess the abundance and growth of non-native bass populations in southern Africa relative to their native distribution (southern and eastern United States). Differences in metrics of catch per unit effort (average number of fish retained per angler per day), daily bag weights (the average weight of fish retained per angler), and average fish weight were assessed using catch data from 14,890 angler days of tournament fishing (11,045 days from South Africa and Zimbabwe; 3,845 days from the United States). No significant differences were found between catch rates, average daily bag weight, or the average fish weight between countries, suggesting that bass populations in southern Africa reach comparable sizes and numbers relative to waters in their native distribution. Given the minimal cost associated with data collection (i.e. records are collected by tournament organizers), the standardized nature of the events, and consistent bias (i.e. selection for the biggest fish in a population), the use of angler catch data represents a novel approach to infer the status and distribution of invasive sport fish.

  20. Angler harvest, hatchery return, and tributary stray rates of recycled adult summer steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Perry, Russell W.; Gleizes, Chris; Dammers, Wolf; Liedtke, Theresa L.

    2016-01-01

    Hatchery ‘recycling’ programs have been used to increase angling opportunities by re-releasing fish into a river after they returned to a hatchery or fish trap. Recycling is intended to increase opportunities for fishermen, but this strategy could affect wild fish populations if some recycled fish remain in the river and interact with wild fish populations. To quantify hatchery return and angler harvest rates of recycled steelhead, we conducted a 2-year study on the Cowlitz River, Washington. A total of 1051 steelhead were recycled, including 218 fish that were radio-tagged. Fates of recycled steelhead were similar between years: 48.4% returned to the hatchery, 19.2% were reported captured by anglers, and 32.4% remained in the river. A multistate model quantified the effects of covariates on hatchery return and angler harvest rates, which were positively affected by river discharge and negatively affected by time since release. However, hatchery return rates increased and angler harvest rates decreased during periods of increasing discharge. A total of 21.1% (46 fish) of the radio-tagged steelhead failed to return to the hatchery or be reported by anglers, but nearly half of those fish (20 fish) appeared to be harvested and not reported. The remaining tagged fish (11.9% of the radio-tagged population) were monitored into the spawning period, but only five fish (2.3% of the radio-tagged population) entered tributaries where wild steelhead spawning occurs. Future research focused on straying behaviour, and spawning success of recycled steelhead may further advance the understanding of the effects of recycling as a management strategy.

  1. The Money Buffer Effect in China: A Higher Income Cannot Make You Much Happier but Might Allow You to Worry Less

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Li, Aimei; Wang, Xiaotian; Hou, Yunsong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the possibility that there is a curvilinear relationship between income and subjective well-being in China. This study also investigated whether this curvilinear relationship is moderated by social class and mediated by respondents' material affluence. The study was conducted in China, and the sample consisted of 900 blue-collar workers and 546 white-collar workers. The results for emotional well-being showed that income significantly predicted negative affect but not positive affect. This finding indicates that in China, high incomes may not make people happier but might allow them to worry less, which we call the “money buffer effect.” The results also showed that material affluence mediates the interaction effect between income and social class on subjective well-being. The implications of these results for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:26941687

  2. Insights into fisheries management practices: using the theory of planned behavior to explain fish stocking among a sample of Swiss anglers.

    PubMed

    von Lindern, Eike; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Using inadequate management tools often threatens the natural environment. This study focuses on the example of Swiss recreational fishermen (hereafter called "anglers") as recreational fisheries management stakeholders. In recreational fisheries, fish stocking conducted by anglers has been identified as one important factor associated with declining fish catches. We therefore aimed to a) gain insights into why anglers want to maintain fish stocking and b) identify entry points for interventions to promote more pro-ecological management practices. Results (N = 349) showed that the majority of anglers think very uncritically about stocking and that they frequently engage in it. We conclude that outcome expectancies and beliefs about risks, in combination with a lack of stocking success controls are the main reasons that anglers retain stocking measures. We suggest that providing anglers with direct experience and feedback about stocking success is suitable to change their intentions regarding stocking and their actual stocking behavior, and thus, to promote more pro-ecological management methods. From a more general perspective, the results of this study are likely to help improve pro-ecological ecosystem management in other domains where problems similar to those in recreational fisheries management might exist.

  3. The Satter Eating Competence Inventory for Low-income persons is a valid measure of eating competence for persons of higher socioeconomic position.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Eating competence is an important behavioral construct, shown to be associated with healthful lifestyle practices, including dietary quality, weight management, physical activity, and sleep duration. A 16-item instrument to measure eating competence, the Satter Eating Competence Inventory was previously validated in a general sample and subsequently, a 16-item instrument was developed to address specific concerns of low-income persons; 12 items were common to both instruments. The purpose of this study was to determine if the low-income version could be applied to a general audience, simplifying intervention evaluation and facilitating cross-study comparison. Both surveys were fully completed by 127 parents (89% white; 35.8 ± 5.3 y; 86% college graduates; 51% eating competent) of preschool-age children; 96 of whom were not considered low-income. Cognitive interviews with 14 parents of varying eating competence levels clarified and confirmed findings. Scores were highly correlated (r = .98) and only 2 of the 96 were not congruently classified for eating competence. Mean difference between the two versions was .24 ± 1.55. The general audience version explained 95% of the variance in the low-income version score. Findings support the low-income version of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory for general audience use as the Satter Eating Competence Inventory 2.0.

  4. Race, Income, and College in 25 Years: Evaluating Justice O'Connor's Conjecture. Center for Studies in Higher Education, Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.19.06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Alan; Rothstein, Jesse; Turner, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    In Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), Justice Sandra Day O'Connor conjectured that in 25 years affirmative action in college admissions will be unnecessary. We project the test score distribution of black and white college applicants 25 years from now, focusing on the role of black-white family income gaps. Economic progress alone is unlikely to narrow…

  5. Students' Futures as Investments: The Promise and Challenges of Income-Share Agreements. AEI Series on Private Financing in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Income-share agreements (ISAs) are an emerging idea for helping students pay for college. Under an ISA, investors provide upfront sums of money toward students' college tuition and other associated costs in exchange for a fixed percentage of the recipients' earnings after graduation. This paper--the first in a series examining private financing in…

  6. Paternal Lake Ontario fish consumption and risk of conception delay, New York State Angler Cohort.

    PubMed

    Buck, G M; Mendola, P; Vena, J E; Sever, L E; Kostyniak, P; Greizerstein, H; Olson, J; Stephen, F D

    1999-02-01

    The aquatic ecosystems of the Great Lakes are contaminated with a variety of compounds, some of which are considered reproductive toxicants. Few studies of paternal fish consumption and reproductive endpoints have been undertaken and serve as the impetus for study. Standardized telephone interviews were conducted with 2445 female members of the New York State Angler Cohort (82% response) to update reproductive profiles and to ascertain specific information on time-to-pregnancy (TTP). The study sample includes women with a known TTP and paternal fish consumption data (n=785). Conception delay was defined as more than 12 cycles of unprotected intercourse to achieve pregnancy. Paternal fish consumption was assessed by three measures: frequency of Lake Ontario sport fish meals in 1991, numbers of years eating fish, and estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. Adjusted ORs for number of fish meals, based on logistic regression, ranged from 0.69 to 0.80; from 0.61 to 0.82 for number of years eating fish; and from 0.44 to 1.14 for quartiles of estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. All confidence intervals included one. These findings suggest that, based on paternal self-reports, Lake Ontario fish consumption does not increase the risk of conception delay.

  7. Paternal Lake Ontario fish consumption and risk of conception delay, New York state angler cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, G.M.; Mendola, P.; Vena, J.E.; Kostyniak, P.; Greizerstein, H.; Olson, J.; Stephen, F.D.; Sever, L.E.

    1999-02-01

    The aquatic ecosystems of the Great Lakes are contaminated with a variety of compounds, some of which are considered reproductive toxicants. Few studies of paternal fish consumption and reproductive endpoints have been undertaken and serve as the impetus for study. Standardized telephone interviews were conducted with 2,445 female members of the New York State Angler Cohort (82% response) to update reproductive profiles and to ascertain specific information on time-to-pregnancy (TTP). The study sample includes women with a known TTP and paternal fish consumption data (n = 785). Conception delay was defined as more than 12 cycles of unprotected intercourse to achieve pregnancy. Paternal fish consumption was assessed by three measures: frequency of Lake Ontario sport fish meals in 1991, numbers of years eating fish, and estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. Adjusted ORs for number of fish meals, based on logistic regression, ranged from 0.69 to 0.80; from 0.61 to .82 for number of years eating fish; and from 0.44 to 1.14 for quartiles of estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. All confidence intervals included one. These findings suggest that, based on paternal self-reports, Lake Ontario fish consumption does not increase the risk of conception delay.

  8. Insights into Fisheries Management Practices: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Fish Stocking among a Sample of Swiss Anglers

    PubMed Central

    von Lindern, Eike; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Using inadequate management tools often threatens the natural environment. This study focuses on the example of Swiss recreational fishermen (hereafter called “anglers”) as recreational fisheries management stakeholders. In recreational fisheries, fish stocking conducted by anglers has been identified as one important factor associated with declining fish catches. We therefore aimed to a) gain insights into why anglers want to maintain fish stocking and b) identify entry points for interventions to promote more pro-ecological management practices. Results (N = 349) showed that the majority of anglers think very uncritically about stocking and that they frequently engage in it. We conclude that outcome expectancies and beliefs about risks, in combination with a lack of stocking success controls are the main reasons that anglers retain stocking measures. We suggest that providing anglers with direct experience and feedback about stocking success is suitable to change their intentions regarding stocking and their actual stocking behavior, and thus, to promote more pro-ecological management methods. From a more general perspective, the results of this study are likely to help improve pro-ecological ecosystem management in other domains where problems similar to those in recreational fisheries management might exist. PMID:25514798

  9. Higher Mosquito Production in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: Understanding Ecological Drivers and Mosquito-Borne Disease Risk in Temperate Cities

    PubMed Central

    LaDeau, Shannon L.; Leisnham, Paul T.; Biehler, Dawn; Bodner, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. Effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. We compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC). Seven species of mosquito larvae were recorded. The invasive Aedes albopictus was the only species found in all neighborhoods. Culex pipiens, a primary vector of West Nile virus (WNV), was most abundant in Baltimore, which also had more tire habitats. Both Culex and Aedes pupae were more likely to be sampled in neighborhoods categorized as being below median income level in each city and Aedes pupae density was also greater in container habitats found in these lower income neighborhoods. We infer that lower income residents may experience greater exposure to potential disease vectors and Baltimore residents specifically, were at greater risk of exposure to the predominant WNV vector. However, we also found that resident-reported mosquito nuisance was not correlated with our measured risk index, indicating a potentially important mismatch between motivation needed to engage participation in control efforts and the relative importance of control among neighborhoods. PMID:23583963

  10. Higher mosquito production in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: understanding ecological drivers and mosquito-borne disease risk in temperate cities.

    PubMed

    LaDeau, Shannon L; Leisnham, Paul T; Biehler, Dawn; Bodner, Danielle

    2013-04-12

    Mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. Effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. We compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC). Seven species of mosquito larvae were recorded. The invasive Aedes albopictus was the only species found in all neighborhoods. Culex pipiens, a primary vector of West Nile virus (WNV), was most abundant in Baltimore, which also had more tire habitats. Both Culex and Aedes pupae were more likely to be sampled in neighborhoods categorized as being below median income level in each city and Aedes pupae density was also greater in container habitats found in these lower income neighborhoods. We infer that lower income residents may experience greater exposure to potential disease vectors and Baltimore residents specifically, were at greater risk of exposure to the predominant WNV vector. However, we also found that resident-reported mosquito nuisance was not correlated with our measured risk index, indicating a potentially important mismatch between motivation needed to engage participation in control efforts and the relative importance of control among neighborhoods.

  11. Species-specific preferences of German recreational anglers for freshwater fishing experiences, with emphasis on the intrinsic utilities of fish stocking and wild fishes.

    PubMed

    Arlinghaus, R; Beardmore, B; Riepe, C; Meyerhoff, J; Pagel, T

    2014-12-01

    To answer the question, whether anglers have an intrinsic preference for stocking or a preference for catch outcomes (e.g. catch rates) believed to be maintained by stocking, a discrete choice experiment was conducted among a sample of anglers (n = 1335) in Lower Saxony, Germany. After controlling for catch aspects of the fishing experience, no significant influence of two stocking attributes (stocking frequency and composition of the catch in terms of wild v. hatchery fishes) on the utility gained from fishing was found for any of the freshwater species that were studied. It was concluded that the previously documented large appreciation of fish stocking by anglers may be indicative of an underlying preference for sufficiently high catches rather than reflect an intrinsic preference for stocking or the catching of wild fishes per se.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls and omega-3 fatty acid exposure from fish consumption, and thyroid cancer among New York anglers.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Alyson; Robb, Sara Wagner; Bonner, Matthew R; Lindblad, William; Allegra, Joey; Shen, Ye; Vena, John E

    2016-03-01

    Fish from the Great Lakes contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which have been shown to disrupt endocrine function and mimic thyroid hormones, but they also contain beneficial omega-3 fatty acids that may offer protection against endocrine cancers. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Lake Ontario fish consumption and the estimated consumption of PCBs and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of thyroid cancer in a group of sport fishermen. Anglers from the New York State Angler Cohort Study were followed for cancer incidence from 1991-2008. Twenty-seven cases of incident thyroid cancer and 108 controls were included in the analyses. Total estimated fish consumption, estimated omega-3 fatty acid consumption, and estimated PCB consumption from Lake Ontario fish were examined for an association with the incidence of thyroid cancer, while matching on sex, and controlling for age and smoking status. Results from logistic regression indicate no significant associations between fish consumption, short-term estimated omega-3 fatty acids, or estimated PCB consumption from Great Lakes fish and the development of thyroid cancer, but it was suggested that long-term omega-3 fatty acid from Great Lakes fish may be protective of the development of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, fish consumption, with the possible concomitant PCBs, from the Great Lakes does not appear to increase the risk of thyroid cancer in New York anglers. Further research is needed in order to separate the individual health effects of PCBs from omega-3 fatty acids contained within the fish.

  13. Biosecurity and Vector Behaviour: Evaluating the Potential Threat Posed by Anglers and Canoeists as Pathways for the Spread of Invasive Non-Native Species and Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lucy G.; White, Piran C. L.; Stebbing, Paul D.; Stentiford, Grant D.; Dunn, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive non-native species (INNS) endanger native biodiversity and are a major economic problem. The management of pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment is a key target in the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi biodiversity targets for 2020. Freshwater environments are particularly susceptible to invasions as they are exposed to multiple introduction pathways, including non-native fish stocking and the release of boat ballast water. Since many freshwater INNS and aquatic pathogens can survive for several days in damp environments, there is potential for transport between water catchments on the equipment used by recreational anglers and canoeists. To quantify this biosecurity risk, we conducted an online questionnaire with 960 anglers and 599 canoeists to investigate their locations of activity, equipment used, and how frequently equipment was cleaned and/or dried after use. Anglers were also asked about their use and disposal of live bait. Our results indicate that 64% of anglers and 78.5% of canoeists use their equipment/boat in more than one catchment within a fortnight, the survival time of many of the INNS and pathogens considered in this study and that 12% of anglers and 50% of canoeists do so without either cleaning or drying their kit between uses. Furthermore, 8% of anglers and 28% of canoeists had used their equipment overseas without cleaning or drying it after each use which could facilitate both the introduction and secondary spread of INNS in the UK. Our results provide a baseline against which to evaluate the effectiveness of future biosecurity awareness campaigns, and identify groups to target with biosecurity awareness information. Our results also indicate that the biosecurity practices of these groups must improve to reduce the likelihood of inadvertently spreading INNS and pathogens through these activities. PMID:24717714

  14. Effects of simulated angler capture and live-release tournaments on walleye survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loomis, John H.; Schramm, Harold L.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Chizinski, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of acclimation water temperature,live-well (LW) water temperature,and LW dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on survival of adult WalleyesSander vitreus subjected to simulated tournament conditions (angling,LW confinement,and weigh-in procedures) under controlled laboratory conditions. We tested three acclimation temperatures (12,18,and 24°C),and three LW temperature differentials (ΔT = −4,0,and +4°C) were tested at each acclimation temperature. Survival was monitored after 8 h of LW confinement and during a 5-d retention period in 1,700-L tanks. None of the Walleyes that were acclimated to 24°C and subjected to simulated tournament procedures survived the 5-d retention period; for fish subjected only to simulated angling at 24°C,survival during the 5-d retention period was 29%. Five-day survival was generally over 70% at acclimation temperatures of 12°C and 18°C,and we observed a significant interaction between acclimation temperature and ΔT; survival was greatest in LWs at −4°C ΔT for fish acclimated to 18°C and in LWs at +4°C ΔT for fish acclimated to 12°C. Best survival of Walleyes subjected to the stress of angling and tournament procedures was obtained at temperatures 6–8°C below the optimum temperature for adult Walleyes (i.e.,optimum = 20–22°C). Five-day survival exceeded 70% when LW DO was 5 or 12–15 mg/L (at an acclimation and LW temperature of 18°C),but survival was 0% when DO was 2 mg/L. Anglers may increase survival of Walleyes through careful manipulation of LW temperature and DO when ambient temperature is at or below 18°C,but high mortality of angled and LW-retained Walleyes should be expected when ambient water temperatures are 24°C or greater.

  15. "Low Income Doesn't Mean Stupid and Destined for Failure": Challenging the Deficit Discourse around Students from Low SES Backgrounds in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Jade; Devlin, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The discourse around students from low socio-economic backgrounds often adopts a deficit conception in which these students are seen as a "problem" in higher education. In light of recent figures pointing to an increase in the number and proportion of these students participating in higher education [Pitman, T. 2014. "More Students…

  16. Using Theory to Identify Beliefs Associated with Intentions to Follow Fish Consumption Advisories Among Anglers Living in the Great Lakes Region.

    PubMed

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Connelly, Nancy A; Labuer, T Bruce; Knuth, Barbara A

    2015-11-01

    Fish consumption advisories are issued by states, tribes, and federal agencies to provide guidance to consumers about eating sport-caught fish potentially affected by chemical contaminants. Previous work has found that while anglers report being aware that advisories are available, awareness and use of specific advisory recommendations is low. This study uses the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to identify beliefs with potential to increase intentions to follow fish consumption advisories in Great Lakes states. We conducted a mail survey of 1,712 licensed anglers in seven of eight Great Lakes states (excluding Ohio) to gauge advisory awareness, cognitive factors influencing fish consumption behaviors (informed by the IMBP), and sociodemographic characteristics. Results show that most anglers reported being generally or vaguely aware of fish consumption advisories and try to follow them, but far fewer report being aware of specific advice needed to decide whether or not to consume different types of sport-caught fish. Informed by the IMBP, we also identify several behavioral, normative, and control beliefs that have sufficient room to change, strong associations with intentions to follow the advisories, and potential to be modified if targeted with strategic risk messages. Targeting these beliefs with strategic communication holds potential to increase the proportion of anglers intending to follow fish consumption advisory recommendations in choosing which fish to eat.

  17. Why Income Comparison is Rational

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2010-01-01

    A major factor affecting a person s happiness is the gap between their income and their neighbors , independent of their own income. This effect is strongest when the neighbor has moderately higher income. In addition a person s lifetime happiness often follows a "U" shape. Previous models have explained subsets of these phenomena, typically assuming the person has limited ability to assess their own (hedonic) utility. Here I present a model that explains all the phenomena, without such assumptions. In this model greater income of your neighbor is statistical data that, if carefully analyzed, would recommend that you explore for a new income-generating strategy. This explains unhappiness that your neighbor has greater income, as an emotional "prod" that induces you to explore, in accord with careful statistical analysis. It explains the "U" shape of happiness similarly. Another benefit of this model is that it makes many falsifiable predictions.

  18. Marriage Meets the Joneses: Relative Income, Identity, and Marital Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Tara; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of relative income on marriage. Accounting flexibly for absolute income, the ratio between a man's income and a local reference group median is a strong predictor of marital status, but only for low-income men. Relative income affects marriage even among those living with a partner. A 10 percent higher reference…

  19. Income inequality and health: pathways and mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between income and health is well established: the higher an individual's income, the better his or her health. However, recent research suggests that health may also be affected by the distribution of income within society. We outline the potential mechanisms underlying the so-called relative income hypothesis, which predicts that an individual's health status is better in societies with a more equal distribution of incomes. The effects of income inequality on health may be mediated by underinvestment in social goods, such as public education and health care; disruption of social cohesion and the erosion of social capital; and the harmful psychosocial effects of invidious social comparisons. PMID:10199670

  20. Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Income Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Finn, Amy S.; Leonard, Julia A.; Jacoby Senghor, Drew S.; West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F.O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the difference in academic achievement between higher- and lower-income students (i.e., the income achievement gap) is substantial and growing. Here, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of this gap in adolescents (n = 58) in whom academic achievement was measured by statewide standardized testing. Cortical gray matter volume was significantly greater in students from higher-income backgrounds (n = 35) compared to students from lower-income backgrounds (n = 23), but cortical white matter volume and total cortical surface area did not differ between groups. Cortical thickness in all lobes of the brain was greater in students from higher-income than lower-income backgrounds. Thicker cortex, particularly in temporal and occipital lobes, was associated with better test performance. These results represent the first evidence that cortical thickness differs across broad swaths of the brain between higher- and lower-income students, and that cortical thickness is related to academic achievement test scores. PMID:25896418

  1. Middle Income Undergraduates: Where They Enroll and How They Pay for Their Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Jennifer B.; Clery, Suzanne B.

    2001-01-01

    Profiles middle income undergraduates in comparison to their lower income and higher income counterparts, examines where middle income undergraduates enroll by price of attendance, and discusses how they pay for postsecondary education, including the role of financial aid. (Author)

  2. Low-Income and Minority Serving Institutions: Sustained Attention Needed to Improve Education's Oversight of Grant Programs. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives. GAO-10-659T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education has become more accessible than ever before, although students from some demographic groups still face challenges in attending college. To help improve access to higher education for minority and low-income students, Titles III and V of the Higher Education Act, as amended, provide grants to strengthen and support institutions…

  3. Maternal education mitigates the negative effects of higher income on the double burden of child stunting and maternal overweight in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Jef L; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; González de Cossío, Teresa; Ruel, Marie T

    2014-05-01

    Globally, the rate at which maternal overweight and obesity increase with rising wealth is higher than the accompanying decline in the prevalence of child stunting, resulting in the double burden of malnutrition. The positive association between household wealth and child linear growth is larger in households with a more educated mother. However, whether a similar positive and synergistic association between maternal education and household wealth is observed for maternal body weight is unknown. Our objective was to assess the potential protective role of maternal education in the etiology of the double burden of malnutrition (stunted child with an overweight mother). We used data on 1547 nonpregnant mothers (aged 18-49 y) and their children (aged 0-5 y) collected in a cross-sectional survey in 235 rural communities in southern Mexico. Child height-for-age Z-score and maternal body weight were regressed on household wealth, women's schooling, and the interaction between both, controlling for relevant covariates. A similar model was used for the prevalence of double-burden pairs (stunted child with an overweight mother). In mothers with less than primary school, a doubling in wealth was not associated with improved child's height but was associated with an increase in mother's weight (3.7%, P < 0.01). In mothers who had completed primary school, the reverse was found: a doubling in wealth score was associated with improved child height-for-age Z-score (0.32 SD, P < 0.01) but not with mother's weight. As a result, a 100% increase in wealth among households with less schooled mothers was associated with a 4.5 percentage point increase (P < 0.05) in double-burden pairs; in households with mothers with primary schooling or more, it was not associated with the occurrence of double-burden pairs. Maternal schooling effectively mitigated the negative effects of household wealth on the prevalence of double-burden households in rural Mexico. Where maternal schooling is low

  4. Getting past the blame game: Convergence and divergence in perceived threats to salmon resources among anglers and indigenous fishers in Canada's lower Fraser River.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Young, Nathan; Hinch, Scott G; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-09-01

    This article examines threat perception as a potential dimension of inter-group conflict over salmon fisheries in Canada's Fraser River watershed. Environmental changes and the entry of new user groups are putting pressure on both the resource and regulators, as well as threatening to exacerbate conflicts, notably between First Nation (indigenous) fishers and non-indigenous recreational anglers. While resource conflicts are often superficially conceptualized as cases of competing interests, we build on recent studies suggesting that conflicts are associated with deeper cognitive and perceptual differences among user groups. We report findings from 422 riverbank interviews with First Nation fishers and recreational anglers focusing on perceptions of threat to the fisheries. Responses reveal both substantial agreement and disagreement in threat perceptions between the two groups. These patterns provide a potential roadmap for consensus building, and suggest possible avenues for policy-makers to defuse the "blame game" that often dominates this type of conflict.

  5. Mercury contamination in Southern New England coastal fisheries and dietary habits of recreational anglers and their families: Implications to human health and issuance of consumption advisories.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David L; Williamson, Patrick R

    2017-01-15

    Total mercury (Hg) was measured in coastal fishes from Southern New England (RI, USA), and Hg exposure was estimated for anglers and family members that consumed these resources. Fish Hg was positively related to total length (n = 2028 across 7 fish species), and interspecies differences were evident among legally harvestable fish. Many recreational anglers and their families experienced excessively high Hg exposure rates, which was attributed to the enriched Hg content of frequently consumed fishes. Specifically, 51.5% of participants in this study had Hg exposures exceeding the US EPA reference dose, including 50.0% of women of childbearing years. These results are noteworthy given that Hg neurotoxicity occurs in adults and children from direct and prenatal low-dose exposure. Moreover, this study underscores the need for geographic-specific research that accounts for small-scale spatial variations in fish Hg and dietary habits of at-risk human populations.

  6. Paradoxical exploitation of protected fishes as bait for anglers: evaluating the Lamprey bait market in Europe and developing sustainable and ethical solutions.

    PubMed

    Foulds, William L; Lucas, Martyn C

    2014-01-01

    A reoccurring conservation problem is the resolution of consumptive use of threatened wildlife and is especially difficult to defend when it occurs for recreational practices. We explored the commercial capture and supply of threatened European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) to anglers, to determine the extent of exploitation and seek opportunities for improved conservation. The trade began in 1995 from England, but by 2012 involved sale of lamprey from England, The Netherlands and Estonia, including from protected populations. Lamprey are sold frozen for the capture of predatory fish, mostly in freshwater. In the year 2011/2012 9 tonnes (>90,000 lampreys) of river lamprey were supplied, almost exclusively to British anglers. Although annual catches in the main English lamprey fishery (River Ouse) have varied widely since 1995, catch per unit effort did not decline between 2000 and 2012. Conservation actions since 2011 have included a cap on fishing licenses, catch quotas and restricted fishing seasons. Now, 86% of lamprey bait is imported to Britain. Most bait sellers interviewed would not stock lamprey if they knew they were from threatened populations; many felt their trade would not be impacted if lamprey were not stocked. This facilitates opportunities to enter into dialogue with anglers over alternative baits to threatened lamprey. The study emphasises the need to inform stakeholders about conservation species subjected to market-driven exploitation.

  7. Paradoxical Exploitation of Protected Fishes As Bait for Anglers: Evaluating the Lamprey Bait Market in Europe and Developing Sustainable and Ethical Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, William L.; Lucas, Martyn C.

    2014-01-01

    A reoccurring conservation problem is the resolution of consumptive use of threatened wildlife and is especially difficult to defend when it occurs for recreational practices. We explored the commercial capture and supply of threatened European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) to anglers, to determine the extent of exploitation and seek opportunities for improved conservation. The trade began in 1995 from England, but by 2012 involved sale of lamprey from England, The Netherlands and Estonia, including from protected populations. Lamprey are sold frozen for the capture of predatory fish, mostly in freshwater. In the year 2011/2012 9 tonnes (>90,000 lampreys) of river lamprey were supplied, almost exclusively to British anglers. Although annual catches in the main English lamprey fishery (River Ouse) have varied widely since 1995, catch per unit effort did not decline between 2000 and 2012. Conservation actions since 2011 have included a cap on fishing licenses, catch quotas and restricted fishing seasons. Now, 86% of lamprey bait is imported to Britain. Most bait sellers interviewed would not stock lamprey if they knew they were from threatened populations; many felt their trade would not be impacted if lamprey were not stocked. This facilitates opportunities to enter into dialogue with anglers over alternative baits to threatened lamprey. The study emphasises the need to inform stakeholders about conservation species subjected to market-driven exploitation. PMID:24936643

  8. Money and happiness: rank of income, not income, affects life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Christopher J; Brown, Gordon D A; Moore, Simon C

    2010-04-01

    Does money buy happiness, or does happiness come indirectly from the higher rank in society that money brings? We tested a rank-income hypothesis, according to which people gain utility from the ranked position of their income within a comparison group. The rank hypothesis contrasts with traditional reference-income hypotheses, which suggest that utility from income depends on comparison to a social reference-group norm. We found that the ranked position of an individual's income predicts general life satisfaction, whereas absolute income and reference income have no effect. Furthermore, individuals weight upward comparisons more heavily than downward comparisons. According to the rank hypothesis, income and utility are not directly linked: Increasing an individual's income will increase his or her utility only if ranked position also increases and will necessarily reduce the utility of others who will lose rank.

  9. Low-Income and Minority Serving Institutions: Management Attention to Long-standing Concerns Needed to Improve Education's Oversight of Grant Programs. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives. GAO-09-309

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Institutions that serve large proportions of low-income and minority students may receive funding under Titles III and V of the Higher Education Act. In fiscal year 2008, $667 million in grants were awarded to over 500 institutions. GAO was asked to determine (1) the characteristics of institutions eligible to receive grants under Titles III and V…

  10. Income, education, and fertility.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    A study based on data from the National Impact Survey (1968-69) delineates the impact of family planning programs on the demography of Pakistan. Son preference was found to be a strong factor in deciding the desire for an additional child. Raising the status of women would decrease the fertility rate. In the rural areas higher income had a positive effect on fertility; in the urban areas it had a negative effect. Policies explicitly directed at actual distribution of income would have a positive effect. The educational level of the family, especially the wife, was related to lower family size. Families with at least one child in school had a lower completed family size. Couples who married later in life did not tend to have smaller families but smaller intervals between births. Rural nuclear families have more children than non-nuclear families or kinship groups, presumably because they need children for labor and old age security. Incentives and disincentives to motivate couples to limit family size should be offered by the Pakistan government.

  11. Childhood disablement and family incomes.

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, S; Godfrey, C; Staden, F

    1983-01-01

    Data on the incomes of families with a severely disabled child were obtained by replicating the Family Expenditure Survey. These data were compared with income data from a control group of families with children, drawn from the FES for the same period. The participation rates, hours, and earnings of the women with a disabled child were all found to be substantially lower than those of women in the control group, differences between the samples increasing with the age of the youngest child. The earnings of men with a disabled child were also lower than those of men in the control group, though differences were more pronounced among non-manual workers. Loss of parental earnings was not made good by social security benefits paid on account of disablement. In general the incomes of the families with a disabled child were lower than those of the control families, the magnitude of the differences increasing with family income and the age of the youngest child. Nevertheless, one group of families with a disabled child--manual workers whose youngest child was under 5--had slightly higher incomes than similar families in the control group. PMID:6225819

  12. Sheltering Retirement Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, E. Lewis; Cash, L. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Eligibility for an IRA has been severely changed by the Tax Reform Act of 1986. In 1987 educators who have a retirement plan administered by their employer will face new eligibility rules. For self-employment income, a Keogh plan is an excellent way to shelter income and provide retirement income. (MLW)

  13. Fish consumption among women anglers of childbearing age in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Bruce Lauber, T; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Fish consumption advisories are issued by the federal government for women of childbearing age (WCBA). These advisories make recommendations about the amount and types of fish that should be consumed to provide the greatest health benefits to women and their children while avoiding risks from chemical contaminants. We used diary methods to study fish consumption patterns of 1395 WCBA in the Great Lakes coastal region who purchased fishing licenses, a group which has significant opportunity to eat larger quantities of fish. Very few members of this group reported exceeding the federal recommendations for total fish consumption (between 3% and 5% depending on assumptions about portion sizes), consumption of canned "white" tuna (0%), or consumption of "do not eat" species (4%). They did report eating more fish on average than recent national study estimates, but they did not report consuming as much fish as is recommended to obtain the greatest health benefits of fish consumption. Only 10-12% of study participants reported eating within the recommended range of 8-12oz. of fish per week, with 84-87% eating less than the recommended amount. Additional efforts are likely needed to encourage WCBA to eat more low-risk fish, even among this group of higher-than-average fish consumers.

  14. The Income Generation Handbook: A Practical Guide for Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David; Leonard, Charles

    This book sets out the British policy context and theoretical framework for income generation by institutions of higher education and provides practical guidance in this area. Income generation is defined as all income generated over and above the core funding provided by an institution's primary funding body. Chapter 1 offers an overview of…

  15. Family Income, School Attendance, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and…

  16. Income Inequality Is Associated with Stronger Social Comparison Effects: The Effect of Relative Income on Life Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Felix; Lucas, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that having rich neighbors is associated with reduced levels of subjective well-being, an effect that is likely due to social comparison. The current study examined the role of income inequality as a moderator of this relative income effect. Multilevel analyses were conducted on a sample of over 1.7 million people from 2,425 counties in the United States. Results showed that higher income inequality was associated with stronger relative income effects. In other words, people were more strongly influenced by the income of their neighbors when income inequality was high. PMID:26191957

  17. Academic Performance Gaps and Family Income in a Rural Elementary School: Perceptions of Low-Income Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renth, Beth A.; Buckley, Phillip; Puchner, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of research has been conducted regarding reasons for the achievement gap between low income students and higher income students, but there is limited research regarding parental perspectives, and particularly fewer studies of parental perceptions of low-income, rural elementary school parents. This study examined the extent to which…

  18. Volunteering, income and health

    PubMed Central

    Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income. PMID:28273163

  19. Are Public Subsidies to Higher Education Regressive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William R.

    2006-01-01

    This article estimates the dollar amount of public higher education subsidies received by U.S. youth and examines the distribution of subsidies and the taxes that finance them across parental and student income levels. Although youths from high-income families obtain more benefit from higher education subsidies, high-income households pay…

  20. Visceral anatomy of ocean sunfish (Mola mola (L., 1758), Molidae, Tetraodontiformes) and angler (Lophius piscatorius (L., 1758), Lophiidae, Lophiiformes) investigated by non-invasive imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Chanet, Bruno; Guintard, Claude; Boisgard, Thierry; Fusellier, Marion; Tavernier, Cédric; Betti, Eric; Madec, Stéphane; Richaudeau, Yvan; Raphaël, Christian; Dettaï, Agnès; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine the gross visceral anatomy of ocean sunfish and angler using non-invasive imaging techniques: computed tomography imaging (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Similarities and differences in the internal organisation of these two species are verified. Both species lack a swimbladder and present a significant asymmetry in the hepatic lobes, an elongated bile duct terminating close to the stomach, a compact thyroid embedded in a blood lacuna, and very reduced brain and spinal cord. These observations are important in regard to the close relationships between Tetraodontiformes and Lophiiformes, established by several molecular works, but not yet confirmed by morpho-anatomical data. However the occurrence of these features has to be examined in other taxa before phylogenetic hypotheses are proposed.

  1. Consumption of Lake Ontario sport fish and the incidence of colorectal cancer in the New York State Angler Cohort Study (NYSACS).

    PubMed

    Callahan, Catherine L; Vena, John E; Green, Joseph; Swanson, Mya; Mu, Lina; Bonner, Matthew R

    2017-04-01

    Fish consumption is hypothesized to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Nonetheless, consuming sport fish from the Great Lakes increases exposure to certain persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine insecticides, which may increase the risk of cancer. Evidence that exposure to persistent organic pollutants is associated with colorectal cancer is sparse. We examined colorectal cancer incidence in the New York State Angler Cohort Study (NYSACS), a prospective cohort of 17,110 anglers and spouses age 18-40 years at enrollment. In 1991, participants completed a mailed self-administered questionnaire that ascertained the number of years that fish from Lake Ontario were consumed, as well as potential confounders. Forty-one histologically confirmed first primary incident colorectal cancers diagnosed as of December 31, 2008 were identified via the New York State Cancer Registry. Vital status was ascertained by linkage with the Social Security Administration Death File. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with Poisson regression, adjusting for age, pack-years of smoking, and sex. Compared with never consumers, colorectal cancer incidence was statistically non-significantly lower among consumers of Lake Ontario sport fish (RR=0.66; 95% CI: 0.35; 1.24). Incidence of colon cancer was lower among Lake Ontario sport fish consumers (RR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.20; 1.00). We did not observe any evidence of effect measure modification by sex or age. Although consumption of Lake Ontario sport fish may have an inverse association with colorectal cancer risk, inferences are complicated by a small number of cases and a lack of information regarding potential confounders including other dietary factors. However, our results do not provide support for the hypothesis that consumption of contaminated sport fish increases the risk of colorectal cancer.

  2. Income Elasticity Literature Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income grow...

  3. Does a Quality Improvement Intervention for Anxiety Result in Differential Outcomes for Lower Income Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy; Chavira, Denise A.; Craske, Michelle G.; Gollineli, Daniela; Han, Xiaotong; Rose, Raphael D.; Bystritsky, Alexander; Stein, Murray B.; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of a collaborative care intervention for anxiety disorders in primary care on lower income participants relative to those with higher incomes. The authors hypothesized that lower income patients might show less improvement or improve at a lower rate given that they experience greater economic stress over the treatment course. Alternatively, lower income patients could improve at a higher rate because the intervention facilitates access to evidence-based treatment, which typically is less available to persons with lower incomes. Method The authors compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with lower (n=287) and higher (n=717) income using t-tests and chi-square tests for continuous and categorical variables respectively. For the longitudinal analysis of intervention effects by income group, the authors jointly modeled the outcomes at the four assessment times by study site; income; time; intervention; time and intervention; income and time; income and intervention; and time, intervention and income. Results Although lower-income participants were more ill and disabled at baseline than those in the higher income group, the two income groups were very similar in their clinical response. The lower income participants experienced a comparable degree of clinical improvement, despite receiving fewer treatment sessions, less relapse prevention, and less continuous care. Conclusions These findings contribute to the ongoing discussion as to whether or not, and to what extent, quality improvement interventions work equally well across income groups or require tailoring for specific vulnerable populations. PMID:23377641

  4. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. Economic Research Report Number 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the effectiveness of the safety net that USDA food assistance programs provide low-income families. This study examines income volatility among households with children and the implications of volatility for eligibility in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The results show that income volatility was higher for…

  5. Income Generation Activities among Academic Staffs at Malaysian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Abd Rahman; Soon, Ng Kim; Ting, Ngeoh Pei

    2015-01-01

    Income generation activities have been acquainted among public higher education institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia. Various factors that brought to insufficient of funding caused Higher Education Institutions(HEIs) to seek for additional income as to support the operation expenses. Financial sustainability issues made up the significant impact…

  6. Income diversification and risk for fishermen

    PubMed Central

    Kasperski, Stephen; Holland, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Catches and prices from many fisheries exhibit high interannual variability, leading to variability in the income derived by fishery participants. The economic risk posed by this may be mitigated in some cases if individuals participate in several different fisheries, particularly if revenues from those fisheries are uncorrelated or vary asynchronously. We construct indices of gross income diversification from fisheries at the level of individual vessels and find that the income of the current fleet of vessels on the US West Coast and in Alaska is less diverse than at any point in the past 30 y. We also find a dome-shaped relationship between the variability of individuals' income and income diversification, which implies that a small amount of diversification does not reduce income risk but that higher levels of diversification can substantially reduce the variability of income from fishing. Moving from a single fishery strategy to a 50-25-25 split in revenues reduces the expected coefficient of variation of gross revenues between 24% and 65% for the vessels included in this study. The increasing access restrictions in many marine fisheries through license reductions and moratoriums have the potential to limit fishermen's ability to diversify their income risk across multiple fisheries. Catch share programs often result in consolidation initially and may reduce diversification. However, catch share programs also make it feasible for fishermen to build a portfolio of harvest privileges and potentially reduce their income risk. Therefore, catch share programs create both threats and opportunities for fishermen wishing to maintain diversified fishing strategies. PMID:23341621

  7. Tobacco Control Progress in Low and Middle Income Countries in Comparison to High Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Carrie L.; Becher, Heiko; Winkler, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to describe worldwide levels and trends of tobacco control policy by comparing low and middle income countries with other income categories from 2007 to 2014 and to analyze the corresponding relation to recent changes in smoking prevalence. Policy measure data representing years 2007 to 2014 were collected from all available World Health Organization (WHO) reports on the global tobacco epidemic. Corresponding policy percentage scores (PS) were calculated based on MPOWER measures. Age-standardized smoking prevalence data for years 2010 and 2015 were collected from the WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository. Trends of PS were analysed with respect to WHO region and OECD country income category. Scatter plots and regression analysis were used to depict the relationship between tobacco control policy of 2010 and change in smoking prevalence between 2015 and 2010 by sex and income category. Combined PS for all countries increased significantly from 47% in 2007 to 61% by 2014 (p < 0.001). When grouped by income category and region, policies were strengthened in all categories, albeit with varying progression. By 2014, tobacco control policy legislation had reached 45% in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), 59% in Low Middle Income Countries (LMICs), 66% in Upper Middle Income Countries (UMICs) and 70% in High Income Countries (HICs). Overall, there was a negative relationship between higher policy scores and change in smoking prevalence. Although policy strengthening had been conducted between 2007 and 2014, room for considerable global improvement remains, particularly in LDCs. PMID:27783060

  8. Release method and anatomical hook location: effects on short-term mortality of angler-caught Acanthopagrus australis and Argyrosomus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Paul A; Broadhurst, Matt K; Reynolds, Darren; Reid, Dennis D; Gray, Charles A

    2007-02-08

    One field and 3 aquaria experiments were done to quantify the short-term mortality of yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis and mulloway Argyrosomus japonicus after being angled and subjected to 3 general handling treatments. Anglers were supplied with identical J-type hooks and asked to handle hooked fish by either (1) physically removing the hook or (2) cutting the line (5 cm from the mouth of the fish) and leaving the hook in. Some hooked A. japonicus were subjected to a third handling treatment where the line was cut underwater without exposing the fish to air. Technical and biological data were collected before all fish were released into sea cages and monitored for 5 d. Control fish were seined and similarly caged and monitored. Concentrations of plasma glucose and cortisol were collected from a sample of fish on the first and last day of the experiments. Significant predictors of mortality for both species involved the presence of blood at the mouth and an interaction between anatomical hook location and hook removal. A. australis and A. japonicus that had their ingested hooks removed experienced the greatest mortalities (87.5 and 72.7%, respectively). Typically, these fish suffered damage to their oesophagus, stomach wall and vital organs. Mortality rates of A. australis and A. japonicus were significantly decreased to 1.7 and 16%, respectively, when they were released with their lines cut, with some of these fish free of hooks after 5 d. In contrast, few mortalities occurred in either species when the hooks were removed or the lines cut on mouth-hooked fish or in A. japonicus when it was released with no air exposure. For A. australis, the field- and aquaria-based experiments provided comparable results in terms of identifying treatment-specific effects, but there were potential biases in rates of hook ingestion. Irrespective of the treatment of fish, all experiments caused physiological changes measured as elevations in either plasma cortisol or glucose

  9. Income Mobility Breeds Tolerance for Income Inequality: Cross-National and Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Azim F; Wiwad, Dylan; Aknin, Lara B

    2016-05-01

    American politicians often justify income inequality by referencing the opportunities people have to move between economic stations. Though past research has shown associations between income mobility and resistance to wealth redistribution policies, no experimental work has tested whether perceptions of mobility influence tolerance for inequality. In this article, we present a cross-national comparison showing that income mobility is associated with tolerance for inequality and experimental work demonstrating that perceptions of higher mobility directly affect attitudes toward inequality. We find support for both the prospect of upward mobility and the view that peoples' economic station is the product of their own efforts, as mediating mechanisms.

  10. Income and Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    We examine how income is associated with the home environments and the cognitive and behavioral development of pre-school children, using data from a birth cohort study of children born at the end of the 20th century. Lower-income 3-year-old children are more likely than wealthier children to live in homes with inadequate physical environments and to have mothers who are more likely to be stressed, depressed, harsh and unresponsive. Additionally, low income children have lower PPVT scores, more mother-reported aggressive, withdrawn, and anxious behavior problems, and also more interviewer-reported problems with behavior, than more affluent children. A key policy question is whether increases in the incomes of poor families would result in improvements in children’s outcomes, at least in part through improvements in the home environment. This question is difficult to answer using observational data. However, we argue that, even under the most generous interpretation of the associations we estimate, large income transfer programs would have relatively small effects on children’s cognitive and behavioral outcomes. PMID:20368763

  11. Spontaneous fetal death among multigravid fertile women in relation to sport fish consumption and PCB exposure, New York State Angler Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mendola, P.

    1994-01-01

    Spontaneous fetal death, a sentinel event for environmental reproductive toxicity, has been observed among various mammalian species following polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure. This exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between PCB exposure due to consumption of contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death. Using 1,820 women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Study, fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and reproductive histories from live birth certificates. A reliability study demonstrated an excellent level of agreement between the exact number of spontaneous fetal deaths recorded on the birth certificate compared with telephone interview data (kappa = 0.83). Women who had never eaten Lake Ontario sport fish were unexposed (n = 979) and 841 women reported various levels of exposure. Analyses were stratified by maternal gravidity and controlled for smoking status and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for spontaneous fetal death were seen for any estimate of PCB exposure including lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels, years of fish consumption, and kilograms of fish consumed, either in the 1990-1991 season or in a lifetime estimate. The only significant finding was a slight risk reduction for women of gravidity three or more with years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; p = 0.03; 95% confidence interval = 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that PCB exposure from contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death.

  12. Schooling and Income Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Alan; Psacharopoulos, George

    1976-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between years of schooling and income distribution, based on human capital theory. (Available from North-Holland Publishing Company, P.O. Box 211, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; $13.50 annually, plus $4.00 postage and handling) (JG)

  13. Annual Income Tax Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    An income tax guide is presented to aid families with certain aspects of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 that specifically affect disabled persons and their families. Among items covered are personal and standard deductions, the additional standard deduction, deduction for dependents, deductions for medical expenses, and tax credits. (Author/DB)

  14. Income Tax Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Darryl Lee

    2006-01-01

    Every year at this time millions of Americans scramble to file or extend their income tax returns. This article explores some of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) sections that might affect (or relate to) the taxation of parents of disabled or special healthcare needs children. Many of these tax provisions also apply to parents with adult children…

  15. The Middle Income Squeeze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Steve

    1978-01-01

    Complaints about a middle income family's hardships in sending their children to private colleges and universities are examined. The difficulty may be attributable to a progressive College Scholarship Service (CSS) taxation rate schedule that causes larger proportionate reductions in the standard of living for some families than others.…

  16. 34 CFR 74.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Program income. 74.24 Section 74.24 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial...

  17. 34 CFR 74.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Program income. 74.24 Section 74.24 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial...

  18. 34 CFR 74.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 74.24 Section 74.24 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial...

  19. 40 CFR 30.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Program income. 30.24 Section 30.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  20. 40 CFR 30.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Program income. 30.24 Section 30.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  1. 40 CFR 30.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Program income. 30.24 Section 30.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  2. Jobs, Income, and Work: Ruinous Trends, Urgent Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sklar, Holly

    This book examines recent trends in the areas of jobs, income, and work. Among the trends discussed are the following: upward redistribution of wealth; persistent impoverishment; less disposable income; lower wages and higher education; union-free labor and increasing numbers of "disposable" workers; competition for global corporations…

  3. Educational Expansion and Educational Inequality on Income Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kang H.

    1996-01-01

    Examines educational variables' effects on income distribution, using cross-sectional data covering 59 countries. Empirical results show that a higher level of educational attainment in the labor force has an equalizing effect on income distribution; the larger the dispersion of educational attainment among the workforce, the greater the income…

  4. An Introduction to Annuity, Life Income, and Bequest Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunseth, William B.

    Deferred giving in higher education is the practice of making a gift to an institution during one's lifetime while continuing to receive income from that donated asset. The history of the practice and the reasons for its value to donors and institutions are outlined. Options for annuity and life income plans are discussed: gift annuity, deferred…

  5. Estimating the Effect of Income on Health and Mortality Using Lottery Prizes as an Exogenous Source of Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    A new approach is presented to analyze if there is a causal effect or relationship between income and measures of good health and life expectancy. One of the findings is that winning monetary lotteries could improve general health by 3 percent and decreased probability of death within five years by 2-3 percentage points. Higher income by 10…

  6. Changes in the incomes of age groups, 1984-89.

    PubMed

    Radner, D B

    1991-12-01

    In terms of changes in the incomes of age groups, the 1984-89 period was very different from the periods that immediately preceded it. This summary focuses on changes for aged family units. During the 1984-89 period, the rate of growth of real median income of aged units was substantially lower than in other subperiods since 1967, the first year for which comparable detailed estimates are available. During the 1984-89 period, the ratio of aged to nonaged median incomes fell for 4 consecutive years, after generally rising since about 1970. The relative medians of almost all detailed aged age groups fell at least slightly from 1984 to 1989, after a period of substantial rises. The increases in income for aged units during 1984-89 were higher for high-income units than for low-income units, producing an increase in inequality. The percentage of aged persons who were poor fell slightly from 1984 to 1989, but that percentage remained above the rates for other adult age groups. A relatively high percentage of aged persons had income that was less than 50 percent above the poverty threshold. The increase in the real mean total income of aged units from 1984 to 1989 was the net result of substantial increases in earnings and pension income and a substantial decrease in property income. In contrast, the much larger increase in real mean total income for aged units from 1979 to 1984 was characterized by a large increase in property income, substantial increases in Social Security benefits and pension income, and a small decrease in earnings.

  7. Income inequality in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Ravallion, Martin

    2014-05-23

    Should income inequality be of concern in developing countries? New data reveal less income inequality in the developing world than 30 years ago. However, this is due to falling inequality between countries. Average inequality within developing countries has been slowly rising, though staying fairly flat since 2000. As a rule, higher rates of growth in average incomes have not put upward pressure on inequality within countries. Growth has generally helped reduce the incidence of absolute poverty, but less so in more unequal countries. High inequality also threatens to stall future progress against poverty by attenuating growth prospects. Perceptions of rising absolute gaps in living standards between the rich and the poor in growing economies are also consistent with the evidence.

  8. 20 CFR 627.450 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definition of program income. (1) Program income means income received by the recipient or subrecipient that... for copyrighted material, patents, patent applications, trademarks, and inventions developed by...

  9. An Analysis of Arizona Individual Income Tax-Credit Scholarship Recipients' Family Income, 2009-10 School Year. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper. PEPG 10-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Vicki E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the "East Valley Tribune and the Arizona Republic" alleged that Arizona's individual income tax-credit scholarship program disproportionately serves privileged students from higher-income families over those from lower-income backgrounds. Yet neither paper collected the student-level, scholarship recipient family income data…

  10. Geographic Effects on Intergenerational Income Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Jonathan; Massey, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    The notion that where one grows up affects future living standards is increasingly well established in social science. Yet research on intergenerational economic mobility often ignores the regional and neighborhood context of childhood, especially local purchasing power. We hypothesize that unexplained variation in intergenerational mobility is partly attributable to regional and neighborhood conditions—most notably access to high quality schools. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and other data, we find that neighborhood income has roughly half the effect on future earnings as parental income and roughly the same effect as shared sibling characteristics. Growing up in an economically segregated metropolitan area also has a large negative effect on future earnings, though somewhat smaller than the neighborhood effect. We estimate that lifetime household income would be $500,000 dollars higher if people born into a bottom quartile neighborhood would have been raised in a top quartile neighborhood. These results are robust to considerations of regional purchasing power and migration between metro areas. Finally, we replicate the results for economic segregation at the metropolitan level using aggregated metropolitan level statistics of intergenerational income elasticities based on millions of IRS records. PMID:27440944

  11. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  12. Launching Low-Income Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laney, Kahliah

    2013-01-01

    With middle-income jobs in decline, entrepreneurship offers an increasingly promising pathway out of poverty; but few low-income New Yorkers are currently taking this route to economic self-sufficiency. This report provides the most comprehensive examination of low-income entrepreneurship in New York. The report documents current self-employment…

  13. Income and Well-Being: Relative Income and Absolute Income Weaken Negative Emotion, but Only Relative Income Improves Positive Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zonghuo; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Whether relative income or absolute income could affect subjective well-being has been a bone of contention for years. Life satisfaction and the relative frequency of positive and negative emotions are parts of subjective well-being. According to the prospect theory, hedonic adaptation helps to explain why positive emotion is often so hard to be maintained, and negative emotion wouldn’t be easy to be eliminated. So we expect the relationship between income and positive emotion is different from that between income and negative emotion. Given that regional reference is the main comparison mechanism, effects of regional average income on regional average subjective well-being should be potentially zero if only relative income matters. Using multilevel analysis, we tested the hypotheses with a dataset of 30,144 individuals from 162 counties in China. The results suggested that household income at the individual level is associated with life satisfaction, happiness and negative emotions. On the contrary, at a county level, household income is only associated with negative emotion. In other words, happiness and life satisfaction was only associated with relative income, but negative emotion was associated with relative income and absolute income. Without social comparison, income doesn’t improve happiness, but it could weaken negative emotion. Therefore, it is possible for economic growth to weaken negative emotion without improving happiness. These findings also contribute to the current debate about the “Esterling paradox.” PMID:28066312

  14. Income and Well-Being: Relative Income and Absolute Income Weaken Negative Emotion, but Only Relative Income Improves Positive Emotion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zonghuo; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Whether relative income or absolute income could affect subjective well-being has been a bone of contention for years. Life satisfaction and the relative frequency of positive and negative emotions are parts of subjective well-being. According to the prospect theory, hedonic adaptation helps to explain why positive emotion is often so hard to be maintained, and negative emotion wouldn't be easy to be eliminated. So we expect the relationship between income and positive emotion is different from that between income and negative emotion. Given that regional reference is the main comparison mechanism, effects of regional average income on regional average subjective well-being should be potentially zero if only relative income matters. Using multilevel analysis, we tested the hypotheses with a dataset of 30,144 individuals from 162 counties in China. The results suggested that household income at the individual level is associated with life satisfaction, happiness and negative emotions. On the contrary, at a county level, household income is only associated with negative emotion. In other words, happiness and life satisfaction was only associated with relative income, but negative emotion was associated with relative income and absolute income. Without social comparison, income doesn't improve happiness, but it could weaken negative emotion. Therefore, it is possible for economic growth to weaken negative emotion without improving happiness. These findings also contribute to the current debate about the "Esterling paradox."

  15. Valuation of safety under reference-dependent evaluation of income.

    PubMed

    Robles-Zurita, José Antonio

    2015-06-01

    We analyze data of a Spanish nationally-representative survey where subjects reported their willingness to pay (WTP) for road safety improvements, specifically they hypothetically paid for a reduction of the risk of a road fatality and several injuries. Respondents also reported their current income (CI) and permanent income (PI). The latter refers to their normal income once they considered various stages of low/high earnings throughout their entire lives. Consequently, we define relative income as the comparison of CI with respect to PI. Three income frames are generated as explanatory variables: gain (with CI>PI); neutral (with CI=PI); and loss scenario (with CIincome, and on a set of characteristics, those respondents in gain frame reported higher WTP than those in neutral and loss scenario. Further analysis shows that the income frames effect is higher and more significant for the older half-sample (>45), being about three or four times higher than for the younger subset. Possible interpretations of the role of PI as a reference point are considered given the results. A reference-dependent utility function of income, where PI is the reference point, is proposed to describe the monetary valuation of safety within the theoretical framework previously developed in the safety economics literature.

  16. Seasonal migration of the starry smooth-hound shark Mustelus asterias as revealed from tag-recapture data of an angler-led tagging programme.

    PubMed

    Brevé, N W P; Winter, H V; Van Overzee, H M J; Farrell, E D; Walker, P A

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this long-term angler-led tagging programme was to gain information about seasonal changes in distribution of the starry smooth-hound shark Mustelus asterias, along the Dutch coast for management and conservation purposes. Between 2011 and 2014, M. asterias comprised 92·6% (n = 2418) of the total elasmobranch catch (n = 2612) by the licenced group of taggers within the Dutch Delta of which 2244 M. asterias were fin-tagged with plastic rototags. Sex and total length (LT ) composition inside the eastern tidal basin (Oosterschelde) were significantly different, i.e. more females and larger individuals, than outside indicating a pupping ground, which was confirmed by the capture of 30 newborn pups (≤32 cm). The distribution pattern of reported recaptured M. asterias (return-rate 3·6%, n = 80) showed a circannual migration between summering in the southern North Sea and wintering in the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay, and suggests that M. asterias is philopatric. The Dutch angling season for M. asterias runs from approximately mid-May to mid-October when the water temperature is above 13° C. Recaptures of eight mature females, but no males in the Bay of Biscay, indicate partial spatial segregation by sex, where mature females migrate over larger distances than immature females and males. These observations, with the absence of recaptures in other known summering areas (i.e. the Irish Sea and Bristol Channel), suggest that the southern North Sea is used by a separate population. Implications for management and recommendations to improve and expand the study approach are discussed.

  17. 42 CFR 447.56 - Income-related charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.56 Income-related charges. Subject to the maximum..., coinsurance or co-payment charges. For example, an agency may impose a higher charge on medically...

  18. 42 CFR 447.56 - Income-related charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.56 Income-related charges. Subject to the maximum..., coinsurance or co-payment charges. For example, an agency may impose a higher charge on medically...

  19. 42 CFR 447.56 - Income-related charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.56 Income-related charges. Subject to the maximum..., coinsurance or co-payment charges. For example, an agency may impose a higher charge on medically...

  20. 42 CFR 447.56 - Income-related charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.56 Income-related charges. Subject to the maximum..., coinsurance or co-payment charges. For example, an agency may impose a higher charge on medically...

  1. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  2. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  3. [Income as a condition of self care in the aged].

    PubMed

    Pfaff, A B

    1982-01-01

    The current type of distribution of tasks between the generations leads to a system of income maintenance programs for the aged, which is based on their own past (largely statutory) provision for their old age income via public institutions. On the whole, the aged are to a very limited degree in the labor force. Most of them receive public transfer payments. On the average, the diverse income maintenance systems dependent on own past performance provide a fairly substantial income level when compared with wages and salaries. The transfer level is largely dependent on the type of old age security institution, on the extent of past labor force participation or contribution and past income; consequently it is quite diverse. Sex largely correlates with income differentials. While some groups end up with retirement incomes higher than their last wage income, others are definitely needy. Especially women constitute a substantial part of the poor. Besides low income, the danger of becoming a nursing case makes the aged dependent on other persons' or institutions' aid. The forthcoming reform of the public pension system shows little hope of eliminating the pockets of poverty among the aged by assuring a redistribution also among the aged.

  4. Reductions in Disability Prevalence Among the Highest Income Groups of Older Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kara; Henley, William; Lang, Iain A.; Melzer, David

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify the income–disability prevalence relationship among older Brazilians. Methods. Data were from 63 985 individuals 60 years and older from the 1998 and 2003 Brazilian National Household Surveys. Generalized additive logistic models with cubic regression splines were used to estimate the disability–income relationships. Results. There was a strong linear relationship between increased income and reduced disability prevalence for most of the income distribution. Benefits were still present above the 90th percentile of income but were more modest. Because incomes among the wealthiest few are disproportionately large, odds ratios of disability nevertheless showed marked improvements, even across the very highest income groups. Conclusions. Among older Brazilians, reduced disability is associated with higher income, and these associations are present even above the 90th percentile of income. In addition to understanding mechanisms of disability reduction among impoverished individuals, work is needed to understand these mechanisms in middle- and high-income groups. PMID:19008509

  5. Plan for Everyone: The Involvement of Low Income and Minority Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The monograph by the National Association for Retarded Citizens (NARC) examines issues relevant to the involvement of low income and minority groups in mental retardation programs. It is stressed that a child in a low income family is more likely to be retarded than a child from a higher income family and that this interrelationship perpetuates a…

  6. Lifetime income patterns and alcohol consumption: investigating the association between long- and short-term income trajectories and drinking.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki D; Galea, Sandro

    2011-10-01

    Lifetime patterns of income may be an important driver of alcohol use. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between long-term and short-term measures of income and the relative odds of abstaining, drinking lightly-moderately and drinking heavily. We used data from the US Panel Study on Income Dynamics (PSID), a national population-based cohort that has been followed annually or biannually since 1968. We examined 3111 adult respondents aged 30-44 in 1997. Latent class growth mixture models with a censored normal distribution were used to estimate income trajectories followed by the respondent families from 1968 to 1997, while repeated measures multinomial generalized logit models estimated the odds of abstinence (no drinks per day) or heavy drinking (at least 3 drinks a day), relative to light/moderate drinking (<1-2 drinks a day), in 1999-2003. Lower income was associated with higher odds of abstinence and of heavy drinking, relative to light/moderate drinking. For example, belonging to a household with stable low income ($11-20,000) over 30 years was associated with 1.57 odds of abstinence, and 2.14 odds of heavy drinking in adulthood. The association between lifetime income patterns and alcohol use decreased in magnitude and became non-significant once we controlled for past-year income, education and occupation. Lifetime income patterns may have an indirect association with alcohol use, mediated through current socioeconomic conditions.

  7. 24 CFR 570.504 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 570.504 Section 570... income. (a) Recording program income. The receipt and expenditure of program income as defined in § 570... of program income received by recipients. (1) Program income received before grant closeout may...

  8. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  9. 7 CFR 277.10 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 277.10 Section 277.10 Agriculture... § 277.10 Program income. (a) Program income is gross income resulting from activities financed with program funds. Such earnings exclude interest income but include income from service fees, usage or...

  10. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  11. 24 CFR 570.504 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Program income. 570.504 Section 570... income. (a) Recording program income. The receipt and expenditure of program income as defined in § 570... of program income received by recipients. (1) Program income received before grant closeout may...

  12. 7 CFR 277.10 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program income. 277.10 Section 277.10 Agriculture... § 277.10 Program income. (a) Program income is gross income resulting from activities financed with program funds. Such earnings exclude interest income but include income from service fees, usage or...

  13. 43 CFR 12.65 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.65 Program income. (a) General. Grantees... interest earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income... program income. Program income shall be deducted from outlays which may be both Federal and non-Federal...

  14. Race, gender and the econophysics of income distribution in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Anwar; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos; Wiener, Noe

    2014-12-01

    The econophysics “two-class” theory of Yakovenko and his co-authors shows that the distribution of labor incomes is roughly exponential. This paper extends this result to US subgroups categorized by gender and race. It is well known that Males have higher average incomes than Females, and Whites have higher average incomes than African-Americans. It is also evident that social policies can affect these income gaps. Our surprising finding is that nonetheless intra-group distributions of pre-tax labor incomes are remarkably similar and remain close to exponential. This suggests that income inequality can be usefully addressed by taxation policies, and overall income inequality can be modified by also shifting the balance between labor and property incomes.

  15. Retirement Wealth, Income, and Decision Making in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, W. Cris

    1996-01-01

    Retirement programs for college faculty are evaluated in terms of both their wealth-creation attributes and the incentives they provide for retirement. Wealth accumulation and relative cash flow from working compared to retirement are evaluated at various ages under alternative assumptions about rates of return and contribution rates. The nature…

  16. Health and social cohesion: why care about income inequality?

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, I.; Kennedy, B. P.

    1997-01-01

    Throughout the world, wealth and income are becoming more concentrated. Growing evidence suggests that the distribution of income-in addition to the absolute standard of living enjoyed by the poor-is a key determinant of population health. A large gap between rich people and poor people leads to higher mortality through the breakdown of social cohesion. The recent surge in income inequality in many countries has been accompanied by a marked increase in the residential concentration of poverty and affluence. Residential segregation diminishes the opportunities for social cohesion. Income inequality has spillover effects on society at large, including increased rates of crime and violence, impeded productivity and economic growth, and the impaired functioning of representative democracy. The extent of inequality in society is often a consequence of explicit policies and public choice. Reducing income inequality offers the prospect of greater social cohesiveness and better population health. PMID:9112854

  17. Modelling Nonlinearities and Reference Dependence in General Practitioners' Income Preferences.

    PubMed

    Holte, Jon Helgheim; Sivey, Peter; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2016-08-01

    This paper tests for the existence of nonlinearity and reference dependence in income preferences for general practitioners. Confirming the theory of reference dependent utility within the context of a discrete choice experiment, we find that losses loom larger than gains in income for Norwegian general practitioners, i.e. they value losses from their current income level around three times higher than the equivalent gains. Our results are validated by comparison with equivalent contingent valuation values for marginal willingness to pay and marginal willingness to accept compensation for changes in job characteristics. Physicians' income preferences determine the effectiveness of 'pay for performance' and other incentive schemes. Our results may explain the relative ineffectiveness of financial incentive schemes that rely on increasing physicians' incomes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  19. The epidemiology of developmental disabilities in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Maureen

    2002-01-01

    Although most of the world's children live in developing countries and may be at high risk for disability, very little is known about the prevalence and causes of developmental disabilities in these countries. This paper discusses methodological difficulties contributing to this lack of knowledge, and provides an overview of what is known about the epidemiology of developmental disabilities in low-income countries. At least some forms of developmental disability appear to be more common in low-income countries than in wealthier countries, despite the probability of higher mortality among children with disabilities in low-income countries. For example, most studies of severe mental retardation in low-income countries report prevalences greater than 5 per 1,000 children, while prevalence estimates from industrialized countries are consistently below this. Major risk factors for developmental disabilities in some low-income countries include specific genetic diseases, a higher frequency of births to older mothers, consanguinity, and specific micronutrient deficiencies and infections. Trauma and toxic exposures are also important risk factors, but their contributions to the etiology of developmental disabilities in low-income countries are not well documented. Though many of the causes of developmental disabilities are understood and preventable, proven methods of prevention are not being fully implemented in developing countries. Epidemiologic studies are needed to raise awareness of the public health impacts of developmental disabilities in low-income countries and to provide a basis for setting priorities and designing efficient interventions.

  20. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p < .005) decrease heroin daily purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior.

  1. Taxation of Social Security benefits under the new income tax provisions: distributional estimates for 1994.

    PubMed

    Pattison, D

    1994-01-01

    The 1993 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act raised the proportion of benefits includable in income for the Federal personal income tax. This article presents estimates of the income-distributional effects of the new provision in 1994, the first year for which it is effective. Under the pre-1993 law, up to 50 percent of benefits were included in taxable income for certain high-income beneficiaries. Under the new law, some of these beneficiaries are required to include an even higher proportion of benefits--up to 85 percent. Only 11 percent of beneficiary families, concentrated in the top three deciles by family income, include more of their benefits in taxable income under the new law than they would have under the old law. Another 8 percent include the same amount of benefits under either. The remaining beneficiary families, more than 80 percent, include no benefits in taxable income under either the old law or the new.

  2. Relationships Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Psychopathology as Moderated by Income

    PubMed Central

    Sanacora, Rachel L.; Whiting, Seth W.; Pilver, Corey E.; Hoff, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Problem and pathological gambling have been associated with elevated rates of both Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders. Although both problem gambling and psychiatric disorders have been reported as being more prevalent among lower income vs. middle/higher income groups, how income might moderate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology is incompletely understood. To examine the associations between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in lower income and middle/higher income groups. Methods Data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed in adjusted logistic regression models to investigate the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders within and across income groups. Results Greater problem-gambling severity was associated with increased odds of multiple psychiatric disorders for both lower income and middle/higher income groups. Income moderated the association between problem/pathological gambling and alcohol abuse/dependence, with a stronger association seen among middle/higher income respondents than among lower income respondents. Discussion and conclusions The findings that problem-gambling severity is related to psychopathology across income groups suggest a need for public health initiatives across social strata to reduce the impact that problem/pathological gambling may have in relation to psychopathology. Middle/higher income populations, perhaps owing to the availability of more “disposable income,” may be at greater risk for co-occurring gambling and alcohol-use psychopathology and may benefit preferentially from interventions targeting both gambling and alcohol use. PMID:27440475

  3. 34 CFR 80.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... total allowable costs to determine the net allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income... the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating program income. If authorized by...

  4. 45 CFR 1183.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes otherwise. Program income....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs... award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating program income. If authorized...

  5. 49 CFR 18.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... total allowable costs to determine the net allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income... the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating program income. If authorized by...

  6. 7 CFR 3016.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... costs to determine the net allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the... are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...) Cost of generating program income. If authorized by Federal regulations or the grant agreement,...

  7. 36 CFR 1207.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... costs to determine the net allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the... are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...) Cost of generating program income. If authorized by Federal regulations or the grant agreement,...

  8. 21 CFR 1403.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes otherwise. Program income....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs... award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating program income. If authorized...

  9. 10 CFR 600.225 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes otherwise. Program income....225 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs... award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating program income. If authorized...

  10. 45 CFR 1157.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes otherwise. Program income which the grantee did not... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income... the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating program income. If authorized by...

  11. 44 CFR 13.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes.... Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees... financial report. (c) Cost of generating program income. If authorized by Federal regulations or the...

  12. 45 CFR 1174.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes otherwise. Program income....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs... award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating program income. If authorized...

  13. 22 CFR 135.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... total allowable costs to determine the net allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income... the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating program income. If authorized by...

  14. 24 CFR 85.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes.... Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees... financial report. (c) Cost of generating program income. If authorized by Federal regulations or the...

  15. 32 CFR 33.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes... encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services...) Cost of generating program income. If authorized by Federal regulations or the grant agreement,...

  16. 29 CFR 97.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes.... Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees... financial report. (c) Cost of generating program income. If authorized by Federal regulations or the...

  17. 20 CFR 437.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 437.25 Section 437.25....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  18. 13 CFR 143.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program income. 143.25 Section 143... Administration § 143.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of...

  19. 44 CFR 13.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 13.25 Section... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 13.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from...

  20. 45 CFR 602.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 602.25 Section 602.25 Public... Requirements § 602.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of...

  1. 24 CFR 85.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 85.25 Section 85.25... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from...

  2. 40 CFR 31.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 31.25 Section 31.25... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from...

  3. 32 CFR 33.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 33.25 Section 33.25 National... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for...

  4. 42 CFR 435.831 - Income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Income eligibility. 435.831 Section 435.831 Public... Needy Medically Needy Income Eligibility § 435.831 Income eligibility. The agency must determine income... must use budget periods of not more than 6 months to compute income. The agency may use more than...

  5. 42 CFR 435.831 - Income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Income eligibility. 435.831 Section 435.831 Public... Needy Medically Needy Income Eligibility § 435.831 Income eligibility. The agency must determine income... must use budget periods of not more than 6 months to compute income. The agency may use more than...

  6. 24 CFR 1003.503 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 1003.503 Section....503 Program income. (a) Program income requirements for ICDBG grantees are set forth in 24 CFR 85.25, as modified by this section. (b) Program income means gross income received by the grantee or...

  7. 20 CFR 627.450 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 627.450 Section 627.450... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Administrative Standards § 627.450 Program income. (a) Definition of program income. (1) Program income means income received by the recipient or subrecipient...

  8. 29 CFR 97.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 97.25 Section 97.25 Labor Office of the... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 97.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from...

  9. 21 CFR 1403.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 1403.25 Section 1403.25 Food and....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use of rental of real...

  10. 15 CFR 24.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program income. 24.25 Section 24.25... Administration § 24.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of...

  11. 38 CFR 43.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 43.25... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1086 - Community income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community income. 404.1086 Section 404.1086...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1086 Community income. If community property laws apply to income that an individual derives from a trade or...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1086 - Community income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Community income. 404.1086 Section 404.1086...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1086 Community income. If community property laws apply to income that an individual derives from a trade or...

  14. 45 CFR 1174.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 1174.25 Section 1174.25 Public....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  15. 7 CFR 3016.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program income. 3016.25 Section 3016.25 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...

  16. 45 CFR 1157.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 1157.25 Section 1157.25 Public... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal...

  17. 36 CFR 1207.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 1207.25... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1207.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...

  18. 43 CFR 12.65 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 12.65 Section 12.65 Public... to State and Local Governments Post-Award Requirements § 12.65 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...

  19. 24 CFR 1003.503 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 1003.503 Section....503 Program income. (a) Program income requirements for ICDBG grantees are set forth in 24 CFR 85.25, as modified by this section. (b) Program income means gross income received by the grantee or...

  20. 28 CFR 66.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 66.25 Section 66.25... Administration § 66.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of...

  1. 49 CFR 18.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 18.25 Section 18.25 Transportation... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal...

  2. 24 CFR 5.609 - Annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annual income. 5.609 Section 5.609... Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.609 Annual income. (a) Annual income means all amounts, monetary...

  3. 45 CFR 92.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 92.25 Section 92.25 Public Welfare... Administration § 92.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of...

  4. 29 CFR 1470.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 1470.25 Section 1470.25 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use...

  5. 22 CFR 135.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 135.25 Section 135.25 Foreign... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal...

  6. 45 CFR 2541.250 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 2541.250 Section 2541.250 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.250 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from...

  7. 24 CFR 5.609 - Annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual income. 5.609 Section 5.609... Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.609 Annual income. (a) Annual income means all amounts, monetary...

  8. 34 CFR 80.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 80.25 Section 80.25 Education Office of... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal...

  9. 45 CFR 1183.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 1183.25 Section 1183.25 Public....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real...

  10. 14 CFR 1273.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Program income. 1273.25 Section 1273.25... Administration § 1273.25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of...

  11. Community income and surgical rates in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Westert, G; Smits, J; Polder, J; Mackenbach, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: The study describes variations in use of surgical procedures by community income in the Netherlands. From the literature it is known that surgical rates have a socioeconomic gradient. Both positive and negative associations of socioeconomic factors of patients (for example, income, education) with surgical rates have been reported. The question raised here is: how do (possible) socioeconomic variations in surgery in the Netherlands compare with variations observed elsewhere? Data and Methods: The data comprised Dutch hospital discharges and population estimates for 1999. Socioeconomic status was indicated by a patient's income and based on the average family income of the postcode area of residence. Poisson regression was used to compute relative incidence (odds ratios) for 10 common surgical procedures. The model included age, gender, degree of urbanisation, and province of residence. Results: The association between surgical rates and community level income is rather weak. For half of the surgical rates the authors observed higher utilisation rates in communities with low income levels, but the differences are small. The range of odds ratios in the lowest income quintile group (compared with the group with the highest income) observed is: 0.87 to 1.18. Men from a low income community received more appendicectomies (1.18), cholecystectomies (1.12), knee replacements (1.06), and prostatectomies (1.14) and less tonsillectomies (0.90). Women from a low income community received more appendicectomies (1.12), caesarean sections (1.18), hip and knee replacements (1.05,1.17), and hysterectomies (1.14). Whereas they received less coronary artery bypass grafts (0.92), cholecystectomies (0.87), and tonsillectomies (0.92). Conclusions: Compared with findings reported in the international literature, this study indicates that variations in use of surgical procedures by community income in the Netherlands are comparatively small. Because of lack of data the authors

  12. Income distribution impacts of climate change mitigation policy in the Susquehanna River Basin Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A

    2007-01-01

    We examine the cost-side income distribution impacts of a carbon tax in the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) Region of the United States utilizing a computable general equilibrium model. We find the aggregate impacts of a $25/ton carbon tax on the SRB economy are likely to be negative but modest-an approximately one-third of 1% reduction in Gross Regional Product (GRP) in the short-run and double that amount in the long-run. However, unlike many previous studies, we find that the carbon tax is mildly progressive as measured by income bracket changes, per capita equivalent variation, and Gini coefficient changes based on expenditure patterns. The dominant factors affecting the distributional impacts are the pattern of output, income and consumption impacts that affect lower income groups relatively less than higher income ones, an increase in transfer payments favoring lower income groups, and decreased corporate profits absorbed primarily by higher income groups.

  13. Income Smoothing: Methodology and Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    that managers desire a pattern % of income that has low variability relative to a linear time trend. 2. Industry Trend. Target 2 assumes that firms...R167 55? INCOME SMOOTHING: METHODOLOGY ND NODELS(U) UMVL in1POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA 0 D HOSES "AY S6 UNCLASSIFIED NP5-604FO53 E * I* vu...California oCiD ELEC fl MAY 12 986 INCOME SMOOTHING - METHODOLOGY AND MODELS by 0. Douglas Moses May 1986 *Approved frpublic release; ditibto uniie

  14. Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-03-01

    Is there a relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generations in the United States? As family income inequality rose in the United States, parental resources available for improving children's health, education, and care diverged. The amount and rate of divergence also varied across US states. Researchers and policy analysts have expressed concern that relatively high inequality might be accompanied by relatively low mobility, tightening the connection between individuals' incomes during childhood and adulthood. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and various government sources, this paper exploits state and cohort variation to estimate the relationship between inequality and mobility. Results provide very little support for the hypothesis that inequality shapes mobility in the United States. The inequality children experienced during youth had no robust association with their economic mobility as adults. Formal analysis reveals that offsetting effects could underlie this result. In theory, mobility-enhancing forces may counterbalance mobility-reducing effects. In practice, the results suggest that in the US context, the intergenerational transmission of income may not be very responsive to changes in inequality.

  15. Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Is there a relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generations in the United States? As family income inequality rose in the United States, parental resources available for improving children’s health, education, and care diverged. The amount and rate of divergence also varied across US states. Researchers and policy analysts have expressed concern that relatively high inequality might be accompanied by relatively low mobility, tightening the connection between individuals’ incomes during childhood and adulthood. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and various government sources, this paper exploits state and cohort variation to estimate the relationship between inequality and mobility. Results provide very little support for the hypothesis that inequality shapes mobility in the United States. The inequality children experienced during youth had no robust association with their economic mobility as adults. Formal analysis reveals that offsetting effects could underlie this result. In theory, mobility-enhancing forces may counterbalance mobility-reducing effects. In practice, the results suggest that in the US context, the intergenerational transmission of income may not be very responsive to changes in inequality. PMID:26388653

  16. Rural Income and Forest Reliance in Highland Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  17. Rural income and forest reliance in highland Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages (n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as 'regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  18. Middle Income Undergraduates: Where They Enroll and How They Pay for Their Education. Statistical Analysis Report. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Jennifer B.; Clery, Suzanne B.

    This report provides a profile of middle income undergraduates in comparison to their lower income and higher income counterparts and examines where middle income students enroll by price of attendance and how they and their families pay for college. Data are from the 1995-1996 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:96). Middle income…

  19. Building and Using a Social Network: Nurture for Low-Income Chinese American Adolescents' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jin; Holloway, Susan D.; Bempechat, Janine; Loh, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined how low-income Asian American children are supported to achieve well in school. The authors used the notion of social capital to study higher versus lower achieving Chinese adolescents from low-income backgrounds. They found that families of higher-achieving adolescents built and used more effectively three kinds of…

  20. Differential pricing of new pharmaceuticals in lower income European countries.

    PubMed

    Kaló, Zoltán; Annemans, Lieven; Garrison, Louis P

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies adjust the pricing strategy of innovative medicines to the imperatives of their major markets. The ability of payers to influence the ex-factory price of new drugs depends on country population size and income per capita, among other factors. Differential pricing based on Ramsey principles is a 'second-best' solution to correct the imperfections of the global market for innovative pharmaceuticals, and it is also consistent with standard norms of equity. This analysis summarizes the boundaries of differential pharmaceutical pricing for policymakers, payers and other stakeholders in lower-income countries, with special focus on Central-Eastern Europe, and describes the feasibility and implications of potential solutions to ensure lower pharmaceutical prices as compared to higher-income countries. European stakeholders, especially in Central-Eastern Europe and at the EU level, should understand the implications of increased transparency of pricing and should develop solutions to prevent the limited accessibility of new medicines in lower-income countries.

  1. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  2. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment.

  3. Financial Factors and Institutional Characteristics That Explain Undergraduate Enrollment by Low-Income Students at Public Master's-Level Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaborn, Lindsay Claire

    2011-01-01

    Low-income students continue to struggle with the rising costs of higher education. Four-year college tuition typically exceeds financial aid awarded to undergraduates at public institutions. St. John (2005) contended that grant amounts remain inadequate for low-income students. Tinto (2008) highlighted the growing income stratification within…

  4. Replicating the Moderating Role of Income Status on Summer School Effects across Subject Areas: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, David M.; Lynch, Kathleen; Kim, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The finding that academic summer programs are effective for low income students has been replicated across meta-analytic reviews. However, these reviews have yielded contradictory evidence about whether summer programs are more effective for lower- or higher-income students. This discrepancy may be due to income-based differences in the summer…

  5. 38 CFR 43.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes... income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the... award and the ending date of the award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of...

  6. 20 CFR 437.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the net allowable costs. Program income must be used for current costs unless SSA authorizes otherwise....25 Program income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs... the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating program income. If authorized by SSA regulations...

  7. 43 CFR 12.65 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes... Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST... are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees...

  8. 40 CFR 31.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes... income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the... award and the ending date of the award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of...

  9. 78 FR 72393 - Net Investment Income Tax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ...This document contains final regulations under section 1411 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code). These regulations provide guidance on the general application of the Net Investment Income Tax and the computation of Net Investment Income. The regulations affect individuals, estates, and trusts whose incomes meet certain income...

  10. 20 CFR 322.8 - Miscellaneous income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Miscellaneous income. 322.8 Section 322.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.8 Miscellaneous income. (a) Income from self-employment. In determining whether income...

  11. 20 CFR 322.8 - Miscellaneous income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Miscellaneous income. 322.8 Section 322.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.8 Miscellaneous income. (a) Income from self-employment. In determining whether income...

  12. 20 CFR 322.8 - Miscellaneous income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Miscellaneous income. 322.8 Section 322.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.8 Miscellaneous income. (a) Income from self-employment. In determining whether income...

  13. 20 CFR 322.8 - Miscellaneous income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Miscellaneous income. 322.8 Section 322.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.8 Miscellaneous income. (a) Income from self-employment. In determining whether income...

  14. 20 CFR 322.8 - Miscellaneous income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Miscellaneous income. 322.8 Section 322.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.8 Miscellaneous income. (a) Income from self-employment. In determining whether income...

  15. 10 CFR 600.314 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program income. 600.314 Section 600.314 Energy DEPARTMENT... Program income. (a) DOE must apply the standards in this section to the disposition of program income from... program income earned: (1) From license fees and royalties for copyrighted material, patents,...

  16. 13 CFR 130.480 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program income. 130.480 Section... CENTERS § 130.480 Program income. (a) Program income for recipient organizations or SBDC service providers... A-110). Program income for recipient organizations or SBDC service providers based in State or...

  17. 10 CFR 603.1305 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program income. 603.1305 Section 603.1305 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1305 Program income. Gross income earned by the recipient or a participant that is generated by a supported activity or earned as a direct result of a TIA. Program income...

  18. 42 CFR 436.831 - Income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Income eligibility. 436.831 Section 436.831 Public... Requirements for the Medically Needy Medically Needy Income Eligibility and Liability for Payment of Medical Expenses § 436.831 Income eligibility. The agency must determine income eligibility of medically...

  19. 17 CFR 256.409 - Income taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Income taxes. 256.409 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.409 Income taxes. (a) This account shall include the amount of local, State and Federal taxes on income properly accruable during the period covered by...

  20. 13 CFR 130.480 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 130.480 Section... CENTERS § 130.480 Program income. (a) Program income for recipient organizations or SBDC service providers... A-110). Program income for recipient organizations or SBDC service providers based in State or...

  1. 23 CFR 1200.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 1200.24 Section 1200.24 Highways... Implementation and Management of the Highway Safety Program § 1200.24 Program income. (a) Inclusions. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...

  2. 34 CFR 361.63 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 361.63 Section 361.63 Education... State Vocational Rehabilitation Programs § 361.63 Program income. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, program income means gross income received by the State that is directly generated by an...

  3. 10 CFR 603.1305 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 603.1305 Section 603.1305 Energy... Used in this Part § 603.1305 Program income. Gross income earned by the recipient or a participant that is generated by a supported activity or earned as a direct result of a TIA. Program income...

  4. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excess Income. 236.60 Section 236... § 236.60 Excess Income. (a) Definition. Excess Income consists of cash collected as rent from the... Rent. The unit-by-unit requirement necessitates that, if a unit has Excess Income, the Excess...

  5. 23 CFR 1200.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 1200.24 Section 1200.24 Highways... Implementation and Management of the Highway Safety Program § 1200.24 Program income. (a) Inclusions. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or...

  6. 17 CFR 256.409 - Income taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income taxes. 256.409 Section... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.409 Income taxes. (a) This account shall include the amount of local, State and Federal taxes on income properly accruable during the period covered by...

  7. 7 CFR 1767.21 - Operating income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating income. 1767.21 Section 1767.21 Agriculture... income. The operating income accounts identified in this section shall be used by all RUS borrowers. Utility Operating Income 400Operating Revenues 401Operation Expense 402Maintenance Expense...

  8. 10 CFR 600.314 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 600.314 Section 600.314 Energy DEPARTMENT... Program income. (a) DOE must apply the standards in this section to the disposition of program income from... program income earned: (1) From license fees and royalties for copyrighted material, patents,...

  9. 42 CFR 436.831 - Income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Income eligibility. 436.831 Section 436.831 Public... Requirements for the Medically Needy Medically Needy Income Eligibility and Liability for Payment of Medical Expenses § 436.831 Income eligibility. The agency must determine income eligibility of medically...

  10. 45 CFR 96.85 - Income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Income eligibility. 96.85 Section 96.85 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.85 Income eligibility. (a) Application of poverty income guidelines and State...

  11. 34 CFR 361.63 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program income. 361.63 Section 361.63 Education... State Vocational Rehabilitation Programs § 361.63 Program income. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, program income means gross income received by the State that is directly generated by an...

  12. 45 CFR 96.85 - Income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Assistance Program § 96.85 Income eligibility. (a) Application of poverty income guidelines and State median...-35 (42 U.S.C. 8624(b)(2)), grantees using the Federal government's official poverty income guidelines... with the most recently published revision to the poverty income guidelines or State median...

  13. Personal Income Taxation. National Education Association Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    The second in a series on school finance, this report describes the principles of fair and adequate state and local income taxation. The political setting is discussed, and the nature of indiviudal income taxes is explained by examining which states tax income and what income they tax. Tables 2, 3, and 4 demonstrate the expanding school financing…

  14. 45 CFR 96.85 - Income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Income eligibility. 96.85 Section 96.85 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.85 Income eligibility. (a) Application of poverty income guidelines and State...

  15. 45 CFR 96.85 - Income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Income eligibility. 96.85 Section 96.85 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.85 Income eligibility. (a) Application of poverty income guidelines and State...

  16. 45 CFR 96.85 - Income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Income eligibility. 96.85 Section 96.85 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Low-income Home Energy Assistance Program § 96.85 Income eligibility. (a) Application of poverty income guidelines and State...

  17. 14 CFR 1273.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial...) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee.... Program income shall be deducted from outlays which may be both Federal and non-Federal as described...

  18. 45 CFR 2541.250 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or.... Program income shall be deducted from outlays which may be both Federal and non-Federal as described...

  19. 29 CFR 1470.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements... them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or.... Program income shall be deducted from outlays which may be both Federal and non-Federal as described...

  20. The Role of Family Income Dynamics in Predicting Trajectories of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Miller, Portia; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Economic disparities in children's behavioral functioning have been observed in prior research. Yet, studies have ignored important perspectives from developmental psychopathology and have not delineated how aspects of income dynamics (i.e., cumulative family income versus income volatility) differentially relate to behavior problems. To address these limitations, the current study examined how both cumulative income and income volatility predict trajectories of children's internalizing and externalizing problems from kindergarten through fifth grade in a nationally representative sample of 10,900 children (51.4 % male). Results showed four distinct trajectories of internalizing problems and five distinct externalizing trajectories. Family income dynamics were related to trajectory group membership. Specifically, increased cumulative income decreased risk of membership in mid-increasing and mid-stable internalizing groups, and children whose families experienced multiple waves of income loss were 2.4 times as likely to be in the mid-increasing group instead of the low-stable group. With respect to externalizing, higher cumulative income increased the likelihood of belonging in the group exhibiting stably low externalizing problems. Experiencing income loss increased the risk of belonging in the trajectory group exhibiting chronically high externalizing behaviors. These results enhance our knowledge of the role of family income in the development of behavior problems.

  1. Child and family safety device affordability by country income level: an 18 country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, D; Miller, T; Orlando, M; Spicer, R; Taft, C; Consunji, R; Zaloshnja, E

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare availability, urban price, and affordability of child/family safety devices between 18 economically diverse countries. Design: Descriptive: urban price surveys by local safety organisations or shoppers. Setting: Retail stores and internet vendors. Main outcome measures: Prices expressed in US dollars, and affordability measured by hours of factory work needed to buy a child safety seat, a belt-positioning booster seat, a child bicycle helmet, and a smoke alarm. Results: Prices of child and family safety devices varied widely between countries but the variation for child safety seats and bicycle helmets did not relate strongly to country income. Safety devices were expensive, often prohibitively so, in lower income countries. Far more hours of factory work were required to earn a child safety device in lower income than middle income, and middle income than higher income, countries. A bicycle helmet, for example, cost 10 hours of factory work in lower income countries but less than an hour in higher income countries. Smoke alarms and booster seats were not available in many lower income countries. Conclusions: Bicycles and two-axle motor vehicles were numerous in lower and middle income countries, but corresponding child safety devices were often unaffordable and sometimes not readily available. The apparent market distortions and their causes merit investigation. Advocacy, social marketing, local device production, lowering of tariffs, and mandatory use legislation might stimulate market growth. Arguably, a moral obligation exists to offer subsidies that give all children a fair chance of surviving to adulthood. PMID:15583254

  2. Patient mobility and health care quality when regions and patients differ in income.

    PubMed

    Brekke, Kurt R; Levaggi, Rosella; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune

    2016-12-01

    We study the effects of cross-border patient mobility on health care quality and welfare when income varies across and within regions. We use a Salop model with a high-, middle-, and low-income region. In each region, a policy maker chooses health care quality to maximise the utility of its residents when health care costs are financed by general income taxation. In equilibrium, regions with higher income offer better quality, which creates an incentive for patient mobility from lower- to higher-income regions. Assuming a prospective payment scheme based on DRG-pricing, we find that lower non-monetary (administrative) mobility costs have (i) no effect on quality or welfare in the high-income region; (ii) a negative effect on quality but a positive effect on welfare for the middle-income region; and (iii) ambiguous effects on quality and welfare for the low-income region. Lower monetary mobility costs (copayments) might reduce welfare in both the middle- and low-income region. Thus, health policies that stimulate cross-border patient mobility can be counterproductive when regions differ in income.

  3. Income, Poverty, and Material Hardship Among Older Americans.

    PubMed

    Levy, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Using data from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study to analyze the determinants of material hardship among individuals ages sixty-five and older, I look at five self-reported hardships: food insecurity, skipped meals, medication cutbacks, difficulty paying bills, and dissatisfaction with one's financial situation. One-fifth of the elderly report one or more of these hardships. Although hardship is more likely for those with low incomes, most older Americans experiencing hardship are not poor. I analyze whether alternative measures of resources do a better job of predicting hardship than does income relative to the federal poverty threshold. I find that spending relative to the poverty threshold does a worse job predicting hardship than does income relative to poverty. Subtracting out-of-pocket medical spending from income yields a measure that is an even better predictor of hardship. In multivariate models, I find that self-reported health, activity limitations, and disability are significant predictors of hardship. Having reliable children (as assessed by the respondent) or an able-bodied spouse reduces the likelihood of hardship. Poor health increases hardship through three channels: by lowering income, by increasing out-of-pocket medical spending, and through its direct effect on hardship. The first two of these-lower income and higher medical spending-are much less quantitatively important than the third; in a nutshell, poor health makes it harder to get by with less.

  4. Income inequality and the developing child: Is it all relative?

    PubMed

    Odgers, Candice L

    2015-11-01

    Children from low-income families are at heightened risk for a number of poor outcomes, including depression, antisocial behavior, poor physical health, and educational failure. Growing up in poverty is generally seen as toxic for children. However, less is known about how the "economic distance" between children and their peers influences behavior and health. This article examines how both poverty and the growing divide between low-income children and their peers may be influencing low-income children's life chances. Among wealthy nations, children in countries with higher levels of income inequality consistently fare worse on multiple indices of health, educational attainment, and well-being. New research also suggests that low-income children may be experiencing worse outcomes, and a form of "double disadvantage," when they live and attend school alongside more affluent versus similarly positioned peers. The role of subjective social status in explaining why some low-income children appear to suffer when growing up alongside more affluent peers is explored, alongside a call for additional research focused on how children come to understand, and respond to, their perceived social status. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Income Inequality and the Developing Child: Is It All Relative?

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.

    2016-01-01

    Children from low-income families are at heightened risk for a number of poor outcomes, including depression, antisocial behavior, poor physical health and educational failure. Growing up in poverty is generally seen as toxic for children’s development. However, less is known about how the “economic distance” between children and their peers influences behavior and health. This paper examines how both poverty and the growing divide between low-income children and their peers may be influencing low-income children’s life chances. Among wealthy nations, children growing up in countries with higher levels of income inequality consistently fare worse on multiple indices of health, educational attainment and wellbeing. Although evidence has been mixed, new research suggests that low-income children may be experiencing worse outcomes, and a form of “double disadvantage”, when they live and attend school alongside more affluent versus similarly positioned peers. The role that subjective social status (SSS) may play in understanding why some low-income children appear to be suffering in the shadow of wealth is explored, alongside a call for additional research focused on how children come to understand, and respond to, their perceived social status. PMID:26618957

  6. 76 FR 36976 - Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD76 Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition AGENCY... responses and adequacy of response rate. Income Definition and Timing: If relying on income data from a survey, the survey needs to be clear regarding its definition of income to ensure accurate responses...

  7. Who Moves to Mixed-Income Neighborhoods?*

    PubMed Central

    McKinnish, Terra; White, T. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses confidential Census data, specifically the 1990 and 2000 Census Long Form data, to study the income dispersion of recent cohorts of migrants to mixed-income neighborhoods. We investigate whether neighborhoods with high levels of income dispersion attract economically diverse in-migrants. If recent in-migrants to mixed-income neighborhoods exhibit high levels of income dispersion, this is consistent with stable mixed-income neighborhoods. If, however, mixed-income neighborhoods are comprised of homogenous low-income (high-income) cohorts of long-term residents combined with homogenous high-income (low-income) cohorts of recent arrivals, this is consistent with neighborhood transition. Our results indicate that neighborhoods with high levels of income dispersion do in fact attract a much more heterogeneous set of in-migrants, particularly from the tails of the income distribution. Our results also suggest that the residents of mixed-income neighborhoods may be less heterogeneous with respect to lifetime income. PMID:21479114

  8. Tract- and County-Level Income Inequality and Individual Risk of Obesity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X.; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We tested three alternative hypotheses regarding the relationship between income inequality and individual risk of obesity at two geographical scales: U.S. Census tract and county. Methods Income inequality was measured by Gini coefficients, created from the 2000 U.S. Census. Obesity was clinically measured in the 2003–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The individual measures and area measures were geo-linked to estimate three sets of multi-level models: tract only, county only, and tract and county simultaneously. Gender was tested as a moderator. Results At both the tract and county levels, higher income inequality was associated with lower individual risk of obesity. The size of the coefficient was larger for county-level Gini than for tract-level Gini; and controlling income inequality at one level did not reduce the impact of income inequality at the other level. Gender was not a significant moderator for the obesity-income inequality association. Conclusions Higher tract and county income inequality was associated with lower individual risk of obesity, indicating that at least at the tract and county levels and in the context of cross-sectional data, the public health goal of reducing the rate of obesity is in line with anti-poverty policies of addressing poverty through mixed-income development where neighborhood income inequality is likely higher than homogeneous neighborhoods. PMID:26680289

  9. Improving College Access and Completion for Low-Income and First-Generation Students. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training, Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourteenth Congress, First Session (April 30, 2015). Serial Number 114-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US House of Representatives, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This document records testimony from a hearing held to discuss strategies for improving postsecondary access and completion for low-income and first-generation students. The hearing served as an opportunity to learn about efforts to pioneer new strategies and study the effectiveness of existing strategies so that more disadvantaged students can…

  10. Income Sustainability through Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ronald H.; McChesney, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sustainability of income, as it relates to educational attainment, from the two recent decades, which includes three significant economic downturns. The data was analyzed to determine trends in the wealth gap, parsed by educational attainment and gender. Utilizing the data from 1991 through 2010, predictions in changes in…

  11. Retirement Patterns and Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasang, Anette Eva

    2012-01-01

    How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…

  12. Camouflage: The Experiences of Low-Income Business College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton de Dutton, Scarlett

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study shares the complex stories of two low-income business students who attend a flagship, public university as out-of-state students with the purpose of understanding, describing, giving voice to, and discovering insight from their experiences. Throughout U.S. Higher Education history, there is a pattern of limited participation…

  13. Work, Income, and Material Hardship after Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, Sandra; Corcoran, Mary; Danziger, Sheldon; Heflin, Colleen M.

    2000-01-01

    A study of women who went off welfare between 1997 and 1998 (n=753, 693) showed that those with the most work involvement over the year had higher levels of financial and subjective well-being. Regardless of work involvement, substantial numbers reported serious economic difficulties and financial strain. Many still needed income supplements and…

  14. Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

  15. "Healthy Aging at Older Ages: Are Income and Education Important?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.

    2004-01-01

    Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…

  16. Income Share Agreements on Campus: A Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Next fall, students at Purdue University may have a new way to pay their tuition: income share agreements (ISAs). ISAs are an alternative form of higher education financing in which students pledge a fixed percentage of future earnings in exchange for money to pay for college. ISAs present a new challenge to the nation's colleges and universities,…

  17. Money, well-being, and loss aversion: does an income loss have a greater effect on well-being than an equivalent income gain?

    PubMed

    Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M; Banks, James; Clark, Andrew E; Brown, Gordon D A

    2013-12-01

    Higher income is associated with greater well-being, but do income gains and losses affect well-being differently? Loss aversion, whereby losses loom larger than gains, is typically examined in relation to decisions about anticipated outcomes. Here, using subjective-well-being data from Germany (N = 28,723) and the United Kingdom (N = 20,570), we found that losses in income have a larger effect on well-being than equivalent income gains and that this effect is not explained by diminishing marginal benefits of income to well-being. Our findings show that loss aversion applies to experienced losses, challenging suggestions that loss aversion is only an affective-forecasting error. By failing to account for loss aversion, longitudinal studies of the relationship between income and well-being may have overestimated the positive effect of income on well-being. Moreover, societal well-being might best be served by small and stable income increases, even if such stability impairs long-term income growth.

  18. Effects of Tuition Price, Grant Aid, and Institutional Revenue on Low-Income Student Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassila, Nathan E.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence of greater economic stratification brings challenges to higher education's enrollment of low-income students. With a growing proportion of potential college students coming from low-income households, increasing their post-secondary participation rate is vital in developing and growing the pool of educated individuals for the labor force…

  19. Diet-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Low-Income Households with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Joanne F.; Morton, Joan F.

    1999-01-01

    Compared the level of nutrition knowledge of low- and higher-income American consumers with children, and their nutrition attitudes and practices. Found that both groups had Body Mass Indexes above the range of a healthy weight, but that low-income participants were less likely to know nutrition specifics such as diet/disease relationships or…

  20. Acute Aerobic Exercise Impacts Selective Attention: An Exceptional Boost in Lower-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tine, Michele T.; Butler, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Educational research suggests that lower-income children exhibit poor general executive functioning relative to their higher-income peers. Meanwhile, sports psychology research suggests that an acute bout of aerobic exercise improves executive functioning in children. Yet, it has never been determined if such exercise (1) specifically improves the…

  1. Trends in the Family Income Distribution by Race/Ethnicity and Income Source, 1988–2009

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Tsao, Hui-shien

    2015-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in U.S. income inequality has prompted a great deal of research on trends in overall family income and changes in sources of family income, especially among the highest income earners. However, less is known about changes in sources of income among the bottom 99% or about racial/ethnic differences in those trends. The present research contributes to the literatures on income trends and racial economic inequality by using family-level data from the 1988–2009 Current Population Survey to examine changes in overall family income and the proportion of income coming from employment, property/assets, and transfers across five different levels of family income for white-, black, and Hispanic-headed families. We find that at all income levels above the 25th percentile, employment income is by far the largest contributor to family income for all racial/ethnic groups. Employment income trended upward over the period in both real dollars and as a percentage of total family income. In this respect, white, black and Hispanic families are remarkably similar. The racial gap in total family income has remained fairly stable over the period, but this trend conceals a narrowing of racial differences in property income, mostly as a function of the decline in property income among whites, a widening of racial differences in transfer income among the bottom 25%, and a widening of racial differences in employment income, particularly at the top of the family income distribution. Income accrued from wealth is a very small component of overall family income for all three racial groups, even for the highest-income families (top 1%). PMID:26180265

  2. Anaemia in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Balarajan, Yarlini; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Ozaltin, Emre; Shankar, Anuraj H; Subramanian, S V

    2011-12-17

    Anaemia affects a quarter of the global population, including 293 million (47%) children younger than 5 years and 468 million (30%) non-pregnant women. In addition to anaemia's adverse health consequences, the economic effect of anaemia on human capital results in the loss of billions of dollars annually. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical assessment, pathophysiology, and consequences of anaemia in low-income and middle-income countries. Our analysis shows that anaemia is disproportionately concentrated in low socioeconomic groups, and that maternal anaemia is strongly associated with child anaemia. Anaemia has multifactorial causes involving complex interaction between nutrition, infectious diseases, and other factors, and this complexity presents a challenge to effectively address the population determinants of anaemia. Reduction of knowledge gaps in research and policy and improvement of the implementation of effective population-level strategies will help to alleviate the anaemia burden in low-resource settings.

  3. Income inequality and mortality in metropolitan areas of the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, J W; Kaplan, G A; Pamuk, E R; Cohen, R D; Heck, K E; Balfour, J L; Yen, I H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between income inequality and mortality in 282 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: Income inequality measures were calculated from the 1990 US Census. Mortality was calculated from National Center for Health Statistics data and modeled with weighted linear regressions of the log age-adjusted rate. RESULTS: Excess mortality between metropolitan areas with high and low income inequality ranged from 64.7 to 95.8 deaths per 100,000 depending on the inequality measure. In age-specific analyses, income inequality was most evident for infant mortality and for mortality between ages 15 and 64. CONCLUSIONS: Higher income inequality is associated with increased mortality at all per capita income levels. Areas with high income inequality and low average income had excess mortality of 139.8 deaths per 100,000 compared with areas with low inequality and high income. The magnitude of this mortality difference is comparable to the combined loss of life from lung cancer, diabetes, motor vehicle crashes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, suicide, and homicide in 1995. Given the mortality burden associated with income inequality, public and private sector initiatives to reduce economic inequalities should be a high priority. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9663157

  4. Family Income, Parental Education and Brain Structure in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Brito, Natalie H.; Bartsch, Hauke; Kan, Eric; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J.; Murray, Sarah S.; Casey, B. J.; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M.; Frazier, Jean A.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Kennedy, David N.; Zijl, Peter Van; Mostofsky, Stewart; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Kenet, Tal; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. Here, we investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Specifically, among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data indicate that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children. Potential implications are discussed. PMID:25821911

  5. The Effects of Low Income Housing Tax Credit Developments on Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Marion, Justin

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of new housing developments funded with the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), the largest federal project based housing program in the U.S., on the neighborhoods in which they are built. A discontinuity in the formula determining the magnitude of tax credits as a function of neighborhood characteristics generates pseudo-random assignment in the number of low income housing units built in similar sets of census tracts. Tracts where projects are awarded 30 percent higher tax credits receive approximately six more low income housing units on a base of seven units per tract. These additional new low income developments cause homeowner turnover to rise, raise property values in declining areas and reduce incomes in gentrifying areas in neighborhoods near the 30th percentile of the income distribution. LIHTC units significantly crowd out nearby new rental construction in gentrifying areas but do not displace new construction in stable or declining areas. PMID:24235779

  6. Family income, parental education and brain structure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Houston, Suzanne M; Brito, Natalie H; Bartsch, Hauke; Kan, Eric; Kuperman, Joshua M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J; Murray, Sarah S; Casey, B J; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Frazier, Jean A; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Kennedy, David N; Van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Kaufmann, Walter E; Kenet, Tal; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. We investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1,099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data imply that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children.

  7. Income, personality, and subjective financial well-being: the role of gender in their genetic and environmental relationships.

    PubMed

    Zyphur, Michael J; Li, Wen-Dong; Zhang, Zhen; Arvey, Richard D; Barsky, Adam P

    2015-01-01

    Increasing levels of financial inequality prompt questions about the relationship between income and well-being. Using a twins sample from the Survey of Midlife Development in the U. S. and controlling for personality as core self-evaluations (CSE), we found that men, but not women, had higher subjective financial well-being (SFWB) when they had higher incomes. This relationship was due to 'unshared environmental' factors rather than genes, suggesting that the effect of income on SFWB is driven by unique experiences among men. Further, for women and men, we found that CSE influenced income and SFWB, and that both genetic and environmental factors explained this relationship. Given the relatively small and male-specific relationship between income and SFWB, and the determination of both income and SFWB by personality, we propose that policy makers focus on malleable factors beyond merely income in order to increase SFWB, including financial education and building self-regulatory capacity.

  8. Income, personality, and subjective financial well-being: the role of gender in their genetic and environmental relationships

    PubMed Central

    Zyphur, Michael J.; Li, Wen-Dong; Zhang, Zhen; Arvey, Richard D.; Barsky, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing levels of financial inequality prompt questions about the relationship between income and well-being. Using a twins sample from the Survey of Midlife Development in the U. S. and controlling for personality as core self-evaluations (CSE), we found that men, but not women, had higher subjective financial well-being (SFWB) when they had higher incomes. This relationship was due to ‘unshared environmental’ factors rather than genes, suggesting that the effect of income on SFWB is driven by unique experiences among men. Further, for women and men, we found that CSE influenced income and SFWB, and that both genetic and environmental factors explained this relationship. Given the relatively small and male-specific relationship between income and SFWB, and the determination of both income and SFWB by personality, we propose that policy makers focus on malleable factors beyond merely income in order to increase SFWB, including financial education and building self-regulatory capacity. PMID:26483742

  9. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  10. 7 CFR 996.8 - Incoming inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.8 Incoming inspection. Incoming inspection means the sampling, inspection, and certification of farmers stock peanuts...

  11. 7 CFR 996.8 - Incoming inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.8 Incoming inspection. Incoming inspection means the sampling, inspection, and certification of farmers stock peanuts...

  12. 7 CFR 996.8 - Incoming inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.8 Incoming inspection. Incoming inspection means the sampling, inspection, and certification of farmers stock peanuts...

  13. 7 CFR 996.8 - Incoming inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.8 Incoming inspection. Incoming inspection means the sampling, inspection, and certification of farmers stock peanuts...

  14. 7 CFR 996.8 - Incoming inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Definitions § 996.8 Incoming inspection. Incoming inspection means the sampling, inspection, and certification of farmers stock peanuts...

  15. Household After-Tax Incomes 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles T.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, mean after-tax household income increased faster than inflation for the fourth consecutive year. Mean household income after taxes was $22,650 in 1985, up by 0.9 percent over the 1984 figure. Mean household income before taxes ($29,070) increased by 1.3 percent after adjusting for inflation. The mean after-tax incomes of both White…

  16. Earned Income Tax Credit Eligibility and Participation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    to assist the working poor . The EIC is intended to offset the burden of the Social Security payroll tax on low - income workers and to encourage low ...The Earned Income Tax Credit (EIC), which is expected to provide over $30 billion in refundable credits in fiscal year 2002, is major federal effort... income individuals to work. The amounts of credit that taxpayers receive depend on the taxpayers’ incomes and the number of qualifying children they have

  17. Income inequality, parental socioeconomic status, and birth outcomes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery.

  18. Stillbirths: recall to action in high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Flenady, Vicki; Wojcieszek, Aleena M; Middleton, Philippa; Ellwood, David; Erwich, Jan Jaap; Coory, Michael; Khong, T Yee; Silver, Robert M; Smith, Gordon C S; Boyle, Frances M; Lawn, Joy E; Blencowe, Hannah; Leisher, Susannah Hopkins; Gross, Mechthild M; Horey, Dell; Farrales, Lynn; Bloomfield, Frank; McCowan, Lesley; Brown, Stephanie J; Joseph, K S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Reinebrant, Hanna E; Ravaldi, Claudia; Vannacci, Alfredo; Cassidy, Jillian; Cassidy, Paul; Farquhar, Cindy; Wallace, Euan; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Heazell, Alexander E P; Storey, Claire; Sadler, Lynn; Petersen, Scott; Frøen, J Frederik; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2016-02-13

    Variation in stillbirth rates across high-income countries and large equity gaps within high-income countries persist. If all high-income countries achieved stillbirth rates equal to the best performing countries, 19,439 late gestation (28 weeks or more) stillbirths could have been avoided in 2015. The proportion of unexplained stillbirths is high and can be addressed through improvements in data collection, investigation, and classification, and with a better understanding of causal pathways. Substandard care contributes to 20-30% of all stillbirths and the contribution is even higher for late gestation intrapartum stillbirths. National perinatal mortality audit programmes need to be implemented in all high-income countries. The need to reduce stigma and fatalism related to stillbirth and to improve bereavement care are also clear, persisting priorities for action. In high-income countries, a woman living under adverse socioeconomic circumstances has twice the risk of having a stillborn child when compared to her more advantaged counterparts. Programmes at community and country level need to improve health in disadvantaged families to address these inequities.

  19. Family income, school attendance, and academic achievement in elementary school.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Taryn W; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam

    2014-03-01

    Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and academic achievement among a diverse sample of children from kindergarten to 4th grade (N = 35,419) using both random and within-child fixed-effects models. Generally, results suggest that the receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and duration of receipt have small but positive associations with school absences and tardies. Poor attendance patterns predict poorer grades, with absences more associated with grades than tardies. Given the small associations between receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and school attendance, and between the duration of receipt of free or reduced-price lunch and children's grades, results do not provide strong evidence that absences and tardies meaningfully attenuate relations between the duration of low family income and student achievement; poorer attendance and persistent low income independently predict poorer grades. Implications for policy and future research are discussed.

  20. 45 CFR 602.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes... costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real... the ending date of the award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating...

  1. 15 CFR 24.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes... costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real... the ending date of the award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating...

  2. 45 CFR 92.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes... costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real... the ending date of the award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating...

  3. 29 CFR 1470.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes... defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or... award and the ending date of the award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of...

  4. 14 CFR 1273.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes... costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real... the ending date of the award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating...

  5. 13 CFR 143.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes... costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real... ending date of the award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating program...

  6. 28 CFR 66.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the Federal agency authorizes... costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real... the ending date of the award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of generating...

  7. 45 CFR 2541.250 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... costs to determine the net allowable costs. Program income shall be used for current costs unless the... to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the... award and the ending date of the award reflected in the final financial report. (c) Cost of...

  8. Income Inequality and the Education Divide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The economics of the decision to go to college or obtain technical training is discussed in this booklet. To stay competitive in the job market requires constant educational updating. The following questions are discussed: (1) how income inequality is measured; (2) how income is distributed in the United States; (3) why income inequality is…

  9. 45 CFR 602.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM... costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real... program income. (See § 602.34.) (f) Property. Proceeds from the sale of real property or equipment will...

  10. 45 CFR 602.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM... costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real... program income. (See § 602.34.) (f) Property. Proceeds from the sale of real property or equipment will...

  11. 45 CFR 602.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM... costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real... program income. (See § 602.34.) (f) Property. Proceeds from the sale of real property or equipment will...

  12. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  13. 28 CFR 70.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 70.24 Section 70.24...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.24 Program income. (a... income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Department funds. (b) Except as provided...

  14. 7 CFR 3430.53 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program income. 3430.53 Section 3430.53 Agriculture... Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.53 Program income. (a) General. CSREES shall apply the standards set forth in this subpart in requiring awardee organizations to account for program income related...

  15. 24 CFR 570.426 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 570.426 Section 570... in Hawaii and Insular Areas Programs § 570.426 Program income. (a) The provisions of § 570.504(b) apply to all program income generated by a specific grant and received prior to grant closeout. (b)...

  16. 10 CFR 600.124 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 600.124 Section 600.124 Energy DEPARTMENT... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.124 Program income. (a) The standards set forth in this section shall be used to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or...

  17. 20 CFR 638.529 - Income taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income taxes. 638.529 Section 638.529... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.529 Income taxes. The Act... of student income and provide this to center operators and to the finance center....

  18. 20 CFR 632.34 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 632.34 Section 632.34... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Administrative Standards and Procedures § 632.34 Program income. (a) General. The provisions of 41 CFR 29-70.205, program income and interest earned, shall apply to Native...

  19. 24 CFR 92.203 - Income determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income determinations. 92.203... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements § 92.203 Income determinations. (a) The HOME program has income targeting requirements for the HOME program and for HOME projects....

  20. 7 CFR 3019.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 3019.24 Section 3019.24 Agriculture... Management § 3019.24 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to...

  1. 32 CFR 37.1335 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 37.1335 Section 37.1335 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1335 Program income. Gross income earned by the recipient or a participant that is generated by a supported activity or earned as...

  2. 22 CFR 226.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 226.24 Section 226.24 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.24 Program income. (a) Recipients shall apply the standards set forth in this section to account for program income related to...

  3. 25 CFR 276.6 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 276.6 Section 276.6 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.6 Program income. (a) No grantee receiving a grant.... (d) All other program income earned during the grant period shall be retained by the grantee and,...

  4. 38 CFR 49.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 49.24... income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part...

  5. 32 CFR 37.1335 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 37.1335 Section 37.1335 National... TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1335 Program income. Gross income earned by the recipient or a participant that is generated by a supported activity or earned as...

  6. 7 CFR 550.23 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 550.23 Section 550.23 Agriculture... Financial Management § 550.23 Program income. (a) REE Agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring Cooperator organizations to account for program income related to projects...

  7. 10 CFR 600.124 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program income. 600.124 Section 600.124 Energy DEPARTMENT... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.124 Program income. (a) The standards set forth in this section shall be used to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or...

  8. 40 CFR 35.6290 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 35.6290 Section 35.6290... Administration Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6290 Program income. The recipient must comply with the requirements regarding program income described in 40 CFR 31.25. Recoveries of Federal...

  9. 40 CFR 30.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 30.24 Section 30.24... income. (a) EPA shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds....

  10. 49 CFR 19.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 19.24 Section 19.24 Transportation... Requirements § 19.24 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed...

  11. 22 CFR 226.82 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 226.82 Section 226.82 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Additional Provisions For Awards to Commercial Organizations § 226.82 Program income. The additional costs alternative described in § 226.24(b)(1) may not be applied to program income earned by...

  12. 24 CFR 511.76 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Program income. 511.76 Section 511... Program income. (a) General. Grantees and State recipients are neither encouraged to earn nor discouraged from earning program income in using rental rehabilitation grant amounts under this part....

  13. 40 CFR 30.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 30.24 Section 30.24... income. (a) EPA shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds....

  14. 14 CFR 1260.124 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Program income. 1260.124 Section 1260.124..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 1260.124 Program income. (a) The standards set forth in this section shall be used to account for program income related to projects...

  15. 22 CFR 226.82 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 226.82 Section 226.82 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Additional Provisions For Awards to Commercial Organizations § 226.82 Program income. The additional costs alternative described in § 226.24(b)(1) may not be applied to program income earned by...

  16. 24 CFR 4001.112 - Income verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income verification. 4001.112... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.112 Income verification. The mortgagee shall use FHA's procedures to verify the mortgagor's income and shall comply with the following additional requirements:...

  17. 15 CFR 14.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program income. 14.24 Section 14.24... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.24 Program income. (a) The standards... income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds. (b) Except as provided...

  18. 32 CFR 32.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 32.24 Section 32.24 National... income. (a) DoD Components shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal...

  19. 38 CFR 49.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 49.24... income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part...

  20. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications...

  1. 43 CFR 12.924 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 12.924 Section 12.924... Requirements § 12.924 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed...

  2. 36 CFR 1210.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 1210.24... Management § 1210.24 Program income. (a) The NHPRC applies the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or...

  3. 7 CFR 3019.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program income. 3019.24 Section 3019.24 Agriculture... Management § 3019.24 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to...

  4. 28 CFR 70.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 70.24 Section 70.24...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.24 Program income. (a... income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Department funds. (b) Except as provided...

  5. 24 CFR 954.302 - Income determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Income determinations. 954.302... DEVELOPMENT INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Eligible Activities and Affordability § 954.302 Income determinations. Whenever a grantee makes a determination under this part based on family income or adjusted family...

  6. 15 CFR 14.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 14.24 Section 14.24... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.24 Program income. (a) The standards... income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds. (b) Except as provided...

  7. 7 CFR 3430.53 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 3430.53 Section 3430.53 Agriculture...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Post-Award and Closeout § 3430.53 Program income. (a) General... for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds. (b)...

  8. 24 CFR 92.203 - Income determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Income determinations. 92.203... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements § 92.203 Income determinations. (a) The HOME program has income targeting requirements for the HOME program and for HOME projects....

  9. 24 CFR 84.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 84.24 Section 84.24... income. (a) HUD shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds....

  10. 24 CFR 570.426 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Program income. 570.426 Section 570... in Hawaii and Insular Areas Programs § 570.426 Program income. (a) The provisions of § 570.504(b) apply to all program income generated by a specific grant and received prior to grant closeout. (b)...

  11. 22 CFR 145.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 145.24 Section 145.24 Foreign....24 Program income. (a) The Department shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or...

  12. 45 CFR 2543.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 2543.24 Section 2543.24 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.24 Program income. (a) Federal... to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds....

  13. 2 CFR 215.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 215.24 Section 215.24 Grants... income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part...

  14. 34 CFR 74.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 74.24 Section 74.24 Education Office of... Program Management § 74.24 Program income. (a) The Secretary applies the standards contained in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed...

  15. 25 CFR 276.6 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 276.6 Section 276.6 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.6 Program income. (a) No grantee receiving a grant.... (d) All other program income earned during the grant period shall be retained by the grantee and,...

  16. 20 CFR 638.529 - Income taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Income taxes. 638.529 Section 638.529... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.529 Income taxes. The Act... of student income and provide this to center operators and to the finance center....

  17. 45 CFR 2543.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 2543.24 Section 2543.24 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.24 Program income. (a) Federal... to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds....

  18. 29 CFR 95.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 95.24 Section 95.24 Labor Office of the... Program Management § 95.24 Program income. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, program income earned during the project period shall be retained by the recipient and added to...

  19. 49 CFR 19.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 19.24 Section 19.24 Transportation... Requirements § 19.24 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed...

  20. 32 CFR 34.14 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 34.14 Section 34.14 National... Financial and Program Management § 34.14 Program income. (a) DoD Components shall apply the standards in this section to the disposition of program income from projects financed in whole or in part...

  1. 24 CFR 4001.112 - Income verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Income verification. 4001.112... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.112 Income verification. The mortgagee shall use FHA's procedures to verify the mortgagor's income and shall comply with the following additional requirements:...

  2. 24 CFR 84.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 84.24 Section 84.24... income. (a) HUD shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds....

  3. 14 CFR 1260.124 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program income. 1260.124 Section 1260.124..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 1260.124 Program income. (a) The standards set forth in this section shall be used to account for program income related to projects...

  4. 22 CFR 226.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 226.24 Section 226.24 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.24 Program income. (a) Recipients shall apply the standards set forth in this section to account for program income related to...

  5. 36 CFR 1210.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 1210.24... Management § 1210.24 Program income. (a) The NHPRC applies the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or...

  6. 32 CFR 32.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 32.24 Section 32.24 National... income. (a) DoD Components shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal...

  7. 45 CFR 74.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 74.24 Section 74.24 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.24 Program income. (a) The standards set forth in this section shall be used to account for program income related...

  8. 24 CFR 954.302 - Income determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income determinations. 954.302... DEVELOPMENT INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Eligible Activities and Affordability § 954.302 Income determinations. Whenever a grantee makes a determination under this part based on family income or adjusted family...

  9. 2 CFR 215.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Program income. 215.24 Section 215.24 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 215.24 Program income. (a) Federal... to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or in part with Federal funds....

  10. 24 CFR 511.76 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 511.76 Section 511... Program income. (a) General. Grantees and State recipients are neither encouraged to earn nor discouraged from earning program income in using rental rehabilitation grant amounts under this part....

  11. 32 CFR 34.14 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 34.14 Section 34.14 National... Financial and Program Management § 34.14 Program income. (a) DoD Components shall apply the standards in this section to the disposition of program income from projects financed in whole or in part...

  12. 29 CFR 95.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program income. 95.24 Section 95.24 Labor Office of the... Program Management § 95.24 Program income. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, program income earned during the project period shall be retained by the recipient and added to...

  13. 43 CFR 12.924 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 12.924 Section 12.924... Requirements § 12.924 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed...

  14. 22 CFR 145.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 145.24 Section 145.24 Foreign....24 Program income. (a) The Department shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed in whole or...

  15. Income Segregation between Schools and School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Ann; Reardon, Sean F.; Jencks, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Although trends in the racial segregation of schools are well documented, less is known about trends in income segregation. We use multiple data sources to document trends in income segregation between schools and school districts. Between-district income segregation of families with children enrolled in public school increased by over 15% from…

  16. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  17. 40 CFR 31.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE UNIFORM... income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the... items fabricated under a grant agreement, and from payments of principal and interest on loans made...

  18. Predictors of Incomes. AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witmer, David R.

    Income predictions that provide some indication of the potential value of attending college are considered. Standard multiple regression analysis of data describing the income experiences of men 25 years old and older were used to determine differences in incomes of high school and college graduates. Information on the gross national product was…

  19. Income Tax Reform and Agriculture: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Five papers are provided from a symposium organized to present several economic studies relating to income tax structure and reform in agriculture. "Toward an Optimal Income Tax Policy for Southern and U.S. Agriculture" (Harold F. Breimyer) is a structured argument for comprehensive tax reform that increases the equity of the income tax…

  20. A Pro-Family Income Tax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Allan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Tax Reform Act of 1986, which doubled the personal exemption, increased the eligibility ceiling for the Earned Income Tax Credit, and reduced marginal income-tax rates. Compares the Act with the Acts of 1948 and 1969. Outlines criteria for a pro-family income tax policy. (BJV)

  1. Contingent Repayment Education Loans Related to Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Gerard M.

    This paper explores some questions about the use of income for determining repayment of educational loans. The plans generally call for a level of repayment to cover the initial advances, plus interest for a college graduate with average income, but would require less than full repayment for the students with low income, and over full repayment…

  2. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  3. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  4. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net... these services. The calculation of expenses entering into the determination of net income shall...

  5. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  6. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net... these services. The calculation of expenses entering into the determination of net income shall...

  7. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net... these services. The calculation of expenses entering into the determination of net income shall...

  8. Evolutionary model of the personal income distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a qualitative picture of the personal income distribution. Treating an economy as a self-organized system the key idea of the model is that the income distribution contains competitive and non-competitive contributions. The presented model distinguishes between three main income classes. 1. Capital income from private firms is shown to be the result of an evolutionary competition between products. A direct consequence of this competition is Gibrat’s law suggesting a lognormal income distribution for small private firms. Taking into account an additional preferential attachment mechanism for large private firms the income distribution is supplemented by a power law (Pareto) tail. 2. Due to the division of labor a diversified labor market is seen as a non-competitive market. In this case wage income exhibits an exponential distribution. 3. Also included is income from a social insurance system. It can be approximated by a Gaussian peak. A consequence of this theory is that for short time intervals a fixed ratio of total labor (total capital) to net income exists (Cobb-Douglas relation). A comparison with empirical high resolution income data confirms this pattern of the total income distribution. The theory suggests that competition is the ultimate origin of the uneven income distribution.

  9. 36 CFR 1207.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RULES UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... interest earned on any of them. (b) Definition of program income. Program income means gross income... Federal and non-Federal as described below, unless the Federal agency regulations or the grant...

  10. 21 CFR 1403.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 1403... income. Program income means gross income received by the grantee or subgrantee directly generated by a... deducted from outlays which may be both Federal and non-Federal as described below, unless the...

  11. 24 CFR 1006.305 - Low-income requirement and income targeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low-income requirement and income... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.305 Low-income... made available for occupancy only by a family that is a low-income family at the time of the...

  12. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  13. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  14. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  15. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Laurence W.; Wedlock, Eldon D., Jr.

    Courts have been consistently reluctant to interfere with governing boards' powers to control the administration of institutions of higher education. This deference seems to be based on the belief that board expertise makes it significantly more qualified than are the courts to make the necessary administrative decisions. Uncritical deference by…

  16. Regional income differences and the definition of income: the case of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Davanzo, J; Kusnic, M

    1984-09-01

    "Data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey are used to examine the sensitivity of urban/rural income differentials to the definition and measurement of income. Measured income differentials vary with the extent to which nonmarket activities are included in the scope of income, how the distribution of income is summarized, and whether one adjusts for differences in hours of work, household size and composition, ethnic composition, and other sociodemographic characteristics. For example, depending on the measure chosen, estimates of the amount by which urban income exceeds rural income in Malaysia range from 9 percent to 141 percent."

  17. Income Elasticity Literature Review | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income growth adjustment factors are calculated using a combination of income elasticity estimates and income growth projections, both of which have remained essentially unchanged since 1999. These income elasticity estimates vary according to the severity of illness. EPA recently received advice from the SAB regarding the range of income elasticities to apply as well as the research standards to use when selecting income elasticity estimates. Following this advice, EPA consulted with a contractor to update its income elasticity and income growth projections, and generate new income growth adjustment factors. The SAB would evaluate the income elasticity estimates identified in the EPA-provided literature review, determining the extent to which these estimates are appropriate to use in human health benefits assessments.

  18. 7 CFR 3555.152 - Calculation of income and assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... adults; and (vi) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program payments. (b) Annual income. Annual income is... Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. (c) Adjusted annual income. Adjusted annual income is used to... policies; settlements for personal or property losses; and deferred periodic payments of...

  19. International Demand for American Higher Education: An Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mixon, J. Wilson, Jr.; Wan, Weidong

    1990-01-01

    A study of the relationship of population and income in Asian countries and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) members to their demand for American higher education found that both population and income significantly affect demand, but not proportionally. Findings suggest countries meet most change in citizens' demand with…

  20. Reinforcing Stratification in American Higher Education: Some Disturbing Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Michael S.; Schapiro, Morton O.

    This report examines the decade of change in the U.S. system of finance for higher education, which has resulted in a set of programs and policies that are highly responsive to the demands of middle- and upper-income families for help but which are less well equipped to respond to the needs of lower-income families for assistance with their…

  1. Donors to Higher Education. A Statistical Profile of Individual Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balz, Frank

    Patterns of individual giving to higher education in 1984 are reported, along with the characteristics of donors. The study sample consisted of 66 private and 33 public colleges and universities. Information is presented on: the size of the gift; the income level of donors, by household adjusted gross income; level of giving of donors by whether…

  2. HIGH PREVALENCE OF RISKY INCOME GENERATION AMONG STREET-INVOLVED YOUTH IN A CANADIAN SETTING

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tessa; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; DeBeck, Kora

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has found a range of barriers to mainstream employment among street-involved youth; however, less is known about the characteristics of street-involved youth who engage in risky income generation and the potential role of substance use in perpetuating engagement in these activities. Methods Data were collected between 2005 and 2012 from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), which is a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify factors associated with risky quasi-legal and illegal income generation. Participants also reported their willingness to give up these sources of income if they were not using drugs. Results Among 1,008 participants, 826 (82%) reported engaging in risky income generation activities during the study period. Factors associated with risky income generation included: homelessness, binge drug use, injection drug use, crack use, crystal methamphetamine, overdose, interactions with police, and experiencing violence; regular employment was negatively associated with this outcome (all p<0.05). Among those who reported risky income generation, 440 (53%) were willing to give up these income sources if they were not using drugs. Conclusion Risky income generation was alarmingly prevalent in our sample, and associated with higher intensity drug use and other markers of vulnerability. The majority of participants (53%) reported willingness to give up their risky income sources if they were not using drugs; however, a substantial proportion of youth (47%) indicated that they would continue to engage in risk income generation regardless of their substance use suggesting that both substance use and economic insecurity likely perpetuate risky income generation among our sample. Findings highlight opportunities to reduce risky income generation by addressing problematic substance use through better access and engagement with evidence

  3. An analysis of changes in Chinese migrants' income.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y

    1990-01-01

    Migration in China is analyzed in terms of migration income, the effect of changes in income on migratory behavior before and after economic reforms, and a comparison of migrants' income by city size (metropolis; large, medium, or small city; and town). Data were obtained from the 1986 sample survey of 74 cities and towns and population migration. Migration is defined as crossing over an administrative urban area from an original place of residence for more than 1 year, regardless of whether the residence permit was changes or not. Monthly income/capita in 1978 and 1986 is the income measure. Correlations between income and migration generated by the Q index reveal that there is a positive correlation between migratory behavior and individual income in the urban population such that migrants income is higher than nonmigrants. The correlation becomes stronger over time, such that migrants' income is higher in 1986 than nonmigrants' in 1986. Correlation in 1978 was .191 and .341 in 1986, which indicates a weak relationship. The interpretation is that migrants move to increase income level, which is supported by research in the US and the USSR. The cultural and age composition of the migrant population also suggests that those with stronger capabilities are migrants. There is also regional disparity in workers' salaries, and the permit system before 1978 was restrictive. The stronger correlation in 1986 is attributed to policy changes and an increased level of socioeconomic development and ownership structure. The generally weak correlation is attributed to the state of developing economy where there does not yet exist full scale freedom of mobility, a full scale open labor market, or full scale competition for employment. There are 2 categories of population employment: salaried employees and gross national product i.e., one sector is protected by state economic and social welfare policies and another sector which is under restrictions. This phenomena is explicated

  4. Income inequality, social cohesion and the health status of populations: the role of neo-liberalism.

    PubMed

    Coburn, D

    2000-07-01

    There has been a recent upsurge of interest in the relationship between income inequality and health within nations and between nations. On the latter topic Wilkinson and others believe that, in the advanced capitalist countries, higher income inequality leads to lowered social cohesion which in turn produces poorer health status. I argue that, despite a by-now voluminous literature, not enough attention has been paid to the social context of income inequality--health relationships or to the causes of income inequality itself. In this paper I contend that there is a particular affinity between neo-liberal (market-oriented) political doctrines, income inequality and lowered social cohesion. Neo-liberalism, it is argued, produces both higher income inequality and lowered social cohesion. Part of the negative effect of neo-liberalism on health status is due to its undermining of the welfare state. The welfare state may have direct effects on health as well as being one of the underlying structural causes of social cohesion. The rise of neo-liberalism and the decline of the welfare state are themselves tied to globalization and the changing class structures of the advanced capitalist societies. More attention should be paid to understanding the causes of income inequalities and not just to its effects because income inequalities are neither necessary nor inevitable. Moreover, understanding the contextual causes of inequality may also influence our notion of the causal pathways involved in inequality-health status relationships (and vice versa).

  5. Income Related Inequality of Health Care Access in Japan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Misuzu; Hata, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the association between income level and health care access in Japan. Data from a total of 222,259 subjects (age range, 0–74 years) who submitted National Health Insurance claims in Chiba City from April 2012 to March 2014 and who declared income for the tax period from January 1 to December 31, 2012 were integrated and analyzed. The generalized estimating equation, in which household was defined as a cluster, was used to evaluate the association between equivalent income and utilization and duration of hospitalization and outpatient care services. A significant positive linear association was observed between income level and outpatient visit rates among all age groups of both sexes; however, a significantly higher rate and longer period of hospitalization, and longer outpatient care, were observed among certain lower income subgroups. To control for decreased income due to hospitalization, subjects hospitalized during the previous year were excluded, and the data was then reanalyzed. Significant inverse associations remained in the hospitalization rate among 40–59-year-old men and 60–69-year-old women, and in duration of hospitalization among 40–59 and 60–69-year-olds of both sexes and 70–74-year-old women. These results suggest that low-income individuals in Japan have poorer access to outpatient care and more serious health conditions than their higher income counterparts. PMID:26978270

  6. Targeting interventions for ethnic minority and low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in childhood obesity prevalence by race and ethnicity and by socioeconomic status. They show how various environmental factors can have larger effects on disadvantaged and minority children than on their advantaged white peers-and thus contribute to disparities in obesity rates. The authors show, for example, that low-income and minority children watch more television than white, non-poor children and are potentially exposed to more commercials advertising high-calorie, low-nutrient food during an average hour of TV programming. They note that neighborhoods where low-income and minority children live typically have more fast-food restaurants and fewer vendors of healthful foods than do wealthier or predominantly white neighborhoods. They cite such obstacles to physical activity as unsafe streets, dilapidated parks, and lack of facilities. In the schools that low-income and minority children attend, however, they see opportunities to lead the way to effective obesity prevention. Finally, the authors examine several aspects of the home environment-breast-feeding, television viewing, and parental behaviors-that may contribute to childhood obesity but be amenable to change through targeted intervention. Kumanyika and Grier point out that policymakers aiming to prevent obesity can use many existing policy levers to reach ethnic minority and low-income children and families: Medicaid, the State Child Health Insurance Program, and federal nutrition "safety net" programs. Ultimately, winning the fight against childhood obesity in minority and low-income communities will depend on the nation's will to change the social and physical

  7. 26 CFR 1.61-1 - Gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gross income. 1.61-1 Section 1.61-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.61-1...

  8. 26 CFR 1.61-1 - Gross income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gross income. 1.61-1 Section 1.61-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.61-1...

  9. 26 CFR 1.803-4 - Taxable income and deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of other taxpayers is excluded from gross income by section 103 but included in the gross income of a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-4 Taxable income and deductions. (a) In general. The taxable income of a life insurance company is its gross amount of income received or...

  10. 26 CFR 1.803-4 - Taxable income and deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of other taxpayers is excluded from gross income by section 103 but included in the gross income of a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-4 Taxable income and deductions. (a) In general. The taxable income of a life insurance company is its gross amount of income received or...

  11. 26 CFR 1.803-4 - Taxable income and deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of other taxpayers is excluded from gross income by section 103 but included in the gross income of a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-4 Taxable income and deductions. (a) In general. The taxable income of a life insurance company is its gross amount of income received or...

  12. 26 CFR 1.803-4 - Taxable income and deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of other taxpayers is excluded from gross income by section 103 but included in the gross income of a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-4 Taxable income and deductions. (a) In general. The taxable income of a life insurance company is its gross amount of income received or...

  13. 26 CFR 1.803-4 - Taxable income and deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of other taxpayers is excluded from gross income by section 103 but included in the gross income of a... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Life Insurance Companies § 1.803-4 Taxable income and deductions. (a) In general. The taxable income of a life insurance company is its gross amount of income received or...

  14. 26 CFR 1.894-1 - Income affected by treaty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Income affected by treaty. 1.894-1 Section 1.894-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.894-1 Income affected by treaty. (a) Income exempt under treaty. Income of any kind is not...

  15. 26 CFR 1.894-1 - Income affected by treaty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Income affected by treaty. 1.894-1 Section 1.894-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.894-1 Income affected by treaty. (a) Income exempt under treaty. Income of any kind...

  16. 26 CFR 1.894-1 - Income affected by treaty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Income affected by treaty. 1.894-1 Section 1.894-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.894-1 Income affected by treaty. (a) Income exempt under treaty. Income of any kind...

  17. 26 CFR 1.894-1 - Income affected by treaty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Income affected by treaty. 1.894-1 Section 1.894-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.894-1 Income affected by treaty. (a) Income exempt under treaty. Income of any kind...

  18. 26 CFR 1.894-1 - Income affected by treaty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Income affected by treaty. 1.894-1 Section 1.894-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.894-1 Income affected by treaty. (a) Income exempt under treaty. Income of any kind...

  19. Prevalence of chronic disease and its controlled status according to income level.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seohyun; Lee, Byungmo; Park, Mingu; Oh, Sewon; Chin, Ho Jun; Koo, Hoseok

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between the prevalence of chronic diseases and income level has now become a main theme in poor national economic situations. We examined the prevalence of well-controlled chronic diseases according to income level. Data from the 2008 to 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted by using a stratified, multistage, probability-cluster sampling method, were used. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) inversely correlated with income level (P < 0.001). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) showed no relationship. In the low-income group, the prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) were highest but the proportion of patients with well-controlled chronic disease and the SBPs of the patients with hypertension showed a decreasing trend. In the high-income group, the proportions of patients with well-controlled DM and chronic kidney disease were higher than those in other groups. After adjusting for age, body mass index, SBP, DBP, HbA1c level, and serum creatinine level, income level significantly affected the prevalence of chronic diseases (for income, β=0.184; 95% confidence interval, 1.105-1.042). The daily sodium intake estimated by using spot urine samples was higher in the low- and low-to-mid-income groups. The prevalence of not using essential medical service for chronic disease was highest in the low- and low-to-mid-income groups for economic reasons. In the low- and low-to-mid-income groups, the prevalence of chronic disease was higher and the proportion of patients with well-controlled chronic disease was lower than in the other groups.

  20. Managed Care, Professional Autonomy, and Income

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Jeffrey J; Hargraves, J Lee; Reed, Marie; Vratil, Alison

    2001-01-01

    CONTEXT Career satisfaction among physicians is a topic of importance to physicians in practice, physicians in training, health system administrators, physician organization executives, and consumers. The level of career satisfaction derived by physicians from their work is a basic yet essential element in the functioning of the health care system. OBJECTIVE To examine the degree to which professional autonomy, compensation, and managed care are determinants of career satisfaction among physicians. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis using data from 1996–97 Community Tracking Study physician telephone survey. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS A nationally representative sample of 12,385 direct patient care physicians. The survey response rate was 65%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Overall career satisfaction among U.S. physicians. RESULTS Bivariate results show that physicians with low managed care revenues are significantly more likely to be “very satisfied” than are physicians with high managed care revenue (P < .05), and that physicians with low managed care revenues are significantly more likely to report higher levels of clinical freedom than are physicians with high managed care revenue (P < .05). Multivariate analyses demonstrate that, among our measures, traditional core professional values and autonomy are the most important determinants of career satisfaction after controlling for all other factors. Relative income is also an important independent predictor. Multiple dimensions of professional autonomy hold up as strong, independent predictors of career satisfaction, while the effect of managed care does not. Managed care appears to exert its effect on satisfaction through its impact on professional autonomy, not through income reduction. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that when managed care (or other influences) erode professional autonomy, the result is a highly negative impact on physician career satisfaction. PMID:11679035

  1. Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.

    PubMed

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries.

  2. A global prospective of income distribution and its effect on life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management: a review.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pooja; Samadder, S R

    2017-01-29

    This study reviewed the municipal solid waste (MSW) composition, the management practices, and the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) tool for MSW management (MSWM) options in the various income group countries. LCA studies require inventory data, which is difficult to procure for any country including higher income group countries, and this issue gets compounded in low-income and lower middle-income group countries, which limits the implementation of LCA. This paper compared the use of LCA for MSWM between high-income and low-income group countries and also highlights the gap in using LCA for MSWM. A very limited number of LCA studies on MSWM were found for low-income group countries in comparison to high-income group countries. The study also provided a critical discussion on the challenges in applications of LCA in MSWM for better solid waste management in low-income and lower middle-income group countries. The study will help in taking up LCA studies in low-income countries to improve the overall MSWM efficiency.

  3. Acute aerobic exercise: an intervention for the selective visual attention and reading comprehension of low-income adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tine, Michele

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for feasible and research-based interventions that target the cognitive performance and academic achievement of low-income adolescents. In response, this study utilized a randomized experimental design and assessed the selective visual attention (SVA) and reading comprehension abilities of low-income adolescents and, for comparison purposes, high-income adolescents after they engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise. The results suggest that 12-min of aerobic exercise improved the SVA of low- and high-income adolescents and that the benefit lasted for 45-min for both groups. The SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was particularly large. In fact, the SVA improvement among the low-income adolescents was substantial enough to eliminate a pre-existing income gap in SVA. The mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents who engaged in 12-min of aerobic exercise was higher than the mean reading comprehension score of low-income adolescents in the control group. However, there was no difference between the mean reading comprehension scores of the high-income adolescents who did and did not engage in 12-min of aerobic exercise. Based on the results, schools serving low-income adolescents should consider implementing brief sessions of aerobic exercise during the school day. PMID:24966846

  4. Dollar for Dollar: Racial and ethnic inequalities in health and health-related outcomes among persons with very high income.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kanetha B; Thorpe, Roland J; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2017-03-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health have been well-documented, and low SES is widely considered to be a driver of this relationship. However, the race-social class-health interrelationship is complex, as several studies have found race disparities between racial/ethnic minorities and whites at middle- income levels. Research on higher income persons is complicated by the lack of data for persons with incomes about $75,000. Most national datasets collect income data in categories with the highest income category being $75,000 and above. In our study, we examined racial/ethnic disparities in health status and behaviors among persons of very high income, reported income of $175,000 or above per year. Data are from the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys (MEPS). Our findings revealed health disparities in 10 of the 16 health-related outcomes selected. African Americans were most dissimilar to whites at this income and with disadvantages on 6 health outcomes relative to whites. While results also showed some disparities for Asian Americans and Hispanic Americans relative to whites, these groups were advantaged, relative to whites on several health outcomes. Our findings indicate that income does not fully explain racial/ethnic disparities in health. Most public interventions are targeted to low income persons. However, public health interventions should target minority individuals of very high income as well, especially African Americans.

  5. Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

  6. 5 CFR 2634.302 - Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... United States Government employment, including the Thrift Savings Plan, or from Social Security); (3) Any... source and type of investment income, characterized as dividends, rents, interest, capital gains,...

  7. 5 CFR 2634.302 - Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States Government employment, including the Thrift Savings Plan, or from Social Security); (3) Any... source and type of investment income, characterized as dividends, rents, interest, capital gains,...

  8. 5 CFR 2634.302 - Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... United States Government employment, including the Thrift Savings Plan, or from Social Security); (3) Any... source and type of investment income, characterized as dividends, rents, interest, capital gains,...

  9. Elderly poverty and supplemental security income, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Joyce; Wiseman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program is the nation's safety net for the aged, blind, and disabled. SSI receipt is often not reported by individuals interviewed in the Current Population Survey (CPS), the statistical base for the Census Bureau's annual estimates of poverty rates. In an earlier article, we explored the effect on estimated poverty rates in 2002 of adjusting CPS income reports using administrative data on earnings and benefits from the SSI and Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance programs. We assessed poverty using both the official standard and a "relative" standard based on half of median pretax, posttransfer income. This article extends that work through 2005. We find that including administrative data presents challenges, but under the methodology we adopt, such adjustments lower estimated official poverty overall and increase estimated poverty rates for elderly SSI recipients. Relative poverty rates are much higher than official poverty rates. By any of the applied standards and procedures for income adjustment, poverty changed little over the 2002-2005 interval.

  10. Population increase, economic growth, educational inequality, and income distribution: some recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Ram, R

    1984-04-01

    The relationship between population increase, economic growth, education and income inequality was examined in a cross-section study based on data from 26 developing and 2 developed countries. As other studies have noted, high population growth is associated with a less equal income distribution. A 1 percentage point reduction in the rate of population growth tends to raise the income share of the poorest 80% in the less developed world by almost 5 percentage points and is associated with a 1.7 percentage point increase in the income share of the poorest 40%. The relationship between short-run income growth and equality, on the other hand, is strong and positive. Estimates suggest that a 1 percentage point increase in the short-run rate of growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) increases the income share of the bottom 80% by about 2 percentage points and that of the poorest 40% by almost 1 percentage point. Although higher mean schooling appears to be a mild equalizer, educational inequality does not appear to have an adverse effect on income distribution. Overall, these results challenge the widely held belief that there must be a growth-equity trade-off. Moreover, they suggest that the impact of educational inequality on income distribution may be different from that observed in earlier studies, implying a need for caution in using these earlier results as a basis for educational policy development.

  11. A comparative analysis of avoidable causes of childhood blindness in Malaysia with low income, middle income and high income countries.

    PubMed

    Koay, C L; Patel, D K; Tajunisah, I; Subrayan, V; Lansingh, V C

    2015-04-01

    To determine the avoidable causes of childhood blindness in Malaysia and to compare this to other middle income countries, low income countries and high income countries. Data were obtained from a school of the blind study by Patel et al. and analysed for avoidable causes of childhood blindness. Six other studies with previously published data on childhood blindness in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Indonesia, China and the United Kingdom were reviewed for avoidable causes. Comparisons of data and limitations of the studies are described. Prevalence of avoidable causes of childhood blindness in Malaysia is 50.5 % of all the cases of childhood blindness, whilst in the poor income countries such as Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Indonesia, the prevalence was in excess of 60 %. China had a low prevalence, but this is largely due to the fact that most schools were urban, and thus did not represent the situation of the country. High income countries had the lowest prevalence of avoidable childhood blindness. In middle income countries, such as Malaysia, cataract and retinopathy of prematurity are the main causes of avoidable childhood blindness. Low income countries continue to struggle with infections such as measles and nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin A, both of which are the main contributors to childhood blindness. In high income countries, such as the United Kingdom, these problems are almost non-existent.

  12. The Professional Success of Higher Education Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Harald

    2007-01-01

    Measures of professional success provided by surveys on higher education graduates can be divided into objective (e.g. income or professional position) and subjective (e.g. job satisfaction, reported use of knowledge and skills, work autonomy) indicators. In this article a broad range of measures of professional success is used to describe aspects…

  13. Strategies for reducing inequalities and improving developmental outcomes for young children in low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Engle, Patrice L; Fernald, Lia C H; Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere; O'Gara, Chloe; Yousafzai, Aisha; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Hidrobo, Melissa; Ulkuer, Nurper; Ertem, Ilgi; Iltus, Selim

    2011-10-08

    This report is the second in a Series on early child development in low-income and middle-income countries and assesses the effectiveness of early child development interventions, such as parenting support and preschool enrolment. The evidence reviewed suggests that early child development can be improved through these interventions, with effects greater for programmes of higher quality and for the most vulnerable children. Other promising interventions for the promotion of early child development include children's educational media, interventions with children at high risk, and combining the promotion of early child development with conditional cash transfer programmes. Effective investments in early child development have the potential to reduce inequalities perpetuated by poverty, poor nutrition, and restricted learning opportunities. A simulation model of the potential long-term economic effects of increasing preschool enrolment to 25% or 50% in every low-income and middle-income country showed a benefit-to-cost ratio ranging from 6·4 to 17·6, depending on preschool enrolment rate and discount rate.

  14. Prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages in high and low per capita income areas.

    PubMed

    Watters, Corilee A; Corrado, Rachel S; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To better understand availability and price of beverages in Hawai'i, the prices of healthy (milk, orange juice, unsweetened tea, unsweetened coffee, diet soda) and unhealthy beverages (regular soda, fruit drink, sports drink, sweetened tea, flavored water) were collected and the beverage prices in lower per capita income areas and higher per capita income areas were compared. Cross-sectional data on prices of healthy and unhealthy beverages were collected from supermarkets, convenience stores, and quick serve restaurants from two lower per capita income areas (Waimanalo and Wai'anae) and two higher per capita income areas (Hawai'i Kai and Manoa) on O'ahu, Hawai'i from May 15 to June 10, 2012. Using composite data from across all areas, there was a significant difference of $0.58 (95% CI 0.46, 0.70) between the healthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.76 ± $0.86) and the unhealthy beverages' mean price per 20 ounces ($1.18 ± $0.38) (P <.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference between per capita income areas, the lower per capita income areas' mean price per 20 ounces of healthy beverages was slightly higher and mean price per 20 ounces of unhealthy beverages was slightly lower than the higher per capita income areas. Pricing strategies that enable healthy beverages to be less expensive than unhealthy beverages is one method to increase consumption of healthy beverages and decrease consumption of unhealthy beverages. Reduction in unhealthy beverage consumption is needed to help reduce obesity, especially in the lower per capita income areas that have higher obesity prevalence.

  15. Measuring Income and Projecting Energy Use

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2009-11-01

    Abstract: Energy is a key requirement for a healthy, productive life and a major driver of the emissions leading to an increasingly warm planet. The implications of a doubling and redoubling of per capita incomes over the remainder of this century for energy use are a critical input into understanding the magnitude of the carbon management problem. A substantial controversy about how the Special Report on Emssions Scenarios (SRES) measured income and the potential implications of how income was measured for long term levels of energy use is revisited again in the McKibbin, Pearce and Stegman article appearing elsewhere in this issue. The recent release of a new set of purchasing power estimates of national income, and the preparations for creating new scenarios to support the IPCC’s fifth assessment highlight the importance of the issues which have arisen surrounding income and energy use. Comparing the 1993 and 2005 ICP results on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) based measures of income reveals that not only do the 2005 ICP estimates share the same issue of common growth rates for real income as measured by PPP and US $, but the lack of coherence in the estimates of PPP incomes, especially for developing countries raises yet another obstacle to resolving the best way to measure income. Further, the common use of an income term to mediate energy demand (as in the Kaya identity) obscures an underlying reality about per capita energy demands, leading to unreasonable estimates of the impact of changing income measures and of the recent high GDP growth rates in India and China. Significant new research is required to create both a reasonable set of GDP growth rates and long term levels of energy use.

  16. 75 FR 9141 - Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI67 Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... guidance as to qualified individuals with small business income who certify that they satisfy the...

  17. 78 FR 13221 - Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI67 Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final... section 6654 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) relating to reduced estimated income tax payments...

  18. 75 FR 9101 - Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI89 Reduced 2009 Estimated Income Tax Payments for Individuals With Small Business Income AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final and... the Internal Revenue Code (Code) relating to reduced estimated income tax payments for...

  19. 75 FR 27572 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income AGENCY... and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0086. Form Numbers: None--form... INFORMATION CONTACT: Leroy McKinney Jr., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and...

  20. Income in the United States: 2002. Current Population Reports. Consumer Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeNavas-Walt, Carmen; Cleveland, Robert W.; Webster, Bruce H., Jr.

    Using data from the 2003 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement, this study found that real median household money income declined by 1.1 percent between 2001-2002 to $42,409. Real median household income was unchanged between 2001-2002 for three of four alternative income definitions. The fourth, real median household…

  1. 75 FR 80364 - Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ...-Income Definition AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... variety of factors and data to determine whether the member meets the low-income definition. The variety... definition. Factors recognize the following: (1) Data sources include both decennial income data as well...

  2. 75 FR 1271 - Technical Revisions to the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Regulations on Income and Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 RIN 0960-AG66 Technical Revisions to the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Regulations on Income and Resources AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: We are amending our Supplemental Security Income (SSI) regulations by making technical revisions to...

  3. 7 CFR 1944.670 - Project income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Project income. 1944.670 Section 1944.670 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.670 Project income. (a) Project...

  4. 45 CFR 74.82 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 74.82 Section 74.82 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Special Provisions for Awards to Commercial Organizations § 74.82 Program income. The additional costs alternative described in § 74.24(b)(1) may not be applied to program...

  5. 22 CFR 518.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Program income. 518.24 Section 518.24 Foreign... Financial and Program Management § 518.24 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program...

  6. 22 CFR 518.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Program income. 518.24 Section 518.24 Foreign... Financial and Program Management § 518.24 Program income. (a) Federal awarding agencies shall apply the standards set forth in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program...

  7. 45 CFR 74.82 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 74.82 Section 74.82 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Special Provisions for Awards to Commercial Organizations § 74.82 Program income. The additional costs alternative described in § 74.24(b)(1) may not be applied to program...

  8. Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…

  9. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a)...

  10. 22 CFR 226.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Program income. 226.24 Section 226.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.24 Program income. (a)...

  11. 24 CFR 85.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Program income. 85.25 Section 85.25 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.25 Program income. (a)...

  12. 22 CFR 226.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Program income. 226.24 Section 226.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.24 Program income. (a)...

  13. 24 CFR 85.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Program income. 85.25 Section 85.25 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.25 Program income. (a)...

  14. 24 CFR 85.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Program income. 85.25 Section 85.25 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.25 Program income. (a)...

  15. 22 CFR 226.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Program income. 226.24 Section 226.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.24 Program income. (a)...

  16. Household Income of Retired Social Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Conducted study which attempted to estimate the average household income of recently retired social workers and to compare it with that of retired professionals from similar occupations (nurses, teachers, doctors, and lawyers). Found retired social workers received the lowest income, on average, of all groups studied. (Author)

  17. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess Income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Eligibility Requirements for Mortgage Insurance... Section 236 interest reduction payments may apply to retain Excess Income for project use unless the mortgagor owes prior Excess Income and is not current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or...

  18. A Simple Geometry of Income Elasticities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavey, Jerome F.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, although most economics students are acquainted with the graphical analysis of the income and substitution effects of a price change, they often fail to appreciate that the same graphs provide information on the income elasticities of the two goods. Illustrates the proof of this concept using mathematical formulae and five graphic…

  19. Income and poverty in a developing economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Ackland, G. J.; Mallick, S. K.

    2010-09-01

    We present a stochastic agent-based model for the distribution of personal incomes in a developing economy. We start with the assumption that incomes are determined both by individual labour and by stochastic effects of trading and investment. The income from personal effort alone is distributed about a mean, while the income from trade, which may be positive or negative, is proportional to the trader's income. These assumptions lead to a Langevin model with multiplicative noise, from which we derive a Fokker-Planck (FP) equation for the income probability density function (IPDF) and its variation in time. We find that high earners have a power law income distribution while the low-income groups have a Levy IPDF. Comparing our analysis with the Indian survey data (obtained from the world bank website: http://go.worldbank.org/SWGZB45DN0) taken over many years we obtain a near-perfect data collapse onto our model's equilibrium IPDF. Using survey data to relate the IPDF to actual food consumption we define a poverty index (Sen A. K., Econometrica., 44 (1976) 219; Kakwani N. C., Econometrica, 48 (1980) 437), which is consistent with traditional indices, but independent of an arbitrarily chosen "poverty line" and therefore less susceptible to manipulation.

  20. 24 CFR 236.60 - Excess income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mortgagor owes prior Excess Income and is not current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or Repayment... current in payments under a HUD-approved Workout or Repayment Agreement or the mortgagor falls within any... of Excess Income that was: (i) Repaid in accordance with a Workout or Repayment Agreement with...