Human motion perception: Higher-order organization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.
1990-01-01
An overview is given of higher-order motion perception and organization. It is argued that motion is sufficient to fully specify a number of environmental properties, including: depth order, three-dimensional form, object displacement, and dynamics. A grammar of motion perception is proposed; applications of this work for display design are discussed.
Dichotomous Identification Keys: A Ladder to Higher Order Knowledge about the Human Body
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sorgo, Andrej
2006-01-01
We tried to enrich teaching human anatomy in high school biology lessons. Students construct dichotomous identification keys to the cells, tissues, organs, or body parts. By doing this, students have achieved higher-order cognitive levels of knowledge because construction of such keys is based on analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Students found…
Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin
2016-03-01
From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.
Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States.
Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin
2016-01-01
From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects' affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain's motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states. PMID:26996254
Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States
Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin
2016-01-01
From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states. PMID:26996254
Stone, Joanne; Kohari, Katherine S
2015-09-01
Higher-order multiple gestations have increased since the advent of advanced reproductive technologies. These pregnancies present unique risks to both mothers and fetuses. It is imperative that early diagnosis of chronicity be determined and that proper counseling is performed, so patients understand the risks, evaluation, and management needed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chou, Jin
1993-01-01
Rational Bezier and B-spline representations of circles have been heavily publicized. However, all the literature assumes the rational Bezier segments in the homogeneous space are both planar and (equivalent to) quadratic. This creates the illusion that circles can only be achieved by planar and quadratic curves. Circles that are formed by higher order rational Bezier curves which are nonplanar in the homogeneous space are shown. The problem of whether it is possible to represent a complete circle with one Bezier curve is investigated. In addition, some other interesting properties of cubic Bezier arcs are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Lixia; Dai, Yun; Rao, Xuejun; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Yiyun; Liu, Qian; Jiang, Wenhan
2008-01-01
Higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye to some extent. To evaluate how much visual benefit can be obtained with higher-order aberrations correction we developed an adaptive optics vision simulator (AOVS). Dynamic real time optimized modal compensation was used to implement various customized higher-order ocular aberrations correction strategies. The experimental results indicate that higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye comparing with only lower-order aberration correction but the improvement degree and higher-order aberration correction strategy are different from each individual. Some subjects can acquire great visual benefit when higher-order aberrations were corrected but some subjects acquire little visual benefit even though all higher-order aberrations were corrected. Therefore, relative to general lower-order aberrations correction strategy, customized higher-order aberrations correction strategy is needed to obtain optimal visual improvement for each individual. AOVS provides an effective tool for higher-order ocular aberrations optometry for customized ocular aberrations correction.
Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans.
Fagundo, Ana B; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Islam, Mohammed Anisul; de la Torre, Rafael; Pastor, Antoni; Casanueva, Felipe F; Crujeiras, Ana B; Granero, Roser; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Menchón, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
2015-01-01
The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ''Sniffin' Sticks'' test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen's-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen's-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants' age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. PMID:26083418
Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans
Fagundo, Ana B.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Islam, Mohammed Anisul; de la Torre, Rafael; Pastor, Antoni; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Granero, Roser; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Menchón, José M.; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
2015-01-01
The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ‘‘Sniffin’ Sticks’’ test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen’s-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen’s-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants’ age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. PMID:26083418
Modulation of Higher-Order Olfaction Components on Executive Functions in Humans.
Fagundo, Ana B; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Islam, Mohammed Anisul; de la Torre, Rafael; Pastor, Antoni; Casanueva, Felipe F; Crujeiras, Ana B; Granero, Roser; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Menchón, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando
2015-01-01
The prefrontal (PFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) appear to be associated with both executive functions and olfaction. However, there is little data relating olfactory processing and executive functions in humans. The present study aimed at exploring the role of olfaction on executive functioning, making a distinction between primary and more cognitive aspects of olfaction. Three executive tasks of similar difficulty were used. One was used to assess hot executive functions (Iowa Gambling Task-IGT), and two as a measure of cold executive functioning (Stroop Colour and Word Test-SCWT and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-WCST). Sixty two healthy participants were included: 31 with normosmia and 31 with hyposmia. Olfactory abilities were assessed using the ''Sniffin' Sticks'' test and the olfactory threshold, odour discrimination and odour identification measures were obtained. All participants were female, aged between 18 and 60. Results showed that participants with hyposmia displayed worse performance in decision making (IGT; Cohen's-d = 0.91) and cognitive flexibility (WCST; Cohen's-d between 0.54 and 0.68) compared to those with normosmia. Multiple regression adjusted by the covariates participants' age and education level showed a positive association between odour identification and the cognitive inhibition response (SCWT-interference; Beta = 0.29; p = .034). The odour discrimination capacity was not a predictor of the cognitive executive performance. Our results suggest that both hot and cold executive functions seem to be associated with higher-order olfactory functioning in humans. These results robustly support the hypothesis that olfaction and executive measures have a common neural substrate in PFC and OFC, and suggest that olfaction might be a reliable cognitive marker in psychiatric and neurologic disorders.
Assessing reliable human mobility patterns from higher order memory in mobile communications.
Matamalas, Joan T; De Domenico, Manlio; Arenas, Alex
2016-08-01
Understanding how people move within a geographical area, e.g. a city, a country or the whole world, is fundamental in several applications, from predicting the spatio-temporal evolution of an epidemic to inferring migration patterns. Mobile phone records provide an excellent proxy of human mobility, showing that movements exhibit a high level of memory. However, the precise role of memory in widely adopted proxies of mobility, as mobile phone records, is unknown. Here we use 560 million call detail records from Senegal to show that standard Markovian approaches, including higher order ones, fail in capturing real mobility patterns and introduce spurious movements never observed in reality. We introduce an adaptive memory-driven approach to overcome such issues. At variance with Markovian models, it is able to realistically model conditional waiting times, i.e. the probability to stay in a specific area depending on individuals' historical movements. Our results demonstrate that in standard mobility models the individuals tend to diffuse faster than observed in reality, whereas the predictions of the adaptive memory approach significantly agree with observations. We show that, as a consequence, the incidence and the geographical spread of a disease could be inadequately estimated when standard approaches are used, with crucial implications on resources deployment and policy-making during an epidemic outbreak. PMID:27581479
Assessing reliable human mobility patterns from higher order memory in mobile communications.
Matamalas, Joan T; De Domenico, Manlio; Arenas, Alex
2016-08-01
Understanding how people move within a geographical area, e.g. a city, a country or the whole world, is fundamental in several applications, from predicting the spatio-temporal evolution of an epidemic to inferring migration patterns. Mobile phone records provide an excellent proxy of human mobility, showing that movements exhibit a high level of memory. However, the precise role of memory in widely adopted proxies of mobility, as mobile phone records, is unknown. Here we use 560 million call detail records from Senegal to show that standard Markovian approaches, including higher order ones, fail in capturing real mobility patterns and introduce spurious movements never observed in reality. We introduce an adaptive memory-driven approach to overcome such issues. At variance with Markovian models, it is able to realistically model conditional waiting times, i.e. the probability to stay in a specific area depending on individuals' historical movements. Our results demonstrate that in standard mobility models the individuals tend to diffuse faster than observed in reality, whereas the predictions of the adaptive memory approach significantly agree with observations. We show that, as a consequence, the incidence and the geographical spread of a disease could be inadequately estimated when standard approaches are used, with crucial implications on resources deployment and policy-making during an epidemic outbreak.
Toda, Shinji; Fujita, Takeshi; Arakawa, Hirohisa; Toda, Kohji
2005-03-01
An ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation technique of the layer thickness in human teeth is proposed using a leaky Lamb wave device with two arch-shaped interdigital transducers, operating at a plate/water interface. The use of a higher-order-mode leaky Lamb wave with a phase velocity higher than the longitudinal wave velocity in the human tooth is essential to detect reflected ultrasound beams from the tooth section The layer thickness of dentin, estimated from the measured time interval between two reflected echoes, is in good agreement with the optically measured data.
Deletion of DXZ4 on the human inactive X chromosome alters higher-order genome architecture.
Darrow, Emily M; Huntley, Miriam H; Dudchenko, Olga; Stamenova, Elena K; Durand, Neva C; Sun, Zhuo; Huang, Su-Chen; Sanborn, Adrian L; Machol, Ido; Shamim, Muhammad; Seberg, Andrew P; Lander, Eric S; Chadwick, Brian P; Aiden, Erez Lieberman
2016-08-01
During interphase, the inactive X chromosome (Xi) is largely transcriptionally silent and adopts an unusual 3D configuration known as the "Barr body." Despite the importance of X chromosome inactivation, little is known about this 3D conformation. We recently showed that in humans the Xi chromosome exhibits three structural features, two of which are not shared by other chromosomes. First, like the chromosomes of many species, Xi forms compartments. Second, Xi is partitioned into two huge intervals, called "superdomains," such that pairs of loci in the same superdomain tend to colocalize. The boundary between the superdomains lies near DXZ4, a macrosatellite repeat whose Xi allele extensively binds the protein CCCTC-binding factor. Third, Xi exhibits extremely large loops, up to 77 megabases long, called "superloops." DXZ4 lies at the anchor of several superloops. Here, we combine 3D mapping, microscopy, and genome editing to study the structure of Xi, focusing on the role of DXZ4 We show that superloops and superdomains are conserved across eutherian mammals. By analyzing ligation events involving three or more loci, we demonstrate that DXZ4 and other superloop anchors tend to colocate simultaneously. Finally, we show that deleting DXZ4 on Xi leads to the disappearance of superdomains and superloops, changes in compartmentalization patterns, and changes in the distribution of chromatin marks. Thus, DXZ4 is essential for proper Xi packaging. PMID:27432957
Deletion of DXZ4 on the human inactive X chromosome alters higher-order genome architecture
Darrow, Emily M.; Huntley, Miriam H.; Dudchenko, Olga; Stamenova, Elena K.; Durand, Neva C.; Sun, Zhuo; Huang, Su-Chen; Sanborn, Adrian L.; Machol, Ido; Shamim, Muhammad; Seberg, Andrew P.; Lander, Eric S.; Chadwick, Brian P.; Aiden, Erez Lieberman
2016-01-01
During interphase, the inactive X chromosome (Xi) is largely transcriptionally silent and adopts an unusual 3D configuration known as the “Barr body.” Despite the importance of X chromosome inactivation, little is known about this 3D conformation. We recently showed that in humans the Xi chromosome exhibits three structural features, two of which are not shared by other chromosomes. First, like the chromosomes of many species, Xi forms compartments. Second, Xi is partitioned into two huge intervals, called “superdomains,” such that pairs of loci in the same superdomain tend to colocalize. The boundary between the superdomains lies near DXZ4, a macrosatellite repeat whose Xi allele extensively binds the protein CCCTC-binding factor. Third, Xi exhibits extremely large loops, up to 77 megabases long, called “superloops.” DXZ4 lies at the anchor of several superloops. Here, we combine 3D mapping, microscopy, and genome editing to study the structure of Xi, focusing on the role of DXZ4. We show that superloops and superdomains are conserved across eutherian mammals. By analyzing ligation events involving three or more loci, we demonstrate that DXZ4 and other superloop anchors tend to colocate simultaneously. Finally, we show that deleting DXZ4 on Xi leads to the disappearance of superdomains and superloops, changes in compartmentalization patterns, and changes in the distribution of chromatin marks. Thus, DXZ4 is essential for proper Xi packaging. PMID:27432957
Deletion of DXZ4 on the human inactive X chromosome alters higher-order genome architecture.
Darrow, Emily M; Huntley, Miriam H; Dudchenko, Olga; Stamenova, Elena K; Durand, Neva C; Sun, Zhuo; Huang, Su-Chen; Sanborn, Adrian L; Machol, Ido; Shamim, Muhammad; Seberg, Andrew P; Lander, Eric S; Chadwick, Brian P; Aiden, Erez Lieberman
2016-08-01
During interphase, the inactive X chromosome (Xi) is largely transcriptionally silent and adopts an unusual 3D configuration known as the "Barr body." Despite the importance of X chromosome inactivation, little is known about this 3D conformation. We recently showed that in humans the Xi chromosome exhibits three structural features, two of which are not shared by other chromosomes. First, like the chromosomes of many species, Xi forms compartments. Second, Xi is partitioned into two huge intervals, called "superdomains," such that pairs of loci in the same superdomain tend to colocalize. The boundary between the superdomains lies near DXZ4, a macrosatellite repeat whose Xi allele extensively binds the protein CCCTC-binding factor. Third, Xi exhibits extremely large loops, up to 77 megabases long, called "superloops." DXZ4 lies at the anchor of several superloops. Here, we combine 3D mapping, microscopy, and genome editing to study the structure of Xi, focusing on the role of DXZ4 We show that superloops and superdomains are conserved across eutherian mammals. By analyzing ligation events involving three or more loci, we demonstrate that DXZ4 and other superloop anchors tend to colocate simultaneously. Finally, we show that deleting DXZ4 on Xi leads to the disappearance of superdomains and superloops, changes in compartmentalization patterns, and changes in the distribution of chromatin marks. Thus, DXZ4 is essential for proper Xi packaging.
Fang, Qianglin; Chen, Ping; Wang, Mingzhu; Fang, Junnan; Yang, Na; Li, Guohong; Xu, Rui-Ming
2016-01-01
Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) immediate early 1 (IE1) protein associates with condensed chromatin of the host cell during mitosis. We have determined the structure of the chromatin-tethering domain (CTD) of IE1 bound to the nucleosome core particle, and discovered that the specific interaction between IE1-CTD and the H2A-H2B acidic patch impairs the compaction of higher-order chromatin structure. Our results suggest that IE1 loosens up the folding of host chromatin during hCMV infections. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11911.001 PMID:26812545
Moratti, S; Méndez-Bértolo, C; Del-Pozo, F; Strange, B A
2014-02-01
To perceive a coherent environment, incomplete or overlapping visual forms must be integrated into meaningful coherent percepts, a process referred to as "Gestalt" formation or perceptual completion. Increasing evidence suggests that this process engages oscillatory neuronal activity in a distributed neuronal assembly. A separate line of evidence suggests that Gestalt formation requires top-down feedback from higher order brain regions to early visual cortex. Here we combine magnetoencephalography (MEG) and effective connectivity analysis in the frequency domain to specifically address the effective coupling between sources of oscillatory brain activity during Gestalt formation. We demonstrate that perceptual completion of two-tone "Mooney" faces induces increased gamma frequency band power (55-71Hz) in human early visual, fusiform and parietal cortices. Within this distributed neuronal assembly fusiform and parietal gamma oscillators are coupled by forward and backward connectivity during Mooney face perception, indicating reciprocal influences of gamma activity between these higher order visual brain regions. Critically, gamma band oscillations in early visual cortex are modulated by top-down feedback connectivity from both fusiform and parietal cortices. Thus, we provide a mechanistic account of Gestalt perception in which gamma oscillations in feature sensitive and spatial attention-relevant brain regions reciprocally drive one another and convey global stimulus aspects to local processing units at low levels of the sensory hierarchy by top-down feedback. Our data therefore support the notion of inverse hierarchical processing within the visual system underlying awareness of coherent percepts.
Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Weiss, Carmen; Casile, Antonino; Waszak, Florian
2012-02-01
In the absence of visual information, our brain is able to recognize the actions of others by representing their sounds as a motor event. Previous studies have provided evidence for a somatotopic activation of the listener's motor cortex during perception of the sound of highly familiar motor acts. The present experiments studied (a) how the motor system is activated by action-related sounds that are newly acquired and (b) whether these sounds are represented with reference to extrinsic features related to action goals rather than with respect to lower-level intrinsic parameters related to the specific movements. TMS was used to measure the correspondence between auditory and motor codes in the listener's motor system. We compared the corticomotor excitability in response to the presentation of auditory stimuli void of previous motor meaning before and after a short training period in which these stimuli were associated with voluntary actions. Novel cross-modal representations became manifest very rapidly. By disentangling the representation of the muscle from that of the action's goal, we further showed that passive listening to newly learnt action-related sounds activated a precise motor representation that depended on the variable contexts to which the individual was exposed during testing. Our results suggest that the human brain embodies a higher-order audio-visuo-motor representation of perceived actions, which is muscle-independent and corresponds to the goals of the action.
CENP-B box and pJalpha sequence distribution in human alpha satellite higher-order repeats (HOR).
Rosandić, Marija; Paar, Vladimir; Basar, Ivan; Gluncić, Matko; Pavin, Nenad; Pilas, Ivan
2006-01-01
Using our Key String Algorithm (KSA) to analyze Build 35.1 assembly we determined consensus alpha satellite higher-order repeats (HOR) and consensus distributions of CENP-B box and pJalpha motif in human chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 17, 19, and X. We determined new suprachromosomal family (SF) assignments: SF5 for 13mer (2211 bp), SF5 for 13mer (2214 bp), SF2 for 11mer (1869 bp), SF1 for 18mer (3058 bp), SF3 for 12mer (2047 bp), SF3 for 14mer (2379 bp), and SF5 for 17mer (2896 bp) in chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 17, and 19, respectively. In chromosome 5 we identified SF5 13mer without any CENP-B box and pJalpha motif, highly homologous (96%) to 13mer in chromosome 19. Additionally, in chromosome 19 we identified new SF5 17mer with one CENP-B box and pJalpha motif, aligned to 13mer by deleting four monomers. In chromosome 11 we identified SF3 12mer, homologous to 12mer in chromosome X. In chromosome 10 we identified new SF1 18mer with eight CENP-B boxes in every other monomer (except one). In chromosome 4 we identified new SF5 13mer with CENP-B box in three consecutive monomers. We found four exceptions to the rule that CENP-B box belongs to type B and pJalpha motif to type A monomers. PMID:17115329
Higher order turbulence closure models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der
1988-01-01
Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.
Generalized structure of higher order nonclassicality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban
2010-02-01
A generalized notion of higher order nonclassicality (in terms of higher order moments) is introduced. Under this generalized framework of higher order nonclassicality, conditions of higher order squeezing and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics are derived. A simpler form of the Hong-Mandel higher order squeezing criterion is derived under this framework by using an operator ordering theorem introduced by us in [A. Pathak, J. Phys. A 33 (2000) 5607]. It is also generalized for multi-photon Bose operators of Brandt and Greenberg. Similarly, condition for higher order subpoissonian photon statistics is derived by normal ordering of higher powers of number operator. Further, with the help of simple density matrices, it is shown that the higher order antibunching (HOA) and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics (HOSPS) are not the manifestation of the same phenomenon and consequently it is incorrect to use the condition of HOA as a test of HOSPS. It is also shown that the HOA and HOSPS may exist even in absence of the corresponding lower order phenomenon. Binomial state, nonlinear first order excited squeezed state (NLESS) and nonlinear vacuum squeezed state (NLVSS) are used as examples of quantum state and it is shown that these states may show higher order nonclassical characteristics. It is observed that the Binomial state which is always antibunched, is not always higher order squeezed and NLVSS which shows higher order squeezing does not show HOSPS and HOA. The opposite is observed in NLESS and consequently it is established that the HOSPS and HOS are two independent signatures of higher order nonclassicality.
Higher-Order Mentalising and Executive Functioning
2015-01-01
Higher-order mentalising is the ability to represent the beliefs and desires of other people at multiple, iterated levels – a capacity that sets humans apart from other species. However, there has not yet been a systematic attempt to determine what cognitive processes underlie this ability. Here we present three correlational studies assessing the extent to which performance on higher-order mentalising tasks relates to emotion recognition, self-reported empathy and self-inhibition. In Study 1a and 1b, examining emotion recognition and empathy, a relationship was identified between individual differences in the ability to mentalise and an emotion recognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task), but no correlation was found with the Empathy Quotient, a self-report scale of empathy. Study 2 investigated whether a relationship exists between individual mentalising abilities and four different forms of self-inhibition: motor inhibition, executive inhibition, automatic imitation and temporal discounting. Results demonstrate that only temporal discounting performance relates to mentalising ability; suggesting that cognitive skills relevant to representation of the minds of others’ are not influenced by the ability to perform more basic inhibition. Higher-order mentalising appears to rely on the cognitive architecture that serves both low-level social cognition (emotion recognition), and complex forms of inhibition. PMID:26543298
Higher-order organization of complex networks.
Benson, Austin R; Gleich, David F; Leskovec, Jure
2016-07-01
Networks are a fundamental tool for understanding and modeling complex systems in physics, biology, neuroscience, engineering, and social science. Many networks are known to exhibit rich, lower-order connectivity patterns that can be captured at the level of individual nodes and edges. However, higher-order organization of complex networks--at the level of small network subgraphs--remains largely unknown. Here, we develop a generalized framework for clustering networks on the basis of higher-order connectivity patterns. This framework provides mathematical guarantees on the optimality of obtained clusters and scales to networks with billions of edges. The framework reveals higher-order organization in a number of networks, including information propagation units in neuronal networks and hub structure in transportation networks. Results show that networks exhibit rich higher-order organizational structures that are exposed by clustering based on higher-order connectivity patterns.
Higher-order organization of complex networks.
Benson, Austin R; Gleich, David F; Leskovec, Jure
2016-07-01
Networks are a fundamental tool for understanding and modeling complex systems in physics, biology, neuroscience, engineering, and social science. Many networks are known to exhibit rich, lower-order connectivity patterns that can be captured at the level of individual nodes and edges. However, higher-order organization of complex networks--at the level of small network subgraphs--remains largely unknown. Here, we develop a generalized framework for clustering networks on the basis of higher-order connectivity patterns. This framework provides mathematical guarantees on the optimality of obtained clusters and scales to networks with billions of edges. The framework reveals higher-order organization in a number of networks, including information propagation units in neuronal networks and hub structure in transportation networks. Results show that networks exhibit rich higher-order organizational structures that are exposed by clustering based on higher-order connectivity patterns. PMID:27387949
Resonant radiation from oscillating higher order solitons
Driben, R.; Yulin, A. V.; Efimov, A.
2015-07-15
We present radiation mechanism exhibited by a higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution the higher-order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in formation of multipeak frequency comb-like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is corroborated by numerical simulations. Research showed that for longer pulses the described effect persists also under the action of higher order perturbations such as Raman and self-steepening.
Synthesis of higher order nonlinear circuit elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chua, L. O.; Szeto, E. W.
1984-02-01
Higher and mixed-order n-port circuit elements were introduced recently to provide a logically complete formulation for nonlinear circuit theory. In this paper, higher order mutators are defined and used to synthesize these elements. The class of all higher order mutators is shown to form a group under cascade interconnections. Each mutator is realized using only linear capacitors, linear inductors and linear controlled sources. An upper bound on each type of element needed to realize a mutator is also given. Each higher or mixed-order n-port element is realized by cascading approprimate mutators across each port of a nonlinear n-port resistor. The main theorem shows that any higher or mixed-order nonlinear n-port element with a constitutive relation defined on a compact set can be realized using linear capacitors, inductors, and controlled sources, and 2-terminal nonlinear resistors.
Lagrangian systems with higher order constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cendra, H.; Grillo, S. D.
2007-05-01
A class of mechanical systems subject to higher order constraints (i.e., constraints involving higher order derivatives of the position of the system) are studied. We call them higher order constrained systems (HOCSs). They include simplified models of elastic rolling bodies, and also the so-called generalized nonholonomic systems (GNHSs), whose constraints only involve the velocities of the system (i.e., first order derivatives in the position of the system). One of the features of this kind of systems is that D'Alembert's principle (or its nonlinear higher order generalization, the Chetaev's principle) is not necessarily satisfied. We present here, as another interesting example of HOCS, systems subjected to friction forces, showing that those forces can be encoded in a second order kinematic constraint. The main aim of the paper is to show that every HOCS is equivalent to a GNHS with linear constraints, in a canonical way. That is to say, systems with higher order constraints can be described in terms of one with linear constraints in velocities. We illustrate this fact with a system with friction and with Rocard's model [Dynamique Générale des Vibrations (1949), Chap. XV, p. 246 and L'instabilité en Mécanique; Automobiles, Avions, Ponts Suspendus (1954)] of a pneumatic tire. As a by-product, we introduce some applications on higher order tangent bundles, which we expect to be useful for the study of intrinsic aspects of the geometry of such bundles.
Higher-order force gradient symplectic algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, Siu A.; Kidwell, Donald W.
2000-12-01
We show that a recently discovered fourth order symplectic algorithm, which requires one evaluation of force gradient in addition to three evaluations of the force, when iterated to higher order, yielded algorithms that are far superior to similarly iterated higher order algorithms based on the standard Forest-Ruth algorithm. We gauge the accuracy of each algorithm by comparing the step-size independent error functions associated with energy conservation and the rotation of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector when solving a highly eccentric Kepler problem. For orders 6, 8, 10, and 12, the new algorithms are approximately a factor of 103, 104, 104, and 105 better.
Higher-order generic functions for CLOS
Hernandez, J.E.
1992-03-01
This paper presents a framework for developing higher-order generic functions within the Common Lisp Object System similar to the ones in Common Lisp for processing sequences. The framework consist of several CLOS classes which define a protocol that allows other classes to inherit default methods for many higher-order generic functions. These generic functions provide an elegant and uniform framework for processing CLOS objects that primarily represent collections of other objects.
Higher order equations of motion and gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lämmerzahl, Claus; Rademaker, Patricia
2012-12-01
Standard fundamental equations of motion for point particles are of second order in the time derivative. Here we are exploring the consequences of fundamental equations of motion with an additional small even higher order term to the standard formulation. This is related to two issues: (i) higher order equations of motion will have influence on the definition of the structure of possible interactions and in particular of the gravitational interaction, and (ii) such equations of motion provide a framework to test the validity of Newton’s second law which is the basis for the definition of forces but which assumes from the very beginning that the fundamental equations of motion are of second order. We will show that starting with our generalized equations of motions it is possible to introduce the space-time metric describing the gravitational interaction by means of a standard gauge principle. Another main result within our model of even higher order derivatives is that for slowly varying and smooth fields the higher order derivatives either lead to runaway solutions or induces a zitterbewegung. We confront this higher order scheme with experimental data.
Higher-Order Neural Networks Recognize Patterns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Ochoa, Ellen
1996-01-01
Networks of higher order have enhanced capabilities to distinguish between different two-dimensional patterns and to recognize those patterns. Also enhanced capabilities to "learn" patterns to be recognized: "trained" with far fewer examples and, therefore, in less time than necessary to train comparable first-order neural networks.
Higher-order awareness, misrepresentation and function.
Rosenthal, David
2012-05-19
Conscious mental states are states we are in some way aware of. I compare higher-order theories of consciousness, which explain consciousness by appeal to such higher-order awareness (HOA), and first-order theories, which do not, and I argue that higher-order theories have substantial explanatory advantages. The higher-order nature of our awareness of our conscious states suggests an analogy with the metacognition that figures in the regulation of psychological processes and behaviour. I argue that, although both consciousness and metacognition involve higher-order psychological states, they have little more in common. One thing they do share is the possibility of misrepresentation; just as metacognitive processing can misrepresent one's cognitive states and abilities, so the HOA in virtue of which one's mental states are conscious can, and sometimes does, misdescribe those states. A striking difference between the two, however, has to do with utility for psychological processing. Metacognition has considerable benefit for psychological processing; in contrast, it is unlikely that there is much, if any, utility to mental states' being conscious over and above the utility those states have when they are not conscious. PMID:22492758
Higher-order awareness, misrepresentation and function
Rosenthal, David
2012-01-01
Conscious mental states are states we are in some way aware of. I compare higher-order theories of consciousness, which explain consciousness by appeal to such higher-order awareness (HOA), and first-order theories, which do not, and I argue that higher-order theories have substantial explanatory advantages. The higher-order nature of our awareness of our conscious states suggests an analogy with the metacognition that figures in the regulation of psychological processes and behaviour. I argue that, although both consciousness and metacognition involve higher-order psychological states, they have little more in common. One thing they do share is the possibility of misrepresentation; just as metacognitive processing can misrepresent one's cognitive states and abilities, so the HOA in virtue of which one's mental states are conscious can, and sometimes does, misdescribe those states. A striking difference between the two, however, has to do with utility for psychological processing. Metacognition has considerable benefit for psychological processing; in contrast, it is unlikely that there is much, if any, utility to mental states' being conscious over and above the utility those states have when they are not conscious. PMID:22492758
Breastfeeding twins and higher-order multiples.
Gromada, K K; Spangler, A K
1998-01-01
The benefits of breastfeeding for pre-term and full-term infants are well documented. Breastfeeding facilitates maternal-infant attachment, provides optimal infant nutrition and immunologic protection, and minimizes economic impact. These benefits are multiplied with twins and higher-order multiples, who often are born at risk. Supporting a mother as she initiates and continues to breastfeed one infant requires specific knowledge and skills. Health professionals need additional knowledge and skills if they are to provide appropriate assessment, intervention, and support when a mother breastfeeds twins or higher-order multiples.
Breastfeeding twins and higher-order multiples.
Gromada, K K; Spangler, A K
1998-01-01
The benefits of breastfeeding for pre-term and full-term infants are well documented. Breastfeeding facilitates maternal-infant attachment, provides optimal infant nutrition and immunologic protection, and minimizes economic impact. These benefits are multiplied with twins and higher-order multiples, who often are born at risk. Supporting a mother as she initiates and continues to breastfeed one infant requires specific knowledge and skills. Health professionals need additional knowledge and skills if they are to provide appropriate assessment, intervention, and support when a mother breastfeeds twins or higher-order multiples. PMID:9684207
Higher-order dielectrophoresis of nonspherical particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nili, Hossein; Green, Nicolas G.
2014-06-01
Higher-order terms of dielectrophoretic (DEP) force are commonly ignored by invoking the simplifying dipole approximation. Concurrently, the trend towards micro- and nano-electrode structures in DEP design is bringing about an increasing number of instances where the approximation is expected to lose reliability. The case is severe for nonspherical particles (the shape of many biological particles) due to the shape-dependent nature of dielectric polarization. However, there is a lack of analytical means to determine multipole moments of nonspherical particles, numerical calculations of the same are regarded as unreliable, and there is a prevalence for higher-order force considerations to be ignored. As a result, the dipole approximation is used and/or nonspherical particles are approximated as spheres. This work proves the inefficacy of current qualitative criteria for the reliability of the dipole approximation and presents a quantitative substitute, with verified accuracy, that enables precise determination of the extent to which the dipole approximation would be reliable, and if found unreliable, corrects the approximation by adding second- and third-order terms of the DEP force. The effects of field nonuniformity, electrode design, and particle shape and aspect ratio on the significance of higher-order DEP forces is quantitatively analyzed. The results show that higher-order DEP forces are indeed of substantially increased significance for nonspherical particles; in the cases examined in this work, multipolar terms are seen to constitute more than 40% of the total force on ellipsoidal and cylindrical particles. It is further shown that approximating nonspherical particles as spheres of similar dimensions is subject to substantial error. Last, the substantial importance of the electrode design in influencing higher-order forces is shown.
Higher Order Thinking in the Dance Studio
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moffett, Ann-Thomas
2012-01-01
The author identifies higher order thinking as an essential component of dance training for students of all ages and abilities. Weaving together insights from interviews with experts in the field of dance education with practical pedagogical applications within an Improvisation and Composition class for talented and gifted youth, this article…
Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.
Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina
2015-01-01
Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships.
Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.
Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina
2015-01-01
Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships. PMID:26263071
Assessing Higher Order Thinking in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kulm, Gerald, Ed.
This book explores current theory, research, practice, and policy in the assessment of higher order thinking in mathematics, focusing on the elementary and secondary grades. Current knowledge and research on mathematics learning and testing is synthesized. Examples of innovative test items for classroom use and state assessment programs are…
The regular state in higher order gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotsakis, Spiros; Kadry, Seifedine; Trachilis, Dimitrios
2016-08-01
We consider the higher-order gravity theory derived from the quadratic Lagrangian R + 𝜖R2 in vacuum as a first-order (ADM-type) system with constraints, and build time developments of solutions of an initial value formulation of the theory. We show that all such solutions, if analytic, contain the right number of free functions to qualify as general solutions of the theory. We further show that any regular analytic solution which satisfies the constraints and the evolution equations can be given in the form of an asymptotic formal power series expansion.
Higher-order corrections to Coulomb fission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Raymond T.; Norbury, John W.
1995-03-01
Fission cross sections resulting from a 120 MeV/nucleon 238U beam incident upon Be, Al, Cu, Ag, and U targets have recently been measured by Justice et al. [Phys. Rev. C 49, R5 (1994)]. The electromagnetic contribution to these experimental cross sections have been compared to Weizsäcker-Williams theory which is based on first-order perturbation theory. The present work calculates the contribution to these cross sections due to higher-order excitations. Our results show that these corrections are insignificant in comparison to experimental error.
Random interactions in higher order neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baldi, Pierre; Venkatesh, Santosh S.
1993-01-01
Recurrent networks of polynomial threshold elements with random symmetric interactions are studied. Precise asymptotic estimates are derived for the expected number of fixed points as a function of the margin of stability. In particular, it is shown that there is a critical range of margins of stability (depending on the degree of polynomial interaction) such that the expected number of fixed points with margins below the critical range grows exponentially with the number of nodes in the network, while the expected number of fixed points with margins above the critical range decreases exponentially with the number of nodes in the network. The random energy model is also briefly examined and links with higher order neural networks and higher order spin glass models made explicit.
De Houwer, Jan; Hughes, Sean; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot
2016-08-01
We aim to provide a new perspective on the old debate about whether evidence for higher order cognition in nonhuman animals can be reinterpreted in terms of associative learning. Our starting point is the idea that associative learning is best thought of as an effect (i.e., the impact of paired events on behavior) rather than a specific mental process (e.g., the formation of associations). This idea allows us to consider (a) propositional theories according to which associative learning is mediated by higher order mental processes akin to problem solving and (b) relational frame theory that allows one to think of seemingly simple associative learning effects as instances of a complex phenomenon known as arbitrarily applicable relational responding. Based on these 2 theories, we argue that (a) higher order cognition and associative learning are not necessarily mutually exclusive and (b) a more sophisticated conceptualization of higher order cognition is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record
Representing higher-order dependencies in networks
Xu, Jian; Wickramarathne, Thanuka L.; Chawla, Nitesh V.
2016-01-01
To ensure the correctness of network analysis methods, the network (as the input) has to be a sufficiently accurate representation of the underlying data. However, when representing sequential data from complex systems, such as global shipping traffic or Web clickstream traffic as networks, conventional network representations that implicitly assume the Markov property (first-order dependency) can quickly become limiting. This assumption holds that, when movements are simulated on the network, the next movement depends only on the current node, discounting the fact that the movement may depend on several previous steps. However, we show that data derived from many complex systems can show up to fifth-order dependencies. In these cases, the oversimplifying assumption of the first-order network representation can lead to inaccurate network analysis results. To address this problem, we propose the higher-order network (HON) representation that can discover and embed variable orders of dependencies in a network representation. Through a comprehensive empirical evaluation and analysis, we establish several desirable characteristics of HON, including accuracy, scalability, and direct compatibility with the existing suite of network analysis methods. We illustrate how HON can be applied to a broad variety of tasks, such as random walking, clustering, and ranking, and we demonstrate that, by using it as input, HON yields more accurate results without any modification to these tasks. PMID:27386539
Representing higher-order dependencies in networks.
Xu, Jian; Wickramarathne, Thanuka L; Chawla, Nitesh V
2016-05-01
To ensure the correctness of network analysis methods, the network (as the input) has to be a sufficiently accurate representation of the underlying data. However, when representing sequential data from complex systems, such as global shipping traffic or Web clickstream traffic as networks, conventional network representations that implicitly assume the Markov property (first-order dependency) can quickly become limiting. This assumption holds that, when movements are simulated on the network, the next movement depends only on the current node, discounting the fact that the movement may depend on several previous steps. However, we show that data derived from many complex systems can show up to fifth-order dependencies. In these cases, the oversimplifying assumption of the first-order network representation can lead to inaccurate network analysis results. To address this problem, we propose the higher-order network (HON) representation that can discover and embed variable orders of dependencies in a network representation. Through a comprehensive empirical evaluation and analysis, we establish several desirable characteristics of HON, including accuracy, scalability, and direct compatibility with the existing suite of network analysis methods. We illustrate how HON can be applied to a broad variety of tasks, such as random walking, clustering, and ranking, and we demonstrate that, by using it as input, HON yields more accurate results without any modification to these tasks. PMID:27386539
Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Le Grange, L.
2011-01-01
In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…
Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene
2002-01-01
The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.
The minimal power spectrum: Higher order contributions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fry, J. N.
1994-01-01
It has been an accepted belief for some time that gravity induces a minimal tail P(k) approximately k(exp 4) in the power spectrum as k approaches 0 for distributions with no initial power on large scales. In a recent numerical experiment with initial power confined to a restricted range in k, Shandarin and Melott (1990) found a k approaches 0 tail that at early stages of evolution behaves as k(exp 4) and grows with time as a(exp 4)(t), where a(t) is the cosmological expansion factor, and at late times depends on scale as k(exp 3) and grows with time as a(exp 2)(t). I compute analytically several contributions to the power spectrum of higher order than those included in earlier work, and I apply the results to the particular case of initial power restricted to a finite range of k. As expected, in the perturbative regime P(k) approximately a(exp 4)k(exp 4) from the first correction to linear perturbation theory is the dominant term as k approaches 0. Numerical investigations show that the higher order contributions go as k(exp 4) also. However, perturbation theory alone cannot tell whether the P approximately a(exp 2)k(exp 3) result is 'nonperturbative' or a numerical artifact.
[Corneal higher order aberrations and their changes with aging].
Cermáková, S; Skorkovská, S
2010-12-01
Cornea is the most important refractive medium of the eye and affects its total aberration state. This paper deals with corneal higher order aberrations in healthy humans and evaluates their changes with aging and corneal curvature. The influence of the corneal anterior and posterior surfaces on aberrations of the whole cornea was also investigated. The examination was performed with a Scheimpflug camera which enables to examine the anterior and posterior corneal surface separately. The results show that higher order aberrations of the whole cornea are influenced mainly by the anterior surface aberrations. The main corneal higher order aberration is the Z (4,0) spherical aberration which has a positive value and increases with age. Also, 3rd order aberration values are of importance, especially coma which also increases with age. As a consequence, the root-mean-square of the 3rd and 4th order aberrations in elderly people has a higher value.
The fundamental skills of higher order thinking.
Grossen, B
1991-01-01
It may be possible to teach reasoning strategies to subjects with poor reasoning, including many subjects with learning disabilities (LD), using curriculum designed around a sameness analysis. The higher order thinking skills of analogical and logical reasoning are defined using the sameness analysis methodology. The sameness in the strategy for forming a generalization from experience is called "reasoning by analogy," while the sameness in the strategy for applying generalizations is described by the syllogism (logical reasoning). The research base for effective instruction in analogical and logical reasoning, particularly with subjects with LD, is summarized. The wide applicability of reasoning by analogy and by syllogism as complementary strategies is illustrated through their use in a critical review of the editorial page of a daily newspaper, and in linking content material in several domains.
Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming
2013-01-01
Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…
Higher-order motion sensitivity in fly visual circuits
Lee, Yu-Jen; Nordström, Karin
2012-01-01
In higher-order motion stimuli, the direction of object motion does not follow the direction of luminance change. Such stimuli could be generated by the wing movements of a flying butterfly and further complicated by its motion in and out of shadows. Human subjects readily perceive the direction of higher-order motion, although this stands in stark contrast to prevailing motion vision models. Flies and humans compute motion in similar ways, and because flies behaviorally track bars containing higher-order motion cues, they become an attractive model system for investigating the neurophysiology underlying higher-order motion sensitivity. We here use intracellular electrophysiology of motion-vision–sensitive neurons in the hoverfly lobula plate to quantify responses to stimuli containing higher-order motion. We show that motion sensitivity can be broken down into two separate streams, directionally coding for elementary motion and figure motion, respectively, and that responses to Fourier and theta motion can be predicted from these. The sensitivity is affected both by the stimulus’ time course and by the neuron’s underlying receptive field. Responses to preferred-direction theta motion are sexually dimorphic and particularly robust along the visual midline. PMID:22586123
Higher-order artificial neural networks
Bengtsson, M.
1990-12-01
The report investigates the storage capacity of an artificial neural network where the state of each neuron depends on quadratic correlations of all other neurons, i.e. a third order network. This is in contrast to a standard Hopfield network where the state of each single neuron depends on the state on every other neuron, without any correlations. The storage capacity of a third order network is larger than that for standard Hopfield by one order of N. However, the number of connections is also larger by an order of N. It is shown that the storage capacity per connection is identical for standard Hopfield and for this third order network.
Constructing higher-order hydrodynamics: The third order
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grozdanov, Sašo; Kaplis, Nikolaos
2016-03-01
Hydrodynamics can be formulated as the gradient expansion of conserved currents in terms of the fundamental fields describing the near-equilibrium fluid flow. In the relativistic case, the Navier-Stokes equations follow from the conservation of the stress-energy tensor to first order in derivatives. In this paper, we go beyond the presently understood second-order hydrodynamics and discuss the systematization of obtaining the hydrodynamic expansion to an arbitrarily high order. As an example of the algorithm that we present, we fully classify the gradient expansion at third order for neutral fluids in four dimensions, thus finding the most general next-to-leading-order corrections to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations in curved space-time. In doing so, we list 20 new transport coefficient candidates in the conformal case and 68 in the nonconformal case. As we do not consider any constraints that could potentially arise from the local entropy current analysis, this is the maximal possible set of neutral third-order transport coefficients. To investigate the physical implications of these new transport coefficients, we obtain the third-order corrections to the linear dispersion relations that describe the propagation of diffusion and sound waves in relativistic fluids. We also compute the corrections to the scalar (spin-2) two-point correlation function of the third-order stress-energy tensor. Furthermore, as an example of a nonlinear hydrodynamic flow, we calculate the third-order corrections to the energy density of a boost-invariant Bjorken flow. Finally, we apply our field theoretic results to the N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills fluid at infinite 't Hooft coupling and an infinite number of colors to find the values of five new linear combinations of the conformal transport coefficients.
Invariant Higher-Order Variational Problems II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gay-Balmaz, François; Holm, Darryl D.; Meier, David M.; Ratiu, Tudor S.; Vialard, François-Xavier
2012-08-01
Motivated by applications in computational anatomy, we consider a second-order problem in the calculus of variations on object manifolds that are acted upon by Lie groups of smooth invertible transformations. This problem leads to solution curves known as Riemannian cubics on object manifolds that are endowed with normal metrics. The prime examples of such object manifolds are the symmetric spaces. We characterize the class of cubics on object manifolds that can be lifted horizontally to cubics on the group of transformations. Conversely, we show that certain types of non-horizontal geodesic on the group of transformations project to cubics. Finally, we apply second-order Lagrange-Poincaré reduction to the problem of Riemannian cubics on the group of transformations. This leads to a reduced form of the equations that reveals the obstruction for the projection of a cubic on a transformation group to again be a cubic on its object manifold.
Higher order diffractions from a circular disk
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marsland, Diane P.; Balanis, Constantine A.; Brumley, Stephen A.
1987-01-01
The backscattering from a circular disk is analyzed using the geometrical theory of diffraction. First-, second-, and third-order diffractions are included in the hard polarization analysis, while first-, second-, and third-order slope diffractions are included for soft polarization. Improvements in the prediction of the monostatic radar cross section over previous works are noted. For hard polarization, an excellent agreement is exhibited between experimental and theoretical results, while a very good agreement is noted for soft polarization. To further improve the soft polarization results for wide angles, a model for the creeping wave or circulating current on the edge of the disk is obtained and used to find an additional component of the backscattered field. The addition of this component significantly improves the results for wide angles, leading to excellent agreement for soft polarization also. An axial-caustic correction method using equivalent currents is also included in the analysis.
Moral Order and the Humanities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Howard, Thomas
1980-01-01
Argues that a society without reverence for myths and history inevitably falls prone to chaos and evil, pointing to abortion, Andy Warhol's celebrity, and Woodstock as evidence of this disintegration of society. Proposes that humanities education expose students to human experience based on some awesome and fixed moral order. (AYC)
Chromatin Higher-order Structure and Dynamics
Woodcock, Christopher L.; Ghosh, Rajarshi P.
2010-01-01
The primary role of the nucleus as an information storage, retrieval, and replication site requires the physical organization and compaction of meters of DNA. Although it has been clear for many years that nucleosomes constitute the first level of chromatin compaction, this contributes a relatively small fraction of the condensation needed to fit the typical genome into an interphase nucleus or set of metaphase chromosomes, indicating that there are additional “higher order” levels of chromatin condensation. Identifying these levels, their interrelationships, and the principles that govern their occurrence has been a challenging and much discussed problem. In this article, we focus on recent experimental advances and the emerging evidence indicating that structural plasticity and chromatin dynamics play dominant roles in genome organization. We also discuss novel approaches likely to yield important insights in the near future, and suggest research areas that merit further study. PMID:20452954
Developing Higher-Order Materials Knowledge Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fast, Anthony Nathan
2011-12-01
Advances in computational materials science and novel characterization techniques have allowed scientists to probe deeply into a diverse range of materials phenomena. These activities are producing enormous amounts of information regarding the roles of various hierarchical material features in the overall performance characteristics displayed by the material. Connecting the hierarchical information over disparate domains is at the crux of multiscale modeling. The inherent challenge of performing multiscale simulations is developing scale bridging relationships to couple material information between well separated length scales. Much progress has been made in the development of homogenization relationships which replace heterogeneous material features with effective homogenous descriptions. These relationships facilitate the flow of information from lower length scales to higher length scales. Meanwhile, most localization relationships that link the information from a from a higher length scale to a lower length scale are plagued by computationally intensive techniques which are not readily integrated into multiscale simulations. The challenge of executing fully coupled multiscale simulations is augmented by the need to incorporate the evolution of the material structure that may occur under conditions such as material processing. To address these challenges with multiscale simulation, a novel framework called the Materials Knowledge System (MKS) has been developed. This methodology efficiently extracts, stores, and recalls microstructure-property-processing localization relationships. This approach is built on the statistical continuum theories developed by Kroner that express the localization of the response field at the microscale using a series of highly complex convolution integrals, which have historically been evaluated analytically. The MKS approach dramatically improves the accuracy of these expressions by calibrating the convolution kernels in these
Skinner-Rusk unified formalism for higher-order systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso
2012-07-01
The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of R. Skinner and R. Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, first-order and higher-order field theories, and higher-order autonomous systems. In this work we present a generalization of this formalism for higher-order non-autonomous mechanical systems.
Conceptualizing and Assessing Higher-Order Thinking in Reading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Afflerbach, Peter; Cho, Byeong-Young; Kim, Jong-Yun
2015-01-01
Students engage in higher-order thinking as they read complex texts and perform complex reading-related tasks. However, the most consequential assessments, high-stakes tests, are currently limited in providing information about students' higher-order thinking. In this article, we describe higher-order thinking in relation to reading. We provide a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polyanskii, Peter V.; Felde, Christina V.; Konovchuk, Alexey V.; Oleksyuk, Maxim V.
2015-11-01
Recording nonlinearity is conventionally considered as the source of noise in holographic imaging. Important exclusion from this general statement is nonlinear holographic associative memory, where the quadratic recording nonlinearity causes true brightness rendering and the possibility for associative coupling and reconstructing optical signals of arbitrary complexity which are stored at the same carrier without interference. In this paper we discuss the role of nonlinearities of an amplitude response of a hologram of the orders higher than the quadratic one in implementing the second-ordered holographic associative memory. We show that higher-order nonlinearities are also involved in implementing this type of memory. This conclusion may be of importance for interpretation of biological/human memory also. The highlight of our study is the conclusion that reconstruction of the complex conjugate heteroassociative response is provided directly, viz. by the set of specified by us pseudogratings, rather than by the mechanism of sequential diffractions.
Kaminker, Patrick; Plachot, Cedric; Kim, Sahn-Ho; Chung, Peter; Crippen, Danielle; Petersen, Ole W.; Bissell, Mina J.; Campisi, Judith; Lelièvre, Sophie A.
2010-01-01
Summary Nuclear organization, such as the formation of specific nuclear subdomains, is generally thought to be involved in the control of cellular phenotype; however, there are relatively few specific examples of how mammalian nuclei organize during radical changes in phenotype, such as those occurring during differentiation and growth arrest. Using human mammary epithelial cells in which growth arrest is essential for morphological differentiation, we show that the arrest of cell proliferation is accompanied by a reorganization of the telomere-associated protein, TIN2, into one to three large nuclear subdomains. The large TIN2 domains do not contain telomeres and occur concomitant with the continued presence of TIN2 at telomeres. The TIN2 domains were sensitive to DNase, but not RNase, occurred frequently, but not exclusively near nucleoli, and overlapped often with dense domains containing heterochromatin protein 1γ. Expression of truncated forms of TIN2 simultaneously prevented the formation of TIN2 domains and relaxed the stringent morphogenesis-induced growth arrest in human mammary epithelial cells. Here we show that a novel extra-telomeric organization of TIN2 is associated with the control of cell proliferation and identify TIN2 as an important regulator of mammary epithelial differentiation. PMID:15741234
Higher-order behavior classes: contingencies, beliefs, and verbal behavior.
Catania, A C
1995-09-01
The concepts of reinforcement and of higher-order classes of behavior are reviewed and applied to analyses of self-reinforcement, self-efficacy, the causal status of private events, and the role of verbal behavior in human action. The analyses support the case that Bandura's criticisms of behavior analytic thought rest upon several misunderstandings, the most important of which are the distinctions between theories and phenomena and a neglect of the process of ontogenic selection. Bandura's persistence in promoting these misunderstandings is puzzling, because over a period of at least two decades he has repeated without substantial correction arguments that were refuted at the time he first made them. Bandura's views on these concepts can be interpreted as a contemporary variety of creationism in behavioral science. PMID:8576398
Existence of solutions for some higher order boundary value problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charkrit, Sita; Kananthai, Amnuay
2007-05-01
In this paper, we are concerned with the existence of solutions for the higher order boundary value problem in the form where m is a given positive integer and is continuous. We introduce a new maximum principle of higher order equations and develop a monotone method in the presence of lower and upper solutions for this problem.
Assessing Higher Order Thinking and Communication Skills: Literacy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Venezky, Richard L.
Assessment of higher order literacy skills encounters three initial problems aside from assessment methods: (1) definition of literacy; (2) range of skills to assess; and (3) whether or not higher order literacy can be assessed independently of a particular content area. Regardless of definitions, the general performance areas to be covered must…
Higher-order theories from the minimal length
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, M.; Hoff da Silva, J. M.; Scatena, E.
2016-06-01
We show that the introduction of a minimal length in the context of noncommutative space-time gives rise (after some considerations) to higher-order theories. We then explicitly demonstrate how these higher-derivative theories appear as a generalization of the standard electromagnetism and general relativity by applying a consistent procedure that modifies the original Maxwell and Einstein-Hilbert actions. In order to set a bound on the minimal length, we compare the deviations from the inverse-square law with the potentials obtained in the higher-order theories and discuss the validity of the results. The introduction of a quantum bound for the minimal length parameter β in the higher-order QED allows us to lower the actual limits on the parameters of higher-derivative gravity by almost half of their order of magnitude.
Symplectic structures related with higher order variational problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kijowski, Jerzy; Moreno, Giovanni
2015-06-01
In this paper, we derive the symplectic framework for field theories defined by higher order Lagrangians. The construction is based on the symplectic reduction of suitable spaces of iterated jets. The possibility of reducing a higher order system of partial differential equations to a constrained first-order one, the symplectic structures naturally arising in the dynamics of a first-order Lagrangian theory, and the importance of the Poincaré-Cartan form for variational problems, are all well-established facts. However, their adequate combination corresponding to higher order theories is missing in the literature. Here we obtain a consistent and truly finite-dimensional canonical formalism, as well as a higher order version of the Poincaré-Cartan form. In our exposition, the rigorous global proofs of the main results are always accompanied by their local coordinate descriptions, indispensable to work out practical examples.
Application of Mass Lumped Higher Order Finite Elements
Chen, J.; Strauss, H. R.; Jardin, S. C.; Park, W.; Sugiyama, L. E.; G. Fu; Breslau, J.
2005-11-01
There are many interesting phenomena in extended-MHD such as anisotropic transport, mhd, 2-fluid effects stellarator and hot particles. Any one of them challenges numerical analysts, and researchers are seeking for higher order methods, such as higher order finite difference, higher order finite elements and hp/spectral elements. It is true that these methods give more accurate solution than their linear counterparts. However, numerically they are prohibitively expensive. Here we give a successful solution of this conflict by applying mass lumped higher order finite elements. This type of elements not only keep second/third order accuracy but also scale closely to linear elements by doing mass lumping. This is especially true for second order lump elements. Full M3D and anisotropic transport models are studied.
Higher Order Fractional Stable Motion: Hyperdiffusion with Heavy Tails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, Reiichiro
2016-08-01
We introduce the class of higher order fractional stable motions that can exhibit hyperdiffusive spreading with heavy tails. We define the class as a generalization of higher order fractional Brownian motion as well as a generalization of linear fractional stable motions. Higher order fractional stable motions are self-similar with Hurst index larger than one and non-Gaussian stable marginals with infinite variance and have stationary higher order increments. We investigate their sample path properties and asymptotic dependence structure on the basis of codifference. In particular, by incrementing or decrementing sample paths once under suitable conditions, the diffusion rate can be accelerated or decelerated by one order. With a view towards simulation study, we provide a ready-for-use sample path simulation recipe at discrete times along with error analysis. The proposed simulation scheme requires only elementary numerical operations and is robust to high frequency sampling, irregular spacing and super-sampling.
Higher Order Fractional Stable Motion: Hyperdiffusion with Heavy Tails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawai, Reiichiro
2016-10-01
We introduce the class of higher order fractional stable motions that can exhibit hyperdiffusive spreading with heavy tails. We define the class as a generalization of higher order fractional Brownian motion as well as a generalization of linear fractional stable motions. Higher order fractional stable motions are self-similar with Hurst index larger than one and non-Gaussian stable marginals with infinite variance and have stationary higher order increments. We investigate their sample path properties and asymptotic dependence structure on the basis of codifference. In particular, by incrementing or decrementing sample paths once under suitable conditions, the diffusion rate can be accelerated or decelerated by one order. With a view towards simulation study, we provide a ready-for-use sample path simulation recipe at discrete times along with error analysis. The proposed simulation scheme requires only elementary numerical operations and is robust to high frequency sampling, irregular spacing and super-sampling.
Higher-order scene statistics of breast images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbey, Craig K.; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha N.; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.
2009-02-01
Researchers studying human and computer vision have found description and construction of these systems greatly aided by analysis of the statistical properties of naturally occurring scenes. More specifically, it has been found that receptive fields with directional selectivity and bandwidth properties similar to mammalian visual systems are more closely matched to the statistics of natural scenes. It is argued that this allows for sparse representation of the independent components of natural images [Olshausen and Field, Nature, 1996]. These theories have important implications for medical image perception. For example, will a system that is designed to represent the independent components of natural scenes, where objects occlude one another and illumination is typically reflected, be appropriate for X-ray imaging, where features superimpose on one another and illumination is transmissive? In this research we begin to examine these issues by evaluating higher-order statistical properties of breast images from X-ray projection mammography (PM) and dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT). We evaluate kurtosis in responses of octave bandwidth Gabor filters applied to PM and to coronal slices of bCT scans. We find that kurtosis in PM rises and quickly saturates for filter center frequencies with an average value above 0.95. By contrast, kurtosis in bCT peaks near 0.20 cyc/mm with kurtosis of approximately 2. Our findings suggest that the human visual system may be tuned to represent breast tissue more effectively in bCT over a specific range of spatial frequencies.
Predicting perceptual learning from higher-order cortical processing.
Wang, Fang; Huang, Jing; Lv, Yaping; Ma, Xiaoli; Yang, Bin; Wang, Encong; Du, Boqi; Li, Wu; Song, Yan
2016-01-01
Visual perceptual learning has been shown to be highly specific to the retinotopic location and attributes of the trained stimulus. Recent psychophysical studies suggest that these specificities, which have been associated with early retinotopic visual cortex, may in fact not be inherent in perceptual learning and could be related to higher-order brain functions. Here we provide direct electrophysiological evidence in support of this proposition. In a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from human adults over the course of learning in a texture discrimination task (TDT). The results consistently showed that the earliest C1 component (68-84ms), known to reflect V1 activity driven by feedforward inputs, was not modulated by learning regardless of whether the behavioral improvement is location specific or not. In contrast, two later posterior ERP components (posterior P1 and P160-350) over the occipital cortex and one anterior ERP component (anterior P160-350) over the prefrontal cortex were progressively modified day by day. Moreover, the change of the anterior component was closely correlated with improved behavioral performance on a daily basis. Consistent with recent psychophysical and imaging observations, our results indicate that perceptual learning can mainly involve changes in higher-level visual cortex as well as in the neural networks responsible for cognitive functions such as attention and decision making.
A Testing Theory for a Higher-Order Cryptographic Language
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koutavas, Vasileios; Hennessy, Matthew
We study a higher-order concurrent language with cryptographic primitives, for which we develop a sound and complete, first-order testing theory for the preservation of safety properties. Our theory is based on co-inductive set simulations over transitions in a first-order Labelled Transition System. This keeps track of the knowledge of the observer, and treats transmitted higher-order values in a symbolic manner, thus obviating the quantification over functional contexts. Our characterisation provides an attractive proof technique, and we illustrate its usefulness in proofs of equivalence, including cases where bisimulation theory does not apply.
Superposition rules for higher order systems and their applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cariñena, J. F.; Grabowski, J.; de Lucas, J.
2012-05-01
Superposition rules form a class of functions that describe general solutions of systems of first-order ordinary differential equations in terms of generic families of particular solutions and certain constants. In this work, we extend this notion and other related ones to systems of higher order differential equations and analyse their properties. Several results concerning the existence of various types of superposition rules for higher order systems are proved and illustrated with examples extracted from the physics and mathematics literature. In particular, two new superposition rules for the second- and third-order Kummer-Schwarz equations are derived.
Unambiguous formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, Cédric M.; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David; Vankerschaver, Joris
2009-11-01
The aim of this paper is to propose an unambiguous intrinsic formalism for higher order field theories which avoids the arbitrariness in the generalization of the conventional description of field theories, and implies the existence of different Cartan forms and Legendre transformations. We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. As both of these objects are uniquely defined, the Skinner-Rusk approach has the advantage that it does not suffer from the arbitrariness in conventional descriptions. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic version of the Euler-Lagrange equations for higher order field theories. Several examples illustrate our construction.
On the Evaluation of Higher-Order Science Instructional Objectives
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sheehan, Daniel S.
1977-01-01
Advocates the use of a free-sort categorization technique for evaluation of higher-order science instructional objectives. An explanation and demonstration of the use of the evaluation technique with 284 ninth-grade science students is provided. (CP)
Development of a core confidence-higher order construct.
Stajkovic, Alexander D
2006-11-01
The author develops core confidence as a higher order construct and suggests that a core confidence-higher order construct--not addressed by extant work motivation theories--is helpful in better understanding employee motivation in today's rapidly changing organizations. Drawing from psychology (social, clinical, and developmental) and social anthropology, the author develops propositions regarding the relationships between core confidence and performance, attitudes, and subjective well-being. The core confidence-higher order construct is proposed to be manifested by hope, self-efficacy, optimism, and resilience. The author reasons that these four variables share a common confidence core (a higher order construct) and may be considered as its manifestations. Suggestions for future research and implications of the work are discussed. PMID:17100479
Emotion recognition from EEG using higher order crossings.
Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J
2010-03-01
Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition is a relatively new field in the affective computing area with challenging issues regarding the induction of the emotional states and the extraction of the features in order to achieve optimum classification performance. In this paper, a novel emotion evocation and EEG-based feature extraction technique is presented. In particular, the mirror neuron system concept was adapted to efficiently foster emotion induction by the process of imitation. In addition, higher order crossings (HOC) analysis was employed for the feature extraction scheme and a robust classification method, namely HOC-emotion classifier (HOC-EC), was implemented testing four different classifiers [quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), k-nearest neighbor, Mahalanobis distance, and support vector machines (SVMs)], in order to accomplish efficient emotion recognition. Through a series of facial expression image projection, EEG data have been collected by 16 healthy subjects using only 3 EEG channels, namely Fp1, Fp2, and a bipolar channel of F3 and F4 positions according to 10-20 system. Two scenarios were examined using EEG data from a single-channel and from combined-channels, respectively. Compared with other feature extraction methods, HOC-EC appears to outperform them, achieving a 62.3% (using QDA) and 83.33% (using SVM) classification accuracy for the single-channel and combined-channel cases, respectively, differentiating among the six basic emotions, i.e., happiness, surprise, anger, fear, disgust, and sadness. As the emotion class-set reduces its dimension, the HOC-EC converges toward maximum classification rate (100% for five or less emotions), justifying the efficiency of the proposed approach. This could facilitate the integration of HOC-EC in human machine interfaces, such as pervasive healthcare systems, enhancing their affective character and providing information about the user's emotional status (e.g., identifying user's emotion
Higher Order Lagrange Finite Elements In M3D
J. Chen; H.R. Strauss; S.C. Jardin; W. Park; L.E. Sugiyama; G. Fu; J. Breslau
2004-12-17
The M3D code has been using linear finite elements to represent multilevel MHD on 2-D poloidal planes. Triangular higher order elements, up to third order, are constructed here in order to provide M3D the capability to solve highly anisotropic transport problems. It is found that higher order elements are essential to resolve the thin transition layer characteristic of the anisotropic transport equation, particularly when the strong anisotropic direction is not aligned with one of the Cartesian coordinates. The transition layer is measured by the profile width, which is zero for infinite anisotropy. It is shown that only higher order schemes have the ability to make this layer converge towards zero when the anisotropy gets stronger and stronger. Two cases are considered. One has the strong transport direction partially aligned with one of the element edges, the other doesn't have any alignment. Both cases have the strong transport direction misaligned with the grid line by some angles.
The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for higher order field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vitagliano, Luca
2010-06-01
We generalize the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism of Skinner and Rusk to higher order field theories on fiber bundles. As a byproduct we solve the long standing problem of defining, in a coordinate free manner, a Hamiltonian formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories. Namely, our formalism does only depend on the action functional and, therefore, unlike previously proposed ones, is free from any relevant ambiguity.
Feynman rules of higher-order poles in CHY construction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo; Luo, Ming-xing; Zhu, Chuan-Jie
2016-06-01
In this paper, we generalize the integration rules for scattering equations to situations where higher-order poles are present. We describe the strategy to deduce the Feynman rules of higher-order poles from known analytic results of simple CHY-integrands, and propose the Feynman rules for single double pole and triple pole as well as duplex-double pole and triplex-double pole structures. We demonstrate the validation and strength of these rules by ample non-trivial examples.
Higher-order Lagrangian perturbative theory for the Cosmic Web
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tatekawa, Takayuki; Mizuno, Shuntaro
2016-10-01
Zel'dovich proposed Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT) for structure formation in the Universe. After this, higher-order perturbative equations have been derived. Recently fourth-order LPT (4LPT) have been derived by two group. We have shown fifth-order LPT (5LPT) In this conference, we notice fourth- and more higher-order perturbative equations. In fourth-order perturbation, because of the difference in handling of spatial derivative, there are two groups of equations. Then we consider the initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations. Crocce, Pueblas, and Scoccimarro (2007) noticed that second-order perturbation theory (2LPT) is required for accuracy of several percents. We verify the effect of 3LPT initial condition for the simulations. Finally we discuss the way of further improving approach and future applications of LPTs.
Higher-order conditioning and the retrosplenial cortex.
Todd, Travis P; Huszár, Roman; DeAngeli, Nicole E; Bucci, David J
2016-09-01
The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is known to contribute to contextual and spatial learning and memory. This is consistent with its well-established connectivity; the RSC is located at the interface of visuo-spatial association areas and the parahippocampal-hippocampal memory system. However, the RSC also contributes to learning and memory for discrete cues. For example, both permanent lesions and temporary inactivation of the RSC have been shown to impair sensory preconditioning, a form of higher-order conditioning. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the role of the RSC in a closely related higher-order conditioning paradigm: second-order conditioning. Sham and RSC lesioned rats received first-order conditioning in which one visual stimulus (V1) was paired with footshock and one visual stimulus (V2) was not. Following first-order conditioning, one auditory stimulus (A1) was then paired with V1 and a second auditory stimulus (A2) was paired with V2. Although lesions of the RSC impaired the first-order discrimination, they had no impact on the acquisition of second-order conditioning. Thus, the RSC does not appear necessary for acquisition/expression of second-order fear conditioning. The role of the RSC in higher-order conditioning, as well as a possible dissociation from the hippocampus, is discussed.
Higher-order conditioning and the retrosplenial cortex.
Todd, Travis P; Huszár, Roman; DeAngeli, Nicole E; Bucci, David J
2016-09-01
The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is known to contribute to contextual and spatial learning and memory. This is consistent with its well-established connectivity; the RSC is located at the interface of visuo-spatial association areas and the parahippocampal-hippocampal memory system. However, the RSC also contributes to learning and memory for discrete cues. For example, both permanent lesions and temporary inactivation of the RSC have been shown to impair sensory preconditioning, a form of higher-order conditioning. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the role of the RSC in a closely related higher-order conditioning paradigm: second-order conditioning. Sham and RSC lesioned rats received first-order conditioning in which one visual stimulus (V1) was paired with footshock and one visual stimulus (V2) was not. Following first-order conditioning, one auditory stimulus (A1) was then paired with V1 and a second auditory stimulus (A2) was paired with V2. Although lesions of the RSC impaired the first-order discrimination, they had no impact on the acquisition of second-order conditioning. Thus, the RSC does not appear necessary for acquisition/expression of second-order fear conditioning. The role of the RSC in higher-order conditioning, as well as a possible dissociation from the hippocampus, is discussed. PMID:27208598
Unified formalism for higher order non-autonomous dynamical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso
2012-03-01
This work is devoted to giving a geometric framework for describing higher order non-autonomous mechanical systems. The starting point is to extend the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of Skinner and Rusk for these kinds of systems, generalizing previous developments for higher order autonomous mechanical systems and first-order non-autonomous mechanical systems. Then, we use this unified formulation to derive the standard Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, including the Legendre-Ostrogradsky map and the Euler-Lagrange and the Hamilton equations, both for regular and singular systems. As applications of our model, two examples of regular and singular physical systems are studied.
Higher order theories and their relationship with noncommutativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez-Santos, Oscar; Vergara, José David
2014-06-01
We present a relationship between noncommutativity and higher order time derivative theories using a perturbation method. We make a generalization of the Chern-Simons quantum mechanics for higher order time derivatives. This model presents noncommutativity in a natural way when we project to low-energy physical states without the necessity of taking the strong field limit. We quantize the theory using a Bopp's shift of the noncommutative variables and we obtain a spectrum without negative energies, under the perturbation limits. In addition, we extent the model to high order time derivatives and noncommutativity with variable dependent parameter.
Tensor Spectral Clustering for Partitioning Higher-order Network Structures
Benson, Austin R.; Gleich, David F.; Leskovec, Jure
2016-01-01
Spectral graph theory-based methods represent an important class of tools for studying the structure of networks. Spectral methods are based on a first-order Markov chain derived from a random walk on the graph and thus they cannot take advantage of important higher-order network substructures such as triangles, cycles, and feed-forward loops. Here we propose a Tensor Spectral Clustering (TSC) algorithm that allows for modeling higher-order network structures in a graph partitioning framework. Our TSC algorithm allows the user to specify which higher-order network structures (cycles, feed-forward loops, etc.) should be preserved by the network clustering. Higher-order network structures of interest are represented using a tensor, which we then partition by developing a multilinear spectral method. Our framework can be applied to discovering layered flows in networks as well as graph anomaly detection, which we illustrate on synthetic networks. In directed networks, a higher-order structure of particular interest is the directed 3-cycle, which captures feedback loops in networks. We demonstrate that our TSC algorithm produces large partitions that cut fewer directed 3-cycles than standard spectral clustering algorithms.
Optimized higher-order automatic differentiation for the Faddeeva function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charpentier, Isabelle
2016-08-01
Considerable research efforts have been directed at implementing the Faddeeva function w(z) and its derivatives with respect to z, but these did not consider the key computing issue of a possible dependence of z on some variable t. The general case is to differentiate the compound function w(z(t)) = w ∘ z(t) with respect to t by applying the chain rule for a first order derivative, or Faà di Bruno's formula for higher-order ones. Higher-order automatic differentiation (HOAD) is an efficient and accurate technique for derivative calculation along scientific computing codes. Although codes are available for w(z) , a special symbolic HOAD is required to compute accurate higher-order derivatives for w ∘ z(t) in an efficient manner. A thorough evaluation is carried out considering a nontrivial case study in optics to support this assertion.
Should evolutionary geneticists worry about higher-order epistasis?
Weinreich, Daniel M; Lan, Yinghong; Wylie, C Scott; Heckendorn, Robert B
2013-12-01
Natural selection drives evolving populations up the fitness landscape, the projection from nucleotide sequence space to organismal reproductive success. While it has long been appreciated that topographic complexities on fitness landscapes can arise only as a consequence of epistatic interactions between mutations, evolutionary genetics has mainly focused on epistasis between pairs of mutations. Here we propose a generalization to the classical population genetic treatment of pairwise epistasis that yields expressions for epistasis among arbitrary subsets of mutations of all orders (pairwise, three-way, etc.). Our approach reveals substantial higher-order epistasis in almost every published fitness landscape. Furthermore we demonstrate that higher-order epistasis is critically important in two systems we know best. We conclude that higher-order epistasis deserves empirical and theoretical attention from evolutionary geneticists.
Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat
2008-01-01
Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…
Dynamics and control of higher-order nonholonomic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubio Hervas, Jaime
A theoretical framework is established for the control of higher-order nonholonomic systems, defined as systems that satisfy higher-order nonintegrable constraints. A model for such systems is developed in terms of differential-algebraic equations defined on a higher-order tangent bundle. A number of control-theoretic properties such as nonintegrability, controllability, and stabilizability are presented. Higher-order nonholonomic systems are shown to be strongly accessible and, under certain conditions, small time locally controllable at any equilibrium. There are important examples of higher-order nonholonomic systems that are asymptotically stabilizable via smooth feedback, including space vehicles with multiple slosh modes and Prismatic-Prismatic-Revolute (PPR) robots moving open liquid containers, as well as an interesting class of systems that do not admit asymptotically stabilizing continuous static or dynamic state feedback. Specific assumptions are introduced to define this class, which includes important examples of robotic systems. A discontinuous nonlinear feedback control algorithm is developed to steer any initial state to the equilibrium at the origin. The applicability of the theoretical development is illustrated through two examples: control of a planar PPR robot manipulator subject to a jerk constraint and control of a point mass moving on a constant torsion curve in a three dimensional space.
Stable static structures in models with higher-order derivatives
Bazeia, D.; Lobão, A.S.; Menezes, R.
2015-09-15
We investigate the presence of static solutions in generalized models described by a real scalar field in four-dimensional space–time. We study models in which the scalar field engenders higher-order derivatives and spontaneous symmetry breaking, inducing the presence of domain walls. Despite the presence of higher-order derivatives, the models keep to equations of motion second-order differential equations, so we focus on the presence of first-order equations that help us to obtain analytical solutions and investigate linear stability on general grounds. We then illustrate the general results with some specific examples, showing that the domain wall may become compact and that the zero mode may split. Moreover, if the model is further generalized to include k-field behavior, it may contribute to split the static structure itself.
Vakonomic Constraints in Higher-Order Classical Field Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, Cédric M.
2010-07-01
We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher-order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both, the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher-order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic description of the dynamics. The case of vakonomic constraints is also studied within this formalism.
Higher order mode laser beam scintillations in oceanic medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baykal, Yahya
2016-01-01
In a horizontal oceanic optical wireless communication link, the scintillation index (the measure for the intensity fluctuations) of the received intensity caused by the oceanic turbulence is formulated and evaluated when the source is a higher order mode laser. Variations in the scintillation index vs. the underwater turbulence parameters, size of the higher order mode laser source, link length, and the wavelength are examined. Underwater turbulence parameters are the ratio that determines the relative strength of temperature and salinity in driving the index fluctuations, the rate of dissipation of the mean squared temperature, the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy, and the Kolmogorov microscale length.
Numerical modeling of higher order magnetic moments in UXO discrimination
Sanchez, V.; Yaoguo, L.; Nabighian, M.N.; Wright, D.L.
2008-01-01
The surface magnetic anomaly observed in unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance is mainly dipolar, and consequently, the dipole is the only magnetic moment regularly recovered in UXO discrimination. The dipole moment contains information about the intensity of magnetization but lacks information about the shape of the target. In contrast, higher order moments, such as quadrupole and octupole, encode asymmetry properties of the magnetization distribution within the buried targets. In order to improve our understanding of magnetization distribution within UXO and non-UXO objects and to show its potential utility in UXO clearance, we present a numerical modeling study of UXO and related metallic objects. The tool for the modeling is a nonlinear integral equation describing magnetization within isolated compact objects of high susceptibility. A solution for magnetization distribution then allows us to compute the magnetic multipole moments of the object, analyze their relationships, and provide a depiction of the anomaly produced by different moments within the object. Our modeling results show the presence of significant higher order moments for more asymmetric objects, and the fields of these higher order moments are well above the noise level of magnetic gradient data. The contribution from higher order moments may provide a practical tool for improved UXO discrimination. ?? 2008 IEEE.
Higher order matrix differential equations with singular coefficient matrices
Fragkoulis, V. C.; Kougioumtzoglou, I. A.; Pantelous, A. A.; Pirrotta, A.
2015-03-10
In this article, the class of higher order linear matrix differential equations with constant coefficient matrices and stochastic process terms is studied. The coefficient of the highest order is considered to be singular; thus, rendering the response determination of such systems in a straightforward manner a difficult task. In this regard, the notion of the generalized inverse of a singular matrix is used for determining response statistics. Further, an application relevant to engineering dynamics problems is included.
Higher-order dynamical effects in Coulomb dissociation
Esbensen, H.; Bertsch, G.F.; Bertulani, C.A.
1995-08-01
Coulomb dissociation is a technique commonly used to extract the dipole response of nuclei far from stability. This technique is applicable if the dissociation is dominated by dipole transitions and if first-order perturbation theory is valid. In order to assess the significance of higher-order processes we solve numerically the time evolution of the wave function for a two-body breakup in the Coulomb field from a high Z target. We applied this method to the breakup reactions: {sup 11}Be {yields} {sup 10}Be + n and {sup 11}Li {yields} +2n. The latter is treated as a two-body breakup, using a di-neutron model.
Limb apraxias: higher-order disorders of sensorimotor integration.
Leiguarda, R C; Marsden, C D
2000-05-01
Limb apraxia comprises a wide spectrum of higher-order motor disorders that result from acquired brain disease affecting the performance of skilled, learned movements. At present, limb apraxia is primarily classified by the nature of the errors made by the patient and the pathways through which these errors are elicited, based on a two-system model for the organization of action: a conceptual system and a production system. Dysfunction of the former would cause ideational (or conceptual) apraxia, whereas impairment of the latter would induce ideomotor and limb-kinetic apraxia. Currently, it is possible to approach several types of limb apraxia within the framework of our knowledge of the modular organization of the brain. Multiple parallel parietofrontal circuits, devoted to specific sensorimotor transformations, have been described in monkeys: visual and somatosensory transformations for reaching; transformation of information about the location of body parts necessary for the control of movements; somatosensory transformation for posture; visual transformation for grasping; and internal representation of actions. Evidence from anatomical and functional brain imaging studies suggests that the organization of the cortical motor system in humans is based on the same principles. Imitation of postures and movements also seems to be subserved by dedicated neural systems, according to the content of the gesture (meaningful versus meaningless) to be imitated. Damage to these systems would produce different types of ideomotor and limb-kinetic praxic deficits depending on the context in which the movement is performed and the cognitive demands of the action. On the other hand, ideational (or conceptual) apraxia would reflect an inability to select and use objects due to the disruption of normal integration between systems subserving the functional knowledge of actions and those involved in object knowledge.
Higher-order structure of rRNA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gutell, R. R.; Woese, C. R.
1986-01-01
A comparative search for phylogenetically covarying basepair replacements within potential helices has been the only reliable method to determine the correct secondary structure of the 3 rRNAs, 5S, 16S, and 23S. The analysis of 16S from a wide phylogenetic spectrum, that includes various branches of the eubacteria, archaebacteria, eucaryotes, in addition to the mitochondria and chloroplast, is beginning to reveal the constraints on the secondary structures of these rRNAs. Based on the success of this analysis, and the assumption that higher order structure will also be phylogenetically conserved, a comparative search was initiated for positions that show co-variation not involved in secondary structure helices. From a list of potential higher order interactions within 16S rRNA, two higher-order interactions are presented. The first of these interactions involves positions 570 and 866. Based on the extent of phylogenetic covariation between these positions while maintaining Watson-Crick pairing, this higher-order interaction is considered proven. The other interaction involves a minimum of six positions between the 1400 and 1500 regions of the 16S rRNA. Although these patterns of covariation are not as striking as the 570/866 interaction, the fact that they all exist in an anti-parallel fashion and that experimental methods previously implicated these two regions of the molecule in tRNA function suggests that these interactions be given serious consideration.
Higher-Order Latent Trait Models for Cognitive Diagnosis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de la Torre, Jimmy; Douglas, Jeffrey A.
2004-01-01
Higher-order latent traits are proposed for specifying the joint distribution of binary attributes in models for cognitive diagnosis. This approach results in a parsimonious model for the joint distribution of a high-dimensional attribute vector that is natural in many situations when specific cognitive information is sought but a less informative…
Computer-Mediated Assessment of Higher-Order Thinking Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tilchin, Oleg; Raiyn, Jamal
2015-01-01
Solving complicated problems in a contemporary knowledge-based society requires higher-order thinking (HOT). The most productive way to encourage development of HOT in students is through use of the Problem-based Learning (PBL) model. This model organizes learning by solving corresponding problems relative to study courses. Students are directed…
Constrained variational calculus for higher order classical field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, Cédric M.; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David
2010-11-01
We develop an intrinsic geometrical setting for higher order constrained field theories. As a main tool we use an appropriate generalization of the classical Skinner-Rusk formalism. Some examples of applications are studied, in particular to the geometrical description of optimal control theory for partial differential equations.
Higher-Order Thinking: A "Basic" Skill for Everyone.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chancellor, Dinah
1991-01-01
Described are activities involving higher order thinking skills developed for gifted students that can be used for all students. Discussed is a framework for designing activities using Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain and William's Student Behaviors. Sample activities are included. (KR)
An Analysis of Higher Order Thinking in Online Discussions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McLoughlin, D.; Mynard, J.
2009-01-01
This paper describes a study of online discussion forums as tools for promoting higher-order thinking. The study was carried out in a women's university in the United Arab Emirates. Data, in the form of online discussion forum transcripts, were collected over a 20-week semester and were analysed according to a model developed by Garrison,…
Multiple-Try Feedback and Higher-Order Learning Outcomes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clariana, Roy B.; Koul, Ravinder
2005-01-01
Although feedback is an important component of computer-based instruction (CBI), the effects of feedback on higher-order learning outcomes are not well understood. Several meta-analyses provide two rules of thumb: any feedback is better than no feedback and feedback with more information is better than feedback with less information. …
Recent Advances in Higher-order Multimodal Biomedical Imaging Agents
Rieffel, James; Chitgupi, Upendra
2015-01-01
Advances in biomedical imaging have spurred the development of integrated multimodal scanners, usually capable of two simultaneous imaging modes. The long-term vision of higher-order multimodality is to improve diagnostics or guidance through analysis of complementary, data-rich, co-registered images. Synergies achieved through combined modalities could enable researchers to better track diverse physiological and structural events, analyze biodistribution and treatment efficacy, and compare established and emerging modalities. Higher-order multimodal approaches stand to benefit from molecular imaging probes and in recent years, contrast agents that have hypermodal characteristics have increasingly been reported in preclinical studies. Given the chemical requirements for contrast agents representing various modalities to be integrated into a single entity, higher-order multimodal agents reported so far tend to be of nanoparticulate form. To date, the majority of reported nanoparticles have included components that are active for magnetic resonance. Herein, we review recent progress in higher-order multimodal imaging agents, which span a range of material and structural classes, that have demonstrated utility in three (or more) imaging modalities. PMID:26185099
Developing Higher-Order Thinking Skills through WebQuests
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polly, Drew; Ausband, Leigh
2009-01-01
In this study, 32 teachers participated in a year-long professional development project related to technology integration in which they designed and implemented a WebQuest. This paper describes the extent to which higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) and levels of technology implementation (LoTI) occur in the WebQuests that participants designed.…
Multimedia: A Gateway to Higher-Order Thinking Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fontana, Lynn A.; And Others
In June 1990, the research group at George Mason University (Virginia) Center for Interactive Educational Technology began designing a multimedia prototype to foster higher-order thinking skills in social studies. As an initial step, the Civil War Interactive Project using the Ken Burns documentary, "The Civil War," was used in a design…
Higher-order structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromatin
Lowary, P.T.; Widom, J. )
1989-11-01
We have developed a method for partially purifying chromatin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to a level suitable for studies of its higher-order folding. This has required the use of yeast strains that are free of the ubiquitous yeast killer virus. Results from dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction show that the yeast chromatin undergoes a cation-dependent folding into 30-nm filaments that resemble those characteristic of higher-cell chromatin; moreover, the packing of nucleosomes within the yeast 30-nm filaments is similar to that of higher cells. These results imply that yeast has a protein or protein domain that serves the role of the histone H 1 found in higher cells; physical and genetic studies of the yeast activity could help elucidate the structure and function of H 1. Images of the yeast 30-nm filaments can be used to test crossed-linker models for 30-nm filament structure.
Higher order correlation beams in atmosphere under strong turbulence conditions.
Avetisyan, H; Monken, C H
2016-02-01
Higher order correlation beams, that is, two-photon beams obtained from the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by Hermite-Gauss or Laguerre-Gauss beams of any order, can be used to encode information in many modes, opening the possibility of quantum communication with large alphabets. In this paper we calculate, analytically, the fourth-order correlation function for the Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss coherent and partially coherent correlation beams propagating through a strong turbulent medium. We show that fourth-order correlation functions for correlation beams have, under certain conditions, expressions similar to those of intensities of classical beams and are degraded by turbulence in a similar way as the classical beams. Our results can be useful in establishing limits for the use of two-photon beams in quantum communications with larger alphabets under atmospheric turbulence.
Lipkin method of particle-number restoration to higher orders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, X. B.; Dobaczewski, J.; Kortelainen, M.; Yu, L. F.; Stoitsov, M. V.
2014-07-01
Background: On the mean-field level, pairing correlations are incorporated through the Bogoliubov-Valatin transformation, whereby the particle degrees of freedom are replaced by quasiparticles. This approach leads to a spontaneous breaking of the particle-number symmetry and mixing of states with different particle numbers. In order to restore the particle number, various methods have been employed, which are based on projection approaches before or after variation. Approximate variation-after-projection (VAP) schemes, utilizing the Lipkin method, have mostly been used within the Lipkin-Nogami prescription. Purpose: Without employing the Lipkin-Nogami prescription, and using, instead, states rotated in the gauge space, we derive the Lipkin method of particle-number restoration up to sixth order and we test the convergence and accuracy of the obtained expansion. Methods: We perform self-consistent calculations using the higher-order Lipkin method to restore the particle-number symmetry in the framework of superfluid nuclear energy-density functional theory. We also apply the Lipkin method to a schematic exactly solvable two-level pairing model. Results: Calculations performed in open-shell tin and lead isotopes show that the Lipkin method converges at fourth order and satisfactorily reproduces the VAP ground-state energies and energy kernels. Near closed shells, the higher-order Lipkin method cannot be applied because of a nonanalytic kink in the ground-state energies as a function of the particle number. Conclusions: In open-shell nuclei, the higher-order Lipkin method provides a good approximation to the exact VAP energies. The method is computationally inexpensive, making it particularly suitable, for example, for future optimizations of the nuclear energy density functionals and simultaneous restoration of different symmetries.
Sandia Higher Order Elements (SHOE) v 0.5 alpha
2013-09-24
SHOE is research code for characterizing and visualizing higher-order finite elements; it contains a framework for defining classes of interpolation techniques and element shapes; methods for interpolating triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, and hexahedral cells using Lagrange and Legendre polynomial bases of arbitrary order; methods to decompose each element into domains of constant gradient flow (using a polynomial solver to identify critical points); and an isocontouring technique that uses this decomposition to guarantee topological correctness. Please note that this is an alpha release of research software and that some time has passed since it was actively developed; build- and run-time issues likely exist.
Higher-order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers
Elvira, D.; Hachair, X.; Braive, R.; Beaudoin, G.; Robert-Philip, I.; Sagnes, I.; Abram, I.; Beveratos, A.; Verma, V. B.; Baek, B.; Nam, S. W.; Stevens, M. J.; Dauler, E. A.
2011-12-15
We report on the higher-order photon correlations of a high-{beta} nanolaser under pulsed excitation at room temperature. Using a multiplexed four-element superconducting single-photon detector we measured g{sup (n)}(0-vector) with n=2,3,4. All orders of correlation display partially chaotic statistics, even at four times the threshold excitation power. We show that this departure from coherence and Poisson statistics is due to the quantum fluctuations associated with the small number of photons at the lasing threshold.
Higher-order polarization singularitites in tailored vector beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otte, E.; Alpmann, C.; Denz, C.
2016-07-01
Higher-order polarization singularities embedded in tailored vector beams are introduced and experimentally realized. As holographic modulation allows to define order and location of any vectorial singularity, the surrounding vector field can be dynamically shaped. We demonstrate light fields associated with flowers or spider webs due to regular and even irregular patterns of the orientation of polarization ellipses. Beyond that, not yet investigated hybrid structures are introduced that allow generating networks of flowers and webs in very close vicinity. Our results pave the way to applications of singular optics in spatially extended, optimized optical tweezing and high-resolution imaging.
Sandia Higher Order Elements (SHOE) v 0.5 alpha
2013-09-24
SHOE is research code for characterizing and visualizing higher-order finite elements; it contains a framework for defining classes of interpolation techniques and element shapes; methods for interpolating triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, and hexahedral cells using Lagrange and Legendre polynomial bases of arbitrary order; methods to decompose each element into domains of constant gradient flow (using a polynomial solver to identify critical points); and an isocontouring technique that uses this decomposition to guarantee topological correctness. Please notemore » that this is an alpha release of research software and that some time has passed since it was actively developed; build- and run-time issues likely exist.« less
Analytical formulas for gravitational lensing: Higher order calculation
Amore, Paolo; Arceo, Santiago; Fernandez, Francisco M.
2006-10-15
We extend to higher order a recently published method for calculating the deflection angle of light in a general static and spherically symmetric metric. We have tested our method on the metric of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, on the metric of a charged black hole coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics and on the metric of Weyl gravity. Since our method is geometrically convergent, as proved in our previous work, our analytical formulas obtained working to fourth order are sufficient to reach errors of few percents even in proximity of the photon sphere.
Stabilization with target oriented control for higher order difference equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braverman, Elena; Franco, Daniel
2015-06-01
For a physical or biological model whose dynamics is described by a higher order difference equation un+1 = f (un ,un-1 , … ,u n - k + 1), we propose a version of a target oriented control un+1 = cT + (1 - c) f (un ,un-1 , … ,u n - k + 1), with T ≥ 0, c ∈ [ 0 , 1). In ecological systems, the method incorporates harvesting and recruitment and for a wide class of f, allows to stabilize (locally or globally) a fixed point of f. If a point which is not a fixed point of f has to be stabilized, the target oriented control is an appropriate method for achieving this goal. As a particular case, we consider pest control applied to pest populations with delayed density-dependence. This corresponds to a proportional feedback method, which includes harvesting only, for higher order equations.
Promoting higher order thinking skills using inquiry-based learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madhuri, G. V.; S. S. N Kantamreddi, V.; Goteti, L. N. S. Prakash
2012-05-01
Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in chemistry. Laboratory exercises are designed based on Bloom's taxonomy and a just-in-time facilitation approach is used. A pre-laboratory discussion outlining the theory of the experiment and its relevance is carried out to enable the students to analyse real-life problems. The performance of the students is assessed based on their ability to perform the experiment, design new experiments and correlate practical utility of the course module with real life. The novelty of the present approach lies in the fact that the learning outcomes of the existing experiments are achieved through establishing a relationship with real-world problems.
Spatial complexity of solutions of higher order partial differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kukavica, Igor
2004-03-01
We address spatial oscillation properties of solutions of higher order parabolic partial differential equations. In the case of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation ut + uxxxx + uxx + u ux = 0, we prove that for solutions u on the global attractor, the quantity card {x epsi [0, L]:u(x, t) = lgr}, where L > 0 is the spatial period, can be bounded by a polynomial function of L for all \\lambda\\in{\\Bbb R} . A similar property is proven for a general higher order partial differential equation u_t+(-1)^{s}\\partial_x^{2s}u+ \\sum_{k=0}^{2s-1}v_k(x,t)\\partial_x^k u =0 .
Higher-order nonlinear effects in a Josephson parametric amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Fedorov, Arkady
2015-12-01
Nonlinearity of the current-phase relationship of a Josephson junction is the key resource for a Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) as well as for a Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier, the only devices in which the quantum limit for added noise has so far been approached at microwave frequencies. A standard approach to describe JPA takes into account only the lowest order (cubic) nonlinearity resulting in a Duffing-like oscillator equation of motion or in a Kerr-type nonlinearity term in the Hamiltonian. In this paper we derive the quantum expression for the gain of JPA including all orders of the Josephson junction nonlinearity in the linear response regime. We then analyze gain saturation effect for stronger signals within a semiclassical approach. Our results reveal nonlinear effects of higher orders and their implications for operation of a JPA.
SU(2) Higher-order effective quark interactions from polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braghin, Fábio L.
2016-10-01
Higher order quark effective interactions are found for SU(2) flavor by departing from a non-local quark-quark interaction. By integrating out a component of the quark field, the determinant is expanded in chirally symmetric and symmetry breaking effective interactions up to the fifth order in the quark bilinears. The resulting coupling constants are resolved in the leading order of the longwavelength limit and exact numerical ratios between several of these coupling constants are obtained in the large quark mass limit. In this level, chiral invariant interactions only show up in even powers of the quark bilinears, i.e. O(ψ bar ψ) 2 n (n = 1 , 2 , 3 , . .), whereas (explicit) chiral symmetry breaking terms emerge as O(ψ bar ψ) n being always proportional to some power of the Lagrangian quark mass.
Higher order spin effects in inspiralling compact objects binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marsat, Sylvain
2015-04-01
We present recent progress on higher order spin effects in the post-Newtonian dynamics of compact objects binaries. We present first an extension of a Lagrangian formalism for point particle with spins, where finite size effects are represented by an additional multipolar structure. When applied to the case of a spin-induced octupole, the formalism allows for the computation of the cubic-in-spin effects that enter at the order 3.5PN. We also report on results obtained for quadratic-in-spin effects at the next-to-leading order 3PN. In both cases, we recover existing results for the dynamics, and derive for the first time the gravitational wave energy flux and orbital phasing. These results will be useful for the data analysis of the upcoming generation of advanced detectors of gravitational waves. NASA Grant 11-ATP-046.
Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions
Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, M. B.; Rajapaksa, Indrajit; Kim, Yunseok; Marincel, Dan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Jesse, Stephen; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Kalinin, Sergei V
2013-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, decoupling the contributions of competing or co-existing mechanisms to the system response can be achieved through investigation of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a well-known system, a model Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, nanoscale measurements of the second harmonic response with field reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of combining proximal probe techniques with nth harmonic detection methods in exploring and decoupling nonlinear dynamics in a wide variety of nanoscale materials.
Higher-order ionosphere modeling for CODE's next reprocessing activities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lutz, S.; Schaer, S.; Meindl, M.; Dach, R.; Steigenberger, P.
2009-12-01
CODE (the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is a joint venture between the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Wabern, Switzerland), the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), and the Institut für Astronomische und Phsyikalische Geodäsie of the Technische Universität München (IAPG/TUM, Munich, Germany). It acts as one of the global analysis centers of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and participates in the first IGS reprocessing campaign, a full reanalysis of GPS data collected since 1994. For a future reanalyis of the IGS data it is planned to consider not only first-order but also higher-order ionosphere terms in the space geodetic observations. There are several works (e.g. Fritsche et al. 2005), which showed a significant and systematic influence of these effects on the analysis results. The development version of the Bernese Software used at CODE is expanded by the ability to assign additional (scaling) parameters to each considered higher-order ionosphere term. By this, each correction term can be switched on and off on normal-equation level and, moreover, the significance of each correction term may be verified on observation level for different ionosphere conditions.
Higher order mode damping in an ALS test cavity
Jacob, A.F.; Lamberston, G.R. ); Barry, W. )
1990-06-01
The higher order mode attenuation scheme proposed for the Advanced Light Source accelerating cavities consists of two broad-band dampers placed 90{degrees} apart on the outer edge. In order to assess the damping efficiency a test assembly was built. The HOM damping was obtained by comparing the peak values of the transmission through the cavity for both the damped and the undamped case. Because of the high number of modes and frequency shifts due to the damping gear, the damping was assessed statistically, by averaging over several modes. In the frequency range from 1.5 to 5.5 GHz, average damping greater than 100 was obtained. 1 ref., 6 figs.
Higher order software - A methodology for defining software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, M.; Zeldin, S.
1976-01-01
Higher order software (HOS) is concerned only with computable functions and relationships. The HOS methodology can be used for the definition of software for multiprogrammed, multiprocessor, or multicomputer systems. A description of HOS methodology is presented, giving attention to questions of formulation, interface correctness, specification language principles, and HOS analyzers. Aspects of system design are considered, and details of software management are discussed. Attention is given to modularity as defined by HOS, frozen module management, the assembly control supervisor, and aspects of reliability and efficiency.
Integrable higher order deformations of Heisenberg supermagnetic model
Guo Jiafeng; Yan Zhaowen; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong
2009-11-15
The Heisenberg supermagnet model is an integrable supersymmetric system and has a close relationship with the strong electron correlated Hubbard model. In this paper, we investigate the integrable higher order deformations of Heisenberg supermagnet models with two different constraints: (i) S{sup 2}=3S-2I for S is an element of USPL(2/1)/S(U(2)xU(1)) and (ii) S{sup 2}=S for S is an element of USPL(2/1)/S(L(1/1)xU(1)). In terms of the gauge transformation, their corresponding gauge equivalent counterparts are derived.
Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.
Kim, Jinkyu
2014-01-01
The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics. PMID:25210664
Higher-order factors of the Big Five.
Digman, J M
1997-12-01
Estimated factor correlations from 14 studies supporting the 5 factor, Big Five model of personality trait organization--5 studies based on children and adolescents, 9 on adults--were factor analyzed. Two higher-order factors were clearly evident in all studies. One was principally related to the Big Five trait dimensions Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability; the other, the dimensions Extraversion and Intellect. Two models, one for children and adolescents, the other for adults, were tested by confirmatory factor analysis with generally excellent results. Many personality theorists appear to have considered one or both of these 2 metatraits, provisionally labeled alpha and beta.
Programming real-time executives in higher order language
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foudriat, E. C.
1982-01-01
Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.
Expected precision for neutron multiplicity assay using higher order moments
Ensslin, N.; Gavron, A.; Harker, W.C.
1997-11-01
This paper reports on the development of a new Figure of Merit code that can calculate the expected precision in neutron multiplicity assay using higher order moments. The code is used to provide a first look at the quadruple coincidence count rate and its expected precision. The results are good enough to warrant further study of potential applications of quadruple (quad) coincidences for large multiplying plutonium items. Also, the new code makes it possible to estimate the multiplicity assay precision if only randomly-triggered moments are used. This approach is described briefly, along with the current status of the investigation.
Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.
Kim, Jinkyu
2014-01-01
The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics.
Introduction to Higher Order Spatial Statistics in Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szapudi, I.
Higher order spatial statistics characterize non-Gaussian aspects of random fields, which are ubiquitous in cosmology: from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) to the large-scale structure (LSS) of the universe. These random fields are rich in their properties; they can be continuous or discrete; can have one through three, or even more dimensions; their degree of non- Gaussianity ranges from tiny to significant. Yet, there are several techniques and ideas, which are applicable to virtually all cosmological random fields, be it Lyman-a forests, LSS, or CMB.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sirkis, James S. (Inventor); Sivanesan, Ponniah (Inventor); Venkat, Venki S. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A Bragg grating sensor for measuring distributed strain and temperature at the same time comprises an optical fiber having a single mode operating wavelength region and below a cutoff wavelength of the fiber having a multimode operating wavelength region. A saturated, higher order Bragg grating having first and second order Bragg conditions is fabricated in the optical fiber. The first order of Bragg resonance wavelength of the Bragg grating is within the single mode operating wavelength region of the optical fiber and the second order of Bragg resonance wavelength is below the cutoff wavelength of the fiber within the multimode operating wavelength region. The reflectivities of the saturated Bragg grating at the first and second order Bragg conditions are less than two orders of magnitude of one another. In use, the first and second order Bragg conditions are simultaneously created in the sensor at the respective wavelengths and a signal from the sensor is demodulated with respect to each of the wavelengths corresponding to the first and second order Bragg conditions. Two Bragg conditions have different responsivities to strain and temperature, thus allowing two equations for axial strain and temperature to be found in terms of the measure shifts in the primary and second order Bragg wavelengths. This system of equations can be solved for strain and temperature.
Higher order parametric excitation modes for spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers
Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.
2011-12-15
This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system. When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.
Laser-PlasmaWakefield Acceleration with Higher Order Laser Modes
Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Mullowney, P.; Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Leemans, W.P.
2010-06-01
Laser-plasma collider designs point to staging of multiple accelerator stages at the 10 GeV level, which are to be developed on the upcoming BELLA laser, while Thomson Gamma source designs use GeV stages, both requiring efficiency and low emittance. Design and scaling of stages operating in the quasi-linear regime to address these needs are presented using simulations in the VORPAL framework. In addition to allowing symmetric acceleration of electrons and positrons, which is important for colliders, this regime has the property that the plasma wakefield is proportional to the transverse gradient of the laser intensity profile. We demonstrate use of higher order laser modes to tailor the laser pulse and hence the transverse focusing forces in the plasma. In particular, we show that by using higher order laser modes, we can reduce the focusing fields and hence increase the matched electron beam radius, which is important to increased charge and efficiency, while keeping the low bunch emittance required for applications.
Aero-optical jitter estimation using higher-order wavefronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whiteley, Matthew R.; Goorskey, David J.; Drye, Richard
2013-07-01
Wavefront measurements from wind tunnel or flight testing of an optical system are affected by jitter sources due to the measurement platform, system vibrations, or aero-mechanical buffeting. Depending on the nature of the testing, the wavefront jitter will be a composite of several effects, one of which is the aero-optical jitter; i.e., the wavefront tilt due to random air density fluctuations. To isolate the aero-optical jitter component from recent testing, we have developed an estimation technique that uses only higher-order wavefront measurements to determine the jitter. By analogy with work done previously with free-stream turbulence, we have developed a minimum mean-square error estimator using higher-order wavefront modes to compute the current-frame tilt components through a linear operation. The estimator is determined from computational fluid dynamics evaluation of aero-optical disturbances, but does not depend on the strength of such disturbances. Applying this technique to turret flight test data, we found aero-optical jitter to be 7.7±0.8 μrad and to scale with (ρ/ρSL)M2 (˜1 μrad in the actual test cases examined). The half-power point of the aero-optical jitter variance was found to be ˜2u∞/Dt and to roll off in temporal frequency with a power law between f and f.
Visualizing Higher Order Finite Elements: FY05 Yearly Report.
Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre
2005-11-01
This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elementsinto regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which thealgorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomialapproximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analyticalsolution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and mo-mentim. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate.Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and thesecoefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of free-dom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution.Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increas-ing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number offinite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some typesof simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedomthan increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation hasdetermined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools donot exist for visual inspection of the solution.This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finiteelement simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicialregions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. Therequirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the placeswhere the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacingalgorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.3 AcknowledgementThe authors would like to thank David Day and Louis Romero for their insight into poly-nomial system solvers and the LDRD Senior Council for the opportunity to pursue thisresearch. The authors were
Higher-order phase transitions on financial markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasprzak, A.; Kutner, R.; Perelló, J.; Masoliver, J.
2010-08-01
Statistical and thermodynamic properties of the anomalous multifractal structure of random interevent (or intertransaction) times were thoroughly studied by using the extended continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism of Montroll, Weiss, Scher, and Lax. Although this formalism is quite general (and can be applied to any interhuman communication with nontrivial priority), we consider it in the context of a financial market where heterogeneous agent activities can occur within a wide spectrum of time scales. As the main general consequence, we found (by additionally using the Saddle-Point Approximation) the scaling or power-dependent form of the partition function, Z(q'). It diverges for any negative scaling powers q' (which justifies the name anomalous) while for positive ones it shows the scaling with the general exponent τ(q'). This exponent is the nonanalytic (singular) or noninteger power of q', which is one of the pilar of higher-order phase transitions. In definition of the partition function we used the pausing-time distribution (PTD) as the central one, which takes the form of convolution (or superstatistics used, e.g. for describing turbulence as well as the financial market). Its integral kernel is given by the stretched exponential distribution (often used in disordered systems). This kernel extends both the exponential distribution assumed in the original version of the CTRW formalism (for description of the transient photocurrent measured in amorphous glassy material) as well as the Gaussian one sometimes used in this context (e.g. for diffusion of hydrogen in amorphous metals or for aging effects in glasses). Our most important finding is the third- and higher-order phase transitions, which can be roughly interpreted as transitions between the phase where high frequency trading is most visible and the phase defined by low frequency trading. The specific order of the phase transition directly depends upon the shape exponent α defining the stretched
Higher-order spectra for identification of nonlinear modal coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hickey, Daryl; Worden, Keith; Platten, Michael F.; Wright, Jan R.; Cooper, Jonathan E.
2009-05-01
Over the past four decades considerable work has been done in the area of power spectrum estimation. The information contained within the power spectrum relates to a signal's autocorrelation or 'second-order statistics'. The power spectrum provides a complete statistical description of a Gaussian process; however, a problem with this information is that it is phase blind. This problem is addressed if one turns to a system's frequency response function (FRF). The FRF graphs the magnitude and phase of the frequency response of a system; in order to do this it requires information regarding the frequency content of the input and output signals. Situations arise in science and engineering whereby signal analysts are required to look beyond second-order statistics and analyse a signal's higher-order statistics (HOS). HOS or spectra give information on a signal's deviation from Gaussianity and consequently are a good indicator function for the presence of nonlinearity within a system. One of the main problems in nonlinear system identification is that of high modal density. Many modelling schemes involve making some expansion of the nonlinear restoring force in terms of polynomial or other basis terms. If more than one degree-of-freedom is involved this becomes a multivariate problem and the number of candidate terms in the expansion grows explosively with the order of nonlinearity and the number of degrees-of-freedom. This paper attempts to use HOS to detect and qualify nonlinear behaviour for a number of symmetrical and asymmetrical systems over a range of degrees-of-freedom. In doing so the paper also attempts to show that HOS are a more sensitive tool than the FRF in detecting nonlinearity. Furthermore, the object of this paper is to try and identify which modes couple in a nonlinear manner in order to reduce the number of candidate coupling terms, for a model, as much as possible. The bispectrum method has previously been applied to simple low-DOF systems with high
The assembly bias of dark matter haloes to higher orders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angulo, R. E.; Baugh, C. M.; Lacey, C. G.
2008-06-01
We use an extremely large volume (2.4h-3Gpc3), high-resolution N-body simulation to measure the higher order clustering of dark matter haloes as a function of mass and internal structure. As a result of the large simulation volume and the use of a novel `cross-moment' counts-in-cells technique which suppresses discreteness noise, we are able to measure the clustering of haloes corresponding to rarer peaks than was possible in previous studies; the rarest haloes for which we measure the variance are 100 times more clustered than the dark matter. We are able to extract, for the first time, halo bias parameters from linear up to fourth order. For all orders measured, we find that the bias parameters are a strong function of mass for haloes more massive than the characteristic mass M*. Currently, no theoretical model is able to reproduce this mass dependence closely. We find that the bias parameters also depend on the internal structure of the halo up to fourth order. For haloes more massive than M*, we find that the more concentrated haloes are more weakly clustered than the less concentrated ones. We see no dependence of clustering on concentration for haloes with masses M < M* this is contrary to the trend reported in the literature when segregating haloes by their formation time. Our results are insensitive to whether haloes are labelled by the total mass returned by the friends-of-friends group finder or by the mass of the most massive substructure. This implies that our conclusions are not an artefact of the particular choice of group finding algorithm. Our results will provide important input to theoretical models of galaxy clustering.
Polarization and visibility of higher-order rainbows.
Können, Gunther P
2015-02-01
The degree of polarization of rainbows of order k with k≥3 is bounded in the interval [75%, 78%], where 75% is the limit for k→∞. A polarization filter can improve the signal-to-background ratio of the third and fourth rainbows by a factor of 2, which may lift their visibilities in natural circumstances above the threshold of human visual perception. Under optimal circumstances, the latter may be true for the recently photographed green fingerprint of the fifth rainbow, even without the aid of a polarization filter. The prospects for observing the sixth rainbow are unclear. There exists a possibility that the signal of the natural seventh rainbow (appearing at 64° from the Sun) may be separated from its background if photographed under perfect conditions through a polarization filter. PMID:25967836
Novel Object Exploration as a Potential Assay for Higher Order Repetitive Behaviors in Mice.
Steinbach, Jessica M; Garza, Elizabeth T; Ryan, Bryce C
2016-01-01
Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disrupt the lives of affected individuals. RRBs are commonly split into lower-order and higher-order components, with lower order RRBs consisting of motor stereotypies and higher order RRBs consisting of perseverative and sequencing behaviors. Higher order RRBs are challenging to model in mice. Current assays for RRBs in mice focus primarily on the lower order components, making basic biomedical research into potential treatments or interventions for higher-order RRBs difficult. Here we describe a new assay, novel object exploration. This assay uses a basic open-field arena with four novel objects placed around the perimeter. The test mouse is allowed to freely explore the arena and the order in which the mouse investigates the novel objects is recorded. From these data, patterned sequences of exploration can be identified, as can the most preferred object for each mouse. The representative data shared here and past results using the novel object exploration assay illustrate that inbred mouse strains do demonstrate different behavior in this assay and that strains with elevated lower order RRBs also show elevated patterned behavior. As such, the novel object exploration assay appears to possess good face validity for higher order RRBs in humans and may be a valuable assay for future studies investigating novel therapeutics for ASD. PMID:27583676
First and Higher Order Effects on Zero Order Radiative Transfer Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neelam, M.; Mohanty, B.
2014-12-01
Microwave radiative transfer model are valuable tool in understanding the complex land surface interactions. Past literature has largely focused on local sensitivity analysis for factor priotization and ignoring the interactions between the variables and uncertainties around them. Since land surface interactions are largely nonlinear, there always exist uncertainties, heterogeneities and interactions thus it is important to quantify them to draw accurate conclusions. In this effort, we used global sensitivity analysis to address the issues of variable uncertainty, higher order interactions, factor priotization and factor fixing for zero-order radiative transfer (ZRT) model. With the to-be-launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission of NASA, it is very important to have a complete understanding of ZRT for soil moisture retrieval to direct future research and cal/val field campaigns. This is a first attempt to use GSA technique to quantify first order and higher order effects on brightness temperature from ZRT model. Our analyses reflect conditions observed during the growing agricultural season for corn and soybeans in two different regions in - Iowa, U.S.A and Winnipeg, Canada. We found that for corn fields in Iowa, there exist significant second order interactions between soil moisture, surface roughness parameters (RMS height and correlation length) and vegetation parameters (vegetation water content, structure and scattering albedo), whereas in Winnipeg, second order interactions are mainly due to soil moisture and vegetation parameters. But for soybean fields in both Iowa and Winnipeg, we found significant interactions only to exist between soil moisture and surface roughness parameters.
Neutron scattering studies on chromatin higher-order structure
Graziano, V.; Gerchman, S.E.; Schneider, D.K.; Ramakrishnan, V.
1994-12-31
We have been engaged in studies of the structure and condensation of chromatin into the 30nm filament using small-angle neutron scattering. We have also used deuterated histone H1 to determine its location in the chromatin 30nm filament. Our studies indicate that chromatin condenses with increasing ionic strength to a limiting structure that has a mass per unit length of 6-7 nucleosomes/11 nm. They also show that the linker histone H1/H5 is located in the interior of the chromatin filament, in a position compatible with its binding to the inner face of the nucleosome. Analysis of the mass per unit length as a function of H5 stoichiometry suggests that 5-7 contiguous nucleosomes need to have H5 bound before a stable higher order structure can exist.
Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter
Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.
2003-09-23
Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.
Revealing Higher Order Protein Structure Using Mass Spectrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chait, Brian T.; Cadene, Martine; Olinares, Paul Dominic; Rout, Michael P.; Shi, Yi
2016-06-01
The development of rapid, sensitive, and accurate mass spectrometric methods for measuring peptides, proteins, and even intact protein assemblies has made mass spectrometry (MS) an extraordinarily enabling tool for structural biology. Here, we provide a personal perspective of the increasingly useful role that mass spectrometric techniques are exerting during the elucidation of higher order protein structures. Areas covered in this brief perspective include MS as an enabling tool for the high resolution structural biologist, for compositional analysis of endogenous protein complexes, for stoichiometry determination, as well as for integrated approaches for the structural elucidation of protein complexes. We conclude with a vision for the future role of MS-based techniques in the development of a multi-scale molecular microscope.
Intermediary LEO propagation including higher order zonal harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hautesserres, Denis; Lara, Martin
2016-10-01
Two new intermediary orbits of the artificial satellite problem are proposed. The analytical solutions include higher order effects of the geopotential, and are obtained by means of a torsion transformation applied to the quasi-Keplerian system resulting after the elimination of the parallax simplification, for the first intermediary, and after the elimination of the parallax and perigee simplifications, for the second one. The new intermediaries perform notably well for low Earth orbits propagation, are free from special functions, and result advantageous, both in accuracy and efficiency, when compared to the standard Cowell integration of the J_2 problem, thus providing appealing alternatives for onboard, short-term, orbit propagation under limited computational resources.
Inflationary scenarios in Starobinsky model with higher order corrections
Artymowski, Michał; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek
2015-06-17
We consider the Starobinsky inflation with a set of higher order corrections parametrised by two real coefficients λ{sub 1} ,λ{sub 2}. In the Einstein frame we have found a potential with the Starobinsky plateau, steep slope and possibly with an additional minimum, local maximum or a saddle point. We have identified three types of inflationary behaviour that may be generated in this model: i) inflation on the plateau, ii) at the local maximum (topological inflation), iii) at the saddle point. We have found limits on parameters λ{sub i} and initial conditions at the Planck scale which enable successful inflation and disable eternal inflation at the plateau. We have checked that the local minimum away from the GR vacuum is stable and that the field cannot leave it neither via quantum tunnelling nor via thermal corrections.
Higher-order modes of phase conjugate resonators.
Hardy, A; Hochhauser, S
1982-07-01
A numerical analysis based on the Prony algorithm was carried out to find the higher-order modes of phase conjugate optical resonators with hard-edged apertures. The mode patterns are nearly Hermite-Gaussians even for unstable resonator configurations. This indicates that there is not a phase conjugate analog of conventional unstable resonators. The eigenvalues and the extent to which the phase fronts match the surface of the conventional mirror were also calculated for a variety of resonator parameters. When there is one limiting aperture in the resonator and all others (including the phase conjugating mirror) can be considered as unbound, the eigenvalues and phase matching parameter are scalable by the ratio g/N, where N is the Fres-nel number of the aperture and g = 1 - L/R as in conventional resonator theory. PMID:20396031
Higher-order resonances in a Stark decelerator
Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y.T. van de; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Vanhaecke, Nicolas; Meijer, Gerard
2005-05-15
The motion of polar molecules can be controlled by time-varying inhomogeneous electric fields. In a Stark decelerator, this is exploited to select a fraction of a molecular beam that is accelerated, transported, or decelerated. Phase stability ensures that the selected bunch of molecules is kept together throughout the deceleration process. In this paper an extended description of phase stability in a Stark decelerator is given, including higher-order effects. This analysis predicts a wide variety of resonances that originate from the spatial and temporal periodicity of the electric fields. These resonances are experimentally observed using a beam of OH ({sup 2}{pi}{sub 3/2},v=0,J=3/2) radicals passing through a Stark decelerator.
Dependable software through higher-order strategic programming.
Winter, Victor Lono; Fraij, Fares; Roach, Steve
2004-03-01
Program transformation is a restricted form of software construction that can be amenable to formal verification. When successful, the nature of the evidence provided by such a verification is considered strong and can constitute a major component of an argument that a high-consequence or safety-critical system meets its dependability requirements. This article explores the application of novel higher-order strategic programming techniques to the development of a portion of a class loader for a restricted implementation of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The implementation is called the SSP and is intended for use in high-consequence safety-critical embedded systems. Verification of the strategic program using ACL2 is also discussed.
A higher-order-mode erbium-doped-fiber amplifier.
Nicholson, J W; Fini, J M; DeSantolo, A M; Monberg, E; DiMarcello, F; Fleming, J; Headley, C; DiGiovanni, D J; Ghalmi, S; Ramachandran, S
2010-08-16
We demonstrate the first erbium-doped fiber amplifier operating in a single, large-mode area, higher-order mode. A high-power, fundamental-mode, Raman fiber laser operating at 1480 nm was used as a pump source. Using a UV-written, long-period grating, both pump and 1564 nm signal were converted to the LP(0,10) mode, which had an effective area of 2700 microm(2) at 1550 nm. A maximum output power of 5.8 W at 1564 nm with more than 20 dB of gain in a 2.68 m long amplifier was obtained. The mode profile was undistorted at the highest output power.
Detailed Modeling of Higher Order Hierarchical Kepler Star Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gore, Joanna; Orosz, Jerome A.
2016-06-01
Most stars have stellar companions (i.e. they exist in double, triple, or higher order configurations). Binary star systems are those which contain two stars. These systems are valued scientifically because they allow for the measurement of fundamental stellar properties such as masses and radii. These properties in turn allow for detailed studies of stellar evolution. The Kepler space telescope has discovered roughly 2900 eclipsing binary stars in its field of view. Various studies have shown that roughly 20% of the Kepler eclipsing binaries contain companions are are most likely triple star systems. We present a preliminary survey of the orbital properties of the tertiary bodies in a sample of thirty triple systems. In addition, a small number of the triple systems show eclipse events due to the third star. We present the results of detailed modeling of two of these systems, and discuss how in some cases these triple systems allow for extremely precise measurements of the fundamental stellar parameters.
Phantom Friedmann cosmologies and higher-order characteristics of expansion
Dabrowski, Mariusz P. . E-mail: mpdabfz@sus.univ.szczecin.pl; Stachowiak, Tomasz . E-mail: toms@oa.uj.edu.pl
2006-04-15
We discuss a more general class of phantom (p < -{rho}) cosmologies with various forms of both phantom (w < -1), and standard (w > -1) matter. We show that many types of evolution which include both Big-Bang and Big-Rip singularities are admitted and give explicit examples. Among some interesting models, there exist non-singular oscillating (or 'bounce') cosmologies, which appear due to a competition between positive and negative pressure of variety of matter content. From the point of view of the current observations the most interesting cosmologies are the ones which start with a Big-Bang and terminate at a Big-Rip. A related consequence of having a possibility of two types of singularities is that there exists an unstable static universe approached by the two asymptotic models-one of them reaches Big-Bang, and another reaches Big-Rip. We also give explicit relations between density parameters {omega} and the dynamical characteristics for these generalized phantom models, including higher-order observational characteristics such as jerk and 'kerk.' Finally, we discuss the observational quantities such as luminosity distance, angular diameter, and source counts, both in series expansion and explicitly, for phantom models. Our series expansion formulas for the luminosity distance and the apparent magnitude go as far as to the fourth-order in redshift z term, which includes explicitly not only the jerk, but also the 'kerk' (or 'snap') which may serve as an indicator of the curvature of the universe.
Analytical higher-order model for flexible and stretchable sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yongfang; Zhu, Hongbin; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Xu; Liu, Fuxi; Lü, Yanjun
2015-03-01
The stretchable sensor wrapped around a foldable airfoil or embedded inside of it has great potential for use in the monitoring of the structural status of the foldable airfoil. The design methodology is important to the development of the stretchable sensor for status monitoring on the foldable airfoil. According to the requirement of mechanical flexibility of the sensor, the combined use of a layered flexible structural formation and a strain isolation layer is implemented. An analytical higher-order model is proposed to predict the stresses of the strain-isolation layer based on the shear-lag model for the safe design of the flexible and stretchable sensors. The normal stress and shear stress equations in the constructed structure of the sensors are obtained by the proposed model. The stress distribution in the structure is investigated when bending load is applied to the structures. The numerical results show that the proposed model can predict the variation of normal stress and shear stress along the thickness of the strain-isolation (polydimethylsiloxane) layer accurately. The results by the proposed model are in good agreement with the finite element method, in which the normal stress is variable while the shear stress is invariable along the thickness direction of strain-isolation layer. The high-order model is proposed to predict the stresses of the layered structure of the flexible and stretchable sensor for monitoring the status of the foldable airfoil.
From Second to Higher Order Tensors in Diffusion-MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Aurobrata; Deriche, Rachid
Diffusion MRI, which is sensitive to the Brownian motion of molecules, has become today an excellent medical tool for probing the tissue micro-structure of cerebral white matter in vivo and non-invasively. It makes it possible to reconstruct fiber pathways and segment major fiber bundles that reflect the structures in the brain which are not visible to other non-invasive imaging modalities. Since this is possible without operating on the subject, but by integrating partial information from Diffusion Weighted Images into a reconstructed ‘complete’ image of diffusion, Diffusion MRI opens a whole new domain of image processing. Here we shall explore the role that tensors play in the mathematical model. We shall primarily deal with Cartesian tensors and begin with 2nd order tensors, since these are at the core of Diffusion Tensor Imaging. We shall then explore higher and even ordered symmetric tensors, that can take into account more complex micro-geometries of biological tissues such as axonal crossings in the white matter.
A consolidation algorithm for genomes fractionated after higher order polyploidization
2012-01-01
Background It has recently been shown that fractionation, the random loss of excess gene copies after a whole genome duplication event, is a major cause of gene order disruption. When estimating evolutionary distances between genomes based on chromosomal rearrangement, fractionation inevitably leads to significant overestimation of classic rearrangement distances. This bias can be largely avoided when genomes are preprocessed by "consolidation", a procedure that identifies and accounts for regions of fractionation. Results In this paper, we present a new consolidation algorithm that extends and improves previous work in several directions. We extend the notion of the fractionation region to use information provided by regions where this process is still ongoing. The new algorithm can optionally work with this new definition of fractionation region and is able to process not only tetraploids but also genomes that have undergone hexaploidization and polyploidization events of higher order. Finally, this algorithm reduces the asymptotic time complexity of consolidation from quadratic to linear dependence on the genome size. The new algorithm is applied both to plant genomes and to simulated data to study the effect of fractionation in ancient hexaploids. PMID:23282012
Separating higher-order nonlinearities in transient absorption microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Jesse W.; Anderson, Miguel; Park, Jong Kang; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.
2015-08-01
The transient absorption response of melanin is a promising optically-accessible biomarker for distinguishing malignant melanoma from benign pigmented lesions, as demonstrated by earlier experiments on thin sections from biopsied tissue. The technique has also been demonstrated in vivo, but the higher optical intensity required for detecting these signals from backscattered light introduces higher-order nonlinearities in the transient response of melanin. These components that are higher than linear with respect to the pump or the probe introduce intensity-dependent changes to the overall response that complicate data analysis. However, our data also suggest these nonlinearities might be advantageous to in vivo imaging, in that different types of melanins have different nonlinear responses. Therefore, methods to separate linear from nonlinear components in transient absorption measurements might provide additional information to aid in the diagnosis of melanoma. We will discuss numerical methods for analyzing the various nonlinear contributions to pump-probe signals, with the ultimate objective of real time analysis using digital signal processing techniques. To that end, we have replaced the lock-in amplifier in our pump-probe microscope with a high-speed data acquisition board, and reprogrammed the coprocessor field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to perform lock-in detection. The FPGA lock-in offers better performance than the commercial instrument, in terms of both signal to noise ratio and speed. In addition, the flexibility of the digital signal processing approach enables demodulation of more complicated waveforms, such as spread-spectrum sequences, which has the potential to accelerate microscopy methods that rely on slow relaxation phenomena, such as photo-thermal and phosphorescence lifetime imaging.
Clayton, C
1982-07-01
"The structure of human geographical systems is often of a hierarchical nature. Population migration systems can usefully be conceptualized as a series of hierarchically related levels of migration fields: the fields at one level nesting within the fields at the next higher level. Such migration fields and the relationships between different levels can be extracted from large population migration origin-destination matrices with the aid of higher order factor analysis." A case study of the western United States illustrating the application of higher order factor analysis to large interaction matrices is presented.
Higher-order Fourier analysis over finite fields and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatami, Pooya
Higher-order Fourier analysis is a powerful tool in the study of problems in additive and extremal combinatorics, for instance the study of arithmetic progressions in primes, where the traditional Fourier analysis comes short. In recent years, higher-order Fourier analysis has found multiple applications in computer science in fields such as property testing and coding theory. In this thesis, we develop new tools within this theory with several new applications such as a characterization theorem in algebraic property testing. One of our main contributions is a strong near-equidistribution result for regular collections of polynomials. The densities of small linear structures in subsets of Abelian groups can be expressed as certain analytic averages involving linear forms. Higher-order Fourier analysis examines such averages by approximating the indicator function of a subset by a function of bounded number of polynomials. Then, to approximate the average, it suffices to know the joint distribution of the polynomials applied to the linear forms. We prove a near-equidistribution theorem that describes these distributions for the group F(n/p) when p is a fixed prime. This fundamental fact was previously known only under various extra assumptions about the linear forms or the field size. We use this near-equidistribution theorem to settle a conjecture of Gowers and Wolf on the true complexity of systems of linear forms. Our next application is towards a characterization of testable algebraic properties. We prove that every locally characterized affine-invariant property of functions f : F(n/p) → R with n∈ N, is testable. In fact, we prove that any such property P is proximity-obliviously testable. More generally, we show that any affine-invariant property that is closed under subspace restrictions and has "bounded complexity" is testable. We also prove that any property that can be described as the property of decomposing into a known structure of low
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai
2016-01-01
Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…
Generation of Higher Order Modes in a Rectangular Duct
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerhold, Carl H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Brown, Donald E.
2004-01-01
Advanced noise control methodologies to reduce sound emission from aircraft engines take advantage of the modal structure of the noise in the duct. This noise is caused by the interaction of rotor wakes with downstream obstructions such as exit guide vanes. Mode synthesis has been accomplished in circular ducts and current active noise control work has made use of this capability to cancel fan noise. The goal of the current effort is to examine the fundamental process of higher order mode propagation through an acoustically treated, curved duct. The duct cross-section is rectangular to permit greater flexibility in representation of a range of duct curvatures. The work presented is the development of a feedforward control system to generate a user-specified modal pattern in the duct. The multiple-error, filtered-x LMS algorithm is used to determine the magnitude and phase of signal input to the loudspeakers to produce a desired modal pattern at a set of error microphones. Implementation issues, including loudspeaker placement and error microphone placement, are discussed. Preliminary results from a 9-3/8 inch by 21 inch duct, using 12 loudspeakers and 24 microphones, are presented. These results demonstrate the ability of the control system to generate a user-specified mode while suppressing undesired modes.
Transcriptional Derepression Uncovers Cryptic Higher-Order Genetic Interactions
Taylor, Matthew B.; Ehrenreich, Ian M.
2015-01-01
Disruption of certain genes can reveal cryptic genetic variants that do not typically show phenotypic effects. Because this phenomenon, which is referred to as ‘phenotypic capacitance’, is a potential source of trait variation and disease risk, it is important to understand how it arises at the genetic and molecular levels. Here, we use a cryptic colony morphology trait that segregates in a yeast cross to explore the mechanisms underlying phenotypic capacitance. We find that the colony trait is expressed when a mutation in IRA2, a negative regulator of the Ras pathway, co-occurs with specific combinations of cryptic variants in six genes. Four of these genes encode transcription factors that act downstream of the Ras pathway, indicating that the phenotype involves genetically complex changes in the transcriptional regulation of Ras targets. We provide evidence that the IRA2 mutation reveals the phenotypic effects of the cryptic variants by disrupting the transcriptional silencing of one or more genes that contribute to the trait. Supporting this role for the IRA2 mutation, deletion of SFL1, a repressor that acts downstream of the Ras pathway, also reveals the phenotype, largely due to the same cryptic variants that were detected in the IRA2 mutant cross. Our results illustrate how higher-order genetic interactions among mutations and cryptic variants can result in phenotypic capacitance in specific genetic backgrounds, and suggests these interactions might reflect genetically complex changes in gene expression that are usually suppressed by negative regulation. PMID:26484664
Image Segmentation Using Higher-Order Correlation Clustering.
Kim, Sungwoong; Yoo, Chang D; Nowozin, Sebastian; Kohli, Pushmeet
2014-09-01
In this paper, a hypergraph-based image segmentation framework is formulated in a supervised manner for many high-level computer vision tasks. To consider short- and long-range dependency among various regions of an image and also to incorporate wider selection of features, a higher-order correlation clustering (HO-CC) is incorporated in the framework. Correlation clustering (CC), which is a graph-partitioning algorithm, was recently shown to be effective in a number of applications such as natural language processing, document clustering, and image segmentation. It derives its partitioning result from a pairwise graph by optimizing a global objective function such that it simultaneously maximizes both intra-cluster similarity and inter-cluster dissimilarity. In the HO-CC, the pairwise graph which is used in the CC is generalized to a hypergraph which can alleviate local boundary ambiguities that can occur in the CC. Fast inference is possible by linear programming relaxation, and effective parameter learning by structured support vector machine is also possible by incorporating a decomposable structured loss function. Experimental results on various data sets show that the proposed HO-CC outperforms other state-of-the-art image segmentation algorithms. The HO-CC framework is therefore an efficient and flexible image segmentation framework. PMID:26352230
Higher order finite element analysis of thick composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goering, J.; Kim, H. J.
1992-01-01
A higher order, sub-parametric, laminated, 3D solid finite element was used for the analysis of very thick laminated composite plates. The geometry of this element is defined by four nodes in the X-Y plane which define a prism of material through the thickness of the laminate. There are twenty-four degrees of freedom at each node; translations at the upper and lower surfaces of the laminate in each of the three coordinate directions, and the derivatives of these translations with respect to each coordinate. This choice of degrees of freedom leads to displacement and strain compatibility at the corners. Stacking sequence effects are accounted for by explicitly integrating the strain energy density through the thickness of the element. The laminated solid element was combined with a gap-contact element to analyze thick laminated composite lugs loaded through flexible pins. The resulting model accounts for pin bending effects that produce non-uniform bearing stresses through the thickness of the lug. A thick composite lug experimental test program was performed, and provided data that was used to validate the analytical model. Two lug geometries and three stacking sequences were tested.
Dynamical stability of Minkowski space in higher order gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tretyakov, Petr V.
2015-06-01
We discuss the Minkowski stability problem in modified gravity by using dynamical system approach. The method to investigate dynamical stability of Minkowski space is proposed. This method was applied for some modified gravity theories, such as f(R) gravity, f(R)+αR□R gravity and scalar-tensor gravity models with non-minimal kinetic coupling. It was shown that in the case of f(R) gravity Minkowski solution is asymptotically stable in ghost-free (f‧ > 0) and tachyon-free (f″ > 0) theories in expanding Universe with respect to isotropic and basic anisotropic perturbations. In the case of higher order gravity with αR□R correction conditions of Minkowski stability with respect to isotropic perturbations are significantly different: f‧(0) < 0, f″(0) < 0 and 3f‧(0) + f″(0)2/α > 0. And in the case of scalar-tensor gravity with non-minimal kinetic coupling Minkowski solution is asymptotically stable in expanding Universe with respect to isotropic perturbations of metric. Moreover, the developed method may be used for finding additional restrictions on parameters of different modified gravity theories.
Higher-Order Synaptic Interactions Coordinate Dynamics in Recurrent Networks
Chambers, Brendan; MacLean, Jason N.
2016-01-01
Linking synaptic connectivity to dynamics is key to understanding information processing in neocortex. Circuit dynamics emerge from complex interactions of interconnected neurons, necessitating that links between connectivity and dynamics be evaluated at the network level. Here we map propagating activity in large neuronal ensembles from mouse neocortex and compare it to a recurrent network model, where connectivity can be precisely measured and manipulated. We find that a dynamical feature dominates statistical descriptions of propagating activity for both neocortex and the model: convergent clusters comprised of fan-in triangle motifs, where two input neurons are themselves connected. Fan-in triangles coordinate the timing of presynaptic inputs during ongoing activity to effectively generate postsynaptic spiking. As a result, paradoxically, fan-in triangles dominate the statistics of spike propagation even in randomly connected recurrent networks. Interplay between higher-order synaptic connectivity and the integrative properties of neurons constrains the structure of network dynamics and shapes the routing of information in neocortex. PMID:27542093
A general higher-order remap algorithm for ALE calculations
Chiravalle, Vincent P
2011-01-05
A numerical technique for solving the equations of fluid dynamics with arbitrary mesh motion is presented. The three phases of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) methodology are outlined: the Lagrangian phase, grid relaxation phase and remap phase. The Lagrangian phase follows a well known approach from the HEMP code; in addition the strain rate andflow divergence are calculated in a consistent manner according to Margolin. A donor cell method from the SALE code forms the basis of the remap step, but unlike SALE a higher order correction based on monotone gradients is also added to the remap. Four test problems were explored to evaluate the fidelity of these numerical techniques, as implemented in a simple test code, written in the C programming language, called Cercion. Novel cell-centered data structures are used in Cercion to reduce the complexity of the programming and maximize the efficiency of memory usage. The locations of the shock and contact discontinuity in the Riemann shock tube problem are well captured. Cercion demonstrates a high degree of symmetry when calculating the Sedov blast wave solution, with a peak density at the shock front that is similar to the value determined by the RAGE code. For a flyer plate test problem both Cercion and FLAG give virtually the same velocity temporal profile at the target-vacuum interface. When calculating a cylindrical implosion of a steel shell, Cercion and FLAG agree well and the Cercion results are insensitive to the use of ALE.
Higher-order web link analysis using multilinear algebra.
Kenny, Joseph P.; Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson
2005-07-01
Linear algebra is a powerful and proven tool in web search. Techniques, such as the PageRank algorithm of Brin and Page and the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg, score web pages based on the principal eigenvector (or singular vector) of a particular non-negative matrix that captures the hyperlink structure of the web graph. We propose and test a new methodology that uses multilinear algebra to elicit more information from a higher-order representation of the hyperlink graph. We start by labeling the edges in our graph with the anchor text of the hyperlinks so that the associated linear algebra representation is a sparse, three-way tensor. The first two dimensions of the tensor represent the web pages while the third dimension adds the anchor text. We then use the rank-1 factors of a multilinear PARAFAC tensor decomposition, which are akin to singular vectors of the SVD, to automatically identify topics in the collection along with the associated authoritative web pages.
Higher-Order Synaptic Interactions Coordinate Dynamics in Recurrent Networks.
Chambers, Brendan; MacLean, Jason N
2016-08-01
Linking synaptic connectivity to dynamics is key to understanding information processing in neocortex. Circuit dynamics emerge from complex interactions of interconnected neurons, necessitating that links between connectivity and dynamics be evaluated at the network level. Here we map propagating activity in large neuronal ensembles from mouse neocortex and compare it to a recurrent network model, where connectivity can be precisely measured and manipulated. We find that a dynamical feature dominates statistical descriptions of propagating activity for both neocortex and the model: convergent clusters comprised of fan-in triangle motifs, where two input neurons are themselves connected. Fan-in triangles coordinate the timing of presynaptic inputs during ongoing activity to effectively generate postsynaptic spiking. As a result, paradoxically, fan-in triangles dominate the statistics of spike propagation even in randomly connected recurrent networks. Interplay between higher-order synaptic connectivity and the integrative properties of neurons constrains the structure of network dynamics and shapes the routing of information in neocortex. PMID:27542093
Schizophrenia is a disorder of higher order hierarchical processing.
Krishnan, Ranga R; Keefe, Richard; Kraus, Michael
2009-06-01
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which the patient manifests with auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre delusions, and disorganized speech and thinking. It is associated with significant social dysfunction. There are many hypotheses regarding schizophrenia. Most of these focus on schizophrenia as a manifestation of abnormalities from genetic [Mulle JG. Genomic structural variation and schizophrenia. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2008;10(2):171-7], viral [Fruntes V, Limosin F. Schizophrenia and viral infection during neurodevelopment: a pathogenesis model? Med Sci Monit 2008;14(6):RA71-7], neurochemical [e.g. dopamine (Lewis DA, Akil M. Cortical dopamine in schizophrenia: strategies for postmortem studies. J Psychiatr Res 1997;31(2):175-95) or interactions between neurotransmitters (Duncan GE, Sheitman BB, Lieberman JA. An integrated view of pathophysiological models of schizophrenia. Brain Res Brain Res Rev 1999;29(2):250-64)] or brain structural [Kotrla KJ, Weinberger DR. Brain imaging in schizophrenia. Annu Rev Med 1995;46:113-22] origins. Most of these hypotheses do not account for how or why these presumed causes lead to the manifestations of schizophrenia. We argue that brain structure and function is compatible with a hierarchical processing structure that forms the basis for perception and thought in healthy humans. We propose that perturbations of the types listed above lead to disruption of higher levels of perception and hierarchical temporal processing by the brain and that this constitutes the core deficit in schizophrenia. We present evidence that this model explains many of the features of schizophrenia and we make a series of predictions about schizophrenia.
Higher order chromatin structures in maize and Arabidopsis.
Paul, A L; Ferl, R J
1998-01-01
We are investigating the nature of plant genome domain organization by using DNase I- and topoisomerase II-mediated cleavage to produce domains reflecting higher order chromatin structures. Limited digestion of nuclei with DNase I results in the conversion of the >800 kb genomic DNA to an accumulation of fragments that represents a collection of individual domains of the genome created by preferential cleavage at super-hypersensitive regions. The median size of these fragments is approximately 45 kb in maize and approximately 25 kb in Arabidopsis. Hybridization analyses with specific gene probes revealed that individual genes occupy discrete domains within the distribution created by DNase I. The maize alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 gene occupies a domain of 90 kb, and the maize general regulatory factor GRF1 gene occupies a domain of 100 kb in length. Arabidopsis Adh was found within two distinct domains of 8.3 and 6.1 kb, whereas an Arabidopsis GRF gene occupies a single domain of 27 kb. The domains created by topoisomerase II-mediated cleavage are identical in size to those created by DNase I. These results imply that the genome is not packaged by means of a random gathering of the genome into domains of indiscriminate length but rather that the genome is gathered into specific domains and that a gene consistently occupies a discrete physical section of the genome. Our proposed model is that these large organizational domains represent the fundamental structural loop domains created by attachment of chromatin to the nuclear matrix at loop basements. These loop domains may be distinct from the domains created by the matrix attachment regions that typically flank smaller, often functionally distinct sections of the genome. PMID:9707534
Higher order variability properties of accreting black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccarone, Thomas J.; Coppi, Paolo S.
2002-11-01
To better constrain the emission mechanism underlying the hard state of galactic black hole candidates, we use high-time resolution RXTE light curves for Cyg X-1 and GX 339-4 to compute two higher order variability statistics for these objects, the skewness and the Fourier bispectrum. Similar analyses, in particular using the skewness measure, have been attempted previously, but the photon collection area of RXTE allows us to present results of much greater statistical significance. The results for the two objects are qualitatively similar, reinforcing the idea that the same basic mechanisms are at work in both. We find a significantly positive skewness for variability time-scales less than ~1 s, and a negative skewness for time-scales from 1 to 5 s. Such a skewness pattern cannot be reproduced by the simplest shot variability models where individual shots have a fixed profile and intensity and are uncorrelated in time. Further evidence against simple-shot models comes from the significant detection of a non-zero bicoherence for Fourier periods ~0.1-10 s, implying that significant coupling does exist between variations on these time-scales. We discuss how current popular models for variability in black hole systems can be modified to match these observations. Using simulated light curves, we suggest that the most likely way to reproduce this observed behaviour is to have the variability come in groups of many shots, with the number of shots per unit time fitting an envelope function that has a rapid rise and a slow decay, while the individual shots have a slow rise and a rapid decay. Invoking a finite-energy reservoir that is depleted by each shot is a natural way of producing the required shot correlations.
Construction of higher order accurate vortex and particle methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicolaides, R. A.
1986-01-01
The standard point vortex method has recently been shown to be of high order of accuracy for problems on the whole plane, when using a uniform initial subdivision for assigning the vorticity to the points. If obstacles are present in the flow, this high order deteriorates to first or second order. New vortex methods are introduced which are of arbitrary accuracy (under regularity assumptions) regardless of the presence of bodies and the uniformity of the initial subdivision.
Dynamics and phenomenology of higher order gravity cosmological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moldenhauer, Jacob Andrew
2010-10-01
I present here some new results about a systematic approach to higher-order gravity (HOG) cosmological models. The HOG models are derived from curvature invariants that are more general than the Einstein-Hilbert action. Some of the models exhibit late-time cosmic acceleration without the need for dark energy and fit some current observations. The open question is that there are an infinite number of invariants that one could select, and many of the published papers have stressed the need to find a systematic approach that will allow one to study methodically the various possibilities. We explore a new connection that we made between theorems from the theory of invariants in general relativity and these cosmological models. In summary, the theorems demonstrate that curvature invariants are not all independent from each other and that for a given Ricci Segre type and Petrov type (symmetry classification) of the space-time, there exists a complete minimal set of independent invariants (a basis) in terms of which all the other invariants can be expressed. As an immediate consequence of the proposed approach, the number of invariants to consider is dramatically reduced from infinity to four invariants in the worst case and to only two invariants in the cases of interest, including all Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metrics. We derive models that pass stability and physical acceptability conditions. We derive dynamical equations and phase portrait analyses that show the promise of the systematic approach. We consider observational constraints from magnitude-redshift Supernovae Type Ia data, distance to the last scattering surface of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We put observational constraints on general HOG models. We constrain different forms of the Gauss-Bonnet, f(G), modified gravity models with these observations. We show some of these models pass solar system tests. We seek to find models that pass physical and
Upgrading the Marketing Curriculum: The Integration of Higher-Order Skills. A Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoettinger, Nancy L.
1985-01-01
Discusses the support for higher-order skills in the secondary school and vocational curricula, the need for higher-order skills in the marketing curriculum, methods of teaching higher-order skills, and implications for teacher education. (CT)
Obligate Ordered Binding of Human Lactogenic Cytokines*
Voorhees, Jeffery L.; Brooks, Charles L.
2010-01-01
Class 1 cytokines bind two receptors to create an active heterotrimeric complex. It has been argued that ligand binding to their receptors is an ordered process, but a structural mechanism describing this process has not been determined. We have previously described an obligate ordered binding mechanism for the human prolactin/prolactin receptor heterotrimeric complex. In this work we expand this conceptual understanding of ordered binding to include three human lactogenic hormones: prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen. We independently blocked either of the two receptor binding sites of each hormone and used surface plasmon resonance to measure human prolactin receptor binding kinetics and stoichiometries to the remaining binding surface. When site 1 of any of the three hormones was blocked, site 2 could not bind the receptor. But blocking site 2 did not affect receptor binding at site 1, indicating a requirement for receptor binding to site 1 before site 2 binding. In addition we noted variable responses to the presence of zinc in hormone-receptor interaction. Finally, we performed Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses where receptor binding at subsaturating stoichiometries induced changes in FRET signaling, indicative of binding-induced changes in hormone conformation, whereas at receptor:hormone ratios in excess of 2:1 no additional changes in FRET signaling were observed. These results strongly support a conformationally mediated obligate-ordered receptor binding for each of the three lactogenic hormones. PMID:20427283
Higher-order diagrammatic vibrational coupled-cluster theory.
Faucheaux, Jacob A; Hirata, So
2015-10-01
Diagrammatically size-consistent and basis-set-free vibrational coupled-cluster (XVCC) theory for both zero-point energies and transition frequencies of a molecule, the latter through the equation-of-motion (EOM) formalism, is defined for an nth-order Taylor-series potential energy surface (PES). Quantum-field-theoretical tools (the rules of normal-ordered second quantization and Feynman-Goldstone diagrams) for deriving their working equations are established. The equations of XVCC and EOM-XVCC including up to the mth-order excitation operators are derived and implemented with the aid of computer algebra in the range of 1 ≤ m ≤ 8. Algorithm optimizations known as strength reduction, intermediate reuse, and factorization are carried out before code generation, reducing the cost scaling of the mth-order XVCC and EOM-XVCC in an nth-order Taylor-series PES (m ≥ n) to the optimal value of O(N(m+⌊n/2⌋)), where N is the number of modes. The calculated zero-point energies and frequencies of fundamentals, overtones, and combinations as well as Fermi-resonant modes display rapid and nearly monotonic convergence with m towards the exact values for the PES. The theory with the same excitation rank as the truncation order of the Taylor-series PES (m = n) seems to strike the best cost-accuracy balance, achieving the accuracy of a few tenths of cm(-1) for transitions involving (m - 3) modes and of a few cm(-1) for those involving (m - 2) modes. The relationships between XVCC and the vibrational coupled-cluster theories of Prasad and coworkers and of Christiansen and coworkers as well as the size-extensive vibrational self-consistent-field and many-body perturbation theories are also elucidated.
Higher-order diagrammatic vibrational coupled-cluster theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faucheaux, Jacob A.; Hirata, So
2015-10-01
Diagrammatically size-consistent and basis-set-free vibrational coupled-cluster (XVCC) theory for both zero-point energies and transition frequencies of a molecule, the latter through the equation-of-motion (EOM) formalism, is defined for an nth-order Taylor-series potential energy surface (PES). Quantum-field-theoretical tools (the rules of normal-ordered second quantization and Feynman-Goldstone diagrams) for deriving their working equations are established. The equations of XVCC and EOM-XVCC including up to the mth-order excitation operators are derived and implemented with the aid of computer algebra in the range of 1 ≤ m ≤ 8. Algorithm optimizations known as strength reduction, intermediate reuse, and factorization are carried out before code generation, reducing the cost scaling of the mth-order XVCC and EOM-XVCC in an nth-order Taylor-series PES (m ≥ n) to the optimal value of O(Nm+⌊n/2⌋), where N is the number of modes. The calculated zero-point energies and frequencies of fundamentals, overtones, and combinations as well as Fermi-resonant modes display rapid and nearly monotonic convergence with m towards the exact values for the PES. The theory with the same excitation rank as the truncation order of the Taylor-series PES (m = n) seems to strike the best cost-accuracy balance, achieving the accuracy of a few tenths of cm-1 for transitions involving (m - 3) modes and of a few cm-1 for those involving (m - 2) modes. The relationships between XVCC and the vibrational coupled-cluster theories of Prasad and coworkers and of Christiansen and coworkers as well as the size-extensive vibrational self-consistent-field and many-body perturbation theories are also elucidated.
Higher-order diagrammatic vibrational coupled-cluster theory.
Faucheaux, Jacob A; Hirata, So
2015-10-01
Diagrammatically size-consistent and basis-set-free vibrational coupled-cluster (XVCC) theory for both zero-point energies and transition frequencies of a molecule, the latter through the equation-of-motion (EOM) formalism, is defined for an nth-order Taylor-series potential energy surface (PES). Quantum-field-theoretical tools (the rules of normal-ordered second quantization and Feynman-Goldstone diagrams) for deriving their working equations are established. The equations of XVCC and EOM-XVCC including up to the mth-order excitation operators are derived and implemented with the aid of computer algebra in the range of 1 ≤ m ≤ 8. Algorithm optimizations known as strength reduction, intermediate reuse, and factorization are carried out before code generation, reducing the cost scaling of the mth-order XVCC and EOM-XVCC in an nth-order Taylor-series PES (m ≥ n) to the optimal value of O(N(m+⌊n/2⌋)), where N is the number of modes. The calculated zero-point energies and frequencies of fundamentals, overtones, and combinations as well as Fermi-resonant modes display rapid and nearly monotonic convergence with m towards the exact values for the PES. The theory with the same excitation rank as the truncation order of the Taylor-series PES (m = n) seems to strike the best cost-accuracy balance, achieving the accuracy of a few tenths of cm(-1) for transitions involving (m - 3) modes and of a few cm(-1) for those involving (m - 2) modes. The relationships between XVCC and the vibrational coupled-cluster theories of Prasad and coworkers and of Christiansen and coworkers as well as the size-extensive vibrational self-consistent-field and many-body perturbation theories are also elucidated. PMID:26450290
Investigation of higher order correlations in swirling pipe flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acrivlellis, M.; Jungbluth, H.; Cantrak, S.
1982-04-01
Statistical quantities of swirling pipe flows generated by radial guide vanes were studied by a triple hot-wire probe and digital data reduction at two cross-sections of the pipe, one directly behind the swirl generator and the other some distance downstream from the vanes. The influence of swirl intensity on the axial pipe flow was investigated with the measured second and third order correlations as well as the third and fourth order central moments. The probability-density distribution shows the significance of the turbulence transfer mechanism in the complicated process of swirling flows.
Higher Order Thinking Skills for Students with Special Needs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savage, Louise; Lombardi, Thomas P.
1993-01-01
This article describes methods for teaching higher level thinking skills to children. A four-step teaching plan utilizing Beyer's Taxonomy of thinking skills provides a sequential technique for teaching these skills as do increased verbal interaction, skillful questioning, and use of knowledge organizers. The I PLAN strategy can aid decision…
The Structure of Higher Education: Order in the Academy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Clair A.
2009-01-01
Higher education in the U.S. is provided by an interesting mix of public, private non-profit, and for-profit institutions. The for-profit educational firm serves the residual claimant owners and has the greatest incentive for efficient operation. The public and private non-profit schools have less efficient incentives, but benefit from charitable…
Higher-Order Semi-Implicit Projection Methods
Minion, M L
2001-09-06
A semi-implicit form of the method of spectral deferred corrections is applied to the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A methodology for constructing semi-implicit projection methods with arbitrarily high order of temporal accuracy in both the velocity and pressure is presented. Three variations of projection methods are discussed which differ in the manner in which the auxiliary velocity and the pressure are calculated. The presentation will make clear that project methods in general need not be viewed as fractional step methods as is often the practice. Two simple numerical examples re used to demonstrate fourth-order accuracy in time for an implementation of each variation of projection method.
Machine learning using a higher order correlation network
Lee, Y.C.; Doolen, G.; Chen, H.H.; Sun, G.Z.; Maxwell, T.; Lee, H.Y.
1986-01-01
A high-order correlation tensor formalism for neural networks is described. The model can simulate auto associative, heteroassociative, as well as multiassociative memory. For the autoassociative model, simulation results show a drastic increase in the memory capacity and speed over that of the standard Hopfield-like correlation matrix methods. The possibility of using multiassociative memory for a learning universal inference network is also discussed. 9 refs., 5 figs.
The period functionsʼ higher order derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabatini, M.
We prove a formula for the n-th derivative of the period function T in a period annulus of a planar differential system. For n=1, we obtain Freire, Gasull and Guillamon formula for the period's first derivative (Chicone and Dumortier, 1993) [17]. We apply such a result to Hamiltonian systems with separable variables and other systems. We give some sufficient conditions for the period function of conservative second order ODE's to be convex.
Wavelet steerability and the higher-order Riesz transform.
Unser, Michael; Van De Ville, Dimitri
2010-03-01
Our main goal in this paper is to set the foundations of a general continuous-domain framework for designing steerable, reversible signal transformations (a.k.a. frames) in multiple dimensions ( d >or= 2). To that end, we introduce a self-reversible, Nth-order extension of the Riesz transform. We prove that this generalized transform has the following remarkable properties: shift-invariance, scale-invariance, inner-product preservation, and steerability. The pleasing consequence is that the transform maps any primary wavelet frame (or basis) of [Formula: see text] into another "steerable" wavelet frame, while preserving the frame bounds. The concept provides a functional counterpart to Simoncelli's steerable pyramid whose construction was primarily based on filterbank design. The proposed mechanism allows for the specification of wavelets with any order of steerability in any number of dimensions; it also yields a perfect reconstruction filterbank algorithm. We illustrate the method with the design of a novel family of multidimensional Riesz-Laplace wavelets that essentially behave like the N th-order partial derivatives of an isotropic Gaussian kernel. PMID:20031498
Higher-order virial coefficients of water models.
Benjamin, Kenneth M; Singh, Jayant K; Schultz, Andrew J; Kofke, David A
2007-10-01
We use the Mayer sampling method, with both direct and overlap sampling, to calculate and compare classical virial coefficients up to B6 for various water models (SPC, SPC/E, MSPC/E, TIP3P, and TIP4P). The precision of the computed values ranges from 0.1% for B2 to an average of 25% for B6. When expressed in a form scaled by the critical properties, the values of the coefficients for SPC water are observed to greatly exceed the magnitude of corresponding coefficients for the simple Lennard-Jones model. We examine the coefficients in the context of the equation of state and the Joule-Thomson coefficient. Comparisons of these properties are made both to established molecular simulation data for each respective model and to real water. For all models, the virial series up to B5 describes the equation of state along the saturated vapor line better than the series that includes B6. At supercritical temperatures, however, the sixth-order series often describes pressure-volume-temperature behavior better than the fifth-order series. For example, the sixth-order virial equation of state for SPC/E water predicts the 673 K isotherm within 8% of published molecular simulation values up to a density of 9 mol/L (roughly half the critical density of SPC/E water).
Conceptual similarity promotes generalization of higher order fear learning
Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; White, Allison J.; LaBar, Kevin S.
2011-01-01
We tested the hypothesis that conceptual similarity promotes generalization of conditioned fear. Using a sensory preconditioning procedure, three groups of subjects learned an association between two cues that were conceptually similar, unrelated, or mismatched. Next, one of the cues was paired with a shock. The other cue was then reintroduced to test for fear generalization, as measured by the skin conductance response. Results showed enhanced fear generalization that correlated with trait anxiety levels in the group that learned an association between conceptually similar stimuli. These findings suggest that conceptual representations of conditional stimuli influence human fear learning processes. PMID:21330378
Higher-order symplectic Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics
Niklasson, Anders; Bock, Nicolas; Challacombe, Matt; Odell, Anders; Delin, Anna; Johansson, Borje
2009-01-01
The extended Lagrangian formulation of time-reversible Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (TR-BOMD) enables the use of geometric integrators in the propagation of both the nuclear and the electronic degrees of freedom on the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. Different symplectic integrators up to the 6th order have been adapted and optimized to TR-BOMD in the framework of ab initio self-consistent-field theory. It is shown how the accuracy can be significantly improved compared to a conventional Verlet integration at the same level of computational cost, in particular for the case of very high accuracy requirements.
Higher order methods for convection-diffusion problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, J. D.; Prenter, P. M.
This paper applies C1 cubic Hermite polynomials embedded in an orthogonal collocation scheme to the spatial discretization of the unsteady nonlinear Burgers equation as a model of the equations of fluid mechanics. The temporal discretization is carried out by means of either a noniterative finite difference or an iterative finite difference procedure. Results of this method are compared with those of a second-order finite difference scheme and a splined-cubic Taylor's series scheme. Stability limits are derived and the matrix structure of the several schemes are compared.
Higher-order gravitational lensing reconstruction using Feynman diagrams
Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Yadav, Amit P.S.; Waalewijn, Wouter J. E-mail: amanohar@ucsd.edu E-mail: ayadav@physics.ucsd.edu
2014-09-01
We develop a method for calculating the correlation structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) using Feynman diagrams, when the CMB has been modified by gravitational lensing, Faraday rotation, patchy reionization, or other distorting effects. This method is used to calculate the bias of the Hu-Okamoto quadratic estimator in reconstructing the lensing power spectrum up to O (φ{sup 4}) in the lensing potential φ. We consider both the diagonal noise TT TT, EB EB, etc. and, for the first time, the off-diagonal noise TT TE, TB EB, etc. The previously noted large O (φ{sup 4}) term in the second order noise is identified to come from a particular class of diagrams. It can be significantly reduced by a reorganization of the φ expansion. These improved estimators have almost no bias for the off-diagonal case involving only one B component of the CMB, such as EE EB.
Isolation and Quantitation of Adiponectin Higher Order Complexes
Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Scherer, Philipp E.
2014-01-01
Adiponectin is a circulating bioactive hormone secreted by adipocytes as oligomers ranging in size from 90 kDa trimers and 180 kDa hexamers to larger high molecular weight oligomers that may reach 18- or 36-mers in size. While total circulating adiponectin levels correlate well with metabolic health, it is the relative distribution of adiponectin complexes that is most clinically relevant to glucose sensitivity and inflammation. High molecular weight adiponectin best mirrors insulin sensitivity, while trimeric adiponectin dominates with insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation. Experimental animal and in vitro models have also linked the relative fraction of high molecular weight adiponectin to its positive effects. Quantitating adiponectin size distribution thus provides a window into metabolic health and can serve as a surrogate marker for adipose tissue fitness. Here, we present a detailed protocol for isolating and quantitating adiponectin complexes in serum or plasma that has been extensively utilized for both human clinical samples and numerous animal models under various experimental conditions. Examples are presented of different adiponectin distributions and tips are provided for optimization using available equipment. Comparison of this rigorous approach to other available methods is also discussed. In total, this summary is a blueprint for the expanded quantitation and study of adiponectin complexes. PMID:24480350
Higher order vortex gyrotropic modes in circular ferromagnetic nanodots.
Ding, Junjia; Kakazei, Gleb N; Liu, Xinming; Guslienko, Konstantin Y; Adeyeye, Adekunle O
2014-01-01
Magnetic vortex that consists of an in-plane curling magnetization configuration and a needle-like core region with out-of-plane magnetization is known to be the ground state of geometrically confined submicron soft magnetic elements. Here magnetodynamics of relatively thick (50-100 nm) circular Ni80Fe20 dots were probed by broadband ferromagnetic resonance in the absence of external magnetic field. Spin excitation modes related to the thickness dependent vortex core gyrotropic dynamics were detected experimentally in the gigahertz frequency range. Both analytical theory and micromagnetic simulations revealed that these exchange dominated modes are flexure oscillations of the vortex core string with n = 0,1,2 nodes along the dot thickness. The intensity of the mode with n = 1 depends significantly on both dot thickness and diameter and in some cases is higher than the one of the uniform mode with n = 0. This opens promising perspectives in the area of spin transfer torque oscillators. PMID:24762659
Higher order vortex gyrotropic modes in circular ferromagnetic nanodots
Ding, Junjia; Kakazei, Gleb N.; Liu, Xinming; Guslienko, Konstantin Y.; Adeyeye, Adekunle O.
2014-01-01
Magnetic vortex that consists of an in-plane curling magnetization configuration and a needle-like core region with out-of-plane magnetization is known to be the ground state of geometrically confined submicron soft magnetic elements. Here magnetodynamics of relatively thick (50–100 nm) circular Ni80Fe20 dots were probed by broadband ferromagnetic resonance in the absence of external magnetic field. Spin excitation modes related to the thickness dependent vortex core gyrotropic dynamics were detected experimentally in the gigahertz frequency range. Both analytical theory and micromagnetic simulations revealed that these exchange dominated modes are flexure oscillations of the vortex core string with n = 0,1,2 nodes along the dot thickness. The intensity of the mode with n = 1 depends significantly on both dot thickness and diameter and in some cases is higher than the one of the uniform mode with n = 0. This opens promising perspectives in the area of spin transfer torque oscillators. PMID:24762659
Higher-order differential phase shift keyed modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanalphen, Deborah K.; Lindsey, William C.
1994-02-01
Advanced modulation/demodulation techniques which are robust in the presence of phase and frequency uncertainties continue to be of interest to communication engineers. We are particularly interested in techniques which accommodate slow channel phase and frequency variations with minimal performance degradation and which alleviate the need for phase and frequency tracking loops in the receiver. We investigate the performance sensitivity to frequency offsets of a modulation technique known as binary Double Differential Phase Shift Keying (DDPSK) and compare it to that of classical binary Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK). We also generalize our analytical results to include n(sup -th) order, M-ary DPSK. The DDPSK (n = 2) technique was first introduced in the Russian literature circa 1972 and was studied more thoroughly in the late 1970's by Pent and Okunev. Here, we present an expression for the symbol error probability that is easy to derive and to evaluate numerically. We also present graphical results that establish when, as a function of signal energy-to-noise ratio and normalized frequency offset, binary DDPSK is preferable to binary DPSK with respect to performance in additive white Gaussian noise. Finally, we provide insight into the optimum receiver from a detection theory viewpoint.
MJO structure associated with the higher-order CEOF modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Ping
2014-10-01
the total 432 CEOF modes retain all variance of the baseline MJO, while those higher than 10 contain less information and more noise and can be discarded. Furthermore, this study indicated that the longitudinal STD of the reconstructed anomalies detects the MJO phases and magnitudes in the western Pacific with more physical meaning and in better agreement with the Hovmöller diagrams than the RMM-like amplitude. The results provide an integral figure of the MJO structure from the CEOF analysis and a more robust RMM framework for monitoring the MJO's evolution in real time and for validating its numerical forecast and simulations.
Higher-order multipole amplitudes in charmonium radiative transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artuso, M.; Blusk, S.; Khalil, S.; Mountain, R.; Randrianarivony, K.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J. C.; Zhang, L. M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Lincoln, A.; Smith, M. J.; Zhou, P.; Zhu, J.; Naik, P.; Rademacker, J.; Asner, D. M.; Edwards, K. W.; Reed, J.; Robichaud, A. N.; Tatishvili, G.; White, E. J.; Briere, R. A.; Vogel, H.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Rosner, J. L.; Alexander, J. P.; Cassel, D. G.; Ehrlich, R.; Fields, L.; Galik, R. S.; Gibbons, L.; Gray, S. W.; Hartill, D. L.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hunt, J. M.; Kreinick, D. L.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Ledoux, J.; Mahlke-Krüger, H.; Patterson, J. R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Sadoff, A. J.; Shi, X.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W. M.; Yelton, J.; Rubin, P.; Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J.; Kornicer, M.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Tarbert, C. M.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Xavier, J.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Poling, R.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.; Tan, B. J. Y.; Tomaradze, A.; Brisbane, S.; Libby, J.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Spradlin, P.; Thomas, C.; Wilkinson, G.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; Ecklund, K. M.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.; Yang, F.
2009-12-01
Using 24×106 ψ'≡ψ(2S) decays in CLEO-c, we have searched for higher multipole admixtures in electric-dipole-dominated radiative transitions in charmonia. We find good agreement between our data and theoretical predictions for magnetic quadrupole (M2) amplitudes in the transitions ψ'→γχc1,c2 and χc1,c2→γJ/ψ, in striking contrast to some previous measurements. Let b2J and a2J denote the normalized M2 amplitudes in the respective aforementioned decays, where the superscript J refers to the angular momentum of the χcJ. By performing unbinned maximum likelihood fits to full five-parameter angular distributions, we found the following values of M2 admixtures for Jχ=1: a2J=1=(-6.26±0.63±0.24)×10-2 and b2J=1=(2.76±0.73±0.23)×10-2, which agree well with theoretical expectations for a vanishing anomalous magnetic moment of the charm quark. For Jχ=2, if we fix the electric octupole (E3) amplitudes to zero as theory predicts for transitions between charmonium S states and P states, we find a2J=2=(-9.3±1.6±0.3)×10-2 and b2J=2=(1.0±1.3±0.3)×10-2. If we allow for E3 amplitudes we find, with a four-parameter fit, a2J=2=(-7.9±1.9±0.3)×10-2, b2J=2=(0.2±1.4±0.4)×10-2, a3J=2=(1.7±1.4±0.3)×10-2, and b3J=2=(-0.8±1.2±0.2)×10-2. We determine the ratios a2J=1/a2J=2=0.67-0.13+0.19 and a2J=1/b2J=1=-2.27-0.99+0.57, where the theoretical predictions are independent of the charmed quark magnetic moment and are a2J=1/a2J=2=0.676±0.071 and a2J=1/b2J=1=-2.27±0.16.
The Meaning of Higher-Order Factors in Reflective-Measurement Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eid, Michael; Koch, Tobias
2014-01-01
Higher-order factor analysis is a widely used approach for analyzing the structure of a multidimensional test. Whenever first-order factors are correlated researchers are tempted to apply a higher-order factor model. But is this reasonable? What do the higher-order factors measure? What is their meaning? Willoughby, Holochwost, Blanton, and Blair…
Landscape of Higher Education: Human Capital
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Kelcey; Perfetto, Greg; Hossler, Don; Kelly, Patrick J.
2012-01-01
There are many changes occurring in higher education, and often it is difficult to see trends nationally. In this presentation, experts working with national data present trends in higher education from a forward-looking perspective. Senior researchers from the College Board provide trends using College Board SAT and AP data, as well as new…
Barutcu, A Rasim; Lajoie, Bryan R; Fritz, Andrew J; McCord, Rachel P; Nickerson, Jeffrey A; van Wijnen, Andre J; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Dekker, Job; Stein, Gary S; Imbalzano, Anthony N
2016-09-01
The packaging of DNA into chromatin plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and nuclear processes. Brahma-related gene-1 SMARCA4 (also known as BRG1), the essential ATPase subunit of the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to disrupt nucleosomes at target regions. Although the transcriptional role of SMARCA4 at gene promoters is well-studied, less is known about its role in higher-order genome organization. SMARCA4 knockdown in human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells resulted in 176 up-regulated genes, including many related to lipid and calcium metabolism, and 1292 down-regulated genes, some of which encode extracellular matrix (ECM) components that can exert mechanical forces and affect nuclear structure. ChIP-seq analysis of SMARCA4 localization and SMARCA4-bound super-enhancers demonstrated extensive binding at intergenic regions. Furthermore, Hi-C analysis showed extensive SMARCA4-mediated alterations in higher-order genome organization at multiple resolutions. First, SMARCA4 knockdown resulted in clustering of intra- and inter-subtelomeric regions, demonstrating a novel role for SMARCA4 in telomere organization. SMARCA4 binding was enriched at topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries, and SMARCA4 knockdown resulted in weakening of TAD boundary strength. Taken together, these findings provide a dynamic view of SMARCA4-dependent changes in higher-order chromatin organization and gene expression, identifying SMARCA4 as a novel component of chromatin organization. PMID:27435934
The use of higher-order statistics in rapid object categorization in natural scenes.
Banno, Hayaki; Saiki, Jun
2015-02-04
We can rapidly and efficiently recognize many types of objects embedded in complex scenes. What information supports this object recognition is a fundamental question for understanding our visual processing. We investigated the eccentricity-dependent role of shape and statistical information for ultrarapid object categorization, using the higher-order statistics proposed by Portilla and Simoncelli (2000). Synthesized textures computed by their algorithms have the same higher-order statistics as the originals, while the global shapes were destroyed. We used the synthesized textures to manipulate the availability of shape information separately from the statistics. We hypothesized that shape makes a greater contribution to central vision than to peripheral vision and that statistics show the opposite pattern. Results did not show contributions clearly biased by eccentricity. Statistical information demonstrated a robust contribution not only in peripheral but also in central vision. For shape, the results supported the contribution in both central and peripheral vision. Further experiments revealed some interesting properties of the statistics. They are available for a limited time, attributable to the presence or absence of animals without shape, and predict how easily humans detect animals in original images. Our data suggest that when facing the time constraint of categorical processing, higher-order statistics underlie our significant performance for rapid categorization, irrespective of eccentricity.
Li, Xing; Yeung, Darwin F.; Fiegen, Ann M.; Sodroski, Joseph
2011-01-01
Many tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins self-associate, forming dimers and higher order complexes. For example, dimers of TRIM5α, a host factor that restricts retrovirus infection, assemble into higher order arrays on the surface of the viral capsid, resulting in an increase in avidity. Here we show that the higher order association of different TRIM proteins exhibits a wide range of efficiencies. Homologous association (self-association) was more efficient than the heterologous association of different TRIM proteins, indicating that specificity determinants of higher order self-association exist. To investigate the structural determinants of higher order self-association, we studied TRIM mutants and chimeras. These studies revealed the following: 1) the RING domain contributes to the efficiency of higher order self-association, which enhances the binding of TRIM5α to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) capsid; 2) the RING and B-box 2 domains work together as a homologous unit to promote higher order association of dimers; 3) dimerization is probably required for efficient higher order self-association; 4) the Linker 2 region contributes to higher order self-association, independently of effects of Linker 2 changes on TRIM dimerization; and 5) for efficiently self-associating TRIM proteins, the B30.2(SPRY) domain is not required for higher order self-association. These results support a model in which both ends of the core TRIM dimer (RING-B-box 2 at one end and Linker 2 at the other) contribute to the formation of higher order arrays. PMID:21680743
Landscape of Higher Education: Human Capital
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Kelcey; Sawtell, Ellen; Perfetto, Greg; Shapiro, Douglas T.; Kelly, Patrick J.
2013-01-01
In this session presented at the Middle States Regional Forum (February 2013), experts working with national data presented trends in higher education from a forward-looking perspective. Senior researchers from the College Board provided trends using SAT, AP, and Net Price Calculator data. The research director of the National Student…
[Second-order retrospective revaluation in human contingency learning].
Numata, Keitaro; Shimazaki, Tsuneo
2009-04-01
We demonstrated second-order retrospective revaluation with three cues (T1, T2, and C) and an outcome, in human contingency learning. Experimental task, PC-controlled video game in which participants were required to observe about the relations between firing missiles and the tank destruction, consisted of three training phases and two rating phases. Groups C+ and C- consisted of same first two training phases, CT+ (cues C and T with an outcome) and T1T2+ followed by C+, or C- training for Groups C+, C-, respectively. In rating phases, it is clearly demonstrated that the judgment of predictive value for the outcome of the T2 were higher by C+ training (second-order unovershadowing) and lowered by C- training (second-order backward blocking). The results for Groups RC+ and RC-, in which the orders of the first two training phase for Groups C+ and C- were interchanged, also showed second-order unovershadowing and second-order backward blocking. These results, the robustness of second-order retrospective revaluation against the order of the first training phases, can be explained by the extended comparator hypothesis and probabilistic contrast model. However, these results cannot be explained by traditional associative learning models. PMID:19489431
Higher Order Thinking Skills among Secondary School Students in Science Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saido, Gulistan Mohammed; Siraj, Saedah; Bin Nordin, Abu Bakar; Al Amedy, Omed Saadallah
2015-01-01
A central goal of science education is to help students to develop their higher order thinking skills to enable them to face the challenges of daily life. Enhancing students' higher order thinking skills is the main goal of the Kurdish Science Curriculum in the Iraqi-Kurdistan region. This study aimed at assessing 7th grade students' higher order…
A Study of Higher Order Need Strength and Job Satisfaction in Secondary Public School Teachers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pastor, Margaret C.; Erlandson, David A.
1982-01-01
Teacher motivation was explored through surveys determining the relationship between higher order needs (such as autonomy, variety) or lower order needs (such as high pay) and job satisfaction. Conclusions are that needs of the teachers studied are predominantly higher order and that job satisfaction is significantly related to teacher needs. (MJL)
Human Rights and Private Ordering in Virtual Worlds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oosterbaan, Olivier
This paper explores the application of human rights in (persistent) virtual world environments. The paper begins with describing a number of elements that most virtual environments share and that are relevant for the application of human rights in such a setting; and by describing in a general nature the application of human rights between private individuals. The paper then continues by discussing the application in virtual environments of two universally recognized human rights, namely freedom of expression, and freedom from discrimination. As these specific rights are discussed, a number of more general conclusions on the application of human rights in virtual environments are drawn. The first general conclusion being that, because virtual worlds are private environments, participants are subject to private ordering. The second general conclusion being that participants and non-participants alike have to accept at times that in-world expressions are to an extent private speech. The third general conclusion is that, where participants represent themselves in-world, other participants cannot assume that such in-world representation share the characteristics of the human player; and that where virtual environments contain game elements, participants and non-participants alike should not take everything that happens in the virtual environment at face value or literally, which does however not amount to having to accept a higher level of infringement on their rights for things that happen in such an environment.
Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for autonomous higher order dynamical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso
2011-09-01
The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of Skinner and Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, as well as for first-order and higher order field theories. However, a complete generalization to higher order mechanical systems is yet to be described. In this work, after reviewing the natural geometrical setting and the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms for higher order autonomous mechanical systems, we develop a complete generalization of the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for these kinds of systems, and we use it to analyze some physical models from this new point of view.
Questions for Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills: It's Not Just Bloom's
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick
2013-01-01
We present an exploratory study of biologists' ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.
2011-01-01
This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…
From "Hello" to Higher-Order Thinking: The Effect of Coaching and Feedback on Online Chats
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stein, David S.; Wanstreet, Constance E.; Slagle, Paula; Trinko, Lynn A.; Lutz, Michelle
2013-01-01
This exploratory study examined the effect of a coaching and feedback intervention in teaching presence and social presence on higher-order thinking in an online community of inquiry. Coaching occurred before each chat, and feedback was provided immediately afterwards. The findings suggest that over time, the frequency of higher-order thinking…
Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai
2011-01-01
One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…
Authentic Instruction for 21st Century Learning: Higher Order Thinking in an Inclusive School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Preus, Betty
2012-01-01
The author studied a public junior high school identified as successfully implementing authentic instruction. Such instruction emphasizes higher order thinking, deep knowledge, substantive conversation, and value beyond school. To determine in what ways higher order thinking was fostered both for students with and without disabilities, the author…
Improving Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Higher-Order Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sinclair, Kelsey J.; Renshaw, Carl E.; Taylor, Holly A.
2004-01-01
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has been shown to enhance rote memory skills and improve higher order critical thinking skills. The challenge now is to identify what aspects of CAI improve which specific higher-order skills. This study focuses on the effectiveness of using CAI to teach logarithmic graphing and dimensional analysis. Two groups…
An Analysis of Higher-Order Thinking on Algebra I End-of-Course Tests
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Tony
2011-01-01
This research provides insight into one US state's effort to incorporate higher-order thinking on its Algebra I End-of-Course tests. To facilitate the inclusion of higher-order thinking, the state used "Dimensions of Thinking" (Marzano et al., 1988) and "Bloom's Taxonomy" (Bloom et al., 1956). An analysis of Algebra I test items found that the…
Reinstating higher order properties of a study list by retrieving a list item.
Humphreys, Michael S; Murray, Krista L; Koh, Joyce Yanfang
2014-05-01
In two experiments, we looked at the role of higher order list properties in episodic recall. A probabilistic paired-associate paradigm was used in which each cue was repeatedly paired with two different targets. This paradigm permitted us to cue for a target that had been studied with that cue in the last list, or to cue for either of the two targets that had been repeatedly paired with that cue, although neither the cue nor either of its two targets had been studied in the last list. In Experiment 1, the higher order property was whether all of the targets in a given list were animal names or vegetable names. In Experiment 2, the higher order property was whether all of the pairs in a list were associatively related or unrelated. The assumption was that if participants were using these higher order properties when they retrieved a target that had been studied in the last list, they would also use these properties when recalling in response to a cue that had been studied in other lists but not in the most recent list. The results supported the use of both kinds of higher order properties in episodic access. They also showed that these higher order properties were reinstated by retrieving a target, and were then used in the next memory access operation. The questions of why the retrieval of a target would reinstate a higher order list property and how these very different higher order list properties aid in episodic access were also discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana
2011-01-01
This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…
Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Constructs by Using an Information-Processing Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dickison, Philip; Luo, Xiao; Kim, Doyoung; Woo, Ada; Muntean, William; Bergstrom, Betty
2016-01-01
Designing a theory-based assessment with sound psychometric qualities to measure a higher-order cognitive construct is a highly desired yet challenging task for many practitioners. This paper proposes a framework for designing a theory-based assessment to measure a higher-order cognitive construct. This framework results in a modularized yet…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabesan, Ramkumar; Jeong, Tae Moon; Carvalho, Luis; Cox, Ian G.; Williams, David R.; Yoon, Geunyoung
2007-04-01
Higher-order aberration correction in abnormal eyes can result in significant vision improvement, especially in eyes with abnormal corneas. Customized optics such as phase plates and customized contact lenses are one of the most practical, nonsurgical ways to correct these ocular higher-order aberrations. We demonstrate the feasibility of correcting higher-order aberrations and improving visual performance with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes while compensating for the static decentration and rotation of the lens. A reduction of higher-order aberrations by a factor of 3 on average was obtained in these eyes. The higher-order aberration correction resulted in an average improvement of 2.1 lines in visual acuity over the conventional correction of defocus and astigmatism alone.
Development of higher-order modal methods for transient thermal and structural analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Camarda, Charles J.; Haftka, Raphael T.
1989-01-01
A force-derivative method which produces higher-order modal solutions to transient problems is evaluated. These higher-order solutions converge to an accurate response using fewer degrees-of-freedom (eigenmodes) than lower-order methods such as the mode-displacement or mode-acceleration methods. Results are presented for non-proportionally damped structural problems as well as thermal problems modeled by finite elements.
Higher-order Schrödinger and Hartree–Fock equations
Carles, Rémi; Lucha, Wolfgang; Moulay, Emmanuel
2015-12-15
The domain of validity of the higher-order Schrödinger equations is analyzed for harmonic-oscillator and Coulomb potentials as typical examples. Then, the Cauchy theory for higher-order Hartree–Fock equations with bounded and Coulomb potentials is developed. Finally, the existence of associated ground states for the odd-order equations is proved. This renders these quantum equations relevant for physics.
Restyling the Humanities Curriculum of Higher Education for Posthuman Times
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siddiqui, Jamila R.
2016-01-01
The future viability of the humanities in higher education has been broadly debated. Yet, most of these debates are missing an important consideration. The humanities' object of study is the human, an object that some would argue has been replaced in our onto-epistemological systems by the posthuman. In her 2013 book, "The Posthuman,"…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scandura, Joseph M.; And Others
A quasi-systematic strategy of devising rule sets for problem solving is applied to ruler and compass geometrical constructions. "Lower order" rules consisting of basic skills and "higher order" rules which govern the selection and combination of lower order rules are identified by an analysis of problem types; three types of construction problems…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domin, Daniel S.
1999-01-01
The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.
Higher-order mass defect analysis for mass spectra of complex organic mixtures.
Roach, Patrick J; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander
2011-06-15
Higher-order mass defect analysis is introduced as a unique formula assignment and visualization method for the analysis of complex mass spectra. This approach is an extension of the concepts of Kendrick mass transformation widely used for identification of homologous compounds differing only by a number of base units (e.g., CH(2), H(2), O, CH(2)O, etc.) in complex mixtures. We present an iterative renormalization routine for defining higher-order homologous series and multidimensional clustering of mass spectral features. This approach greatly simplifies visualization of complex mass spectra and increases the number of chemical formulas that can be confidently assigned for given mass accuracy. The potential for using higher-order mass defects for data reduction and visualization is shown. Higher-order mass defect analysis is described and demonstrated through third-order analysis of a deisotoped high-resolution mass spectrum of crude oil containing nearly 13,000 peaks. PMID:21526851
Perceptual information for the age level of faces as a higher order invariant of growth.
Pittenger, J B; Shaw, R E; Mark, L S
1979-08-01
Previous work supports the hypothesis that cardioidal strain, a nonlinear topological transformation, offers a plausible mathematical model for the perceived global changes in human craniofacial morphology due to growth. Experiment 1 examined the generality of the effect of this growth transformation on relative age judgments by applying it to profiles of a dog, bird, and monkey. Experiment 2 investigated the abstractness of this transformation by looking at its effect on perceived age level of a Volkswagen "Beetle." In both experiments, cardioidal strain resulted in changes in the perceived age of the nonhuman profiles that were similar to those produced on human faces in earlier work. A second transformation, affine shear, failed to produce as significant an effect on perceived age as cardioidal strain when applied to the same structures. Because cardioidal strain produces changes in structures that do not share an isomorphism of rigid (Euclidian) local features or rigid feature configurations, this transformation seems both sufficiently general and abstract to specify what J.J. Gibson has called a "higher-order invariant of perceptual information. PMID:528953
Cytosolic chaperones mediate quality control of higher-order septin assembly in budding yeast
Johnson, Courtney R.; Weems, Andrew D.; Brewer, Jennifer M.; Thorner, Jeremy; McMurray, Michael A.
2015-01-01
Septin hetero-oligomers polymerize into cytoskeletal filaments with essential functions in many eukaryotic cell types. Mutations within the oligomerization interface that encompasses the GTP-binding pocket of a septin (its “G interface”) cause thermoinstability of yeast septin hetero-oligomer assembly, and human disease. When coexpressed with its wild-type counterpart, a G interface mutant is excluded from septin filaments, even at moderate temperatures. We show that this quality control mechanism is specific to G interface mutants, operates during de novo septin hetero-oligomer assembly, and requires specific cytosolic chaperones. Chaperone overexpression lowers the temperature permissive for proliferation of cells expressing a G interface mutant as the sole source of a given septin. Mutations that perturb the septin G interface retard release from these chaperones, imposing a kinetic delay on the availability of nascent septin molecules for higher-order assembly. Unexpectedly, the disaggregase Hsp104 contributes to this delay in a manner that does not require its “unfoldase” activity, indicating a latent “holdase” activity toward mutant septins. These findings provide new roles for chaperone-mediated kinetic partitioning of non-native proteins and may help explain the etiology of septin-linked human diseases. PMID:25673805
Mantel, Bruno; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Campbell, Alain; Bardy, Benoît G.
2015-01-01
Body movement influences the structure of multiple forms of ambient energy, including optics and gravito-inertial force. Some researchers have argued that egocentric distance is derived from inferential integration of visual and non-visual stimulation. We suggest that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in perceptual stimulation as higher-order patterns that extend across optics and inertia. We formalize a pattern that specifies the egocentric distance of a stationary object across higher-order relations between optics and inertia. This higher-order parameter is created by self-generated movement of the perceiver in inertial space relative to the illuminated environment. For this reason, we placed minimal restrictions on the exploratory movements of our participants. We asked whether humans can detect and use the information available in this higher-order pattern. Participants judged whether a virtual object was within reach. We manipulated relations between body movement and the ambient structure of optics and inertia. Judgments were precise and accurate when the higher-order optical-inertial parameter was available. When only optic flow was available, judgments were poor. Our results reveal that participants perceived egocentric distance from the higher-order, optical-inertial consequences of their own exploratory activity. Analysis of participants’ movement trajectories revealed that self-selected movements were complex, and tended to optimize availability of the optical-inertial pattern that specifies egocentric distance. We argue that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in higher-order patterns of ambient energy, that self-generated movement can generate these higher-order patterns, and that these patterns can be detected and used to support perception of egocentric distance that is precise and accurate. PMID:25856410
Application of Higher-Order Cumulant in Fault Diagnosis of Rolling Bearing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yongjun; Yang, Shaopu; Wang, Junfeng
2013-07-01
In this paper a new method of pattern recognition based on higher-order cumulant and envelope analysis is presented. The core of this new method is to construct analytical signals from the given signals and obtain the envelope signals firstly, then compute and compare the higher-order cumulants of the envelope signals. The higher-order cumulants could be used as a characteristic quantity to distinguish these given signals. As an example, this method is applied in fault diagnosis for 197726 rolling bearing of freight locomotive. The comparisons of the second-order, third-order and fourth-order cumulants of the envelope signals from different vibration signals of rolling bearing show this new method could discriminate the normal and two fault signals distinctly.
Nonlocal Symmetry Reductions, CTE Method and Exact Solutions for Higher-Order KdV Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Bo; Liu, Xi-Zhong; Liu, Ping
2015-02-01
The nonlocal symmetries for the higher-order KdV equation are obtained with the truncated Painlevé method. The nonlocal symmetries can be localized to the Lie point symmetries by introducing suitable prolonged systems. The finite symmetry transformations and similarity reductions for the prolonged systems are computed. Moreover, the consistent tanh expansion (CTE) method is applied to the higher-order KdV equation. These methods lead to some novel exact solutions of the higher-order KdV system.
Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse correlator
Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.
2003-09-16
Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a demodulation decoder coupled to the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a clock coupled to the demodulation decoder; and a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to both the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator and the clock. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.
Luo, Ruiyao; Li, Lei; Cui, Wenda; Yang, Zining; Wang, Hongyan; Xu, Xiaojun
2016-06-13
In this paper, we have set up a diode laser pumped rubidium amplifier for higher-order Laguerre-Gauss (LG) modes. We experimentally realized amplification of higher-order LG modes including helical and sinusoidal LG_{03}, LG_{13}, LG_{23}, and LG_{33} modes with their high purity held. This novel scheme of generating high-purity higher-order LG beams at high laser power is preferred to the second-generation gravitational wave interferometers. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time this scheme is formulated. PMID:27410352
Higher-Order Spectral Analysis of a Nonlinear Pitch and Plunge Apparatus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Strganac, Thomas W.; Hajj, Muhammad R.
2005-01-01
Simulated aeroelastic responses of a nonlinear pitch and plunge apparatus are analyzed using various statistical signal processing techniques including higher-order spectral methods. A MATLAB version of the Nonlinear Aeroelastic Testbed Apparatus (NATA) at the Texas A&M University is used to generate various aeroelastic response data including limit cycle oscillations (LCO). Traditional and higher-order spectral (HOS) methods are applied to the simulated aeroelastic responses. Higher-order spectral methods are used to identify critical signatures that indicate the transition from linear to nonlinear (LCO) aeroelastic behavior.
On the capabilities of higher-order neurons: a radial basis function approach.
Schmitt, Michael
2005-03-01
Higher-order neurons with k monomials in n variables are shown to have Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC) dimension at least nk + 1. This result supersedes the previously known lower bound obtained via k-term monotone disjunctive normal form (DNF) formulas. Moreover, it implies that the VC dimension of higher-order neurons with k monomials is strictly larger than the VC dimension of k-term monotone DNF. The result is achieved by introducing an exponential approach that employs gaussian radial basis function neural networks for obtaining classifications of points in terms of higher-order neurons.
Soliton solutions of the KdV equation with higher-order corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid
2010-10-01
In this work, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with higher-order corrections is examined. We studied the KdV equation with first-order correction and that with second-order correction that include the terms of the fifth-order Lax, Sawada-Kotera and Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon equations. The simplified form of the bilinear method was used to show the integrability of the first-order models and therefore to obtain multiple soliton solutions for each one. The obstacles to integrability of some of the models with second-order corrections are examined as well.
Higher order BLG supersymmetry transformations from 10-dimensional super Yang Mills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, John; Low, Andrew
2014-06-01
We study a Simple Route for constructing the higher order Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson theory - both supersymmetry transformations and Lagrangian - starting from knowledge of only the 10-dimensional Super Yang Mills Fermion Supersymmetry transformation. We are able to uniquely determine the four-derivative order corrected supersymmetry transformations, to lowest non-trivial order in Fermions, for the most general three-algebra theory. For the special case of Euclidean three-algbera, we reproduce the result presented in arXiv:1207.1208, with significantly less labour. In addition, we apply our method to calculate the quadratic fermion terms in the higher order BLG fermion supersymmetry transformation.
Evidence of higher-order effects in thermally driven rapid granular flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrenya, C. M.; Galvin, J. E.; Wildman, R. D.
Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are used to probe the ability of Navier heat flux, stress tensor and dissipation rate - associated with granular materials. The system under investigation is bounded by two opposite walls of set granular temperature and is characterized by zero mean flow. The comparisons between MD and theory provide evidence of higher-order effects in each of the constitutive quantities. Furthermore, the size of these effects is roughly one order of magnitude greater, on a percentage basis, for heat flux than it is for stress or dissipation rate. For the case of heat flux, these effects are attributed to super-Burnett-order contributions (third order in gradients) or greater, since Burnett-order contributions to the heat flux do not exist. Finally, for the system considered, these higher-order contributions to the heat flux outweigh the first-order contribution arising from a gradient in concentration (i.e. the Dufour effect)
Higher-order corrections to dust ion-acoustic soliton in a quantum dusty plasma
Chatterjee, Prasanta; Das, Brindaban; Mondal, Ganesh; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.
2010-10-15
Dust ion-acoustic soliton is studied in an electron-dust-ion plasma by employing a two-fluid quantum hydrodynamic model. Ions and electrons are assumed to follow quantum mechanical behaviors in dust background. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and higher order contribution to KdV equations are derived using reductive perturbation technique. The higher order contribution is obtained as a higher order inhomogeneous differential equation. The nonsecular solution of the higher order contribution is obtained by using the renormalization method and the particular solution of the inhomogeneous equation is determined using a truncated series solution method. The effects of dust concentration, quantum parameter for ions and electrons, and soliton velocity on the amplitude and width of the dressed soliton are discussed.
Simple loss scaling laws for quadrupoles and higher-order multipoles used in antihydrogen traps
Fajans, J.; Bertsche, W.; Burke, K.; Deutsch, A.; Chapman, S. F.; Gomberoff, K.; Wurtele, J. S.; Werf, D. P. van der
2006-10-18
Simple scaling laws strongly suggest that for antihydrogen relevant parameters, quadrupole magnetic fields will transport particles into, or near to, the trap walls. Consequently quadrupoles are a poor choice for antihydrogen trapping. Higher order multipoles lead to much less transport.
Zembrzycki, Andreas; Stocker, Adam M; Leingärtner, Axel; Sahara, Setsuko; Chou, Shen-Ju; Kalatsky, Valery; May, Scott R; Stryker, Michael P; O'Leary, Dennis DM
2015-01-01
In mammals, the neocortical layout consists of few modality-specific primary sensory areas and a multitude of higher order ones. Abnormal layout of cortical areas may disrupt sensory function and behavior. Developmental genetic mechanisms specify primary areas, but mechanisms influencing higher order area properties are unknown. By exploiting gain-of and loss-of function mouse models of the transcription factor Emx2, we have generated bi-directional changes in primary visual cortex size in vivo and have used it as a model to show a novel and prominent function for genetic mechanisms regulating primary visual area size and also proportionally dictating the sizes of surrounding higher order visual areas. This finding redefines the role for intrinsic genetic mechanisms to concomitantly specify and scale primary and related higher order sensory areas in a linear fashion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11416.001 PMID:26705332
Propagation of a higher-order cosh-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere.
Zhou, Guoquan
2011-02-28
The propagation of a higher-order cosh-Gaussian beam through a paraxial and real ABCD optical system in turbulent atmosphere has been investigated. The analytical expressions for the average intensity, the effective beam size, and the kurtosis parameter of a higher-order cosh-Gaussian beam through a paraxial and real ABCD optical system are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a higher-order cosh-Gaussian in turbulent atmosphere are numerically demonstrated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a higher-order cosh-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere are also examined in detail.
Regularity properties of fiber derivatives associated with higher-order mechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colombo, Leonardo; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel
2016-08-01
The aim of this work is to study fiber derivatives associated to Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing the dynamics of a higher-order autonomous dynamical system. More precisely, given a function in T∗T(k-1)Q, we find necessary and sufficient conditions for such a function to describe the dynamics of a kth-order autonomous dynamical system, thus being a kth-order Hamiltonian function. Then, we give a suitable definition of (hyper)regularity for these higher-order Hamiltonian functions in terms of their fiber derivative. In addition, we also study an alternative characterization of the dynamics in Lagrangian submanifolds in terms of the solutions of the higher-order Euler-Lagrange equations.
Bolognini, Gabriele; Bononi, Alberto
2009-04-27
We present a theoretical study of the performance of distributed Raman amplifiers with higher order pumping schemes, focusing in particular on double Rayleigh scattering (DRS) noise. Results show an unexpected significant DRS noise reduction for pumping order higher than third, allowing for an overall performance improvement of carefully designed distributed amplifiers, ensuring a large optical signal-to-noise ratio improvement together with reduced DRS-induced penalties.
Higher order mode of a microstripline fed cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, A. V. Praveen
2016-03-01
A microstrip transmission line can be used to excite the broadside radiating mode of a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (CDRA). The same is found to excite considerably well a higher order mode (HOM) as well. However unlike the broadside mode, the higher order mode gives distorted radiation pattern which makes this mode less useful for practical applications. The cause of distortion in the HOM radiation and the dependence of HOM coupling on the microstrip feed line are explored using HFSS simulations.
Fast algorithm for scaling analysis with higher-order detrending moving average method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsujimoto, Yutaka; Miki, Yuki; Shimatani, Satoshi; Kiyono, Ken
2016-05-01
Among scaling analysis methods based on the root-mean-square deviation from the estimated trend, it has been demonstrated that centered detrending moving average (DMA) analysis with a simple moving average has good performance when characterizing long-range correlation or fractal scaling behavior. Furthermore, higher-order DMA has also been proposed; it is shown to have better detrending capabilities, removing higher-order polynomial trends than original DMA. However, a straightforward implementation of higher-order DMA requires a very high computational cost, which would prevent practical use of this method. To solve this issue, in this study, we introduce a fast algorithm for higher-order DMA, which consists of two techniques: (1) parallel translation of moving averaging windows by a fixed interval; (2) recurrence formulas for the calculation of summations. Our algorithm can significantly reduce computational cost. Monte Carlo experiments show that the computational time of our algorithm is approximately proportional to the data length, although that of the conventional algorithm is proportional to the square of the data length. The efficiency of our algorithm is also shown by a systematic study of the performance of higher-order DMA, such as the range of detectable scaling exponents and detrending capability for removing polynomial trends. In addition, through the analysis of heart-rate variability time series, we discuss possible applications of higher-order DMA.
Study of higher order non-classical properties of squeezed Kerr state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Devendra Kumar
2010-09-01
Recently, Prakash and Mishra [J. Phys. B: at. Mol. Opt. Phys., 39, 2291(2006); 40, 2531(2007)] have studied higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistic conditions for non-classicality in the form of general inequalities for expectation values of products of arbitrary powers of photon number and of photon-number fluctuation. It is, therefore, vital to study the generation of these higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistics (phase-insensitive behavior) in a physically realizable medium and their relations to higher order squeezing (phase-sensitive behavior). In the present paper, we study higher order non-classical properties, such as Hong and Mandel squeezing, amplitude-squared squeezing and higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistics, of squeezed Kerr state which is generated by squeezing the output of a Kerr medium whose input is coherent light. Such states can be realized if laser light is sent through an optical fiber and then into a degenerate parametric amplifier. It is established that the squeezed Kerr state can exhibit higher order non-classical properties.
Questions for assessing higher-order cognitive skills: it's not just Bloom's.
Lemons, Paula P; Lemons, J Derrick
2013-01-01
We present an exploratory study of biologists' ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students' experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants' ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists' assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write.
"What Do I Do Here?": Higher Order Learning Effects of Enhancing Task Instructions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chamberlain, Susanna; Zuvela, Danni
2014-01-01
This paper reports the findings of a one-year research project focused on a series of structured interventions aimed at enhancing task instruction to develop students' understanding of higher assessment practices, and encouraging higher order learning. It describes the nature and iterations of the interventions, made into a large-enrolment online…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gamino, Jacquelyn F.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Cook, Lori G.
2009-01-01
Little is known about strategic learning ability in preteens and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Strategic learning is the ability to combine and synthesize details to form abstracted gist-based meanings, a higher-order cognitive skill associated with frontal lobe functions and higher classroom performance. Summarization tasks were…
Numerical simulation of stratified shear flow using a higher order Taylor series expansion method
Iwashige, Kengo; Ikeda, Takashi
1995-09-01
A higher order Taylor series expansion method is applied to two-dimensional numerical simulation of stratified shear flow. In the present study, central difference scheme-like method is adopted for an even expansion order, and upwind difference scheme-like method is adopted for an odd order, and the expansion order is variable. To evaluate the effects of expansion order upon the numerical results, a stratified shear flow test in a rectangular channel (Reynolds number = 1.7x10{sup 4}) is carried out, and the numerical velocity and temperature fields are compared with experimental results measured by laser Doppler velocimetry thermocouples. The results confirm that the higher and odd order methods can simulate mean velocity distributions, root-mean-square velocity fluctuations, Reynolds stress, temperature distributions, and root-mean-square temperature fluctuations.
Development of a Process To Assess Higher Order Thinking Skills for College Graduates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rock, Donald A.
Issues in the development of assessments of higher order thinking skills for college graduates are discussed in the order in which they were presented when this series of papers was commissioned. With regard to Issue 1, it is generally agreed that the development of these skills is a desirable goal, but there is little consensus on how they should…
Higher Order, Critical Thinking Skills in National Police Academy Course Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barker, Beth A.
2011-01-01
Law enforcement requires the officer to invoke reason and critical thinking skills in order to solve intricate problems in real time, on the job. This study examined the course development of a large national organization (State Police Academies) to ascertain what strategies are being used in their courses to promote training for higher order,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toledo, Santiago; Dubas, Justin M.
2016-01-01
An emphasis on higher-order thinking within the curriculum has been a subject of interest in the chemical and STEM literature due to its ability to promote meaningful, transferable learning in students. The systematic use of learning taxonomies could be a practical way to scaffold student learning in order to achieve this goal. This work proposes…
Efficient nonlinear generation of high power, higher order, ultrafast "perfect" vortices in green.
Apurv Chaitanya, N; Jabir, M V; Samanta, G K
2016-04-01
We report on efficient nonlinear generation of ultrafast, higher order "perfect" vortices at the green wavelength. Based on Fourier transformation of the higher order Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam generated through the combination of the spiral phase plate and axicon, we have transformed the Gaussian beam of the ultrafast Yb-fiber laser at 1060 nm into perfect vortices of power 4.4 W and order up to 6. Using single-pass second-harmonic generation (SHG) of such vortices in 5 mm long chirped MgO-doped, periodically poled congruent LiNbO_{3} crystal, we have generated perfect vortices at green wavelength (530 nm) with output power of 1.2 W and vortex order up to 12 at a single-pass conversion efficiency of 27%, independent of the orders. This is the highest single-pass SHG efficiency of any optical beams other than Gaussian beams. Unlike the disintegration of higher order vortices due to spatial walk-off effect in birefringent crystals, here, the use of the quasi-phase-matching process enables generation of high-quality vortices, even at higher orders. The green perfect vortices of all orders have temporal and spectral widths of 507 fs and 1.9 nm, respectively, corresponding to a time-bandwidth product of 1.02. PMID:27192233
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scandura, Joseph M.; And Others
The research reported in this paper was designed to analyze the incidence of use of higher-order rules by students solving geometric construction problems. A carefully selected set of construction problems was subjected to rigorous a priori analysis by mathematics educators to determine what basic and second-order rules might be used by able high…
The Quality of Higher Humanities Education: A Roundtable
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Russian Education and Society, 2007
2007-01-01
This article presents excerpts from a debate on the report by Professor A.S. Zapesotskii, the rector of the St. Petersburg Trade Unions University of the Humanities, titled "Ensuring the Quality of Higher Humanities Education." Participants in the debate were as follows: (1)Antonina Pavlovna Beliaeva, a doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor,…
Hamiltonian structure of the higher-order corrections to the Korteweg-de Vries equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menyuk, C. R.; Chen, H.-H.
1985-10-01
Higher-order corrections to the Korteweg-de Vries equation are examined by Hamiltonian methods. Starting from the underlying Hamiltonian systems (e.g., the two-fluid equations in the case of ion-acoustic waves), one finds that the corrected equations have the same Poisson bracket as the Korteweg-de Vries equation at every order. One also finds that the underlying equations become nonlocal at sufficiently high order.
Spectral Line Profile Analysis Using Higher Diffraction Order in Vacuum Ultraviolet Region
Machida, M.; Daltrini, A. M.; Severo, J. H. F.; Nascimento, I. C.; Sanada, E. K.; Elizondo, J. I.; Kuznetsov, Y. K.; Galvao, R. M. O.
2008-04-07
Using a one meter VUV spectrometer and a MCP coupled to a CCD detector on TCABR tokamak, ion temperatures from impurity species have been measured and much better spectral resolution was obtained using higher order diffraction lines. Due to very small Doppler effect in the VUV region compared to large instrumental broadening, ion temperatures obtained from first order diffraction present large errors. The use of second, third and fourth order diffraction emissions increases the line broadening and results in lower error temperature measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heyman, J. S.; Allison, S. G.; Salama, K.
1985-01-01
The behavior of higher order elastic properties, which are much more sensitive to material state than are second order properties, has been studied for steel alloys AISI 1016, 1045, 1095, and 8620 by measuring the stress derivative of the acoustic natural velocity to determine the stress acoustic constants (SAC's). Results of these tests show a 20 percent linear variation of SAC's with carbon content as well as even larger variations with prestrain (plastic deformation). The use of higher order elastic characterization permits quantitative evaluation of solids and may prove useful in studies of fatigue and fracture.
Marquette, Ian
2010-07-15
We construct integrals of motion for multidimensional classical systems from ladder operators of one-dimensional systems. This method can be used to obtain new systems with higher order integrals. We show how these integrals generate a polynomial Poisson algebra. We consider a one-dimensional system with third order ladder operators and found a family of superintegrable systems with higher order integrals of motion. We obtain also the polynomial algebra generated by these integrals. We calculate numerically the trajectories and show that all bounded trajectories are closed.
Higher order solutions to ion-acoustic solitons in a weakly relativistic two-fluid plasma
Gill, Tarsem Singh; Bala, Parveen; Kaur, Harvinder
2008-12-15
The nonlinear wave structure of small amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASs) is investigated in a two-fluid plasma consisting of weakly relativistic streaming ions and electrons. Using the reductive perturbation theory, the basic set of governing equations is reduced to the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the lowest order perturbation. This analysis is further extended using the renormalization technique for the inclusion of higher order nonlinear and dispersive effects for better accuracy. The effect of higher order correction and various parameters on the soliton characteristics is investigated and also discussed.
A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.
Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn
2015-11-01
Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia.
An efficient higher-order PML in WLP-FDTD method for time reversed wave simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Xiao-Kun; Shao, Wei; Ou, Haiyan; Wang, Bing-Zhong
2016-09-01
Derived from a stretched coordinate formulation, a higher-order complex frequency shifted (CFS) perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs). The higher-order PML is implemented with an auxiliary differential equation (ADE) approach. In order to further improve absorbing performance, the parameter values of stretching functions in the higher-order PML are optimized by the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The optimal solutions can be chosen from the Pareto front for trading-off between two independent objectives. It is shown in a numerical test that the higher-order PML is efficient in terms of attenuating propagating waves and reducing late time reflections. Moreover, the higher-order PML can be placed very close to the wall when analyzing the channel characteristics of time reversal (TR) waves in a multipath indoor environment. Numerical examples of TR wave propagation demonstrate the availability of the proposed method.
Proper orthogonal decomposition-based spectral higher-order stochastic estimation
Baars, Woutijn J.; Tinney, Charles E.
2014-05-15
A unique routine, capable of identifying both linear and higher-order coherence in multiple-input/output systems, is presented. The technique combines two well-established methods: Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Higher-Order Spectra Analysis. The latter of these is based on known methods for characterizing nonlinear systems by way of Volterra series. In that, both linear and higher-order kernels are formed to quantify the spectral (nonlinear) transfer of energy between the system's input and output. This reduces essentially to spectral Linear Stochastic Estimation when only first-order terms are considered, and is therefore presented in the context of stochastic estimation as spectral Higher-Order Stochastic Estimation (HOSE). The trade-off to seeking higher-order transfer kernels is that the increased complexity restricts the analysis to single-input/output systems. Low-dimensional (POD-based) analysis techniques are inserted to alleviate this void as POD coefficients represent the dynamics of the spatial structures (modes) of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. The mathematical framework behind this POD-based HOSE method is first described. The method is then tested in the context of jet aeroacoustics by modeling acoustically efficient large-scale instabilities as combinations of wave packets. The growth, saturation, and decay of these spatially convecting wave packets are shown to couple both linearly and nonlinearly in the near-field to produce waveforms that propagate acoustically to the far-field for different frequency combinations.
Quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions with inclined rectangular apertures gratings
Liu, Yuwei; Zhu, Xiaoli; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Wenhai; Fan, Quanping; Wei, Lai; Yang, Zuhua; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Qian, Feng; Chen, Yong; He, Weihua; Wu, Yinzhong; Yan, Zhuoyang; Hua, Yilei; Zhao, Yidong; Cui, Mingqi; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhang, Baohan; Xie, Changqing; Cao, Leifeng
2015-01-01
Advances in the fundamentals and applications of diffraction gratings have received much attention. However, conventional diffraction gratings often suffer from higher-order diffraction contamination. Here, we introduce a simple and compact single optical element, named inclined rectangular aperture gratings (IRAG), for quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions. We show, both in the visible light and soft x-ray regions, that IRAG can significantly suppress higher-order diffractions with moderate diffraction efficiency. Especially, as no support strut is needed to maintain the free-standing patterns, the IRAG is highly advantageous to the extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions. The diffraction efficiency of the IRAG and the influences of fabrication constraints are also discussed. The unique quasi-single order diffraction properties of IRAG may open the door to a wide range of photonic applications. PMID:26563588
Design and Application of Strategies/Tactics in Higher Order Logics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Archer, Myla (Editor); diVito, Ben (Editor); Munoz, Cesar (Editor)
2003-01-01
This Proceedings includes both a paper from the implementors of PVS providing guidance for PVS strategy writers and a tutorial on PVS strategy writing distilled from the experience of three PVS users who have written extensive sets of PVS user strategies. Following these are three full papers from the higher-order logic theorem proving community that discuss PVS strategies to enhance arithmetic and other interactive reasoning in PVS; implementing first-order tactics in higher-order provers; and a proposed technique for specifying small step semantics that can be used in multiple higher order logic theorem provers, with illustrations from both Coq and PVS. The Proceedings concludes with three position papers for a panel session that discuss three settings in which development of PVS strategies is worth while.
Higher-order cumulants and spectral kurtosis for early detection of subterranean termites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Rosa, Juan José González; Moreno Muñoz, Antonio
2008-02-01
This paper deals with termite detection in non-favorable SNR scenarios via signal processing using higher-order statistics. The results could be extrapolated to all impulse-like insect emissions; the situation involves non-destructive termite detection. Fourth-order cumulants in time and frequency domains enhance the detection and complete the characterization of termite emissions, non-Gaussian in essence. Sliding higher-order cumulants offer distinctive time instances, as a complement to the sliding variance, which only reveal power excesses in the signal; even for low-amplitude impulses. The spectral kurtosis reveals non-Gaussian characteristics (the peakedness of the probability density function) associated to these non-stationary measurements, specially in the near ultrasound frequency band. Contrasted estimators have been used to compute the higher-order statistics. The inedited findings are shown via graphical examples.
Quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions with inclined rectangular apertures gratings.
Liu, Yuwei; Zhu, Xiaoli; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Wenhai; Fan, Quanping; Wei, Lai; Yang, Zuhua; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Qian, Feng; Chen, Yong; He, Weihua; Wu, Yinzhong; Yan, Zhuoyang; Hua, Yilei; Zhao, Yidong; Cui, Mingqi; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhang, Baohan; Xie, Changqing; Cao, Leifeng
2015-01-01
Advances in the fundamentals and applications of diffraction gratings have received much attention. However, conventional diffraction gratings often suffer from higher-order diffraction contamination. Here, we introduce a simple and compact single optical element, named inclined rectangular aperture gratings (IRAG), for quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions. We show, both in the visible light and soft x-ray regions, that IRAG can significantly suppress higher-order diffractions with moderate diffraction efficiency. Especially, as no support strut is needed to maintain the free-standing patterns, the IRAG is highly advantageous to the extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions. The diffraction efficiency of the IRAG and the influences of fabrication constraints are also discussed. The unique quasi-single order diffraction properties of IRAG may open the door to a wide range of photonic applications.
Quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions with inclined rectangular apertures gratings.
Liu, Yuwei; Zhu, Xiaoli; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Wenhai; Fan, Quanping; Wei, Lai; Yang, Zuhua; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Qian, Feng; Chen, Yong; He, Weihua; Wu, Yinzhong; Yan, Zhuoyang; Hua, Yilei; Zhao, Yidong; Cui, Mingqi; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhang, Baohan; Xie, Changqing; Cao, Leifeng
2015-01-01
Advances in the fundamentals and applications of diffraction gratings have received much attention. However, conventional diffraction gratings often suffer from higher-order diffraction contamination. Here, we introduce a simple and compact single optical element, named inclined rectangular aperture gratings (IRAG), for quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions. We show, both in the visible light and soft x-ray regions, that IRAG can significantly suppress higher-order diffractions with moderate diffraction efficiency. Especially, as no support strut is needed to maintain the free-standing patterns, the IRAG is highly advantageous to the extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions. The diffraction efficiency of the IRAG and the influences of fabrication constraints are also discussed. The unique quasi-single order diffraction properties of IRAG may open the door to a wide range of photonic applications. PMID:26563588
Bounding higher-order ionosphere errors for the dual-frequency GPS user
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta-Barua, S.; Walter, T.; Blanch, J.; Enge, P.
2008-10-01
Civil signals at L2 and L5 frequencies herald a new phase of Global Positioning System (GPS) performance. Dual-frequency users typically assume a first-order approximation of the ionosphere index of refraction, combining the GPS observables to eliminate most of the ranging delay, on the order of meters, introduced into the pseudoranges. This paper estimates the higher-order group and phase errors that occur from assuming the ordinary first-order dual-frequency ionosphere model using data from the Federal Aviation Administration's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) network on a solar maximum quiet day and an extremely stormy day postsolar maximum. We find that during active periods, when ionospheric storms may introduce slant range delays at L1 as high as 100 m, the higher-order group errors in the L1-L2 or L1-L5 dual-frequency combination can be tens of centimeters. The group and phase errors are no longer equal and opposite, so these errors accumulate in carrier smoothing of the dual-frequency code observable. We show the errors in the carrier-smoothed code are due to higher-order group errors and, to a lesser extent, to higher-order phase rate errors. For many applications, this residual error is sufficiently small as to be neglected. However, such errors can impact geodetic applications as well as the error budgets of GPS Augmentation Systems providing Category III precision approach.
A Hypergraph-Based Reduction for Higher-Order Binary Markov Random Fields.
Fix, Alexander; Gruber, Aritanan; Boros, Endre; Zabih, Ramin
2015-07-01
Higher-order Markov Random Fields, which can capture important properties of natural images, have become increasingly important in computer vision. While graph cuts work well for first-order MRF's, until recently they have rarely been effective for higher-order MRF's. Ishikawa's graph cut technique [1], [2] shows great promise for many higher-order MRF's. His method transforms an arbitrary higher-order MRF with binary labels into a first-order one with the same minima. If all the terms are submodular the exact solution can be easily found; otherwise, pseudoboolean optimization techniques can produce an optimal labeling for a subset of the variables. We present a new transformation with better performance than [1], [2], both theoretically and experimentally. While [1], [2] transforms each higher-order term independently, we use the underlying hypergraph structure of the MRF to transform a group of terms at once. For n binary variables, each of which appears in terms with k other variables, at worst we produce n non-submodular terms, while [1], [2] produces O(nk). We identify a local completeness property under which our method perform even better, and show that under certain assumptions several important vision problems (including common variants of fusion moves) have this property. We show experimentally that our method produces smaller weight of non-submodular edges, and that this metric is directly related to the effectiveness of QPBO [3]. Running on the same field of experts dataset used in [1], [2] we optimally label significantly more variables (96 versus 80 percent) and converge more rapidly to a lower energy. Preliminary experiments suggest that some other higher-order MRF's used in stereo [4] and segmentation [5] are also locally complete and would thus benefit from our work.
CONSERVED HIGHER ORDER CHROMATIN REGULATES NMDA RECEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION AND COGNITION
Bharadwaj, Rahul; Peter, Cyril J.; Jiang, Yan; Roussos, Panos; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Shen, Erica; Mitchell, Amanda; Mao, Wenjie; Whittle, Catheryne; Dincer, Aslihan; Jakovcevski, Mira; Pothula, Venu; Rasmussen, Theodore P.; Giakoumaki, Stella G.; Bitsios, Panos; Sherif, Ajfar; Gardner, Paul D.; Ernst, Patricia; Ghose, Subroto; Sklar, Pamela; Haroutunian, Vahram; Tamminga, Carol; Myers, Richard H.; Futai, Kensuke; Wood, Marcelo A.; Akbarian, Schahram
2014-01-01
3-dimensional chromosomal conformations regulate transcription by moving enhancers and regulatory elements into spatial proximity with target genes. Here, we describe activity-regulated long-range loopings bypassing up to 0.5 megabase of linear genome to modulate NMDA glutamate receptor GRIN2B expression in human and mouse prefrontal cortex. Distal intronic and 3’ intergenic loop formations competed with repressor elements to access promoter-proximal sequences, and facilitated expression via a ‘cargo’ of AP-1 and NRF-1 transcription factors and TALE-based transcriptional activators. Neuronal deletion or overexpression of Kmt2a/Mll1 H3K4- and Kmt1e/Setdb1 H3K9-methyltransferase was associated with higher order chromatin changes at distal regulatory Grin2b sequences and impairments in working memory. Genetic polymorphisms and isogenic deletions of loop-bound sequences conferred liability for cognitive performance and decreased GRIN2B expression. Dynamic regulation of chromosomal conformations emerges as a novel layer for transcriptional mechanisms impacting neuronal signaling and cognition. PMID:25467983
Recognition of viruses by electron microscopy using higher order spectral features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ong, C. L. H.; Chandran, Vinod
2003-05-01
A limitation of using electron microscopy as a diagnostic tool in virology is the expertise required in analysing and interpreting the images. EM images of different viruses can be very similar in shape. An automated recognition method is proposed in this paper. It is based on radial spectra of higher-order spectral parameters robust to translation, scaling and noise. These features are also roation invariant and can be averaged for a population of viral particles without the need to normalize and align them. They extract symmetry information and are sensitive enough to distinguish viruses that appear nearly circular to the human eye. The method was tested using three such viruses with very similar morphologies - the Adeno, the HAV and the Astro. 70 viral particles of each class from three images were used for training. In the first test, random unseen sets of viral particles form the same images were chosen. In the second test, images of viruses from other sources, where the specimen preparation and the microscope are different, were used to determine the reliability of the system. Both tests have shown high classification accuracy improving rapidly to 100% as the test ensemble grew to 20 particles.
Triangular Alignment (TAME). A Tensor-based Approach for Higher-order Network Alignment
Mohammadi, Shahin; Gleich, David F.; Kolda, Tamara G.; Grama, Ananth
2015-11-01
Network alignment is an important tool with extensive applications in comparative interactomics. Traditional approaches aim to simultaneously maximize the number of conserved edges and the underlying similarity of aligned entities. We propose a novel formulation of the network alignment problem that extends topological similarity to higher-order structures and provide a new objective function that maximizes the number of aligned substructures. This objective function corresponds to an integer programming problem, which is NP-hard. Consequently, we approximate this objective function as a surrogate function whose maximization results in a tensor eigenvalue problem. Based on this formulation, we present an algorithm called Triangular AlignMEnt (TAME), which attempts to maximize the number of aligned triangles across networks. We focus on alignment of triangles because of their enrichment in complex networks; however, our formulation and resulting algorithms can be applied to general motifs. Using a case study on the NAPABench dataset, we show that TAME is capable of producing alignments with up to 99% accuracy in terms of aligned nodes. We further evaluate our method by aligning yeast and human interactomes. Our results indicate that TAME outperforms the state-of-art alignment methods both in terms of biological and topological quality of the alignments.
Higher-order image representations for hyper-resolution image synthesis and capture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, Benjamin
2007-02-01
Real time imaging applications such as interactive rendering and video conferencing face particularly challenging bandwidth problems, especially as we attempt to improve resolution to perceptual limits. Compression has been an amazing enabler of video streaming and storage, but in interactive settings, it can introduce application-killing latencies. Rather than synthesizing or capturing a verbose representation and then immediately converting it into its succinct form, we should generate the concise representation directly. Our research is inspired by human vision, which as Hoffman (1998) notes, constructs "continuous lines and surfaces...from discrete information." Our adaptive frameless renderer uses gradient samples and steerable filters to perform spatiotemporally adaptive reconstruction that preserves both edges and occlusion boundaries. Resulting RMS qualities are equivalent to traditionally synthesized imagery with 10 times more samples. Nevertheless in dynamic scenes, producing pleasing edges with so few samples is challenging. We are currently developing methods for reconstructing imagery using color samples supplemented with sparse edge information. Such higher-order representations will be a crucial enabler of interactive, hyper-resolution image synthesis, capture and display.
Gavrishchaka, V.V.; Ganguli, G.I.; Bakshi, P.M.; Koepke, M.E.
1998-01-01
The formalism necessary to study the collective properties of a plasma system with inhomogeneous flows is nonlocal and generally in the form of an integrodifferential equation. Usually the eigenvalue condition is reduced to a second-order differential equation for simplicity. While the gross physical behavior of the system can be obtained from the second-order differential equation level of description, higher-order corrections are necessary for greater accuracy. The limit in which the scale-size of the velocity inhomogeneity is large compared to the ion gyroradius is considered and a transverse flow profile sharply localized in space ({open_quotes}top-hat{close_quotes} profile) is assumed. In this limit, a simple analytical method for the solution of the general eigenvalue condition to all orders is developed. A comparison of the properties of the solutions obtained from the second-order differential equation level of description with those obtained from higher orders is presented. Both the resonant (dissipative) and the nonresonant (reactive) effects of velocity shear are considered. It is found that while the overall features are well represented by the second-order level of description, the higher-order corrections moderate the destabilizing effects due to velocity shear, which can be quite significant in some cases. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Performance of Higher Order Campbell methods, Part II: calibration and experimental application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elter, Zs.; de Izarra, G.; Filliatre, P.; Jammes, C.; Pázsit, I.
2016-11-01
Applying Higher Order Campbelling methods in neutron flux monitoring with fission chambers is advantageous due to their capabilities to suppress the impact of unwanted noises and signal contributions (such as gamma radiation). This work aims to verify through experimental results that the basic assumptions behind the Higher Order Campelling methods are valid in critical reactors. The experiments, reported in this work, were performed at the MINERVE reactor in Cadarache. It is shown that the calibration of a fission chamber and the associated electronic system is possible in higher order mode. With the use of unbiased cumulant estimators and with digital processing, it is shown that over a wide count rate range, accurate count rate estimation can be achieved based on signal samples of a few ms, which is a significant progress compared to similar experimental results in the literature. The difference between the count rate estimated by pulse counting and by the Higher Order Campelling is less than 4%. The work also investigates the possibility of monitoring transient events. For this purpose, a control rod drop event was followed in Higher Order Campbelling mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shchukin, E.; van Loock, P.
2016-03-01
We derive two types of sets of higher-order conditions for bipartite entanglement in terms of continuous variables. One corresponds to an extension of the well-known Duan inequalities from second to higher moments describing a kind of higher-order Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations. Only the second type, however, expressed by powers of the mode operators leads to tight conditions with a hierarchical structure. We start with a minimization problem for the single-partite case and, using the results obtained, establish relevant inequalities for higher-order moments satisfied by all bipartite separable states. We give an explicit example of a non-Gaussian state that exhibits fourth-order but no second-order EPR correlations. Similarly, a certain fourth-order condition cannot be violated by any Gaussian state and we present non-Gaussian states whose entanglement is detected by that condition. Violations of all our conditions are provided, so they can all be used as entanglement tests.
Analysis of warping deformation modes using higher order ANCF beam element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orzechowski, Grzegorz; Shabana, Ahmed A.
2016-02-01
Most classical beam theories assume that the beam cross section remains a rigid surface under an arbitrary loading condition. However, in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) continuum-based beams, this assumption can be relaxed allowing for capturing deformation modes that couple the cross-section deformation and beam bending, torsion, and/or elongation. The deformation modes captured by ANCF finite elements depend on the interpolating polynomials used. The most widely used spatial ANCF beam element employs linear approximation in the transverse direction, thereby restricting the cross section deformation and leading to locking problems. The objective of this investigation is to examine the behavior of a higher order ANCF beam element that includes quadratic interpolation in the transverse directions. This higher order element allows capturing warping and non-uniform stretching distribution. Furthermore, this higher order element allows for increasing the degree of continuity at the element interface. It is shown in this paper that the higher order ANCF beam element can be used effectively to capture warping and eliminate Poisson locking that characterizes lower order ANCF finite elements. It is also shown that increasing the degree of continuity requires a special attention in order to have acceptable results. Because higher order elements can be more computationally expensive than the lower order elements, the use of reduced integration for evaluating the stress forces and the use of explicit and implicit numerical integrations to solve the nonlinear dynamic equations of motion are investigated in this paper. It is shown that the use of some of these integration methods can be very effective in reducing the CPU time without adversely affecting the solution accuracy.
Temporal integration property of stereopsis after higher-order aberration correction
Kang, Jian; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong
2015-01-01
Based on a binocular adaptive optics visual simulator, we investigated the effect of higher-order aberration correction on the temporal integration property of stereopsis. Stereo threshold for line stimuli, viewed in 550nm monochromatic light, was measured as a function of exposure duration, with higher-order aberrations uncorrected, binocularly corrected or monocularly corrected. Under all optical conditions, stereo threshold decreased with increasing exposure duration until a steady-state threshold was reached. The critical duration was determined by a quadratic summation model and the high goodness of fit suggested this model was reasonable. For normal subjects, the slope for stereo threshold versus exposure duration was about −0.5 on logarithmic coordinates, and the critical duration was about 200 ms. Both the slope and the critical duration were independent of the optical condition of the eye, showing no significant effect of higher-order aberration correction on the temporal integration property of stereopsis. PMID:26601010
A higher order visual neuron tuned to the spatial amplitude spectra of natural scenes
Dyakova, Olga; Lee, Yu-Jen; Longden, Kit D.; Kiselev, Valerij G.; Nordström, Karin
2015-01-01
Animal sensory systems are optimally adapted to those features typically encountered in natural surrounds, thus allowing neurons with limited bandwidth to encode challengingly large input ranges. Natural scenes are not random, and peripheral visual systems in vertebrates and insects have evolved to respond efficiently to their typical spatial statistics. The mammalian visual cortex is also tuned to natural spatial statistics, but less is known about coding in higher order neurons in insects. To redress this we here record intracellularly from a higher order visual neuron in the hoverfly. We show that the cSIFE neuron, which is inhibited by stationary images, is maximally inhibited when the slope constant of the amplitude spectrum is close to the mean in natural scenes. The behavioural optomotor response is also strongest to images with naturalistic image statistics. Our results thus reveal a close coupling between the inherent statistics of natural scenes and higher order visual processing in insects. PMID:26439748
Automatic tracking of ground station antennas by means of higher order waveguide modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheffer, H.
1980-02-01
Utilization of higher order waveguide modes, which are excited in the feed when the satellite is displaced from the boresight axis of the antenna is discussed. The physical relations involved in the excitation of higher order waveguide modes as a function of the antenna position are explained. The starting points of these considerations are the radiation patterns of the tracking modes excited by feeds with circular and square cross sections. Special mention is made of the derivation of the offset information in the cases of circular and linear polarization of the beacon signal. The principle of selective mode coupling by means of tracking mode couplers is described. A compilation of German ground station antennas is given, which apply tracking by higher order waveguide modes.
Development of a Higher Order Laminate Theory for Modeling Composites with Induced Strain Actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.
1996-01-01
A refined higher order plate theory is developed to investigate the actuation mechanism of piezoelectric materials surface bonded or embedded in composite laminates. The current analysis uses a displacement field which accurately accounts for transverse shear stresses. Some higher order terms are identified by using the conditions that shear stresses vanish at all free surfaces. Therefore, all boundary conditions for displacements and stresses are satisfied in the present theory. The analysis is implemented using the finite element method which provides a convenient means to construct a numerical solution due to the discrete nature of the actuators. The higher order theory is computationally less expensive than a full three dimensional analysis. The theory is also shown to agree well with published experimental results. Numerical examples are presented for composite plates with thicknesses ranging from thin to very thick.
Nonlinear optomechanics with gain and loss: amplifying higher-order sideband and group delay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Y.; Lü, H.; Qian, J.; Li, Y.; Jing, H.
2016-08-01
We study the nonlinear optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) with gain and loss. We find that (i) for a single active cavity, significant enhancement can be achieved for the higher-order sidebands, including the transmission rate and the group delay; (ii) for active-passive-coupled cavities, hundreds of microsecond of optical delay or advance are attainable for the nonlinear sideband pulses in the parity-time-symmetric regime. The active higher-order OMIT effects, as firstly revealed here, open up the way to make a low-power optomechaical amplifier, which can amplify both the strength and group delay of not only the probe light but also its higher-order sidebands.
Higher-order-statistics-based radial basis function networks for signal enhancement.
Lin, Bor-Shyh; Lin, Bor-Shing; Chong, Fok-Ching; Lai, Feipei
2007-05-01
In this paper, a higher-order-statistics (HOS)-based radial basis function (RBF) network for signal enhancement is introduced. In the proposed scheme, higher order cumulants of the reference signal were used as the input of HOS-based RBF. An HOS-based supervised learning algorithm, with mean square error obtained from higher order cumulants of the desired input and the system output as the learning criterion, was used to adapt weights. The motivation is that the HOS can effectively suppress Gaussian and symmetrically distributed non-Gaussian noise. The influence of a Gaussian noise on the input of HOS-based RBF and the HOS-based learning algorithm can be mitigated. Simulated results indicate that HOS-based RBF can provide better performance for signal enhancement under different noise levels, and its performance is insensitive to the selection of learning rates. Moreover, the efficiency of HOS-based RBF under the nonstationary Gaussian noise is stable.
3D Higher Order Modeling in the BEM/FEM Hybrid Formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fink, P. W.; Wilton, D. R.
2000-01-01
Higher order divergence- and curl-conforming bases have been shown to provide significant benefits, in both convergence rate and accuracy, in the 2D hybrid finite element/boundary element formulation (P. Fink and D. Wilton, National Radio Science Meeting, Boulder, CO, Jan. 2000). A critical issue in achieving the potential for accuracy of the approach is the accurate evaluation of all matrix elements. These involve products of high order polynomials and, in some instances, singular Green's functions. In the 2D formulation, the use of a generalized Gaussian quadrature method was found to greatly facilitate the computation and to improve the accuracy of the boundary integral equation self-terms. In this paper, a 3D, hybrid electric field formulation employing higher order bases and higher order elements is presented. The improvements in convergence rate and accuracy, compared to those resulting from lower order modeling, are established. Techniques developed to facilitate the computation of the boundary integral self-terms are also shown to improve the accuracy of these terms. Finally, simple preconditioning techniques are used in conjunction with iterative solution procedures to solve the resulting linear system efficiently. In order to handle the boundary integral singularities in the 3D formulation, the parent element- either a triangle or rectangle-is subdivided into a set of sub-triangles with a common vertex at the singularity. The contribution to the integral from each of the sub-triangles is computed using the Duffy transformation to remove the singularity. This method is shown to greatly facilitate t'pe self-term computation when the bases are of higher order. In addition, the sub-triangles can be further divided to achieve near arbitrary accuracy in the self-term computation. An efficient method for subdividing the parent element is presented. The accuracy obtained using higher order bases is compared to that obtained using lower order bases when the number
Tanabe, Kentarou; Nagataki, Shigehiro
2008-07-15
The Blandford-Znajek mechanism, by which the rotational energy of a black hole is extracted through electromagnetic fields, is one of the promising candidates as an essential process of the central engine of active compact objects such as gamma-ray bursts. The only known analytical solution of this mechanism is the perturbative monopole solution for Kerr parameter a up to the second order terms. In order to apply the Blandford-Znajek mechanism to rapidly rotating black holes, we try to obtain the perturbation solution up to the fourth order. As a result, we find that the fourth order terms of the vector potential diverge at infinity, and this implies that the perturbation approach breaks down at a large distance from the black hole. Although there are some uncertainties about the solution due to the unknown boundary condition at infinity for the fourth order terms, we can derive the evaluation of the total energy flux extracted from the black hole up to fourth order of a without any ambiguity. Furthermore, from the comparison between the numerical solution, which is valid for 0order solution, we find that the fourth order solution reproduces the numerical result better than the second order solution. At the same time, since the fourth order solution does not match well with the numerical result at large a, we conclude that more higher order terms are required to reproduce the numerical result.
Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution.
Vasudevan, R K; Okatan, M Baris; Rajapaksa, I; Kim, Y; Marincel, D; Trolier-McKinstry, S; Jesse, S; Valanoor, N; Kalinin, S V
2013-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O₃ (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of n(th) order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials.
Higher-order numerical methods derived from three-point polynomial interpolation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.
1976-01-01
Higher-order collocation procedures resulting in tridiagonal matrix systems are derived from polynomial spline interpolation and Hermitian finite-difference discretization. The equations generally apply for both uniform and variable meshes. Hybrid schemes resulting from different polynomial approximations for first and second derivatives lead to the nonuniform mesh extension of the so-called compact or Pade difference techniques. A variety of fourth-order methods are described and this concept is extended to sixth-order. Solutions with these procedures are presented for the similar and non-similar boundary layer equations with and without mass transfer, the Burgers equation, and the incompressible viscous flow in a driven cavity. Finally, the interpolation procedure is used to derive higher-order temporal integration schemes and results are shown for the diffusion equation.
Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution
Vasudevan, R. K.; Okatan, M. Baris; Rajapaksa, I.; Kim, Y.; Marincel, D.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Jesse, S.; Valanoor, N.; Kalinin, S. V.
2013-01-01
Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of nth order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials. PMID:24045269
Mixed Electromagnetic and Circuit Simulations using Higher-Order Elements and Bases
Champagne, N J; Rockway, J D; Jandhyala, V
2003-06-18
In this paper, an approach to couple higher-order electromagnetic surface integral equations to circuit simulations is presented. Terminals are defined that connect circuit elements to contacts modeled on the distributed electromagnetic domain. A modified charge-current continuity equation is proposed for a generalized KCL connection at the contacts. The distributive electromagnetic integral equations are developed using higher-order bases and elements that allow both better convergence and accuracy for modeling. The resulting scheme enables simultaneous solution of electromagnetic integral equations for arbitrarily-shaped objects and SPICE-like modeling for lumped circuits, and permits design iterations and visualization of the interaction between the two domains.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, C. W.; Zhang, G.; Reddy, J. N.
2015-05-01
In recent years there have been many papers that considered the effects of material length scales in the study of mechanics of solids at micro- and/or nano-scales. There are a number of approaches and, among them, one set of papers deals with Eringen's differential nonlocal model and another deals with the strain gradient theories. The modified couple stress theory, which also accounts for a material length scale, is a form of a strain gradient theory. The large body of literature that has come into existence in the last several years has created significant confusion among researchers about the length scales that these various theories contain. The present paper has the objective of establishing the fact that the length scales present in nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory describe two entirely different physical characteristics of materials and structures at nanoscale. By using two principle kernel functions, the paper further presents a theory with application examples which relates the classical nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory and it results in a higher-order nonlocal strain gradient theory. In this theory, a higher-order nonlocal strain gradient elasticity system which considers higher-order stress gradients and strain gradient nonlocality is proposed. It is based on the nonlocal effects of the strain field and first gradient strain field. This theory intends to generalize the classical nonlocal elasticity theory by introducing a higher-order strain tensor with nonlocality into the stored energy function. The theory is distinctive because the classical nonlocal stress theory does not include nonlocality of higher-order stresses while the common strain gradient theory only considers local higher-order strain gradients without nonlocal effects in a global sense. By establishing the constitutive relation within the thermodynamic framework, the governing equations of equilibrium and all boundary conditions are derived via the variational
Higher--order CO/sub 2/ laser beam spot size and depth of focus determined
Luxon, J.T.; Parker, D.E.
1981-06-01
Measurements of higher-order CO/sub 2/ laser beam spot size have been made and found in good agreement with a Hermite-Gaussian rectangular beam propagation model. A modified working definition of spot size is introduced, and a useful depth of focus relationship is presented. It is shown that a single measurement of spot size for any higher-order mode is all that is required to reasonably predict spot size for the same laser operating in different modes. Alternatively, beam size can be predicted theoretically on the basis of the optical cavity parameters.
A higher-order split-step Fourier parabolic-equation sound propagation solution scheme.
Lin, Ying-Tsong; Duda, Timothy F
2012-08-01
A three-dimensional Cartesian parabolic-equation model with a higher-order approximation to the square-root Helmholtz operator is presented for simulating underwater sound propagation in ocean waveguides. The higher-order approximation includes cross terms with the free-space square-root Helmholtz operator and the medium phase speed anomaly. It can be implemented with a split-step Fourier algorithm to solve for sound pressure in the model. Two idealized ocean waveguide examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of this numerical technique.
Dynamic control of higher-order modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers.
Euser, T G; Whyte, G; Scharrer, M; Chen, J S Y; Abdolvand, A; Nold, J; Kaminski, C F; Russell, P St J
2008-10-27
We present a versatile method for selective mode coupling into higher-order modes of photonic crystal fibers, using holograms electronically generated by a spatial light modulator. The method enables non-mechanical and completely repeatable changes in the coupling conditions. We have excited higher order modes up to LP(31) in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers. The reproducibility of the coupling allows direct comparison of the losses of different guided modes in both hollow-core bandgap and kagome-lattice photonic crystal fibers. Our results are also relevant to applications in which the intensity distribution of the light inside the fiber is important, such as particle- or atom-guidance.
Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Page, Melanie C.; Huey, Erron L.; Starost, Huei-Juang; Culp, Anne McDonald; Culp, Rex E.; Harper, M. Elizabeth
2009-01-01
We proposed a higher order latent construct of parenting young children, parenting quality. This higher-order latent construct comprises five component constructs: demographic protection, psychological distress, psychosocial maturity, moral and cognitive reflectivity, and parenting attitudes and beliefs. We evaluated this model with data provided by 199 mothers of 4-year-old children enrolled in Head Start. The model was confirmed with only one adjustment suggested by modification indices. Final RMSEA was .05, CFI .96, and NNFI .94, indicating good model fit. Results were interpreted as emphasizing the interdependence of psychological and environmental demands on parenting. Implications of the model for teachers, early interventionists, and public policy are discussed. PMID:19629192
Higher order wave loads on and response of an articulated tower
Utne, N.; Fause, S.; Toerum, A.
1995-12-31
A theoretical and experimental study has been carried out on the higher order wave load phenomena frequently called ringing. It has been shown that a significant mechanism for the ringing effect is impulse type wave loading around the still water line area on an articulated tower. In this paper the authors report on an experimental and theoretical study undertaken to explore the mechanism for the ringing. Several avenues were followed to explore the phenomenon of ringing like higher order wave theory effects and special wave loads effects in the surf zone. Both regular and irregular waves were used during the tests.
Superposition of Solitons with Arbitrary Parameters for Higher-order Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ankiewicz, A.; Chowdury, A.
2016-07-01
The way in which solitons propagate and collide is an important theme in various areas of physics. We present a systematic study of the superposition of solitons in systems governed by higher-order equations related to the nonlinear Schrödinger family. We allow for arbitrary amplitudes and relative velocities and include an infinite number of equations in our analysis of collisions and superposed solitons. The formulae we obtain can be useful in determining the influence of subtle effects like higher-order dispersion in optical fibres and small delays in the material responses to imposed impulses.
Evidence of Higher-Order Effects in Thermally-Driven, Rapid Granular Flows
Hrenya, C.M.; Galvin, J.E.; Wildman, R.D.
2008-01-01
Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are used to probe the ability of Navier–Stokes-order theories to predict each of the constitutive quantities – heat flux, stress tensor and dissipation rate – associated with granular materials. The system under investigation is bounded by two opposite walls of set granular temperature and is characterized by zero mean flow. The comparisons between MD and theory provide evidence of higher-order effects in each of the constitutive quantities. Furthermore, the size of these effects is roughly one order of magnitude greater, on a percentage basis, for heat flux than it is for stress or dissipation rate. For the case of heat flux, these effects are attributed to super-Burnett-order contributions (third order in gradients) or greater, since Burnett-order contributions to the heat flux do not exist. Finally, for the system considered, these higher-order contributions to the heat flux outweigh the first-order contribution arising from a gradient in concentration (i.e. the Dufour effect).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dori, Yehudit J.; Tal, Revital T.; Tsaushu, Masha
2003-11-01
Teaching nonscience majors topics in biotechnology through case studies is the focus of this research. Our Biotechnology, Environment, and Related Issues module, developed within the Science for All framework, is aimed at elevating the level of students' scientific and technological literacy and their higher order thinking skills. The research goal was to investigate nonscience major students' ability to use various thinking skills in analyzing environmental and moral conflicts presented through case studies in the Biotechnology Module. The research population consisted of about 200 nonscience majors in eight classes of grades 10-12 from heterogeneous communities. We found a significant improvement in students' knowledge and understanding and higher order thinking skills at all academic levels. The scores that low academic level students achieved in the knowledge and understanding category were higher than their high academic level peers' scores. In the higher order thinking skills - question posing, argumentation, and system thinking - a significant difference in favor of the high academic level students was found. The gap that had existed between low and high academic level students narrowed. Most students reported that the biotechnological topics that they had studied were interesting and relevant. Based on these results, we advocate a curriculum that exposes students to scientific controversies through case studies with environmental and moral implications. Our research has shown that this approach is likely to contribute to developing scientific and technological literacy along with higher order thinking skills of nonscience majors.
Scintillations of higher-order laser beams in non-Kolmogorov medium.
Baykal, Yahya
2014-04-01
In an atmospheric medium that shows a non-Kolmogorov turbulence behavior, the variation of the on-axis scintillation index is evaluated when higher-order laser modes are used as the excitation. The Rytov method is employed together with the equivalent structure constant, which makes our results valid in weak turbulence. In the limiting case, our solution correctly reduces to the known scintillation index of the Gaussian beam in Kolmogorov turbulence. For all the higher-order even modes, increase in the power law exponent, α of the non-Kolmogorov spectrum is found to increase the scintillations. When the source size of the higher-order modes is large, higher-order even modes attain almost the same scintillation index values for all α. However, for small source sizes, being valid for any realization of the non-Kolmogorov spectrum, the scintillations decrease as the mode order becomes large. The changes in the propagation distance, structure constant, and the wavelength do not vary these trends.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, A. K.
1979-01-01
Expressions are derived for higher-order skewness and excess coefficients using central moments and cumulants up to 8th order. These coefficients are then calculated for three probability distributions: (1) Log-normal, (2) Rice-Nakagami, and (3) Gamma distributions. Curves are given to shown the variation of skewness with excess coefficients for these distributions. These curves are independent of the particular distribution parameters. This method is useful for studying fluctuating phenomena, which obey non-Gaussian statistics.
Improvements to local projective noise reduction through higher order and multiscale refinements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Jack Murdoch; Small, Michael; Karrech, Ali
2015-06-01
The broad spectrum characteristic of signals from nonlinear systems obstructs noise reduction techniques developed for linear systems. Local projection was developed to reduce noise while preserving nonlinear deterministic structures, and a second order refinement to local projection which was proposed ten years ago does so particularly effectively. It involves adjusting the origin of the projection subspace to better accommodate the geometry of the attractor. This paper describes an analytic motivation for the enhancement from which follows further higher order and multiple scale refinements. However, the established enhancement is frequently as or more effective than the new filters arising from solely geometric considerations. Investigation of the way that measurement errors reinforce or cancel throughout the refined local projection procedure explains the special efficacy of the existing enhancement, and leads to a new second order refinement offering widespread gains. Different local projective filters are found to be best suited to different noise levels. At low noise levels, the optimal order increases as noise increases. At intermediate levels second order tends to be optimal, while at high noise levels prototypical local projection is most effective. The new higher order filters perform better relative to established filters for longer signals or signals corresponding to higher dimensional attractors.
Does Higher-Order Thinking Impinge on Learner-Centric Digital Approach?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mathew, Bincy; Raja, B. William Dharma
2015-01-01
Humans are social beings and the social cognition focuses on how one form impressions of other people, interpret the meaning of other people's behaviour and how people's behaviour is affected by our attitudes. The school provides complex social situations and in order to thrive, students must possess social cognition, the process of thinking about…
A new method to infer higher-order spike correlations from membrane potentials.
Reimer, Imke C G; Staude, Benjamin; Boucsein, Clemens; Rotter, Stefan
2013-10-01
What is the role of higher-order spike correlations for neuronal information processing? Common data analysis methods to address this question are devised for the application to spike recordings from multiple single neurons. Here, we present a new method which evaluates the subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations of one neuron, and infers higher-order correlations among the neurons that constitute its presynaptic population. This has two important advantages: Very large populations of up to several thousands of neurons can be studied, and the spike sorting is obsolete. Moreover, this new approach truly emphasizes the functional aspects of higher-order statistics, since we infer exactly those correlations which are seen by a neuron. Our approach is to represent the subthreshold membrane potential fluctuations as presynaptic activity filtered with a fixed kernel, as it would be the case for a leaky integrator neuron model. This allows us to adapt the recently proposed method CuBIC (cumulant based inference of higher-order correlations from the population spike count; Staude et al., J Comput Neurosci 29(1-2):327-350, 2010c) with which the maximal order of correlation can be inferred. By numerical simulation we show that our new method is reasonably sensitive to weak higher-order correlations, and that only short stretches of membrane potential are required for their reliable inference. Finally, we demonstrate its remarkable robustness against violations of the simplifying assumptions made for its construction, and discuss how it can be employed to analyze in vivo intracellular recordings of membrane potentials.
Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for orbital-free density functional theory
Motamarri, Phani; Iyer, Mrinal; Knap, Jaroslaw; Gavini, Vikram
2012-08-15
In the present work, we study various numerical aspects of higher-order finite-element discretizations of the non-linear saddle-point formulation of orbital-free density-functional theory. We first investigate the robustness of viable solution schemes by analyzing the solvability conditions of the discrete problem. We find that a staggered solution procedure where the potential fields are computed consistently for every trial electron-density is a robust solution procedure for higher-order finite-element discretizations. We next study the convergence properties of higher-order finite-element discretizations of orbital-free density functional theory by considering benchmark problems that include calculations involving both pseudopotential as well as Coulomb singular potential fields. Our numerical studies suggest close to optimal rates of convergence on all benchmark problems for various orders of finite-element approximations considered in the present study. We finally investigate the computational efficiency afforded by various higher-order finite-element discretizations, which constitutes the main aspect of the present work, by measuring the CPU time for the solution of discrete equations on benchmark problems that include large Aluminum clusters. In these studies, we use mesh coarse-graining rates that are derived from error estimates and an a priori knowledge of the asymptotic solution of the far-field electronic fields. Our studies reveal a significant 100-1000 fold computational savings afforded by the use of higher-order finite-element discretization, alongside providing the desired chemical accuracy. We consider this study as a step towards developing a robust and computationally efficient discretization of electronic structure calculations using the finite-element basis.
A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.
Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn
2015-11-01
Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia. PMID:26150070
Equivalence of two formalisms for calculating higher order synchrotron sideband spin resonances
Mane, S.R.
1988-05-11
Synchrotron sideband resonances of a first order spin resonance are generally regarded as the most important higher order spin resonances in a high-energy storage ring. Yokoya's formula for these resonances is rederived, including some extra terms, which he neglected, but which turn out to be of comparable magnitude to the terms retained. Including these terms, Yokoya's formalism and the SMILE algorithm are shown to be equivalent to leading order in the resonance strengths. The theoretical calculations are shown to agree with certain measurements from SPEAR.
Assessment of Higher-Order RANS Closures in a Decelerated Planar Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jeyapaul, Elbert; Coleman, Gary N.; Rumsey, Christopher L.
2014-01-01
A reference DNS database is presented, which includes third- and fourth-order moment budgets for unstrained and strained planar channel flow. Existing RANS closure models for third- and fourth-order terms are surveyed, and new model ideas are introduced. The various models are then compared with the DNS data term by term using a priori testing of the higher-order budgets of turbulence transport, velocity-pressure-gradient, and dissipation for both the unstrained and strained databases. Generally, the models for the velocity-pressure-gradient terms are most in need of improvement.
Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for Kohn–Sham density functional theory
Motamarri, P.; Nowak, M.R.; Leiter, K.; Knap, J.; Gavini, V.
2013-11-15
We present an efficient computational approach to perform real-space electronic structure calculations using an adaptive higher-order finite-element discretization of Kohn–Sham density-functional theory (DFT). To this end, we develop an a priori mesh-adaption technique to construct a close to optimal finite-element discretization of the problem. We further propose an efficient solution strategy for solving the discrete eigenvalue problem by using spectral finite-elements in conjunction with Gauss–Lobatto quadrature, and a Chebyshev acceleration technique for computing the occupied eigenspace. The proposed approach has been observed to provide a staggering 100–200-fold computational advantage over the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Using the proposed solution procedure, we investigate the computational efficiency afforded by higher-order finite-element discretizations of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. Our studies suggest that staggering computational savings—of the order of 1000-fold—relative to linear finite-elements can be realized, for both all-electron and local pseudopotential calculations, by using higher-order finite-element discretizations. On all the benchmark systems studied, we observe diminishing returns in computational savings beyond the sixth-order for accuracies commensurate with chemical accuracy, suggesting that the hexic spectral-element may be an optimal choice for the finite-element discretization of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. A comparative study of the computational efficiency of the proposed higher-order finite-element discretizations suggests that the performance of finite-element basis is competing with the plane-wave discretization for non-periodic local pseudopotential calculations, and compares to the Gaussian basis for all-electron calculations to within an order of magnitude. Further, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to compute the electronic structure of a metallic system containing 1688
Higher order terms of radiative damping in extreme intense laser-matter interaction
Pandit, Rishi R.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko
2012-07-15
The higher order terms of the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation have been derived, and their effects are studied via a relativistic collisional particle-in-cell simulation. The dominant group of terms up to the fourth order of the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation is identified for ultra-intense laser-matter interactions. The second order terms are found to be the damping terms of the Lorentz force while the first order terms represent friction in the equation of motion. Because the second order terms restrict electron acceleration during the laser interaction, electrons/ions are prevented from over-accelerating. Radiative damping becomes highly significant when I{>=} 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} while Bremsstrahlung will be saturated, thus radiative damping will be a dominant source of hard x-rays in regimes at extreme intensities.
Higher-order effects in bandwidth-limited soliton propagation in optical fibers
Aceves, A.B.; De Angelis, C. ); Nalesso, G.; Santagiustina, M. )
1994-12-15
By means of numerical studies and soliton perturbation theory we examine the effects of higher-order linear and nonlinear terms in bandwidth-limited amplified soliton propagation. We show that these effects are responsible for strong reductions of soliton--soliton interaction in such systems.
Iterative generation of higher-order nets in polynomial time using linear programming.
Roy, A; Mukhopadhyay, S
1997-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm for constructing and training a class of higher-order perceptrons for classification problems. The method uses linear programming models to construct and train the net. Its polynomial time complexity is proven and computational results are provided for several well-known problems. In all cases, very small nets were created compared to those reported in other computational studies.
Problem-Based Learning and Use of Higher-Order Thinking by Emergency Medical Technicians
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenberger, Paul
2013-01-01
Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) often handle chaotic life-and-death situations that require higher-order thinking skills. Improving the pass rate of EMT students depends on many factors, including the use of proven and effective teaching methods. Results from recent research about effective teaching have suggested that the instructional…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brady, Timothy F.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.
2013-01-01
When remembering a real-world scene, people encode both detailed information about specific objects and higher order information like the overall gist of the scene. However, formal models of change detection, like those used to estimate visual working memory capacity, assume observers encode only a simple memory representation that includes no…
Addition of higher order plate and shell elements into NASTRAN computer program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narayanaswami, R.; Goglia, G. L.
1976-01-01
Two higher order plate elements, the linear strain triangular membrane element and the quintic bending element, along with a shallow shell element, suitable for inclusion into the NASTRAN (NASA Structural Analysis) program are described. Additions to the NASTRAN Theoretical Manual, Users' Manual, Programmers' Manual and the NASTRAN Demonstration Problem Manual, for inclusion of these elements into the NASTRAN program are also presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budsankom, Prayoonsri; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Damrongpanit, Suntorapot; Chuensirimongkol, Jariya
2015-01-01
The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of…
Higher-Order Thinking Development through Adaptive Problem-Based Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raiyn, Jamal; Tilchin, Oleg
2015-01-01
In this paper we propose an approach to organizing Adaptive Problem-Based Learning (PBL) leading to the development of Higher-Order Thinking (HOT) skills and collaborative skills in students. Adaptability of PBL is expressed by changes in fixed instructor assessments caused by the dynamics of developing HOT skills needed for problem solving,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tanujaya, Benidiktus
2016-01-01
The purpose of this research was to develop an instrument that can be used to measure higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) in mathematics instruction of high school students. This research was conducted using a standard procedure of instrument development, from the development of conceptual definitions, development of operational definitions,…
Conception of Teaching Higher Order Thinking: Perspectives of Chinese Teachers in Hong Kong
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yeung, Sze-yin Shirley
2015-01-01
Enhancing the higher order thinking (HOT) ability of students is a worldwide educational goal. This has also become a significant objective in the curriculum reforms in Hong Kong, which aims at better preparation of students to meet the challenges of the new era. Cultural aspects are often regarded as salient in determining approaches to teaching.…
The Higher Order Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wright, Aidan G. C.; Lukowitsky, Mark R.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Conroy, David E.
2010-01-01
The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a…
Media Literacy, Popular Culture, and the Transfer of Higher Order Thinking Abilities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mraz, Maryann; Heron, Alison H.; Wood, Karen
2003-01-01
Contends that by acknowledging the influence of media literacy on adolescents' lives outside the classroom, teachers have a potential source for motivating student interest and eliciting their higher order thinking abilities within the classroom. Specifically addresses merging popular culture with classroom culture and provides a paradigm for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.
2016-01-01
As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…
Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing Using the Higher Order DINA Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hsu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Wen-Chung
2015-01-01
Cognitive diagnosis models provide profile information about a set of latent binary attributes, whereas item response models yield a summary report on a latent continuous trait. To utilize the advantages of both models, higher order cognitive diagnosis models were developed in which information about both latent binary attributes and latent…
How to Assess Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brookhart, Susan M.
2010-01-01
Don't settle for assessing recall and comprehension only when you can use this guide to create assessments for higher-order thinking skills. Assessment expert Susan M. Brookhart brings you up to speed on how to develop and use test questions and other assessments that reveal how well your students can analyze, reason, solve problems, and think…
Assessing Teachers' Pedagogical Knowledge in the Context of Teaching Higher-Order Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zohar, Anat; Schwartzer, Noa
2005-01-01
This article reports the development and application of two instruments for assessing science teachers' pedagogical knowledge in the context of teaching higher-order thinking: a Likert-type research instrument, and an instrument that analyzes classroom observations. The rationale for developing these instruments and their main categories is…
Higher-Order Fertility among Urban Fathers: An Overlooked Issue for a Neglected Population
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer; Lilja, Emily
2009-01-01
The study includes a longitudinal sample of 1,989 fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and examines factors associated with fathering a higher-order birth (three or more children) and compares these factors to those predicting any subsequent birth. Also, the article examines differences by marital status. Logistic regression…
Improving Higher Order Thinking Skills among Freshmen by Teaching Science through Inquiry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hugerat, Muhamad; Kortam, Naji
2014-01-01
Twenty-eight freshmen majoring in biology and/or chemistry in an Arab college in Israel, were given a pre-test and a post-test in which they had to identify the control group and design a controlled experiment. During the course an intervention was used. Science was taught by inquiry while using strategies that promote higher-order thinking skills…
Using Higher Order Thinking Questions to Foster Critical Thinking: A Classroom Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnett, Jerrold E.; Francis, Alisha L.
2012-01-01
To determine if quizzes containing higher order thinking questions are related to critical thinking and test performance when utilised in conjunction with an immersion approach to instruction and effort-based grading, sections of an "Educational Psychology" course were assigned to one of three quizzing conditions. Quizzes contained factual…
Higher Order Testlet Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits and Testlet-Based Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung
2013-01-01
Both testlet design and hierarchical latent traits are fairly common in educational and psychological measurements. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order testlet response models that consider both local item dependence within testlets and a hierarchy of latent traits. Due to high dimensionality, the authors adopted the Bayesian…
An Examination of the Higher-Order Structure of Psychopathology and its Relationship to Personality.
Uliaszek, Amanda A; Zinbarg, Richard E
2016-04-01
This study compared a series of higher-order models encompassing symptoms of both clinical and personality disorders. The final model was then correlated with a latent variable model of normal personality traits. A total of 420 undergraduates completed a battery of self-report symptom and personality questionnaires, with informant-reports and diagnostic interviews provided by overlapping subsamples. A three-level model with two factors at the highest level and four factors at the second level was the best fitting model. The higher-order internalizing and externalizing factors were then correlated with 30 latent personality facets. Results demonstrate an elevation on the neuroticism facets for the higher-order internalizing factor, along with low positive emotions, low actions, and low competence. The higher-order externalizing factor was negatively associated with most conscientiousness and agreeableness factors, while showing an elevation on excitement-seeking, impulsivity, and angry hostility. Future studies should replicate these models with the inclusion of more low base-rate disorders (i.e., psychosis).
Higher Order First Integrals of Motion in a Gauge Covariant Hamiltonian Framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visinescu, Mihai
The higher order symmetries are investigated in a covariant Hamiltonian formulation. The covariant phase-space approach is extended to include the presence of external gauge fields and scalar potentials. The special role of the Killing-Yano tensors is pointed out. Some nontrivial examples involving Runge-Lenz type conserved quantities are explicitly worked out.
Whiteley, M R; Welsh, B M; Roggemann, M C
1998-12-20
Tilt compensation performance is generally suboptimal when phase measurements from natural or laser guide stars are used as the conjugate phase in an adaptive optics system. Optimal compensation is obtained when the conjugate-phase coefficients are estimated from beacon measurements, given knowledge of the correlation between the on-axis object phase and the beacon measurements. We apply optimal compensation theory to tilt correction for the case of an off-axis beacon. Because off-axis higher-order modes are correlated with the on-axis tilt components, a performance gain can be realized when the tilt estimator includes higher-order modal measurements. For natural guide star compensation, it is shown that equivalent tilt compensation can be achieved at beacon offsets that are three times larger when higher-order modes through Zernike 15 are used in the tilt estimator. For a laser guide star, although tilt information cannot be measured directly because of beam reciprocity, off-axis higher-order modal measurements can be used to estimate tilt components, leading to a maximum Strehl ratio of approximately 0.3 for the relative aperture diameter D/r(0) = 4 and the relative turbulence outer scale L(0)/D = 10.
Using Tests To Evaluate the Impact of Curricular Reform on Higher Order Thinking.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Alan
The dominant issues in considering the use of tests developed outside the classroom to measure the impact of curriculum reform on higher order thinking are reviewed by a panel interviewed for this discussion. Panel members are: (1) Stuart Kahl, (2) Robert Linn, (3) Senta A. Raizen, (4) Lauren Resnick, and (5) Thomas A. Romberg. It is conceded…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shen, Yan; Hannafin, Michael
2013-01-01
This study is part of an ongoing design research to scaffold preservice teachers' higher-order reasoning while solving technology integration problems. Informed by previous iterations, we designed and examined progressively increasing scaffolds that integrated multiple scaffolding functions to facilitate three technology-based lesson design…
Vibrational higher-order resonances in an overdamped bistable system with biharmonic excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chizhevsky, V. N.
2014-10-01
Experimental evidence of vibrational higher-order resonances in a bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser driven by two harmonic signals with very different frequencies is reported. The phenomenon shows up in a parameter space (the dc current, the amplitude of the high-frequency signal) as well-defined structures with multiple local maxima at higher harmonics of the low-frequency signal. Such structures appear due to a strong suppression of higher harmonics for certain values of the high-frequency amplitude and the dc current. Complexity of the structures and the total number of the local maxima depend on the harmonic order k . The behavior of nonlinear distortion factor is also studied. The experimental results are in a good agreement with the numerical results which were obtained in the model of the bistable overdamped oscillator with biharmonic excitation.
Impact of higher-order modes on parameter recovery from binary black hole coalescences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pekowsky, Larne
2014-03-01
Thus far modeled searches for the gravitational waves produced by the coalescence of compact binaries have used templates that include only the 2,2 mode. However, it is known that there can be significant power in higher-order modes - indeed there are parameters for which these modes become dominant. Numerical relativity can now produce waveforms that are accurate though late inspiral, merger, and ringdown including many higher-order modes. We present recent work using waveforms produced at Georgia Tech to determine how the inclusion of higher modes in model waveforms can increase the accuracy with which the parameters of the system can be recovered from a detected signal in Advanced LIGO. We consider a variety of binary black hole systems, including systems that precess.
Generalized quantum kinetic expansion: Higher-order corrections to multichromophoric Förster theory
Wu, Jianlan Gong, Zhihao; Tang, Zhoufei
2015-08-21
For a general two-cluster energy transfer network, a new methodology of the generalized quantum kinetic expansion (GQKE) method is developed, which predicts an exact time-convolution equation for the cluster population evolution under the initial condition of the local cluster equilibrium state. The cluster-to-cluster rate kernel is expanded over the inter-cluster couplings. The lowest second-order GQKE rate recovers the multichromophoric Förster theory (MCFT) rate. The higher-order corrections to the MCFT rate are systematically included using the continued fraction resummation form, resulting in the resummed GQKE method. The reliability of the GQKE methodology is verified in two model systems, revealing the relevance of higher-order corrections.
Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.
Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen
2014-11-01
Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25277626
Spur-Reduced Digital Sinusoid Generation Using Higher-Order Phase Dithering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flanagan, M.; Zimmerman, G.
1993-01-01
A higher-order phase dithering technique that reduces the complexity of digital sinusoid generation is presented and analyzed. M(sup th) order phase dithering denotes the addition of M independent, uniform variates to the sinusoid phase prior to word-length reduction. Spurious magnitudes due to quantization effects are accelerated from the usual -6 dBc per phase bit to -6(M + 1) dBc per phase bit, while the noise power increases linearly in M. For a given spurious specification, higher-order phase dithering permits the use of fewer phase bits than the non-dithered system, resulting in an exponential reduction in look-up table size, dramatically decreasing system complexity.
Generalized quantum kinetic expansion: Higher-order corrections to multichromophoric Förster theory.
Wu, Jianlan; Gong, Zhihao; Tang, Zhoufei
2015-08-21
For a general two-cluster energy transfer network, a new methodology of the generalized quantum kinetic expansion (GQKE) method is developed, which predicts an exact time-convolution equation for the cluster population evolution under the initial condition of the local cluster equilibrium state. The cluster-to-cluster rate kernel is expanded over the inter-cluster couplings. The lowest second-order GQKE rate recovers the multichromophoric Förster theory (MCFT) rate. The higher-order corrections to the MCFT rate are systematically included using the continued fraction resummation form, resulting in the resummed GQKE method. The reliability of the GQKE methodology is verified in two model systems, revealing the relevance of higher-order corrections.
Collapse for the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation
Achilleos, V.; Diamantidis, S.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Horikis, T. P.; Karachalios, N. I.; Kevrekidis, P. G.
2016-02-01
We examine conditions for finite-time collapse of the solutions of the higher-order nonlinear Schr odinger (NLS) equation incorporating third-order dispersion, self-steepening, linear and nonlinear gain and loss, and Raman scattering; this is a system that appears in many physical contexts as a more realistic generalization of the integrable NLS. By using energy arguments, it is found that the collapse dynamics is chiefly controlled by the linear/nonlinear gain/loss strengths. We identify a critical value of the linear gain, separating the possible decay of solutions to the trivial zero-state, from collapse. The numerical simulations, performed for a wide class of initial data,more » are found to be in very good agreement with the analytical results, and reveal long-time stability properties of localized solutions. The role of the higher-order effects to the transient dynamics is also revealed in these simulations.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jinsha; Li, Junmin
2016-07-01
In this paper, the adaptive fuzzy iterative learning control scheme is proposed for coordination problems of Mth order (M ≥ 2) distributed multi-agent systems. Every follower agent has a higher order integrator with unknown nonlinear dynamics and input disturbance. The dynamics of the leader are a higher order nonlinear systems and only available to a portion of the follower agents. With distributed initial state learning, the unified distributed protocols combined time-domain and iteration-domain adaptive laws guarantee that the follower agents track the leader uniformly on [0, T]. Then, the proposed algorithm extends to achieve the formation control. A numerical example and a multiple robotic system are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.
Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.
Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen
2014-11-01
Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm.
Higher-dimensional thin-shell wormholes in third-order Lovelock gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Zangeneh, Mahdi Kord; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2015-08-01
In this paper, we explore asymptotically flat charged thin-shell wormholes of third order Lovelock gravity in higher dimensions, taking into account the cut-and-paste technique. Using the generalized junction conditions, we determine the energy-momentum tensor of these solutions on the shell, and explore the issue of the energy conditions and the amount of normal matter that supports these thin-shell wormholes. Our analysis shows that for negative second-order and positive third-order Lovelock coefficients, there are thin-shell wormhole solutions that respect the weak energy condition. In this case, the amount of normal matter increases as the third-order Lovelock coefficient decreases. We also find novel solutions which possess specific regions where the energy conditions are satisfied for the case of a positive second-order and negative third-order Lovelock coefficients. Finally, a linear stability analysis in higher dimensions around the static solutions is carried out. Considering a specific cold equation of state, we find a wide range of stability regions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang-Wu; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Xiao-Xia; Luo, Wen-Feng
2014-10-01
In this paper we study the higher-order differential variational principle and differential equations of motion for mechanical systems in event space. Based on the higher-order d'Alembert principle of the system, the higher-order velocity energy and the higher-order acceleration energy of the system in event space are defined, the higher-order d'Alembert—Lagrange principle of the system in event space is established, and the parametric forms of Euler—Lagrange, Nielsen and Appell for this principle are given. Finally, the higher-order differential equations of motion for holonomic systems in event space are obtained.
Modulational instability in metamaterials with saturable nonlinearity and higher-order dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latchio Tiofack, C. G.; Mohamadou, Alidou; HASH(0x2fc74c8), Alim; Porsezian, K.; Kofane, Timoleon C.
2012-06-01
Modulational instability (MI) in negative refractive metamaterials with saturable nonlinearity, fourth-order dispersion (FOD), and second-order nonlinear dispersion (SOND) is investigated by using standard linear stability analysis and the Drude electromagnetic model. The expression for the MI gain spectrum is obtained, which clearly reveals the influence of the saturation of the nonlinearity, FOD, and SOND parameters on the temporal MI. The evolution of the MI in negative refractive metamaterials is numerically investigated. Special attention is paid to study the effects of the higher-order dispersion terms on the formation and evolution of the solitons induced by MI. It is shown that as the third-order dispersion term increases, the solitons travel toward the right. Moreover, the magnitude of the FOD term influences considerably the number of wave trains induced by MI.
Higher-order wavelet reconstruction/differentiation filters and Gibbs phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombardini, Richard; Acevedo, Ramiro; Kuczala, Alexander; Keys, Kerry P.; Goodrich, Carl P.; Johnson, Bruce R.
2016-01-01
An orthogonal wavelet basis is characterized by its approximation order, which relates to the ability of the basis to represent general smooth functions on a given scale. It is known, though perhaps not widely known, that there are ways of exceeding the approximation order, i.e., achieving higher-order error in the discretized wavelet transform and its inverse. The focus here is on the development of a practical formulation to accomplish this first for 1D smooth functions, then for 1D functions with discontinuities and then for multidimensional (here 2D) functions with discontinuities. It is shown how to transcend both the wavelet approximation order and the 2D Gibbs phenomenon in representing electromagnetic fields at discontinuous dielectric interfaces that do not simply follow the wavelet-basis grid.
Symbolic Algebra Development for Higher-Order Electron Propagator Formulation and Implementation.
Tamayo-Mendoza, Teresa; Flores-Moreno, Roberto
2014-06-10
Through the use of symbolic algebra, implemented in a program, the algebraic expression of the elements of the self-energy matrix for the electron propagator to different orders were obtained. In addition, a module for the software package Lowdin was automatically generated. Second- and third-order electron propagator results have been calculated to test the correct operation of the program. It was found that the Fortran 90 modules obtained automatically with our algorithm succeeded in calculating ionization energies with the second- and third-order electron propagator in the diagonal approximation. The strategy for the development of this symbolic algebra program is described in detail. This represents a solid starting point for the automatic derivation and implementation of higher-order electron propagator methods.
Symbolic Algebra Development for Higher-Order Electron Propagator Formulation and Implementation.
Tamayo-Mendoza, Teresa; Flores-Moreno, Roberto
2014-06-10
Through the use of symbolic algebra, implemented in a program, the algebraic expression of the elements of the self-energy matrix for the electron propagator to different orders were obtained. In addition, a module for the software package Lowdin was automatically generated. Second- and third-order electron propagator results have been calculated to test the correct operation of the program. It was found that the Fortran 90 modules obtained automatically with our algorithm succeeded in calculating ionization energies with the second- and third-order electron propagator in the diagonal approximation. The strategy for the development of this symbolic algebra program is described in detail. This represents a solid starting point for the automatic derivation and implementation of higher-order electron propagator methods. PMID:26580756
Budyak, Ivan L; Doyle, Brandon L; Weiss, William F
2015-04-01
Robust higher order structure (HOS) characterization capability and strategy are critical throughout biopharmaceutical development from initial candidate selection and formulation screening to process optimization and manufacturing. This case study describes the utility of several orthogonal HOS methods as investigational tools during purification process development. An atypically high level of residual detergent in a development drug substance batch of a therapeutic monoclonal antibody triggered a root cause investigation. Several orthogonal biophysical techniques were used to uncover and characterize a specific interaction between the detergent and the antibody. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to quantify the molar ratio and affinity of the binding event, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to evaluate corresponding impacts on secondary/tertiary structure and thermal stability, respectively. As detergents are used routinely in biopharmaceutical processing, this case study highlights the value and power of HOS data in informing technical investigations and underlines the importance of HOS characterization as a component of overall biopharmaceutical analytical control strategy.
Gruia, Flaviu; Du, Jiali; Santacroce, Paul V; Remmele, Richard L; Bee, Jared S
2015-04-01
Changes in formulation may be required during the development of protein therapeutics. Some of the changes may alter the protein higher order structure (HOS). In this note, we show how the change from a trehalose-based formulation to an arginine-based formulation concomitantly impacted the tertiary structure and the thermal stability of a mAb (mAb1). The secondary structure was not disrupted by the formulation change. The destabilization of the tertiary structure did not affect the long-term stability or the bioactivity of mAb1. This indicates that loss of conformational stability was likely compensated by improvements in the colloidal stability of mAb1 in the arginine-based formulation. The formulation-induced changes in HOS were reversible as proven by measurements after dilution in a common buffer (phosphate-buffered saline). For aggregation driven by assembly of aggregates (colloidally limited), small changes in conformational structure and stability as measured by HOS methods may not necessarily be predictive of long-term stability.
Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M
2013-01-01
This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholtes, Ingo; Wider, Nicolas; Garas, Antonios
2016-03-01
Despite recent advances in the study of temporal networks, the analysis of time-stamped network data is still a fundamental challenge. In particular, recent studies have shown that correlations in the ordering of links crucially alter causal topologies of temporal networks, thus invalidating analyses based on static, time-aggregated representations of time-stamped data. These findings not only highlight an important dimension of complexity in temporal networks, but also call for new network-analytic methods suitable to analyze complex systems with time-varying topologies. Addressing this open challenge, here we introduce a novel framework for the study of path-based centralities in temporal networks. Studying betweenness, closeness and reach centrality, we first show than an application of these measures to time-aggregated, static representations of temporal networks yields misleading results about the actual importance of nodes. To overcome this problem, we define path-based centralities in higher-order aggregate networks, a recently proposed generalization of the commonly used static representation of time-stamped data. Using data on six empirical temporal networks, we show that the resulting higher-order measures better capture the true, temporal centralities of nodes. Our results demonstrate that higher-order aggregate networks constitute a powerful abstraction, with broad perspectives for the design of new, computationally efficient data mining techniques for time-stamped relational data.
Electroweak higher-order effects and theoretical uncertainties in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering
Diener, K.-P.O.; Dittmaier, S.; Hollik, W.
2005-11-01
A previous calculation of electroweak O({alpha}) corrections to deep-inelastic neutrino scattering, as e.g. measured by NuTeV and NOMAD, is supplemented by higher-order effects. In detail, we take into account universal two-loop effects from {delta}{alpha} and {delta}{rho} as well as higher-order final-state photon radiation off muons in the structure function approach. Moreover, we make use of the recently released O({alpha})-improved parton distributions MRST2004QED and identify the relevant QED factorization scheme, which is DIS-like. As a technical by-product, we describe slicing and subtraction techniques for an efficient calculation of a new type of real corrections that are induced by the generated photon distribution. A numerical discussion of the higher-order effects suggests that the remaining theoretical uncertainty from unknown electroweak corrections is dominated by nonuniversal two-loop effects and is of the order 0.0003 when translated into a shift in sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub W}=1-M{sub W}{sup 2}/M{sub Z}{sup 2}. The O({alpha}) corrections implicitly included in the parton distributions lead to a shift of about 0.0004.
Higher-order neural network software for distortion invariant object recognition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly
1991-01-01
The state-of-the-art in pattern recognition for such applications as automatic target recognition and industrial robotic vision relies on digital image processing. We present a higher-order neural network model and software which performs the complete feature extraction-pattern classification paradigm required for automatic pattern recognition. Using a third-order neural network, we demonstrate complete, 100 percent accurate invariance to distortions of scale, position, and in-plate rotation. In a higher-order neural network, feature extraction is built into the network, and does not have to be learned. Only the relatively simple classification step must be learned. This is key to achieving very rapid training. The training set is much smaller than with standard neural network software because the higher-order network only has to be shown one view of each object to be learned, not every possible view. The software and graphical user interface run on any Sun workstation. Results of the use of the neural software in autonomous robotic vision systems are presented. Such a system could have extensive application in robotic manufacturing.
A Frank mixture copula family for modeling higher-order correlations of neural spike counts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onken, Arno; Obermayer, Klaus
2009-12-01
In order to evaluate the importance of higher-order correlations in neural spike count codes, flexible statistical models of dependent multivariate spike counts are required. Copula families, parametric multivariate distributions that represent dependencies, can be applied to construct such models. We introduce the Frank mixture family as a new copula family that has separate parameters for all pairwise and higher-order correlations. In contrast to the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern copula family that shares this property, the Frank mixture copula can model strong correlations. We apply spike count models based on the Frank mixture copula to data generated by a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons and compare the goodness of fit to distributions based on the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern family. Finally, we evaluate the importance of using proper single neuron spike count distributions on the Shannon information. We find notable deviations in the entropy that increase with decreasing firing rates. Moreover, we find that the Frank mixture family increases the log likelihood of the fit significantly compared to the Farlie-Gumbel-Morgenstern family. This shows that the Frank mixture copula is a useful tool to assess the importance of higher-order correlations in spike count codes.
Wang, X Y; Wang, J B; Qiu, B B; Hu, L F
2015-12-01
Based on the proposed higher order gradient quasi-continuum model, the numerical investigations of the basic mechanical properties and deformation behaviors of human red blood cell (RBC) membrane under large deformation at room temperature (i.e., 300 K) are carried out in the present paper. The results show that RBC membrane is a nonlinear hyperelastic material. The mechanical properties of RBC membrane is dominated by isotropic nature at the stage of initial deformation, however, its anisotropic material properties emerge clearly with the loading increasing. The out-of-plane wrinkling of RBC membrane upon shear loading can be reproduced numerically. With the use of the so-called higher order Cauchy-Born rule as the kinematic description, the bending stiffness of RBC membrane can be considered conveniently.
Higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger equations for simulations of surface wavetrains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slunyaev, Alexey
2016-04-01
Numerous recent results of numerical and laboratory simulations of waves on the water surface claim that solutions of the weakly nonlinear theory for weakly modulated waves in many cases allow a smooth generalization to the conditions of strong nonlinearity and dispersion, even when the 'envelope' is difficult to determine. The conditionally 'strongly nonlinear' high-order asymptotic equations still imply the smallness of the parameter employed in the asymptotic series. Thus at some (unknown a priori) level of nonlinearity and / or dispersion the asymptotic theory breaks down; then the higher-order corrections become useless and may even make the description worse. In this paper we use the higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation, derived in [1] (the fifth-order NLS equation, or next-order beyond the classic Dysthe equation [2]), for simulations of modulated deep-water wave trains, which attain very large steepness (below or beyond the breaking limit) due to the Benjamin - Feir instability. The results are compared with fully nonlinear simulations of the potential Euler equations as well as with the weakly nonlinear theories represented by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the classic Dysthe equation with full linear dispersion [2]. We show that the next-order Dysthe equation can significantly improve the description of strongly nonlinear wave dynamics compared with the lower-order asymptotic models. [1] A.V. Slunyaev, A high-order nonlinear envelope equation for gravity waves in finite-depth water. JETP 101, 926-941 (2005). [2] K. Trulsen, K.B. Dysthe, A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation for broader bandwidth gravity waves on deep water. Wave Motion 24, 281-289 (1996).
Higher-order contributions to transport coefficients in two-temperature hydrogen thermal plasma
Sharma, Rohit; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Kuldip
2011-06-15
Within the framework of Chapman-Enskog method, electron transport properties and their higher-order contributions have been studied in temperature range 5000-40 000 K at different pressures for hydrogen thermal plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) regimes. Two cases of thermal plasma have been considered: (i) Ground state (GS) plasma in which all atomic hydrogen has been assumed to be in ground state and (ii) the excited state (ES) plasma in which hydrogen atoms are distributed in various possible electronically excited states (EES). The plasma composition is calculated by modified Saha equation of van de Sanden et al. The influence of non-equilibrium parameter {theta} (=T{sub e}/T{sub h}) on these properties has been examined in both the cases. It has been observed that both EES and {theta} modify the plasma composition and consequently affect the electron transport properties (viz., electron thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, thermal diffusion and thermal diffusion ratio). It is shown that non-equilibrium parameter {theta} has meager effect on the higher-order convergence in comparison to EES. The unique behaviour observed for third-order contribution to these transport properties in GS plasma for small values of {theta} could be explained only when EES are taken into account. It is noted that EES show their influence on higher-orders to a considerable extent even when e-H(n) cross-sections are replaced by the ground state ones. Thus electron transport coefficients and their higher-order contributions are affected significantly due to inclusion of EES in LTE and NLTE plasmas.
Collapse of higher-order solute concentration moments in groundwater transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srzic, Veljko; Andricevic, Roko; Gotovac, Hrvoje; Cvetkovic, Vladimir
2013-08-01
In this paper, we use numerical simulations based on a Lagrangian framework to study contaminant transport through highly heterogeneous porous media due to advection and local diffusion (under local diffusion, we assume coupled effect of mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion). The analysis of the concentration field is done for the case of a two-dimensional hydraulic conductivity domain representing the aquifer, with three log-conductivity structures that differ in spatial correlation. In addition to different conductivity structures, we focus our investigation on mild and highly heterogeneous porous media characterized by the values of hydraulic log-conductivity variance >(σY2>) being equal to 1 and 8. In the concentration moment analysis, we show that a linear relationship exists between higher-order to second-order normalized concentration moments on a log-log scale up to the fourth-order moment. This leads to the important finding that moments of a higher than the second order can be derived based on information about the first two concentration moments only. Such a property has been observed previously for boundary-layer water channels, wind tunnels, and turbulent diffusion in open terrain and laboratory experiments. Normalized moments are shown to collapse for different types of hydraulic conductivity structures, Peclet (Pe) numbers and σY2 values. In the case of local diffusion absence, a linear log-log relationship is derived analytically and is set as a lower limit. The deviation from the lower limit is explained to be predominantly caused by the local diffusion, which needs time to evolve. In the case of local diffusion presence, we define the moment deriving function (MDF) to describe the linear log-log relationship between higher-order concentration moments to the second-order normalized one. Finally, the comparison between numerical results and those obtained from the Columbus Air Force Base Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE 1) is used to
Efficient Reformulation of the Thermoelastic Higher-order Theory for Fgms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bansal, Yogesh; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are characterized by spatially variable microstructures which are introduced to satisfy given performance requirements. The microstructural gradation gives rise to continuously or discretely changing material properties which complicate FGM analysis. Various techniques have been developed during the past several decades for analyzing traditional composites and many of these have been adapted for the analysis of FGMs. Most of the available techniques use the so-called uncoupled approach in order to analyze graded structures. These techniques ignore the effect of microstructural gradation by employing specific spatial material property variations that are either assumed or obtained by local homogenization. The higher-order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM) is a coupled approach developed by Aboudi et al. (1999) which takes the effect of microstructural gradation into consideration and does not ignore the local-global interaction of the spatially variable inclusion phase(s). Despite its demonstrated utility, however, the original formulation of the higher-order theory is computationally intensive. Herein, an efficient reformulation of the original higher-order theory for two-dimensional elastic problems is developed and validated. The use of the local-global conductivity and local-global stiffness matrix approach is made in order to reduce the number of equations involved. In this approach, surface-averaged quantities are the primary variables which replace volume-averaged quantities employed in the original formulation. The reformulation decreases the size of the global conductivity and stiffness matrices by approximately sixty percent. Various thermal, mechanical, and combined thermomechanical problems are analyzed in order to validate the accuracy of the reformulated theory through comparison with analytical and finite-element solutions. The presented results illustrate the efficiency of the reformulation and its
In Vivo Generalized Diffusion Tensor Imaging (GDTI) Using Higher-Order Tensors (HOT)
Liu, Chunlei; Mang, Sarah C.; Moseley, Michael E.
2009-01-01
Generalized diffusion tensor imaging (GDTI) using higher order tensor statistics (HOT) generalizes the technique of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) by including the effect of non-Gaussian diffusion on the signal of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In GDTI-HOT, the effect of non-Gaussian diffusion is characterized by higher order tensor statistics (i.e. the cumulant tensors or the moment tensors) such as the covariance matrix (the second-order cumulant tensor), the skewness tensor (the third-order cumulant tensor) and the kurtosis tensor (the fourth-order cumulant tensor) etc. Previously, Monte Carlo simulations have been applied to verify the validity of this technique in reconstructing complicated fiber structures. However, no in vivo implementation of GDTI-HOT has been reported. The primary goal of this study is to establish GDTI-HOT as a feasible in vivo technique for imaging non-Gaussian diffusion. We show that probability distribution function (PDF) of the molecular diffusion process can be measured in vivo with GDTI-HOT and be visualized with 3D glyphs. By comparing GDTI-HOT to fiber structures that are revealed by the highest resolution DWI possible in vivo, we show that the GDTI-HOT can accurately predict multiple fiber orientations within one white matter voxel. Furthermore, through bootstrap analysis we demonstrate that in vivo measurement of HOT elements is reproducible with a small statistical variation that is similar to that of DTI. PMID:19953513
Higher Order, Hybrid BEM/FEM Methods Applied to Antenna Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fink, P. W.; Wilton, D. R.; Dobbins, J. A.
2002-01-01
In this presentation, the authors address topics relevant to higher order modeling using hybrid BEM/FEM formulations. The first of these is the limitation on convergence rates imposed by geometric modeling errors in the analysis of scattering by a dielectric sphere. The second topic is the application of an Incomplete LU Threshold (ILUT) preconditioner to solve the linear system resulting from the BEM/FEM formulation. The final tOpic is the application of the higher order BEM/FEM formulation to antenna modeling problems. The authors have previously presented work on the benefits of higher order modeling. To achieve these benefits, special attention is required in the integration of singular and near-singular terms arising in the surface integral equation. Several methods for handling these terms have been presented. It is also well known that achieving he high rates of convergence afforded by higher order bases may als'o require the employment of higher order geometry models. A number of publications have described the use of quadratic elements to model curved surfaces. The authors have shown in an EFIE formulation, applied to scattering by a PEC .sphere, that quadratic order elements may be insufficient to prevent the domination of modeling errors. In fact, on a PEC sphere with radius r = 0.58 Lambda(sub 0), a quartic order geometry representation was required to obtain a convergence benefi.t from quadratic bases when compared to the convergence rate achieved with linear bases. Initial trials indicate that, for a dielectric sphere of the same radius, - requirements on the geometry model are not as severe as for the PEC sphere. The authors will present convergence results for higher order bases as a function of the geometry model order in the hybrid BEM/FEM formulation applied to dielectric spheres. It is well known that the system matrix resulting from the hybrid BEM/FEM formulation is ill -conditioned. For many real applications, a good preconditioner is required
Violation of no-signaling in higher-order quantum measure theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Karthik S.; Srikanth, R.; Sinha, Urbasi
2016-08-01
More general probability sum-rules for describing interference found in quantum mechanics (QM) were formulated by Sorkin in a hierarchy of such rules. The additivity of classical measure theory corresponds to the second sum-rule. QM violates this rule, but satisfies the third and higher sum-rules. This evokes the question of whether there are physical principles that forbid their violation. We show that in a theory that is indistinguishable from quantum mechanics in first and second-order interferences, the violation of higher sum-rules allows for superluminal signaling, essentially because probability measures can be contextual in such theories.
Quantum Enhancement of Higher-Order Phononlike Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate
Rowen, E. E.; Bar-Gill, N.; Davidson, N.
2008-07-04
In a Bose-Einstein condensate, the excitation of a Bogoliubov phonon with low momentum (e.g., by a two-photon Bragg process) is strongly suppressed due to destructive interference between two indistinguishable excitation pathways. Here we show that scattering of this sound excitation into a double-momentum mode is strongly enhanced due to constructive interference. This enhancement yields an inherent amplification of second-order sound excitations of the condensate, as we confirm experimentally. We further show that due to parity considerations, this effect is extended to higher-order excitations.
Exotic quantum holonomy and higher-order exceptional points in quantum kicked tops.
Tanaka, Atushi; Kim, Sang Wook; Cheon, Taksu
2014-04-01
The correspondence between exotic quantum holonomy, which occurs in families of Hermitian cycles, and exceptional points (EPs) for non-Hermitian quantum theory is examined in quantum kicked tops. Under a suitable condition, an explicit expression of the adiabatic parameter dependencies of quasienergies and stationary states, which exhibit anholonomies, is obtained. It is also shown that the quantum kicked tops with the complexified adiabatic parameter have a higher-order EP, which is broken into lower-order EPs with the application of small perturbations. The stability of exotic holonomy against such bifurcation is demonstrated.
Generation of arbitrary cylindrical vector beams on the higher order Poincaré sphere.
Chen, Shizhen; Zhou, Xinxing; Liu, Yachao; Ling, Xiaohui; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2014-09-15
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel interferometric approach to generate arbitrary cylindrical vector beams on the higher order Poincaré sphere (HOPS). Our scheme is implemented by collinear superposition of two orthogonal circular polarizations with opposite topological charges. By modifying the amplitude and phase factors of the two beams, respectively, any desired vector beams on the HOPS with high tunability can be acquired. Our research provides a convenient way to evolve the polarization states in any path on the high order Poincaré sphere. PMID:26466249
Strong higher-order resonant contributions to x-ray line polarization in hot plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shah, Chintan; Amaro, Pedro; Steinbrügge, Rene; Beilmann, Christian; Bernitt, Sven; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; Crespo López-Urrutia, José R.; Tashenov, Stanislav
2016-06-01
We studied angular distributions of x rays emitted in resonant recombination of highly charged iron and krypton ions, resolving dielectronic, trielectronic, and quadruelectronic channels. A tunable electron beam drove these processes, inducing x rays registered by two detectors mounted along and perpendicular to the beam axis. The measured emission asymmetries comprehensively benchmarked full-order atomic calculations. We conclude that accurate polarization diagnostics of hot plasmas can only be obtained under the premise of inclusion of higher-order processes that were neglected in earlier work.
Strong higher-order resonant contributions to x-ray line polarization in hot plasmas.
Shah, Chintan; Amaro, Pedro; Steinbrügge, Rene; Beilmann, Christian; Bernitt, Sven; Fritzsche, Stephan; Surzhykov, Andrey; Crespo López-Urrutia, José R; Tashenov, Stanislav
2016-06-01
We studied angular distributions of x rays emitted in resonant recombination of highly charged iron and krypton ions, resolving dielectronic, trielectronic, and quadruelectronic channels. A tunable electron beam drove these processes, inducing x rays registered by two detectors mounted along and perpendicular to the beam axis. The measured emission asymmetries comprehensively benchmarked full-order atomic calculations. We conclude that accurate polarization diagnostics of hot plasmas can only be obtained under the premise of inclusion of higher-order processes that were neglected in earlier work. PMID:27415199
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhras, G.; Cheung, M. S.; Li, W.
1994-08-01
In the present study, a finite strip method for the elastic analysis of anisotropic laminated composite plates is developed according to higher-order shear deformation theory. This theory accounts for the parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains through the thickness of the plate and for zero transverse shear stresses on the plate surfaces. In comparison with the finite strip method based on first-order shear deformation theory, the present method gives improved results while using approximately the same number of degrees of freedom. It also eliminates the need for shear correction factors in calculating the transverse shear stiffness.
Machida, Shinichi; Takaku, Motoki; Ikura, Masae; Sun, Jiying; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Wataru; Kinomura, Aiko; Osakabe, Akihisa; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Horikoshi, Yasunori; Fukuto, Atsuhiko; Matsuda, Ryo; Ura, Kiyoe; Tashiro, Satoshi; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi
2014-01-01
Homologous recombination plays essential roles in mitotic DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and meiotic genetic recombination. In eukaryotes, RAD51 promotes the central homologous-pairing step during homologous recombination, but is not sufficient to overcome the reaction barrier imposed by nucleosomes. RAD54, a member of the ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor family, is required to promote the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing in nucleosomal DNA. In higher eukaryotes, most nucleosomes form higher-ordered chromatin containing the linker histone H1. However, the mechanism by which RAD51/RAD54-mediated homologous pairing occurs in higher-ordered chromatin has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that a histone chaperone, Nap1, accumulates on DSB sites in human cells, and DSB repair is substantially decreased in Nap1-knockdown cells. We determined that Nap1 binds to RAD54, enhances the RAD54-mediated nucleosome remodeling by evicting histone H1, and eventually stimulates the RAD51-mediated homologous pairing in higher-ordered chromatin containing histone H1. PMID:24798879
A higher-order numerical framework for stochastic simulation of chemical reaction systems
2012-01-01
Background In this paper, we present a framework for improving the accuracy of fixed-step methods for Monte Carlo simulation of discrete stochastic chemical kinetics. Stochasticity is ubiquitous in many areas of cell biology, for example in gene regulation, biochemical cascades and cell-cell interaction. However most discrete stochastic simulation techniques are slow. We apply Richardson extrapolation to the moments of three fixed-step methods, the Euler, midpoint and θ-trapezoidal τ-leap methods, to demonstrate the power of stochastic extrapolation. The extrapolation framework can increase the order of convergence of any fixed-step discrete stochastic solver and is very easy to implement; the only condition for its use is knowledge of the appropriate terms of the global error expansion of the solver in terms of its stepsize. In practical terms, a higher-order method with a larger stepsize can achieve the same level of accuracy as a lower-order method with a smaller one, potentially reducing the computational time of the system. Results By obtaining a global error expansion for a general weak first-order method, we prove that extrapolation can increase the weak order of convergence for the moments of the Euler and the midpoint τ-leap methods, from one to two. This is supported by numerical simulations of several chemical systems of biological importance using the Euler, midpoint and θ-trapezoidal τ-leap methods. In almost all cases, extrapolation results in an improvement of accuracy. As in the case of ordinary and stochastic differential equations, extrapolation can be repeated to obtain even higher-order approximations. Conclusions Extrapolation is a general framework for increasing the order of accuracy of any fixed-step stochastic solver. This enables the simulation of complicated systems in less time, allowing for more realistic biochemical problems to be solved. PMID:23256696
Novel asymmetric representation method for solving the higher-order Ginzburg-Landau equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Pring; Pang, Lihui; Wu, Ye; Lei, Ming; Liu, Wenjun
2016-04-01
In ultrafast optics, optical pulses are generated to be of shorter pulse duration, which has enormous significance to industrial applications and scientific research. The ultrashort pulse evolution in fiber lasers can be described by the higher-order Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation. However, analytic soliton solutions for this equation have not been obtained by use of existing methods. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to deal with this equation. The analytic soliton solution is obtained for the first time, and is proved to be stable against amplitude perturbations. Through the split-step Fourier method, the bright soliton solution is studied numerically. The analytic results here may extend the integrable methods, and could be used to study soliton dynamics for some equations in other disciplines. It may also provide the other way to obtain two-soliton solutions for higher-order GL equations.
Novel asymmetric representation method for solving the higher-order Ginzburg-Landau equation
Wong, Pring; Pang, Lihui; Wu, Ye; Lei, Ming; Liu, Wenjun
2016-01-01
In ultrafast optics, optical pulses are generated to be of shorter pulse duration, which has enormous significance to industrial applications and scientific research. The ultrashort pulse evolution in fiber lasers can be described by the higher-order Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation. However, analytic soliton solutions for this equation have not been obtained by use of existing methods. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to deal with this equation. The analytic soliton solution is obtained for the first time, and is proved to be stable against amplitude perturbations. Through the split-step Fourier method, the bright soliton solution is studied numerically. The analytic results here may extend the integrable methods, and could be used to study soliton dynamics for some equations in other disciplines. It may also provide the other way to obtain two-soliton solutions for higher-order GL equations. PMID:27086841
Higher-Order Laguerre-Gauss Mode Generation and Interferometry for Gravitational Wave Detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granata, M.; Buy, C.; Ward, R.; Barsuglia, M.
2010-12-01
We report on the first experimental demonstration of higher-order Laguerre-Gauss (LGpℓ) mode generation and interferometry using a method scalable to the requirements of gravitational wave (GW) detection. GW detectors which use higher-order LGpℓ modes will be less susceptible to mirror thermal noise, which is expected to limit the sensitivity of all currently planned terrestrial detectors. We used a diffractive optic and a mode-cleaner cavity to convert a fundamental LG00 Gaussian beam into an LG33 mode with a purity of 98%. The ratio between the power of the LG00 mode of our laser and the power of the LG33 transmitted by the cavity was 36%. By measuring the transmission of our setup using the LG00, we inferred that the conversion efficiency specific to the LG33 mode was 49%. We illuminated a Michelson interferometer with the LG33 beam and achieved a visibility of 97%.
An initial framework for the language of higher-order thinking mathematics practices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staples, Megan E.; Truxaw, Mary P.
2012-09-01
This article presents an examination of the language demands of cognitively demanding tasks and proposes an initial framework for the language demands of higher-order mathematics thinking practices. We articulate four categories for this framework: language of generalisation, language of comparison, language of proportional reasoning, and language of analysing impact. These categories were developed out of our collaborative work to design and implement higher-order thinking tasks with a group of Grade 9 (14- and 15-year-olds) teachers teaching in a linguistically diverse setting; analyses of student work samples on these tasks; and our knowledge of the literature. We describe each type of language demand and then analyse student work in each category to reveal linguistic challenges facing students as they engage these mathematical tasks. Implications for teaching and professional development are discussed.
Controlled generation of higher-order Poincaré sphere beams from a laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naidoo, Darryl; Roux, Filippus S.; Dudley, Angela; Litvin, Igor; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Forbes, Andrew
2016-05-01
The angular momentum of light can be described by positions on a higher-order Poincaré sphere, where superpositions of spin and orbital angular momentum states give rise to laser beams that have many applications, from microscopy to materials processing. Many techniques exist to create such beams but none so far allow their creation at the source. Here we report on a new class of laser that is able to generate all states on the higher-order Poincaré sphere. We exploit geometric phase control inside a laser cavity to map polarization to orbital angular momentum, demonstrating that the orbital angular momentum degeneracy of a standard laser cavity may be broken, producing pure orbital angular momentum beams, and that generalized vector vortex beams may be created with high purity at the source. This work paves the way to new lasers for structured light based on intracavity geometric phase control.
The post-mitotic state in neurons correlates with a stable nuclear higher-order structure.
Aranda-Anzaldo, Armando
2012-03-01
Neurons become terminally differentiated (TD) post-mitotic cells very early during development yet they may remain alive and functional for decades. TD neurons preserve the molecular machinery necessary for DNA synthesis that may be reactivated by different stimuli but they never complete a successful mitosis. The non-reversible nature of the post-mitotic state in neurons suggests a non-genetic basis for it since no set of mutations has been able to revert it. Comparative studies of the nuclear higher-order structure in neurons and cells with proliferating potential suggest that the non-reversible nature of the post-mitotic state in neurons has a structural basis in the stability of the nuclear higher-order structure. PMID:22808316
Priority setting in health care and higher order degree change in risk.
Courbage, Christophe; Rey, Béatrice
2012-05-01
This paper examines how priority setting in health care expenditures is influenced by the presence of uncertainty about the severity of the illness and the effectiveness of medical treatment. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions on social preferences under which a social planner will allocate more health care resources to populations at higher risk. Changes in risk are defined by the concept of stochastic dominance up to order n. The shape of the social utility function and an equity weighting function are used to model the inequality aversion of the social planner. We show that for higher order risk changes, the usual conditions on preferences such as prudence or relative risk aversion are not necessarily required to prioritise health care when there are different levels of uncertainty associated with otherwise similar patient groups.
Acoustic properties of multiple cavity resonance liner for absorbing higher-order duct modes.
Zhou, Di; Wang, Xiaoyu; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng
2016-08-01
This paper describes analytical and experimental studies conducted to investigate the acoustic properties of axially non-uniform multiple cavity resonance liner for absorbing higher-order duct modes. A three-dimensional analytical model is proposed based upon transfer element method. The model is assessed by making a comparison with results of a liner performance experiment concerning higher-order modes propagation, and the agreement is good. According to the present results, it is found that the performance of multiple cavity resonance liner is related to the incident sound waves. Moreover, an analysis of the corresponding response of liner perforated panel-cavity system is performed, in which the features of resonance frequency and dissipation of the system under grazing or oblique incidence condition are revealed. The conclusions can be extended to typical non-locally reacting liners with single large back-cavity, and it would be beneficial for future non-locally reacting liner design to some extent. PMID:27586753
Higher order direct model reference adaptive control with generic uniform ultimate boundedness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maity, Arnab; Höcht, Leonhard; Holzapfel, Florian
2015-10-01
This paper proposes a new higher order model reference adaptive control (HO-MRAC) approach following direct adaptive control philosophy, which estimates unknown time-varying parameters. This approach leads to a Lyapunov based conventional MRAC update law, augmented by an observer type parameter predictor dynamics. The predictor dynamics are composed of a stable known part, a feedback of the parameter error and unknown higher order parameters, which are updated using a Lyapunov based adaptive design. So, this HO-MRAC can cope with rapidly changing parameters, due to estimation of their time derivatives. Moreover, for stability analysis, a Lyapunov based generic ultimate boundedness theorem is presented, which allows for a computation of separate bounds for each state vector partition. Furthermore, this theorem formulates the explicit specification of transient and ultimate bounds, reaching time on the ultimate bounds and a set of admissible initial conditions. Two challenging illustrative examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Perceptual and Neuronal Boundary Learned from Higher-Order Stimulus Probabilities
Köver, Hania; Gill, Kirt; Tseng, Yi-Ting L.; Bao, Shaowen
2013-01-01
During an early epoch of development, the brain is highly adaptive to the stimulus environment. Exposing young animals to a particular tone, for example, leads to an enlarged representation of that tone in primary auditory cortex. While the neural effects of simple tonal environments are well characterized, the principles that guide plasticity in more complex acoustic environments remain unclear. In addition, very little is known about the perceptual consequences of early experience-induced plasticity. To address these questions, we reared juvenile rats in complex multitone environments that differed in terms of the higher-order conditional probabilities between sounds. We found that the development of primary cortical acoustic representations, as well as frequency discrimination ability in adult animals, were shaped by the higher-order stimulus statistics of the early acoustic environment. Our results suggest that early experience-dependent cortical reorganization may mediate perceptual changes through statistical learning of the sensory input. PMID:23426696
Bearing fault identification by higher order energy operator fusion: A non-resonance based approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faghidi, H.; Liang, M.
2016-10-01
We report a non-resonance based approach to bearing fault detection. This is achieved by a higher order energy operator fusion (HOEO_F) method. In this method, multiple higher order energy operators are fused to form a single simple transform to process the bearing signal obscured by noise and vibration interferences. The fusion is guided by entropy minimization. Unlike the popular high frequency resonance technique, this method does not require the information of resonance excited by the bearing fault. The effects of the HOEO_F method on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) are illustrated in this paper. The performance of the proposed method in handling noise and interferences has been examined using both simulated and experimental data. The results indicate that the HOEO_F method outperforms both the envelope method and the original energy operator method.
ANOVA-HDMR structure of the higher order nodal diffusion solution
Bokov, P. M.; Prinsloo, R. H.; Tomasevic, D. I.
2013-07-01
Nodal diffusion methods still represent a standard in global reactor calculations, but employ some ad-hoc approximations (such as the quadratic leakage approximation) which limit their accuracy in cases where reference quality solutions are sought. In this work we solve the nodal diffusion equations utilizing the so-called higher-order nodal methods to generate reference quality solutions and to decompose the obtained solutions via a technique known as High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR). This representation and associated decomposition of the solution provides a new formulation of the transverse leakage term. The HDMR structure is investigated via the technique of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), which indicates why the existing class of transversely-integrated nodal methods prove to be so successful. Furthermore, the analysis leads to a potential solution method for generating reference quality solutions at a much reduced calculational cost, by applying the ANOVA technique to the full higher order solution. (authors)
Precision Measurements of Higher-Order Angular Galaxy. Correlations Using 10 Million SDSS Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, Ashley J.; Brunner, R. J.; Myers, A. D.
2006-06-01
We present estimates of the galaxy, N-point, area-averaged angular correlation functions, ωN(θ),; for N = 2,...,7 from the third data release (DR3) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our sample was constructed from galaxies with r magnitude between 18 and 21, and is currently the largest study of galaxy higher-order correlations. The calculated angular correlation functions are used to measure the projected, sN, and real space, SN, hierarchical amplitudes. Our measurements of the real space amplitudes are remarkably precise over the physical scales 0.2-10 h-1 Mpc, and are consistent with Gaussian primordial density fluctuations. Our measurements also suggest that higher-order galaxy bias is non-negligible. By defining b1 = 1, we find that c2 = -0.26 ± 0.10 and c3 = 1.0 ± 0.9. This is the first reported measurement of a marginally significant third-order bias, and it hints at the importance of even higher-order bias terms. We find early-type galaxies exhibit significantly different clustering than late-types at both small and large scales. At large scales (r > 1 h-1 Mpc), we find the SN for late-type galaxies are lower than for early-types, implying a difference between the higher-order bias of the respective samples. We find b1,early = 1.38 ± 0.10, c2,early = 0.29 ± 0.12, b1,late = 0.81 ± 0.03, and c2,late = -0.68 ± 0.09. This supports recent measurements of the higher-order correlations of infrared-selected galaxies, which found a positive c2, presumably due to the dominance of early-type galaxies in the 2MASS sample (Frith et al. 2005). We have extended our analysis to photometrically-selected quasars in the SDSS DR3, and are planning to leverage future SDSS data releases to make even tighter constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity and non-linear bias components. We acknowledge support from NASA grants NAG5-12578 and NAG5-12580, Microsoft Research, and the NSF PACI Project.
Higher-Order, Space-Time Adaptive Finite Volume Methods: Algorithms, Analysis and Applications
Minion, Michael
2014-04-29
The four main goals outlined in the proposal for this project were: 1. Investigate the use of higher-order (in space and time) finite-volume methods for fluid flow problems. 2. Explore the embedding of iterative temporal methods within traditional block-structured AMR algorithms. 3. Develop parallel in time methods for ODEs and PDEs. 4. Work collaboratively with the Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab towards incorporating new algorithms within existing DOE application codes.
Blowup results for the KGS system with higher order Yukawa coupling
Shi, Qi-Hong; Li, Wan-Tong; Wang, Shu
2015-10-15
In this paper, we investigate the Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger (KGS) system with higher order Yukawa coupling in spatial dimensions N ≥ 3. We establish a perturbed virial type identity and prove blowup results relied on Lyapunov functionals for KGS system with a negative energy level. Additionally, we give a result with respect to the blowup rate in finite time for the radial solution in 3 spatial dimensions.
Extraction and absorption of higher order modes in room temperature accelerators
Rimmer, R.A.
1993-02-01
This paper describes methods for extracting and absorbing unwanted higher-order modes (HOMs) from normal-conducting accelerator structures. An introduction to the problems caused by HOMs is followed by a brief history of the development of techniques to suppress them, and some examples taken from existing and planned accelerators. These include damped radio frequency (RF) cavities for storage rings such as the proposed PEP-II B factory and accelerating structures for future linear collider projects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buranasiri, Prathan
2005-04-01
Using barium titanate as the photorefractive material, we demonstrate phase conjugation, beam coupling, higher diffraction order generation. At small incident angles less than 0.015 radian, both codirectional isotropic self-diffraction (CODIS) and contradirectional isotropic self-diffraction (CONDIS) are generated simultaneously. At bigger incident angles approximately more than 0.2094 radian, only codirectional anisotropic-self diffraction (CODAS) are generated. On going imaging correlation is also showing.
Waist location and Rayleigh range for higher-order mode laser beams
Luxon, J.T.; Parker, D.E.; Karkheck, J.
1984-07-01
Self has presented simple equations for Gaussian-mode laser beams for calculating focused waist location and beam waist magnification in terms of the Rayleigh range. Since the Rayleigh range is a purely geometrical quantity. Self's equations can also be applied to higher-order mode beams. A convenient form of the Rayleigh range for Hermite-Gaussian modes is presented along with representative results for Co/sub 2/ laser industrial processing facilities.
Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian influences on higher-order cognitive functions.
Burke, Tina M; Scheer, Frank A J L; Ronda, Joseph M; Czeisler, Charles A; Wright, Kenneth P
2015-08-01
Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-day-long study that included two 14-day-long 28-h forced desynchrony protocols to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selective visual attention. Cognitive performance for most measures was impaired immediately after scheduled awakening and improved during the first ~2-4 h of wakefulness (decreasing sleep inertia); worsened thereafter until scheduled bedtime (increasing sleep homeostasis); and was worst at ~60° and best at ~240° (circadian modulation, with worst and best phases corresponding to ~09:00 and ~21:00 hours, respectively, in individuals with a habitual wake time of 07:00 hours). The relative influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase depended on the specific higher-order cognitive function task examined. Inhibitory control appeared to be modulated most strongly by circadian phase, whereas selective visual attention for a spatial-configuration search task was modulated most strongly by sleep inertia. These findings demonstrate that some higher-order cognitive processes are differentially sensitive to different sleep-wake regulatory processes. Differential modulation of cognitive functions by different sleep-wake regulatory processes has important implications for understanding mechanisms contributing to performance impairments during adverse circadian phases, sleep deprivation and/or upon awakening from sleep. PMID:25773686
Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian influences on higher-order cognitive functions.
Burke, Tina M; Scheer, Frank A J L; Ronda, Joseph M; Czeisler, Charles A; Wright, Kenneth P
2015-08-01
Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-day-long study that included two 14-day-long 28-h forced desynchrony protocols to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selective visual attention. Cognitive performance for most measures was impaired immediately after scheduled awakening and improved during the first ~2-4 h of wakefulness (decreasing sleep inertia); worsened thereafter until scheduled bedtime (increasing sleep homeostasis); and was worst at ~60° and best at ~240° (circadian modulation, with worst and best phases corresponding to ~09:00 and ~21:00 hours, respectively, in individuals with a habitual wake time of 07:00 hours). The relative influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase depended on the specific higher-order cognitive function task examined. Inhibitory control appeared to be modulated most strongly by circadian phase, whereas selective visual attention for a spatial-configuration search task was modulated most strongly by sleep inertia. These findings demonstrate that some higher-order cognitive processes are differentially sensitive to different sleep-wake regulatory processes. Differential modulation of cognitive functions by different sleep-wake regulatory processes has important implications for understanding mechanisms contributing to performance impairments during adverse circadian phases, sleep deprivation and/or upon awakening from sleep.
A higher-order tangent linear parabolic-equation solution of three-dimensional sound propagation.
Lin, Ying-Tsong
2013-08-01
A higher-order square-root operator splitting algorithm is employed to derive a tangent linear solution for the three-dimensional parabolic wave equation due to small variations of the sound speed in the medium. The solution shown in this paper unifies other solutions obtained from less accurate approximations. Examples of three-dimensional acoustic ducts are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the solution. Future work on the applications of associated adjoint models for acoustic inversions is proposed and discussed.
Analysis of Higher Order Modes Damping Techniques in 9 Cell Cavity with Modified Drift Tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shashkov, Ya. V.; Mitrofanov, A. A.; Sobenin, N. P.; Zvyagintsev, V. L.
Electrodynamic characteristics (EDC) of higher order modes (HOM) were calculated for a superconducting 9-cell accelerating cavity of eLinac accelerator with operating frequency of 1300 MHz. Several HOM damping techniques including damping with grooved, fluted and ridged beam pipes were analyzed and compared. The influence of the parameters of the drift tube on the HOM damping and on the parameters of the fundamental wave was analyzed.
Higher order modes of a 3rd harmonic cavity with an increased end-cup iris
T. Khabibouline; N. Solyak; R. Wanzenberg
2003-05-19
The cavity design for a 3rd harmonic cavity for the TTF 2 photoinjector has been revised to increase the coupling between the main coupler and the cavity cells. The iris radius of the end cup of the cavity has been increased to accomplish a better coupling. The basic rf-parameters and the higher order modes of the modified design are summarized in this report.
Extension of Lieb-Schupp theorem to Heisenberg models with higher-order interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Kengo
2016-10-01
We extend the Lieb-Schupp theorem to Heisenberg models with higher-order interactions on nonfrustrated or frustrated finite lattices. These lattices are constructed by even-numbered rings with or without crossing bonds and have reflection symmetry. The results show that the ground state has total spin zero in wide interaction parameter regions which are not covered by the results of Marshall-Lieb-Mattis-type arguments.
Higher order explicit symmetric integrators for inseparable forms of coordinates and momenta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Lei; Wu, Xin; Huang, Guoqing; Liu, Fuyao
2016-06-01
Pihajoki proposed the extended phase-space second-order explicit symmetric leapfrog methods for inseparable Hamiltonian systems. On the basis of this work, we survey a critical problem on how to mix the variables in the extended phase space. Numerical tests show that sequent permutations of coordinates and momenta can make the leapfrog-like methods yield the most accurate results and the optimal long-term stabilized error behaviour. We also present a novel method to construct many fourth-order extended phase-space explicit symmetric integration schemes. Each scheme represents the symmetric production of six usual second-order leapfrogs without any permutations. This construction consists of four segments: the permuted coordinates, triple product of the usual second-order leapfrog without permutations, the permuted momenta and the triple product of the usual second-order leapfrog without permutations. Similarly, extended phase-space sixth, eighth and other higher order explicit symmetric algorithms are available. We used several inseparable Hamiltonian examples, such as the post-Newtonian approach of non-spinning compact binaries, to show that one of the proposed fourth-order methods is more efficient than the existing methods; examples include the fourth-order explicit symplectic integrators of Chin and the fourth-order explicit and implicit mixed symplectic integrators of Zhong et al. Given a moderate choice for the related mixing and projection maps, the extended phase-space explicit symplectic-like methods are well suited for various inseparable Hamiltonian problems. Samples of these problems involve the algorithmic regularization of gravitational systems with velocity-dependent perturbations in the Solar system and post-Newtonian Hamiltonian formulations of spinning compact objects.
Constructing Higher-Order DNA Nanoarchitectures with Highly Purified DNA Nanocages.
Xing, Shu; Jiang, Dawei; Li, Fan; Li, Jiang; Li, Qian; Huang, Qing; Guo, Linjie; Xia, Jiaoyun; Shi, Jiye; Fan, Chunhai; Zhang, Lan; Wang, Lihua
2015-06-24
DNA nanostructures have attracted great attention due to their precisely controllable geometry and great potential in various areas including bottom-up self-assembly. However, construction of higher-order DNA nanoarchitectures with individual DNA nanostructures is often hampered with the purity and quantity of these "bricks". Here, we introduced size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to prepare highly purified tetrahedral DNA nanocages in large scale and demonstrated that precise quantification of DNA nanocages was the key to the formation of higher-order DNA nanoarchitectures. We successfully purified a series of DNA nanocages with different sizes, including seven DNA tetrahedra with different edge lengths (7, 10, 13, 17, 20, 26, 30 bp) and one trigonal bipyramid with a 20-bp edge. These highly purified and aggregation-free DNA nanocages could be self-assembled into higher-order DNA nanoarchitectures with extraordinarily high yields (98% for dimer and 95% for trimer). As a comparison, unpurified DNA nanocages resulted in low yield of 14% for dimer and 12% for trimer, respectively. AFM images cleraly presented the characteristic structure of monomer, dimer and trimer, impling the purified DNA nanocages well-formed the designed nanoarchitectures. Therefore, we have demonstrated that highly purified DNA nanocages are excellent "bricks" for DNA nanotechnology and show great potential in various applications of DNA nanomaterials.
Impedance Eduction in Ducts with Higher-Order Modes and Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.
2009-01-01
An impedance eduction technique, previously validated for ducts with plane waves at the source and duct termination planes, has been extended to support higher-order modes at these locations. Inputs for this method are the acoustic pressures along the source and duct termination planes, and along a microphone array located in a wall either adjacent or opposite to the test liner. A second impedance eduction technique is then presented that eliminates the need for the microphone array. The integrity of both methods is tested using three sound sources, six Mach numbers, and six selected frequencies. Results are presented for both a hardwall and a test liner (with known impedance) consisting of a perforated plate bonded to a honeycomb core. The primary conclusion of the study is that the second method performs well in the presence of higher-order modes and flow. However, the first method performs poorly when most of the microphones are located near acoustic pressure nulls. The negative effects of the acoustic pressure nulls can be mitigated by a judicious choice of the mode structure in the sound source. The paper closes by using the first impedance eduction method to design a rectangular array of 32 microphones for accurate impedance eduction in the NASA LaRC Curved Duct Test Rig in the presence of expected measurement uncertainties, higher order modes, and mean flow.
Replication of DNA Tetrahedron and Higher-order Self-assembly of DNA Origami
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhe
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been treated as excellent building material for nanoscale construction because of its unique structural features. Its ability to self-assemble into predictable and addressable nanostructures distinguishes it from other materials. A large variety of DNA nanostructures have been constructed, providing scaffolds with nanometer precision to organize functional molecules. This dissertation focuses on developing biologically replicating DNA nanostructures to explore their biocompatibility for potential functions in cells, as well as studying the molecular behaviors of DNA origami tiles in higher-order self-assembly for constructing DNA nanostructures with large size and complexity. Presented here are a series of studies towards this goal. First, a single-stranded DNA tetrahedron was constructed and replicated in vivo with high efficiency and fidelity. This study indicated the compatibility between DNA nanostructures and biological systems, and suggested a feasible low-coast method to scale up the preparation of synthetic DNA. Next, the higher-order self-assembly of DNA origami tiles was systematically studied. It was demonstrated that the dimensional aspect ratio of origami tiles as well as the intertile connection design were essential in determining the assembled superstructures. Finally, the effects of DNA hairpin loops on the conformations of origami tiles as well as the higher-order assembled structures were demonstrated. The results would benefit the design and construction of large complex nanostructures.
Transverse vibrations of shear-deformable beams using a general higher order theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kosmatka, J. B.
1993-01-01
A general higher order theory is developed to study the static and vibrational behavior of beam structures having an arbitrary cross section that utilizes both out-of-plane shear-dependent warping and in-plane (anticlastic) deformations. The equations of motion are derived via Hamilton's principle, where the full 3D constitutive relations are used. A simplified version of the general higher-order theory is also presented for beams having an arbitrary cross section that includes out-of-plane shear deformation but assumes that stresses within the cross section and in-plane deformations are negligible. This simplified model, which is accurate for long to moderately short wavelengths, offers substantial improvements over existing higher order theories that are limited to beams with thin rectangular cross sections. The current approach will be very useful in the study of thin-wall closed-cell beams such as airfoil-type sections where the magnitude of shear-related cross-sectional warping is significant.
Alamia, Andrea; Solopchuk, Oleg; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Van Bever, Violette; Fadiga, Luciano; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre
2016-03-01
Because Broca's area is known to be involved in many cognitive functions, including language, music, and action processing, several attempts have been made to propose a unifying theory of its role that emphasizes a possible contribution to syntactic processing. Recently, we have postulated that Broca's area might be involved in higher-order chunk processing during implicit learning of a motor sequence. Chunking is an information-processing mechanism that consists of grouping consecutive items in a sequence and is likely to be involved in all of the aforementioned cognitive processes. Demonstrating a contribution of Broca's area to chunking during the learning of a nonmotor sequence that does not involve language could shed new light on its function. To address this issue, we used offline MRI-guided TMS in healthy volunteers to disrupt the activity of either the posterior part of Broca's area (left Brodmann's area [BA] 44) or a control site just before participants learned a perceptual sequence structured in distinct hierarchical levels. We found that disruption of the left BA 44 increased the processing time of stimuli representing the boundaries of higher-order chunks and modified the chunking strategy. The current results highlight the possible role of the left BA 44 in building up effector-independent representations of higher-order events in structured sequences. This might clarify the contribution of Broca's area in processing hierarchical structures, a key mechanism in many cognitive functions, such as language and composite actions. PMID:26765778
Howe, George W; Hornberger, Anna P; Weihs, Karen; Moreno, Francisco; Neiderhiser, Jenae M
2012-05-01
Recent work on comorbidity finds evidence for hierarchical structure of mood and anxiety disorders and symptoms. This study tests whether a higher-order internalizing factor accounts for variation in depression and anxiety symptom severity and change over time in a sample experiencing a period of major life stress. Data on symptoms of depression, chronic worry, and social anxiety were collected five times across seven months from 426 individuals who had recently lost jobs. Growth models for each type of symptom found significant variation in individual trajectories. Slopes were highly correlated across symptom type, as were intercepts. Multilevel confirmatory factor analyses found evidence for a higher-order internalizing factor for both slopes and intercepts, reflective of comorbidity of depression and anxiety, with the internalizing factor accounting for 54% to 91% of the variance in slopes and intercepts of specific symptom sets, providing evidence for both a general common factor and domain-specific factors characterizing level and change in symptoms. Loadings on the higher order factors differed modestly for men and women, and when comparing African American and White participants, but did not differ by age, education, or history of depression. More distal factors including gender and history of depression were strongly associated with internalizing in the early weeks after job loss, but rates of change in internalizing were associated most strongly with reemployment. Findings suggest that stressors may contribute in different ways to the common internalizing factor as compared to variance in anxiety and depression that is independent of that factor.
Axicons for mode conversion in high peak power, higher-order mode, fiber amplifiers.
Nicholson, J W; DeSantolo, A; Westbrook, P S; Windeler, R S; Kremp, T; Headley, C; DiGiovanni, D J
2015-12-28
Higher-order mode fiber amplifiers have demonstrated effective areas as large as 6000 μm2, allowing for high pulse energy and peak power amplification. Long-period gratings are used to convert the fundamental mode to the higher-order mode at the entrance to the amplifier, and reconvert back to the fundamental at the exit, to achieve a diffraction limited beam. However, long period gratings are susceptible to nonlinearity at high peak power. In this work, we propose and demonstrate axicons for linear bulk-optic mode conversion at the output of higher order mode amplifiers. We achieve an M2 of less than 1.25 for 80% mode conversion efficiency. Experiments with pulsed amplifiers confirm that the mode conversion is free from nonlinearity. Furthermore, chirp pulse amplifier experiments confirm that HOM amplifiers plus axicon mode convertors provide energy scalability in femtosecond pulses, compared to smaller effective area, fundamental mode fiber amplifiers. We also propose and demonstrate a route towards fiber integration of the axicon mode convertor by fabricating axicons directly on the tip of the fiber amplifier end-cap.
Radiation Heat Transfer Between Diffuse-Gray Surfaces Using Higher Order Finite Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gould, Dana C.
2000-01-01
This paper presents recent work on developing methods for analyzing radiation heat transfer between diffuse-gray surfaces using p-version finite elements. The work was motivated by a thermal analysis of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) wing structure which showed the importance of radiation heat transfer throughout the structure. The analysis also showed that refining the finite element mesh to accurately capture the temperature distribution on the internal structure led to very large meshes with unacceptably long execution times. Traditional methods for calculating surface-to-surface radiation are based on assumptions that are not appropriate for p-version finite elements. Two methods for determining internal radiation heat transfer are developed for one and two-dimensional p-version finite elements. In the first method, higher-order elements are divided into a number of sub-elements. Traditional methods are used to determine radiation heat flux along each sub-element and then mapped back to the parent element. In the second method, the radiation heat transfer equations are numerically integrated over the higher-order element. Comparisons with analytical solutions show that the integration scheme is generally more accurate than the sub-element method. Comparison to results from traditional finite elements shows that significant reduction in the number of elements in the mesh is possible using higher-order (p-version) finite elements.
On the polarization of non-Gaussian optical quantum field: Higher-order optical-polarization
Singh, Ravi S.; Prakash, Hari
2013-06-15
Polarization of light signifies transversal, anisotropic and asymmetrical statistical properties of electromagnetic radiation about the direction of propagation. Traditionally, optical-polarization is characterized by Stokes’ theory susceptible to be insufficient in assessing the polarization structure of optical quantum fields and, also, does not decipher the twin characteristic polarization parameters (‘ratio of real amplitudes and difference in phases’). An alternative way, in the spirit of classical description of optical-polarization, is introduced which can be generalized to deal higher-order polarization of quantum light, particularly, prepared in non-Gaussian Schrodinger Cat or Cat-like states and entangled bi-modal coherent states. On account of pseudo mono-modal or multi-modal nature of such optical quantum field, higher-order polarization is seen to be highly sensitive to the basis of description. -- Highlights: •We have generalized the usual concept of optical-polarization. •A concept of higher-order optical-polarization is introduced. •This concept is applied to compute the polarization-parameters of non-Gaussian Optical field. •To the best of our knowledge, no study is performed which investigates such optical quantum field.
The usefulness of higher-order constitutive relations for describing the Knudsen layer.
Gallis, Michail A.; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Reese, Jason M.
2005-03-01
The Knudsen layer is an important rarefaction phenomenon in gas flows in and around microdevices. Its accurate and efficient modeling is of critical importance in the design of such systems and in predicting their performance. In this paper we investigate the potential that higher-order continuum equations may have to model the Knudsen layer, and compare their predictions to high-accuracy DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo) data, as well as a standard result from kinetic theory. We find that, for a benchmark case, the most common higher-order continuum equation sets (Grad's 13 moment, Burnett, and super-Burnett equations) cannot capture the Knudsen layer. Variants of these equation families have, however, been proposed and some of them can qualitatively describe the Knudsen layer structure. To make quantitative comparisons, we obtain additional boundary conditions (needed for unique solutions to the higher-order equations) from kinetic theory. However, we find the quantitative agreement with kinetic theory and DSMC data is only slight.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demiray, Hilmi
2014-12-01
The basic equations describing the nonlinear electron-acoustic waves in a plasma composed of a cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying a trapped/vortex-like distribution, and stationary ions, in the long-wave limit, are re-examined through the use of the modified PLK method. Introducing the concept of strained coordinates and expanding the field variables into a power series of the smallness parameter ɛ, a set of evolution equations is obtained for various order terms in the perturbation expansion. The evolution equation for the lowest order term in the perturbation expansion is characterized by the conventional modified Korteweg-deVries (mKdV) equation, whereas the evolution equations for the higher order terms in the expansion are described by the degenerate(linearized) mKdV equation. By studying the localized traveling wave solution to the evolution equations, the strained coordinate for this order is determined so as to remove possible secularities that might occur in the solution. It is observed that the coefficient of the strained coordinate for this order corresponds to the correction term in the wave speed. The numerical results reveal that the contribution of second order term to the wave amplitude is about 20 %, which cannot be ignored.
Constraints on Tree-Level Higher Order Gravitational Couplings in Superstring Theory
Stieberger, Stephan
2011-03-18
We consider the scattering amplitudes of five and six gravitons at tree level in superstring theory. Their power series expansions in the Regge slope {alpha}{sup '} are analyzed through the order {alpha}{sup '8} showing some interesting constraints on higher order gravitational couplings in the effective superstring action such as the absence of R{sup 5} terms. Furthermore, some transcendentality constraints on the coefficients of the nonvanishing couplings are observed: the absence of zeta values of even weight through the order {alpha}{sup '8} like the absence of {zeta}(2){zeta}(3)R{sup 6} terms. Our analysis is valid for any superstring background in any space-time dimension, which allows for a conformal field theory description.
Higher-order electroweak corrections to the partial widths and branching ratios of the Z boson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freitas, Ayres
2014-04-01
Recently, the calculation of fermionic electroweak two-loop corrections to the total width of the Z boson and hadronic Z-peak cross-section in the Standard Model has been presented, where "fermionic" refers to diagrams with closed fermion loops. Here, these results are complemented by presenting contributions of the same order for the Z-boson partial widths, which are the last missing pieces for a complete description of Z-pole physics at the fermionic two-loop order. The definition of the relevant observables and the calculational techniques are described in detail. Numerical results are presented conveniently in terms of simple parametrization formulae. Finally, the remaining theoretical uncertainties from missing higher-order corrections are analyzed and found to be small compared to the current experimental errors.
Higher-Order Compact Schemes for Numerical Simulation of Incompressible Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Robert V.; Demuren, Ayodeji O.; Carpenter, Mark
1998-01-01
A higher order accurate numerical procedure has been developed for solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for 2D or 3D fluid flow problems. It is based on low-storage Runge-Kutta schemes for temporal discretization and fourth and sixth order compact finite-difference schemes for spatial discretization. The particular difficulty of satisfying the divergence-free velocity field required in incompressible fluid flow is resolved by solving a Poisson equation for pressure. It is demonstrated that for consistent global accuracy, it is necessary to employ the same order of accuracy in the discretization of the Poisson equation. Special care is also required to achieve the formal temporal accuracy of the Runge-Kutta schemes. The accuracy of the present procedure is demonstrated by application to several pertinent benchmark problems.
Silva, Carlos A B; Rodrigues, Clóves G; Ramos, J Galvão; Luzzi, Roberto
2015-06-01
Construction, in the framework of a nonequilibrium statistical ensemble formalism, of a higher-order generalized hydrodynamics, also referred to as mesoscopic hydrothermodynamics, that is, covering phenomena involving motion of fluids displaying variations short in space and fast in time-unrestricted values of Knudsen numbers, is presented. In that way, an approach is provided enabling the coupling and simultaneous treatment of the kinetics and hydrodynamic levels of descriptions. It is based on a complete thermostatistical approach in terms of the densities of matter and energy and their fluxes of all orders covering systems arbitrarily driven away from equilibrium. The set of coupled nonlinear integrodifferential hydrodynamic equations is derived. They are the evolution equations of the Gradlike moments of all orders, derived from a generalized kinetic equation built in the framework of the nonequilibrium statistical ensemble formalism. For illustration, the case of a system of particles embedded in a fluid acting as a thermal bath is fully described. The resulting enormous set of coupled evolution equations is of unmanageable proportions, thus requiring in practice to introduce an appropriate description using the smallest possible number of variables. We have obtained a hierarchy of Maxwell times, associated to the set of all the higher-order fluxes, which have a particular relevance in the process of providing criteria for establishing the contraction of description. PMID:26172796
Support-type properties of convex functions of higher order and Hadamard-type inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wasowicz, Szymon
2007-08-01
It is well known that every convex function (where is an interval) admits an affine support at every interior point of I (i.e. for any x0[set membership, variant]IntI there exists an affine function such that a(x0)=f(x0) and a[less-than-or-equals, slant]f on I). Convex functions of higher order (precisely of an odd order) have a similar property: they are supported by the polynomials of degree no greater than the order of convexity. In this paper the attaching method is developed. It is applied to obtain the general result--Theorem 2, from which the mentioned above support theorem and some related properties of convex functions of higher (both odd and even) order are derived. They are applied to obtain some known and new Hadamard-type inequalities between the quadrature operators and the integral approximated by them. It is also shown that the error bounds of quadrature rules follow by inequalities of this kind.
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering as a higher-order Raman process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mueller, Niclas S.; Heeg, Sebastian; Reich, Stephanie
2016-08-01
We propose to understand surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a higher-order Raman process that contains the plasmonic excitation. The SERS amplitudes are calculated with third- and fourth-order perturbation theory. Treating the plasmonic excitation as a quasiparticle, we derive analytic expressions for all coupling matrix elements. This leads to a general theory of plasmonic enhancement in SERS that can be applied to arbitrary plasmonic nanostructures. We obtain the plasmon eigenvectors of a gold nanosphere and a nanosphere dimer. They are used to calculate the enhancement of the Raman cross section of a molecule coupled to the dipole plasmon mode. The enhancement of the cross section is up to three orders of magnitude stronger than predicted by the theory of electromagnetic enhancement. The difference is most pronounced in vacuum and decreases with increasing dielectric constant of the embedding medium. The predictions from understanding SERS as a higher-order Raman process agree well with recent experiments; they highlight the dominance of plasmonic enhancement in SERS.
Higher and lower-order cognitive skills: The case of chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zoller, Uri; Tsaparlis, Georgios
1997-03-01
A major driving force in the current effort to reform science education is the conviction that it is vital for our students to develop their higher-order cognitive skills capacity in order to function effectively in our modem, complex science and technology-based society. In line with this rationale, this study focuses on the use of examinations for studying student performance in chemistry examination on items that require higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) or lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS). This usage of examinations is explored and demonstrated via “post-factum” data analysis of two case studies: the General Examination (in chemistry) and the Panhellenic Chemistry Competition administered natinally in Greece for secondary-school graduates in 1991. The main findings were: (a) students performed considerably lower on questions requiring HOCS than on those requiring LOCS; (b) performance on questions requiring HOCS may not correlate with that on questions requiring LOCS for which affective factors, LOCS-orientation in teaching and the extent of prior examination preparation may be responsible; and (c) examinations that contain intems of both types can be effectively used to identify HOCS- and LOCS- students within various contexts of chemistry teaching. Based on the above and previous related studies, the fostering of students' HOCS by appropriate teaching and assessment trategies is advocated.
Silva, Carlos A B; Rodrigues, Clóves G; Ramos, J Galvão; Luzzi, Roberto
2015-06-01
Construction, in the framework of a nonequilibrium statistical ensemble formalism, of a higher-order generalized hydrodynamics, also referred to as mesoscopic hydrothermodynamics, that is, covering phenomena involving motion of fluids displaying variations short in space and fast in time-unrestricted values of Knudsen numbers, is presented. In that way, an approach is provided enabling the coupling and simultaneous treatment of the kinetics and hydrodynamic levels of descriptions. It is based on a complete thermostatistical approach in terms of the densities of matter and energy and their fluxes of all orders covering systems arbitrarily driven away from equilibrium. The set of coupled nonlinear integrodifferential hydrodynamic equations is derived. They are the evolution equations of the Gradlike moments of all orders, derived from a generalized kinetic equation built in the framework of the nonequilibrium statistical ensemble formalism. For illustration, the case of a system of particles embedded in a fluid acting as a thermal bath is fully described. The resulting enormous set of coupled evolution equations is of unmanageable proportions, thus requiring in practice to introduce an appropriate description using the smallest possible number of variables. We have obtained a hierarchy of Maxwell times, associated to the set of all the higher-order fluxes, which have a particular relevance in the process of providing criteria for establishing the contraction of description.
Testing higher-order Lagrangian perturbation theory against numerical simulation. 1: Pancake models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buchert, T.; Melott, A. L.; Weiss, A. G.
1993-01-01
We present results showing an improvement of the accuracy of perturbation theory as applied to cosmological structure formation for a useful range of quasi-linear scales. The Lagrangian theory of gravitational instability of an Einstein-de Sitter dust cosmogony investigated and solved up to the third order is compared with numerical simulations. In this paper we study the dynamics of pancake models as a first step. In previous work the accuracy of several analytical approximations for the modeling of large-scale structure in the mildly non-linear regime was analyzed in the same way, allowing for direct comparison of the accuracy of various approximations. In particular, the Zel'dovich approximation (hereafter ZA) as a subclass of the first-order Lagrangian perturbation solutions was found to provide an excellent approximation to the density field in the mildly non-linear regime (i.e. up to a linear r.m.s. density contrast of sigma is approximately 2). The performance of ZA in hierarchical clustering models can be greatly improved by truncating the initial power spectrum (smoothing the initial data). We here explore whether this approximation can be further improved with higher-order corrections in the displacement mapping from homogeneity. We study a single pancake model (truncated power-spectrum with power-spectrum with power-index n = -1) using cross-correlation statistics employed in previous work. We found that for all statistical methods used the higher-order corrections improve the results obtained for the first-order solution up to the stage when sigma (linear theory) is approximately 1. While this improvement can be seen for all spatial scales, later stages retain this feature only above a certain scale which is increasing with time. However, third-order is not much improvement over second-order at any stage. The total breakdown of the perturbation approach is observed at the stage, where sigma (linear theory) is approximately 2, which corresponds to the
How does participation in inquiry-based activities influence gifted students' higher order thinking?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reger, Barbara H.
Inquiry-based learning is considered a useful technique to strengthen the critical thinking skills of students. The National Science Standards emphasize its use and the complexities and challenge it provides are well suited for meeting the needs of the gifted. While many studies have documented the effectiveness of this type of instruction, there is a lack of research on growth in higher-order thinking through participation in science inquiry. This study investigated such growth among a small group of gifted fifth-grade students. In this study a group of fifth-grade gifted science students completed a series of three forensics inquiry lessons, and documented questions, ideas and reflections as they constructed evidence to solve a crime. From this class of students, one small group was purposely selected to serve as the focus of the study. Using qualitative techniques, the questions and statements students made as they interacted in the activity were analyzed. Videotaped comments and student logs were coded for emerging patterns and also examined for evidence of increased levels of higher-order thinking based on a rubric that was designed using the six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Evidence from this study showed marked increase in and deeper levels of higher-order thinking for two of the students. The other boy and girl showed progress using the inquiry activities, but it was not as evident. The social dynamics of the group seemed to hinder one girl's participation during some of the activities. The social interactions played a role in strengthening the exchange of ideas and thinking skills for the others. The teacher had a tremendous influence over the production of higher-level statements by modeling that level of thinking as she questioned the students. Through her practice of answering a question with a question, she gradually solicited more analytical thinking from her students.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, Nicole A.
Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory experience, linking with educational technologies (Pyatt & Sims, 2007; 2011; Trundle & Bell, 2010). A causal-comparative quantitative study was conducted with 150 learners enrolled at a two-year community college, to determine the effects of simulation laboratory experiments on Higher-Order Learning, Critical Thinking Skills, and Cognitive Load. The treatment population used simulated experiments, while the non-treatment sections performed traditional expository experiments. A comparison was made using the Revised Two-Factor Study Process survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and the Scientific Attitude Inventory survey, using a Repeated Measures ANOVA test for treatment or non-treatment. A main effect of simulated laboratory experiments was found for both Higher-Order Learning, [F (1, 148) = 30.32,p = 0.00, eta2 = 0.12] and Critical Thinking Skills, [F (1, 148) = 14.64,p = 0.00, eta 2 = 0.17] such that simulations showed greater increases than traditional experiments. Post-lab treatment group self-reports indicated increased marginal means (+4.86) in Higher-Order Learning and Critical Thinking Skills, compared to the non-treatment group (+4.71). Simulations also improved the scientific skills and mastery of basic scientific subject matter. It is recommended that additional research recognize that learners' Critical Thinking Skills change due to different instructional methodologies that occur throughout a semester.
Small amplitude solitons in a warm plasma with smaller and higher order relativistic effects
Kalita, B. C.; Das, R.
2007-07-15
Solitons have been investigated in a warm plasma through the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, considering a smaller relativistic effect for {gamma}{approx_equal}O(v{sup 2}/c{sup 2}) and {gamma}{sub e}{approx_equal}O(u{sup 2}/c{sup 2}) and higher relativistic effects for {gamma}{approx_equal}O(v{sup 4}/c{sup 4}) and {gamma}{sub e}{approx_equal}O(u{sup 4/}c{sup 4}). Compressive fast ion-acoustic solitons are observed to exist in the entire range (u{sub 0}-v{sub 0}) subject to a suitable mathematical condition satisfied by the initial streaming velocities u{sub 0},v{sub 0} of the electrons and the ions, respectively, electron to ion mass ratio Q(=m{sub e}/m{sub i}) and ion to electron temperature ratio {sigma}(=T{sub i}/T{sub e}). Further, rarefactive solitons of pretty small amplitudes are observed in the small upper range of |u{sub 0}-v{sub 0}| for higher order relativistic effect which are found to change parabolically. It is essentially important to report in our model of plasma, that the higher order relativistic effect slows down the soliton speed to V{<=}0.10 for all temperature ratios {sigma} for small amplitude waves. On the other hand, the smaller order relativistic effect permits the soliton to exist even at a relatively much higher speed V<0.30. Solitons of high (negligible) amplitudes are found to generate at the smaller (greater) difference of initial streamings (u{sub 0}-v{sub 0}) corresponding to both the relativistic effects.
Philip, Krupa; Martinez, Aldo; Ho, Arthur; Conrad, Fabian; Ale, Jit; Mitchell, Paul; Sankaridurg, Padmaja
2012-01-01
Total ocular higher order aberrations and corneal topography of myopic, emmetropic and hyperopic eyes of 675 adolescents (16.9 ± 0.7 years) were measured after cycloplegia using COAS aberrometer and Medmont videokeratoscope. Corneal higher order aberrations were computed from the corneal topography maps and lenticular (internal) higher order aberrations derived by subtraction of corneal aberrations from total ocular aberrations. Aberrations were measured for a pupil diameter of 5mm. Multivariate analysis of variance followed by multiple regression analysis found significant difference in the fourth order aberrations (SA RMS, primary spherical aberration coefficient) between the refractive error groups. Hyperopic eyes (+0.083 ± 0.05 μm) had more positive total ocular primary spherical aberration compared to emmetropic (+0.036 ± 0.04 μm) and myopic eyes (low myopia=+0.038 ± 0.05 μm, moderate myopia=+0.026 ± 0.06 μm) (p<0.05). No difference was observed for the anterior corneal spherical aberration. Significantly less negative lenticular spherical aberration was observed for the hyperopic eyes (-0.038 ± 0.05 μm) than myopic (low myopia=-0.088 ± 0.04 μm, moderate myopia=-0.095 ± 0.05 μm) and emmetropic eyes (-0.081 ± 0.04 μm) (p<0.05). These findings suggest the existence of differences in the characteristics of the crystalline lens (asphericity, curvature and gradient refractive index) of hyperopic eyes versus other eyes.
Praveen, Angam; Vijayarekha, K; Abraham, Saju T; Venkatraman, B
2013-09-01
Time of flight diffraction (TOFD) technique is a well-developed ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) method and has been applied successfully for accurate sizing of defects in metallic materials. This technique was developed in early 1970s as a means for accurate sizing and positioning of cracks in nuclear components became very popular in the late 1990s and is today being widely used in various industries for weld inspection. One of the main advantages of TOFD is that, apart from fast technique, it provides higher probability of detection for linear defects. Since TOFD is based on diffraction of sound waves from the extremities of the defect compared to reflection from planar faces as in pulse echo and phased array, the resultant signal would be quite weak and signal to noise ratio (SNR) low. In many cases the defect signal is submerged in this noise making it difficult for detection, positioning and sizing. Several signal processing methods such as digital filtering, Split Spectrum Processing (SSP), Hilbert Transform and Correlation techniques have been developed in order to suppress unwanted noise and enhance the quality of the defect signal which can thus be used for characterization of defects and the material. Wavelet Transform based thresholding techniques have been applied largely for de-noising of ultrasonic signals. However in this paper, higher order wavelets are used for analyzing the de-noising performance for TOFD signals obtained from Austenitic Stainless Steel welds. It is observed that higher order wavelets give greater SNR improvement compared to the lower order wavelets.
Selection of Higher Order Regression Models in the Analysis of Multi-Factorial Transcription Data
Prazeres da Costa, Olivia; Hoffman, Arthur; Rey, Johannes W.; Mansmann, Ulrich
2014-01-01
Introduction Many studies examine gene expression data that has been obtained under the influence of multiple factors, such as genetic background, environmental conditions, or exposure to diseases. The interplay of multiple factors may lead to effect modification and confounding. Higher order linear regression models can account for these effects. We present a new methodology for linear model selection and apply it to microarray data of bone marrow-derived macrophages. This experiment investigates the influence of three variable factors: the genetic background of the mice from which the macrophages were obtained, Yersinia enterocolitica infection (two strains, and a mock control), and treatment/non-treatment with interferon-γ. Results We set up four different linear regression models in a hierarchical order. We introduce the eruption plot as a new practical tool for model selection complementary to global testing. It visually compares the size and significance of effect estimates between two nested models. Using this methodology we were able to select the most appropriate model by keeping only relevant factors showing additional explanatory power. Application to experimental data allowed us to qualify the interaction of factors as either neutral (no interaction), alleviating (co-occurring effects are weaker than expected from the single effects), or aggravating (stronger than expected). We find a biologically meaningful gene cluster of putative C2TA target genes that appear to be co-regulated with MHC class II genes. Conclusions We introduced the eruption plot as a tool for visual model comparison to identify relevant higher order interactions in the analysis of expression data obtained under the influence of multiple factors. We conclude that model selection in higher order linear regression models should generally be performed for the analysis of multi-factorial microarray data. PMID:24658540
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Pengfei; Gantoi, Florentina M.; Shabana, Ahmed A.
2011-12-01
Most existing beam formulations assume that the cross section of the beam remains rigid regardless of the amplitude of the displacement. The absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF); however, allows for the deformation of the cross section and leads to a more general beam models that capture the coupling between different modes of displacement. This paper examines the effect of the order of interpolation on the modes of deformation of the beam cross section using ANCF finite elements. To this end, a new two-dimensional shear deformable ANCF beam element is developed. The new finite element employs a higher order of interpolation, and allows for new cross section deformation modes that cannot be captured using previously developed shear deformable ANCF beam elements. The element developed in this study relaxes the assumption of planar cross section; thereby allowing for including the effect of warping as well as for different stretch values at different points on the element cross section. The displacement field of the new element is assumed to be cubic in the axial direction and quadratic in the transverse direction. Using this displacement field, more expressions for the element extension, shear and the cross section stretch can be systematically defined. The change in the cross section area is measured using Nanson's formula. Measures of the shear angle, extension, and cross section stretch can also be systematically defined using coordinate systems defined at the element material points. Using these local coordinate systems, expressions for a nominal shear angle are obtained. The differences between the cross section deformation modes obtained using the new higher order element and those obtained using the previously developed lower order elements are highlighted. Numerical examples are presented in order to compare the results obtained using the new finite element and the results obtained using previously developed ANCF finite elements.
Gravitational and higher-order form factors of the pion in chiral quark models
Broniowski, Wojciech; Arriola, Enrique Ruiz
2008-11-01
The gravitational form factor of the pion is evaluated in two chiral quark models and confronted with the recent full-QCD lattice data. We find good agreement for the case of the spectral quark model, which builds in the vector-meson dominance for the charge form factor. We derive a simple relation between the gravitational and electromagnetic form factors, holding in the considered quark models in the chiral limit. The relation implies that the gravitational mean squared radius is half the electromagnetic one. We also analyze higher-order quark generalized form factors of the pion, related to higher moments in the symmetric Bjorken X variable of the generalized parton distribution functions, and discuss their perturbative QCD evolution, which is needed to relate the quark-model predictions to the lattice data. The values of the higher-order quark form factors at t=0, computed on the lattice, also agree with our quark-model results within the statistical and method uncertainties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yan, Jue; Shu, Chi-Wang; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In this paper we review the existing and develop new continuous Galerkin methods for solving time dependent partial differential equations with higher order derivatives in one and multiple space dimensions. We review local discontinuous Galerkin methods for convection diffusion equations involving second derivatives and for KdV type equations involving third derivatives. We then develop new local discontinuous Galerkin methods for the time dependent bi-harmonic type equations involving fourth derivatives, and partial differential equations involving fifth derivatives. For these new methods we present correct interface numerical fluxes and prove L(exp 2) stability for general nonlinear problems. Preliminary numerical examples are shown to illustrate these methods. Finally, we present new results on a post-processing technique, originally designed for methods with good negative-order error estimates, on the local discontinuous Galerkin methods applied to equations with higher derivatives. Numerical experiments show that this technique works as well for the new higher derivative cases, in effectively doubling the rate of convergence with negligible additional computational cost, for linear as well as some nonlinear problems, with a local uniform mesh.
Higher-order analysis of crack tip fields in elastic power-law hardening materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, L.; Wang, T. C.; Shih, C. F.
1993-04-01
A HIGHER-ORDER asymptotic analysis of a stationary crack in an elastic power-law hardening material has been carried out for plane strain, Mode I. The extent to which elasticity affects the near-tip fields is determined by the strain hardening exponent n. Five terms in the asymptotic series for the stresses have been derived for n = 3. However, only three amplitudes can be independently prescribed. These are K1, K2 and K5 corresponding to amplitudes of the first-, second- and fifth-order terms. Four terms in the asymptotic series have been obtained for n = 5, 7 and 10; in these cases, the independent amplitudes are K1, K2 and K4. It is found that appropriate choices of K2 and K4 can reproduce near-tip fields representative of a broad range of crack tip constraints in moderate and low hardening materials. Indeed, fields characterized by distinctly different stress triaxiality levels (established by finite element analysis) have been matched by the asymptotic series. The zone of dominance of the asymptotic series extends over distances of about 10 crack openings ahead of the crack tip encompassing length scales that are microstructurally significant. Furthermore, the higher-order terms collectively describe a spatially uniform hydrostatic stress field (of adjustable magnitude) ahead of the crack. Our results lend support to a suggestion that J and a measure of near-tip stress triaxiality can describe the full range of near-tip states.
Higher-order exchange interactions leading to metamagnetism in FeRh
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, Joseph; Chantrell, Roy W.
2015-09-01
The origin of the metamagnetic antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition of FeRh is a subject of debate. Competing explanations invoke magnetovolume effects or a purely thermodynamic transition within the spin system. It is experimentally difficult to observe the changes in the magnetic system and the lattice simultaneously, leading to conflicting evidence over which mechanism causes the phase transition. A noncollinear electronic structure study by Mryasov [Phase Transitions 78, 197 (2005), 10.1080/01411590412331316591] showed that nonlinear behavior of the Rh moment leads to higher-order exchange terms in FeRh. Using atomistic spin dynamics, we show that the phase transition can occur due to the competition between bilinear and the higher-order four spin exchange terms in an effective spin Hamiltonian. The phase transition we see is of first order and shows thermal hysteresis in agreement with experimental observations. Simulating subpicosecond laser heating, we show an agreement with pump-probe experiments with a ferromagnetic response on a picosecond time scale.
Adaptation to Changes in Higher-Order Stimulus Statistics in the Salamander Retina
Tkačik, Gašper; Ghosh, Anandamohan; Schneidman, Elad; Segev, Ronen
2014-01-01
Adaptation in the retina is thought to optimize the encoding of natural light signals into sequences of spikes sent to the brain. While adaptive changes in retinal processing to the variations of the mean luminance level and second-order stimulus statistics have been documented before, no such measurements have been performed when higher-order moments of the light distribution change. We therefore measured the ganglion cell responses in the tiger salamander retina to controlled changes in the second (contrast), third (skew) and fourth (kurtosis) moments of the light intensity distribution of spatially uniform temporally independent stimuli. The skew and kurtosis of the stimuli were chosen to cover the range observed in natural scenes. We quantified adaptation in ganglion cells by studying linear-nonlinear models that capture well the retinal encoding properties across all stimuli. We found that the encoding properties of retinal ganglion cells change only marginally when higher-order statistics change, compared to the changes observed in response to the variation in contrast. By analyzing optimal coding in LN-type models, we showed that neurons can maintain a high information rate without large dynamic adaptation to changes in skew or kurtosis. This is because, for uncorrelated stimuli, spatio-temporal summation within the receptive field averages away non-gaussian aspects of the light intensity distribution. PMID:24465742
Sutheerawatthana, Pitch; Minato, Takayuki
2010-02-15
The response of a social group is a missing element in the formal impact assessment model. Previous discussion of the involvement of social groups in an intervention has mainly focused on the formation of the intervention. This article discusses the involvement of social groups in a different way. A descriptive model is proposed by incorporating a social group's response into the concept of second- and higher-order effects. The model is developed based on a cause-effect relationship through the observation of phenomena in case studies. The model clarifies the process by which social groups interact with a lower-order effect and then generate a higher-order effect in an iterative manner. This study classifies social groups' responses into three forms-opposing, modifying, and advantage-taking action-and places them in six pathways. The model is expected to be used as an analytical tool for investigating and identifying impacts in the planning stage and as a framework for monitoring social groups' responses during the implementation stage of a policy, plan, program, or project (PPPPs).
The impedance problem of wave diffraction by a strip with higher order boundary conditions
Castro, L. P.; Simões, A. M.
2013-10-17
This work is devoted to analyse an impedance boundary-transmission problem for the Helmholtz equation originated by a problem of wave diffraction by an infinite strip with higher order imperfect boundary conditions. A constructive approach of operator relations is built, which allows a transparent interpretation of the problem in an operator theory framework. In particular, different types of operator relations are exhibited for different types of operators acting between Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces on a finite interval and the positive half-line. All this has consequences in the understanding of the structure of this type of problems. In particular, a Fredholm characterization of the problem is obtained in terms of the initial space order parameters. At the request of the author and the Proceedings Editor the above article has been replaced with a corrected version. The original PDF file supplied to AIP Publishing contained an error in the title of the article. The original title appeared as: 'The Impedance Problem of Wave Diffraction by a trip with Higher Order Boundary Conditions.' This article has been replaced and the title now appears correctly online. The corrected article was published on 8 November 2013.
Adaptation to changes in higher-order stimulus statistics in the salamander retina.
Tkačik, Gašper; Ghosh, Anandamohan; Schneidman, Elad; Segev, Ronen
2014-01-01
Adaptation in the retina is thought to optimize the encoding of natural light signals into sequences of spikes sent to the brain. While adaptive changes in retinal processing to the variations of the mean luminance level and second-order stimulus statistics have been documented before, no such measurements have been performed when higher-order moments of the light distribution change. We therefore measured the ganglion cell responses in the tiger salamander retina to controlled changes in the second (contrast), third (skew) and fourth (kurtosis) moments of the light intensity distribution of spatially uniform temporally independent stimuli. The skew and kurtosis of the stimuli were chosen to cover the range observed in natural scenes. We quantified adaptation in ganglion cells by studying linear-nonlinear models that capture well the retinal encoding properties across all stimuli. We found that the encoding properties of retinal ganglion cells change only marginally when higher-order statistics change, compared to the changes observed in response to the variation in contrast. By analyzing optimal coding in LN-type models, we showed that neurons can maintain a high information rate without large dynamic adaptation to changes in skew or kurtosis. This is because, for uncorrelated stimuli, spatio-temporal summation within the receptive field averages away non-gaussian aspects of the light intensity distribution.
Higher-order ice-sheet modelling accelerated by multigrid on graphics cards
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brædstrup, Christian; Egholm, David
2013-04-01
Higher-order ice flow modelling is a very computer intensive process owing primarily to the nonlinear influence of the horizontal stress coupling. When applied for simulating long-term glacial landscape evolution, the ice-sheet models must consider very long time series, while both high temporal and spatial resolution is needed to resolve small effects. The use of higher-order and full stokes models have therefore seen very limited usage in this field. However, recent advances in graphics card (GPU) technology for high performance computing have proven extremely efficient in accelerating many large-scale scientific computations. The general purpose GPU (GPGPU) technology is cheap, has a low power consumption and fits into a normal desktop computer. It could therefore provide a powerful tool for many glaciologists working on ice flow models. Our current research focuses on utilising the GPU as a tool in ice-sheet and glacier modelling. To this extent we have implemented the Integrated Second-Order Shallow Ice Approximation (iSOSIA) equations on the device using the finite difference method. To accelerate the computations, the GPU solver uses a non-linear Red-Black Gauss-Seidel iterator coupled with a Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) multigrid setup to further aid convergence. The GPU finite difference implementation provides the inherent parallelization that scales from hundreds to several thousands of cores on newer cards. We demonstrate the efficiency of the GPU multigrid solver using benchmark experiments.
Higher order dispersion in the propagation of a gravity wave packet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeh, K. C.; Dong, B.
1989-01-01
To the first order of approximation, the complex amplitude of a wave packet in an anisotropic and dispersive medium is convected with the group of velocity. However, a gravity wave is a vector wave. Its wave packet must be formed by superposition of various wave numbers with corresponding frequencies, as is the case for scalar waves, and additionally by superposing many eigenmodes which also depend on the wave number. To represent the vector wave packet self-consistently, it is found that a gradient term must be included in the expansion. For a Guassian wave packet, this gradient term is shown to have important implications on the velocity vector as represented by its hodograph. Numerical results show that the hodograph is influenced by the location of the relative position of interest from the center of a Gaussian pulse. Higher order expansion shows that an initial Gaussian wave packet will retain its Gaussian shape as it propagates, but the pulse will spread in all directions with its major axis undergoing a rotation. Numerical results indicate that these higher order dispersive effects may be marginally observable in the atmosphere.
Evidence of Higher-Order Solar Periodicities in China Temperature Record
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwari, R. K.; Rajesh, R.; Padmavathi, B.
2016-07-01
We examine here a 2000-year-long record of surface air temperature from China using powerful spectral and statistical analysis techniques to assess the trend and harmonics, if any. Our analyses reveal statistically significant periodicities of order ~900 ± 50, ~480 ± 20, 340 ± 10, ~190 ± 10 and ~130 ± 5 years, which closely match with the known higher-order solar cycles. These periodicities are also similar to quasi-periodicities reported in the climate records of sedimentary cores of subarctic and subpolar regions of North America and North Pacific, thus attesting to the global signature of solar signals in temperature variability. A visual comparison of the temperature series shows that the nodes and antinodes of the underlying temperature variation also match with sunspot variations. We also compare the China temperature (CT) with temperature of northern and southern hemispheres of the past 1000 years. The study reveals strong correlation between the southern hemispheric temperatures and CT during the past 1000 years. However, the northern hemisphere temperature shows strong correlation with CT only during the past century. Interestingly, the variations in the correlation coefficient also have shown periodicities that are nearly identical to the periods observed from CT and higher-order solar cycles. We suggest that the solar irradiance induces global periodic oscillations in temperature records by transporting heat and thermal energy, possibly through the coupling of ocean-atmospheric processes and thereby reinforcing the Sun-ocean-climate link.
Numerical time dependent sheet cavitation simulations using a higher order panel method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dekoninggans, H. J.
1994-03-01
This thesis deals with sheet cavitation. The investigation is aimed at profile design with respect to cavitation control. At present it is possible to predict the shape of cavities on an arbitrary two-dimensional profile in stationary flows. To compute the flow around an arbitrary profile, a higher order three-dimensional panel method program has been developed. The main algorithm used in this program is based on a special case of Green's theorem, called 'de Morino formulation'. This computer program (flow program) can calculate the potential on the body and the velocities at the surface of the body or in the flow field. A theoretical method is developed for time simulation of unsteady sheet cavitation. Numerical simulations of the flow around profiles and of cavitation have been carried out. The numerical results of the panel methods have been compared with other calculations of the two-dimensional flow around profiles and of three-dimensional flow around a sphere and a wing. Simulations of the growth of sheet cavitation on a foil have also been carried out. The conclusion is that higher order panel methods are more accurate than the zero order methods. Further refinement of the Kutta condition is required, however.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fogg, Stephen L.
2006-05-01
Nonlinear `parametric' sonar is distinguished by highly predictable in-water formations of identifiable von Helmholtz spectral energies produced directly as a result of two or more preselected primaries simultaneously contained in a transmit waveform. In the nearly half-century of scientific endeavors within the field of parametric sonar, the methodical investigation into formulation techniques and practical applications using higher-order combination tones has been noticeably lagging the attention received by their more commonly recognized kin of second-order sum and difference frequencies. Generalized mathematical and graphical viewing techniques are presented for elucidating the abundance of cross-band complexities and facilitating preliminary design efforts specifically employing any of these higher-order parametric frequency components on operational systems. Recent sonar experiments implementing pulsed parametric transmit waveforms intended to fully exploit their intrinsic broadband nonlinear energy have demonstrated the potential for improved underwater target detection and classification in acoustically harsh environments. However, research efforts could benefit from more efficient and universal tools for predetermining all of the desired in-water spectral-temporal characteristics. New developments utilizing this methodology have led to unique approaches for designing stepped CW, LFM and hyperbolic FM detection waveforms incorporating enhanced signal processing qualities and constructing coding schemes for reliable underwater acoustic digital communications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The efficiency gains obtained using higher-order implicit Runge-Kutta schemes as compared with the second-order accurate backward difference schemes for the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are investigated. Three different algorithms for solving the nonlinear system of equations arising at each timestep are presented. The first algorithm (NMG) is a pseudo-time-stepping scheme which employs a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) agglomeration multigrid method to accelerate convergence. The other two algorithms are based on Inexact Newton's methods. The linear system arising at each Newton step is solved using iterative/Krylov techniques and left preconditioning is used to accelerate convergence of the linear solvers. One of the methods (LMG) uses Richardson's iterative scheme for solving the linear system at each Newton step while the other (PGMRES) uses the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Results demonstrating the relative superiority of these Newton's methods based schemes are presented. Efficiency gains as high as 10 are obtained by combining the higher-order time integration schemes with the more efficient nonlinear solvers.
Effect of higher-order multipole moments on the Stark line shape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, T. A.; Nagayama, T.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.
2016-08-01
Spectral line shapes are sensitive to plasma conditions and are often used to diagnose electron density of laboratory plasmas as well as astrophysical plasmas. Stark line-shape models take into account the perturbation of the radiator's energy structure due to the Coulomb interaction with the surrounding charged particles. Solving this Coulomb interaction is challenging and is commonly approximated via a multipole expansion. However, most models include only up to the second term of the expansion (the dipole term). While there have been studies on the higher-order terms due to one of the species (i.e., either ions or electrons), there is no model that includes the terms beyond dipole from both species. Here, we investigate the importance of the higher-order multipole terms from both species on the Hβ line shape. First, we find that it is important to include higher-order terms consistently from both ions and electrons to reproduce measured line-shape asymmetry. Next, we find that the line shape calculated with the dipole-only approximation becomes inaccurate as density increases. It is necessary to include up to the third (quadrupole) term to compute the line shape accurately within 2%. Since most existing models include only up to the dipole terms, the densities inferred with such models are in question. We find that the model without the quadrupole term slightly underestimates the density, and the discrepancy becomes as large as 12% at high densities. While the case of study is limited to Hβ, we expect similar impact on other lines.
Degenerate higher order scalar-tensor theories beyond Horndeski and disformal transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben Achour, Jibril; Langlois, David; Noui, Karim
2016-06-01
We consider all degenerate scalar-tensor theories that depend quadratically on second-order derivatives of a scalar field, which we have identified in a previous work. These theories, whose degeneracy, in general, ensures the absence of Ostrogradsky's instability, include the quartic Horndeski Lagrangian and its quartic extension beyond Horndeski, as well as other Lagrangians. We study how all these theories transform under general disformal transformations and find that they can be separated into three main classes that are stable under these transformations. This leads to a complete classification modulo disformal transformations. Finally, we show that these higher order theories include mimetic gravity and some particular khronometric theories. They also contain theories that do not correspond, to our knowledge, to already studied theories, even up to disformal transformations.
Solutions to higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations in unbounded domains
Kozhevnikova, L M; Leont'ev, A A
2014-01-31
The paper is devoted to a certain class of doubly nonlinear higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations. Using Galerkin approximations it is proved that the first mixed problem with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition has a strong solution in the cylinder D=(0,∞)×Ω, where Ω⊂R{sup n}, n≥3, is an unbounded domain. When the initial function has compact support the highest possible rate of decay of this solution as t→∞ is found. An upper estimate characterizing the decay of the solution is established, which is close to the lower estimate if the domain is sufficiently 'narrow'. The same authors have previously obtained results of this type for second order anisotropic parabolic equations. Bibliography: 29 titles.
Higher Order Bases in a 2D Hybrid BEM/FEM Formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fink, Patrick W.; Wilton, Donald R.
2002-01-01
The advantages of using higher order, interpolatory basis functions are examined in the analysis of transverse electric (TE) plane wave scattering by homogeneous, dielectric cylinders. A boundary-element/finite-element (BEM/FEM) hybrid formulation is employed in which the interior dielectric region is modeled with the vector Helmholtz equation, and a radiation boundary condition is supplied by an Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE). An efficient method of handling the singular self-term arising in the EFIE is presented. The iterative solution of the partially dense system of equations is obtained using the Quasi-Minimal Residual (QMR) algorithm with an Incomplete LU Threshold (ILUT) preconditioner. Numerical results are shown for the case of an incident wave impinging upon a square dielectric cylinder. The convergence of the solution is shown versus the number of unknowns as a function of the completeness order of the basis functions.
Perry, Lynn K.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Malloy, Lisa M.; Schiffer, Ryan N.
2011-01-01
Research suggests variability supports successful categorization, however, the scope of variability’s support at the level of higher-order generalization remains unexplored. A longitudinal study examined the role of exemplar variability in first- and second-order generalization in the context of early nominal-category learning. Sixteen eighteen-month-old children were taught twelve categories. Half were taught with sets of highly similar exemplars; half with sets of more variable exemplars. Participants’ learning and generalization of trained labels and their development of more general word-learning biases were tested. All children learned labels for trained exemplars, but children trained with variable exemplars generalized to novel exemplars of these categories, developed a discriminating word-learning bias generalizing labels of novel solid objects by shape and nonsolids by material, and accelerated in vocabulary acquisition. These data demonstrate that variability leads to better abstraction of individual and global category organization, increasing learning outside the laboratory. PMID:21106892
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikuta, Akira; Orimoto, Hisako; Ogawa, Hitoshi
In this study, a stochastic detection method of failure of machines based on the changing information of not only a linear correlation but also the higher order nonlinear correlation is proposed in a form suitable for on-line signal processing in time domain by using a personal computer, especially in order to find minutely the mutual relationship between sound and vibration emitted from rotational machines. More specifically, a conditional probability hierarchically reflecting various types of correlation information is theoretically derived by introducing an expression on the multi-dimensional probability distribution in orthogonal expansion series form. The effectiveness of the proposed theory is experimentally confirmed by applying it to the observed data emitted from a rotational machine driven by an electric motor.
Higher-order QCD predictions for dark matter production in mono- Z searches at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neubert, Matthias; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Cen
2016-02-01
We present theoretical predictions for mono- Z production in the search for dark matter in Run-II at the LHC, including next-to-leading order QCD corrections and parton-shower effects. We consider generic simplified models with vector and scalar s-channel mediators. The calculation is performed by implementing the simplified models in the F eynR ules/M adG raph5_ aMC@NLO framework, which allows us to include higher-order QCD corrections and parton-shower effects in an automated way. We find that these corrections are sizeable and help to reduce the theoretical uncertainties. We also investigate the discovery potential in several benchmark scenarios in the 13 TeV run at the LHC.
Double Quarter Wave Crab Cavity Field Profile Analysis and Higher Order Mode Characterization
Marques, Carlos; Xiao, B. P.; Belomestnykh, S.
2014-06-01
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is underway for a major upgrade to increase its luminosity by an order of magnitude beyond its original design specifications. This novel machine configuration known as the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will rely on various innovative technologies including very compact and ultra-precise superconducting crab cavities for beam rotation. A double quarter wave crab cavity (DQWCC) has been designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the HL-LHC. This cavity as well as the structural support components were fabricated and assembled at Niowave. The field profile of the crabbing mode for the DQWCC was investigated using a phase shift bead pulling technique and compared with simulated results to ensure proper operation or discover discrepancies from modeled results and/or variation in fabrication tolerances. Higher-Order Mode (HOM) characterization was also performed and correlated with simulations.
Fundamental measure theory for smectic phases: scaling behavior and higher order terms.
Wittmann, René; Marechal, Matthieu; Mecke, Klaus
2014-08-14
The recent extension of Rosenfeld's fundamental measure theory to anisotropic hard particles predicts nematic order of rod-like particles. Our analytic study of different aligned shapes provides new insights into the structure of this density functional, which is basically founded on experience with hard spheres. We combine scaling arguments with dimensional crossover and motivate a modified expression, which enables an appropriate description of smectic layering. We calculate the nematic-smectic-A transition of monodisperse hard spherocylinders with and without orientational degrees of freedom and present the equation of state and phase diagram including these two liquid crystalline phases in good agreement with simulations. We also find improved results related to the isotropic-nematic interface. We discuss the quality of empirical corrections and the convergence towards an exact second virial coefficient, including higher order terms.
Spontaneous breakdown of Lorentz symmetry in scalar QED with higher order derivatives
Polonyi, Janos; Siwek, Alicja
2011-10-15
Scalar QED is studied with higher order derivatives for the scalar-field kinetic energy. A local potential is generated for the gauge field due to the covariant derivatives and the vacuum with nonvanishing expectation value for the scalar field, and the vector potential is constructed in the leading-order saddle-point expansion. This vacuum breaks the global gauge and Lorentz symmetry spontaneously. The unitarity of time evolution is assured in the physical, positive norm subspace, and the linearized equations of motion are calculated. The Goldstone theorem always keeps the radiation field massless. A particular model is constructed where the full set of standard Maxwell equations is recovered on the tree level, thereby relegating the effects of broken Lorentz symmetry to the level of radiative corrections.
Khandekar, A A; Malwatkar, G M; Patre, B M
2013-01-01
In this paper, a discrete time sliding mode controller (DSMC) is proposed for higher order plus delay time (HOPDT) processes. A sliding mode surface is selected as a function of system states and error and the tuning parameters of sliding mode controller are determined using dominant pole placement strategy. The condition for the existence of stable sliding mode is obtained by using Lyapunov function. The proposed method is applicable to HOPDT processes with oscillatory and integrating behavior, open loop instability or non-minimum phase characteristics and works satisfactory under the effect of parametric uncertainty. The method does not require reduced order model and provides simple way to design the controllers. The simulation and experimentation results show that the proposed method ensures desired tracking dynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melott, A. L.; Buchert, T.; Weib, A. G.
1995-01-01
We present results showing an improvement of the accuracy of perturbation theory as applied to cosmological structure formation for a useful range of scales. The Lagrangian theory of gravitational instability of Friedmann-Lemaitre cosmogonies is compared with numerical simulations. We study the dynamics of hierarchical models as a second step. In the first step we analyzed the performance of the Lagrangian schemes for pancake models, the difference being that in the latter models the initial power spectrum is truncated. This work probed the quasi-linear and weakly non-linear regimes. We here explore whether the results found for pancake models carry over to hierarchical models which are evolved deeply into the non-linear regime. We smooth the initial data by using a variety of filter types and filter scales in order to determine the optimal performance of the analytical models, as has been done for the 'Zel'dovich-approximation' - hereafter TZA - in previous work. We find that for spectra with negative power-index the second-order scheme performs considerably better than TZA in terms of statistics which probe the dynamics, and slightly better in terms of low-order statistics like the power-spectrum. However, in contrast to the results found for pancake models, where the higher-order schemes get worse than TZA at late non-linear stages and on small scales, we here find that the second-order model is as robust as TZA, retaining the improvement at later stages and on smaller scales. In view of these results we expect that the second-order truncated Lagrangian model is especially useful for the modelling of standard dark matter models such as Hot-, Cold-, and Mixed-Dark-Matter.
Distortion Measurement of Multi-Finger Transistor Using Split Higher-Order Laue Zone Lines Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uesugi, Fumihiko; Yamazaki, Takashi; Kuramochi, Koji; Hashimoto, Iwao; Kojima, Kenji; Takeno, Shiro
2008-05-01
A distortion measurement in a region close to the interface between different materials in LSI is performed using a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern. Split higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) lines emerge in the CBED pattern so that a stressing region is observed close to the interface. The calculation method of the split HOLZ lines based on kinematical approximation with the sample's deformation model well reflects the experimental results. As a result of split HOLZ line analysis using the present method, it is found that there is distortion depending on the external form of a multi-finger transistor.
Higher-Order Spectral Analysis of F-18 Flight Flutter Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Dunn, Shane
2005-01-01
Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) F/A-18 flight flutter test data is presented and analyzed using various techniques. The data includes high-quality measurements of forced responses and limit cycle oscillation (LCO) phenomena. Standard correlation and power spectral density (PSD) techniques are applied to the data and presented. Novel applications of experimentally-identified impulse responses and higher-order spectral techniques are also applied to the data and presented. The goal of this research is to develop methods that can identify the onset of nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, such as LCO, during flutter testing.
N = 151Pu ,Cm and Cf nuclei under rotational stress: Role of higher-order deformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hota, S. S.; Chowdhury, P.; Khoo, T. L.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Qiu, Y.; Ahmad, I.; Greene, J. P.; Tandel, S. K.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Bertone, P. F.; Chiara, C. J.; Deo, A. Y.; D'Olympia, N.; Gros, S.; Guess, C. J.; Harrington, T.; Hartley, D. J.; Henning, G.; Hoffman, C. R.; Jackson, E. G.; Kondev, F. G.; Lakshmi, S.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Moran, K.; Nair, C.; Peterson, D.; Shirwadkar, U.; Stefanescu, I.
2014-12-01
Fast-rotating N = 151 isotones 245Pu, 247Cm and 249Cf have been studied through inelastic excitation and transfer reactions with radioactive targets. While all have a ground-state band built on a νj15/2 [ 734 ] 9 /2- Nilsson configuration, new excited bands have also been observed in each isotone. These odd-N excited bands allow a comparison of the alignment behavior for two different configurations, where the νj15/2 alignment is either blocked or allowed. The effect of higher order deformations is explored through cranking calculations, which help clarify the elusive nature of νj15/2 alignments.
Higher order mode damping studies on the PEP-II B-Factory RF cavity
Rimmer, R.; Goldberg, D.; Lambertson, G.; Voelker, F. ); Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Pendleton, R.; Schwarz, H. ); Adams, F.; De Jong, M. )
1992-03-01
We describe studies of the higher-order-mode (HOM) properties of the prototype 476 MHz RF cavity for the proposed PEP-II B-Factory and a waveguide damping scheme to reduce possible HOM-driven coupled-bunch beam instability growth. Numerical studies include modelling of the HOM spectrum using MAFIA and ARGUS, and calculation of the loaded Q's of the damped modes using data from these codes and the Kroll-Yu method. We discuss briefly the experimental investigations of the modes, which will be made in a full-size low-power test cavity, using probes, wire excitation and bead perturbation methods.
Higher order mode damping studies on the PEP-II B-Factory RF cavity
Rimmer, R.; Goldberg, D.; Lambertson, G.; Voelker, F.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Pendleton, R.; Schwarz, H.; Adams, F.; De Jong, M.
1992-03-01
We describe studies of the higher-order-mode (HOM) properties of the prototype 476 MHz RF cavity for the proposed PEP-II B-Factory and a waveguide damping scheme to reduce possible HOM-driven coupled-bunch beam instability growth. Numerical studies include modelling of the HOM spectrum using MAFIA and ARGUS, and calculation of the loaded Q`s of the damped modes using data from these codes and the Kroll-Yu method. We discuss briefly the experimental investigations of the modes, which will be made in a full-size low-power test cavity, using probes, wire excitation and bead perturbation methods.
Time-domain multimode dispersion measurement in a higher-order-mode fiber
Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E. V.; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan
2012-01-01
We present a new multimode dispersion measurement technique based on the time-of-flight method. The modal delay and group velocity dispersion of all excited modes in a few-mode fiber can be measured simultaneously by a tunable pulsed laser and a high speed sampling oscilloscope. A newly designed higher-order-mode fiber with large anomalous dispersion in the LP02 mode has been characterized using this method, and experimental results are in good agreement with the designed dispersion values. The demonstrated technique is significantly simpler to implement than the existing frequency-domain or interferometry-based methods. PMID:22297348
Nonlinear optics in the LP(02) higher-order mode of a fiber.
Chen, Y; Chen, Z; Wadsworth, W J; Birks, T A
2013-07-29
The distinct disperion properties of higher-order modes in optical fibers permit the nonlinear generation of radiation deeper into the ultraviolet than is possible with the fundamental mode. This is exploited using adiabatic, broadband mode convertors to couple light efficiently from an input fundamental mode and also to return the generated light to an output fundamental mode over a broad spectral range. For example, we generate visible and UV supercontinuum light in the LP(02) mode of a photonic crystal fiber from sub-ns pulses with a wavelength of 532 nm.
Inclusion of Higher Order Harmonics in the Modeling of Optimal Low-Thrust Orbit Transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kéchichian, Jean A.
2008-03-01
The higher fidelity modeling of minimum-time transfers using continuous constant acceleration low-thrust is depicted by including the higher zonal harmonics J 3 and J 4for the Earth gravity model. The inclusion of these higher order harmonics is of great benefit in carrying out accurate transfer simulations, especially for long duration flights dwelling in low altitudes where the effects of these zonals are greatest. The analysis presented here can also be coded in the flight guidance computer of spacecraft for autonomous operations and on ground computers for solution uploads and resetting during low-thrust transfers. Equinoctial elements are used to avoid singularities when orbits are circular or equatorial and the applicability of the theory is of a general nature regardless of the size, shape and spatial orientation of the orbits provided they are not of the parabolic or hyperbolic types. To this end, two sets of dynamic and adjoint differential equations in terms of nonsingular orbital elements are derived by further considering a more accurate perturbation model in the form of the higher order Earth zonal harmonics J 3and J 4. Previous analyses involved only the first-order J 2 term in order to model optimal lowthrust transfers between any two given circular or elliptic orbits. The first formulation uses the eccentric longitude as the sixth element of an equinoctial set of elements while describing the thrust as well as the zonal accelerations in the so called direct equinoctial frame. The second formulation makes use of the true longitude as the sixth element instead while resolving the thrust and the zonal accelerations in the rotating Euler-Hill frame simplifying considerably the algebraic derivations leading to the generation of the nonsingular differential equations that are also free of any singularity for the important zero eccentricity and zero inclination cases often encountered in Earth orbit transfer problems. The derivations of both nonsingular
Analysis of laminated composite plates using a higher-order shear deformation theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phan, N. D.; Reddy, J. N.
1985-01-01
A higher-order deformation theory is used to analyse laminated anisotropic composite plates for deflections, stresses, natural frequencies and buckling loads. The theory accounts for parabolic distribution of the transverse shear stresses, and requires no shear correction coefficients. A displacement finite element model of the theory is developed, and applications of the element to bending, vibration and stability of laminated plates are discussed. The present solutions are compared with those obtained using the classical plate theory and the three-dimensional elasticity theory.
Effects of static equilibrium and higher-order nonlinearities on rotor blade stability in hover
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespodasilva, Marcelo R. M.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1988-01-01
The equilibrium and stability of the coupled elastic lead/lag, flap, and torsion motion of a cantilever rotor blade in hover are addressed, and the influence of several higher-order terms in the equations of motion of the blade is determined for a range of values of collective pitch. The blade is assumed to be untwisted and to have uniform properties along its span. In addition, chordwise offsets between its elastic, tension, mass, and aerodynamic centers are assumed to be negligible for simplicity. The aerodynamic forces acting on the blade are modeled using a quasi-steady, strip-theory approximation.
Higher Order Mode Coupling in Feed Waveguide of a Planar Slot Array Antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rengarajan, Sembiam
2011-01-01
A simple technique was developed to account for the higher order mode coupling between adjacent coupling slots in the feed waveguide of a planar slot array. The method uses an equation relating the slot impedance to the slot voltage and a reaction integral involving the equivalent magnetic current of the slot aperture and the magnetic field coupled from an adjacent slot. In the proposed method, one uses the Elliott s design technique to determine tilt angles and lengths of the coupling slots. The radiating slots are modeled as shunt admittances, and the coupling slots are modeled as series impedances.
Realization of polarization evolution on higher-order Poincaré sphere with metasurface
Liu, Yachao; Ling, Xiaohui; Yi, Xunong; Zhou, Xinxing; Luo, Hailu Wen, Shuangchun
2014-05-12
We present a simple and convenient method to yield cylindrical vector (CV) beams and realize its polarization evolution on higher-order Poincaré sphere based on inhomogeneous birefringent metasurface. By means of local polarization transformation of the metasurface, it is possible to convert a light beam with homogeneous elliptical polarization into a vector beam with any desired polarization distribution. The Stokes parameters of the output light are measured to verify our scheme, which show well agreement with the theoretical prediction. Our method may provide a convenient way to generate CV beams, which is expected to have potential applications in encoding information and quantum computation.
Travelling wave solutions for higher-order wave equations of kdv type (iii).
Li, Jibin; Rui, Weigou; Long, Yao; He, Bin
2006-01-01
By using the theory of planar dynamical systems to the travelling wave equation of a higher order nonlinear wave equations of KdV type, the existence of smooth solitary wave, kink wave and anti-kink wave solutions and uncountably infinite many smooth and non-smooth periodic wave solutions are proved. In different regions of the parametric space, the sufficient conditions to guarantee the existence of the above solutions are given. In some conditions, exact explicit parametric representations of these waves are obtain. PMID:20361813
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brakman, B.; Dioso, L.; Parker, D.; Segal, L.; Merriman, C.; Howard, I.; Vu, H.; Anderson, K.; Riley, S.; Amery, D.
1989-01-01
This report summarizes the efforts of the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program during the 1988-89 scholastic year. The primary goal was to address specific needs in the design of an integrated system to grow higher order plants in space. The initial phase of the design effort concentrated on studying such a system and identifying its needs. Once these needs were defined, emphasis was placed on the design and fabrication of devices to meet them. Specific attention was placed on a hand-held harvester, a nutrient concentration sensor, an air-water separator, and a closed-loop biological system simulation.
A higher order panel method for general analysis and design applications in subsonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, F. T.; Rubbert, P. E.; Ehlers, F. E.
1976-01-01
A higher-order panel method is described for numerical solution of boundary-value problems relating to steady inviscid irrotational incompressible subsonic fluid flow in a domain. Both Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions are treated; two types of auxiliary conditions are used to remove the degrees of freedom that arise from specifying only the derivative of the perturbation velocity potential. Four general network types and two expansions of the induced potential kernel are employed in the numerical solution. Some results are presented which illustrate the modeling options and numerical characteristics of the method.
Higher Order Modes HOM___s in Coupled Cavities of the Flash Module ACC39
Shinton, I.R.R.; Jones, R.M.; Li, Z.; Zhang, P.; /Manchester U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /DESY
2012-09-14
We analyse the higher order modes (HOM's) in the 3.9GHz bunch shaping cavities installed in the FLASH facility at DESY. A suite of finite element computer codes (including HFSS and ACE3P) and globalised scattering matrix calculations (GSM) are used to investigate the modes in these cavities. This study is primarily focused on the dipole component of the multiband expansion of the wakefield, with the emphasis being on the development of a HOM-based BPM system for ACC39. Coupled inter-cavity modes are simulated together with a limited band of trapped modes.
An ergodic configurational thermostat using selective control of higher order temperatures.
Patra, Puneet Kumar; Bhattacharya, Baidurya
2015-05-21
The conventional Nosé-Hoover type deterministic thermostat scheme for controlling temperature by configurational variables (Braga-Travis (BT) thermostat) is non-ergodic for systems with a few degrees of freedom. While for the original Nosé-Hoover kinetic thermostat ergodicity has been achieved by controlling the higher order moments of kinetic energy, the issues of nonergodicity of BT thermostat persists. In this paper, we introduce two new measures of configurational temperature (second and third order) based on the generalized temperature-curvature relationship and obtain a family of deterministic thermostatting schemes by selectively (and simultaneously) controlling the different orders of temperatures through pseudo-friction terms. The ergodic characteristics of the proposed thermostats are tested using a single harmonic oscillator through statistical (normality of joint distributions at different Poincare sections) as well as dynamical tests (difference of the minimum and maximum largest Lyapunov exponent). Our results indicate that simultaneously controlling the first and the second order configurational temperatures (C(1,2) thermostat) is sufficient to make the dynamics ergodic. A 2000 particle Lennard-Jones system is subjected to (i) equilibrium and (ii) sudden temperature change under BT and C(1,2) thermostatting schemes. The C(1,2) thermostat is found to be more robust than the BT thermostat without increasing computational costs.
Higher Energy Expenditure in Humans Predicts Natural Mortality
Hanson, Robert L.; Sievers, Maurice L.; Bennett, Peter H.; Nelson, Robert G.; Krakoff, Jonathan
2011-01-01
Context: Higher metabolic rates increase free radical formation, which may accelerate aging and lead to early mortality. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether higher metabolic rates measured by two different methods predict early natural mortality in humans. Design: Nondiabetic healthy Pima Indian volunteers (n = 652) were admitted to an inpatient unit for approximately 7 d as part of a longitudinal study of obesity and diabetes risk factors. Vital status of study participants was determined through December 31, 2006. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (24EE) was measured in 508 individuals, resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured in 384 individuals, and 240 underwent both measurements on separate days. Data for 24EE were collected in a respiratory chamber between 1985 and 2006 with a mean (sd) follow-up time of 11.1 (6.5) yr and for RMR using an open-circuit respiratory hood system between 1982 and 2006 with a mean follow-up time of 15.4 (6.3) yr. Cox regression models were used to test the effect of EE on natural mortality, controlled for age, sex, and body weight. Results: In both groups, 27 natural deaths occurred during the study period. For each 100-kcal/24 h increase in EE, the risk of natural mortality increased by 1.29 (95% confidence interval = 1.00–1.66; P < 0.05) in the 24EE group and by 1.25 (95% confidence interval = 1.01–1.55; P < 0.05) in the RMR group, after adjustment for age, sex, and body weight in proportional hazard analyses. Conclusions: Higher metabolic rates as reflected by 24EE or RMR predict early natural mortality, indicating that higher energy turnover may accelerate aging in humans. PMID:21450984
Toward higher order particle simulation of space-charge-dominated beams
Friedman, A., LLNL
1998-01-12
The intense particle beams to be used as drivers for Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion exhibit dynamics which are dominated by space-charge (abbreviated s-c) forces, rather than by thermal pressure (as in most traditional accelerator applications). Such beams are non-neutral plasmas, and the particle-in-cell technique (with the addition of detailed models for the externally applied fields and the domain geometry) has proven effective in their study. Typically, the applied focusing, bending, and accelerating fields vary rapidly with axial position, while the s-c fields (which are comparable in strength to the applied fields) vary smoothly; it is desirable to avoid using many steps to resolve the applied field variations while still computing accurate orbits. We are exploring high-order particle advance methods and other techniques to enhance the efficiency of these simulations. The earlier stages of this work included initial studies of: sub-cycling of the particle advance relative to the field solution; higher-order time-advance algorithms; force-averaging by integration along approximate orbits; and orbit- averaging. In this paper we describe further progress: (1) development of prescriptions for ``smooth`` cutoffs of tabulated fringe-field data so as to preserve the convergence of a high-order advance, studied using the realistic-profile model problem described in (2) for a high order advance and the model problem, comparison of both ``true`` and ``approximate`` (old-data, non-symplectic) every-substep s-c force application to periodic (``operator-split``) s-c force application; and (3) 2-d PIC (WARPxy code) convergence studies of the Candy-Rozmus (C-R) explicit fourth-order symplectic integrator using both ``true`` (every-substep) s-c and operator-split s-c, and of the leapfrog mover, modeling a transport line with sharp-edged fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, Thomas; Fairbairn, Malcolm
2013-07-01
The Jeans analysis is often used to infer the total density of a system by relating the velocity moments of an observable tracer population to the underlying gravitational potential. This technique has recently been applied in the search for dark matter (DM) in objects such as dwarf spheroidal galaxies where the presence of DM is inferred via stellar velocities. A precise account of the density is needed to constrain the expected gamma-ray flux from DM self-annihilation and to distinguish between cold and warm DM models. Unfortunately, the traditional method of fitting the second-order Jeans equation to the tracer dispersion suffers from an unbreakable degeneracy of solutions due to the unknown velocity anisotropy of the projected system. To tackle this degeneracy, one can appeal to higher moments of the Jeans equation. By introducing an analogue to the Binney anisotropy parameter at fourth order, β' we create a framework that encompasses all solutions to the fourth-order Jeans equations rather than the restricted range imposed by the separable augmented density. The condition β' = f(β) ensures that the degeneracy is lifted and we interpret the separable augmented density system as the order-independent case β' = β. For a generic choice of β', we present the line-of-sight projection of the fourth moment and how it could be incorporated into a joint likelihood analysis of the dispersion and kurtosis. The framework is then extended to all orders such that constraints may be placed to ensure a physically positive distribution function. Having presented the mathematical framework, we then use it to make preliminary analyses of simulated dwarf spheroidal data leading to interesting results which strongly motivate further study.
HOMOR: higher order model outlier rejection for high b-value MR diffusion data.
Pannek, Kerstin; Raffelt, David; Bell, Christopher; Mathias, Jane L; Rose, Stephen E
2012-11-01
Diffusion MR images are prone to artefacts caused by head movement and cardiac pulsation. Previous techniques for the automated voxel-wise detection of signal intensity outliers have relied on the fit of the diffusion tensor to the data (RESTORE). However, the diffusion tensor cannot appropriately model more than a single fibre population, which may lead to inaccuracies when identifying outlier voxels in crossing fibre regions, particularly when high b-values are used to obtain increased angular contrast. HOMOR (higher order model outlier rejection) was developed to overcome this limitation and is introduced in this study. HOMOR is closely related to RESTORE, but employs a higher order model capable of resolving multiple fibre populations within a voxel. Using high b-value (b=3000 s/mm2) diffusion data from a population of 90 healthy participants, as well as simulations, HOMOR was found to identify a decreased number of outlier voxels compared to RESTORE primarily within areas of crossing, bending and fanning fibres. At lower b-values, however, RESTORE and HOMOR give similar results, which is demonstrated using diffusion data acquired at b=1000 s/mm2 in a mixed cohort. This study demonstrates that, although RESTORE is suitable for low b-value data, HOMOR is better suited for high b-value data. PMID:22819964
A source array for generating higher order acoustic modes in circular ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wyerman, B. R.; Reethof, G.
1976-01-01
A unique source array has been developed for the generation of both spinning and non-spinning higher order modes in a circular duct. The array consists of two concentric rings of sources. Through individual control of the response of each element, the array provided phase and amplitude control in the radial as well as circumferential directions. Radial modes shapes were measured in a 12-inch diameter anechoically-terminated hollow duct. These modes could be generated at their cut-off frequency and throughout a frequency range extending to the cut-off frequency for the next higher order radial mode. Comparisons are given between theory and experiment for the generation of specific modes. The radial dependence of the measured mode shapes was enhanced considerably by the design of this array. The results indicate a significant improvement over previous mode generation mechanisms. The contamination of the generated mode by additional spurious modes is also considered for variations between individual elements within the source array.
Higher-Order Motion-Compensation for In Vivo Cardiac Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Rats
Welsh, Christopher L.; DiBella, Edward V. R.; Hsu, Edward W.
2015-01-01
Motion of the heart has complicated in vivo applications of cardiac diffusion MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), especially in small animals such as rats where ultra-high-performance gradient sets are currently not available. Even with velocity compensation via, for example, bipolar encoding pulses, the variable shot-to-shot residual motion-induced spin phase can still give rise to pronounced artifacts. This study presents diffusion-encoding schemes that are designed to compensate for higher-order motion components, including acceleration and jerk, which also have the desirable practical features of minimal TEs and high achievable b-values. The effectiveness of these schemes was verified numerically on a realistic beating heart phantom, and demonstrated empirically with in vivo cardiac diffusion MRI in rats. Compensation for acceleration, and lower motion components, was found to be both necessary and sufficient for obtaining diffusion-weighted images of acceptable quality and SNR, which yielded the first in vivo cardiac DTI demonstrated in the rat. These findings suggest that compensation for higher order motion, particularly acceleration, can be an effective alternative solution to high-performance gradient hardware for improving in vivo cardiac DTI. PMID:25775486
Pecka, Shannon; Schmid, Kendra; Pozehl, Bunny
2014-12-01
This article describes development of the Pecka Grading Rubric (PGR) as a strategy to facilitate and evaluate students' higher-order thinking in discussion boards. The purpose of this study was to describe psychometric properties of the PGR. Rubric reliability was pilot tested on a discussion board assignment used by 15 senior student registered nurse anesthetist enrolled in an Advanced Principles of Anesthesia course. Interrater and intrarater reliabilities were tested using an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to evaluate absolute agreement of scoring. Raters gave each category a score, scores of the categories were summed, and a total score was calculated for the entire rubric. Interrater (ICC = 0.939, P < .001) and intrarater (ICC = 0.902 to 0.994, P < .001) reliabilities were excellent for total point scores. A content validity index was used to evaluate content validity. Raters evaluated content validity of each cell of the PGR. The content validity index (0.8-1.0) was acceptable. Known-group validity was evaluated by comparing graduate student registered nurse anesthetists (N = 7) with undergraduate senior nursing students (N = 13). Beginning evidence indicates a valid and reliable instrument that measures higher-order thinking in the student registered nurse anesthetist.
An advanced higher-order theory for laminated composite plates with general lamination angles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhen; Zhu, Hong; Chen, Wan-Ji
2011-10-01
This paper proposes a higher-order shear deformation theory to predict the bending response of the laminated composite and sandwich plates with general lamination configurations. The proposed theory a priori satisfies the continuity conditions of transverse shear stresses at interfaces. Moreover, the number of unknown variables is independent of the number of layers. The first derivatives of transverse displacements have been taken out from the inplane displacement fields, so that the C0 shape functions are only required during its finite element implementation. Due to C0 continuity requirements, the proposed model can be conveniently extended for implementation in commercial finite element codes. To verify the proposed theory, the fournode C0 quadrilateral element is employed for the interpolation of all the displacement parameters defined at each nodal point on the composite plate. Numerical results show that following the proposed theory, simple C0 finite elements could accurately predict the interlaminar stresses of laminated composite and sandwich plates directly from a constitutive equation, which has caused difficulty for the other global higher order theories.
Virtual Laboratories to Achieve Higher-Order Learning in Fluid Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ward, A. S.; Gooseff, M. N.; Toto, R.
2009-12-01
Bloom’s higher-order cognitive skills (analysis, evaluation, and synthesis) are recognized as necessary in engineering education, yet these are difficult to achieve in traditional lecture formats. Laboratory components supplement traditional lectures in an effort to emphasize active learning and provide higher-order challenges, but these laboratories are often subject to the constraints of (a) increasing student enrollment, (b) limited funding for operational, maintenance, and instructional expenses and (c) increasing demands on undergraduate student credit requirements. Here, we present results from a pilot project implementing virtual (or online) laboratory experiences as an alternative to a traditional laboratory experience in Fluid Mechanics, a required third year course. Students and faculty were surveyed to identify the topics that were most difficult, and virtual laboratory and design components developed to supplement lecture material. Each laboratory includes a traditional lab component, requiring student analysis and evaluation. The lab concludes with a design exercise, which imposes additional problem constraints and allows students to apply their laboratory observations to a real-world situation.
Integrating reaction and analysis: investigation of higher-order reactions by cryogenic trapping
Stockinger, Skrollan
2013-01-01
Summary A new approach for the investigation of a higher-order reaction by on-column reaction gas chromatography is presented. The reaction and the analytical separation are combined in a single experiment to investigate the Diels–Alder reaction of benzenediazonium-2-carboxylate as a benzyne precursor with various anthracene derivatives, i.e. anthracene, 9-bromoanthracene, 9-anthracenecarboxaldehyde and 9-anthracenemethanol. To overcome limitations of short reaction contact times at elevated temperatures a novel experimental setup was developed involving a cooling trap to achieve focusing and mixing of the reactants at a defined spot in a fused-silica capillary. This trap functions as a reactor within the separation column in the oven of a gas chromatograph. The reactants are sequentially injected to avoid undefined mixing in the injection port. An experimental protocol was developed with optimized injection intervals and cooling times to achieve sufficient conversions at short reaction times. Reaction products were rapidly identified by mass spectrometric detection. This new approach represents a practical procedure to investigate higher-order reactions at an analytical level and it simultaneously provides valuable information for the optimization of the reaction conditions. PMID:24062850
Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Limborg, C.; Ng, C.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Ko, K.; /SLAC
2009-06-19
Over the past years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD), under SciDAC sponsorship, has developed a suite of 3D (2D) parallel higher-order finite element (FE) codes, T3P (T2P) and Pic3P (Pic2P), aimed at accurate, large-scale simulation of wakefields and particle-field interactions in radio-frequency (RF) cavities of complex shape. The codes are built on the FE infrastructure that supports SLAC's frequency domain codes, Omega3P and S3P, to utilize conformal tetrahedral (triangular)meshes, higher-order basis functions and quadratic geometry approximation. For time integration, they adopt an unconditionally stable implicit scheme. Pic3P (Pic2P) extends T3P (T2P) to treat charged-particle dynamics self-consistently using the PIC (particle-in-cell) approach, the first such implementation on a conformal, unstructured grid using Whitney basis functions. Examples from applications to the International Linear Collider (ILC), Positron Electron Project-II (PEP-II), Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and other accelerators will be presented to compare the accuracy and computational efficiency of these codes versus their counterparts using structured grids.
Higher-order action planning for individual and joint object manipulations.
Meyer, Marlene; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Hunnius, Sabine
2013-04-01
Many actions involve multiple action steps, which raises the question how far ahead people plan when they perform such actions. Here, we examined higher-order planning for action sequences and whether people planned similarly or differently when acting individually or together with an action partner. For individual performances, participants picked up an object with one hand and passed it to their other hand before placing it onto a target location. For joint performances, they picked up the object and handed it to their action partner, who placed it onto the target location. Each object could be grasped at only two possible grasping positions, implying that the first selected grasp on the object determined the postures for the rest of the action sequence. By varying the height of the target shelf, we tested whether people planned ahead and modulated their grasp choices to avoid uncomfortable end postures. Our results indicated that participants engaged in higher-order planning, but needed task experience before demonstrating such planning during both individual and joint performances. The rate of learning was similar in the two conditions, and participants transferred experience from individual to joint performance. Our results indicate similarity in mechanisms underlying individual and joint action sequence planning. PMID:23361302
Smooth and flat phase-locked Kerr frequency comb generation by higher order mode suppression.
Huang, S-W; Liu, H; Yang, J; Yu, M; Kwong, D-L; Wong, C W
2016-05-16
High-Q microresonator is perceived as a promising platform for optical frequency comb generation, via dissipative soliton formation. In order to achieve a higher quality factor and obtain the necessary anomalous dispersion, multi-mode waveguides were previously implemented in Si3N4 microresonators. However, coupling between different transverse mode families in multi-mode waveguides results in periodic disruption of dispersion and quality factor, and consequently causes perturbation to dissipative soliton formation and amplitude modulation to the corresponding spectrum. Careful choice of pump wavelength to avoid the mode crossing region is thus critical in conventional Si3N4 microresonators. Here, we report a novel design of Si3N4 microresonator in which single-mode operation, high quality factor, and anomalous dispersion are attained simultaneously. The novel microresonator is consisted of uniform single-mode waveguides in the semi-circle region, to eliminate bending induced mode coupling, and adiabatically tapered waveguides in the straight region, to avoid excitation of higher order modes. The intrinsic quality factor of the microresonator reaches 1.36 × 10(6) while the group velocity dispersion remains to be anomalous at -50 fs(2)/mm. With this novel microresonator, we demonstrate that broadband phase-locked Kerr frequency combs with flat and smooth spectra can be generated by pumping at any resonances in the optical C-band.
Smooth and flat phase-locked Kerr frequency comb generation by higher order mode suppression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, S.-W.; Liu, H.; Yang, J.; Yu, M.; Kwong, D.-L.; Wong, C. W.
2016-05-01
High-Q microresonator is perceived as a promising platform for optical frequency comb generation, via dissipative soliton formation. In order to achieve a higher quality factor and obtain the necessary anomalous dispersion, multi-mode waveguides were previously implemented in Si3N4 microresonators. However, coupling between different transverse mode families in multi-mode waveguides results in periodic disruption of dispersion and quality factor, and consequently causes perturbation to dissipative soliton formation and amplitude modulation to the corresponding spectrum. Careful choice of pump wavelength to avoid the mode crossing region is thus critical in conventional Si3N4 microresonators. Here, we report a novel design of Si3N4 microresonator in which single-mode operation, high quality factor, and anomalous dispersion are attained simultaneously. The novel microresonator is consisted of uniform single-mode waveguides in the semi-circle region, to eliminate bending induced mode coupling, and adiabatically tapered waveguides in the straight region, to avoid excitation of higher order modes. The intrinsic quality factor of the microresonator reaches 1.36 × 106 while the group velocity dispersion remains to be anomalous at ‑50 fs2/mm. With this novel microresonator, we demonstrate that broadband phase-locked Kerr frequency combs with flat and smooth spectra can be generated by pumping at any resonances in the optical C-band.
Empowerment theory: clarifying the nature of higher-order multidimensional constructs.
Peterson, N Andrew
2014-03-01
Development of empowerment theory has focused on defining the construct at different levels of analysis, presenting new frameworks or dimensions, and explaining relationships between empowerment-related processes and outcomes. Less studied, and less conceptually developed, is the nature of empowerment as a higher-order multidimensional construct. One critical issue is whether empowerment is conceptualized as a superordinate construct (i.e., empowerment is manifested by its dimensions), an aggregate construct (i.e., empowerment is formed by its dimensions), or rather as a set of distinct constructs. To date, researchers have presented superordinate models without careful consideration of the relationships between dimensions and the higher-order construct of empowerment. Empirical studies can yield very different results, however, depending on the conceptualization of a construct. This paper represents the first attempt to address this issue systematically in empowerment theory. It is argued that superordinate models of empowerment are misspecified and research that tests alternative models at different levels of analysis is needed to advance theory, research, and practice in this area. Recommendations for future work are discussed.
Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners.
Chabeli, M M
2006-08-01
Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content), to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from 'transmission' models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30). Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000). Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000). The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA) is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005). PMID:17131612
Smooth and flat phase-locked Kerr frequency comb generation by higher order mode suppression
Huang, S.-W.; Liu, H.; Yang, J.; Yu, M.; Kwong, D.-L.; Wong, C. W.
2016-01-01
High-Q microresonator is perceived as a promising platform for optical frequency comb generation, via dissipative soliton formation. In order to achieve a higher quality factor and obtain the necessary anomalous dispersion, multi-mode waveguides were previously implemented in Si3N4 microresonators. However, coupling between different transverse mode families in multi-mode waveguides results in periodic disruption of dispersion and quality factor, and consequently causes perturbation to dissipative soliton formation and amplitude modulation to the corresponding spectrum. Careful choice of pump wavelength to avoid the mode crossing region is thus critical in conventional Si3N4 microresonators. Here, we report a novel design of Si3N4 microresonator in which single-mode operation, high quality factor, and anomalous dispersion are attained simultaneously. The novel microresonator is consisted of uniform single-mode waveguides in the semi-circle region, to eliminate bending induced mode coupling, and adiabatically tapered waveguides in the straight region, to avoid excitation of higher order modes. The intrinsic quality factor of the microresonator reaches 1.36 × 106 while the group velocity dispersion remains to be anomalous at −50 fs2/mm. With this novel microresonator, we demonstrate that broadband phase-locked Kerr frequency combs with flat and smooth spectra can be generated by pumping at any resonances in the optical C-band. PMID:27181420
Steady-state BOLD Response to Higher-order Cognition Modulates Low-Frequency Neural Oscillations.
Wang, Yi-Feng; Dai, Gang-Shu; Liu, Feng; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu
2015-12-01
Steady-state responses (SSRs) reflect the synchronous neural oscillations evoked by noninvasive and consistently repeated stimuli at the fundamental or harmonic frequencies. The steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs; the representative form of the SSRs) have been widely used in the cognitive and clinical neurosciences and brain-computer interface research. However, the steady-state evoked potentials have limitations in examining high-frequency neural oscillations and basic cognition. In addition, synchronous neural oscillations in the low frequency range (<1 Hz) and in higher-order cognition have received a little attention. Therefore, we examined the SSRs in the low frequency range using a new index, the steady-state BOLD responses (SSBRs) evoked by semantic stimuli. Our results revealed that the significant SSBRs were induced at the fundamental frequency of stimuli and the first harmonic in task-related regions, suggesting the enhanced variability of neural oscillations entrained by exogenous stimuli. The SSBRs were independent of neurovascular coupling and characterized by sensorimotor bias, an indication of regional-dependent neuroplasticity. Furthermore, the amplitude of SSBRs may predict behavioral performance and show the psychophysiological relevance. Our findings provide valuable insights into the understanding of the SSRs evoked by higher-order cognition and how the SSRs modulate low-frequency neural oscillations. PMID:26284992
Higher-order interaction between molluscs and sheep affecting seedling numbers in grassland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clear Hill, B. H.; Silvertown, J.
Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores are both important in mesotrophic grasslands and these two different classes of herbivore potentially interact in their effect upon plant populations. We used two field experiments to test for higher order interactions (HOIs) among sheep, slugs and seedlings, using the mechanistic definition that an HOI occurs when the presence of one species modifies the interaction between two others. In each experiment slug addition and slug-removal treatments were nested inside treatments that altered sheep grazing intensity and timing, and the emergence, of seedlings from experimentally sown seeds was monitored. In Experiment 1, seedling numbers of Cerastium fontanum were increased by intense summer grazing by sheep in both slug-addition and slugremoval treatment, but winter grazing by sheep only increased seedling emergence if slugs were removed. In Experiment 2, winter grazing by sheep significantly reduced total seedling emergence of four species sown ( Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Achillea millefolium), but the effect was only seen where slugs were removed. Though the experimental system is a relatively simple one with only four components (sheep, slugs, seedlings and the matrix vegetation), higher order interactions, a combination of direct and indirect effects and possible switching behaviour by slugs are all suggested by our results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Zhipeng; Park, Seongsu; Yamashita, Naoki; Kawai, Kentaro; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu
2016-06-01
DNA origami provides a versatile method for the construction of nanostructures with defined shape, size and other properties; such nanostructures may enable a hierarchical assembly of large scale architecture for the placement of other nanomaterials with atomic precision. However, the effective use of these higher order structures as functional components depends on knowledge of their assembly behavior and mechanical properties. This paper demonstrates construction of higher order DNA origami arrays with controlled orientations based on the formation of two types of DNA junctions: anti-parallel and parallel double crossovers. A two-step assembly process, in which preformed rectangular DNA origami monomer structures themselves undergo further self-assembly to form numerically unlimited arrays, was investigated to reveal the influences of assembly parameters. AFM observations showed that when parallel double crossover DNA junctions are used, the assembly of DNA origami arrays occurs with fewer monomers than for structures formed using anti-parallel double crossovers, given the same assembly parameters, indicating that the configuration of parallel double crossovers is not energetically preferred. However, the direct measurement by AFM force-controlled mapping shows that both DNA junctions of anti-parallel and parallel double crossovers have homogeneous mechanical stability with any part of DNA origami.
Pecka, Shannon; Schmid, Kendra; Pozehl, Bunny
2014-12-01
This article describes development of the Pecka Grading Rubric (PGR) as a strategy to facilitate and evaluate students' higher-order thinking in discussion boards. The purpose of this study was to describe psychometric properties of the PGR. Rubric reliability was pilot tested on a discussion board assignment used by 15 senior student registered nurse anesthetist enrolled in an Advanced Principles of Anesthesia course. Interrater and intrarater reliabilities were tested using an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to evaluate absolute agreement of scoring. Raters gave each category a score, scores of the categories were summed, and a total score was calculated for the entire rubric. Interrater (ICC = 0.939, P < .001) and intrarater (ICC = 0.902 to 0.994, P < .001) reliabilities were excellent for total point scores. A content validity index was used to evaluate content validity. Raters evaluated content validity of each cell of the PGR. The content validity index (0.8-1.0) was acceptable. Known-group validity was evaluated by comparing graduate student registered nurse anesthetists (N = 7) with undergraduate senior nursing students (N = 13). Beginning evidence indicates a valid and reliable instrument that measures higher-order thinking in the student registered nurse anesthetist. PMID:25842643
Yamasaki, Taiga; Idehara, Katsutoshi; Xin, Xin
2016-07-01
We propose a new method to estimate muscle activity in a straightforward manner with high accuracy and relatively small computational costs by using the external input of the joint angle and its first to fourth derivatives with respect to time. The method solves the inverse dynamics problem of the skeletal system, the forward dynamics problem of the muscular system, and the load-sharing problem of muscles as a static optimization of neural excitation signals. The external input including the higher-order derivatives is required for a calculation of constraints imposed on the load-sharing problem. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by the simulation of a simple musculoskeletal model with a single joint. Moreover, the influences of the muscular dynamics, and the higher-order derivatives on the estimation of the muscle activity are demonstrated, showing the results when the time constants of the activation dynamics are very small, and the third and fourth derivatives of the external input are ignored, respectively. It is concluded that the method can have the potential to improve estimation accuracy of muscle activity of highly dynamic motions. PMID:27211782
Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners.
Chabeli, M M
2006-08-01
Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content), to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from 'transmission' models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30). Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000). Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000). The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA) is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Jitendra K.; Priye, Vishnu; Rahman, B. M. A.
2016-07-01
A triangular profile multicore fiber (MCF) optical interconnect (OI) is investigated to augment performance that typically degrades at high data rates for higher order modulation in a short reach transmission system. Firstly, probability density functions (PDFs) variation with inter-core crosstalk is calculated for 8-core MCF OI with different index profile in the core and it was observed that the triangular profile MCF OI is the most crosstalk tolerant. Next, symbol error probability (SEP) for higher order quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulated signal due to inter-core crosstalk is analytically obtained and their dependence on typical characteristic parameters are examined. Further, numerical simulations are carried out to compare the error performance of QPSK for step index and triangular index MCF OI by generating eye diagram at 40 Gbps per channel. Finally, it is shown that MCF OI with triangular index profile supporting QPSK has double spectral efficiency with tolerable trade off in SEP as compared with those of binary phase shift keying (BPSK) at high data rates which is scalable up to 5 Tbps.
Cross-ratio identities and higher-order poles of CHY-integrand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardona, Carlos; Feng, Bo; Gomez, Humberto; Huang, Rijun
2016-09-01
The evaluation of generic Cachazo-He-Yuan(CHY)-integrands is a big challenge and efficient computational methods are in demand for practical evaluation. In this paper, we propose a systematic decomposition algorithm by using cross-ratio identities, which provides an analytic and easy to implement method for the evaluation of any CHY-integrand. This algorithm aims to decompose a given CHY-integrand containing higher-order poles as a linear combination of CHY-integrands with only simple poles in a finite number of steps, which ultimately can be trivially evaluated by integration rules of simple poles. To make the method even more efficient for CHY-integrands with large number of particles and complicated higher-order pole structures, we combine the Λ-algorithm and the cross-ratio identities, and as a by-product it provides us a way to deal with CHY-integrands where the Λ-algorithm was not applicable in its original formulation.
Reduced-order models for vertical human-structure interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Nimmen, Katrien; Lombaert, Geert; De Roeck, Guido; Van den Broeck, Peter
2016-09-01
For slender and lightweight structures, the vibration serviceability under crowd- induced loading is often critical in design. Currently, designers rely on equivalent load models, upscaled from single-person force measurements. Furthermore, it is important to consider the mechanical interaction with the human body as this can significantly reduce the structural response. To account for these interaction effects, the contact force between the pedestrian and the structure can be modelled as the superposition of the force induced by the pedestrian on a rigid floor and the force resulting from the mechanical interaction between the structure and the human body. For the case of large crowds, however, this approach leads to models with a very high system order. In the present contribution, two equivalent reduced-order models are proposed to approximate the dynamic behaviour of the full-order coupled crowd-structure system. A numerical study is performed to evaluate the impact of the modelling assumptions on the structural response to pedestrian excitation. The results show that the full-order moving crowd model can be well approximated by a reduced-order model whereby the interaction with the pedestrians in the crowd is modelled using a single (equivalent) SDOF system.