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Sample records for higher order nonlinearity

  1. Higher-order modulation instability in nonlinear fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Erkintalo, Miro; Hammani, Kamal; Kibler, Bertrand; Finot, Christophe; Akhmediev, Nail; Dudley, John M; Genty, Goëry

    2011-12-16

    We report theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of higher-order modulation instability in the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This higher-order instability arises from the nonlinear superposition of elementary instabilities, associated with initial single breather evolution followed by a regime of complex, yet deterministic, pulse splitting. We analytically describe the process using the Darboux transformation and compare with experiments in optical fiber. We show how a suitably low frequency modulation on a continuous wave field induces higher-order modulation instability splitting with the pulse characteristics at different phases of evolution related by a simple scaling relationship. We anticipate that similar processes are likely to be observed in many other systems including plasmas, Bose-Einstein condensates, and deep water waves.

  2. Higher-order spectra for identification of nonlinear modal coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Daryl; Worden, Keith; Platten, Michael F.; Wright, Jan R.; Cooper, Jonathan E.

    2009-05-01

    Over the past four decades considerable work has been done in the area of power spectrum estimation. The information contained within the power spectrum relates to a signal's autocorrelation or 'second-order statistics'. The power spectrum provides a complete statistical description of a Gaussian process; however, a problem with this information is that it is phase blind. This problem is addressed if one turns to a system's frequency response function (FRF). The FRF graphs the magnitude and phase of the frequency response of a system; in order to do this it requires information regarding the frequency content of the input and output signals. Situations arise in science and engineering whereby signal analysts are required to look beyond second-order statistics and analyse a signal's higher-order statistics (HOS). HOS or spectra give information on a signal's deviation from Gaussianity and consequently are a good indicator function for the presence of nonlinearity within a system. One of the main problems in nonlinear system identification is that of high modal density. Many modelling schemes involve making some expansion of the nonlinear restoring force in terms of polynomial or other basis terms. If more than one degree-of-freedom is involved this becomes a multivariate problem and the number of candidate terms in the expansion grows explosively with the order of nonlinearity and the number of degrees-of-freedom. This paper attempts to use HOS to detect and qualify nonlinear behaviour for a number of symmetrical and asymmetrical systems over a range of degrees-of-freedom. In doing so the paper also attempts to show that HOS are a more sensitive tool than the FRF in detecting nonlinearity. Furthermore, the object of this paper is to try and identify which modes couple in a nonlinear manner in order to reduce the number of candidate coupling terms, for a model, as much as possible. The bispectrum method has previously been applied to simple low-DOF systems with high

  3. Separating higher-order nonlinearities in transient absorption microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Anderson, Miguel; Park, Jong Kang; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.

    2015-08-01

    The transient absorption response of melanin is a promising optically-accessible biomarker for distinguishing malignant melanoma from benign pigmented lesions, as demonstrated by earlier experiments on thin sections from biopsied tissue. The technique has also been demonstrated in vivo, but the higher optical intensity required for detecting these signals from backscattered light introduces higher-order nonlinearities in the transient response of melanin. These components that are higher than linear with respect to the pump or the probe introduce intensity-dependent changes to the overall response that complicate data analysis. However, our data also suggest these nonlinearities might be advantageous to in vivo imaging, in that different types of melanins have different nonlinear responses. Therefore, methods to separate linear from nonlinear components in transient absorption measurements might provide additional information to aid in the diagnosis of melanoma. We will discuss numerical methods for analyzing the various nonlinear contributions to pump-probe signals, with the ultimate objective of real time analysis using digital signal processing techniques. To that end, we have replaced the lock-in amplifier in our pump-probe microscope with a high-speed data acquisition board, and reprogrammed the coprocessor field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to perform lock-in detection. The FPGA lock-in offers better performance than the commercial instrument, in terms of both signal to noise ratio and speed. In addition, the flexibility of the digital signal processing approach enables demodulation of more complicated waveforms, such as spread-spectrum sequences, which has the potential to accelerate microscopy methods that rely on slow relaxation phenomena, such as photo-thermal and phosphorescence lifetime imaging.

  4. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, M. B.; Rajapaksa, Indrajit; Kim, Yunseok; Marincel, Dan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Jesse, Stephen; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, decoupling the contributions of competing or co-existing mechanisms to the system response can be achieved through investigation of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a well-known system, a model Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, nanoscale measurements of the second harmonic response with field reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of combining proximal probe techniques with nth harmonic detection methods in exploring and decoupling nonlinear dynamics in a wide variety of nanoscale materials.

  5. Influence of the higher-order nonlinearities in embodying the second-order holographic associative memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyanskii, Peter V.; Felde, Christina V.; Konovchuk, Alexey V.; Oleksyuk, Maxim V.

    2015-11-01

    Recording nonlinearity is conventionally considered as the source of noise in holographic imaging. Important exclusion from this general statement is nonlinear holographic associative memory, where the quadratic recording nonlinearity causes true brightness rendering and the possibility for associative coupling and reconstructing optical signals of arbitrary complexity which are stored at the same carrier without interference. In this paper we discuss the role of nonlinearities of an amplitude response of a hologram of the orders higher than the quadratic one in implementing the second-ordered holographic associative memory. We show that higher-order nonlinearities are also involved in implementing this type of memory. This conclusion may be of importance for interpretation of biological/human memory also. The highlight of our study is the conclusion that reconstruction of the complex conjugate heteroassociative response is provided directly, viz. by the set of specified by us pseudogratings, rather than by the mechanism of sequential diffractions.

  6. Nonlinear acoustics in higher-order approximation: Comment.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Farid G

    2010-08-01

    Some useful expressions for the second- and third-order equations for harmonic generation of infinite plane acoustic waves in a nonlinear non-viscous fluid are corrected. The concern addressed in the present comment is to point out some typographical errors in the first-order velocity and pressure expressions intervening in the calculation of the secondorder nonlinear equations, as well as a miscalculation of the axial component of the third-order Lighthill tensor term and the resulting third-order velocity and pressure equations presented in that paper.

  7. Nonlinear identification of the total baroreflex arc: higher-order nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Moslehpour, Mohsen; Kawada, Toru; Sunagawa, Kenji; Sugimachi, Masaru; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2016-12-01

    The total baroreflex arc is the open-loop system relating carotid sinus pressure (CSP) to arterial pressure (AP). The nonlinear dynamics of this system were recently characterized. First, Gaussian white noise CSP stimulation was employed in open-loop conditions in normotensive and hypertensive rats with sectioned vagal and aortic depressor nerves. Nonparametric system identification was then applied to measured CSP and AP to establish a second-order nonlinear Uryson model. The aim in this study was to assess the importance of higher-order nonlinear dynamics via development and evaluation of a third-order nonlinear model of the total arc using the same experimental data. Third-order Volterra and Uryson models were developed by employing nonparametric and parametric identification methods. The R(2) values between the AP predicted by the best third-order Volterra model and measured AP in response to Gaussian white noise CSP not utilized in developing the model were 0.69 ± 0.03 and 0.70 ± 0.03 for normotensive and hypertensive rats, respectively. The analogous R(2) values for the best third-order Uryson model were 0.71 ± 0.03 and 0.73 ± 0.03. These R(2) values were not statistically different from the corresponding values for the previously established second-order Uryson model, which were both 0.71 ± 0.03 (P > 0.1). Furthermore, none of the third-order models predicted well-known nonlinear behaviors including thresholding and saturation better than the second-order Uryson model. Additional experiments suggested that the unexplained AP variance was partly due to higher brain center activity. In conclusion, the second-order Uryson model sufficed to represent the sympathetically mediated total arc under the employed experimental conditions.

  8. Higher-order nonlinear priors for surface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tasdizen, Tolga; Whitaker, Ross

    2004-07-01

    For surface reconstruction problems with noisy and incomplete range data, a Bayesian estimation approach can improve the overall quality of the surfaces. The Bayesian approach to surface estimation relies on a likelihood term, which ties the surface estimate to the input data, and the prior, which ensures surface smoothness or continuity. This paper introduces a new high-order, nonlinear prior for surface reconstruction. The proposed prior can smooth complex, noisy surfaces, while preserving sharp, geometric features, and it is a natural generalization of edge-preserving methods in image processing, such as anisotropic diffusion. An exact solution would require solving a fourth-order partial differential equation (PDE), which can be difficult with conventional numerical techniques. Our approach is to solve a cascade system of two second-order PDEs, which resembles the original fourth-order system. This strategy is based on the observation that the generalization of image processing to surfaces entails filtering the surface normals. We solve one PDE for processing the normals and one for refitting the surface to the normals. Furthermore, we implement the associated surface deformations using level sets. Hence, the algorithm can accommodate very complex shapes with arbitrary and changing topologies. This paper gives the mathematical formulation and describes the numerical algorithms. We also show results using range and medical data.

  9. Lax Pairs and Integrability Conditions of Higher-Order Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asad-uz-zaman, M.; Chachou Samet, H.; Khawaja, U. Al

    2016-08-01

    We derive the Lax pairs and integrability conditions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher-order terms, complex potentials, and time-dependent coefficients. Cubic and quintic nonlinearities together with derivative terms are considered. The Lax pairs and integrability conditions for some of the well-known nonlinear Schrödinger equations, including a new equation which was not considered previously in the literature, are then derived as special cases. We show most clearly with a similarity transformation that the higher-order terms restrict the integrability to linear potential in contrast with quadratic potential for the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  10. Higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger equations for simulations of surface wavetrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slunyaev, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Numerous recent results of numerical and laboratory simulations of waves on the water surface claim that solutions of the weakly nonlinear theory for weakly modulated waves in many cases allow a smooth generalization to the conditions of strong nonlinearity and dispersion, even when the 'envelope' is difficult to determine. The conditionally 'strongly nonlinear' high-order asymptotic equations still imply the smallness of the parameter employed in the asymptotic series. Thus at some (unknown a priori) level of nonlinearity and / or dispersion the asymptotic theory breaks down; then the higher-order corrections become useless and may even make the description worse. In this paper we use the higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation, derived in [1] (the fifth-order NLS equation, or next-order beyond the classic Dysthe equation [2]), for simulations of modulated deep-water wave trains, which attain very large steepness (below or beyond the breaking limit) due to the Benjamin - Feir instability. The results are compared with fully nonlinear simulations of the potential Euler equations as well as with the weakly nonlinear theories represented by the nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the classic Dysthe equation with full linear dispersion [2]. We show that the next-order Dysthe equation can significantly improve the description of strongly nonlinear wave dynamics compared with the lower-order asymptotic models. [1] A.V. Slunyaev, A high-order nonlinear envelope equation for gravity waves in finite-depth water. JETP 101, 926-941 (2005). [2] K. Trulsen, K.B. Dysthe, A modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation for broader bandwidth gravity waves on deep water. Wave Motion 24, 281-289 (1996).

  11. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, R K; Okatan, M Baris; Rajapaksa, I; Kim, Y; Marincel, D; Trolier-McKinstry, S; Jesse, S; Valanoor, N; Kalinin, S V

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, insight into the nonlinear behavior can be gleaned through exploration of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O₃ (PZT) ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, measurements of the second harmonic reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of n(th) order harmonic SPM detection methods in exploring nonlinear phenomena in nanoscale materials.

  12. Recent Applications of Higher-Order Spectral Analysis to Nonlinear Aeroelastic Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Hajj, Muhammad R.; Dunn, Shane; Strganac, Thomas W.; Powers, Edward J.; Stearman, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Recent applications of higher-order spectral (HOS) methods to nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena are presented. Applications include the analysis of data from a simulated nonlinear pitch and plunge apparatus and from F-18 flight flutter tests. A MATLAB model of the Texas A&MUniversity s Nonlinear Aeroelastic Testbed Apparatus (NATA) is used to generate aeroelastic transients at various conditions including limit cycle oscillations (LCO). The Gaussian or non-Gaussian nature of the transients is investigated, related to HOS methods, and used to identify levels of increasing nonlinear aeroelastic response. Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) F/A-18 flight flutter test data is presented and analyzed. The data includes high-quality measurements of forced responses and LCO phenomena. Standard power spectral density (PSD) techniques and HOS methods are applied to the data and presented. The goal of this research is to develop methods that can identify the onset of nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, such as LCO, during flutter testing.

  13. Collapse for the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    DOE PAGES

    Achilleos, V.; Diamantidis, S.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; ...

    2016-02-01

    We examine conditions for finite-time collapse of the solutions of the higher-order nonlinear Schr odinger (NLS) equation incorporating third-order dispersion, self-steepening, linear and nonlinear gain and loss, and Raman scattering; this is a system that appears in many physical contexts as a more realistic generalization of the integrable NLS. By using energy arguments, it is found that the collapse dynamics is chiefly controlled by the linear/nonlinear gain/loss strengths. We identify a critical value of the linear gain, separating the possible decay of solutions to the trivial zero-state, from collapse. The numerical simulations, performed for a wide class of initial data,more » are found to be in very good agreement with the analytical results, and reveal long-time stability properties of localized solutions. The role of the higher-order effects to the transient dynamics is also revealed in these simulations.« less

  14. Collapse for the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Achilleos, V.; Diamantidis, S.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Horikis, T. P.; Karachalios, N. I.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2016-02-01

    We examine conditions for finite-time collapse of the solutions of the higher-order nonlinear Schr odinger (NLS) equation incorporating third-order dispersion, self-steepening, linear and nonlinear gain and loss, and Raman scattering; this is a system that appears in many physical contexts as a more realistic generalization of the integrable NLS. By using energy arguments, it is found that the collapse dynamics is chiefly controlled by the linear/nonlinear gain/loss strengths. We identify a critical value of the linear gain, separating the possible decay of solutions to the trivial zero-state, from collapse. The numerical simulations, performed for a wide class of initial data, are found to be in very good agreement with the analytical results, and reveal long-time stability properties of localized solutions. The role of the higher-order effects to the transient dynamics is also revealed in these simulations.

  15. Evolution of higher order nonlinear equation for the dust ion-acoustic waves in nonextensive plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Yasmin, S.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Mamun, A. A.

    2012-10-15

    There are three different types of nonlinear equations, namely, Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), modified K-dV (mK-dV), and mixed modified K-dV (mixed mK-dV) equations, for the nonlinear propagation of the dust ion-acoustic (DIA) waves. The effects of electron nonextensivity on DIA solitary waves propagating in a dusty plasma (containing negatively charged stationary dust, inertial ions, and nonextensive q distributed electrons) are examined by solving these nonlinear equations. The basic features of mixed mK-dV (higher order nonlinear equation) solitons are found to exist beyond the K-dV limit. The properties of mK-dV solitons are compared with those of mixed mK-dV solitons. It is found that both positive and negative solitons are obtained depending on the q (nonextensive parameter).

  16. Nonlinear Dynamic Stability of the Viscoelastic Plate Considering Higher Order Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuanxiang; Wang, Cheng

    2016-11-01

    -The dynamic stability of viscoelastic plates is investigated in this paper by using chaotic and fractal theory. The nonlinear integro-differential dynamic equation is changed into an autonomic 4-dimensional dynamical system. The numerical time integrations of equations are obtained by using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. And the Lyapunov exponent spectrum, the fractal dimension of strange attractors and the time evolution of deflection are obtained. The influence of viscoelastic parameter on dynamic buckling of viscoelastic plates is discussed. The effect of higher order modes on dynamic stability of viscoelastic plate is obtained, the necessity of considering higher order modes is discussed.

  17. Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen

    2014-11-01

    Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Signal analysis applications of nonlinear dynamics and higher-order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solinsky, James C.; Feeney, John J.

    1994-03-01

    The use of higher-order statistics (HOS) in acoustic, and financial signal analysis applications is outlined in theory and followed with specific data examples. HOS analysis is used to identify data regions of interest, and nonlinear dynamics (ND) analysis is used in a 4D embedded space to show structural density changes resulting from the HOS regions. A second-order statistical comparison is made with the same data processed to have random Fourier phase, since the HOS information is contained in this nonrandom phase. These empirical results indicate that HOS data regions are structural distortions to a second-order planar disk in the 4D ND analysis space.

  19. Higher-order nonlinear electromechanical effects in wurtzite GaN/AlN quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Bahrami-Samani, Mehrdad; Patil, Sunil R; Melnik, Roderick

    2010-12-15

    As we demonstrated earlier, conventional mathematical models based on linear approximations may be inadequate in the analysis of properties of low-dimensional nanostructures and band structure calculations. In this work, a general three-dimensional axisymmetric coupled electromechanical model accounting for lattice mismatch, spontaneous polarization and higher-order nonlinear electrostriction effects has been applied to analyze properties of GaN/AlN quantum dots coupled with wetting layer. The generalized model that accounts for five independent electrostriction coefficients has been solved numerically via a finite-element implementation. The results, exemplified for truncated conical GaN/AlN quantum dots, demonstrate that the effect of nonlinear electrostriction in GaN/AlN nanoheterostructure quantum dots could be significant. In particular, the influence of nonlinear electromechanical effects on optoelectronic properties is highlighted by the results on band structure calculations based on a multiband effective mass theory.

  20. The new chirp-Wigner higher order spectra for transient signals with any known nonlinear frequency variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, L.; Petrunin, I.; Komoda, J.

    2010-02-01

    The new chirp-Wigner higher order spectra (CWHOS) are proposed for transient signals with any known nonlinear polynomial variation of instantaneous frequency. The proposed technique is effective for nonlinearity detection for transient signals with nonlinear polynomial time variation of the instantaneous frequency.

  1. Nonlinear optics in the LP(02) higher-order mode of a fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Chen, Z; Wadsworth, W J; Birks, T A

    2013-07-29

    The distinct disperion properties of higher-order modes in optical fibers permit the nonlinear generation of radiation deeper into the ultraviolet than is possible with the fundamental mode. This is exploited using adiabatic, broadband mode convertors to couple light efficiently from an input fundamental mode and also to return the generated light to an output fundamental mode over a broad spectral range. For example, we generate visible and UV supercontinuum light in the LP(02) mode of a photonic crystal fiber from sub-ns pulses with a wavelength of 532 nm.

  2. Maximal intensity higher-order Akhmediev breathers of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and their systematic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Ashour, Omar A.; Nikolić, Stanko N.; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2016-10-01

    It is well known that Akhmediev breathers of the nonlinear cubic Schrödinger equation can be superposed nonlinearly via the Darboux transformation to yield breathers of higher order. Surprisingly, we find that the peak height of each Akhmediev breather only adds linearly to form the peak height of the final breather. Using this peak-height formula, we show that at any given periodicity, there exists a unique high-order breather of maximal intensity. Moreover, these high-order breathers form a continuous hierarchy, growing in intensity with increasing periodicity. For any such higher-order breather, a simple initial wave function can be extracted from the Darboux transformation to dynamically generate that breather from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  3. Extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher-order odd and even terms and its rogue wave solutions.

    PubMed

    Ankiewicz, Adrian; Wang, Yan; Wabnitz, Stefan; Akhmediev, Nail

    2014-01-01

    We consider an extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher-order odd (third order) and even (fourth order) terms with variable coefficients. The resulting equation has soliton solutions and approximate rogue wave solutions. We present these solutions up to second order. Moreover, specific constraints on the parameters of higher-order terms provide integrability of the resulting equation, providing a corresponding Lax pair. Particular cases of this equation are the Hirota and the Lakshmanan-Porsezian-Daniel equations. The resulting integrable equation admits exact rogue wave solutions. In particular cases, mentioned above, these solutions are reduced to the rogue wave solutions of the corresponding equations.

  4. A higher-order theory for geometrically nonlinear analysis of composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, J. N.; Liu, C. F.

    1987-01-01

    A third-order shear deformation theory of laminated composite plates and shells is developed, the Navier solutions are derived, and its finite element models are developed. The theory allows parabolic description of the transverse shear stresses, and therefore the shear correction factors of the usual shear deformation theory are not required in the present theory. The theory also accounts for the von Karman nonlinear strains. Closed-form solutions of the theory for rectangular cross-ply and angle-ply plates and cross-ply shells are developed. The finite element model is based on independent approximations of the displacements and bending moments (i.e., mixed finite element model), and therefore, only C sup o -approximation is required. The finite element model is used to analyze cross-ply and angle-ply laminated plates and shells for bending and natural vibration. Many of the numerical results presented here should serve as references for future investigations. Three major conclusions resulted from the research: First, for thick laminates, shear deformation theories predict deflections, stresses and vibration frequencies significantly different from those predicted by classical theories. Second, even for thin laminates, shear deformation effects are significant in dynamic and geometrically nonlinear analyses. Third, the present third-order theory is more accurate compared to the classical and firt-order theories in predicting static and dynamic response of laminated plates and shells made of high-modulus composite materials.

  5. Effects of higher-order Kerr nonlinearity and plasma diffraction on multiple filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses in air

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T. W.; Zhou, C. T.; Zhang, H.; He, X. T.

    2013-07-15

    The effect of higher-order Kerr nonlinearity on channel formation by, and filamentation of, ultrashort laser pulses propagating in air is considered. Filament patterns originating from multiphoton ionization of the air molecules with and without the higher-order Kerr and molecular-rotation effects are investigated. It is found that diverging multiple filaments are formed if only the plasma-induced defocusing effect is included. In the presence of the higher-order Kerr effects, the light channel can exist for a long distance. The effect of noise on the filament patterns is also discussed.

  6. Weak interaction for higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation: An application of soliton perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandar, S.; Hoseini, S. M.

    2017-04-01

    Using soliton perturbation theory, we analytically study weak interaction for a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation. An ansatz consists of two well-separate single solitons is considered and slow variation of solitons parameters are found. Twelve different scenarios for when the initial velocities are zero are observed. A good comparison is found between numerical and analytical results.

  7. On the study of a nonlinear higher order dispersive wave equation: its mathematical physical structure and anomaly soliton phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. T.; Lee, C. C.

    2015-04-01

    This paper introduces a systematic approach to investigate a higher order nonlinear dispersive wave equation for modeling different wave modes. We present both the conventional KdV-type soliton and anomaly type solitons for the equation. We also show the conservation laws and Hamiltonian structures for the equation. Our results suggest that the underlying equation has more interacting soliton phenomena than one would have known for the classical KdV and Boussinesq equation.

  8. Peak-height formula for higher-order breathers of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation on nonuniform backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Ashour, Omar A.; Nikolić, Stanko N.; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2017-01-01

    Given any background (or seed) solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the Darboux transformation can be used to generate higher-order breathers with much greater peak intensities. In this work, we use the Darboux transformation to prove, in a unified manner and without knowing the analytical form of the background solution, that the peak height of a high-order breather is just a sum of peak heights of first-order breathers plus that of the background, irrespective of the specific choice of the background. Detailed results are verified for breathers on a cnoidal background. Generalizations to more extended nonlinear Schrödinger equations, such as the Hirota equation, are indicated.

  9. Peak-height formula for higher-order breathers of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation on nonuniform backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Chin, Siu A; Ashour, Omar A; Nikolić, Stanko N; Belić, Milivoj R

    2017-01-01

    Given any background (or seed) solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the Darboux transformation can be used to generate higher-order breathers with much greater peak intensities. In this work, we use the Darboux transformation to prove, in a unified manner and without knowing the analytical form of the background solution, that the peak height of a high-order breather is just a sum of peak heights of first-order breathers plus that of the background, irrespective of the specific choice of the background. Detailed results are verified for breathers on a cnoidal background. Generalizations to more extended nonlinear Schrödinger equations, such as the Hirota equation, are indicated.

  10. Dynamics of the higher-order rogue waves for a generalized mixed nonlinear Schrödinger model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Jiang, Dong-Yang; Qi, Feng-Hua; Shi, Yu-Ying; Zhao, Yin-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a generalized mixed nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GMNLSE) which arises in several physical areas including the quantum field theory, weakly nonlinear dispersive water waves, and nonlinear optics. The linear stability analysis is performed and the instability zones as well as the modulational instability gain are obtained and discussed. Higher-order rogue waves (RWs) in terms of the determinants for the GMNLSE model are constructed by the N-fold Darboux transformation. Several patterns of the RWs are illustrated, such as the fundamental pattern, triangular pattern, circular pattern, pentagon pattern, circular-triangular pattern, and circular-fundamental pattern. Effects of the nonlinear parameters on the RWs are discussed. It is found that the nonlinear terms affect the widths and velocities of the RWs, although the amplitudes of these waves remain unchanged. The semirational RW solution, which is a combination of rational and exponential functions, is derived to describe the interaction between the RW and multi-breather.

  11. Higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions for the analysis of non-linear systems with harmonic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuij, P. W. J. M.; Bosgra, O. H.; Steinbuch, M.

    2006-11-01

    For high-precision motion systems, modelling and control design specifically oriented at friction effects is instrumental. The sinusoidal input describing function theory represents an approximative mathematical framework for analysing non-linear system behaviour. This theory, however, limits the description of the non-linear system behaviour to a quasi-linear amplitude-dependent relation between sinusoidal excitation and sinusoidal response. In this paper, an extension to higher-order describing functions is realised by introducing the concept of the harmonics generator. The resulting higher-order sinusoidal input describing functions (HOSIDFs) relate the magnitude and phase of the higher harmonics of the periodic response of the system to the magnitude and phase of a sinusoidal excitation. Based on this extension two techniques to measure HOSIDFs are presented. The first technique is FFT based. The second technique is based on IQ (in-phase/quadrature-phase) demodulation. In a simulation, the measurement techniques have been tested by comparing the simulation results to analytically derived results from a known (backlash) non-linearity. In a subsequent practical case study both techniques are used to measure the changes in dynamic behaviour as a function of drive level due to friction in an electric motor. Both methods prove successful for measuring HOSIDFs.

  12. Higher Order Residual Analysis for Nonlinear Time Series with Autoregressive Correlation Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-25

    ANALYSIS FOR NONLINEAR TIMEF SERIES WITH AI.OREGRESSIVE CORRELATION STRUVIURES BY P.A.W. Lewis & A. J. Lawrance September 1984 Approved for public release...of all or part of this report is authorized. P.A.W. Lewis A. J. Lawrance Professor of Operations Research University of Birmingham, England ’ Naval...J. Lawrance P. A. W. Lewis 9 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK AREA G WORK UNIT NUMBERS Naval Postgraduate

  13. Surface effects on the free vibration behavior of postbuckled circular higher-order shear deformable nanoplates including geometrical nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahmani, S.; Bahrami, M.; Ansari, R.

    2014-12-01

    This investigation deals with the free vibration characteristics of circular higher-order shear deformable nanoplates around the postbuckling configuration incorporating surface effects. Using the Gurtin-Murdoch elasticity theory, a size-dependent higher-order shear deformable plate model is developed which takes account all surface effects including surface elasticity, surface stress and surface density. Geometrical nonlinearity is considered based on the von Karman type nonlinear strain-displacement relationships. Also, in order to satisfy the balance conditions between bulk and surfaces of nanoplate, it is assumed that the normal stress is distributed cubically through the thickness of nanoplate. Hamilton's principle is utilized to derive non-classical governing differential equations of motion and related boundary conditions. Afterwards, an efficient numerical methodology based on a generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is employed to solve numerically the problem so as to discretize the governing partial differential equations along various edge supports using Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto grid points and pseudo arc-length continuation technique. A comparison between the results of present non-classical model and those of the classical plate theory is conducted. It is demonstrated that in contrast to the prebuckling domain, for a specified value of axial load in the postbuckling domain, increasing the plate thickness leads to higher frequencies.

  14. Breather-to-soliton transitions, nonlinear wave interactions, and modulational instability in a higher-order generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Wang, Zi-Qi; Liu, Chong; Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua; Guo, Rui

    2016-01-01

    We study the nonlinear waves on constant backgrounds of the higher-order generalized nonlinear Schrödinger (HGNLS) equation describing the propagation of ultrashort optical pulse in optical fibers. We derive the breather, rogue wave, and semirational solutions of the HGNLS equation. Our results show that these three types of solutions can be converted into the nonpulsating soliton solutions. In particular, we present the explicit conditions for the transitions between breathers and solitons with different structures. Further, we investigate the characteristics of the collisions between the soliton and breathers. Especially, based on the semirational solutions of the HGNLS equation, we display the novel interactions between the rogue waves and other nonlinear waves. In addition, we reveal the explicit relation between the transition and the distribution characteristics of the modulation instability growth rate.

  15. Introducing nonlinear, multivariate 'Predictor Surfaces' for quantitative modeling of chemical systems with higher-order, coupled predictor variables.

    PubMed

    Horton, Rebecca B; McConico, Morgan; Landry, Currie; Tran, Tho; Vogt, Frank

    2012-10-09

    Innovations in chemometrics are required for studies of chemical systems which are governed by nonlinear responses to chemical parameters and/or interdependencies (coupling) among these parameters. Conventional and linear multivariate models have limited use for quantitative and qualitative investigations of such systems because they are based on the assumption that the measured data are simple superpositions of several input parameters. 'Predictor Surfaces' were developed for studies of more chemically complex systems such as biological materials in order to ensure accurate quantitative analyses and proper chemical modeling for in-depth studies of such systems. Predictor Surfaces are based on approximating nonlinear multivariate model functions by multivariate Taylor expansions which inherently introduce the required coupled and higher-order predictor variables. As proof-of-principle for the Predictor Surfaces' capabilities, an application from environmental analytical chemistry was chosen. Microalgae cells are known to sensitively adapt to changes in environmental parameters such as pollution and/or nutrient availability and thus have potential as novel in situ sensors for environmental monitoring. These adaptations of the microalgae cells are reflected in their chemical signatures which were then acquired by means of FT-IR spectroscopy. In this study, the concentrations of three nutrients, namely inorganic carbon and two nitrogen containing ions, were chosen. Biological considerations predict that changes in nutrient availability produce a nonlinear response in the cells' biomass composition; it is also known that microalgae need certain nutrient mixes to thrive. The nonlinear Predictor Surfaces were demonstrated to be more accurate in predicting the values of these nutrients' concentrations than principal component regression. For qualitative chemical studies of biological systems, the Predictor Surfaces themselves are a novel tool as they visualize

  16. Stable higher-order vortices and quasivortices in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

    PubMed

    Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A; Chen, Zhigang; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2004-11-01

    Vortex solitons with the topological charge S=3 , and "quasivortex" (multipole) solitons, which exist instead of the vortices with S=2 and 4, are constructed on a square lattice in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (true vortices with S=2 were known before, but they are unstable). For each type of solitary wave, its stability interval is found, in terms of the intersite coupling constant. The interval shrinks with increase of S . At couplings above a critical value, oscillatory instabilities set in, resulting in breakup of the vortex or quasivortex into lattice solitons with a lower vorticity. Such localized states may be observed in optical guiding structures, and in Bose-Einstein condensates loaded into optical lattices.

  17. Spectral transverse instabilities and soliton dynamics in the higher-order multidimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Justin T.; Musslimani, Ziad H.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral transverse instabilities of one-dimensional solitary wave solutions to the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with fourth-order dispersion/diffraction subject to higher-dimensional perturbations are studied. A linear boundary value problem governing the evolution of the transverse perturbations is derived. The eigenvalues of the perturbations are numerically computed using Fourier and finite difference differentiation matrices. It is found that for both signs of the higher-order dispersion coefficient there exists a finite band of unstable transverse modes. In the long wavelength limit we derive an asymptotic formula for the perturbation growth rate that agrees well with the numerical findings. Using a variational formulation based on Lagrangian model reduction, an approximate expression for the perturbation eigenvalues is obtained and its validity is compared with both the asymptotic and numerical results. The time dynamics of a one-dimensional soliton stripe in the presence of a transverse perturbation is studied using direct numerical simulations. Numerical nonlinear stability analysis is also addressed.

  18. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  19. Diversity of solitons in a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with self-steepening and higher-order dispersive and nonlinear terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, J.; Espinosa, A.

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we show that if the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is generalized by simultaneously taking into account higher-order dispersion, a quintic nonlinearity, and self-steepening terms, the resulting equation is interesting as it has exact soliton solutions which may be (depending on the values of the coefficients) stable or unstable, standard or "embedded," fixed or "moving" (i.e., solitons which advance along the retarded-time axis). We investigate the stability of these solitons by means of a modified version of the Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion, and numerical tests are carried out to corroborate that these solitons respond differently to perturbations. It is shown that this generalized NLS equation can be derived from a Lagrangian density which contains an auxiliary variable, and Noether's theorem is then used to show that the invariance of the action integral under infinitesimal gauge transformations generates a whole family of conserved quantities. Finally, we study if this equation has the Painlevé property.

  20. Diversity of solitons in a generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with self-steepening and higher-order dispersive and nonlinear terms.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, J; Espinosa, A

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we show that if the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is generalized by simultaneously taking into account higher-order dispersion, a quintic nonlinearity, and self-steepening terms, the resulting equation is interesting as it has exact soliton solutions which may be (depending on the values of the coefficients) stable or unstable, standard or "embedded," fixed or "moving" (i.e., solitons which advance along the retarded-time axis). We investigate the stability of these solitons by means of a modified version of the Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion, and numerical tests are carried out to corroborate that these solitons respond differently to perturbations. It is shown that this generalized NLS equation can be derived from a Lagrangian density which contains an auxiliary variable, and Noether's theorem is then used to show that the invariance of the action integral under infinitesimal gauge transformations generates a whole family of conserved quantities. Finally, we study if this equation has the Painlevé property.

  1. Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy observation of accumulated charges in metal-SiO2-SiN-SiO2-Si flash memory by detecting higher-order nonlinear permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Koichiro; Cho, Yasuo

    2012-12-01

    Using scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy with high-sensitivity capacitance variation detection capability, we succeeded in the high-resolution visualization of accumulated charges in metal-SiO2-SiN-SiO2-Si flash memory by detecting the higher-order (2-4 order) nonlinear permittivity. The obtained image contrast can be interpreted using a higher-order differential coefficient (dnC/dVn) of a quasi-static C-V curve of the SiO2-SiN-SiO2-Si interface capacitance as a function of externally applied voltage. Moreover, by using a higher-order nonlinear image, the charge concentration resolution can be improved. Thus, improved resolution of the spatial charge distribution is expected through improvement of the concentration resolution by the imaging of higher-order nonlinear dielectric terms.

  2. Higher-order splitting algorithms for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and their instabilities.

    PubMed

    Chin, Siu A

    2007-11-01

    Since the kinetic and potential energy terms of the real-time nonlinear Schrödinger equation can each be solved exactly, the entire equation can be solved to any order via splitting algorithms. We verified the fourth-order convergence of some well-known algorithms by solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation numerically. All such splitting algorithms suffer from a latent numerical instability even when the total energy is very well conserved. A detail error analysis reveals that the noise, or elementary excitations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, obeys the Bogoliubov spectrum and the instability is due to the exponential growth of high-wave-number noises caused by the splitting process. For a continuum wave function, this instability is unavoidable no matter how small the time step. For a discrete wave function, the instability can be avoided only for Deltatkmax2 < or =2pi, where kmax=pi/Deltax.

  3. Rogue wave solutions for the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable coefficients by generalized Darboux transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Qiang; Chen, Jian

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study a higher-order variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which plays an important role in the control of the ultrashort optical pulse propagation in nonlinear optical systems. Then, we construct a generalized Darboux transformation (GDT) for the higher-order variable coefficient NLS equation. The Nth order rogue wave solution is obtained by the iterative rule and it can be expressed by the determinant form. As application, we calculate rogue waves (RWs) from first- to fourth-order in accordance with different kinds of parameters. In particular, the dynamical properties and spatial-temporal structures of RWs are discussed and compared with Hirota equation through some figures.

  4. Higher-order rational solitons and rogue-like wave solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear fluid mechanics equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Yong; Yan, Zhenya

    2017-02-01

    The novel generalized perturbation (n, M)-fold Darboux transformations (DTs) are reported for the (2 + 1)-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation and its extension by using the Taylor expansion of the Darboux matrix. The generalized perturbation (1 , N - 1) -fold DTs are used to find their higher-order rational solitons and rogue wave solutions in terms of determinants. The dynamics behaviors of these rogue waves are discussed in detail for different parameters and time, which display the interesting RW and soliton structures including the triangle, pentagon, heptagon profiles, etc. Moreover, we find that a new phenomenon that the parameter (a) can control the wave structures of the KP equation from the higher-order rogue waves (a ≠ 0) into higher-order rational solitons (a = 0) in (x, t)-space with y = const . These results may predict the corresponding dynamical phenomena in the models of fluid mechanics and other physically relevant systems.

  5. Bound-state solitons for the coupled variable-coefficient higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations in the inhomogeneous optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, De-Yin; Tian, Bo; Xie, Xi-Yang

    2017-03-01

    Bound-state vector soliton solutions for the coupled variable-coefficient higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which describe the simultaneous propagation of nonlinear waves in the inhomogeneous optical fiber, are investigated. Introducing auxiliary functions, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Through symbolic computation, we construct the one- and two-soliton solutions. We see that the variable coefficients in the equations affect the soliton structures. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the cubic, periodic, and parabolic solitons. Bound-state solitons and interactions are analyzed graphically.

  6. High resolution imaging in cross-section of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor using super-higher-order nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinone, N.; Yamasue, K.; Honda, K.; Cho, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) can evaluate carrier or charge distribution in semiconductor devices. High sensitivity to capacitance variation enables SNDM to measure the super-high-order (higher than 3rd) derivative of local capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics directly under the tip (dnC/dVn,n = 3, 4, ...). We demonstrate improvement of carrier density resolution by measurement of dnC/dVn,n = 1, 2, 3, 4 (super-higher-order method) in the cross-sectional observation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor.

  7. Exact Soliton Solutions for the (2+1)-Dimensional Coupled Higher-Order Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations in Birefringent Optical-Fiber Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yue-Jin; Bai, Cheng-Lin; Luo, Qing-Long

    2017-03-01

    In birefringent optical fibers, the propagation of femtosecond soliton pulses is described by coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations. In this paper, we will investigate the bright and dark soliton solutions of (2+1)-dimensional coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equations, with the aid of symbolic computation and the Hirota method. On the basis of soliton solutions, we test and discuss the interactions graphically between the solitons in the x-z, x-t, and z-t planes. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61671227 and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province under Grant No. ZR2014AM018

  8. Dynamics of higher-order rational solitons for the nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the self-induced parity-time-symmetric potential.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Yong; Yan, Zhenya; Yang, Yunqing

    2016-06-01

    The integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the self-induced parity-time-symmetric potential [M. J. Ablowitz and Z. H. Musslimani, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 064105 (2013)] is investigated, which is an integrable extension of the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Its novel higher-order rational solitons are found using the nonlocal version of the generalized perturbation (1,N-1)-fold Darboux transformation. These rational solitons illustrate abundant wave structures for the distinct choices of parameters (e.g., the strong and weak interactions of bright and dark rational solitons). Moreover, we also explore the dynamical behaviors of these higher-order rational solitons with some small noises on the basis of numerical simulations.

  9. Characterization of optical rogue wave based on solitons' eigenvalues of the integrable higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasekara, Gihan; Maruta, Akihiro

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the optical rogue wave phenomenon in the framework of integrable higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation (HNLSE) including the third order dispersion term is presented in this paper. When rogue waves generate through soliton collision, the colliding solitons' eigenvalues of the associated equation of HNLSE should be constant in the vicinity of rogue wave generation. Our results reveal that soliton collision is one of the generation mechanisms of optical rogue waves in anomalous dispersion fiber by taking the third order dispersion into consideration in the HNLSE based model.

  10. Design of Fuzzy Functional Observer-Controller via Higher Order Derivatives of Lyapunov Function for Nonlinear Systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuang; Lam, Hak-Keung; Fernando, Tyrone; Iu, Herbert Ho-Ching

    2016-05-02

    In this paper, we investigate the stability of Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy-model-based (FMB) functional observer-control system. When system states are not measurable for state-feedback control, a fuzzy functional observer is designed to directly estimate the control input instead of the system states. Although the fuzzy functional observer can reduce the order of the observer, it leads to a number of observer gains to be determined. Therefore, a new form of fuzzy functional observer is proposed to facilitate the stability analysis such that the observer gains can be numerically obtained and the stability can be guaranteed simultaneously. The proposed form is also in favor of applying separation principle to separately design the fuzzy controller and the fuzzy functional observer. To design the fuzzy controller with the consideration of system stability, higher order derivatives of Lyapunov function (HODLF) are employed to reduce the conservativeness of stability conditions. The HODLF generalizes the commonly used first-order derivative. By exploiting the properties of membership functions and the dynamics of the FMB control system, convex and relaxed stability conditions can be derived. Simulation examples are provided to show the relaxation of the proposed stability conditions and the feasibility of designed fuzzy functional observer-controller.

  11. Quantification and parametrization of non-linearity effects by higher-order sensitivity terms in scattered light differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puķīte, Jānis; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We address the application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of scattered light observations in the presence of strong absorbers (in particular ozone), for which the absorption optical depth is a non-linear function of the trace gas concentration. This is the case because Beer-Lambert law generally does not hold for scattered light measurements due to many light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorptions non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries, for which the light contributing to the measurement is crossing the atmosphere under spatially well-separated paths differing strongly in length and location, like in limb geometry. In these cases, often full retrieval algorithms are applied to address the non-linearities, requiring iterative forward modelling of absorption spectra involving time-consuming wavelength-by-wavelength radiative transfer modelling. In this study, we propose to describe the non-linear effects by additional sensitivity parameters that can be used e.g. to build up a lookup table. Together with widely used box air mass factors (effective light paths) describing the linear response to the increase in the trace gas amount, the higher-order sensitivity parameters eliminate the need for repeating the radiative transfer modelling when modifying the absorption scenario even in the presence of a strong absorption background. While the higher-order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the spectral analysis (so-called DOAS fit), in practice their quantitative evaluation requires good measurement quality (typically better than that available from current measurements). Therefore, we introduce an iterative retrieval algorithm correcting for the higher-order absorption structures not yet considered in the DOAS fit as well as the absorption dependence on

  12. Demonstration of reconfigurable optical generation of higher-order modulation formats up to 64 QAM using optical nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Khaleghi, Salman; Bakhtiari, Zahra; Ziyadi, Morteza; Gerstel, Ori; Paraschis, Loukas; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Willner, Alan E

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate a reconfigurable optical transmitter of higher-order modulation formats including pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) signals and quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) signals. We generated six different modulation formats by multiplexing 10 Gbit/s on-off-keying (OOK) signals (10 Gbaud binary phase-shift keying, 4-PAM, 8-PAM quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), 16-QAM and 16-star-QAM with error-vector magnitudes (EVMs) of 8.1%, 7.5%, 7.8%, 8.2%, 7.2%, and 6.9%, respectively) and 80 Gbit/s 16-QAM with an EVM of 8.5%, as well as 120 Gbit/s 64-QAM with an EVM of 7.1%, using two or three 40 Gbit/s QPSK signals, respectively. We also successfully transmitted the generated 16-QAM signals through a 100 km transmission line with negligible power penalty.

  13. On Full Two-Scale Expansion of the Solutions of Nonlinear Periodic Rapidly Oscillating Problems and Higher-Order Homogenised Variational Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherednichenko, Kirill D.; Smyshlyaev, Valery P.

    2004-12-01

    We consider a scalar quasilinear equation in the divergence form with periodic rapid oscillations, which may be a model of, e.g., nonlinear conducting, dielectric, or deforming in a restricted way hardening elastic-plastic composites, with “outer” periodicity conditions of a fixed large period. Under some natural growth assumptions on the stored-energy function, we construct for uniformly elliptic problems a full two-scale asymptotic expansion, which has a precise “double-series” structure, separating the slow and the fast variables “in all orders”, so that its “slowly varying” part solves asymptotically an “infinite-order homogenised equation” (cf. Bakhvalov, N.S., Panasenko, G.P.: Homogenisation: Averaging Processes in Periodic Media. Nauka, Moscow, 1984 (in Russian); English translation: Kluwer, 1989), and whose higher-order terms depend on the higher gradients of the slowly varying part. We prove the error bound, i.e., that the truncated asymptotic expansion is “higher-order” close to the actual solution in appropriate norms. The approach is extended to a non-uniformly elliptic case: for two-dimensional power-law potentials we prove the “non-degeneracy” using topological index methods. Examples and explicit formulae for the higher-order terms are given. In particular, we prove that the first term in the higher-order homogenised equations is related to the first-order corrector to the “mean” flux, and has in general the form of a fully nonlinear operator which is quadratic with respect to its highest (second) derivative being a linear combination of the second minors of the Hessian with coefficients depending on the first gradient, and in dimension two is of Monge-Ampère type. We show that this term is present at least for some examples (three-phase power-law laminates).

  14. Solitons and Rogue Waves for a Higher-Order Nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch System in an Erbium-Doped Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuan-Qi; Gao, Yi-Tian; Xue, Long; Yu, Xin

    2015-10-01

    Under investigation in this article is a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch (HNLS-MB) system for the optical pulse propagation in an erbium-doped fiber. Lax pair, Darboux transformation (DT), and generalised DT for the HNLS-MB system are constructed. Soliton solutions and rogue wave solutions are derived based on the DT and generalised DT, respectively. Properties of the solitons and rogue waves are graphically presented. The third-order dispersion parameter, fourth-order dispersion parameter, and frequency detuning all influence the characteristic lines and velocities of the solitons. The frequency detuning also affects the amplitudes of solitons. The separating function has no effect on the properties of the first-order rogue waves, except for the locations where the first-order rogue waves appear. The third-order dispersion parameter affects the propagation directions and shapes of the rogue waves. The frequency detuning influences the rogue-wave types of the module for the measure of polarization of resonant medium and the extant population inversion. The fourth-order dispersion parameter impacts the rogue-wave interaction range and also has an effect on the rogue-wave type of the extant population inversion. The value of separating function affects the spatial-temporal separation of constituting elementary rogue waves for the second-order and third-order rogue waves. The second-order and third-order rogue waves can exhibit the triangular and pentagon patterns under different choices of separating functions.

  15. The effect of non-local higher order stress to predict the nonlinear vibration behavior of carbon nanotube conveying viscous nanoflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadimehr, M.; Mohammadi-Dehabadi, A. A.; Maraghi, Z. Khoddami

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the effect of non-local higher order stress on the nonlinear vibration behavior of carbon nanotube conveying viscous nanoflow resting on elastic foundation is investigated. Physical intuition reveals that increasing nanoscale stress leads to decrease the stiffness of nanostructure which firstly established by Eringen's non-local elasticity theory (previous nonlocal method) while many of papers have concluded otherwise at microscale based on modified couple stress, modified strain gradient theories and surface stress effect. The non-local higher order stress model (new nonlocal method) is used in this article that has been studied by few researchers in other fields and the results from the present study show that the trend of the new nonlocal method and size dependent effect including modified couple stress theory is the same. In this regard, the nonlinear motion equations are derived using a variational principal approach considering essential higher-order non-local terms. The surrounded elastic medium is modeled by Pasternak foundation to increase the stability of system where the fluid flow may cause system instability. Effects of various parameters such as non-local parameter, elastic foundation coefficient, and fluid flow velocity on the stability and dimensionless natural frequency of nanotube are investigated. The results of this research show that the small scale parameter based on higher order stress help to increase the natural frequency which has been approved by other small scale theories such as strain gradient theory, modified couple stress theory and experiments, and vice versa for previous nonlocal method. This study may be useful to measure accurately the vibration characteristics of nanotubes conveying viscous nanoflow and to design nanofluidic devices for detecting blood Glucose.

  16. Breather transition dynamics, Peregrine combs and walls, and modulation instability in a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher-order effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Chong; Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua

    2016-06-01

    We study a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger (vc-NLS) equation with higher-order effects. We show that the breather solution can be converted into four types of nonlinear waves on constant backgrounds including the multipeak solitons, antidark soliton, periodic wave, and W -shaped soliton. In particular, the transition condition requiring the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and third-order dispersion (TOD) to scale linearly is obtained analytically. We display several kinds of elastic interactions between the transformed nonlinear waves. We discuss the dispersion management of the multipeak soliton, which indicates that the GVD coefficient controls the number of peaks of the wave while the TOD coefficient has compression effect. The gain or loss has influence on the amplitudes of the multipeak soliton. We further derive the breather multiple births and Peregrine combs by using multiple compression points of Akhmediev breathers and Peregrine rogue waves in optical fiber systems with periodic GVD modulation. In particular, we demonstrate that the Peregrine comb can be converted into a Peregrine wall by the proper choice of the amplitude of the periodic GVD modulation. The Peregrine wall can be seen as an intermediate state between rogue waves and W -shaped solitons. We finally find that the modulational stability regions with zero growth rate coincide with the transition condition using rogue wave eigenvalues. Our results could be useful for the experimental control and manipulation of the formation of generalized Peregrine rogue waves in diverse physical systems modeled by vc-NLS equation with higher-order effects.

  17. Breather transition dynamics, Peregrine combs and walls, and modulation instability in a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher-order effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Chong; Li, Min; Qi, Feng-Hua

    2016-06-01

    We study a variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger (vc-NLS) equation with higher-order effects. We show that the breather solution can be converted into four types of nonlinear waves on constant backgrounds including the multipeak solitons, antidark soliton, periodic wave, and W-shaped soliton. In particular, the transition condition requiring the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and third-order dispersion (TOD) to scale linearly is obtained analytically. We display several kinds of elastic interactions between the transformed nonlinear waves. We discuss the dispersion management of the multipeak soliton, which indicates that the GVD coefficient controls the number of peaks of the wave while the TOD coefficient has compression effect. The gain or loss has influence on the amplitudes of the multipeak soliton. We further derive the breather multiple births and Peregrine combs by using multiple compression points of Akhmediev breathers and Peregrine rogue waves in optical fiber systems with periodic GVD modulation. In particular, we demonstrate that the Peregrine comb can be converted into a Peregrine wall by the proper choice of the amplitude of the periodic GVD modulation. The Peregrine wall can be seen as an intermediate state between rogue waves and W-shaped solitons. We finally find that the modulational stability regions with zero growth rate coincide with the transition condition using rogue wave eigenvalues. Our results could be useful for the experimental control and manipulation of the formation of generalized Peregrine rogue waves in diverse physical systems modeled by vc-NLS equation with higher-order effects.

  18. Higher-order nonlinear equations for the electron-acoustic waves in a nonextensive electron-positron-ion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafat, A.; Rahman, M. M.; Alam, M. S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    A precise theoretical investigation has been made on electron-acoustic (EA) Gardner solitons (GSs) and double layers (DLs) in a four-component plasma system consisting of nonextensive hot electrons and positrons, inertial cold electrons, and immobile positive ions. The well-known reductive perturbation method has been used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), modified K-dV (mK-dV), and Gardner equations along with their solitary wave as well as double layer solutions. It has been found that depending on the plasma parameters, the K-dV solitons and GSs are either compressive or rarefactive, whereas the mK-dV solitons are only compressive, and Gardner DLs are only rarefactive. The analytical comparison among the K-dV solitons, mK-dV solitons, and GSs are also investigated. It has been identified that the basic properties of such EA solitons and EA DLs are significantly modified due to the effects of nonextensivity and other plasma parameters related to plasma particle number densities and to temperature of different plasma species. The results of our present investigation can be helpful for understanding the nonlinear electrostatic structures associated with EA waves in various interstellar space plasma environments and cosmological scenarios (viz. quark-gluon plasma, protoneutron stars, stellar polytropes, hadronic matter, dark-matter halos, etc.)

  19. On nonlinear higher spin curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manvelyan, Ruben; Mkrtchyan, Karapet; Rühl, Werner; Tovmasyan, Murad

    2011-05-01

    We present the first nonlinear term of the higher spin curvature which is covariant with respect to deformed gauge transformations that are linear in the field. We consider the case of spin 3 after presenting spin 2 as an example, and then construct the general spin s quadratic term of the de Wit-Freedman curvature.

  20. Modulational instability, higher-order localized wave structures, and nonlinear wave interactions for a nonautonomous Lenells-Fokas equation in inhomogeneous fibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yu-Jie; Qi, Feng-Hua; Li, Min; Guo, Rui

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the nonautonomous Lenells-Fokas (LF) model is investigated. The modulational instability analysis of the solutions with variable coefficients in the presence of a small perturbation is studied. Higher-order soliton, breather, earthwormon, and rogue wave solutions of the nonautonomous LF model are derived via the n-fold variable-coefficient Darboux transformation. The solitons and earthwormons display the elastic collisions. It is found that the nonautonomous LF model admits the higher-order periodic rogue waves, composite rogue waves (rogue wave pair), and oscillating rogue waves, whose dynamics can be controlled by the inhomogeneous nonlinear parameters. Based on the second-order rogue wave, a diamond structure consisting of four first-order rogue waves is observed. In addition, the semirational solutions (the mixed rational-exponential solutions) of the nonautonomous LF model are obtained, which can be used to describe the interactions between the rogue waves and breathers. Our results could be helpful for the design of experiments in the optical fiber communications.

  1. Travelling-wave solutions of a weakly nonlinear two-dimensional higher-order Kadomtsev-Petviashvili dynamical equation for dispersive shallow-water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seadawy, Aly R.

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of three-dimensional nonlinear irrotational flow of an inviscid and incompressible fluid of the long waves in dispersive shallow-water approximation is analyzed. The problem formulation of the long waves in dispersive shallow-water approximation lead to fifth-order Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) dynamical equation by applying the reductive perturbation theory. By using an extended auxiliary equation method, the solitary travelling-wave solutions of the two-dimensional nonlinear fifth-order KP dynamical equation are derived. An analytical as well as a numerical solution of the two-dimensional nonlinear KP equation are obtained and analyzed with the effects of external pressure flow.

  2. Vector bright soliton behaviors of the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger system in the birefringent or two-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Tian, Bo; Xie, Xi-Yang; Guan, Yue-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Studied in this paper are the vector bright solitons of the coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger system, which describes the simultaneous propagation of two ultrashort pulses in the birefringent or two-mode fiber. With the help of auxiliary functions, we obtain the bilinear forms and construct the vector bright one- and two-soliton solutions via the Hirota method and symbolic computation. Two types of vector solitons are derived. Single-hump, double-hump, and flat-top solitons are displayed. Elastic and inelastic interactions between the Type-I solitons, between the Type-II solitons, and between the two combined types of the solitons are revealed, respectively. Especially, from the interaction between a Type-I soliton and a Type-II soliton, we see that the Type-II soliton exhibits the oscillation periodically before such an interaction and becomes the double-hump soliton after the interaction, which is different from the previously reported.

  3. Complex higher order derivative theories

    SciTech Connect

    Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David

    2012-08-24

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  4. Higher-order uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünsche, A.

    2006-07-01

    Using the non-negativity of Gram determinants of arbitrary order, we derive higher-order uncertainty relations for the symmetric uncertainty matrices of corresponding order n?>?2 to n Hermitean operators (n?=?2 is the usual case). The special cases of third-order and fourth-order uncertainty relations are considered in detail. The obtained third-order uncertainty relations are applied to the Lie groups SU(1,1) with three Hermitean basis operators (K1,K2,K0) and SU(2) with three Hermitean basis operators (J1,J2,J3) where, in particular, the group-coherent states of Perelomov type and of Barut Girardello type for SU(1,1) and the spin or atomic coherent states for SU(2) are investigated. The uncertainty relations for the determinant of the third-order uncertainty matrix are satisfied with the equality sign for coherent states and this determinant becomes vanishing for the Perelomov type of coherent states for SU(1,1) and SU(2). As an example of the application of fourth-order uncertainty relations, we consider the canonical operators (Q1,P1,Q2,P2) of two boson modes and the corresponding uncertainty matrix formed by the operators of the corresponding mean deviations, taking into account the correlations between the two modes. In two mathematical appendices, we prove the non-negativity of the determinant of correlation matrices of arbitrary order and clarify the principal structure of higher-order uncertainty relations.

  5. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  6. Nonlinear force dependence on optically bound micro-particle arrays in the evanescent fields of fundamental and higher order microfibre modes.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Aili; Holzmann, Daniela; Truong, Viet Giang; Ritsch, Helmut; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-07-25

    Particles trapped in the evanescent field of an ultrathin optical fibre interact over very long distances via multiple scattering of the fibre-guided fields. In ultrathin fibres that support higher order modes, these interactions are stronger and exhibit qualitatively new behaviour due to the coupling of different fibre modes, which have different propagation wave-vectors, by the particles. Here, we study one dimensional longitudinal optical binding interactions of chains of 3 μm polystyrene spheres under the influence of the evanescent fields of a two-mode microfibre. The observation of long-range interactions, self-ordering and speed variation of particle chains reveals strong optical binding effects between the particles that can be modelled well by a tritter scattering-matrix approach. The optical forces, optical binding interactions and the velocity of bounded particle chains are calculated using this method. Results show good agreement with finite element numerical simulations. Experimental data and theoretical analysis show that higher order modes in a microfibre offer a promising method to not only obtain stable, multiple particle trapping or faster particle propulsion speeds, but that they also allow for better control over each individual trapped object in particle ensembles near the microfibre surface.

  7. Nonlinear force dependence on optically bound micro-particle arrays in the evanescent fields of fundamental and higher order microfibre modes

    PubMed Central

    Maimaiti, Aili; Holzmann, Daniela; Truong, Viet Giang; Ritsch, Helmut; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2016-01-01

    Particles trapped in the evanescent field of an ultrathin optical fibre interact over very long distances via multiple scattering of the fibre-guided fields. In ultrathin fibres that support higher order modes, these interactions are stronger and exhibit qualitatively new behaviour due to the coupling of different fibre modes, which have different propagation wave-vectors, by the particles. Here, we study one dimensional longitudinal optical binding interactions of chains of 3 μm polystyrene spheres under the influence of the evanescent fields of a two-mode microfibre. The observation of long-range interactions, self-ordering and speed variation of particle chains reveals strong optical binding effects between the particles that can be modelled well by a tritter scattering-matrix approach. The optical forces, optical binding interactions and the velocity of bounded particle chains are calculated using this method. Results show good agreement with finite element numerical simulations. Experimental data and theoretical analysis show that higher order modes in a microfibre offer a promising method to not only obtain stable, multiple particle trapping or faster particle propulsion speeds, but that they also allow for better control over each individual trapped object in particle ensembles near the microfibre surface. PMID:27451935

  8. Higher-order Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Truong X.; Duong, Dũng C.

    2015-10-15

    We study optical analogues of higher-order Dirac solitons (HODSs) in binary waveguide arrays. Like higher-order solitons obtained from the well-known nonlinear Schrödinger equation governing the pulse propagation in an optical fiber, these HODSs have amplitude profiles which are numerically shown to be periodic over large propagation distances. At the same time, HODSs possess some unique features. Firstly, the period of a HODS depends on its order parameter. Secondly, the discrete nature in binary waveguide arrays imposes the upper limit on the order parameter of HODSs. Thirdly, the order parameter of HODSs can vary continuously in a certain range. - Highlights: • Higher-order Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays are numerically demonstrated. • Amplitude profiles of higher-order Dirac solitons are periodic during propagation. • The period of higher-order Dirac solitons decreases when the soliton order increases.

  9. Influence of higher-order effects on pulsating solutions, stationary solutions and moving fronts in the presence of linear and nonlinear gain/loss and spectral filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Ivan M.; Arabadzhiev, Todor N.; Georgiev, Zhivko D.

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the impact of the higher-order effects: intrapulse Raman scattering (IRS), third-order of dispersion (TOD) and self-steepening (SS) on pulsating solutions, moving fronts and stationary solutions of the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation (CCQGLE) found in Tsoy and Akhmediev (2005) as well as on the solutions presented in Uzunov et al. (2014). The applied basic equation generalizes the CCQGLE with the IRS, TOD and SS effects. A finite-dimensional dynamical system has been derived using the method of moments. Applying the derived dynamical system alongside with the numerical solution of the generalized CCQGLE performed by means of the fourth-order Runge-Kutta interaction picture method we have found that the influence of IRS and SS is stronger than the impact of TOD for the solutions of Tsoy and Akhmediev (2005). Perturbed pulsating solutions, moving fronts and stationary solutions in the presence of IRS, SS and TOD have been numerically observed. They exist up to some critical values of the parameters of perturbations. For the values of parameters larger than the critical ones the pulsating solutions are transformed into stable stationary solutions or unstable solutions. New localized fluctuating and stationary solutions have been obtained for fairly large values of parameters of IRS and TOD, respectively. The transformation of the stable stationary solution of Uzunov et al. (2014) under the influence of SS into pulsating solution has been numerically observed.

  10. Global state feedback stabilisation of nonlinear systems with high-order and low-order nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing-Hui; Xie, Xue-Jun

    2014-03-01

    This paper studies the state feedback control problem for a class of nonlinear systems with high-order and low-order nonlinearities. The introduction of the sign function together with the method of adding a power integrator and Lyapunov stability theorem makes the closed-loop system globally asymptotically stable. Exploiting the idea of how to deal with growth nonlinearities with both high order and low order being relaxed to some intervals is the focus of this work.

  11. Higher order nonlinear equations for the dust-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma with two temperature-ions and nonextensive electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Emamuddin, M.; Yasmin, S.; Mamun, A. A.

    2013-04-15

    The nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma whose constituents are negatively charged dust, Maxwellian ions with two distinct temperatures, and electrons following q-nonextensive distribution, is investigated by deriving a number of nonlinear equations, namely, the Korteweg-de-Vries (K-dV), the modified Korteweg-de-Vries (mK-dV), and the Gardner equations. The basic characteristics of the hump (positive potential) and dip (negative potential) shaped dust-acoustic (DA) Gardner solitons are found to exist beyond the K-dV limit. The effects of two temperature ions and electron nonextensivity on the basic features of DA K-dV, mK-dV, and Gardner solitons are also examined. It has been observed that the DA Gardner solitons exhibit negative (positive) solitons for qq{sub c}) (where q{sub c} is the critical value of the nonextensive parameter q). The implications of our results in understanding the localized nonlinear electrostatic perturbations existing in stellar polytropes, quark-gluon plasma, protoneutron stars, etc. (where ions with different temperatures and nonextensive electrons exist) are also briefly addressed.

  12. Technique for Very High Order Nonlinear Simulation and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyson, Rodger W.

    2001-01-01

    Finding the sources of sound in large nonlinear fields via direct simulation currently requires excessive computational cost. This paper describes a simple technique for efficiently solving the multidimensional nonlinear Euler equations that significantly reduces this cost and demonstrates a useful approach for validating high order nonlinear methods. Up to 15th order accuracy in space and time methods were compared and it is shown that an algorithm with a fixed design accuracy approaches its maximal utility and then its usefulness exponentially decays unless higher accuracy is used. It is concluded that at least a 7th order method is required to efficiently propagate a harmonic wave using the nonlinear Euler equations to a distance of 5 wavelengths while maintaining an overall error tolerance that is low enough to capture both the mean flow and the acoustics.

  13. Higher-Order Superposition for Dependent Types,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Proofs for Higher-Order Rewrite Systems, J. Heering, K. Meinke , B. Moller, T. Nipkow ed., Higher Order Algebra, Logic and Term Rewriting, Lect. Notes in...Heering, K. Meinke , B. Moller, T. Nipkow ed., Higher Order Algebra, Logic and Term Rewriting, Lect. Notes in Comp. Sci., Vol 816, Springer Verlag, 1994, pp. 305-325

  14. A new theorem on higher order derivatives of Lyapunov functions.

    PubMed

    Meigoli, Vahid; Nikravesh, Seyyed Kamaleddin Yadavar

    2009-04-01

    The Lyapunov stability analysis method for nonlinear dynamic systems requires a non positive first derivative of the Lyapunov functions along the system's trajectories. In this paper, a new method is developed to relax this requirement. A new sufficient condition is developed for the stability analysis of nonlinear systems, introducing some inequalities for higher order derivatives of the Lyapunov function. The differential inequalities can be considered as a new controllable canonical form linear time invariant system with negative inputs. The stability analysis of a given nonlinear system is then reduced to check if the characteristic equation for the new linear time invariant system is Hurwitz. Some examples are presented to establish the approach.

  15. Higher-order phase shift reconstruction approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cong Wenxiang; Wang Ge

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Biological soft tissues encountered in clinical and preclinical imaging mainly consists of atoms of light elements with low atomic numbers and their elemental composition is nearly uniform with little density variation. Hence, x-ray attenuation contrast is relatively poor and cannot achieve satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, x-ray phase-contrast provides a new mechanism for soft tissue imaging. The x-ray phase shift of soft tissues is about a thousand times greater than the x-ray absorption over the diagnostic x-ray energy range, yielding a higher signal-to-noise ratio than the attenuation contrast counterpart. Thus, phase-contrast imaging is a promising technique to reveal detailed structural variation in soft tissues, offering a high contrast resolution between healthy and malignant tissues. Here the authors develop a novel phase retrieval method to reconstruct the phase image on the object plane from the intensity measurements. The reconstructed phase image is a projection of the phase shift induced by an object and serves as input to reconstruct the 3D refractive index distribution inside the object using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm. Such x-ray refractive index images can reveal structural features in soft tissues, with excellent resolution differentiating healthy and malignant tissues. Methods: A novel phase retrieval approach is proposed to reconstruct an x-ray phase image of an object based on the paraxial Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. A primary advantage of the authors' approach is higher-order accuracy over that with the conventional linear approximation models, relaxing the current restriction of slow phase variation. The nonlinear terms in the autocorrelation equation of the Fresnel diffraction pattern are eliminated using intensity images measured at different distances in the Fresnel diffraction region, simplifying the phase reconstruction to a linear inverse problem. Numerical experiments are performed

  16. Higher order mechanics on graded bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, Andrew James; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we develop a geometric approach to higher order mechanics on graded bundles in both, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, via the recently discovered weighted algebroids. We present the corresponding Tulczyjew triple for this higher order situation and derive in this framework the phase equations from an arbitrary (also singular) Lagrangian or Hamiltonian, as well as the Euler-Lagrange equations. As important examples, we geometrically derive the classical higher order Euler-Lagrange equations and analogous reduced equations for invariant higher order Lagrangians on Lie groupoids.

  17. Higher-order organization of complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Austin R.; Gleich, David F.; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Networks are a fundamental tool for understanding and modeling complex systems in physics, biology, neuroscience, engineering, and social science. Many networks are known to exhibit rich, lower-order connectivity patterns that can be captured at the level of individual nodes and edges. However, higher-order organization of complex networks—at the level of small network subgraphs—remains largely unknown. Here, we develop a generalized framework for clustering networks on the basis of higher-order connectivity patterns. This framework provides mathematical guarantees on the optimality of obtained clusters and scales to networks with billions of edges. The framework reveals higher-order organization in a number of networks, including information propagation units in neuronal networks and hub structure in transportation networks. Results show that networks exhibit rich higher-order organizational structures that are exposed by clustering based on higher-order connectivity patterns. PMID:27387949

  18. Cascaded Second-Order Nonlinearities in Waveguides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundheimer, Michael Lee

    The cascaded second-order nonlinearity arising from the second-harmonic generation process in noncentrosymmetric media is a novel approach to achieving the nonlinear phase shifts required for all-optical signal processing. The research presented in this dissertation demonstrated and measured the cascaded second-order nonlinearity for the first time in viable integrated optical waveguide formats. Cascaded self-phase modulation was measured in potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO_4 or KTP) segmented quasi-phasematched waveguides at wavelengths near 855 nm and in the optical fiber telecommunications window near 1.585 μm using picosecond and femtosecond pulses, respectively. Spectral modulation and broadening were observed on the output fundamental spectrum and compared to predictions from pulsed second -harmonic generation theory under conditions of group-velocity mismatch (temporal walk-off) and group-velocity dispersion. Peak cascaded phase shifts of the fundamental of approximately pi at 855 nm were inferred with 690 W of peak guided power. Peak cascaded phase shifts of approximately pi/2 were inferred at 1.585 μm with 760 W of peak power in the guide. Direct interferometric measurements of the magnitude and sign of the cascaded nonlinear phase shift of the fundamental were performed in temperature-tuned lithium niobate (LiNbO _3) channel waveguides at 1.32 mum. The cascaded phase shift was shown to change sign upon passing through the phasematching condition, as required by theory. Peak cascaded phase shifts of +0.53 pi and -0.13 pi were measured for 86 W peak power in these waveguides. A non-uniform temperature profile along the waveguide led to a non-uniform wavevector-mismatch along the guide, resulting in an enhanced positive phase shift and an increased temperature bandwidth for the phase shift. The phase shifts achieved in this research are large enough to be suitable for some all-optical signal processing functions.

  19. Resonant radiation from oscillating higher order solitons

    DOE PAGES

    Driben, R.; Yulin, A. V.; Efimov, A.

    2015-07-15

    We present radiation mechanism exhibited by a higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution the higher-order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in formation of multipeak frequency comb-like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is corroborated by numerical simulations. Research showed that for longer pulses the described effect persists also under the action of higher order perturbations such as Raman and self-steepening.

  20. Higher-order force gradient symplectic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Kidwell, Donald W.

    2000-12-01

    We show that a recently discovered fourth order symplectic algorithm, which requires one evaluation of force gradient in addition to three evaluations of the force, when iterated to higher order, yielded algorithms that are far superior to similarly iterated higher order algorithms based on the standard Forest-Ruth algorithm. We gauge the accuracy of each algorithm by comparing the step-size independent error functions associated with energy conservation and the rotation of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector when solving a highly eccentric Kepler problem. For orders 6, 8, 10, and 12, the new algorithms are approximately a factor of 103, 104, 104, and 105 better.

  1. Higher-Order Neural Networks Recognize Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Ochoa, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Networks of higher order have enhanced capabilities to distinguish between different two-dimensional patterns and to recognize those patterns. Also enhanced capabilities to "learn" patterns to be recognized: "trained" with far fewer examples and, therefore, in less time than necessary to train comparable first-order neural networks.

  2. Human motion perception: Higher-order organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of higher-order motion perception and organization. It is argued that motion is sufficient to fully specify a number of environmental properties, including: depth order, three-dimensional form, object displacement, and dynamics. A grammar of motion perception is proposed; applications of this work for display design are discussed.

  3. Constructing higher-order hydrodynamics: The third order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Kaplis, Nikolaos

    2016-03-01

    Hydrodynamics can be formulated as the gradient expansion of conserved currents in terms of the fundamental fields describing the near-equilibrium fluid flow. In the relativistic case, the Navier-Stokes equations follow from the conservation of the stress-energy tensor to first order in derivatives. In this paper, we go beyond the presently understood second-order hydrodynamics and discuss the systematization of obtaining the hydrodynamic expansion to an arbitrarily high order. As an example of the algorithm that we present, we fully classify the gradient expansion at third order for neutral fluids in four dimensions, thus finding the most general next-to-leading-order corrections to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations in curved space-time. In doing so, we list 20 new transport coefficient candidates in the conformal case and 68 in the nonconformal case. As we do not consider any constraints that could potentially arise from the local entropy current analysis, this is the maximal possible set of neutral third-order transport coefficients. To investigate the physical implications of these new transport coefficients, we obtain the third-order corrections to the linear dispersion relations that describe the propagation of diffusion and sound waves in relativistic fluids. We also compute the corrections to the scalar (spin-2) two-point correlation function of the third-order stress-energy tensor. Furthermore, as an example of a nonlinear hydrodynamic flow, we calculate the third-order corrections to the energy density of a boost-invariant Bjorken flow. Finally, we apply our field theoretic results to the N =4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills fluid at infinite 't Hooft coupling and an infinite number of colors to find the values of five new linear combinations of the conformal transport coefficients.

  4. Higher-order awareness, misrepresentation and function

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, David

    2012-01-01

    Conscious mental states are states we are in some way aware of. I compare higher-order theories of consciousness, which explain consciousness by appeal to such higher-order awareness (HOA), and first-order theories, which do not, and I argue that higher-order theories have substantial explanatory advantages. The higher-order nature of our awareness of our conscious states suggests an analogy with the metacognition that figures in the regulation of psychological processes and behaviour. I argue that, although both consciousness and metacognition involve higher-order psychological states, they have little more in common. One thing they do share is the possibility of misrepresentation; just as metacognitive processing can misrepresent one's cognitive states and abilities, so the HOA in virtue of which one's mental states are conscious can, and sometimes does, misdescribe those states. A striking difference between the two, however, has to do with utility for psychological processing. Metacognition has considerable benefit for psychological processing; in contrast, it is unlikely that there is much, if any, utility to mental states' being conscious over and above the utility those states have when they are not conscious. PMID:22492758

  5. Entanglement equilibrium for higher order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Pablo; Min, Vincent S.; Speranza, Antony J.; Visser, Manus R.

    2017-02-01

    We show that the linearized higher derivative gravitational field equations are equivalent to an equilibrium condition on the entanglement entropy of small spherical regions in vacuum. This extends Jacobson's recent derivation of the Einstein equation using entanglement to include general higher derivative corrections. The corrections are naturally associated with the subleading divergences in the entanglement entropy, which take the form of a Wald entropy evaluated on the entangling surface. Variations of this Wald entropy are related to the field equations through an identity for causal diamonds in maximally symmetric spacetimes, which we derive for arbitrary higher derivative theories. If the variations are taken holding fixed a geometric functional that we call the generalized volume, the identity becomes an equivalence between the linearized constraints and the entanglement equilibrium condition. We note that the fully nonlinear higher curvature equations cannot be derived from the linearized equations applied to small balls, in contrast to the situation encountered in Einstein gravity. The generalized volume is a novel result of this work, and we speculate on its thermodynamic role in the first law of causal diamond mechanics, as well as its possible application to holographic complexity.

  6. Higher order modes in photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Gansch, Roman; Kalchmair, Stefan; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron M; Klang, Pavel; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2011-08-15

    We present a detailed investigation of higher order modes in photonic crystal slabs. In such structures the resonances exhibit a blue-shift compared to an ideal two-dimensional photonic crystal, which depends on the order of the slab mode and the polarization. By fabricating a series of photonic crystal slab photo detecting devices, with varying ratios of slab thickness to photonic crystal lattice constant, we are able to distinguish between 0th and 1st order slab modes as well as the polarization from the shift of resonances in the photocurrent spectra. This method complements the photonic band structure mapping technique for characterization of photonic crystal slabs.

  7. Higher Order Thinking in the Dance Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Ann-Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The author identifies higher order thinking as an essential component of dance training for students of all ages and abilities. Weaving together insights from interviews with experts in the field of dance education with practical pedagogical applications within an Improvisation and Composition class for talented and gifted youth, this article…

  8. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships.

  9. Assessing Higher Order Thinking in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulm, Gerald, Ed.

    This book explores current theory, research, practice, and policy in the assessment of higher order thinking in mathematics, focusing on the elementary and secondary grades. Current knowledge and research on mathematics learning and testing is synthesized. Examples of innovative test items for classroom use and state assessment programs are…

  10. Performance assessment of higher order thinking.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study investigating the effect of intervention on student problem solving and higher order competency development using a series of complex numeracy performance tasks (Airasian and Russell, 2008). The tasks were sequenced to promote and monitor student development towards hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Using Rasch partial credit analysis (Wright and Masters, 1982) to calibrate the tasks and analysis of residual gain scores to examine the effect of class and school membership, the study illustrates how directed intervention can improve students' higher order competency skills. This paper demonstrates how the segmentation defined by Wright and Masters can offer a basis for interpreting the construct underlying a test and how segment definitions can deliver targeted interventions. Implications for teacher intervention and teaching mentor schemes are considered. The article also discusses multilevel regression models that differentiate class and school effects, and describes a process for generating, testing and using value added models.

  11. Systems with Higher-order Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Yaakov; Kaplan, Arkady; Seimetz, Matthias

    The chapter covers concepts, systems aspects, and key components for higher-order modulation. The introductory section presents relevant variants of higher-order modulation formats and includes coherent detection and coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing as well. The next section is devoted to system configurations with particular emphasis on transmitter structures and receiver concepts, whereas the subsequent chapter focuses on key components. Included are LiNbO3-based quadrature modulators, integrated coherent receivers, in particular 90° hybrids, ranging from new concepts to proven implementations. A treatment of integrated balanced four-branch receivers ranges from theoretical analysis to the presentation of commercially available devices. The chapter concludes with a discussion of system trends and expected future developments.

  12. Random interactions in higher order neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Pierre; Venkatesh, Santosh S.

    1993-01-01

    Recurrent networks of polynomial threshold elements with random symmetric interactions are studied. Precise asymptotic estimates are derived for the expected number of fixed points as a function of the margin of stability. In particular, it is shown that there is a critical range of margins of stability (depending on the degree of polynomial interaction) such that the expected number of fixed points with margins below the critical range grows exponentially with the number of nodes in the network, while the expected number of fixed points with margins above the critical range decreases exponentially with the number of nodes in the network. The random energy model is also briefly examined and links with higher order neural networks and higher order spin glass models made explicit.

  13. Higher-Order Mentalising and Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Higher-order mentalising is the ability to represent the beliefs and desires of other people at multiple, iterated levels – a capacity that sets humans apart from other species. However, there has not yet been a systematic attempt to determine what cognitive processes underlie this ability. Here we present three correlational studies assessing the extent to which performance on higher-order mentalising tasks relates to emotion recognition, self-reported empathy and self-inhibition. In Study 1a and 1b, examining emotion recognition and empathy, a relationship was identified between individual differences in the ability to mentalise and an emotion recognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task), but no correlation was found with the Empathy Quotient, a self-report scale of empathy. Study 2 investigated whether a relationship exists between individual mentalising abilities and four different forms of self-inhibition: motor inhibition, executive inhibition, automatic imitation and temporal discounting. Results demonstrate that only temporal discounting performance relates to mentalising ability; suggesting that cognitive skills relevant to representation of the minds of others’ are not influenced by the ability to perform more basic inhibition. Higher-order mentalising appears to rely on the cognitive architecture that serves both low-level social cognition (emotion recognition), and complex forms of inhibition. PMID:26543298

  14. Higher-Order Mentalising and Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Higher-order mentalising is the ability to represent the beliefs and desires of other people at multiple, iterated levels - a capacity that sets humans apart from other species. However, there has not yet been a systematic attempt to determine what cognitive processes underlie this ability. Here we present three correlational studies assessing the extent to which performance on higher-order mentalising tasks relates to emotion recognition, self-reported empathy and self-inhibition. In Study 1a and 1b, examining emotion recognition and empathy, a relationship was identified between individual differences in the ability to mentalise and an emotion recognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task), but no correlation was found with the Empathy Quotient, a self-report scale of empathy. Study 2 investigated whether a relationship exists between individual mentalising abilities and four different forms of self-inhibition: motor inhibition, executive inhibition, automatic imitation and temporal discounting. Results demonstrate that only temporal discounting performance relates to mentalising ability; suggesting that cognitive skills relevant to representation of the minds of others' are not influenced by the ability to perform more basic inhibition. Higher-order mentalising appears to rely on the cognitive architecture that serves both low-level social cognition (emotion recognition), and complex forms of inhibition.

  15. Visualizing higher order finite elements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2005-11-01

    This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elements into regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which the algorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomial approximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analytical solution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and momentum. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate. Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and these coefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of freedom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution. Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increasing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number of finite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some types of simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedom than increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation has determined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools do not exist for visual inspection of the solution. This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finite element simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicial regions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. The requirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the places where the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacing algorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.

  16. Representing higher-order dependencies in networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Wickramarathne, Thanuka L.; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the correctness of network analysis methods, the network (as the input) has to be a sufficiently accurate representation of the underlying data. However, when representing sequential data from complex systems, such as global shipping traffic or Web clickstream traffic as networks, conventional network representations that implicitly assume the Markov property (first-order dependency) can quickly become limiting. This assumption holds that, when movements are simulated on the network, the next movement depends only on the current node, discounting the fact that the movement may depend on several previous steps. However, we show that data derived from many complex systems can show up to fifth-order dependencies. In these cases, the oversimplifying assumption of the first-order network representation can lead to inaccurate network analysis results. To address this problem, we propose the higher-order network (HON) representation that can discover and embed variable orders of dependencies in a network representation. Through a comprehensive empirical evaluation and analysis, we establish several desirable characteristics of HON, including accuracy, scalability, and direct compatibility with the existing suite of network analysis methods. We illustrate how HON can be applied to a broad variety of tasks, such as random walking, clustering, and ranking, and we demonstrate that, by using it as input, HON yields more accurate results without any modification to these tasks. PMID:27386539

  17. Dynamics and control of higher-order nonholonomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio Hervas, Jaime

    A theoretical framework is established for the control of higher-order nonholonomic systems, defined as systems that satisfy higher-order nonintegrable constraints. A model for such systems is developed in terms of differential-algebraic equations defined on a higher-order tangent bundle. A number of control-theoretic properties such as nonintegrability, controllability, and stabilizability are presented. Higher-order nonholonomic systems are shown to be strongly accessible and, under certain conditions, small time locally controllable at any equilibrium. There are important examples of higher-order nonholonomic systems that are asymptotically stabilizable via smooth feedback, including space vehicles with multiple slosh modes and Prismatic-Prismatic-Revolute (PPR) robots moving open liquid containers, as well as an interesting class of systems that do not admit asymptotically stabilizing continuous static or dynamic state feedback. Specific assumptions are introduced to define this class, which includes important examples of robotic systems. A discontinuous nonlinear feedback control algorithm is developed to steer any initial state to the equilibrium at the origin. The applicability of the theoretical development is illustrated through two examples: control of a planar PPR robot manipulator subject to a jerk constraint and control of a point mass moving on a constant torsion curve in a three dimensional space.

  18. Global state feedback stabilisation of stochastic high-order nonlinear systems with high-order and low-order nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fangzheng; Wu, Yuqiang; Yu, Xin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of global stabilisation by state feedback is investigated for a class of stochastic high-order nonlinear systems with both high-order and low-order nonlinearities, to which the existing control methods are inapplicable. Based on the generalised stochastic Lyapunov theorem, and by skillfully using the method of adding a power integrator, a continuous state feedback controller is successfully constructed, which can guarantee the global asymptotic stability in probability of the resulting closed-loop system in the sense of weak solution, and also is able to lead to an interesting result of finite-time stabilisation under appropriate conditions. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Higher Order Equations and Constituent Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barci, D. G.; Bollini, C. G.; Oxman, L. E.; Rocca, M.

    We consider a simple wave equation of fourth degree in the D'Alembertian operator. It contains the main ingredients of a general Lorentz-invariant higher order equation, namely, a normal bradyonic sector, a tachyonic state and a pair of complex conjugate modes. The propagators are respectively the Feynman causal function and three Wheeler-Green functions (half-advanced and half-retarded). The latter are Lorentz-invariant and consistent with the elimination of tachyons and complex modes from free asymptotic states. We also verify the absence of absorptive parts from convolutions involving Wheeler propagators.

  20. Higher order time integration methods for two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kees, Christopher E.; Miller, Cass T.

    Time integration methods that adapt in both the order of approximation and time step have been shown to provide efficient solutions to Richards' equation. In this work, we extend the same method of lines approach to solve a set of two-phase flow formulations and address some mass conservation issues from the previous work. We analyze these formulations and the nonlinear systems that result from applying the integration methods, placing particular emphasis on their index, range of applicability, and mass conservation characteristics. We conduct numerical experiments to study the behavior of the numerical models for three test problems. We demonstrate that higher order integration in time is more efficient than standard low-order methods for a variety of practical grids and integration tolerances, that the adaptive scheme successfully varies the step size in response to changing conditions, and that mass balance can be maintained efficiently using variable-order integration and an appropriately chosen numerical model formulation.

  1. Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene

    2002-01-01

    The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.

  2. Numerical modeling of higher order magnetic moments in UXO discrimination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, V.; Yaoguo, L.; Nabighian, M.N.; Wright, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    The surface magnetic anomaly observed in unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance is mainly dipolar, and consequently, the dipole is the only magnetic moment regularly recovered in UXO discrimination. The dipole moment contains information about the intensity of magnetization but lacks information about the shape of the target. In contrast, higher order moments, such as quadrupole and octupole, encode asymmetry properties of the magnetization distribution within the buried targets. In order to improve our understanding of magnetization distribution within UXO and non-UXO objects and to show its potential utility in UXO clearance, we present a numerical modeling study of UXO and related metallic objects. The tool for the modeling is a nonlinear integral equation describing magnetization within isolated compact objects of high susceptibility. A solution for magnetization distribution then allows us to compute the magnetic multipole moments of the object, analyze their relationships, and provide a depiction of the anomaly produced by different moments within the object. Our modeling results show the presence of significant higher order moments for more asymmetric objects, and the fields of these higher order moments are well above the noise level of magnetic gradient data. The contribution from higher order moments may provide a practical tool for improved UXO discrimination. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  3. Higher order correlations of IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meiksin, Avery; Szapudi, Istvan; Szalay, Alexander

    1992-01-01

    The higher order irreducible angular correlation functions are derived up to the eight-point function, for a sample of 4654 IRAS galaxies, flux-limited at 1.2 Jy in the 60 microns band. The correlations are generally found to be somewhat weaker than those for the optically selected galaxies, consistent with the visual impression of looser clusters in the IRAS sample. It is found that the N-point correlation functions can be expressed as the symmetric sum of products of N - 1 two-point functions, although the correlations above the four-point function are consistent with zero. The coefficients are consistent with the hierarchical clustering scenario as modeled by Hamilton and by Schaeffer.

  4. Analysis of wheezes using wavelet higher order spectral features.

    PubMed

    Taplidou, Styliani A; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2010-07-01

    Wheezes are musical breath sounds, which usually imply an existing pulmonary obstruction, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although many studies have addressed the problem of wheeze detection, a limited number of scientific works has focused in the analysis of wheeze characteristics, and in particular, their time-varying nonlinear characteristics. In this study, an effort is made to reveal and statistically analyze the nonlinear characteristics of wheezes and their evolution over time, as they are reflected in the quadratic phase coupling of their harmonics. To this end, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is used in combination with third-order spectra to define the analysis domain, where the nonlinear interactions of the harmonics of wheezes and their time variations are revealed by incorporating instantaneous wavelet bispectrum and bicoherence, which provide with the instantaneous biamplitude and biphase curves. Based on this nonlinear information pool, a set of 23 features is proposed for the nonlinear analysis of wheezes. Two complementary perspectives, i.e., general and detailed, related to average performance and to localities, respectively, were used in the construction of the feature set, in order to embed trends and local behaviors, respectively, seen in the nonlinear interaction of the harmonic elements of wheezes over time. The proposed feature set was evaluated on a dataset of wheezes, acquired from adult patients with diagnosed asthma and COPD from a lung sound database. The statistical evaluation of the feature set revealed discrimination ability between the two pathologies for all data subgroupings. In particular, when the total breathing cycle was examined, all 23 features, but one, showed statistically significant difference between the COPD and asthma pathologies, whereas for the subgroupings of inspiratory and expiratory phases, 18 out of 23 and 22 out of 23 features exhibited discrimination power, respectively

  5. Aspects of general higher-order gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Pablo; Cano, Pablo A.; Min, Vincent S.; Visser, Manus R.

    2017-02-01

    We study several aspects of higher-order gravities constructed from general contractions of the Riemann tensor and the metric in arbitrary dimensions. First, we use the fast-linearization procedure presented in [P. Bueno and P. A. Cano, arXiv:1607.06463] to obtain the equations satisfied by the metric perturbation modes on a maximally symmetric background in the presence of matter and to classify L (Riemann ) theories according to their spectrum. Then, we linearize all theories up to quartic order in curvature and use this result to construct quartic versions of Einsteinian cubic gravity. In addition, we show that the most general cubic gravity constructed in a dimension-independent way and which does not propagate the ghostlike spin-2 mode (but can propagate the scalar) is a linear combination of f (Lovelock ) invariants, plus the Einsteinian cubic gravity term, plus a new ghost-free gravity term. Next, we construct the generalized Newton potential and the post-Newtonian parameter γ for general L (Riemann ) gravities in arbitrary dimensions, unveiling some interesting differences with respect to the four-dimensional case. We also study the emission and propagation of gravitational radiation from sources for these theories in four dimensions, providing a generalized formula for the power emitted. Finally, we review Wald's formalism for general L (Riemann ) theories and construct new explicit expressions for the relevant quantities involved. Many examples illustrate our calculations.

  6. Higher-order harmonics in bleached silver halide holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bányász, I.

    2006-09-01

    A large number of plane wave holograms were recorded in Agfa-Gevaert 8E75HD holographic plates, at a wide range of bias exposures and fringe visibilities. The plates were processed by various combinations of developers (AAC, Pyrogallol and Catechol) and bleaching agents (R-9 and EDTA). The phase gratings were studied by phase-contrast microscopy, using a high-power immersion (100×) objective. The phase-contrast photomicrographs were Fourier analysed. Thus, first-, second-, and third-order modulations of the refractive index as a function of bias exposure and visibility of the recording interference pattern could be determined. The ratio of the amplitudes of higher-order modulations to that of the first-order can serve as a measure of the nonlinearity of the holographic recording.

  7. Second order parametric processes in nonlinear silica microspheres.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Han, Ming; Wang, Anbo; Liu, Zhiwen; Heflin, James R

    2008-04-25

    We analyze second order parametric processes in a silica microsphere coated with radially aligned nonlinear optical molecules. In a high-Q nonlinear microsphere, we discover that it is possible to achieve ultralow threshold parametric oscillation that obeys the rule of angular momentum conservation. Based on symmetry considerations, one can also implement parametric processes that naturally generate quantum entangled photon pairs. Practical issues regarding implementation of the nonlinear microsphere are also discussed.

  8. Higher order structure of aquaporin-4.

    PubMed

    Nicchia, G P; Rossi, A; Mola, M G; Pisani, F; Stigliano, C; Basco, D; Mastrototaro, M; Svelto, M; Frigeri, A

    2010-07-28

    Unlike other mammalian AQPs, multiple tetramers of AQP4 associate in the plasma membrane to form peculiar structures called Orthogonal Arrays of Particles (OAPs), that are observable by freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM). However, FFEM cannot give information about the composition of OAPs of different sizes, and due to its technical complexity is not easily applicable as a routine technique. Recently, we employed the 2D gel electrophoresis BN-SDS/PAGE that for the first time enabled the biochemical isolation of AQP4-OAPs from several tissues. We found that AQP4 protein is present in several higher-order complexes (membrane pools of supra-structures) which contain different ratios of M1/M23 isoforms corresponding to AQP4-OAPs of different size. In this paper, we illustrate in detail the potentiality of 2D BN/SDS-PAGE for analyzing AQP4 supra-structures, their relationship with the dystrophin glycoprotein complex and other membrane proteins, and their role as a specific target of Neuromyelitis Optica autoantibodies.

  9. Higher order organization of human placental aromatase.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debashis; Jiang, Wenhua; Lo, Jessica; Egbuta, Chinaza

    2011-07-01

    Aromatase (CYP19A1) is an integral membrane enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the 19-methyl group and aromatization of the A-ring of androgens. All human estrogens are synthesized from their androgenic precursors by this unique cytochrome P450. The crystal structure of active aromatase purified from human placenta has recently been determined in complex with its natural substrate androstenedione in the high-spin ferric state of heme. Hydrogen bond forming interactions and tight packing hydrophobic side chains closely complement puckering of the steroid backbone, thereby providing the molecular basis for the androgenic specificity of aromatase. In the crystal, aromatase molecules are linked by a head-to-tail intermolecular interaction via a surface loop between helix D and helix E of one aromatase molecule that penetrates the heme-proximal cavity of the neighboring, crystallographically related molecule, thus forming in tandem a polymeric aromatase chain. This intermolecular interaction is similar to the aromatase-cytochrome P450 reductase coupling and is driven by electrostatics between the negative potential surface of the D-E loop region and the positively charged heme-proximal cavity. This loop-to-proximal site link in aromatase is rather unique--there are only a few of examples of somewhat similar intermolecular interactions in the entire P450 structure database. Furthermore, the amino acids involved in the intermolecular contact appear to be specific for aromatase. Higher order organization of aromatase monomers may have implications in lipid integration and catalysis.

  10. Broadband frequency tripling in locally ordered nonlinear photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2013-02-25

    We propose and fabricate a LiNbO₃-based nonlinear photonic crystal with locally ordered ferroelectric domains. The nonlinearity modulation provides sets of uniformly distributed reciprocal lattice vectors, ensuring broadband high frequency conversion efficiency. Frequency tripling via cascading is demonstrated in the range of 1400-1830 nm, with energy conversion efficiency up to ∼15%.

  11. Evaluation of expressions involving higher order derivations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The local geometric properties of a nonlinear control system defined by vector fields E(sub 1),..., E(sub M) are determined by the algebraic properties of the iterated Lie brackets of the E(sub j)'s. The problem of rewriting expressions is examined involving the E(sub j)'s in terms of the D(sub mu)'s in such a way as to handle effectively any cancellation occurring due to commuting of the D(sub mu)'s. A data structure is introduced which allows us to organize the computation to take advantage of the symmetries in the expression and reduce the operation count.

  12. Evaluation of Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Models with Nonlinear Normal Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuether, Robert J.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2015-09-15

    Several reduced-order modeling strategies have been developed to create low-order models of geometrically nonlinear structures from detailed finite element models, allowing one to compute the dynamic response of the structure at a dramatically reduced cost. But, the parameters of these reduced-order models are estimated by applying a series of static loads to the finite element model, and the quality of the reduced-order model can be highly sensitive to the amplitudes of the static load cases used and to the type/number of modes used in the basis. Our paper proposes to combine reduced-order modeling and numerical continuation to estimate the nonlinear normal modes of geometrically nonlinear finite element models. Not only does this make it possible to compute the nonlinear normal modes far more quickly than existing approaches, but the nonlinear normal modes are also shown to be an excellent metric by which the quality of the reduced-order model can be assessed. Hence, the second contribution of this work is to demonstrate how nonlinear normal modes can be used as a metric by which nonlinear reduced-order models can be compared. Moreover, various reduced-order models with hardening nonlinearities are compared for two different structures to demonstrate these concepts: a clamped–clamped beam model, and a more complicated finite element model of an exhaust panel cover.

  13. Evaluation of Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Models with Nonlinear Normal Modes

    DOE PAGES

    Kuether, Robert J.; Deaner, Brandon J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.; ...

    2015-09-15

    Several reduced-order modeling strategies have been developed to create low-order models of geometrically nonlinear structures from detailed finite element models, allowing one to compute the dynamic response of the structure at a dramatically reduced cost. But, the parameters of these reduced-order models are estimated by applying a series of static loads to the finite element model, and the quality of the reduced-order model can be highly sensitive to the amplitudes of the static load cases used and to the type/number of modes used in the basis. Our paper proposes to combine reduced-order modeling and numerical continuation to estimate the nonlinearmore » normal modes of geometrically nonlinear finite element models. Not only does this make it possible to compute the nonlinear normal modes far more quickly than existing approaches, but the nonlinear normal modes are also shown to be an excellent metric by which the quality of the reduced-order model can be assessed. Hence, the second contribution of this work is to demonstrate how nonlinear normal modes can be used as a metric by which nonlinear reduced-order models can be compared. Moreover, various reduced-order models with hardening nonlinearities are compared for two different structures to demonstrate these concepts: a clamped–clamped beam model, and a more complicated finite element model of an exhaust panel cover.« less

  14. Higher order vortex methods with rezoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmark, H. O.

    1988-05-01

    The vortex method is a numerical method for approximating the flow of an incompressible, inviscid fluid. We consider the two-dimensional case. The accuracy depends on the choice of the cutoff function which approximates the delta function, on the cutoff parameter delta and on the smoothness of the initial data. We derive a class of infinite-order cutoff functions with arbitrarily high rates of decay at infinity. We also derive an eighth order cutoff function with compact support. We test two versions of rezoning. Version 1 has been suggested and tested by Beale and Majda, while version 2 is new. Using rezoning, we test the eighth order cutoff function and one infinite-order cutoff function on three test problems for which the solution of Euler's equation is known analytically. The accuracies of the two methods are comparable. We also compute the evolution of two circular vorticity patches and the evolution of one square vorticity patch over long time intervals. Finally, we make a comparison between the direct method of velocity evaluation and the Rokhlin-Greengard algorithm. The numerical experiments indicate that for smooth flows, high-order cutoffs combined with rezoning give high accuracy for long time integrations.

  15. Tachyons and Higher Order Wave Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barci, D. G.; Bollini, C. G.; Rocca, M. C.

    We consider a fourth order wave equation having normal as well as tachyonic solutions. The propagators are, respectively, the Feynman causal function and the Wheeler-Green function (half advanced and half retarded). The latter is consistent with the elimination of tachyons from free asymptotic states. We verify the absence of absorptive parts from convolutions involving the tachyon propagator.

  16. Small Schools and Higher Order Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Emil J.; And Others

    A review of the literature indicates that, compared to larger, urban schools, small, rural secondary schools have limited course offerings in mathematics and science; the review also indicates, however, that the achievement of students in small, rural schools is equivalent to or even higher than, that of students in larger, urban schools. Such an…

  17. Higher order diffractions from a circular disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsland, Diane P.; Balanis, Constantine A.; Brumley, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    The backscattering from a circular disk is analyzed using the geometrical theory of diffraction. First-, second-, and third-order diffractions are included in the hard polarization analysis, while first-, second-, and third-order slope diffractions are included for soft polarization. Improvements in the prediction of the monostatic radar cross section over previous works are noted. For hard polarization, an excellent agreement is exhibited between experimental and theoretical results, while a very good agreement is noted for soft polarization. To further improve the soft polarization results for wide angles, a model for the creeping wave or circulating current on the edge of the disk is obtained and used to find an additional component of the backscattered field. The addition of this component significantly improves the results for wide angles, leading to excellent agreement for soft polarization also. An axial-caustic correction method using equivalent currents is also included in the analysis.

  18. First and Higher Order Effects on Zero Order Radiative Transfer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelam, M.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-12-01

    Microwave radiative transfer model are valuable tool in understanding the complex land surface interactions. Past literature has largely focused on local sensitivity analysis for factor priotization and ignoring the interactions between the variables and uncertainties around them. Since land surface interactions are largely nonlinear, there always exist uncertainties, heterogeneities and interactions thus it is important to quantify them to draw accurate conclusions. In this effort, we used global sensitivity analysis to address the issues of variable uncertainty, higher order interactions, factor priotization and factor fixing for zero-order radiative transfer (ZRT) model. With the to-be-launched Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission of NASA, it is very important to have a complete understanding of ZRT for soil moisture retrieval to direct future research and cal/val field campaigns. This is a first attempt to use GSA technique to quantify first order and higher order effects on brightness temperature from ZRT model. Our analyses reflect conditions observed during the growing agricultural season for corn and soybeans in two different regions in - Iowa, U.S.A and Winnipeg, Canada. We found that for corn fields in Iowa, there exist significant second order interactions between soil moisture, surface roughness parameters (RMS height and correlation length) and vegetation parameters (vegetation water content, structure and scattering albedo), whereas in Winnipeg, second order interactions are mainly due to soil moisture and vegetation parameters. But for soybean fields in both Iowa and Winnipeg, we found significant interactions only to exist between soil moisture and surface roughness parameters.

  19. Higher-order graph wavelets and sparsity on circulant graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzagiannidis, Madeleine S.; Dragotti, Pier Luigi

    2015-08-01

    The notion of a graph wavelet gives rise to more advanced processing of data on graphs due to its ability to operate in a localized manner, across newly arising data-dependency structures, with respect to the graph signal and underlying graph structure, thereby taking into consideration the inherent geometry of the data. In this work, we tackle the problem of creating graph wavelet filterbanks on circulant graphs for a sparse representation of certain classes of graph signals. The underlying graph can hereby be data-driven as well as fixed, for applications including image processing and social network theory, whereby clusters can be modelled as circulant graphs, respectively. We present a set of novel graph wavelet filter-bank constructions, which annihilate higher-order polynomial graph signals (up to a border effect) defined on the vertices of undirected, circulant graphs, and are localised in the vertex domain. We give preliminary results on their performance for non-linear graph signal approximation and denoising. Furthermore, we provide extensions to our previously developed segmentation-inspired graph wavelet framework for non-linear image approximation, by incorporating notions of smoothness and vanishing moments, which further improve performance compared to traditional methods.

  20. Chromatin Higher-order Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Christopher L.; Ghosh, Rajarshi P.

    2010-01-01

    The primary role of the nucleus as an information storage, retrieval, and replication site requires the physical organization and compaction of meters of DNA. Although it has been clear for many years that nucleosomes constitute the first level of chromatin compaction, this contributes a relatively small fraction of the condensation needed to fit the typical genome into an interphase nucleus or set of metaphase chromosomes, indicating that there are additional “higher order” levels of chromatin condensation. Identifying these levels, their interrelationships, and the principles that govern their occurrence has been a challenging and much discussed problem. In this article, we focus on recent experimental advances and the emerging evidence indicating that structural plasticity and chromatin dynamics play dominant roles in genome organization. We also discuss novel approaches likely to yield important insights in the near future, and suggest research areas that merit further study. PMID:20452954

  1. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Alloatti, L. Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K.; Froelich, A.; Wegener, M.; Frenzel, T.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.; Koos, C.

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B = TiO{sub 2}, and C = HfO{sub 2}. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths.

  2. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yaqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  3. Skinner-Rusk unified formalism for higher-order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-07-01

    The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of R. Skinner and R. Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, first-order and higher-order field theories, and higher-order autonomous systems. In this work we present a generalization of this formalism for higher-order non-autonomous mechanical systems.

  4. Conceptualizing and Assessing Higher-Order Thinking in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter; Cho, Byeong-Young; Kim, Jong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Students engage in higher-order thinking as they read complex texts and perform complex reading-related tasks. However, the most consequential assessments, high-stakes tests, are currently limited in providing information about students' higher-order thinking. In this article, we describe higher-order thinking in relation to reading. We provide a…

  5. Discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Khare, Avinash; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Salerno, Mario; Samuelsen, Mogens R; Saxena, Avadh

    2006-07-01

    A class of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities is introduced. These equations are derived from the same Hamiltonian using different Poisson brackets and include as particular cases the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the Ablowitz-Ladik equation. As a common property, these equations possess three kinds of exact analytical stationary solutions for which the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is zero. Several properties of these solutions, including stability, discrete breathers, and moving solutions, are investigated.

  6. Adaptive control for a class of second-order nonlinear systems with unknown input nonlinearities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, T; Guay, M

    2003-01-01

    An adaptive controller is developed for a class of second-order nonlinear dynamic systems with input nonlinearities using artificial neural networks (ANN). The unknown input nonlinearities are continuous and monotone and satisfy a sector constraint. In contrast to conventional Lyapunov-based design techniques, an alternative Lyapunov function, which depends on both system states and control input variable, is used for the development of a control law and a learning algorithm. The proposed adaptive controller guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system and convergence of the output tracking error to an adjustable neighbour of the origin.

  7. Nonlinear reduced-order modeling with monotonicity property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturantabut, Saifon

    2016-10-01

    This work proposes a general form of nonlinear model reduction approach that preserves the monotonicity property of the original full-order model, which can be used to guarantee the existence and uniqueness of the solution. The derivation of the proposed methodology is based on using basis from proper orthogonal decomposition method and modifying an interpolatory projection approach, called discrete empirical interpolation method, by enforcing a symmetric structure of the approximation. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method are illustrated through the numerical tests on a nonlinear model describing reaction diffusion problems.

  8. Nonlinear diffraction from high-order Hermite-Gauss beams.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Ksawery; Shapira, Asia; Libster-Hershko, Ana; Arie, Ady

    2015-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the nonlinearly diffracted second harmonic light from the first-order Hermite-Gauss beam. We investigate the cases of loosely and tightly focused beams in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal in the temperature range near the birefringent phase matching. Unlike the case of fundamental Gaussian beam, the nonlinear diffracted beam is spatially structured. Its shape depends on the focusing conditions and on the crystal temperature. Furthermore, for the case of tight focusing, the diffracted beam structure depends on the beam's position with respect to the domain wall.

  9. Mesh independent convergence of the modified inexact Newton method for a second order nonlinear problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T; Pasciak, J E; Vassilevski, P S

    2004-09-20

    In this paper, we consider an inexact Newton method applied to a second order nonlinear problem with higher order nonlinearities. We provide conditions under which the method has a mesh-independent rate of convergence. To do this, we are required to first, set up the problem on a scale of Hilbert spaces and second, to devise a special iterative technique which converges in a higher than first order Sobolev norm. We show that the linear (Jacobian) system solved in Newton's method can be replaced with one iterative step provided that the initial nonlinear iterate is accurate enough. The closeness criteria can be taken independent of the mesh size. Finally, the results of numerical experiments are given to support the theory.

  10. A Nonlinear Reduced Order Method for Prediction of Acoustic Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to assess the quality of high-cycle-fatigue life estimation via a reduced order method, for structures undergoing geometrically nonlinear random vibrations. Modal reduction is performed with several different suites of basis functions. After numerically solving the reduced order system equations of motion, the physical displacement time history is obtained by an inverse transformation and stresses are recovered. Stress ranges obtained through the rainflow counting procedure are used in a linear damage accumulation method to yield fatigue estimates. Fatigue life estimates obtained using various basis functions in the reduced order method are compared with those obtained from numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom.

  11. Third order nonlinear optical properties of bismuth zinc borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugavelu, B.; Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.; Kuladeep, R.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2013-12-28

    Third order nonlinear optical characterization of bismuth zinc borate glasses are reported here using different laser pulse durations. Bismuth zinc borate glasses with compositions xBi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-30ZnO-(70-x) B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (where x = 30, 35, 40, and 45 mol. %) have been prepared by melt quenching method. These glasses were characterized by Raman, UV-Vis absorption, and Z scan measurements. Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopic results indicate that non-bridging oxygens increase with increase of bismuth content in the glass. Nonlinear absorption and refraction behavior in the nanosecond (ns), picosecond (ps), and femtosecond (fs) time domains were studied in detail. Strong reverse saturable absorption due to dominant two-photon absorption (TPA) was observed with both ps and fs excitations. In the case of ns pulse excitations, TPA and free-carrier absorption processes contribute for the nonlinear absorption. Two-photon absorption coefficient (β) and the absorption cross section due to free carriers (σ{sub e}) are estimated by theoretical fit of the open aperture Z-scan measurements and found to be dependent on the amount of bismuth oxide in the glass composition. In both ns and fs regimes the sign and magnitude of the third order nonlinearity are evaluated, and the optical limiting characteristics are also reported.

  12. Higher Order Convergence Rates in Theory of Homogenization: Equations of Non-divergence Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghan; Lee, Ki-Ahm

    2016-03-01

    We establish higher order convergence rates in the theory of periodic homogenization of both linear and fully nonlinear uniformly elliptic equations of non-divergence form. The rates are achieved by involving higher order correctors which fix the errors occurring both in the interior and on the boundary layer of our physical domain. The proof is based on a viscosity method and a new regularity theory which captures the stability of the correctors with respect to the shape of our limit profile.

  13. Model Order and Identifiability of Non-Linear Biological Systems in Stable Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Wigren, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical result that clarifies when it is at all possible to determine the nonlinear dynamic equations of a biological system in stable oscillation, from measured data. As it turns out the minimal order needed for this is dependent on the minimal dimension in which the stable orbit of the system does not intersect itself. This is illustrated with a simulated fourth order Hodgkin-Huxley spiking neuron model, which is identified using a non-linear second order differential equation model. The simulated result illustrates that the underlying higher order model of the spiking neuron cannot be uniquely determined given only the periodic measured data. The result of the paper is of general validity when the dynamics of biological systems in stable oscillation is identified, and illustrates the need to carefully address non-linear identifiability aspects when validating models based on periodic data.

  14. Stabilisation of second-order nonlinear equations with variable delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezansky, Leonid; Braverman, Elena; Idels, Lev

    2015-08-01

    For a wide class of second-order nonlinear non-autonomous models, we illustrate that combining proportional state control with the feedback that is proportional to the derivative of the chaotic signal allows to stabilise unstable motions of the system. The delays are variable, which leads to more flexible controls permitting delay perturbations; only delay bounds are significant for stabilisation by a delayed control. The results are applied to the sunflower equation which has an infinite number of equilibrium points.

  15. The Effects of Nonlinear Damping on Post-flutter Behavior Using Geometrically Nonlinear Reduced Order Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Pengchao

    Recent studies of the occurrence of post-flutter limit cycle oscillations (LCO) of the F-16 have provided good support to the long-standing hypothesis that this phenomenon involves a nonlinear structural damping. A potential mechanism for the appearance of nonlinearity in the damping are the nonlinear geometric effects that arise when the deformations become large enough to exceed the linear regime. In this light, the focus of this investigation is first on extending nonlinear reduced order modeling (ROM) methods to include viscoelasticity which is introduced here through a linear Kelvin-Voigt model in the undeformed configuration. Proceeding with a Galerkin approach, the ROM governing equations of motion are obtained and are found to be of a generalized van der Pol-Duffing form with parameters depending on the structure and the chosen basis functions. An identification approach of the nonlinear damping parameters is next proposed which is applicable to structures modeled within commercial finite element software. The effects of this nonlinear damping mechanism on the post-flutter response is next analyzed on the Goland wing through time-marching of the aeroelastic equations comprising a rational fraction approximation of the linear aerodynamic forces. It is indeed found that the nonlinearity in the damping can stabilize the unstable aerodynamics and lead to finite amplitude limit cycle oscillations even when the stiffness related nonlinear geometric effects are neglected. The incorporation of these latter effects in the model is found to further decrease the amplitude of LCO even though the dominant bending motions do not seem to stiffen as the level of displacements is increased in static analyses.

  16. Function projective synchronization between integer-order and stochastic fractional-order nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lingling; Yu, Yongguang; Zhang, Shuo

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the function projective synchronization between integer-order and stochastic fractional-order nonlinear systems is investigated. Firstly, according to the stability theory of fractional-order systems and tracking control, a controller is designed. At the same time, based on the orthogonal polynomial approximation, the method of transforming stochastic error system into an equivalent deterministic system is given. Thus, the stability of the stochastic error system can be analyzed through its equivalent deterministic one. Finally, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, the function projective synchronization between integer-order Lorenz system and stochastic fractional-order Chen system is studied.

  17. Promoting Higher Order Thinking Skills Using Inquiry-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhuri, G. V.; Kantamreddi, V. S. S. N; Prakash Goteti, L. N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in…

  18. Higher-order mode photonic crystal based nanofluidic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wang; Chen, Youping; Ai, Wu

    2017-01-01

    A higher-order photonic crystal (PC) based nanofluidic sensor, which worked at 532 nm, was designed and demonstrated. A systematical and detailed method for sculpturing a PC sensor for a given peak wavelength value (PWV) and specified materials was illuminated. It was the first time that the higher order mode was used to design PC based nanofluidic sensor, and the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of this sensor had been verified with FDTD simulation software from Lumerical. The enhanced electrical field of higher order mode structure was mostly confined in the channel area, where the enhance field is wholly interacting with the analytes in the channels. The comparison of RI sensitivity between fundamental mode and higher order mode shows the RI variation of higher order mode is 124.5 nm/RIU which is much larger than the fundamental mode. The proposed PC based nanofluidic structure pioneering a novel style for future optofluidic design.

  19. Higher-order theories from the minimal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, M.; Hoff da Silva, J. M.; Scatena, E.

    2016-06-01

    We show that the introduction of a minimal length in the context of noncommutative space-time gives rise (after some considerations) to higher-order theories. We then explicitly demonstrate how these higher-derivative theories appear as a generalization of the standard electromagnetism and general relativity by applying a consistent procedure that modifies the original Maxwell and Einstein-Hilbert actions. In order to set a bound on the minimal length, we compare the deviations from the inverse-square law with the potentials obtained in the higher-order theories and discuss the validity of the results. The introduction of a quantum bound for the minimal length parameter β in the higher-order QED allows us to lower the actual limits on the parameters of higher-derivative gravity by almost half of their order of magnitude.

  20. Optimal spatiotemporal reduced order modeling for nonlinear dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBryer, Allen

    Proposed in this dissertation is a novel reduced order modeling (ROM) framework called optimal spatiotemporal reduced order modeling (OPSTROM) for nonlinear dynamical systems. The OPSTROM approach is a data-driven methodology for the synthesis of multiscale reduced order models (ROMs) which can be used to enhance the efficiency and reliability of under-resolved simulations for nonlinear dynamical systems. In the context of nonlinear continuum dynamics, the OPSTROM approach relies on the concept of embedding subgrid-scale models into the governing equations in order to account for the effects due to unresolved spatial and temporal scales. Traditional ROMs neglect these effects, whereas most other multiscale ROMs account for these effects in ways that are inconsistent with the underlying spatiotemporal statistical structure of the nonlinear dynamical system. The OPSTROM framework presented in this dissertation begins with a general system of partial differential equations, which are modified for an under-resolved simulation in space and time with an arbitrary discretization scheme. Basic filtering concepts are used to demonstrate the manner in which residual terms, representing subgrid-scale dynamics, arise with a coarse computational grid. Models for these residual terms are then developed by accounting for the underlying spatiotemporal statistical structure in a consistent manner. These subgrid-scale models are designed to provide closure by accounting for the dynamic interactions between spatiotemporal macroscales and microscales which are otherwise neglected in a ROM. For a given resolution, the predictions obtained with the modified system of equations are optimal (in a mean-square sense) as the subgrid-scale models are based upon principles of mean-square error minimization, conditional expectations and stochastic estimation. Methods are suggested for efficient model construction, appraisal, error measure, and implementation with a couple of well-known time

  1. Symplectic structures related with higher order variational problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijowski, Jerzy; Moreno, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we derive the symplectic framework for field theories defined by higher order Lagrangians. The construction is based on the symplectic reduction of suitable spaces of iterated jets. The possibility of reducing a higher order system of partial differential equations to a constrained first-order one, the symplectic structures naturally arising in the dynamics of a first-order Lagrangian theory, and the importance of the Poincaré-Cartan form for variational problems, are all well-established facts. However, their adequate combination corresponding to higher order theories is missing in the literature. Here we obtain a consistent and truly finite-dimensional canonical formalism, as well as a higher order version of the Poincaré-Cartan form. In our exposition, the rigorous global proofs of the main results are always accompanied by their local coordinate descriptions, indispensable to work out practical examples.

  2. Application of Mass Lumped Higher Order Finite Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Strauss, H. R.; Jardin, S. C.; Park, W.; Sugiyama, L. E.; G. Fu; Breslau, J.

    2005-11-01

    There are many interesting phenomena in extended-MHD such as anisotropic transport, mhd, 2-fluid effects stellarator and hot particles. Any one of them challenges numerical analysts, and researchers are seeking for higher order methods, such as higher order finite difference, higher order finite elements and hp/spectral elements. It is true that these methods give more accurate solution than their linear counterparts. However, numerically they are prohibitively expensive. Here we give a successful solution of this conflict by applying mass lumped higher order finite elements. This type of elements not only keep second/third order accuracy but also scale closely to linear elements by doing mass lumping. This is especially true for second order lump elements. Full M3D and anisotropic transport models are studied.

  3. Surface-plasmon enhanced ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities in ellipsoidal gold nanoparticles embedded bismuthate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feifei; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Tiefeng; Shen, Xiang; Lin, Changgui; Nie, Qiuhua; Liu, Chao; Heo, Jong

    2011-09-01

    Ellipsoidal gold nanoparticles embedded bismuthate glasses have been prepared via a facile melt-annealing approach. Femtosecond Z-scan measurement shows that the nanocomposites exhibit a maximum third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of 4.88 × 10-10 esu at 800 nm, which is two orders higher than that of the host glass. Optical Kerr shutter measurement demonstrates ultrafast response time (in scale of sub-picosecond) of the intraband transition enhanced third-order nonlinearities.

  4. Fourth order wave equations with nonlinear strain and source terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yacheng; Xu, Runzhang

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we study the initial boundary value problem for fourth order wave equations with nonlinear strain and source terms. First we introduce a family of potential wells and prove the invariance of some sets and vacuum isolating of solutions. Then we obtain a threshold result of global existence and nonexistence. Finally we discuss the global existence of solutions for the problem with critical initial condition I(u0)[greater-or-equal, slanted]0, E(0)=d. So the Esquivel-Avila's results are generalized and improved.

  5. Investigation of Third Order Optical Nonlinearity and Reverse Saturable Absorption of Octa-alkoxy Metallophthalocyanines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanghadasa, Mohan; Shin, In-Seek; Barr, Thomas A.; Clark, Ronald D.; Guo, Huai-Song; Martinez, Angela; Penn, Benjamin G.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of passive optical power limiters for the protection of the human eye and solid-state sensors from damage caused by energetic light pulses and also for other switching applications. One of the key issues involved is the search for appropriate materials that show effective reverse saturable absorption. Phthalocyanines seem to be good candidates for such applications because of their higher third order nonlinearity and the unique electronic absorption characteristics. A series of 1,4,8,11,15, 18,22,25-octa-alkoxy metallophthalocyanines containing various central metal atoms such as zinc, copper, palladium, cobalt and nickel were characterized for their third order nonlinearity and for their nonlinear absorptive properties to evaluate their suitability to function as reverse saturable absorbers.

  6. Third order nonlinear optical, luminescence and electrical properties of bis glycine hydrobromide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surekha, R.; Sagayaraj, P.; Ambujam, K.

    2014-03-01

    Optical quality bis glycine hydrobromide (BGHB) single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. The third order nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient of the grown crystal were measured by Z-scan studies. The third order nonlinear susceptibility was found to be 9.612 × 10-4 esu which is fairly higher than the other glycine compounds. The Photoluminescence spectra reveal the emission bands for BGHB crystals. The band gap energy was calculated to be 3.1 eV. The Photoconductivity studies were employed to determine the dependence of photocurrent on the applied electric field. Negative photoconductivity was exhibited by the sample. The d.c. conductivity of the grown crystal was measured by the complex impedance analysis wherein the obtained plot in the form of semicircle finds application in Debye relaxation for materials having large dc conductivity.

  7. Higher-order intersections in low-dimensional topology

    PubMed Central

    Conant, Jim; Schneiderman, Rob; Teichner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We show how to measure the failure of the Whitney move in dimension 4 by constructing higher-order intersection invariants of Whitney towers built from iterated Whitney disks on immersed surfaces in 4-manifolds. For Whitney towers on immersed disks in the 4-ball, we identify some of these new invariants with previously known link invariants such as Milnor, Sato–Levine, and Arf invariants. We also define higher-order Sato–Levine and Arf invariants and show that these invariants detect the obstructions to framing a twisted Whitney tower. Together with Milnor invariants, these higher-order invariants are shown to classify the existence of (twisted) Whitney towers of increasing order in the 4-ball. A conjecture regarding the nontriviality of the higher-order Arf invariants is formulated, and related implications for filtrations of string links and 3-dimensional homology cylinders are described. PMID:21518909

  8. Higher Order Fractional Stable Motion: Hyperdiffusion with Heavy Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Reiichiro

    2016-10-01

    We introduce the class of higher order fractional stable motions that can exhibit hyperdiffusive spreading with heavy tails. We define the class as a generalization of higher order fractional Brownian motion as well as a generalization of linear fractional stable motions. Higher order fractional stable motions are self-similar with Hurst index larger than one and non-Gaussian stable marginals with infinite variance and have stationary higher order increments. We investigate their sample path properties and asymptotic dependence structure on the basis of codifference. In particular, by incrementing or decrementing sample paths once under suitable conditions, the diffusion rate can be accelerated or decelerated by one order. With a view towards simulation study, we provide a ready-for-use sample path simulation recipe at discrete times along with error analysis. The proposed simulation scheme requires only elementary numerical operations and is robust to high frequency sampling, irregular spacing and super-sampling.

  9. Soliton propagation in isotropic media under the influence of third order of linear dispersion and dispersion of nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dakova, D.; Dakova, A.; Slavchev, V.; Staykov, P.; Kovachev, L.

    2016-01-01

    In last two decades the phenomena resulting from the evolution of ultra-short laser pulses in nonlinear dispersive medium actively are being studied. The most commonly used equation for describing the dynamics of optical pulses in one-dimensional and planar waveguides is the standard nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NSE). It works very well for nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses, but in the frames of femtosecond optics, it is necessary two additional terms to be included. They are responsible for higher order of linear dispersion and dispersion of nonlinearity. These effects are significant in the range of ultra-short light pulses. In the present paper, it is presented a theoretical model of the propagation of optical solitons. We found an exact analytical soliton solution of the modified NSE, including third order of linear dispersion and dispersion of nonlinearity. It is possible to observe a soliton as a result of the dynamic balance between effects of higher order of dispersion and nonlinearity.

  10. On the Higher Power Sums of Reciprocal Higher-Order Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Let {un} be a higher-order linear recursive sequence. In this paper, we use the properties of error estimation and the analytic method to study the reciprocal sums of higher power of higher-order sequences. Then we establish several new and interesting identities relating to the infinite and finite sums. PMID:24741351

  11. Dispersion of nonresonant third-order nonlinearities in Silicon Carbide

    PubMed Central

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Soref, Richard A.; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a physical discussion of the indirect two-photon absorption (TPA) occuring in silicon carbide with either cubic or wurtzite structure. Phonon-electron interaction is analyzed by finding the phonon features involved in the process as depending upon the crystal symmetry. Consistent physical assumptions about the phonon-electron scattering mechanisms are proposed in order to give a mathematical formulation to predict the wavelength dispersion of TPA and the Kerr nonlinear refractive index n2. The TPA spectrum is investigated including the effects of band nonparabolicity and the influence of the continuum exciton. Moreover, a parametric analysis is presented in order to fit the experimental measurements. Finally, we have estimated the n2 in a large wavelength range spanning the visible to the mid-IR region. PMID:28098223

  12. Dispersion of nonresonant third-order nonlinearities in Silicon Carbide.

    PubMed

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Soref, Richard A; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2017-01-18

    In this paper we present a physical discussion of the indirect two-photon absorption (TPA) occuring in silicon carbide with either cubic or wurtzite structure. Phonon-electron interaction is analyzed by finding the phonon features involved in the process as depending upon the crystal symmetry. Consistent physical assumptions about the phonon-electron scattering mechanisms are proposed in order to give a mathematical formulation to predict the wavelength dispersion of TPA and the Kerr nonlinear refractive index n2. The TPA spectrum is investigated including the effects of band nonparabolicity and the influence of the continuum exciton. Moreover, a parametric analysis is presented in order to fit the experimental measurements. Finally, we have estimated the n2 in a large wavelength range spanning the visible to the mid-IR region.

  13. Dispersion of nonresonant third-order nonlinearities in Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leonardis, Francesco; Soref, Richard A.; Passaro, Vittorio M. N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a physical discussion of the indirect two-photon absorption (TPA) occuring in silicon carbide with either cubic or wurtzite structure. Phonon-electron interaction is analyzed by finding the phonon features involved in the process as depending upon the crystal symmetry. Consistent physical assumptions about the phonon-electron scattering mechanisms are proposed in order to give a mathematical formulation to predict the wavelength dispersion of TPA and the Kerr nonlinear refractive index n2. The TPA spectrum is investigated including the effects of band nonparabolicity and the influence of the continuum exciton. Moreover, a parametric analysis is presented in order to fit the experimental measurements. Finally, we have estimated the n2 in a large wavelength range spanning the visible to the mid-IR region.

  14. Distributed adaptive fuzzy iterative learning control of coordination problems for higher order multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinsha; Li, Junmin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the adaptive fuzzy iterative learning control scheme is proposed for coordination problems of Mth order (M ≥ 2) distributed multi-agent systems. Every follower agent has a higher order integrator with unknown nonlinear dynamics and input disturbance. The dynamics of the leader are a higher order nonlinear systems and only available to a portion of the follower agents. With distributed initial state learning, the unified distributed protocols combined time-domain and iteration-domain adaptive laws guarantee that the follower agents track the leader uniformly on [0, T]. Then, the proposed algorithm extends to achieve the formation control. A numerical example and a multiple robotic system are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

  15. Unambiguous formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Cédric M.; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David; Vankerschaver, Joris

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose an unambiguous intrinsic formalism for higher order field theories which avoids the arbitrariness in the generalization of the conventional description of field theories, and implies the existence of different Cartan forms and Legendre transformations. We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. As both of these objects are uniquely defined, the Skinner-Rusk approach has the advantage that it does not suffer from the arbitrariness in conventional descriptions. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic version of the Euler-Lagrange equations for higher order field theories. Several examples illustrate our construction.

  16. Higher Order Lagrange Finite Elements In M3D

    SciTech Connect

    J. Chen; H.R. Strauss; S.C. Jardin; W. Park; L.E. Sugiyama; G. Fu; J. Breslau

    2004-12-17

    The M3D code has been using linear finite elements to represent multilevel MHD on 2-D poloidal planes. Triangular higher order elements, up to third order, are constructed here in order to provide M3D the capability to solve highly anisotropic transport problems. It is found that higher order elements are essential to resolve the thin transition layer characteristic of the anisotropic transport equation, particularly when the strong anisotropic direction is not aligned with one of the Cartesian coordinates. The transition layer is measured by the profile width, which is zero for infinite anisotropy. It is shown that only higher order schemes have the ability to make this layer converge towards zero when the anisotropy gets stronger and stronger. Two cases are considered. One has the strong transport direction partially aligned with one of the element edges, the other doesn't have any alignment. Both cases have the strong transport direction misaligned with the grid line by some angles.

  17. The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for higher order field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitagliano, Luca

    2010-06-01

    We generalize the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism of Skinner and Rusk to higher order field theories on fiber bundles. As a byproduct we solve the long standing problem of defining, in a coordinate free manner, a Hamiltonian formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories. Namely, our formalism does only depend on the action functional and, therefore, unlike previously proposed ones, is free from any relevant ambiguity.

  18. Determination of higher order accelerations by a functional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudosie, C.

    A functional method is developed for the simultaneous determination of all the linear accelerations which exist in the differential equation of a material system dynamics. The method introduces variable angular accelerations of different orders, called direct connection functions, which allow the passing from a linear acceleration of a certain order to that of a higher order. Feedback functions are also introduced which allow the passing from a linear acceleration of a certain order to that of lower orders. This method is applicable to accelerations which occur when passenger trains move rapidly around a curve and at the vertical vibrations of trucks and tractors.

  19. Intermodal Čerenkov radiation in a higher-order-mode fiber.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E V; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate an intermodal Čerenkov radiation effect in a higher-order-mode (HOM) fiber with a mode crossing (i.e., two guided modes having the same propagation constant at the same wavelength). A frequency-shifted soliton in the vicinity of the mode-crossing wavelength emits a phase-matched dispersive wave in a different propagation mode. We develop a theoretical explanation for this nonlinear optical effect and demonstrate that the mode crossing in HOM fibers can be utilized to achieve simultaneous wavelength and mode conversion; the strength of this intermodal nonlinear interaction can be tuned by controlled fiber bending.

  20. A Model for the National Assessment of Higher Order Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Nosich, Gerald M.

    This document provides a model for the national assessment of higher order thinking and consists of a preface and four main sections. The preface discusses the problem of lower order learning, summarizes the state of research into critical thinking and instructional reform, and explains the structure of the paper. Section 1 of the paper describes…

  1. Higher order relativistic galaxy number counts: dominating terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TrØst Nielsen, Jeppe; Durrer, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    We review the number counts to second order concentrating on the terms which dominate on sub horizon scales. We re-derive the result for these terms and compare it with the different versions found in the literature. We generalize our derivation to higher order terms, especially the third order number counts which are needed to compute the 1-loop contribution to the power spectrum.

  2. Higher-order figure discrimination in fly and human vision.

    PubMed

    Aptekar, Jacob W; Frye, Mark A

    2013-08-19

    Visually-guided animals rely on their ability to stabilize the panorama and simultaneously track salient objects, or figures, that are distinct from the background in order to avoid predators, pursue food resources and mates, and navigate spatially. Visual figures are distinguished by luminance signals that produce coherent motion cues as well as more enigmatic 'higher-order' statistical features. Figure discrimination is thus a complex form of motion vision requiring specialized neural processing. In this minireview, we will highlight recent advances in understanding the perceptual, behavioral, and neurophysiological basis of higher-order figure detection in flies, much of which is grounded in the historical perspective and mechanistic underpinnings of human psychophysics.

  3. Gravitational-wave tail effects to quartic non-linear order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Tanguy; Blanchet, Luc; Faye, Guillaume

    2016-12-01

    Gravitational-wave tails are due to the backscattering of linear waves onto the space-time curvature generated by the total mass of the matter source. The dominant tails correspond to quadratic non-linear interactions and arise at the one-and-a-half post-Newtonian (1.5 PN) order in the gravitational waveform. The ‘tails-of-tails’, which are cubic non-linear effects appearing at the 3 PN order in the waveform, are also known. We derive here higher non-linear tail effects, namely those associated with quartic non-linear interactions or ‘tails-of-tails-of-tails’, which are shown to arise at the 4.5 PN order. As an application, we obtain at that order the complete coefficient in the total gravitational-wave energy flux of compact binary systems moving on circular orbits. Our result perfectly agrees with black-hole perturbation calculations in the limit of extreme mass ratio of the two compact objects.

  4. Tensor Spectral Clustering for Partitioning Higher-order Network Structures

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Austin R.; Gleich, David F.; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Spectral graph theory-based methods represent an important class of tools for studying the structure of networks. Spectral methods are based on a first-order Markov chain derived from a random walk on the graph and thus they cannot take advantage of important higher-order network substructures such as triangles, cycles, and feed-forward loops. Here we propose a Tensor Spectral Clustering (TSC) algorithm that allows for modeling higher-order network structures in a graph partitioning framework. Our TSC algorithm allows the user to specify which higher-order network structures (cycles, feed-forward loops, etc.) should be preserved by the network clustering. Higher-order network structures of interest are represented using a tensor, which we then partition by developing a multilinear spectral method. Our framework can be applied to discovering layered flows in networks as well as graph anomaly detection, which we illustrate on synthetic networks. In directed networks, a higher-order structure of particular interest is the directed 3-cycle, which captures feedback loops in networks. We demonstrate that our TSC algorithm produces large partitions that cut fewer directed 3-cycles than standard spectral clustering algorithms. PMID:27812399

  5. Tensor Spectral Clustering for Partitioning Higher-order Network Structures.

    PubMed

    Benson, Austin R; Gleich, David F; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Spectral graph theory-based methods represent an important class of tools for studying the structure of networks. Spectral methods are based on a first-order Markov chain derived from a random walk on the graph and thus they cannot take advantage of important higher-order network substructures such as triangles, cycles, and feed-forward loops. Here we propose a Tensor Spectral Clustering (TSC) algorithm that allows for modeling higher-order network structures in a graph partitioning framework. Our TSC algorithm allows the user to specify which higher-order network structures (cycles, feed-forward loops, etc.) should be preserved by the network clustering. Higher-order network structures of interest are represented using a tensor, which we then partition by developing a multilinear spectral method. Our framework can be applied to discovering layered flows in networks as well as graph anomaly detection, which we illustrate on synthetic networks. In directed networks, a higher-order structure of particular interest is the directed 3-cycle, which captures feedback loops in networks. We demonstrate that our TSC algorithm produces large partitions that cut fewer directed 3-cycles than standard spectral clustering algorithms.

  6. Modeling Higher-Order Correlations within Cortical Microcolumns

    PubMed Central

    Köster, Urs; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha; Gray, Charles M.; Olshausen, Bruno A.

    2014-01-01

    We statistically characterize the population spiking activity obtained from simultaneous recordings of neurons across all layers of a cortical microcolumn. Three types of models are compared: an Ising model which captures pairwise correlations between units, a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) which allows for modeling of higher-order correlations, and a semi-Restricted Boltzmann Machine which is a combination of Ising and RBM models. Model parameters were estimated in a fast and efficient manner using minimum probability flow, and log likelihoods were compared using annealed importance sampling. The higher-order models reveal localized activity patterns which reflect the laminar organization of neurons within a cortical column. The higher-order models also outperformed the Ising model in log-likelihood: On populations of 20 cells, the RBM had 10% higher log-likelihood (relative to an independent model) than a pairwise model, increasing to 45% gain in a larger network with 100 spatiotemporal elements, consisting of 10 neurons over 10 time steps. We further removed the need to model stimulus-induced correlations by incorporating a peri-stimulus time histogram term, in which case the higher order models continued to perform best. These results demonstrate the importance of higher-order interactions to describe the structure of correlated activity in cortical networks. Boltzmann Machines with hidden units provide a succinct and effective way to capture these dependencies without increasing the difficulty of model estimation and evaluation. PMID:24991969

  7. Modeling higher-order correlations within cortical microcolumns.

    PubMed

    Köster, Urs; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha; Gray, Charles M; Olshausen, Bruno A

    2014-07-01

    We statistically characterize the population spiking activity obtained from simultaneous recordings of neurons across all layers of a cortical microcolumn. Three types of models are compared: an Ising model which captures pairwise correlations between units, a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) which allows for modeling of higher-order correlations, and a semi-Restricted Boltzmann Machine which is a combination of Ising and RBM models. Model parameters were estimated in a fast and efficient manner using minimum probability flow, and log likelihoods were compared using annealed importance sampling. The higher-order models reveal localized activity patterns which reflect the laminar organization of neurons within a cortical column. The higher-order models also outperformed the Ising model in log-likelihood: On populations of 20 cells, the RBM had 10% higher log-likelihood (relative to an independent model) than a pairwise model, increasing to 45% gain in a larger network with 100 spatiotemporal elements, consisting of 10 neurons over 10 time steps. We further removed the need to model stimulus-induced correlations by incorporating a peri-stimulus time histogram term, in which case the higher order models continued to perform best. These results demonstrate the importance of higher-order interactions to describe the structure of correlated activity in cortical networks. Boltzmann Machines with hidden units provide a succinct and effective way to capture these dependencies without increasing the difficulty of model estimation and evaluation.

  8. Higher order annular Gaussian laser beam propagation in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyyuboglu, Halil T.; Yenice, Yusuf E.; Baykal, Yahya K.

    2006-03-01

    Propagation of higher order annular Gaussian (HOAG) laser beams in free space is examined. HOAG beams are defined as the difference of two Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beams; thus, they can be produced by subtracting a smaller beam from a larger beam, that are cocentered and both possess HG mode field distributions. Such beams can be considered as a generalization of the well-known annular Gaussian beams. We formulate the source and receiver plane characteristics and kurtosis parameter of HOAG beams propagating in free space and evaluate them numerically. In comparison to HG beams, HOAG beams have a broader beam size with outer lobes of kidney shape. The amount of received power within the same receiver aperture size, that is, power in bucket, is generally lower for higher order beams. The convergence of the kurtosis parameter to an asymptotic value for higher order beams takes much longer propagation distances compared to zero-order beams.

  9. Ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities of heavy metal oxide glasses containing gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Juliana M. P.; da Silva, Diego S.; Kassab, Luciana R. P.; Zilio, Sergio C.; Mendonça, Cleber R.; De Boni, Leonardo

    2014-02-01

    This work reports on the third-order nonlinear properties and the response time of GeO2-Bi2O3 glass, as well as the effect of gold nanoparticles on these properties. The nonlinear refractive index spectrum and the nonlinear absorption coefficient were determined by the Z-scan technique, and the response time was obtained through Kerr gate measurements, using femtosecond pulses. The results show that the presence of gold nanoparticles causes a saturable absorption effect that is overcome by the two-photon absorption process at higher light intensities, for wavelengths within the plasmon band. We measured a constant value for the nonlinear refractive index (n2) for the visible and infrared regions, which was not affected by the presence of gold nanoparticles in the sample. However, the n2 value is one order of magnitude higher than the one for fused silica and 1.5 times better than PGO (PbO-GeO2) glasses. In addition, the response time of the induced birefringence for the samples with and without gold nanoparticles is faster than the pulse duration (220 fs), indicating an ultra-fast electronic process.

  10. Propagation of high power electromagnetic beam in relativistic magnetoplasma: Higher order paraxial ray theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Tarsem Singh; Kaur, Ravinder; Mahajan, Ranju

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of self-consistent, steady-state, theoretical model, which explains the ring formation in a Gaussian electromagnetic beam propagating in a magnetoplasma, characterized by relativistic nonlinearity. Higher order terms (up to r4) in the expansion of the dielectric function and the eikonal have been taken into account. The condition for the formation of a dark and bright ring derived earlier by Misra and Mishra [J. Plasma Phys. 75, 769 (2009)] has been used to study focusing/defocusing of the beam. It is seen that inclusion of higher order terms does significantly affect the dependence of the beam width on the distance of propagation. Further, the effect of the magnetic field and the nature of nonlinearity on the ring formation and self-focusing of the beam have been explored.

  11. Higher-dimensional catastrophes in nonlinear Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, Vasily; Seipt, Daniel; Rykovanov, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    The Compton scattering of the light on the accelerated electron beam is a valuable tool for generating tunable wide range X- and γ-radiation.However, the cross-section of the scattering is relatively low. That is, in order to obtain bright X-rays one naturally may consider increasing the intensity of the incident light. Passing to relativistic values of laser intensity significantly changes scattering mechanism. Precise QED analysis of the scattered spectra leads to the study of the corresponding elements of S-matrix. Evaluation is usually performed numerically (except cases of specific pulse shapes and scattering angles). We argue that the problem of extracting the scattered spectra in nonlinear Compton scattering of the pulse can be reformulated in terms of studying properties of projection map of specific surfaces associated to the pulse. They are stable with respect to initial conditions, and the brightest regions of the spectrum appear to be in correspondence with the singularities of the projection map, also known as caustics in pure mathematics, diffraction optics and cosmology. Work was supported by the Helmholtz Association (Helmholtz Young Investigators group VH-NG-1037).

  12. Higher-order discrete variational problems with constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; Martín de Diego, David; Zuccalli, Marcela

    2013-09-01

    An interesting family of geometric integrators for Lagrangian systems can be defined using discretizations of the Hamilton's principle of critical action. This family of geometric integrators is called variational integrators. In this paper, we derive new variational integrators for higher-order Lagrangian mechanical system subjected to higher-order constraints. From the discretization of the variational principles, we show that our methods are automatically symplectic and, in consequence, with a very good energy behavior. Additionally, the symmetries of the discrete Lagrangian imply that momentum is conserved by the integrator. Moreover, we extend our construction to variational integrators where the Lagrangian is explicitly time-dependent. Finally, some motivating applications of higher-order problems are considered; in particular, optimal control problems for explicitly time-dependent underactuated systems and an interpolation problem on Riemannian manifolds.

  13. Conical emission from laser filaments and higher-order Kerr effect in air.

    PubMed

    Béjot, P; Kasparian, J

    2011-12-15

    We numerically investigate the conical emission (CE) from ultrashort laser filaments, both considering and disregarding the higher-order Kerr effect (HOKE). While the consideration of HOKE has almost no influence on the predicted CE from collimated beams, differences arise for tightly focused beams. This difference is attributed to the different relative contributions of the nonlinear focus and of the modulational instability over the whole filament length.

  14. Stable static structures in models with higher-order derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Bazeia, D.; Lobão, A.S.; Menezes, R.

    2015-09-15

    We investigate the presence of static solutions in generalized models described by a real scalar field in four-dimensional space–time. We study models in which the scalar field engenders higher-order derivatives and spontaneous symmetry breaking, inducing the presence of domain walls. Despite the presence of higher-order derivatives, the models keep to equations of motion second-order differential equations, so we focus on the presence of first-order equations that help us to obtain analytical solutions and investigate linear stability on general grounds. We then illustrate the general results with some specific examples, showing that the domain wall may become compact and that the zero mode may split. Moreover, if the model is further generalized to include k-field behavior, it may contribute to split the static structure itself.

  15. New, higher-order, elasticity-based micromechanics model

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T. O.

    2003-01-01

    The formulation for a new homogenization theory is presented. The theory utilizes a higher-order, elasticity-based cell analysis of a periodic array of unit cells. The unit cell is discretized into subregions or subcells. The displacement field within each subcell is approximated by an (truncated) eigenfunction function expansion of up to fifth order. The governing equations are developed by satisfying the pointwise governing equations of geometrically linear continuum mechanics exactly up through the given order of the subcell displacement fields. The specified governing equations are valid for any type of constitutive model used to describe the behavior of the material in a subcell. The fifth order theory is subsequently reduced to a third order theory. The appropriate reduction of the fifth and third order theories to the first order theory (which corresponds to a variant of the original method of cells (MOC) (Aboudi, 1991) theory) is outlined. The 3D ECM theory correctly reduces to the 2D ECM theory microstructures and the exact 1D theory for bilaminated structures. Comparison of the predicted bulk and local responses with published results indicates that the theory accurately predicts both types of responses. Furthermore, it is shown that the higher order fields introduced coupling effects between the local fields that can result in substantial changes in the predicted bulk inelastic response of a composite.

  16. Detection of small target using recursive higher order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Wang; Sun, Hongyuan; Lei, Zhihui

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a recursive higher order statistics algorithm is proposed for small target detection in temporal domain. Firstly, the background of image sequence is normalized. Then, the higher order statistics are recursively solved in image sequence to obtain the feature image. Finally, the feature image is segmented with threshold to detect the small target. To validate the algorithm proposed in this paper, five simulated and one semi-simulation image sequences are created. The ROC curves are employed for evaluation of experimental results. Experiment results show that our method is very effective for small target detection.

  17. Vakonomic Constraints in Higher-Order Classical Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Cédric M.

    2010-07-01

    We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher-order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both, the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher-order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic description of the dynamics. The case of vakonomic constraints is also studied within this formalism.

  18. Higher-Order Airy Scaling in Deformed Dyck Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, Nils; Olde Daalhuis, Adri; Prellberg, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a deformed version of Dyck paths (DDP), where additional to the steps allowed for Dyck paths, `jumps' orthogonal to the preferred direction of the path are permitted. We consider the generating function of DDP, weighted with respect to their half-length, area and number of jumps. This represents the first example of an exactly solvable two-dimensional lattice vesicle model showing a higher-order multicritical point. Applying the generalized method of steepest descents, we see that the associated two-variable scaling function is given by the logarithmic derivative of a generalized (higher-order) Airy integral.

  19. Higher Order Mode Coupler Heating in Continuous Wave Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solyak, N.; Awida, M.; Hocker, A.; Khabibobulline, T.; Lunin, A.

    Electromagnetic heating due to higher order modes (HOM) propagation is particularly a concern for continuous wave (CW) particle accelerator machines. Power on the order of several watts could flow out of the cavity's HOM ports in CW operations. The upgrade of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS-II) at SLAC requires a major modification of the design of the higher order mode (HOM) antenna and feed through of the conventional ILC elliptical 9-cell cavity in order to utilize it for LCLS-II. The HOM antenna is required to bear higher RF losses, while relatively maintaining the coupling level of the higher order modes. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the heating expected in the HOM coupler with a thorough thermal quench study in comparison with the conventional ILC design. We discuss also how the heat will be removed from the cavity through RF cables with specially designed cooling straps. Finally, we report on the latest experimental results of cavity testing in vertical and horizontal cryostats.

  20. Higher order matrix differential equations with singular coefficient matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Fragkoulis, V. C.; Kougioumtzoglou, I. A.; Pantelous, A. A.; Pirrotta, A.

    2015-03-10

    In this article, the class of higher order linear matrix differential equations with constant coefficient matrices and stochastic process terms is studied. The coefficient of the highest order is considered to be singular; thus, rendering the response determination of such systems in a straightforward manner a difficult task. In this regard, the notion of the generalized inverse of a singular matrix is used for determining response statistics. Further, an application relevant to engineering dynamics problems is included.

  1. Improvements to local projective noise reduction through higher order and multiscale refinements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jack Murdoch; Small, Michael; Karrech, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The broad spectrum characteristic of signals from nonlinear systems obstructs noise reduction techniques developed for linear systems. Local projection was developed to reduce noise while preserving nonlinear deterministic structures, and a second order refinement to local projection which was proposed ten years ago does so particularly effectively. It involves adjusting the origin of the projection subspace to better accommodate the geometry of the attractor. This paper describes an analytic motivation for the enhancement from which follows further higher order and multiple scale refinements. However, the established enhancement is frequently as or more effective than the new filters arising from solely geometric considerations. Investigation of the way that measurement errors reinforce or cancel throughout the refined local projection procedure explains the special efficacy of the existing enhancement, and leads to a new second order refinement offering widespread gains. Different local projective filters are found to be best suited to different noise levels. At low noise levels, the optimal order increases as noise increases. At intermediate levels second order tends to be optimal, while at high noise levels prototypical local projection is most effective. The new higher order filters perform better relative to established filters for longer signals or signals corresponding to higher dimensional attractors.

  2. Prominent Higher-Order Contributions to Electronic Recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Beilmann, C.; Mokler, P. H.; Bernitt, S.; Keitel, C. H.; Ullrich, J.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Harman, Z.

    2011-09-30

    Intershell higher-order (HO) electronic recombination is reported for highly charged Ar, Fe, and Kr ions, where simultaneous excitation of one K-shell electron and one or two additional L-shell electrons occurs upon resonant capture of a free electron. For the mid-Z region, HO resonance strengths grow unexpectedly strong with decreasing atomic number Z ({proportional_to}Z{sup -4}), such that, for Ar ions the 2nd-order overwhelms the 1st-order resonant recombination considerably. The experimental findings are confirmed by multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations including hitherto neglected excitation pathways.

  3. Higher-order dynamical effects in Coulomb dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Esbensen, H.; Bertsch, G.F.; Bertulani, C.A.

    1995-08-01

    Coulomb dissociation is a technique commonly used to extract the dipole response of nuclei far from stability. This technique is applicable if the dissociation is dominated by dipole transitions and if first-order perturbation theory is valid. In order to assess the significance of higher-order processes we solve numerically the time evolution of the wave function for a two-body breakup in the Coulomb field from a high Z target. We applied this method to the breakup reactions: {sup 11}Be {yields} {sup 10}Be + n and {sup 11}Li {yields} +2n. The latter is treated as a two-body breakup, using a di-neutron model.

  4. Distributed adaptive output consensus control of second-order systems containing unknown non-linear control gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Chaoli; Du, Qinghui; Cai, Xuan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the output consensus problem of tracking a desired trajectory for a group of second-order agents on a directed graph with a fixed topology. Each agent is modelled by a second-order non-linear system with unknown non-linear dynamics and unknown non-linear control gains. Only a subset of the agents is given access to the desired trajectory information directly. A distributed adaptive consensus protocol driving all agents to track the desired trajectory is presented using the backstepping technique and approximation technique of Fourier series (FSs). The FS structure is taken not only for tracking the non-linear dynamics but also the unknown portion in the controller design procedure, which can avoid virtual controllers containing the uncertain terms. Stability analysis and parameter convergence of the proposed algorithm are conducted based on the Lyapunov theory and the algebraic graph theory. It is also demonstrated that arbitrary small tracking errors can be achieved by appropriately choosing design parameters. Though the proposed work is applicable for second-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains, the proposed controller design can be easily extended to higher-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  5. Third-order optical nonlinearity studies of bilayer Au/Ag metallic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezher, M. H.; Chong, W. Y.; Zakaria, R.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents nonlinear optical studies of bilayer metallic films of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) on glass substrate prepared using electron beam evaporation. The preparation of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the substrate involved the use of electron beam deposition, then thermal annealing at 600 °C and 270 °C, respectively, to produce a randomly distributed layer of Au and a layer of Ag NPs. Observation of field-effect scanning electron microscope images indicated the size of the NPs. Details of the optical properties related to peak absorption of surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle were revealed by use of UV-Vis spectroscopy. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of the fabricated NP layers. The third-order nonlinear refractive index coefficients for Au and Ag are (-9.34 and  -1.61)  ×  10-11 cm2 W-1 given lower n 2, in comparison with bilayer (Au and Ag) NPs at  -1.24  ×  10-10 cm2 W-1. The results show bilayer NPs have higher refractive index coefficients thus enhance the nonlinearity effects.

  6. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  7. Higher order microfibre modes for dielectric particle trapping and propulsion.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Aili; Truong, Viet Giang; Sergides, Marios; Gusachenko, Ivan; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2015-03-13

    Optical manipulation in the vicinity of optical micro- and nanofibres has shown potential across several fields in recent years, including microparticle control, and cold atom probing and trapping. To date, most work has focussed on the propagation of the fundamental mode through the fibre. However, along the maximum mode intensity axis, higher order modes have a longer evanescent field extension and larger field amplitude at the fibre waist compared to the fundamental mode, opening up new possibilities for optical manipulation and particle trapping. We demonstrate a microfibre/optical tweezers compact system for trapping and propelling dielectric particles based on the excitation of the first group of higher order modes at the fibre waist. Speed enhancement of polystyrene particle propulsion was observed for the higher order modes compared to the fundamental mode for particles ranging from 1 μm to 5 μm in diameter. The optical propelling velocity of a single, 3 μm polystyrene particle was found to be 8 times faster under the higher order mode than the fundamental mode field for a waist power of 25 mW. Experimental data are supported by theoretical calculations. This work can be extended to trapping and manipulation of laser-cooled atoms with potential for quantum networks.

  8. Higher Order Language Competence and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Nancy J.; Farnia, Fataneh; Im-Bolter, Nancie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinic and community-based epidemiological studies have shown an association between child psychopathology and language impairment. The demands on language for social and academic adjustment shift dramatically during adolescence and the ability to understand the nonliteral meaning in language represented by higher order language…

  9. Improving Reading Comprehension through Higher-Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Brigitte A.; Barnett, Cynthia L.

    2007-01-01

    This action research project report documents the action research project that was conducted to improve reading comprehension with second grade and third grade students. The teacher researchers intended to improve reading comprehension by using higher-order thinking skills such as predicting, making connections, visualizing, inferring,…

  10. Recent Advances in Higher-Order, Multimodal, Biomedical Imaging Agents.

    PubMed

    Rieffel, James; Chitgupi, Upendra; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2015-09-16

    Advances in biomedical imaging have spurred the development of integrated multimodal scanners, usually capable of two simultaneous imaging modes. The long-term vision of higher-order multimodality is to improve diagnostics or guidance through the analysis of complementary, data-rich, co-registered images. Synergies achieved through combined modalities could enable researchers to better track diverse physiological and structural events, analyze biodistribution and treatment efficacy, and compare established and emerging modalities. Higher-order multimodal approaches stand to benefit from molecular imaging probes and, in recent years, contrast agents that have hypermodal characteristics have increasingly been reported in preclinical studies. Given the chemical requirements for contrast agents representing various modalities to be integrated into a single entity, the higher-order multimodal agents reported so far tend to be of nanoparticulate form. To date, the majority of reported nanoparticles have included components that are active for magnetic resonance. Herein, recent progress in higher-order multimodal imaging agents is reviewed, spanning a range of material and structural classes, and demonstrating utility in three (or more) imaging modalities.

  11. Multimedia: A Gateway to Higher-Order Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Lynn A.; And Others

    In June 1990, the research group at George Mason University (Virginia) Center for Interactive Educational Technology began designing a multimedia prototype to foster higher-order thinking skills in social studies. As an initial step, the Civil War Interactive Project using the Ken Burns documentary, "The Civil War," was used in a design…

  12. Higher-Order Latent Trait Models for Cognitive Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Douglas, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Higher-order latent traits are proposed for specifying the joint distribution of binary attributes in models for cognitive diagnosis. This approach results in a parsimonious model for the joint distribution of a high-dimensional attribute vector that is natural in many situations when specific cognitive information is sought but a less informative…

  13. Constrained variational calculus for higher order classical field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Cédric M.; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David

    2010-11-01

    We develop an intrinsic geometrical setting for higher order constrained field theories. As a main tool we use an appropriate generalization of the classical Skinner-Rusk formalism. Some examples of applications are studied, in particular to the geometrical description of optimal control theory for partial differential equations.

  14. Higher-order structure of rRNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutell, R. R.; Woese, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative search for phylogenetically covarying basepair replacements within potential helices has been the only reliable method to determine the correct secondary structure of the 3 rRNAs, 5S, 16S, and 23S. The analysis of 16S from a wide phylogenetic spectrum, that includes various branches of the eubacteria, archaebacteria, eucaryotes, in addition to the mitochondria and chloroplast, is beginning to reveal the constraints on the secondary structures of these rRNAs. Based on the success of this analysis, and the assumption that higher order structure will also be phylogenetically conserved, a comparative search was initiated for positions that show co-variation not involved in secondary structure helices. From a list of potential higher order interactions within 16S rRNA, two higher-order interactions are presented. The first of these interactions involves positions 570 and 866. Based on the extent of phylogenetic covariation between these positions while maintaining Watson-Crick pairing, this higher-order interaction is considered proven. The other interaction involves a minimum of six positions between the 1400 and 1500 regions of the 16S rRNA. Although these patterns of covariation are not as striking as the 570/866 interaction, the fact that they all exist in an anti-parallel fashion and that experimental methods previously implicated these two regions of the molecule in tRNA function suggests that these interactions be given serious consideration.

  15. Computer-Mediated Assessment of Higher-Order Thinking Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Raiyn, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Solving complicated problems in a contemporary knowledge-based society requires higher-order thinking (HOT). The most productive way to encourage development of HOT in students is through use of the Problem-based Learning (PBL) model. This model organizes learning by solving corresponding problems relative to study courses. Students are directed…

  16. Building Higher-Order Markov Chain Models with EXCEL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Wai-Ki; Fung, Eric S.; Ng, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    Categorical data sequences occur in many applications such as forecasting, data mining and bioinformatics. In this note, we present higher-order Markov chain models for modelling categorical data sequences with an efficient algorithm for solving the model parameters. The algorithm can be implemented easily in a Microsoft EXCEL worksheet. We give a…

  17. Using Higher Order Computer Tasks with Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil

    A pilot program initially designed for a 12-year-old girl with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities in higher order computer tasks was developed for a larger group of students with similar disabilities enrolled in fifth and sixth grades (ages 9-12) at three different schools. An examination of the original pilot study was undertaken to…

  18. Developing Higher-Order Thinking Skills through WebQuests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polly, Drew; Ausband, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 32 teachers participated in a year-long professional development project related to technology integration in which they designed and implemented a WebQuest. This paper describes the extent to which higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) and levels of technology implementation (LoTI) occur in the WebQuests that participants designed.…

  19. Higher order microfibre modes for dielectric particle trapping and propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Maimaiti, Aili; Truong, Viet Giang; Sergides, Marios; Gusachenko, Ivan; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2015-01-01

    Optical manipulation in the vicinity of optical micro- and nanofibres has shown potential across several fields in recent years, including microparticle control, and cold atom probing and trapping. To date, most work has focussed on the propagation of the fundamental mode through the fibre. However, along the maximum mode intensity axis, higher order modes have a longer evanescent field extension and larger field amplitude at the fibre waist compared to the fundamental mode, opening up new possibilities for optical manipulation and particle trapping. We demonstrate a microfibre/optical tweezers compact system for trapping and propelling dielectric particles based on the excitation of the first group of higher order modes at the fibre waist. Speed enhancement of polystyrene particle propulsion was observed for the higher order modes compared to the fundamental mode for particles ranging from 1 μm to 5 μm in diameter. The optical propelling velocity of a single, 3 μm polystyrene particle was found to be 8 times faster under the higher order mode than the fundamental mode field for a waist power of 25 mW. Experimental data are supported by theoretical calculations. This work can be extended to trapping and manipulation of laser-cooled atoms with potential for quantum networks. PMID:25766925

  20. Z-scan: A simple technique for determination of third-order optical nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vijender; Aghamkar, Praveen

    2015-08-28

    Z-scan is a simple experimental technique to measure intensity dependent nonlinear susceptibilities of third-order nonlinear optical materials. This technique is used to measure the sign and magnitude of both real and imaginary part of the third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of nonlinear optical materials. In this paper, we investigate third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ag-polymer composite film by using single beam z-scan technique with Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser (λ=532 nm) at 5 ns pulse. The values of nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ{sup (3)}) of permethylazine were found to be 9.64 × 10{sup −7} cm/W, 8.55 × 10{sup −12} cm{sup 2}/W and 5.48 × 10{sup −10} esu, respectively.

  1. Role of spatial higher order derivatives in momentum space entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Santhosh; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2017-03-01

    We study the momentum space entanglement between different energy modes of interacting scalar fields propagating in general (D +1 )-dimensional flat space-time. As opposed to some of the recent works [V. Balasubramanian et al., Phys. Rev. D 86, 045014 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.045014], we use a Lorentz invariant normalized ground state to obtain the momentum space entanglement entropy. We show that the Lorenz invariant definition removes the spurious power-law behavior obtained in the earlier works. More specifically, we show that the cubic interacting scalar field in (1 +1 ) dimensions leads to logarithmic divergence of the entanglement entropy and is consistent with the results from real space entanglement calculations. We study the effects of the introduction of the Lorentz violating higher derivative terms in the presence of a nonlinear self-interacting scalar field potential and show that the divergence structure of the entanglement entropy is improved in the presence of spatial higher derivative terms.

  2. Nonlinear high-order mode locking in stochastic sensory neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Michael; Afghan, Muhammad; Neiman, Alexander

    2004-03-01

    Excitable systems demonstrate various mode locking regimes when driven by periodic external signals. With noise taken into account, such regimes represent complex nonlinear responses which depend crucially on the frequency and amplitude of the periodic drive as well as on the noise intensity. We study this using a computational model of a stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron in combination with the turtle vestibular sensory system as an experimental model. A bifurcation analysis of the model is performed. Extracellular recordings from primary vestibular afferent neurons with two types of stimuli are used in the experimental study. First, mechanical stimuli applied to the labyrinth allow us to study the responses of the entire system, including transduction by the hair cells and spike generation in the primary afferents. Second, a galvanic stimuli applied directly to an afferent are used to study the responses of afferent spike generator directly. The responses to galvanic stimuli reveal multiple high-order mode locking regimes which are well reproduced in numerical simulation. Responses to mechanical stimulation are characterized by larger variability so that fewer mode-locking regimes can be observed.

  3. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency gains obtained using higher-order implicit Runge-Kutta schemes as compared with the second-order accurate backward difference schemes for the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are investigated. Three different algorithms for solving the nonlinear system of equations arising at each timestep are presented. The first algorithm (NMG) is a pseudo-time-stepping scheme which employs a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) agglomeration multigrid method to accelerate convergence. The other two algorithms are based on Inexact Newton's methods. The linear system arising at each Newton step is solved using iterative/Krylov techniques and left preconditioning is used to accelerate convergence of the linear solvers. One of the methods (LMG) uses Richardson's iterative scheme for solving the linear system at each Newton step while the other (PGMRES) uses the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Results demonstrating the relative superiority of these Newton's methods based schemes are presented. Efficiency gains as high as 10 are obtained by combining the higher-order time integration schemes with the more efficient nonlinear solvers.

  4. Lipkin method of particle-number restoration to higher orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. B.; Dobaczewski, J.; Kortelainen, M.; Yu, L. F.; Stoitsov, M. V.

    2014-07-01

    Background: On the mean-field level, pairing correlations are incorporated through the Bogoliubov-Valatin transformation, whereby the particle degrees of freedom are replaced by quasiparticles. This approach leads to a spontaneous breaking of the particle-number symmetry and mixing of states with different particle numbers. In order to restore the particle number, various methods have been employed, which are based on projection approaches before or after variation. Approximate variation-after-projection (VAP) schemes, utilizing the Lipkin method, have mostly been used within the Lipkin-Nogami prescription. Purpose: Without employing the Lipkin-Nogami prescription, and using, instead, states rotated in the gauge space, we derive the Lipkin method of particle-number restoration up to sixth order and we test the convergence and accuracy of the obtained expansion. Methods: We perform self-consistent calculations using the higher-order Lipkin method to restore the particle-number symmetry in the framework of superfluid nuclear energy-density functional theory. We also apply the Lipkin method to a schematic exactly solvable two-level pairing model. Results: Calculations performed in open-shell tin and lead isotopes show that the Lipkin method converges at fourth order and satisfactorily reproduces the VAP ground-state energies and energy kernels. Near closed shells, the higher-order Lipkin method cannot be applied because of a nonanalytic kink in the ground-state energies as a function of the particle number. Conclusions: In open-shell nuclei, the higher-order Lipkin method provides a good approximation to the exact VAP energies. The method is computationally inexpensive, making it particularly suitable, for example, for future optimizations of the nuclear energy density functionals and simultaneous restoration of different symmetries.

  5. A higher order theory of laminated composite cylindrical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishna Murthy, A. V.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    1986-01-01

    A new higher order theory has been proposed for the analysis of composite cylindrical shells. The formulation allows for arbitrary variation of inplane displacements. Governing equations are presented in the form of a hierarchy of sets of partial differential equations. Each set describes the shell behavior to a certain degree of approximation. The natural frequencies of simply-supported isotropic and laminated shells and stresses in a ring loaded composite shell have been determined to various orders of approximation and compared with three dimensional solutions. These numerical studies indicate the improvements achievable in estimating the natural frequencies and the interlaminar shear stresses in laminated composite cylinders.

  6. Higher-order polarization singularitites in tailored vector beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, E.; Alpmann, C.; Denz, C.

    2016-07-01

    Higher-order polarization singularities embedded in tailored vector beams are introduced and experimentally realized. As holographic modulation allows to define order and location of any vectorial singularity, the surrounding vector field can be dynamically shaped. We demonstrate light fields associated with flowers or spider webs due to regular and even irregular patterns of the orientation of polarization ellipses. Beyond that, not yet investigated hybrid structures are introduced that allow generating networks of flowers and webs in very close vicinity. Our results pave the way to applications of singular optics in spatially extended, optimized optical tweezing and high-resolution imaging.

  7. Sandia Higher Order Elements (SHOE) v 0.5 alpha

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-24

    SHOE is research code for characterizing and visualizing higher-order finite elements; it contains a framework for defining classes of interpolation techniques and element shapes; methods for interpolating triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, and hexahedral cells using Lagrange and Legendre polynomial bases of arbitrary order; methods to decompose each element into domains of constant gradient flow (using a polynomial solver to identify critical points); and an isocontouring technique that uses this decomposition to guarantee topological correctness. Please note that this is an alpha release of research software and that some time has passed since it was actively developed; build- and run-time issues likely exist.

  8. Learning in higher order Boltzmann machines using linear response.

    PubMed

    Leisink, M A; Kappen, H J

    2000-04-01

    We introduce an efficient method for learning and inference in higher order Boltzmann machines. The method is based on mean field theory with the linear response correction. We compute the correlations using the exact and the approximated method for a fully connected third order network of ten neurons. In addition, we compare the results of the exact and approximate learning algorithm. Finally we use the presented method to solve the shifter problem. We conclude that the linear response approximation gives good results as long as the couplings are not too large.

  9. Higher-order-mode fiber optimized for energetic soliton propagation.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Martin E V; Cheng, Ji; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-08-15

    We describe the design optimization of a higher-order-mode (HOM) fiber for energetic soliton propagation at wavelengths below 1300 nm. A new HOM fiber is fabricated according to our design criteria. The HOM fiber is pumped at 1045 nm by an energetic femtosecond fiber laser. The soliton self-frequency shift process shifts the center wavelength of the soliton to 1085 nm. The soliton has a temporal duration of 216 fs and a pulse energy of 6.3 nJ. The demonstrated pulse energy is approximately six times higher than the previous record in a solid core fiber at wavelengths below 1300 nm.

  10. Toddlers infer higher-order relational principles in causal learning.

    PubMed

    Walker, Caren M; Gopnik, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Children make inductive inferences about the causal properties of individual objects from a very young age. When can they infer higher-order relational properties? In three experiments, we examined 18- to 30-month-olds' relational inferences in a causal task. Results suggest that at this age, children are able to infer a higher-order relational causal principle from just a few observations and use this inference to guide their own subsequent actions and bring about a novel causal outcome. Moreover, the children passed a revised version of the relational match-to-sample task that has proven very difficult for nonhuman primates. The findings are considered in light of their implications for understanding the nature of relational and causal reasoning, and their evolutionary origins.

  11. Promoting higher order thinking skills using inquiry-based learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhuri, G. V.; S. S. N Kantamreddi, V.; Goteti, L. N. S. Prakash

    2012-05-01

    Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in chemistry. Laboratory exercises are designed based on Bloom's taxonomy and a just-in-time facilitation approach is used. A pre-laboratory discussion outlining the theory of the experiment and its relevance is carried out to enable the students to analyse real-life problems. The performance of the students is assessed based on their ability to perform the experiment, design new experiments and correlate practical utility of the course module with real life. The novelty of the present approach lies in the fact that the learning outcomes of the existing experiments are achieved through establishing a relationship with real-world problems.

  12. Higher Order Mode Damping Simulation and Multipacting Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liling

    2015-10-01

    When the beam is passing through an accelerator, it will generate higher order modes (HOM), which will affect to the beam quality especially in high energy accelerators such as International Linear accelerator Collider (ILC). In order to preserve the beam quality, HOM couplers are required to be installed to extract HOM power. Most of HOM couplers are 3D complex structures including small features. In addition, many physics process are involved in HOM coupler design such as RF heating and multipacting. Numerical modeling and simulation are essential for HOM coupler design and optimization for successful operation of high energy accelerators. SLAC developed 3D finite element parallel electromagnetics code suite ACE3P can be used to accelerator modeling with higher accuracy in fast turnaround time. In this paper, ACE3P application for HOM damping simulation and multipating analysis is presented for ILC 3.9 GHz crab cavity.

  13. A higher-order-statistics-based approach to face detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunming; Li, Yushan; Wu, Ruihong; Li, Qiuming; Zhuang, Qingde; Zhang, Zhan

    2005-02-01

    A face detection method based on higher order statistics is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the object model and noise model are established to extract moving object from the background according to the fact that higher order statistics is nonsense to Gaussian noise. Secondly, the improved Sobel operator is used to extract the edge image of moving object. And a projection function is used to detect the face in the edge image. Lastly, PCA(Principle Component Analysis) method is used to do face recognition. The performance of the system is evaluated on the real video sequences. It is shown that the proposed method is simple and robust to the detection of human faces in the video sequences.

  14. Higher order interactions in magneto-inductive waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syms, R. R. A.; Sydoruk, O.; Shamonina, E.; Solymar, L.

    2007-03-01

    The properties of periodic chains of magnetically coupled L-C resonators supporting magneto-inductive (MI) waves are examined in the case when non-nearest neighbour interactions are significant. The variation of the coupling coefficient with separation is measured using resonant elements based on printed circuit board inductors and surface mount capacitors, and used to predict the S-parameters and dispersion characteristics of magnetoinductive waveguides. Good agreement with experimental measurements is obtained when higher order interactions are included. The significance of non-nearest neighbour interactions in more general MI wave devices is then highlighted in an example problem involving reflection from a waveguide discontinuity, and the influence of higher order evanescent waves is discussed.

  15. Higher order parabolic approximations of the reduced wave equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaninch, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions of order k to the nth are developed for the reduced wave equation. Here k is a dimensionless wave number and n is the arbitrary order of the approximation. These approximations are an extension of geometric acoustics theory, and provide corrections to that theory in the form of multiplicative functions which satisfy parabolic partial differential equations. These corrections account for the diffraction effects caused by variation of the field normal to the ray path and the interaction of these transverse variations with the variation of the field along the ray. The theory is applied to the example of radiation from a piston, and it is demonstrated that the higher order approximations are more accurate for decreasing values of k.

  16. A higher-order Robert-Asselin type time filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Trenchea, Catalin

    2014-02-01

    The Robert-Asselin (RA) time filter combined with leapfrog scheme is widely used in numerical models of weather and climate. It successfully suppresses the spurious computational mode associated with the leapfrog method, but it also weakly dampens the physical mode and degrades the numerical accuracy. The Robert-Asselin-Williams (RAW) time filter is a modification of the RA filter that reduces the undesired numerical damping of RA filter and increases the accuracy. We propose a higher-order Robert-Asselin (hoRA) type time filter which effectively suppresses the computational modes and achieves third-order accuracy with the same storage requirement as RAW filter. Like RA and RAW filters, the hoRA filter is non-intrusive, and so it would be easily implementable. The leapfrog scheme with hoRA filter is almost as accurate, stable and efficient as the intrusive third-order Adams-Bashforth (AB3) method.

  17. Higher order spin effects in inspiralling compact objects binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsat, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    We present recent progress on higher order spin effects in the post-Newtonian dynamics of compact objects binaries. We present first an extension of a Lagrangian formalism for point particle with spins, where finite size effects are represented by an additional multipolar structure. When applied to the case of a spin-induced octupole, the formalism allows for the computation of the cubic-in-spin effects that enter at the order 3.5PN. We also report on results obtained for quadratic-in-spin effects at the next-to-leading order 3PN. In both cases, we recover existing results for the dynamics, and derive for the first time the gravitational wave energy flux and orbital phasing. These results will be useful for the data analysis of the upcoming generation of advanced detectors of gravitational waves. NASA Grant 11-ATP-046.

  18. A nonlinear filter for high order discontinuous Galerkin discretizations with discontinuity resolution within the cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panourgias, Konstantinos T.; Ekaterinaris, John A.

    2016-12-01

    The nonlinear filter introduced by Yee et al. (1999) [27] and extensively used in the development of low dissipative well-balanced high order accurate finite-difference schemes is adapted to the finite element context of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretizations. The filter operator is constructed in the canonical computational domain for the standard cubical element where it is applied to the computed conservative variables in a direction per direction basis. Filtering becomes possible for all element types in unstructured meshes using collapsed coordinate transformations. The performance of the proposed nonlinear filter for DG discretizations is demonstrated and evaluated for different orders of expansions for one-dimensional and multidimensional problems with exact solutions. It is shown that for higher order discretizations discontinuity resolution within the cell is achieved and the design order of accuracy is preserved. The filter is applied for a number of standard inviscid flow test problems including strong shocks interactions to demonstrate that the proposed dissipative mechanism for DG discretizations yields superior results compared to the results obtained with the total variation bounded (TVB) limiter and high-order hierarchical limiting. The proposed approach is suitable for p-adaptivity in order to locally enhance resolution of three-dimensional flow simulations that include discontinuities and complex flow features.

  19. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of organic azo dyes by using strength of nonlinearity parameter and Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motiei, H.; Jafari, A.; Naderali, R.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, two chemically synthesized organic azo dyes, 2-(2,5-Dichloro-phenyazo)-5,5-dimethyl-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (azo dye (i)) and 5,5-Dimethyl-2-tolylazo-cyclohexane-1,3-dione (azo dye (ii)), have been studied from optical Kerr nonlinearity point of view. These materials were characterized by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Experiments were performed using a continous wave diode-pumped laser at 532 nm wavelength in three intensities of the laser beam. Nonlinear absorption (β), refractive index (n2) and third-order susceptibility (χ (3)) of dyes, were calculated. Nonlinear absorption coefficient of dyes have been calculated from two methods; 1) using theoretical fits and experimental data in the Z-scan technique, 2) using the strength of nonlinearity curves. The values of β obtained from both of the methods were approximately the same. The results demonstrated that azo dye (ii) displays better nonlinearity and has a lower two-photon absorption threshold than azo dye (i). Calculated parameter related to strength of nonlinearity for azo dye (ii) was higher than azo dye (i), It may be due to presence of methyl in azo dye (ii) instead of chlorine in azo dye (i). Furthermore, The measured values of third order susceptibility of azo dyes were from the order of 10-9 esu . These azo dyes can be suitable candidate for optical switching devices.

  20. Higher-Order Corrections to Earthʼs Ionosphere Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahed, H. G.; El-Shewy, E. K.

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear shock wave structures in unmagnetized collisionless viscous plasmas composed fluid of positive (negative) ions and nonthermally electron distribution are examined. For ion shock formation, a reductive perturbation technique applied to derive Burgers equation for lowest-order potential. As the shock amplitude decreasing or enlarging, its steepness and velocity deviate from Burger equation. Burgers type equation with higher order dissipation must be obtained to avoid this deviation. Solution for the compined two equations has been derived using renormalization analysis. Effects of higher-order, positive- negative mass ratio Q, electron nonthermal parameter δ and kinematic viscosities coefficient of positive (negative) ions {η }1 and {η }2 on the electrostatic shocks in Earth’s ionosphere are also argued. Supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University under the Research Project No. 2015/01/4787

  1. Third order nonlinear optical response exhibited by mono- and few-layers of WS2

    DOE PAGES

    Torres-Torres, Carlos; Perea-López, Néstor; Elías, Ana Laura; ...

    2016-04-13

    In this work, strong third order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by WS2 layers are presented. Optical Kerr effect was identified as the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these third order optical nonlinearities. An extraordinary nonlinear refractive index together with an important contribution of a saturated absorptive response was observed to depend on the atomic layer stacking. Comparative experiments performed in mono- and few-layer samples of WS2 revealed that this material is potentially capable of modulating nonlinear optical processes by selective near resonant induced birefringence. In conclusion, we envision applications for developing all-optical bidimensional nonlinear optical devices.

  2. Higher-order ionosphere modeling for CODE's next reprocessing activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, S.; Schaer, S.; Meindl, M.; Dach, R.; Steigenberger, P.

    2009-12-01

    CODE (the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is a joint venture between the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Wabern, Switzerland), the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), and the Institut für Astronomische und Phsyikalische Geodäsie of the Technische Universität München (IAPG/TUM, Munich, Germany). It acts as one of the global analysis centers of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and participates in the first IGS reprocessing campaign, a full reanalysis of GPS data collected since 1994. For a future reanalyis of the IGS data it is planned to consider not only first-order but also higher-order ionosphere terms in the space geodetic observations. There are several works (e.g. Fritsche et al. 2005), which showed a significant and systematic influence of these effects on the analysis results. The development version of the Bernese Software used at CODE is expanded by the ability to assign additional (scaling) parameters to each considered higher-order ionosphere term. By this, each correction term can be switched on and off on normal-equation level and, moreover, the significance of each correction term may be verified on observation level for different ionosphere conditions.

  3. Orchestration of Molecular Information through Higher Order Chemical Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezza, Brian M.

    Broadly defined, higher order chemical recognition is the process whereby discrete chemical building blocks capable of specifically binding to cognate moieties are covalently linked into oligomeric chains. These chains, or sequences, are then able to recognize and bind to their cognate sequences with a high degree of cooperativity. Principally speaking, DNA and RNA are the most readily obtained examples of this chemical phenomenon, and function via Watson-Crick cognate pairing: guanine pairs with cytosine and adenine with thymine (DNA) or uracil (RNA), in an anti-parallel manner. While the theoretical principles, techniques, and equations derived herein apply generally to any higher-order chemical recognition system, in practice we utilize DNA oligomers as a model-building material to experimentally investigate and validate our hypotheses. Historically, general purpose information processing has been a task limited to semiconductor electronics. Molecular computing on the other hand has been limited to ad hoc approaches designed to solve highly specific and unique computation problems, often involving components or techniques that cannot be applied generally in a manner suitable for precise and predictable engineering. Herein, we provide a fundamental framework for harnessing high-order recognition in a modular and programmable fashion to synthesize molecular information process networks of arbitrary construction and complexity. This document provides a solid foundation for routinely embedding computational capability into chemical and biological systems where semiconductor electronics are unsuitable for practical application.

  4. Application of higher order statistics/spectra in biomedical signals--a review.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kuang Chua; Chandran, Vinod; Acharya, U Rajendra; Lim, Choo Min

    2010-09-01

    For many decades correlation and power spectrum have been primary tools for digital signal processing applications in the biomedical area. The information contained in the power spectrum is essentially that of the autocorrelation sequence; which is sufficient for complete statistical descriptions of Gaussian signals of known means. However, there are practical situations where one needs to look beyond autocorrelation of a signal to extract information regarding deviation from Gaussianity and the presence of phase relations. Higher order spectra, also known as polyspectra, are spectral representations of higher order statistics, i.e. moments and cumulants of third order and beyond. HOS (higher order statistics or higher order spectra) can detect deviations from linearity, stationarity or Gaussianity in the signal. Most of the biomedical signals are non-linear, non-stationary and non-Gaussian in nature and therefore it can be more advantageous to analyze them with HOS compared to the use of second-order correlations and power spectra. In this paper we have discussed the application of HOS for different bio-signals. HOS methods of analysis are explained using a typical heart rate variability (HRV) signal and applications to other signals are reviewed.

  5. The importance of nonlinearity on the higher harmonic control of helicopter vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molusis, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of nonlinearity on the higher harmonic control (HHC) of helicopter vibration is investigated using a nonlinear aeroelastic simulation. A nonlinear solution is proposed which relates the HHC inputs to vibration outputs on the basis of a Volterra functional series. The Volterra series solution is shown to reduce to a vector polynomial equation relating HHC inputs to vibration outputs at any harmonic frequency. The nonlinear transfer relationship is identified from a nonlinear vibration analysis computer program, and the identification model is examined in detail. Improvements to current HHC algorithms are presented, and several Kalman filter divergence problems are quantified.

  6. Higher order mode damping in an ALS test cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, A.F.; Lamberston, G.R. ); Barry, W. )

    1990-06-01

    The higher order mode attenuation scheme proposed for the Advanced Light Source accelerating cavities consists of two broad-band dampers placed 90{degrees} apart on the outer edge. In order to assess the damping efficiency a test assembly was built. The HOM damping was obtained by comparing the peak values of the transmission through the cavity for both the damped and the undamped case. Because of the high number of modes and frequency shifts due to the damping gear, the damping was assessed statistically, by averaging over several modes. In the frequency range from 1.5 to 5.5 GHz, average damping greater than 100 was obtained. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  7. Higher-order automatic differentiation of mathematical functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Isabelle; Dal Cappello, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Functions of mathematical physics such as the Bessel functions, the Chebyshev polynomials, the Gauss hypergeometric function and so forth, have practical applications in many scientific domains. On the one hand, differentiation formulas provided in reference books apply to real or complex variables. These do not account for the chain rule. On the other hand, based on the chain rule, the automatic differentiation has become a natural tool in numerical modeling. Nevertheless automatic differentiation tools do not deal with the numerous mathematical functions. This paper describes formulas and provides codes for the higher-order automatic differentiation of mathematical functions. The first method is based on Faà di Bruno's formula that generalizes the chain rule. The second one makes use of the second order differential equation they satisfy. Both methods are exemplified with the aforementioned functions.

  8. Polymer quantization, stability and higher-order time derivative terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumsille, Patricio; Reyes, Carlos M.; Ossandon, Sebastian; Reyes, Camilo

    2016-03-01

    The possibility that fundamental discreteness implicit in a quantum gravity theory may act as a natural regulator for ultraviolet singularities arising in quantum field theory has been intensively studied. Here, along the same expectations, we investigate whether a nonstandard representation called polymer representation can smooth away the large amount of negative energy that afflicts the Hamiltonians of higher-order time derivative theories, rendering the theory unstable when interactions come into play. We focus on the fourth-order Pais-Uhlenbeck model which can be reexpressed as the sum of two decoupled harmonic oscillators one producing positive energy and the other negative energy. As expected, the Schrödinger quantization of such model leads to the stability problem or to negative norm states called ghosts. Within the framework of polymer quantization we show the existence of new regions where the Hamiltonian can be defined well bounded from below.

  9. An improved higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, F. E.; Epton, M. A.; Johnson, F. T.; Magnus, A. E.; Rubbert, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow is described. Each panel, defined by four points on the surface, is divided into eight subpanels in such a way that all subpanel and panel edges are contiguous. By prescribing a quadratic distribution of the doublet on each subpanel, the doublet strength is made strictly continuous on the paneled surface. A linear source distribution is also used. Numerical results are smoother and in better agreement with experiment than the previous method with less strict continuity. A brief discussion of superinclined panels used to eliminate interior interference in nacelles is included.

  10. Higher order software - A methodology for defining software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, M.; Zeldin, S.

    1976-01-01

    Higher order software (HOS) is concerned only with computable functions and relationships. The HOS methodology can be used for the definition of software for multiprogrammed, multiprocessor, or multicomputer systems. A description of HOS methodology is presented, giving attention to questions of formulation, interface correctness, specification language principles, and HOS analyzers. Aspects of system design are considered, and details of software management are discussed. Attention is given to modularity as defined by HOS, frozen module management, the assembly control supervisor, and aspects of reliability and efficiency.

  11. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  12. Higher-order modes in the APS storage ring waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, S.O.; Kustom, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    Twelve higher-order modes (HOMs) in the single-cell accelerating cavities for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring were calculated to have complex impedances that will cause coupled-bunched instabilities near or below the 300mA positron current which is the design goal. Some of these modes couple, through the coupling loop, from the storage ring cavity into the waveguide. This study investigates the transmission of these modes from the cavity into the waveguide. The standing wave ratio (VSWR) of a WR2300 hybrid waveguide component has been measured at each HOM frequency, and its effect on the transmitted modes in the waveguide is studied.

  13. Higher Order Mode Properties of Superconducting Two-Spoke Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C. S.; Delayen, J. R.; Olave, R. G.

    2011-07-01

    Multi-Spoke cavities lack the cylindrical symmetry that many other cavity types have, which leads to a more complex Higher Order Mode (HOM) spectrum. In addition, spoke cavities offer a large velocity acceptance which means we must perform a detailed analysis of the particle velocity dependence for each mode's R/Q. We present here a study of the HOM properties of two-spoke cavities designed for high-velocity applications. Frequencies, R/Q and field profiles of HOMs have been calculated and are reported.

  14. Extension of MINOTAUR to higher-order spatial functions

    SciTech Connect

    Pevey, R.E.

    1999-09-01

    MINOTAUR, a generalized multidimensional geometry discrete ordinates kernel that can be used to calculate the particle flow through a complicated geometrical arrangement of materials, has been extended to use higher-order within-node spatial flux expansions. MINOTAUR is an improved version of the CENTAUR code, which was developed at the Savannah River Site by DeHart, Pevey, and Parish for flat intranode flux distributions. CENTAUR was later extended to linear spatial flux shapes by Grove and Pevey. Both of these codes were limited to two-dimensional generalized geometries, for which the regions are bounded by arbitrarily oriented line segments.

  15. Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics.

  16. Higher-order massive neutrino perturbations in large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Führer, Florian; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2015-03-01

    We develop a higher-order perturbation theory for large-scale structure formation involving a free-streaming hot or warm dark matter species. We focus on the case of mixed cold dark matter and massive neutrinos, although our approach is applicable also to a single warm dark matter species. In order to capture the suppressed growth of neutrino density perturbations on small scales, we account for the full momentum dependence of the phase space distribution using the Vlasov equation, and derive from it a formal closed-form nonlinear equation for the neutrino density. Using a systematic perturbative expansion of this equation we compute high-order corrections to the neutrino density contrast without the explicit need to track the perturbed neutrino momentum distribution. We calculate the leading-order total matter bispectrum for several neutrino masses. Using our result as a benchmark, we test the accuracy of the fluid approximation and a linear approximation used in perturbative and N-body analyses, as well as a new hybrid approach that combines the exact linear evolution with the nonlinear structure of the fluid equations. Aiming at lesssim 1% accuracy, we find that the total matter bispectrum with a low neutrino mass m = 0.046 eV can be reproduced by all but the fluid approximation, while for larger neutrino masses m=0.46 → 0.93 eV only the hybrid approach has the desired accuracy on a large range of scales. This result serves as a cautionary note that approximate nonlinear models of neutrino clustering that reproduce the gross features of some observables may not suffice for precision calculations, nor are they guaranteed to apply to other observables. All of the approximation schemes fail to reproduce the bispectrum of the neutrino density perturbations at better than 20% accuracy across all scales, indicating that an exact treatment of nonlinear neutrino perturbations is necessary.

  17. Resonant-type third-order optical nonlinearity and optical bandgap in multicomponent oxide glasses.

    PubMed

    el-Diasty, Fouad; Abdel-Baki, Manal; Bakry, Assem M

    2009-05-01

    Optical nonlinearity or the nonlinear hyperpolarizability of amorphous materials (e.g., glasses) is related directly to the complex third-order susceptibility. The imaginary part of third-order susceptibility affects negatively the maximum data rate in telecommunication systems. In addition, many transition metals containing glasses have bandgaps with semiconductor-like behavior. So, due to the necessity of operation near the absorption band edge, the study of optical nonlinearity and band structure in glasses is very essential. In this work, we investigated the relationship between the imaginary third-order nonlinear susceptibility and the bandgap of some different series of prepared oxide glasses. A universal empirical formula is given to correlate the imaginary part of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the glasses and their optical bandgaps. The obtained nonlinearity is discussed in view of available theories and mechanisms.

  18. Resonant-type third-order optical nonlinearity and optical bandgap in multicomponent oxide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    El-Diasty, Fouad; Abdel-Baki, Manal; Bakry, Assem M.

    2009-05-01

    Optical nonlinearity or the nonlinear hyperpolarizability of amorphous materials (e.g., glasses) is related directly to the complex third-order susceptibility. The imaginary part of third-order susceptibility affects negatively the maximum data rate in telecommunication systems. In addition, many transition metals containing glasses have bandgaps with semiconductor-like behavior. So, due to the necessity of operation near the absorption band edge, the study of optical nonlinearity and band structure in glasses is very essential. In this work, we investigated the relationship between the imaginary third-order nonlinear susceptibility and the bandgap of some different series of prepared oxide glasses. A universal empirical formula is given to correlate the imaginary part of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the glasses and their optical bandgaps. The obtained nonlinearity is discussed in view of available theories and mechanisms.

  19. Laser-PlasmaWakefield Acceleration with Higher Order Laser Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Mullowney, P.; Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-06-01

    Laser-plasma collider designs point to staging of multiple accelerator stages at the 10 GeV level, which are to be developed on the upcoming BELLA laser, while Thomson Gamma source designs use GeV stages, both requiring efficiency and low emittance. Design and scaling of stages operating in the quasi-linear regime to address these needs are presented using simulations in the VORPAL framework. In addition to allowing symmetric acceleration of electrons and positrons, which is important for colliders, this regime has the property that the plasma wakefield is proportional to the transverse gradient of the laser intensity profile. We demonstrate use of higher order laser modes to tailor the laser pulse and hence the transverse focusing forces in the plasma. In particular, we show that by using higher order laser modes, we can reduce the focusing fields and hence increase the matched electron beam radius, which is important to increased charge and efficiency, while keeping the low bunch emittance required for applications.

  20. Higher-Order Interference in Extensions of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ciarán M.; Selby, John H.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum interference, manifest in the two slit experiment, lies at the heart of several quantum computational speed-ups and provides a striking example of a quantum phenomenon with no classical counterpart. An intriguing feature of quantum interference arises in a variant of the standard two slit experiment, in which there are three, rather than two, slits. The interference pattern in this set-up can be written in terms of the two and one slit patterns obtained by blocking one, or more, of the slits. This is in stark contrast with the standard two slit experiment, where the interference pattern cannot be written as a sum of the one slit patterns. This was first noted by Rafael Sorkin, who raised the question of why quantum theory only exhibits irreducible interference in the two slit experiment. One approach to this problem is to compare the predictions of quantum theory to those of operationally-defined `foil' theories, in the hope of determining whether theories that do exhibit higher-order interference suffer from pathological—or at least undesirable—features. In this paper two proposed extensions of quantum theory are considered: the theory of Density Cubes proposed by Dakić, Paterek and Brukner, which has been shown to exhibit irreducible interference in the three slit set-up, and the Quartic Quantum Theory of Życzkowski. The theory of Density Cubes will be shown to provide an advantage over quantum theory in a certain computational task and to posses a well-defined mechanism which leads to the emergence of quantum theory—analogous to the emergence of classical physics from quantum theory via decoherence. Despite this, the axioms used to define Density Cubes will be shown to be insufficient to uniquely characterise the theory. In comparison, Quartic Quantum Theory is a well-defined theory and we demonstrate that it exhibits irreducible interference to all orders. This feature of Życzkowski's theory is argued not to be a genuine phenomenon, but to

  1. Visualizing Higher Order Finite Elements: FY05 Yearly Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2005-11-01

    This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elementsinto regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which thealgorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomialapproximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analyticalsolution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and mo-mentim. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate.Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and thesecoefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of free-dom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution.Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increas-ing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number offinite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some typesof simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedomthan increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation hasdetermined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools donot exist for visual inspection of the solution.This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finiteelement simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicialregions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. Therequirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the placeswhere the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacingalgorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.3 AcknowledgementThe authors would like to thank David Day and Louis Romero for their insight into poly-nomial system solvers and the LDRD Senior Council for the opportunity to pursue thisresearch. The authors were

  2. Higher-Order Interference in Extensions of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ciarán M.; Selby, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum interference, manifest in the two slit experiment, lies at the heart of several quantum computational speed-ups and provides a striking example of a quantum phenomenon with no classical counterpart. An intriguing feature of quantum interference arises in a variant of the standard two slit experiment, in which there are three, rather than two, slits. The interference pattern in this set-up can be written in terms of the two and one slit patterns obtained by blocking one, or more, of the slits. This is in stark contrast with the standard two slit experiment, where the interference pattern cannot be written as a sum of the one slit patterns. This was first noted by Rafael Sorkin, who raised the question of why quantum theory only exhibits irreducible interference in the two slit experiment. One approach to this problem is to compare the predictions of quantum theory to those of operationally-defined `foil' theories, in the hope of determining whether theories that do exhibit higher-order interference suffer from pathological—or at least undesirable—features. In this paper two proposed extensions of quantum theory are considered: the theory of Density Cubes proposed by Dakić, Paterek and Brukner, which has been shown to exhibit irreducible interference in the three slit set-up, and the Quartic Quantum Theory of Życzkowski. The theory of Density Cubes will be shown to provide an advantage over quantum theory in a certain computational task and to posses a well-defined mechanism which leads to the emergence of quantum theory—analogous to the emergence of classical physics from quantum theory via decoherence. Despite this, the axioms used to define Density Cubes will be shown to be insufficient to uniquely characterise the theory. In comparison, Quartic Quantum Theory is a well-defined theory and we demonstrate that it exhibits irreducible interference to all orders. This feature of Życzkowski's theory is argued not to be a genuine phenomenon, but to

  3. Organometallic Compounds and Polymers with Second and Third Order Nonlinear Optical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-06

    Nonlinear Optical Properties of Inorganic Coordination Polymers . William Chiang, Mark E. Thompson, Donna Van Engen , "Organic Materials for Nonlinear...Organometallic Compounds and Polymers with Second and Third Order Nonlinear Optical Pro. -c.AUTHOR(S) 61102F 2303 All Mark E. Thompson, PI 7. PERFORMING...scale Sc -Cr $5 Fe > Co. Polar coordination polymers were prepared in which excellent polar order was found in the polyermic chains. however, the

  4. Higher-order phase transitions on financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, A.; Kutner, R.; Perelló, J.; Masoliver, J.

    2010-08-01

    Statistical and thermodynamic properties of the anomalous multifractal structure of random interevent (or intertransaction) times were thoroughly studied by using the extended continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism of Montroll, Weiss, Scher, and Lax. Although this formalism is quite general (and can be applied to any interhuman communication with nontrivial priority), we consider it in the context of a financial market where heterogeneous agent activities can occur within a wide spectrum of time scales. As the main general consequence, we found (by additionally using the Saddle-Point Approximation) the scaling or power-dependent form of the partition function, Z(q'). It diverges for any negative scaling powers q' (which justifies the name anomalous) while for positive ones it shows the scaling with the general exponent τ(q'). This exponent is the nonanalytic (singular) or noninteger power of q', which is one of the pilar of higher-order phase transitions. In definition of the partition function we used the pausing-time distribution (PTD) as the central one, which takes the form of convolution (or superstatistics used, e.g. for describing turbulence as well as the financial market). Its integral kernel is given by the stretched exponential distribution (often used in disordered systems). This kernel extends both the exponential distribution assumed in the original version of the CTRW formalism (for description of the transient photocurrent measured in amorphous glassy material) as well as the Gaussian one sometimes used in this context (e.g. for diffusion of hydrogen in amorphous metals or for aging effects in glasses). Our most important finding is the third- and higher-order phase transitions, which can be roughly interpreted as transitions between the phase where high frequency trading is most visible and the phase defined by low frequency trading. The specific order of the phase transition directly depends upon the shape exponent α defining the stretched

  5. Higher Order Mode Heating Analysis for the ILC Superconducting Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Nantista, C.; Adolphsen, C.; /SLAC

    2010-10-27

    The superconducting cavities and interconnects in the 11 km long linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) are designed to operate at 2K, where cooling costs are very expensive. It is thus important to minimize cryogenic heat loads. In addition to an unavoidable static load and the dynamic load of the fundamental 1.3 GHz accelerating rf, a further heat source is presented by the higher order mode (HOM) power deposited by the beam. Such modes will be damped by specially designed HOM couplers attached to the cavities (for trapped modes), and by ceramic dampers at 70K that are located between the eight or nine cavity cryomodules (for propagating modes). Brute force calculation of the higher frequency modes excited in a string of cryomodules is limited by computing capacity (see, e.g. [1]). M. Liepe has calculated {approx} 400 longitudinal TM modes in 3 superconducting cavities plus absorbers, up to 8 GHz [2]. Joestingmeier, et al., have used a ray tracing calculation to find the effect at higher frequencies, specifically in the range of tens of GHz and above [3]. In this report we present a scattering matrix approach, which we apply to an rf unit comprising 26 cavities and 3 absorbers. We perform calculations at sample frequencies (up to 20 GHz) to predict the effectiveness of the ceramic dampers in limiting HOM heat deposition at 2K.

  6. Influence of high-order nonlinear fluctuations in the multivariate susceptible-infectious-recovered master equation.

    PubMed

    Bayati, Basil S; Eckhoff, Philip A

    2012-12-01

    We perform a high-order analytical expansion of the epidemiological susceptible-infectious-recovered multivariate master equation and include terms up to and beyond single-particle fluctuations. It is shown that higher order approximations yield qualitatively different results than low-order approximations, which is incident to the influence of additional nonlinear fluctuations. The fluctuations can be related to a meaningful physical parameter, the basic reproductive number, which is shown to dictate the rate of divergence in absolute terms from the ordinary differential equations more so than the total number of persons in the system. In epidemiological terms, the effect of single-particle fluctuations ought to be taken into account as the reproductive number approaches unity.

  7. Symmetries and generalized higher order conserved vectors of the wave equation on Bianchi I spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim; Jhangeer, Adil

    Conservation laws of various systems have been studied for decades due to their unparalleled importance in unraveling systems’ intricacies without having to go into microscopic details of the physical process involved. Their association with symmetries has not only had a stupendous impact in the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics, but also open doors to further explorations and unifications of others. In this study, we present the Lie symmetries and nonlinearly self-adjoint classifications of the wave equation on Bianchi I spacetime. For different forms of the metric potentials, generalized higher order non-trivial conserved vectors are constructed. Some exact invariant solutions are also exhibited.

  8. Propagation of high amplitude higher order sounds in slightly soft rectangular ducts, carrying mean flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K. S.; Vaidya, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The resonance expansion method, developed to study the propagation of sound in rigid rectangular ducts is applied to the case of slightly soft ducts. Expressions for the generation and decay of various harmonics are obtained. The effect of wall admittance is seen through a dissipation function in the system of nonlinear differential equations, governing the generation of harmonics. As the wall admittance increases, the resonance is reduced. For a given wall admittance this phenomenon is stronger at higher input intensities. Both the first and second order solutions are obtained and the results are extended to the case of ducts having mean flow.

  9. Implementation of Higher Order Laminate Theory Into Strain Rate Dependent Micromechanics Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Heung Soo; Zhu, Linfa; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to investigate the nonlinear response of composite plates under large strain and high strain rate loading. A recently developed strain dependent micromechanics model is extended to account for the shear effects during impact. Four different assumptions of shear deformation effects are investigated to improve the development strain rate dependent micromechanics model. A method to determine through the thickness strain and transverse Poisson's ratio is developed. The revised micromechanics model is implemented into higher order laminate theory. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate transverse shear effects during impact.

  10. Higher-Order Spectral Analysis of F-18 Flight Flutter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Dunn, Shane

    2005-01-01

    Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) F/A-18 flight flutter test data is presented and analyzed using various techniques. The data includes high-quality measurements of forced responses and limit cycle oscillation (LCO) phenomena. Standard correlation and power spectral density (PSD) techniques are applied to the data and presented. Novel applications of experimentally-identified impulse responses and higher-order spectral techniques are also applied to the data and presented. The goal of this research is to develop methods that can identify the onset of nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, such as LCO, during flutter testing.

  11. Analysis of warping deformation modes using higher order ANCF beam element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzechowski, Grzegorz; Shabana, Ahmed A.

    2016-02-01

    Most classical beam theories assume that the beam cross section remains a rigid surface under an arbitrary loading condition. However, in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) continuum-based beams, this assumption can be relaxed allowing for capturing deformation modes that couple the cross-section deformation and beam bending, torsion, and/or elongation. The deformation modes captured by ANCF finite elements depend on the interpolating polynomials used. The most widely used spatial ANCF beam element employs linear approximation in the transverse direction, thereby restricting the cross section deformation and leading to locking problems. The objective of this investigation is to examine the behavior of a higher order ANCF beam element that includes quadratic interpolation in the transverse directions. This higher order element allows capturing warping and non-uniform stretching distribution. Furthermore, this higher order element allows for increasing the degree of continuity at the element interface. It is shown in this paper that the higher order ANCF beam element can be used effectively to capture warping and eliminate Poisson locking that characterizes lower order ANCF finite elements. It is also shown that increasing the degree of continuity requires a special attention in order to have acceptable results. Because higher order elements can be more computationally expensive than the lower order elements, the use of reduced integration for evaluating the stress forces and the use of explicit and implicit numerical integrations to solve the nonlinear dynamic equations of motion are investigated in this paper. It is shown that the use of some of these integration methods can be very effective in reducing the CPU time without adversely affecting the solution accuracy.

  12. Higher-order ice-sheet modelling accelerated by multigrid on graphics cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brædstrup, Christian; Egholm, David

    2013-04-01

    Higher-order ice flow modelling is a very computer intensive process owing primarily to the nonlinear influence of the horizontal stress coupling. When applied for simulating long-term glacial landscape evolution, the ice-sheet models must consider very long time series, while both high temporal and spatial resolution is needed to resolve small effects. The use of higher-order and full stokes models have therefore seen very limited usage in this field. However, recent advances in graphics card (GPU) technology for high performance computing have proven extremely efficient in accelerating many large-scale scientific computations. The general purpose GPU (GPGPU) technology is cheap, has a low power consumption and fits into a normal desktop computer. It could therefore provide a powerful tool for many glaciologists working on ice flow models. Our current research focuses on utilising the GPU as a tool in ice-sheet and glacier modelling. To this extent we have implemented the Integrated Second-Order Shallow Ice Approximation (iSOSIA) equations on the device using the finite difference method. To accelerate the computations, the GPU solver uses a non-linear Red-Black Gauss-Seidel iterator coupled with a Full Approximation Scheme (FAS) multigrid setup to further aid convergence. The GPU finite difference implementation provides the inherent parallelization that scales from hundreds to several thousands of cores on newer cards. We demonstrate the efficiency of the GPU multigrid solver using benchmark experiments.

  13. Response spectrum method for extreme wave loading with higher order components of drag force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Tabeshpour Mohammad; Mani, Fatemi Dezfouli; Ali, Dastan Diznab Mohammad; Saied, Mohajernasab; Saied, Seif Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    Response spectra of fixed offshore structures impacted by extreme waves are investigated based on the higher order components of the nonlinear drag force. In this way, steel jacket platforms are simplified as a mass attached to a light cantilever cylinder and their corresponding deformation response spectra are estimated by utilizing a generalized single degree of freedom system. Based on the wave data recorded in the Persian Gulf region, extreme wave loading conditions corresponding to different return periods are exerted on the offshore structures. Accordingly, the effect of the higher order components of the drag force is considered and compared to the linearized state for different sea surface levels. When the fundamental period of the offshore structure is about one third of the main period of wave loading, the results indicate the linearized drag term is not capable of achieving a reliable deformation response spectrum.

  14. Response spectrum method for extreme wave loading with higher order components of drag force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Tabeshpour Mohammad; Mani, Fatemi Dezfouli; Mohammad Ali, Dastan Diznab; Saied, Mohajernasab; Saied, Seif Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Response spectra of fixed offshore structures impacted by extreme waves are investigated based on the higher order components of the nonlinear drag force. In this way, steel jacket platforms are simplified as a mass attached to a light cantilever cylinder and their corresponding deformation response spectra are estimated by utilizing a generalized single degree of freedom system. Based on the wave data recorded in the Persian Gulf region, extreme wave loading conditions corresponding to different return periods are exerted on the offshore structures. Accordingly, the effect of the higher order components of the drag force is considered and compared to the linearized state for different sea surface levels. When the fundamental period of the offshore structure is about one third of the main period of wave loading, the results indicate the linearized drag term is not capable of achieving a reliable deformation response spectrum.

  15. Local Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Partial Differential Equations with Higher Order Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jue; Shu, Chi-Wang; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we review the existing and develop new continuous Galerkin methods for solving time dependent partial differential equations with higher order derivatives in one and multiple space dimensions. We review local discontinuous Galerkin methods for convection diffusion equations involving second derivatives and for KdV type equations involving third derivatives. We then develop new local discontinuous Galerkin methods for the time dependent bi-harmonic type equations involving fourth derivatives, and partial differential equations involving fifth derivatives. For these new methods we present correct interface numerical fluxes and prove L(exp 2) stability for general nonlinear problems. Preliminary numerical examples are shown to illustrate these methods. Finally, we present new results on a post-processing technique, originally designed for methods with good negative-order error estimates, on the local discontinuous Galerkin methods applied to equations with higher derivatives. Numerical experiments show that this technique works as well for the new higher derivative cases, in effectively doubling the rate of convergence with negligible additional computational cost, for linear as well as some nonlinear problems, with a local uniform mesh.

  16. Dependable software through higher-order strategic programming.

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Victor Lono; Fraij, Fares; Roach, Steve

    2004-03-01

    Program transformation is a restricted form of software construction that can be amenable to formal verification. When successful, the nature of the evidence provided by such a verification is considered strong and can constitute a major component of an argument that a high-consequence or safety-critical system meets its dependability requirements. This article explores the application of novel higher-order strategic programming techniques to the development of a portion of a class loader for a restricted implementation of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The implementation is called the SSP and is intended for use in high-consequence safety-critical embedded systems. Verification of the strategic program using ACL2 is also discussed.

  17. Dynamic facilitation picture of a higher-order glass singularity.

    PubMed

    Sellitto, Mauro; De Martino, Daniele; Caccioli, Fabio; Arenzon, Jeferson J

    2010-12-31

    We show that facilitated spin mixtures with a tunable facilitation reproduce, on a Bethe lattice, the simplest higher-order singularity scenario predicted by the mode-coupling theory (MCT) of liquid-glass transition. Depending on the facilitation strength, they yield either a discontinuous glass transition or a continuous one, with no underlying thermodynamic singularity. Similar results are obtained for facilitated spin models on a diluted Bethe lattice. The mechanism of dynamical arrest in these systems can be interpreted in terms of bootstrap and standard percolation and corresponds to a crossover from a compact to a fractal structure of the incipient spanning cluster of frozen spins. Theoretical and numerical simulation results are fully consistent with MCT predictions.

  18. A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness

    PubMed Central

    LeDoux, Joseph E.; Brown, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Emotional states of consciousness, or what are typically called emotional feelings, are traditionally viewed as being innately programmed in subcortical areas of the brain, and are often treated as different from cognitive states of consciousness, such as those related to the perception of external stimuli. We argue that conscious experiences, regardless of their content, arise from one system in the brain. In this view, what differs in emotional and nonemotional states are the kinds of inputs that are processed by a general cortical network of cognition, a network essential for conscious experiences. Although subcortical circuits are not directly responsible for conscious feelings, they provide nonconscious inputs that coalesce with other kinds of neural signals in the cognitive assembly of conscious emotional experiences. In building the case for this proposal, we defend a modified version of what is known as the higher-order theory of consciousness. PMID:28202735

  19. Revealing Higher Order Protein Structure Using Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chait, Brian T.; Cadene, Martine; Olinares, Paul Dominic; Rout, Michael P.; Shi, Yi

    2016-06-01

    The development of rapid, sensitive, and accurate mass spectrometric methods for measuring peptides, proteins, and even intact protein assemblies has made mass spectrometry (MS) an extraordinarily enabling tool for structural biology. Here, we provide a personal perspective of the increasingly useful role that mass spectrometric techniques are exerting during the elucidation of higher order protein structures. Areas covered in this brief perspective include MS as an enabling tool for the high resolution structural biologist, for compositional analysis of endogenous protein complexes, for stoichiometry determination, as well as for integrated approaches for the structural elucidation of protein complexes. We conclude with a vision for the future role of MS-based techniques in the development of a multi-scale molecular microscope.

  20. Neutron scattering studies on chromatin higher-order structure

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, V.; Gerchman, S.E.; Schneider, D.K.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    1994-12-31

    We have been engaged in studies of the structure and condensation of chromatin into the 30nm filament using small-angle neutron scattering. We have also used deuterated histone H1 to determine its location in the chromatin 30nm filament. Our studies indicate that chromatin condenses with increasing ionic strength to a limiting structure that has a mass per unit length of 6-7 nucleosomes/11 nm. They also show that the linker histone H1/H5 is located in the interior of the chromatin filament, in a position compatible with its binding to the inner face of the nucleosome. Analysis of the mass per unit length as a function of H5 stoichiometry suggests that 5-7 contiguous nucleosomes need to have H5 bound before a stable higher order structure can exist.

  1. Efficient multiple time-stepping algorithms of higher order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Abdullah; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Hochbruck, Marlis

    2015-03-01

    Multiple time-stepping (MTS) algorithms allow to efficiently integrate large systems of ordinary differential equations, where a few stiff terms restrict the timestep of an otherwise non-stiff system. In this work, we discuss a flexible class of MTS techniques, based on multistep methods. Our approach contains several popular methods as special cases and it allows for the easy construction of novel and efficient higher-order MTS schemes. In addition, we demonstrate how to adapt the stability contour of the non-stiff time-integration to the physical system at hand. This allows significantly larger timesteps when compared to previously known multistep MTS approaches. As an example, we derive novel predictor-corrector (PCMTS) schemes specifically optimized for the time-integration of damped wave equations on locally refined meshes. In a set of numerical experiments, we demonstrate the performance of our scheme on discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) simulations of Maxwell's equations.

  2. A higher-order-mode erbium-doped-fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J W; Fini, J M; DeSantolo, A M; Monberg, E; DiMarcello, F; Fleming, J; Headley, C; DiGiovanni, D J; Ghalmi, S; Ramachandran, S

    2010-08-16

    We demonstrate the first erbium-doped fiber amplifier operating in a single, large-mode area, higher-order mode. A high-power, fundamental-mode, Raman fiber laser operating at 1480 nm was used as a pump source. Using a UV-written, long-period grating, both pump and 1564 nm signal were converted to the LP(0,10) mode, which had an effective area of 2700 microm(2) at 1550 nm. A maximum output power of 5.8 W at 1564 nm with more than 20 dB of gain in a 2.68 m long amplifier was obtained. The mode profile was undistorted at the highest output power.

  3. Higher Order Intentionality Tasks Are Cognitively More Demanding.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Penelope A; Birch, Amy; Hall, Alexander; Dunbar, R I M

    2017-03-13

    A central assumption that underpins much of the discussion of the role played by social cognition in brain evolution is that social cognition is unusually cognitively demanding. This assumption has never been tested. Here, we use a task in which participants read stories and then answered questions about the stories in a behavioural experiment (39 participants) and an fMRI experiment (17 participants) to show that mentalising requires more time for responses than factual memory of a matched complexity and also that higher orders of mentalising is disproportionately more demanding and requires the recruitment of more neurons in brain regions known to be associated with theory of mind, including insula, posterior STS, temporal pole, and cerebellum. These results have significant implications both for models of brain function and for models of brain evolution.

  4. RNA Seeds Higher Order Assembly of FUS Protein

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jacob C.; Wang, Xueyin; Podell, Elaine R.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The abundant nuclear RNA-binding protein FUS binds the CTD of RNA polymerase II in an RNA-dependent manner, affecting Ser2 phosphorylation and transcription. Here we examine the mechanism of this process and find that RNA binding nucleates the formation of higher order FUS RNP assemblies that bind the CTD. Both the low-complexity domain and the RGG domain of FUS contribute to assembly. The assemblies appear fibrous by electron microscopy and have characteristics of beta-zipper structures. These results support the emerging view that the pathologic protein aggregation seen in neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS may occur by exaggeration of functionally important assemblies of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:24268778

  5. A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness.

    PubMed

    LeDoux, Joseph E; Brown, Richard

    2017-03-07

    Emotional states of consciousness, or what are typically called emotional feelings, are traditionally viewed as being innately programmed in subcortical areas of the brain, and are often treated as different from cognitive states of consciousness, such as those related to the perception of external stimuli. We argue that conscious experiences, regardless of their content, arise from one system in the brain. In this view, what differs in emotional and nonemotional states are the kinds of inputs that are processed by a general cortical network of cognition, a network essential for conscious experiences. Although subcortical circuits are not directly responsible for conscious feelings, they provide nonconscious inputs that coalesce with other kinds of neural signals in the cognitive assembly of conscious emotional experiences. In building the case for this proposal, we defend a modified version of what is known as the higher-order theory of consciousness.

  6. Higher order statistical moment application for solar PV potential analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Abdullah, Samizee; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Harun, Khairulezuan

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaic energy could be as alternative energy to fossil fuel, which is depleting and posing a global warming problem. However, this renewable energy is so variable and intermittent to be relied on. Therefore the knowledge of energy potential is very important for any site to build this solar photovoltaic power generation system. Here, the application of higher order statistical moment model is being analyzed using data collected from 5MW grid-connected photovoltaic system. Due to the dynamic changes of skewness and kurtosis of AC power and solar irradiance distributions of the solar farm, Pearson system where the probability distribution is calculated by matching their theoretical moments with that of the empirical moments of a distribution could be suitable for this purpose. On the advantage of the Pearson system in MATLAB, a software programming has been developed to help in data processing for distribution fitting and potential analysis for future projection of amount of AC power and solar irradiance availability.

  7. Intermediary LEO propagation including higher order zonal harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautesserres, Denis; Lara, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two new intermediary orbits of the artificial satellite problem are proposed. The analytical solutions include higher order effects of the geopotential, and are obtained by means of a torsion transformation applied to the quasi-Keplerian system resulting after the elimination of the parallax simplification, for the first intermediary, and after the elimination of the parallax and perigee simplifications, for the second one. The new intermediaries perform notably well for low Earth orbits propagation, are free from special functions, and result advantageous, both in accuracy and efficiency, when compared to the standard Cowell integration of the J_2 problem, thus providing appealing alternatives for onboard, short-term, orbit propagation under limited computational resources.

  8. Higher order mode propagation in nonuniform circular ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.; Ingard, K. U.

    1980-01-01

    Higher order mode propagation in a nonuniform circular duct without mean flow was investigated. An approximate wave equation is derived on the assumptions that the duct cross section varies slowly and that mode conversion is negligible. Exact closed form solutions are obtained for a particular class of converging-diverging circular duct which referred to as 'circular cosh duct.' Numerical results are presented in terms of the transmission loss for the various duct shapes and frequencies. The results are applicable to multimodal propagation, single mode propagation, and sound radiation from certain types of contoured inlet ducts, or of sound propagation in a converging-diverging duct of somewhat different shape from a cosh duct.

  9. Higher order mode propagation in nonuniform circular ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.; Ingard, K. U.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation of higher order mode propagation in a nonuniform circular duct without mean flow. An approximate wave equation is derived on the assumptions that the duct cross section varies slowly and that mode conversion is negligible. Exact closed form solutions are obtained for a particular class of converging-diverging circular duct which is here referred to as 'circular cosh duct'. Numerical results are presentd in terms of the transmission loss for the various duct shapes and frequencies. The results are applicable to studies of multimodal propagation as well as single mode propagation. The results are also applicable to studies of sound radiation from certain types of contoured inlet ducts, or of sound propagation in a converging-diverging duct of somewhat different shape from a cosh duct.

  10. Higher-order resonances in a Stark decelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y.T. van de; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Vanhaecke, Nicolas; Meijer, Gerard

    2005-05-15

    The motion of polar molecules can be controlled by time-varying inhomogeneous electric fields. In a Stark decelerator, this is exploited to select a fraction of a molecular beam that is accelerated, transported, or decelerated. Phase stability ensures that the selected bunch of molecules is kept together throughout the deceleration process. In this paper an extended description of phase stability in a Stark decelerator is given, including higher-order effects. This analysis predicts a wide variety of resonances that originate from the spatial and temporal periodicity of the electric fields. These resonances are experimentally observed using a beam of OH ({sup 2}{pi}{sub 3/2},v=0,J=3/2) radicals passing through a Stark decelerator.

  11. Chemical probes for higher-order structure in RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Peattie, D A; Gilbert, W

    1980-01-01

    Three chemical reactions can probe the secondary and tertiary interactions of RNA molecules in solution. Dimethyl sulfate monitors the N-7 of guanosines and senses tertiary interactions there, diethyl pyrocarbonate detects stacking of adenosines, and an alternate dimethyl sulfate reaction examines the N-3 of cytidines and thus probes base pairing. The reactions work between 0 degrees C and 90 degrees C and at pH 4.5--8.5 in a variety of buffers. As an example we follow the progressive denaturation of yeast tRNAPhe terminally labeled with 32P as the tertiary and secondary structures sequentially melt out. A single autoradiograph of a terminally labeled molecule locates regions of higher-order structure and identifies the bases involved. Images PMID:6159633

  12. Inflationary scenarios in Starobinsky model with higher order corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Artymowski, Michał; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek

    2015-06-17

    We consider the Starobinsky inflation with a set of higher order corrections parametrised by two real coefficients λ{sub 1} ,λ{sub 2}. In the Einstein frame we have found a potential with the Starobinsky plateau, steep slope and possibly with an additional minimum, local maximum or a saddle point. We have identified three types of inflationary behaviour that may be generated in this model: i) inflation on the plateau, ii) at the local maximum (topological inflation), iii) at the saddle point. We have found limits on parameters λ{sub i} and initial conditions at the Planck scale which enable successful inflation and disable eternal inflation at the plateau. We have checked that the local minimum away from the GR vacuum is stable and that the field cannot leave it neither via quantum tunnelling nor via thermal corrections.

  13. Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-23

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  14. Vehicle track segmentation using higher order random fields

    DOE PAGES

    Quach, Tu -Thach

    2017-01-09

    Here, we present an approach to segment vehicle tracks in coherent change detection images, a product of combining two synthetic aperture radar images taken at different times. The approach uses multiscale higher order random field models to capture track statistics, such as curvatures and their parallel nature, that are not currently utilized in existing methods. These statistics are encoded as 3-by-3 patterns at different scales. The model can complete disconnected tracks often caused by sensor noise and various environmental effects. Coupling the model with a simple classifier, our approach is effective at segmenting salient tracks. We improve the F-measure onmore » a standard vehicle track data set to 0.963, up from 0.897 obtained by the current state-of-the-art method.« less

  15. Inflationary scenarios in Starobinsky model with higher order corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Artymowski, Michał; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek E-mail: Zygmunt.Lalak@fuw.edu.pl

    2015-06-01

    We consider the Starobinsky inflation with a set of higher order corrections parametrised by two real coefficients λ{sub 1} , λ{sub 2}. In the Einstein frame we have found a potential with the Starobinsky plateau, steep slope and possibly with an additional minimum, local maximum or a saddle point. We have identified three types of inflationary behaviour that may be generated in this model: i) inflation on the plateau, ii) at the local maximum (topological inflation), iii) at the saddle point. We have found limits on parameters λ{sub i} and initial conditions at the Planck scale which enable successful inflation and disable eternal inflation at the plateau. We have checked that the local minimum away from the GR vacuum is stable and that the field cannot leave it neither via quantum tunnelling nor via thermal corrections.

  16. Numerical Solutions of the Nonlinear Fractional-Order Brusselator System by Bernstein Polynomials

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rahmat Ali; Tajadodi, Haleh; Johnston, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose the Bernstein polynomials to achieve the numerical solutions of nonlinear fractional-order chaotic system known by fractional-order Brusselator system. We use operational matrices of fractional integration and multiplication of Bernstein polynomials, which turns the nonlinear fractional-order Brusselator system to a system of algebraic equations. Two illustrative examples are given in order to demonstrate the accuracy and simplicity of the proposed techniques. PMID:25485293

  17. Methods and framework for visualizing higher-order finite elements.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, William J; Bertel, François; Malaterre, Mathieu; Thompson, David; Pébay, Philippe P; O'Bara, Robert; Tendulkar, Saurabh

    2006-01-01

    The finite element method is an important, widely used numerical technique for solving partial differential equations. This technique utilizes basis functions for approximating the geometry and the variation of the solution field over finite regions, or elements, of the domain. These basis functions are generally formed by combinations of polynomials. In the past, the polynomial order of the basis has been low-typically of linear and quadratic order. However, in recent years so-called p and hp methods have been developed, which may elevate the order of the basis to arbitrary levels with the aim of accelerating the convergence of the numerical solution. The increasing complexity of numerical basis functions poses a significant challenge to visualization systems. In the past, such systems have been loosely coupled to simulation packages, exchanging data via file transfer, and internally reimplementing the basis functions in order to perform interpolation and implement visualization algorithms. However, as the basis functions become more complex and, in some cases, proprietary in nature, it becomes increasingly difficult if not impossible to reimplement them within the visualization system. Further, most visualization systems typically process linear primitives, in part to take advantage of graphics hardware and, in part, due to the inherent simplicity of the resulting algorithms. Thus, visualization of higher-order finite elements requires tessellating the basis to produce data compatible with existing visualization systems. In this paper, we describe adaptive methods that automatically tessellate complex finite element basis functions using a flexible and extensible software framework. These methods employ a recursive, edge-based subdivision algorithm driven by a set of error metrics including geometric error, solution error, and error in image space. Further, we describe advanced pretessellation techniques that guarantees capture of the critical points of the

  18. Non-rigid registration using higher-order mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueckert, D.; Clarkson, M. J.; Hill, D. L. G.; Hawkes, D. J.

    2000-03-01

    Non-rigid registration of multi-modality images is an important tool for assessing temporal and structural changesbetween images. For rigid registration, voxel similarity measures like mutual information have been shown to alignimages from different modalities accurately and robustly. For non-rigid registration, mutual information can besensitive to local variations of intensity which in MR images may be caused by RF inhomogeneity. The reasonfor the sensitivity of mutual information towards intensity variations stems from the fact that mutual informationignores any spatial information. In this paper we propose an extension of the mutual information framework whichincorporates spatial information about higher-order image structure into the registration process and has the potentialto improve the accuracy and robustness of non-rigid registration in the presence of intensity variations. We haveapplied the non-rigid registration algorithm to a number of simulated MR brain images of a digital phantom whichhave been degraded by a simulated intensity shading and a known deformation. In addition, we have applied thealgorithm for the non-rigid registration of eight pre- and post-operative brain MR images which were acquired withan interventional MR scanner and therefore have substantial intensity shading due to RF field inhomogeneities. Inall cases the second-order estimate of mutual information leads to robust and accurate registration.

  19. Higher-order nonclassical effects in fluctuating-loss channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohmann, M.; Sperling, J.; Semenov, A. A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-01-01

    We study the evolution of higher-order nonclassicality and entanglement criteria in atmospheric fluctuating-loss channels. By formulating input-output relations for the matrix of moments, we investigate the influence of such channels on the corresponding quantumness criteria. This generalization of our previous work on Gaussian entanglement [M. Bohmann et al., Phys. Rev. A 94, 010302(R) (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.010302] not only exploits second-order-based scenarios, but it also provides a detailed investigation of nonclassicality and entanglement in non-Gaussian and multimode radiation fields undergoing a fluctuating attenuation. That is, various examples of criteria and states are studied in detail, unexpected effects, e.g., the dependency of the squeezing transfer on the coherent displacement, are discovered, and it is demonstrated that non-Gaussian entanglement can be more robust against atmospheric losses than Gaussian one. Additionally, we propose a detection scheme for measuring the considered moments after propagation through the atmosphere. Therefore, our results may help to develop, improve, and optimize non-Gaussian sources of quantum light for applications in free-space quantum communication.

  20. Higher order acoustoelastic Lamb wave propagation in stressed plates.

    PubMed

    Pei, Ning; Bond, Leonard J

    2016-11-01

    Modeling and experiments are used to investigate Lamb wave propagation in the direction perpendicular to an applied stress. Sensitivity, in terms of changes in velocity, for both symmetrical and anti-symmetrical modes was determined. Codes were developed based on analytical expressions for waves in loaded plates and they were used to give wave dispersion curves. The experimental system used a pair of compression wave transducers on variable angle wedges, with set separation, and variable frequency tone burst excitation, on an aluminum plate 0.16 cm thick with uniaxial applied loads. The loads, which were up to 600 με, were measured using strain gages. Model results and experimental data are in good agreement. It was found that the change in Lamb wave velocity, due to the acoustoelastic effect, for the S1 mode exhibits about ten times more sensitive, in terms of velocity change, than the traditional bulk wave measurements, and those performed using the fundamental Lamb modes. The data presented demonstrate the potential for the use of higher order Lamb modes for online industrial stress measurement in plate, and that the higher sensitivity seen offers potential for improved measurement systems.

  1. Predicting perceptual learning from higher-order cortical processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Huang, Jing; Lv, Yaping; Ma, Xiaoli; Yang, Bin; Wang, Encong; Du, Boqi; Li, Wu; Song, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning has been shown to be highly specific to the retinotopic location and attributes of the trained stimulus. Recent psychophysical studies suggest that these specificities, which have been associated with early retinotopic visual cortex, may in fact not be inherent in perceptual learning and could be related to higher-order brain functions. Here we provide direct electrophysiological evidence in support of this proposition. In a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from human adults over the course of learning in a texture discrimination task (TDT). The results consistently showed that the earliest C1 component (68-84ms), known to reflect V1 activity driven by feedforward inputs, was not modulated by learning regardless of whether the behavioral improvement is location specific or not. In contrast, two later posterior ERP components (posterior P1 and P160-350) over the occipital cortex and one anterior ERP component (anterior P160-350) over the prefrontal cortex were progressively modified day by day. Moreover, the change of the anterior component was closely correlated with improved behavioral performance on a daily basis. Consistent with recent psychophysical and imaging observations, our results indicate that perceptual learning can mainly involve changes in higher-level visual cortex as well as in the neural networks responsible for cognitive functions such as attention and decision making.

  2. Emotion recognition from EEG using higher order crossings.

    PubMed

    Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2010-03-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition is a relatively new field in the affective computing area with challenging issues regarding the induction of the emotional states and the extraction of the features in order to achieve optimum classification performance. In this paper, a novel emotion evocation and EEG-based feature extraction technique is presented. In particular, the mirror neuron system concept was adapted to efficiently foster emotion induction by the process of imitation. In addition, higher order crossings (HOC) analysis was employed for the feature extraction scheme and a robust classification method, namely HOC-emotion classifier (HOC-EC), was implemented testing four different classifiers [quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), k-nearest neighbor, Mahalanobis distance, and support vector machines (SVMs)], in order to accomplish efficient emotion recognition. Through a series of facial expression image projection, EEG data have been collected by 16 healthy subjects using only 3 EEG channels, namely Fp1, Fp2, and a bipolar channel of F3 and F4 positions according to 10-20 system. Two scenarios were examined using EEG data from a single-channel and from combined-channels, respectively. Compared with other feature extraction methods, HOC-EC appears to outperform them, achieving a 62.3% (using QDA) and 83.33% (using SVM) classification accuracy for the single-channel and combined-channel cases, respectively, differentiating among the six basic emotions, i.e., happiness, surprise, anger, fear, disgust, and sadness. As the emotion class-set reduces its dimension, the HOC-EC converges toward maximum classification rate (100% for five or less emotions), justifying the efficiency of the proposed approach. This could facilitate the integration of HOC-EC in human machine interfaces, such as pervasive healthcare systems, enhancing their affective character and providing information about the user's emotional status (e.g., identifying user's emotion

  3. Cycles in finite samples and cumulative processes of higher orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemeš, VíT.; Klemeš, Ivo

    1988-01-01

    The process formed by a sequence of cumulative departures from the mean or from some other constant (residual mass curve, cusum chart) is a popular tool for the representation and analysis of time series in many sciences, for example, in hydrology, climatology, economics, game theory. In these and other natural and social sciences, similar cumulative processes also often arise naturally; examples include fluctuations of storage in a dam with a constant release rate, lake levels, volume of glaciers, biomass, inventories, and bank accounts. Moreover, many natural economic and other phenomena may represent, or contain, components of cumulative processes of higher orders, i.e., cumulative processes of cumulative processes. In this paper we show that for a sample {yt(0)}≡{xt} of any finite size N, the pure cumulative process of nth order, yt(n)≡∑i=1t(yi(n-1) - μ(n-1)), where μ(n-1) is the sample mean of {yt(n-1)} and t=1, 2, …, N, converges for n→∞ to a sine wave with a period equal to an integral fraction of the sample size N. This happens for any initial sample {yt(0)} and the convergence is of an exponential order. For samples from most stochastic as well as deterministic processes, the period of the limiting sine wave is equal to the sample size N. This behavior is demonstrated by examples involving samples from various processes ranging from pure random series to various deterministic series and including time series of some natural processes such as streamflow, lake levels, and glacier volumes. The paper includes a demonstration of effects of noise superimposed on, and of error in the value of, sample mean on the rate of convergence, and a discussion of some practical implications of the phenomenon described; it brings together some aspects of the work of Slutzky (1937), Hurst (1951), and Yule (1926).

  4. Estimation on nonlinear damping in second order distributed parameter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Reich, Simeon; Rosen, I. G.

    1989-01-01

    An approximation and convergence theory for the identification of nonlinear damping in abstract wave equations is developed. It is assumed that the unknown dissipation mechanism to be identified can be described by a maximal monotone operator acting on the generalized velocity. The stiffness is assumed to be linear and symmetric. Functional analytic techniques are used to establish that solutions to a sequence of finite dimensional (Galerkin) approximating identification problems in some sense approximate a solution to the original infinite dimensional inverse problem.

  5. Higher order mode beams mitigate halos in high intensity proton linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Abhishek; Krishnagopal, Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    High intensity proton linacs (HIPLs) for applications such as Accelerator Driven Reactor Systems (ADRS) have serious beam dynamics issues related to beam halo formation. This can lead to particle loss and radioactivation of the surroundings which consequently limit the beam current. Beam halos are largely driven by the nonlinear space-charge force of the beam, which depends strongly on the beam distribution and also on the initial beam mismatch. We propose here the use of a higher order mode beam (HOMB), that has a weaker nonlinear force, to mitigate beam halos. We first show how the nonlinear space-charge force can itself be exploited in the presence of nonlinear solenoid fields, to produce a HOMB in the low energy beam transport (LEBT) line. We then study the transport of such a beam through a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and show that the HOMB has a significant advantage in terms of emittance blow-up, halo formation and beam loss, over a Gaussian beam, even with a finite initial mismatch. For example, for the transport of a 30 mA beam through the RFQ, with an initial beam mismatch of 45%, the Gaussian beam sees an emittance blow-up of 125%, while the HOMB sees a blow-up of only 35% (relative to the initial emittance of 0.2 π mm -mrad ). Similarly, the beam halo parameter and beam loss are 0.95 and 25% respectively for a Gaussian beam, but only 0.35 and 15% for a HOMB. The beam dynamics of the HOMB agrees quite well with the particle-core model, because of the more linear space-charge force, while for the Gaussian beam there are additional particle loss mechanisms arising from nonlinear resonances. Therefore, the HOMB suppresses emittance blow-up and halo formation, and can make high current ADRS systems more viable.

  6. Regular solutions to higher order curvature Einstein Yang Mills systems in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenlohner, Peter; Maison, Dieter; Tchrakian, D. H.

    2005-12-01

    We study regular, static, spherically symmetric solutions of Yang Mills theories employing higher order invariants of the field strength coupled to gravity in d dimensions. We consider models with only two such invariants characterized by integers p and q. These models depend on one dimensionless parameter α leading to one-parameter families of regular solutions, obtainable by numerical solution of the corresponding boundary value problem. Much emphasis is put on an analytical understanding of the numerical results.

  7. Testing higher-order Lagrangian perturbation theory against numerical simulation. 1: Pancake models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchert, T.; Melott, A. L.; Weiss, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    We present results showing an improvement of the accuracy of perturbation theory as applied to cosmological structure formation for a useful range of quasi-linear scales. The Lagrangian theory of gravitational instability of an Einstein-de Sitter dust cosmogony investigated and solved up to the third order is compared with numerical simulations. In this paper we study the dynamics of pancake models as a first step. In previous work the accuracy of several analytical approximations for the modeling of large-scale structure in the mildly non-linear regime was analyzed in the same way, allowing for direct comparison of the accuracy of various approximations. In particular, the Zel'dovich approximation (hereafter ZA) as a subclass of the first-order Lagrangian perturbation solutions was found to provide an excellent approximation to the density field in the mildly non-linear regime (i.e. up to a linear r.m.s. density contrast of sigma is approximately 2). The performance of ZA in hierarchical clustering models can be greatly improved by truncating the initial power spectrum (smoothing the initial data). We here explore whether this approximation can be further improved with higher-order corrections in the displacement mapping from homogeneity. We study a single pancake model (truncated power-spectrum with power-spectrum with power-index n = -1) using cross-correlation statistics employed in previous work. We found that for all statistical methods used the higher-order corrections improve the results obtained for the first-order solution up to the stage when sigma (linear theory) is approximately 1. While this improvement can be seen for all spatial scales, later stages retain this feature only above a certain scale which is increasing with time. However, third-order is not much improvement over second-order at any stage. The total breakdown of the perturbation approach is observed at the stage, where sigma (linear theory) is approximately 2, which corresponds to the

  8. Higher-order approximations in stress analysis of submarine pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Konuk, I.

    1980-12-01

    A unified three-dimensional formulation of the pipeline or riser problems is developed by following the rod theories. A rigorous singular perturbation technique is used to solve the associated two-dimensional nonlinear problem. The results can be used with a programmable calculator.

  9. Perturbation method for the second-order nonlinear effect of focused acoustic field around a scatterer in an ideal fluid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Jayathilake, Pahala Gedara; Khoo, Boo Cheong

    2014-02-01

    Two nonlinear models are proposed to investigate the focused acoustic waves that the nonlinear effects will be important inside the liquid around the scatterer. Firstly, the one dimensional solutions for the widely used Westervelt equation with different coordinates are obtained based on the perturbation method with the second order nonlinear terms. Then, by introducing the small parameter (Mach number), a dimensionless formulation and asymptotic perturbation expansion via the compressible potential flow theory is applied. This model permits the decoupling between the velocity potential and enthalpy to second order, with the first potential solutions satisfying the linear wave equation (Helmholtz equation), whereas the second order solutions are associated with the linear non-homogeneous equation. Based on the model, the local nonlinear effects of focused acoustic waves on certain volume are studied in which the findings may have important implications for bubble cavitation/initiation via focused ultrasound called HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound). The calculated results show that for the domain encompassing less than ten times the radius away from the center of the scatterer, the non-linear effect exerts a significant influence on the focused high intensity acoustic wave. Moreover, at the comparatively higher frequencies, for the model of spherical wave, a lower Mach number may result in stronger nonlinear effects.

  10. Effects of time ordering in quantum nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, Nicolás; Sipe, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    We study time-ordering corrections to the description of spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), four-wave mixing (SFWM), and frequency conversion using the Magnus expansion. Analytic approximations to the evolution operator that are unitary are obtained. They are Gaussian preserving, and allow us to understand order-by-order the effects of time ordering. We show that the corrections due to time ordering vanish exactly if the phase-matching function is sufficiently broad. The calculation of the effects of time ordering on the joint spectral amplitude of the photons generated in SPDC and SFWM are reduced to quadrature.

  11. Higher-Order Finite Elements for Computing Thermal Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Dana C.

    2004-01-01

    Two variants of the finite-element method have been developed for use in computational simulations of radiative transfers of heat among diffuse gray surfaces. Both variants involve the use of higher-order finite elements, across which temperatures and radiative quantities are assumed to vary according to certain approximations. In this and other applications, higher-order finite elements are used to increase (relative to classical finite elements, which are assumed to be isothermal) the accuracies of final numerical results without having to refine computational meshes excessively and thereby incur excessive computation times. One of the variants is termed the radiation sub-element (RSE) method, which, itself, is subject to a number of variations. This is the simplest and most straightforward approach to representation of spatially variable surface radiation. Any computer code that, heretofore, could model surface-to-surface radiation can incorporate the RSE method without major modifications. In the basic form of the RSE method, each finite element selected for use in computing radiative heat transfer is considered to be a parent element and is divided into sub-elements for the purpose of solving the surface-to-surface radiation-exchange problem. The sub-elements are then treated as classical finite elements; that is, they are assumed to be isothermal, and their view factors and absorbed heat fluxes are calculated accordingly. The heat fluxes absorbed by the sub-elements are then transferred back to the parent element to obtain a radiative heat flux that varies spatially across the parent element. Variants of the RSE method involve the use of polynomials to interpolate and/or extrapolate to approximate spatial variations of physical quantities. The other variant of the finite-element method is termed the integration method (IM). Unlike in the RSE methods, the parent finite elements are not subdivided into smaller elements, and neither isothermality nor other

  12. A viscoelastic higher-order beam finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Tressler, Alexander

    1996-01-01

    A viscoelastic internal variable constitutive theory is applied to a higher-order elastic beam theory and finite element formulation. The behavior of the viscous material in the beam is approximately modeled as a Maxwell solid. The finite element formulation requires additional sets of nodal variables for each relaxation time constant needed by the Maxwell solid. Recent developments in modeling viscoelastic material behavior with strain variables that are conjugate to the elastic strain measures are combined with advances in modeling through-the-thickness stresses and strains in thick beams. The result is a viscous thick-beam finite element that possesses superior characteristics for transient analysis since its nodal viscous forces are not linearly dependent an the nodal velocities, which is the case when damping matrices are used. Instead, the nodal viscous forces are directly dependent on the material's relaxation spectrum and the history of the nodal variables through a differential form of the constitutive law for a Maxwell solid. The thick beam quasistatic analysis is explored herein as a first step towards developing more complex viscoelastic models for thick plates and shells, and for dynamic analyses. The internal variable constitutive theory is derived directly from the Boltzmann superposition theorem. The mechanical strains and the conjugate internal strains are shown to be related through a system of first-order, ordinary differential equations. The total time-dependent stress is the superposition of its elastic and viscous components. Equations of motion for the solid are derived from the virtual work principle using the total time-dependent stress. Numerical examples for the problems of relaxation, creep, and cyclic creep are carried out for a beam made from an orthotropic Maxwell solid.

  13. Third-order Nonlinear Optical Properties of Metallodielectric Stacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    developed by Sheik- Bahae et al [7] a (Gaussian) laser beam is focused in free space; a sample is positioned along the propagation (Z) axis of the laser...transmittance and reflectance coefficients are defined for any angle of incidence as 22 0 ||,|| cos cos rRt n n T i tt    ; (2) i  and t are...nonlinear coefficient,    4 2 2 i n  , has a complex value. The longitudinal component of the Poynting vector was used in Eq. (11). The Kerr

  14. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-21

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects' affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain's motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  15. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  16. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-01-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states. PMID:26996254

  17. Student's Perceived Level and Teachers' Teaching Strategies of Higher Order Thinking Skills: A Study on Higher Educational Institutions in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…

  18. Image denoising using the higher order singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Rajwade, Ajit; Rangarajan, Anand; Banerjee, Arunava

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a very simple and elegant patch-based, machine learning technique for image denoising using the higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). The technique simply groups together similar patches from a noisy image (with similarity defined by a statistically motivated criterion) into a 3D stack, computes the HOSVD coefficients of this stack, manipulates these coefficients by hard thresholding, and inverts the HOSVD transform to produce the final filtered image. Our technique chooses all required parameters in a principled way, relating them to the noise model. We also discuss our motivation for adopting the HOSVD as an appropriate transform for image denoising. We experimentally demonstrate the excellent performance of the technique on grayscale as well as color images. On color images, our method produces state-of-the-art results, outperforming other color image denoising algorithms at moderately high noise levels. A criterion for optimal patch-size selection and noise variance estimation from the residual images (after denoising) is also presented.

  19. A general higher-order remap algorithm for ALE calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chiravalle, Vincent P

    2011-01-05

    A numerical technique for solving the equations of fluid dynamics with arbitrary mesh motion is presented. The three phases of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) methodology are outlined: the Lagrangian phase, grid relaxation phase and remap phase. The Lagrangian phase follows a well known approach from the HEMP code; in addition the strain rate andflow divergence are calculated in a consistent manner according to Margolin. A donor cell method from the SALE code forms the basis of the remap step, but unlike SALE a higher order correction based on monotone gradients is also added to the remap. Four test problems were explored to evaluate the fidelity of these numerical techniques, as implemented in a simple test code, written in the C programming language, called Cercion. Novel cell-centered data structures are used in Cercion to reduce the complexity of the programming and maximize the efficiency of memory usage. The locations of the shock and contact discontinuity in the Riemann shock tube problem are well captured. Cercion demonstrates a high degree of symmetry when calculating the Sedov blast wave solution, with a peak density at the shock front that is similar to the value determined by the RAGE code. For a flyer plate test problem both Cercion and FLAG give virtually the same velocity temporal profile at the target-vacuum interface. When calculating a cylindrical implosion of a steel shell, Cercion and FLAG agree well and the Cercion results are insensitive to the use of ALE.

  20. Pressure and higher-order spectra for homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pullin, D. I.; Rogallo, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The spectra of the pressure, and other higher-order quantities including the dissipation, the enstrophy, and the square of the longitudinal velocity derivative are computed using data obtained from direct numerical simulation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence at Taylor-Reynolds numbers R(sub lambda) in the range 38 - 170. For the pressure spectra we find reasonable collapse in the dissipation range (of the velocity spectrum) when scaled in Kolmogorov variables and some evidence, which is not conclusive, for the existence of a k(exp -7/3) inertial range where k = absolute value of K, is the modulus of the wavenumber. The power spectra of the dissipation, the enstrophy, and the square of the longitudinal velocity derivative separate in the dissipation range, but appear to converge together in the short inertial range of the simulations. A least-squares curve-fit in the dissipation range for one value of R(sub lambda) = 96 gives a form for the spectrum of the dissipation as k(exp 0)exp(-Ck eta), for k(eta) greater than 0.2, where eta is the Kolmogorov length and C is approximately equal to 2.5.

  1. Higher order SVD analysis for dynamic texture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Roberto; Sbaiz, Luciano; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Videos representing flames, water, smoke, etc., are often defined as dynamic textures: "textures" because they are characterized by the redundant repetition of a pattern and "dynamic" because this repetition is also in time and not only in space. Dynamic textures have been modeled as linear dynamic systems by unfolding the video frames into column vectors and describing their trajectory as time evolves. After the projection of the vectors onto a lower dimensional space by a singular value decomposition (SVD), the trajectory is modeled using system identification techniques. Synthesis is obtained by driving the system with random noise. In this paper, we show that the standard SVD can be replaced by a higher order SVD (HOSVD), originally known as Tucker decomposition. HOSVD decomposes the dynamic texture as a multidimensional signal (tensor) without unfolding the video frames on column vectors. This is a more natural and flexible decomposition, since it permits us to perform dimension reduction in the spatial, temporal, and chromatic domain, while standard SVD allows for temporal reduction only. We show that for a comparable synthesis quality, the HOSVD approach requires, on average, five times less parameters than the standard SVD approach. The analysis part is more expensive, but the synthesis has the same cost as existing algorithms. Our technique is, thus, well suited to dynamic texture synthesis on devices limited by memory and computational power, such as PDAs or mobile phones.

  2. Higher-order web link analysis using multilinear algebra.

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Joseph P.; Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2005-07-01

    Linear algebra is a powerful and proven tool in web search. Techniques, such as the PageRank algorithm of Brin and Page and the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg, score web pages based on the principal eigenvector (or singular vector) of a particular non-negative matrix that captures the hyperlink structure of the web graph. We propose and test a new methodology that uses multilinear algebra to elicit more information from a higher-order representation of the hyperlink graph. We start by labeling the edges in our graph with the anchor text of the hyperlinks so that the associated linear algebra representation is a sparse, three-way tensor. The first two dimensions of the tensor represent the web pages while the third dimension adds the anchor text. We then use the rank-1 factors of a multilinear PARAFAC tensor decomposition, which are akin to singular vectors of the SVD, to automatically identify topics in the collection along with the associated authoritative web pages.

  3. Higher-Order Synaptic Interactions Coordinate Dynamics in Recurrent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Brendan; MacLean, Jason N.

    2016-01-01

    Linking synaptic connectivity to dynamics is key to understanding information processing in neocortex. Circuit dynamics emerge from complex interactions of interconnected neurons, necessitating that links between connectivity and dynamics be evaluated at the network level. Here we map propagating activity in large neuronal ensembles from mouse neocortex and compare it to a recurrent network model, where connectivity can be precisely measured and manipulated. We find that a dynamical feature dominates statistical descriptions of propagating activity for both neocortex and the model: convergent clusters comprised of fan-in triangle motifs, where two input neurons are themselves connected. Fan-in triangles coordinate the timing of presynaptic inputs during ongoing activity to effectively generate postsynaptic spiking. As a result, paradoxically, fan-in triangles dominate the statistics of spike propagation even in randomly connected recurrent networks. Interplay between higher-order synaptic connectivity and the integrative properties of neurons constrains the structure of network dynamics and shapes the routing of information in neocortex. PMID:27542093

  4. Higher order statistical frequency domain decomposition for operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, G. M.; Mahgoub, M. A.; Sharyatpanahi, S. G.; Cretu, N. C.; El-Fouly, T. M.

    2017-02-01

    Experimental methods based on modal analysis under ambient vibrational excitation are often employed to detect structural damages of mechanical systems. Many of such frequency domain methods, such as Basic Frequency Domain (BFD), Frequency Domain Decomposition (FFD), or Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFFD), use as first step a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) estimate of the power spectral density (PSD) associated with the response of the system. In this study it is shown that higher order statistical estimators such as Spectral Kurtosis (SK) and Sample to Model Ratio (SMR) may be successfully employed not only to more reliably discriminate the response of the system against the ambient noise fluctuations, but also to better identify and separate contributions from closely spaced individual modes. It is shown that a SMR-based Maximum Likelihood curve fitting algorithm may improve the accuracy of the spectral shape and location of the individual modes and, when combined with the SK analysis, it provides efficient means to categorize such individual spectral components according to their temporal dynamics as coherent or incoherent system responses to unknown ambient excitations.

  5. Generation of Higher Order Modes in a Rectangular Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Brown, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced noise control methodologies to reduce sound emission from aircraft engines take advantage of the modal structure of the noise in the duct. This noise is caused by the interaction of rotor wakes with downstream obstructions such as exit guide vanes. Mode synthesis has been accomplished in circular ducts and current active noise control work has made use of this capability to cancel fan noise. The goal of the current effort is to examine the fundamental process of higher order mode propagation through an acoustically treated, curved duct. The duct cross-section is rectangular to permit greater flexibility in representation of a range of duct curvatures. The work presented is the development of a feedforward control system to generate a user-specified modal pattern in the duct. The multiple-error, filtered-x LMS algorithm is used to determine the magnitude and phase of signal input to the loudspeakers to produce a desired modal pattern at a set of error microphones. Implementation issues, including loudspeaker placement and error microphone placement, are discussed. Preliminary results from a 9-3/8 inch by 21 inch duct, using 12 loudspeakers and 24 microphones, are presented. These results demonstrate the ability of the control system to generate a user-specified mode while suppressing undesired modes.

  6. A Higher-Order Neural Network Design for Improving Segmentation Performance in Medical Image Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvi, Eşref; Selver, M. Alper; Güzeliş, Cüneyt; Dicle, Oǧuz

    2014-03-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures from medical image series is an ongoing field of research. Although, organs of interest are three-dimensional in nature, slice-by-slice approaches are widely used in clinical applications because of their ease of integration with the current manual segmentation scheme. To be able to use slice-by-slice techniques effectively, adjacent slice information, which represents likelihood of a region to be the structure of interest, plays critical role. Recent studies focus on using distance transform directly as a feature or to increase the feature values at the vicinity of the search area. This study presents a novel approach by constructing a higher order neural network, the input layer of which receives features together with their multiplications with the distance transform. This allows higher-order interactions between features through the non-linearity introduced by the multiplication. The application of the proposed method to 9 CT datasets for segmentation of the liver shows higher performance than well-known higher order classification neural networks.

  7. Pattern dynamics and filamentation of femtosecond terawatt laser pulses in air including the higher-order Kerr effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, T W; Zhou, C T; He, X T

    2013-05-01

    Plasma defocusing and higher-order Kerr effects on multiple filamentation and pattern formation of ultrashort laser pulse propagation in air are investigated. Linear analyses and numerical results show that these two saturable nonlinear effects can destroy the coherent evolution of the laser field, and small-scale spatial turbulent structures rapidly appear. For the two-dimensional case, numerical simulations show that blow-up-like solutions, spatial chaos, and pseudorecurrence can appear at higher laser intensities if only plasma defocusing is included. These complex patterns result from the stochastic evolution of the higher- or shorter-wavelength modes of the laser light spectrum. From the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics, filamentation can be attributed to the modulational instability of these spatial incoherent localized structures. Furthermore, filament patterns associated with multiphoton ionization of the air molecules with and without higher-order Kerr effects are compared.

  8. Fuzzy neural order robust of the non-linear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madour, F.; Benmahammed, K.

    2008-06-01

    This article introduces a controller at structure of a network multi-layer neurons specified by the fuzzy reasoning of Takagi-Sugeno (TS) order one [1], the weights of the network represent the standard deviations of the membership function. This controller is applied to the ordering of a reversed pendulum. Changes in the entries and the exit, as of the environment changes of operation are introduced in order to test the robustness of the designed controller.

  9. Fuzzy neural order robust of the non-linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Madour, F.; Benmahammed, K.

    2008-06-12

    This article introduces a controller at structure of a network multi-layer neurons specified by the fuzzy reasoning of Takagi-Sugeno (TS) order one, the weights of the network represent the standard deviations of the membership function. This controller is applied to the ordering of a reversed pendulum. Changes in the entries and the exit, as of the environment changes of operation are introduced in order to test the robustness of the designed controller.

  10. Maxwell times in higher-order generalized hydrodynamics: Classical fluids, and carriers and phonons in semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Clóves G; Silva, Carlos A B; Ramos, José G; Luzzi, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    A family of what can be so-called Maxwell times which arises in the context of higher-order generalized hydrodynamics (HOGH; also called mesoscopic hydrothermodynamics) is evidenced. This is done in the framework of a HOGH built within a statistical formalism in terms of a nonequilibrium statistical ensemble formalism. It consists in a description in terms of the densities of particles and energy and their fluxes of all orders, with the motion described by a set of coupled nonlinear integro-differential equations involving them. These Maxwell times have a fundamental role in determining the type of hydrodynamic motion that the system would display in the given conditions and constraints. They determine a Maxwell viscous force not present in the usual hydrodynamic equations, for example, in Navier-Stokes equation.

  11. Solutions to higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations in unbounded domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikova, L. M.; Leont'ev, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a certain class of doubly nonlinear higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations. Using Galerkin approximations it is proved that the first mixed problem with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition has a strong solution in the cylinder D=(0,\\infty)\\times\\Omega, where \\Omega\\subset R^n, n\\geq 3, is an unbounded domain. When the initial function has compact support the highest possible rate of decay of this solution as t\\to \\infty is found. An upper estimate characterizing the decay of the solution is established, which is close to the lower estimate if the domain is sufficiently 'narrow'. The same authors have previously obtained results of this type for second order anisotropic parabolic equations. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  12. Simultaneous silence organizes structured higher-order interactions in neural populations

    PubMed Central

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Sadeghi, Kolia; Ishikawa, Tomoe; Ikegaya, Yuji; Toyoizumi, Taro

    2015-01-01

    Activity patterns of neural population are constrained by underlying biological mechanisms. These patterns are characterized not only by individual activity rates and pairwise correlations but also by statistical dependencies among groups of neurons larger than two, known as higher-order interactions (HOIs). While HOIs are ubiquitous in neural activity, primary characteristics of HOIs remain unknown. Here, we report that simultaneous silence (SS) of neurons concisely summarizes neural HOIs. Spontaneously active neurons in cultured hippocampal slices express SS that is more frequent than predicted by their individual activity rates and pairwise correlations. The SS explains structured HOIs seen in the data, namely, alternating signs at successive interaction orders. Inhibitory neurons are necessary to maintain significant SS. The structured HOIs predicted by SS were observed in a simple neural population model characterized by spiking nonlinearity and correlated input. These results suggest that SS is a ubiquitous feature of HOIs that constrain neural activity patterns and can influence information processing. PMID:25919985

  13. Solutions to higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations in unbounded domains

    SciTech Connect

    Kozhevnikova, L M; Leont'ev, A A

    2014-01-31

    The paper is devoted to a certain class of doubly nonlinear higher-order anisotropic parabolic equations. Using Galerkin approximations it is proved that the first mixed problem with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition has a strong solution in the cylinder D=(0,∞)×Ω, where Ω⊂R{sup n}, n≥3, is an unbounded domain. When the initial function has compact support the highest possible rate of decay of this solution as t→∞ is found. An upper estimate characterizing the decay of the solution is established, which is close to the lower estimate if the domain is sufficiently 'narrow'. The same authors have previously obtained results of this type for second order anisotropic parabolic equations. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  14. Maxwell times in higher-order generalized hydrodynamics: Classical fluids, and carriers and phonons in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Clóves G.; Silva, Carlos A. B.; Ramos, José G.; Luzzi, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    A family of what can be so-called Maxwell times which arises in the context of higher-order generalized hydrodynamics (HOGH; also called mesoscopic hydrothermodynamics) is evidenced. This is done in the framework of a HOGH built within a statistical formalism in terms of a nonequilibrium statistical ensemble formalism. It consists in a description in terms of the densities of particles and energy and their fluxes of all orders, with the motion described by a set of coupled nonlinear integro-differential equations involving them. These Maxwell times have a fundamental role in determining the type of hydrodynamic motion that the system would display in the given conditions and constraints. They determine a Maxwell viscous force not present in the usual hydrodynamic equations, for example, in Navier-Stokes equation.

  15. Detection of Failure of Machine by Using the Higher Order Correlation Information between Sound and Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Akira; Orimoto, Hisako; Ogawa, Hitoshi

    In this study, a stochastic detection method of failure of machines based on the changing information of not only a linear correlation but also the higher order nonlinear correlation is proposed in a form suitable for on-line signal processing in time domain by using a personal computer, especially in order to find minutely the mutual relationship between sound and vibration emitted from rotational machines. More specifically, a conditional probability hierarchically reflecting various types of correlation information is theoretically derived by introducing an expression on the multi-dimensional probability distribution in orthogonal expansion series form. The effectiveness of the proposed theory is experimentally confirmed by applying it to the observed data emitted from a rotational machine driven by an electric motor.

  16. An efficient technique for higher order fractional differential equation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ayyaz; Iqbal, Muhammad Asad; Ul-Hassan, Qazi Mahmood; Ahmad, Jamshad; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we establish exact solutions of fractional Kawahara equation by using the idea of [Formula: see text]-expansion method. The results of different studies show that the method is very effective and can be used as an alternative for finding exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) in mathematical physics. The solitary wave solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic, trigonometric, exponential and rational functions. Graphical representations along with the numerical data reinforce the efficacy of the used procedure. The specified idea is very effective, expedient for fractional PDEs, and could be extended to other physical problems.

  17. Quantum theory of the third-order nonlinear electrodynamic effects of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The linear energy dispersion of graphene electrons leads to a strongly nonlinear electromagnetic response of this material. We develop a general quantum theory of the third-order nonlinear local dynamic conductivity of graphene σα β γ δ(ω1,ω2,ω3) , which describes its nonlinear response to a uniform electromagnetic field. The derived analytical formulas describe a large number of different nonlinear phenomena such as the third-harmonic generation, the four-wave mixing, the saturable absorption, the second-harmonic generation stimulated by a dc electric current, etc., which may be used in different terahertz and optoelectronic devices.

  18. X-ray plane-wave diffraction effects in a crystal with third-order nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balyan, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    The two-wave dynamical diffraction in the Laue geometry has been theoretically considered for a plane X-ray wave in a crystal with a third-order nonlinear response to the external field. An analytical solution to the problem stated is found for certain diffraction conditions. A nonlinear pendulum effect is analyzed. The nonlinear extinction length is found to depend on the incident-wave intensity. A pendulum effect of a new type is revealed: the intensities of the transmitted and diffracted waves periodically depend on the incidentwave intensity at a fixed crystal thickness. The rocking curves and Borrmann nonlinear effect are numerically calculated.

  19. Reduced Order Models Based on Linear and Nonlinear Aerodynamic Impulse Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for the identification and application of reduced-order models based on linear and nonlinear aerodynamic impulse responses. The Volterra theory of nonlinear systems and an appropriate kernel identification technique are described. Insight into the nature of kernels is provided by applying the method to the nonlinear Riccati equation in a non-aerodynamic application. The method is then applied to a nonlinear aerodynamic model of an RAE 2822 supercritical airfoil undergoing plunge motions using the CFL3D Navier-Stokes flow solver with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Results demonstrate the computational efficiency of the technique.

  20. Degenerate higher order scalar-tensor theories beyond Horndeski up to cubic order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achour, J. Ben; Crisostomi, M.; Koyama, K.; Langlois, D.; Noui, K.; Tasinato, G.

    2016-12-01

    We present all scalar-tensor Lagrangians that are cubic in second derivatives of a scalar field, and that are degenerate, hence avoiding Ostrogradsky instabilities. Thanks to the existence of constraints, they propagate no more than three degrees of freedom, despite having higher order equations of motion. We also determine the viable combinations of previously identified quadratic degenerate Lagrangians and the newly established cubic ones. Finally, we study whether the new theories are connected to known scalar-tensor theories such as Horndeski and beyond Horndeski, through conformal or disformal transformations.

  1. Detecting High-Order Epistasis in Nonlinear Genotype-Phenotype Maps

    PubMed Central

    Sailer, Zachary R.; Harms, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    High-order epistasis has been observed in many genotype-phenotype maps. These multi-way interactions between mutations may be useful for dissecting complex traits and could have profound implications for evolution. Alternatively, they could be a statistical artifact. High-order epistasis models assume the effects of mutations should add, when they could in fact multiply or combine in some other nonlinear way. A mismatch in the “scale” of the epistasis model and the scale of the underlying map would lead to spurious epistasis. In this article, we develop an approach to estimate the nonlinear scales of arbitrary genotype-phenotype maps. We can then linearize these maps and extract high-order epistasis. We investigated seven experimental genotype-phenotype maps for which high-order epistasis had been reported previously. We find that five of the seven maps exhibited nonlinear scales. Interestingly, even after accounting for nonlinearity, we found statistically significant high-order epistasis in all seven maps. The contributions of high-order epistasis to the total variation ranged from 2.2 to 31.0%, with an average across maps of 12.7%. Our results provide strong evidence for extensive high-order epistasis, even after nonlinear scale is taken into account. Further, we describe a simple method to estimate and account for nonlinearity in genotype-phenotype maps. PMID:28100592

  2. Detecting High-Order Epistasis in Nonlinear Genotype-Phenotype Maps.

    PubMed

    Sailer, Zachary R; Harms, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    High-order epistasis has been observed in many genotype-phenotype maps. These multi-way interactions between mutations may be useful for dissecting complex traits and could have profound implications for evolution. Alternatively, they could be a statistical artifact. High-order epistasis models assume the effects of mutations should add, when they could in fact multiply or combine in some other nonlinear way. A mismatch in the "scale" of the epistasis model and the scale of the underlying map would lead to spurious epistasis. In this article, we develop an approach to estimate the nonlinear scales of arbitrary genotype-phenotype maps. We can then linearize these maps and extract high-order epistasis. We investigated seven experimental genotype-phenotype maps for which high-order epistasis had been reported previously. We find that five of the seven maps exhibited nonlinear scales. Interestingly, even after accounting for nonlinearity, we found statistically significant high-order epistasis in all seven maps. The contributions of high-order epistasis to the total variation ranged from 2.2 to 31.0%, with an average across maps of 12.7%. Our results provide strong evidence for extensive high-order epistasis, even after nonlinear scale is taken into account. Further, we describe a simple method to estimate and account for nonlinearity in genotype-phenotype maps.

  3. Nonresonant high-order nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Rativa, Diego; de Araujo, R E; Gomes, A S L

    2008-11-10

    In this work we determine the third, fifth- and seventh-order nonresonant nonlinear optical properties of silver nanoparticles (9 nm average diameter) colloids in aqueous solution under high intensity excitation. The nonlinear optical response and its dependence with the nanoparticles filling factor was measured and theoretically described. We show that for low inclusion concentration, the third order nonlinearity of the colloid can be described by the generalized Maxwell-Garnett model. With the increase of the nanoparticle concentration, changes in the medium nonlinearities was observed leading to high order effects. The fifth- and seventh- order susceptibilities were obtained for highly concentrated silver nanoparticle colloid and the data was supported by a theoretical model. The conventional Z-scan technique was employed, using 80 f s laser pulses at 800 nm, in a regime of high pulse energy (microJ) and low repetition rate (1 kHz).

  4. Higher-Orders of Squeezing, Sub-Poissonian Statistics and Anti-Bunching of Deformed Photon-Added Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeineh, N.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the higher-order nonclassical properties of a particular class of generalized coherent states namely the deformed photon-added nonlinear coherent states (DPACS) A†m |α, f, m>. To achieve this purpose we pay attention to higher-orders of squeezing (both Hillery- and Hong-Mandel-types), sub-Poissonian statistics and anti-bunching of the mentioned states with a well-known nonlinearity function. It is shown that for enough large values of field intensity (|α|2) for a fixed N (the order of squeezing) by increasing m (the order of excitation) the degree of squeezing evaluated by Hillery and Hong-Mandel approaches increases, while for a chosen fixed value of m, by increasing N for Hillery (Hong-Mandel) type of squeezing the strength of squeezing decreases (increases). Similarly, the degree of higher-order sub-Poissonian statistics (with fixed K) becomes lower when m increases, while (with fixed m) it gets greater values when the order of sub-Poissonian K increases. At last, higher-order anti-bunching of the DPACS is evaluated, by which we established that its (always) negative values increase with increasing m, α and l (the order of anti-bunching) individually, i.e. the degree of anti-bunching increases.

  5. Higher-order generalized hydrodynamics: Foundations within a nonequilibrium statistical ensemble formalism.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carlos A B; Rodrigues, Clóves G; Ramos, J Galvão; Luzzi, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Construction, in the framework of a nonequilibrium statistical ensemble formalism, of a higher-order generalized hydrodynamics, also referred to as mesoscopic hydrothermodynamics, that is, covering phenomena involving motion of fluids displaying variations short in space and fast in time-unrestricted values of Knudsen numbers, is presented. In that way, an approach is provided enabling the coupling and simultaneous treatment of the kinetics and hydrodynamic levels of descriptions. It is based on a complete thermostatistical approach in terms of the densities of matter and energy and their fluxes of all orders covering systems arbitrarily driven away from equilibrium. The set of coupled nonlinear integrodifferential hydrodynamic equations is derived. They are the evolution equations of the Gradlike moments of all orders, derived from a generalized kinetic equation built in the framework of the nonequilibrium statistical ensemble formalism. For illustration, the case of a system of particles embedded in a fluid acting as a thermal bath is fully described. The resulting enormous set of coupled evolution equations is of unmanageable proportions, thus requiring in practice to introduce an appropriate description using the smallest possible number of variables. We have obtained a hierarchy of Maxwell times, associated to the set of all the higher-order fluxes, which have a particular relevance in the process of providing criteria for establishing the contraction of description.

  6. Nonlinear Reduced-Order Simulation Using An Experimentally Guided Modal Basis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam

    2012-01-01

    A procedure is developed for using nonlinear experimental response data to guide the modal basis selection in a nonlinear reduced-order simulation. The procedure entails using nonlinear acceleration response data to first identify proper orthogonal modes. Special consideration is given to cases in which some of the desired response data is unavailable. Bases consisting of linear normal modes are then selected to best represent the experimentally determined transverse proper orthogonal modes and either experimentally determined inplane proper orthogonal modes or the special case of numerically computed in-plane companions. The bases are subsequently used in nonlinear modal reduction and dynamic response simulations. The experimental data used in this work is simulated to allow some practical considerations, such as the availability of in-plane response data and non-idealized test conditions, to be explored. Comparisons of the nonlinear reduced-order simulations are made with the surrogate experimental data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  7. Study on metal nanoparticles induced third-order optical nonlinearity in phenylhydrazone derivatives with DFWM technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheesh, P.; Rao, D. Mallikharjuna; Chandrasekharan, K.

    2014-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of newly synthesized phenylhydrazone derivatives and the influence of noble metal nanoparticles (Ag & Au) on their nonlinear optical responses were investigated by employing Degenerate Four wave Mixing (DFWM) technique with a 7 nanosecond, 10Hz Nd: YAG laser pulses at 532nm. Metal nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation and the particle formation was confirmed using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The nonlinear optical susceptibility were measured and found to be of the order 10-13esu. The results are encouraging and conclude that the materials are promising candidate for future optical device applications.

  8. Study on metal nanoparticles induced third-order optical nonlinearity in phenylhydrazone derivatives with DFWM technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sudheesh, P.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Rao, D. Mallikharjuna

    2014-01-28

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of newly synthesized phenylhydrazone derivatives and the influence of noble metal nanoparticles (Ag and Au) on their nonlinear optical responses were investigated by employing Degenerate Four wave Mixing (DFWM) technique with a 7 nanosecond, 10Hz Nd: YAG laser pulses at 532nm. Metal nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation and the particle formation was confirmed using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The nonlinear optical susceptibility were measured and found to be of the order 10{sup −13}esu. The results are encouraging and conclude that the materials are promising candidate for future optical device applications.

  9. A Matrix Approach for General Higher Order Linear Recurrences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    properties of linear recurrences (such as the well-known Fibonacci and Pell sequences ). In [2], Er defined k linear recurring sequences of order at...the nth term of the ith generalized order-k Fibonacci sequence . Communicated by Lee See Keong. Received: March 26, 2009; Revised: August 28, 2009...6], the author gave the generalized order-k Fibonacci and Pell (F-P) sequence as follows: For m ≥ 0, n > 0 and 1 ≤ i ≤ k uin = 2 muin−1 + u i n−2

  10. Identification of Nonlinear Times Series from First Order Cumulative Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    Jj by Aj. It can be checked that A = (Aj) converges in distribution to a Gaussian random vector with mean zero and covariance matrix having rl th...and order determination. Biometrika 77 669-687. Bartlett, M. S. (1954). Probl~mes de l’analyse spectrale des series temporelles stationnaires. Pub... series . Stoch. Process. Appl. 36 85-106. Hall, P. and Heyde, C. C. (1980). Martingale Limit Theory and its Applications. Academic Press, New York. Hall

  11. Chaos and Order in Weakly Coupled Systems of Nonlinear Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhn, B.

    1987-01-01

    We consider in this paper perturbations of two degree of freedom Hamiltonian systems which contain periodic and heteroclinic orbits. The Melnikov-Keener condition is used to proof the existence of horseshoes in the dynamics. The same condition is applied to prove a high degree of order in the motion of the swinging Atwood's machine. For some selected parameter values the theoretical predictions are checked by numerical calculations.

  12. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of acid green 25 dye by Z-scan method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyaram, S.; Geethakrishnan, T.

    2017-03-01

    Third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of aqueous solutions of an anthraquinone dye (Acid green 25 dye, color index: 61570) have been studied by Z-scan method with a 5 mW continuous wave (CW) diode laser operating at 635 nm. The nonlinear refractive index (n2) and the absorption coefficient (β) have been evaluated respectively from the closed and open aperture Z-scan data and the values of these parameters are found to increase with increase in concentration of the dye solution. The negative sign of the observed nonlinear refractive index (n2) indicates that the aqueous solution of acid green 25 dye exhibits self-defocusing type optical nonlinearity. The mechanism of the observed nonlinear absorption (NLA) and nonlinear refraction (NLR) is attributed respectively to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and thermal nonlinear effects. The magnitudes of n2 and β are found to be of the order of 10-7 cm2/W and 10-3 cm/W respectively. With these experimental results, the authors suggest that acid green 25 dye may have potential applications in nonlinear optics.

  13. Nonlinear effects in acoustic metamaterial based on a cylindrical pipe with ordered Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Jun; Li, Yifeng; Yu, Huiyang; Li, Baoshun; Liu, Xiaozhou

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the nonlinear effects of acoustic wave propagation and dispersion in a cylindrical pipe with periodically arranged Helmholtz resonators. By using the classical perturbation method in nonlinear acoustics and considering a nonlinear response up to the third-order at the fundamental frequency, the expressions of the nonlinear impedance ZNHR of the Helmholtz resonator and effective nonlinear bulk modulus Bneff of the composite structure are derived. In order to confirm the nonlinear properties of the acoustic metamaterial, the transmission spectra have been studied by means of the acoustic transmission line method. Moreover, we calculate the effective acoustic impedance and dispersion relation of the system using the acoustic impedance theory and Bloch theory, respectively. It is found that with the increment of the incident acoustic pressure level, owing to the nonlinearity of the Helmholtz resonators, the resonant frequency ω0 shifts toward the lower frequency side and the forbidden bandgap of the transmission spectrum is shown to be broadened. The perturbation method employed in this paper extends the general analytical framework for a nonlinear acoustic metamaterial.

  14. New Developments in Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Polymeric Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-17

    spectrophotometer. SHG measurements were carried out according to the method reported earlier[151. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SHG in spin coated film An...monolayers of poly(4-BCMU) were obtained by similar method . Fiber formation was not observed even at higher surface pressure and no measurable SH...1984). 12. W. H. Kim, N. B. Kodali , J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, To be published in Macromolecules. 13. T. P. Russel, H. Gugger, and J. D. Swalen

  15. A proposed ringing analysis model for higher order tether response

    SciTech Connect

    Natvig, B.J.

    1994-12-31

    The problem of high-frequency transient responses of Tension Leg Platforms, TLPs, under certain severe sea situations has been known for some time. Until recently, it was not known that this type of loading and response mechanism could produce tether loads of critical importance to the structural integrity of such structures. Presently, there is considerable ongoing discussion as to what causes tether ringing. NPD (1992) assembled a document where the views of the Norwegian Shelf operators and one Norwegian engineering company were summarized. At present there seems to be consensus that ringing, at least to a large extent, is caused by nonlinearities in the free surface variable wetting region of the TLP. Ringing is not predicted by linearized frequency domain analysis methods. There are a number of variable wetting contributions. Some of these are fairly obvious while others are less straight forward. A number of the contributions, of purely theoretical or engineering nature, identified to date are discussed in this paper. Based on this an intuitive method for ringing analysis is presented.

  16. Gap solitons in parity-time-symmetric mixed linear-nonlinear optical lattices with fourth-order diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xing; Shi, Zhiwei; Li, Huagang

    2017-01-01

    We report on the existence and stability of fundamental and out-of-phase dipole gap solitons in parity-time (PT)-symmetric mixed linear-nonlinear optical lattices with a fourth-order diffraction. These solitons exist in the semi-infinite gap. For fundamental gap solitons, they can bifurcate from the higher edge of the first Bloch band, solitons are stable in the low power region. For dipole gap solitons, they cannot bifurcate from the higher edge of the first Bloch band, they can stably exist in the moderate power region. The coupling constant of the fourth-order diffraction can influence the stability of these gap solitons.

  17. Higher-order exchange interactions leading to metamagnetism in FeRh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Joseph; Chantrell, Roy W.

    2015-09-01

    The origin of the metamagnetic antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition of FeRh is a subject of debate. Competing explanations invoke magnetovolume effects or a purely thermodynamic transition within the spin system. It is experimentally difficult to observe the changes in the magnetic system and the lattice simultaneously, leading to conflicting evidence over which mechanism causes the phase transition. A noncollinear electronic structure study by Mryasov [Phase Transitions 78, 197 (2005), 10.1080/01411590412331316591] showed that nonlinear behavior of the Rh moment leads to higher-order exchange terms in FeRh. Using atomistic spin dynamics, we show that the phase transition can occur due to the competition between bilinear and the higher-order four spin exchange terms in an effective spin Hamiltonian. The phase transition we see is of first order and shows thermal hysteresis in agreement with experimental observations. Simulating subpicosecond laser heating, we show an agreement with pump-probe experiments with a ferromagnetic response on a picosecond time scale.

  18. Adaptation to changes in higher-order stimulus statistics in the salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Tkačik, Gašper; Ghosh, Anandamohan; Schneidman, Elad; Segev, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation in the retina is thought to optimize the encoding of natural light signals into sequences of spikes sent to the brain. While adaptive changes in retinal processing to the variations of the mean luminance level and second-order stimulus statistics have been documented before, no such measurements have been performed when higher-order moments of the light distribution change. We therefore measured the ganglion cell responses in the tiger salamander retina to controlled changes in the second (contrast), third (skew) and fourth (kurtosis) moments of the light intensity distribution of spatially uniform temporally independent stimuli. The skew and kurtosis of the stimuli were chosen to cover the range observed in natural scenes. We quantified adaptation in ganglion cells by studying linear-nonlinear models that capture well the retinal encoding properties across all stimuli. We found that the encoding properties of retinal ganglion cells change only marginally when higher-order statistics change, compared to the changes observed in response to the variation in contrast. By analyzing optimal coding in LN-type models, we showed that neurons can maintain a high information rate without large dynamic adaptation to changes in skew or kurtosis. This is because, for uncorrelated stimuli, spatio-temporal summation within the receptive field averages away non-gaussian aspects of the light intensity distribution.

  19. Linear and third-order nonlinear optical responses of multilayered Ag:Si3N4 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Toudert, J; Fernandez, H; Babonneau, D; Camelio, S; Girardeau, T; Solis, J

    2009-11-25

    The linear and third-order nonlinear responses of tailored Si3N4/Ag/Si3N4 trilayers and (Si3N4/Ag)n/Si3N4 multilayers grown by alternating ion-beam sputtering have been studied by combining complementary characterization techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and degenerate four-wave mixing. The linear optical response dominated by the surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles has been measured over the whole visible range while the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been probed at the surface plasmon resonance wavelength. Due to the weak in-plane interaction between Ag nanoparticles, the linear and nonlinear optical responses of the Si3N4/Ag/Si3N4 trilayers are mainly influenced by the size and shape of the nanoparticles. A maximum value of 1.1 x 10(-7) esu has been found at 635 nm for the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the trilayer with the highest amount of silver. The linear optical response of the (Si3N4/Ag)n/Si3N4 multilayers is shown to be dominated by the surface plasmon resonance of isolated layers of weakly interacting nanoparticles at wavelengths shorter than 600 nm whereas a contribution due to vertical interactions has been shown for higher wavelengths. Below the vertical percolation threshold, their nonlinear optical response at the surface plasmon resonance wavelength is similar to the one of an isolated assembly of nanoparticles, and the effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility is slightly increased by decreasing the thickness of the Si3N4 spacer.

  20. Analytical solutions to nonlinear conservative oscillator with fifth-order nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfahani, M. G.; Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Mirgolbabaei, H.; Domairry, G.

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes analytical and numerical methods to analyze the steady state periodic response of an oscillator with symmetric elastic and inertia nonlinearity. A new implementation of the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) and an ancient Chinese method called the max-min approach are presented to obtain an approximate solution. The major concern is to assess the accuracy of these approximate methods in predicting the system response within a certain range of system parameters by examining their ability to establish an actual (numerical) solution. Therefore, the analytical results are compared with the numerical results to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the proposed methods.

  1. Higher-Order Panel Method for Aerodynamic Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, L.; Carmichael, R. L.; Levin, A. D.; Magnus, A.; Epton, M.; Baruah, P.; Massena, B.; Bussoletti, J.; Sidwell, K.; Johnson, F.; Zeppa, J.; Bates, G.; Clemens, D.; Derbyshire, T.; Purdon, D.; Chiang, D.; Rubbert, P.; Nelson, F.; Wai, J.; Tsurusaki, K.; Smith, N.; Snyder, J. R.; Sotomayer, W.; Dejongh, J.; Thomas, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    PANAIR uses high-order panel method to predict inviscid subsonic or supersonic flows about arbitrary configuration. Panel method solves linear partial differential equation numerically by approximating configuration surface with panels on which unknown "singularity strengths" are defined. PANAIR includes advanced software technology as well as advanced aerodynamic technology.

  2. A Short Note on Rules and Higher Order Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Joseph M.

    This brief paper argues that structural analysis--an extended form of cognitive task analysis--demonstrates that both domain dependent and domain independent knowledge can be derived from specific content domains. It is noted that the major difference between the two is that lower order rules (specific knowledge) are derived directly from specific…

  3. The Structure of Higher Education: Order in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clair A.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in the U.S. is provided by an interesting mix of public, private non-profit, and for-profit institutions. The for-profit educational firm serves the residual claimant owners and has the greatest incentive for efficient operation. The public and private non-profit schools have less efficient incentives, but benefit from charitable…

  4. Higher Order Thinking Skills for Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Louise; Lombardi, Thomas P.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes methods for teaching higher level thinking skills to children. A four-step teaching plan utilizing Beyer's Taxonomy of thinking skills provides a sequential technique for teaching these skills as do increased verbal interaction, skillful questioning, and use of knowledge organizers. The I PLAN strategy can aid decision…

  5. Machine learning using a higher order correlation network

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.C.; Doolen, G.; Chen, H.H.; Sun, G.Z.; Maxwell, T.; Lee, H.Y.

    1986-01-01

    A high-order correlation tensor formalism for neural networks is described. The model can simulate auto associative, heteroassociative, as well as multiassociative memory. For the autoassociative model, simulation results show a drastic increase in the memory capacity and speed over that of the standard Hopfield-like correlation matrix methods. The possibility of using multiassociative memory for a learning universal inference network is also discussed. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  6. The period functionsʼ higher order derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, M.

    We prove a formula for the n-th derivative of the period function T in a period annulus of a planar differential system. For n=1, we obtain Freire, Gasull and Guillamon formula for the period's first derivative (Chicone and Dumortier, 1993) [17]. We apply such a result to Hamiltonian systems with separable variables and other systems. We give some sufficient conditions for the period function of conservative second order ODE's to be convex.

  7. Higher-order numerical solutions using cubic splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.

    1976-01-01

    A cubic spline collocation procedure was developed for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. This spline procedure is reformulated so that the accuracy of the second-derivative approximation is improved and parallels that previously obtained for lower derivative terms. The final result is a numerical procedure having overall third-order accuracy of a nonuniform mesh. Solutions using both spline procedures, as well as three-point finite difference methods, are presented for several model problems.

  8. Instability criteria and pattern formation in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with higher-order terms.

    PubMed

    Mohamadou, Alidou; Ayissi, Bebe Emilienne; Kofané, Timoléon Crépin

    2006-10-01

    We study the modulational instability and spatial pattern formation in extended media, taking the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with higher-order terms as a perturbation of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation as a model. By stability analysis for the original partial differential equation, we derive its stability condition as well as the threshold for amplitude perturbations and we show how nonlinear higher-order terms qualitatively change the behavior of the system. The analytical results are found to be in agreement with numerical findings. Modulational instability mediates pattern formation through the lattice. The main feature of the traveling plane waves is its disintegration in pulse train during the propagation through the system.

  9. Modal theory of slow light enhanced third-order nonlinear effects in photonic crystal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Sun, Junqiang; Li, Linsen

    2012-08-27

    In this paper, we derive the couple-mode equations for third-order nonlinear effects in photonic crystal waveguides by employing the modal theory. These nonlinear interactions include self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation and degenerate four-wave mixing. The equations similar to that in nonlinear fiber optics could be expanded and applied for third-order nonlinear processes in other periodic waveguides. Based on the equations, we systematically analyze the group-velocity dispersion, optical propagation loss, effective interaction area, slow light enhanced factor and phase mismatch for a slow light engineered silicon photonic crystal waveguide. Considering the two-photon and free-carrier absorptions, the wavelength conversion efficiencies in two low-dispersion regions are numerically simulated by utilizing finite difference method. Finally, we investigate the influence of slow light enhanced multiple four-wave-mixing process on the conversion efficiency.

  10. Large enhancement of third-order nonlinear effects with a resonant all-dielectric metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafar-Zanjani, Samad; Cheng, Jierong; Liberman, Vladimir; Chou, Jeffrey B.; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    A novel low-profile nonlinear metasurface, consisting of a single-layer of all-dielectric material, is proposed and numerically investigated by a nonlinear full-wave finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The proposed metasurface is transparent for low, and opaque for high values of incident light intensity. The metasurface design is broadly applicable to enhancement of intrinsic nonlinearities of any material with a sufficiently high refractive index contrast. We illustrate the ability of this design to enhance intrinsic nonlinear absorption of a transition metal oxide, vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), with resonant metasurface elements. The complex third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3 )) for V2O5, representing both nonlinear refraction and absorption is considered in FDTD simulations. Our design achieves high initial transparency (>90%) for low incident light intensity. An order of magnitude decrease in the required input light intensity threshold for nonlinear response of the metasurface is observed in comparison with an unpatterend film. The proposed all-dielectric metasurface in this work is ultrathin and easy to fabricate. We envision a number of applications of this design for thin film coatings that offer protection against high-power laser radiation.

  11. Higher-order symplectic Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Niklasson, Anders; Bock, Nicolas; Challacombe, Matt; Odell, Anders; Delin, Anna; Johansson, Borje

    2009-01-01

    The extended Lagrangian formulation of time-reversible Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (TR-BOMD) enables the use of geometric integrators in the propagation of both the nuclear and the electronic degrees of freedom on the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. Different symplectic integrators up to the 6th order have been adapted and optimized to TR-BOMD in the framework of ab initio self-consistent-field theory. It is shown how the accuracy can be significantly improved compared to a conventional Verlet integration at the same level of computational cost, in particular for the case of very high accuracy requirements.

  12. X-ray third-order nonlinear dynamical diffraction in a crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Balyan, M. K.

    2015-12-15

    The dynamic diffraction of an X-ray wave in a crystal with a third-order nonlinear response to external field strength has been theoretically investigated. General equations for the wave propagation in crystal and nonlinear Takagi equations for both ideal and deformed crystals are derived. Integrals of motion are determined for the nonlinear problem of dynamic diffraction. The results of the numerical calculations of reflectivity in the symmetric Laue geometry for an incident plane wave and the intensity distributions on the output crystal surface for a point source are reported as an example.

  13. Second order optical nonlinearity of graphene due to electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole effects.

    PubMed

    Cheng, J L; Vermeulen, N; Sipe, J E

    2017-03-06

    We present a practical scheme to separate the contributions of the electric quadrupole-like and the magnetic dipole-like effects to the forbidden second order optical nonlinear response of graphene, and give analytic expressions for the second order optical conductivities, calculated from the independent particle approximation, with relaxation described in a phenomenological way. We predict strong second order nonlinear effects, including second harmonic generation, photon drag, and difference frequency generation. We discuss in detail the controllability of these effects by tuning the chemical potential, taking advantage of the dominant role played by interband optical transitions in the response.

  14. Second order optical nonlinearity of graphene due to electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole effects

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, J. L.; Vermeulen, N.; Sipe, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a practical scheme to separate the contributions of the electric quadrupole-like and the magnetic dipole-like effects to the forbidden second order optical nonlinear response of graphene, and give analytic expressions for the second order optical conductivities, calculated from the independent particle approximation, with relaxation described in a phenomenological way. We predict strong second order nonlinear effects, including second harmonic generation, photon drag, and difference frequency generation. We discuss in detail the controllability of these effects by tuning the chemical potential, taking advantage of the dominant role played by interband optical transitions in the response. PMID:28262762

  15. The Formation of the Second-Order Nonlinearity in Thermally Poled Fused Silica Glass

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NONIINEARITY IN THERMALLY POLED FUSED SILICA GLASS 6. AUTHOR(S) THOMAS GUSTAVE ALLEY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...ADDRESS(ES) The University of New Mexico 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 98-020D 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...self- organized , photoinduced, second-order nonlinearity. The most widely accepted explanation attributes the nonlinearity to an asymmetric

  16. A higher-order upwind method for viscoelastic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonaka, Andrew Jeffrey Tadao

    A conservative finite difference method designed to capture elastic wave propagation in viscoelastic fluids in two space dimensions is presented. The governing equations are the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the Oldroyd-B constitutive equations for viscoelastic stress. The equations are cast into a hybrid conservation form to make use of a second-order upwind method to treat the hyperbolic part of the equations. The hyperbolic step also utilizes a new exact and efficient Riemann solver. A numerical stress splitting technique provides a well-posed discretization for the entire range of Newtonian and elastic fluids. Incompressibility is enforced through both a projection method and a special partitioning of variables which suppresses compressive waves in the hyperbolic step. An embedded boundary approach for irregular geometry is employed, in which regular Cartesian cells are cut into irregular control volumes, requiring special discretization stencils. The resulting method is second-order accurate in L1 for smooth geometries for a range of Oldroyd-B fluids.

  17. Higher-order hybrid stress triangular Mindlin plate element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tan; Ma, Xu; Xili, Jing; Chen, Wanji

    2016-12-01

    A 6-node triangular hybrid stress element is presented for Mindlin plate in this paper. The proposed element, denoted by TH6-27β, can pass both the zero shear stress patch test and the non-zero constant shear stress enhanced patch test and, it can be employed to analyze very thin plate. To accomplish this purpose, special attention is devoted to selecting boundary displacement interpolation and stress approximation in domain. The arbitrary order Timoshenko beam function is used successfully to derive the displacement interpolation along each side of the element. According to the equilibrium equations, an appropriate stress approximation is rationally obtained. The assumed stress field is modified by using 27β instead of 15β to improve the accuracy. Numerical results show that the element is free of shear locking, and reliable for thick and thin plates. Moreover, it has no spurious zero energy modes and with geometric invariance (coordinate invariance, node sequencing independence).

  18. Higher-order gravitational lensing reconstruction using Feynman diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.; Yadav, Amit P.S.; Waalewijn, Wouter J. E-mail: amanohar@ucsd.edu E-mail: ayadav@physics.ucsd.edu

    2014-09-01

    We develop a method for calculating the correlation structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) using Feynman diagrams, when the CMB has been modified by gravitational lensing, Faraday rotation, patchy reionization, or other distorting effects. This method is used to calculate the bias of the Hu-Okamoto quadratic estimator in reconstructing the lensing power spectrum up to  O (φ{sup 4}) in the lensing potential φ. We consider both the diagonal noise TT TT, EB EB, etc. and, for the first time, the off-diagonal noise TT TE, TB EB, etc. The previously noted large  O (φ{sup 4}) term in the second order noise is identified to come from a particular class of diagrams. It can be significantly reduced by a reorganization of the φ expansion. These improved estimators have almost no bias for the off-diagonal case involving only one B component of the CMB, such as EE EB.

  19. Higher order vortex gyrotropic modes in circular ferromagnetic nanodots.

    PubMed

    Ding, Junjia; Kakazei, Gleb N; Liu, Xinming; Guslienko, Konstantin Y; Adeyeye, Adekunle O

    2014-04-25

    Magnetic vortex that consists of an in-plane curling magnetization configuration and a needle-like core region with out-of-plane magnetization is known to be the ground state of geometrically confined submicron soft magnetic elements. Here magnetodynamics of relatively thick (50-100 nm) circular Ni80Fe20 dots were probed by broadband ferromagnetic resonance in the absence of external magnetic field. Spin excitation modes related to the thickness dependent vortex core gyrotropic dynamics were detected experimentally in the gigahertz frequency range. Both analytical theory and micromagnetic simulations revealed that these exchange dominated modes are flexure oscillations of the vortex core string with n = 0,1,2 nodes along the dot thickness. The intensity of the mode with n = 1 depends significantly on both dot thickness and diameter and in some cases is higher than the one of the uniform mode with n = 0. This opens promising perspectives in the area of spin transfer torque oscillators.

  20. Higher order vortex gyrotropic modes in circular ferromagnetic nanodots

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Junjia; Kakazei, Gleb N.; Liu, Xinming; Guslienko, Konstantin Y.; Adeyeye, Adekunle O.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic vortex that consists of an in-plane curling magnetization configuration and a needle-like core region with out-of-plane magnetization is known to be the ground state of geometrically confined submicron soft magnetic elements. Here magnetodynamics of relatively thick (50–100 nm) circular Ni80Fe20 dots were probed by broadband ferromagnetic resonance in the absence of external magnetic field. Spin excitation modes related to the thickness dependent vortex core gyrotropic dynamics were detected experimentally in the gigahertz frequency range. Both analytical theory and micromagnetic simulations revealed that these exchange dominated modes are flexure oscillations of the vortex core string with n = 0,1,2 nodes along the dot thickness. The intensity of the mode with n = 1 depends significantly on both dot thickness and diameter and in some cases is higher than the one of the uniform mode with n = 0. This opens promising perspectives in the area of spin transfer torque oscillators. PMID:24762659

  1. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The rapid increase in available computational power over the last decade has enabled higher resolution flow simulations and more widespread use of unstructured grid methods for complex geometries. While much of this effort has been focused on steady-state calculations in the aerodynamics community, the need to accurately predict off-design conditions, which may involve substantial amounts of flow separation, points to the need to efficiently simulate unsteady flow fields. Accurate unsteady flow simulations can easily require several orders of magnitude more computational effort than a corresponding steady-state simulation. For this reason, techniques for improving the efficiency of unsteady flow simulations are required in order to make such calculations feasible in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible reductions in computer time due to the choice of an efficient time-integration scheme from a series of schemes differing in the order of time-accuracy, and by the use of more efficient techniques to solve the nonlinear equations which arise while using implicit time-integration schemes. This investigation is carried out in the context of a two-dimensional unstructured mesh laminar Navier-Stokes solver.

  2. Baseline-free estimation of residual fatigue life using a third order acoustic nonlinear parameter.

    PubMed

    Amura, Mikael; Meo, Michele; Amerini, F

    2011-10-01

    Prediction of crack growth and fatigue life estimation of metals using linear/nonlinear acousto-ultrasound methods is an ongoing issue. It is known that by measuring nonlinear parameters, the relative accumulated fatigue damage can be evaluated. However, there is still a need to measure two crack propagation states to assess the absolute residual fatigue life. A procedure based on the measurement of a third-order acoustic nonlinear parameter is presented to assess the residual fatigue life of a metallic component without the need of a baseline. The analytical evaluation of how the cubic nonlinear-parameter evolves during crack propagation is presented by combining the Paris law to the Nazarov-Sutin crack equation. Unlike other developed models, the proposed model assumes a crack surface topology with variable geometrical parameters. Measurements of the cubic nonlinearity parameter on AA2024-T351 specimens demonstrated high sensitivity to crack propagation and excellent agreement with the predicted theoretical behavior. The advantages of using the cubic nonlinearity parameter for fatigue cracks on metals are discussed by comparing the relevant results of a quadratic nonlinear parameter. Then the methodology to estimate crack size and residual fatigue life without the need of a baseline is presented, and advantages and limitations are discussed.

  3. Higher order accurate partial implicitization: An unconditionally stable fourth-order-accurate explicit numerical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The previously obtained second-order-accurate partial implicitization numerical technique used in the solution of fluid dynamic problems was modified with little complication to achieve fourth-order accuracy. The Von Neumann stability analysis demonstrated the unconditional linear stability of the technique. The order of the truncation error was deduced from the Taylor series expansions of the linearized difference equations and was verified by numerical solutions to Burger's equation. For comparison, results were also obtained for Burger's equation using a second-order-accurate partial-implicitization scheme, as well as the fourth-order scheme of Kreiss.

  4. A Higher Order Analysis of the Factor Structure of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Mauzey, Edward; Johnson, Annabel M.; Murphy, Stanley D.; Zimmerman, Kurt J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the higher order structure of Form G of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. A third order component analysis of a sample (N=926) found two higher order components. This higher order analysis contributes to the research literature pertaining to the generalized structure of the personality measure. (Contains 44 references and 1 table.) (GCP)

  5. The Meaning of Higher-Order Factors in Reflective-Measurement Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Michael; Koch, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Higher-order factor analysis is a widely used approach for analyzing the structure of a multidimensional test. Whenever first-order factors are correlated researchers are tempted to apply a higher-order factor model. But is this reasonable? What do the higher-order factors measure? What is their meaning? Willoughby, Holochwost, Blanton, and Blair…

  6. Nonlinear Acoustic Response of an Aircraft Fuselage Sidewall Structure by a Reduced-Order Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Groen, David S.

    2006-01-01

    A reduced-order nonlinear analysis of a structurally complex aircraft fuselage sidewall panel is undertaken to explore issues associated with application of such analyses to practical structures. Of primary interest is the trade-off between computational efficiency and accuracy. An approach to modal basis selection is offered based upon the modal participation in the linear regime. The nonlinear static response to a uniform pressure loading and nonlinear random response to a uniformly distributed acoustic loading are computed. Comparisons of the static response with a nonlinear static solution in physical degrees-of-freedom demonstrate the efficacy of the approach taken for modal basis selection. Changes in the modal participation as a function of static and random loading levels suggest a means for improvement in the basis selection.

  7. Development of Silica Fibers and Microstructures with Large and Thermodynamically Stable Second Order Nonlinearity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-22

    C. Hofmann, Z. Liu, A. Wang, J. R. Heflin , and Y. Xu, “Demonstration of a cylindrically symmetric second-order nonlinear fiber with self-assembled...organic surface layers,” Opt. Express, 19 (11), 10326-10335 (2011). Y. Xu, M. Han, A. Wang, Z. Liu, and J. R. Heflin , “Second order parametric...processes in nonlinear silica microspheres,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, Art#163905, (2008). Y. Xu, A. Wang, J. R. Heflin , and Z. Liu, “Proposal and

  8. Large third-order nonlinear optical response of conjugated copolymers consisting of fluorene and carbazole units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiaowei; Liu, Yunqi; Zhu, Daoben; Liu, Xuchun; Xu, Gang; Ye, Peixian

    2002-08-01

    Off-resonant third-order nonlinear optical properties using degenerate four-wave mixing measurements in solution at 1064 nm have been studied for novel π-conjugated, processible, optically transparent and thermally stable copolymers constituted of carbazole and fluorene. The second-order hyperpolarizability γ1111 per repeat unit of the polymer containing alkyne segment (Cz-PFE) is as high as 6.5×10 -31 esu. The large nonlinearity of Cz-PFE is attributed to its rigid planar and intrachain charge transfer structure.

  9. A novel nonlinear adaptive filter using a pipelined second-order Volterra recurrent neural network.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiquan; Zhang, Jiashu

    2009-12-01

    To enhance the performance and overcome the heavy computational complexity of recurrent neural networks (RNN), a novel nonlinear adaptive filter based on a pipelined second-order Volterra recurrent neural network (PSOVRNN) is proposed in this paper. A modified real-time recurrent learning (RTRL) algorithm of the proposed filter is derived in much more detail. The PSOVRNN comprises of a number of simple small-scale second-order Volterra recurrent neural network (SOVRNN) modules. In contrast to the standard RNN, these modules of a PSOVRNN can be performed simultaneously in a pipelined parallelism fashion, which can lead to a significant improvement in its total computational efficiency. Moreover, since each module of the PSOVRNN is a SOVRNN in which nonlinearity is introduced by the recursive second-order Volterra (RSOV) expansion, its performance can be further improved. Computer simulations have demonstrated that the PSOVRNN performs better than the pipelined recurrent neural network (PRNN) and RNN for nonlinear colored signals prediction and nonlinear channel equalization. However, the superiority of the PSOVRNN over the PRNN is at the cost of increasing computational complexity due to the introduced nonlinear expansion of each module.

  10. Decreasing the temporal complexity for nonlinear, implicit reduced-order models by forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, Kevin; Ray, Jaideep; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart

    2015-02-14

    Implicit numerical integration of nonlinear ODEs requires solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations at each time step. Each of these systems is often solved by a Newton-like method, which incurs a sequence of linear-system solves. Most model-reduction techniques for nonlinear ODEs exploit knowledge of system's spatial behavior to reduce the computational complexity of each linear-system solve. However, the number of linear-system solves for the reduced-order simulation often remains roughly the same as that for the full-order simulation. We propose exploiting knowledge of the model's temporal behavior to (1) forecast the unknown variable of the reduced-order system of nonlinear equations at future time steps, and (2) use this forecast as an initial guess for the Newton-like solver during the reduced-order-model simulation. To compute the forecast, we propose using the Gappy POD technique. As a result, the goal is to generate an accurate initial guess so that the Newton solver requires many fewer iterations to converge, thereby decreasing the number of linear-system solves in the reduced-order-model simulation.

  11. Decreasing the temporal complexity for nonlinear, implicit reduced-order models by forecasting

    DOE PAGES

    Carlberg, Kevin; Ray, Jaideep; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart

    2015-02-14

    Implicit numerical integration of nonlinear ODEs requires solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations at each time step. Each of these systems is often solved by a Newton-like method, which incurs a sequence of linear-system solves. Most model-reduction techniques for nonlinear ODEs exploit knowledge of system's spatial behavior to reduce the computational complexity of each linear-system solve. However, the number of linear-system solves for the reduced-order simulation often remains roughly the same as that for the full-order simulation. We propose exploiting knowledge of the model's temporal behavior to (1) forecast the unknown variable of the reduced-order system of nonlinear equationsmore » at future time steps, and (2) use this forecast as an initial guess for the Newton-like solver during the reduced-order-model simulation. To compute the forecast, we propose using the Gappy POD technique. As a result, the goal is to generate an accurate initial guess so that the Newton solver requires many fewer iterations to converge, thereby decreasing the number of linear-system solves in the reduced-order-model simulation.« less

  12. An extension of MacCormack's method for flows with higher-order equations and in different configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ying, S. J.; Liu, V. C.

    1978-01-01

    The numerical scheme for the computation of a shock discontinuity developed by MacCormack has been extended to solve a number of differential equations, including cases explicitly containing higher-order derivatives: (1) Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of third-order derivative, (2) a system of nonlinear equations governing nonsteady one-dimensional plasma flow in cylindrical coordinate, (3) equations of solar wind. Comparisons with previous results are made, if available, to illustrate the advantages of the present method. The question of convergence of the numerical calculation is discussed.

  13. Transition of EMRIs through resonance: higher order corrections in resonant flux enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihaylov, Deyan; Gair, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) are candidate events for gravitational wave detection in the millihertz range (by detectors like LISA and eLISA). These events involve a stellar-mass black hole, or a similar compact object, descending into the gravitational field of a supermassive black hole, eventually merging with it. Properties of the inspiraling trajectory away from resonance are well known and have been studied extensively, however little is known about the behaviour of these binary systems at resonance, when the radial and lateral frequencies of the orbit become commensurate. There are two resonance models in the literature, the instantaneous frequency function by Gair, Bender, and Yunes, and the standard two timescales approach devised by Flanagan and Hinderer. We argue that the Gair, Bender and Yunes model provides a valid treatment of the resonance problem and extend this solution to higher order in the size of the on-resonance perturbation. The non-linear differential equations which arise in treating resonances are interesting from a mathematical view point. We present our algorithm for perturbative solutions and the results to third order in the infinitesimal parameter, and discuss the scope of this approach. Deyan Mihaylov is funded by the STFC.

  14. Higher-order effects on the properties of the optical compact bright pulse: Collective variable approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokam Nguewawe, Chancelor; Fewo, Serge I.; Yemélé, David

    2017-01-01

    The effects of higher-order (HO) terms on the properties of the compact bright (CB) pulse described by the dispersionless nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger (DNNLS) equation are investigated. These effects include third-order dispersion (TOD), the Raman term, and the time derivative of the pulse envelope. By means of the collective variable method, the dynamical behavior of the pulse amplitude, width, frequency, velocity, phase, and chirp during propagation is pointed out. The results indicate that the CB pulse experiences a self-frequency shift and self-steepening, respectively, in the presence of an isolated Raman term and the time derivative of the pulse envelope and acquires a velocity as the result of the TOD effect. In addition, TOD may also induce the breathing mode inside the variation of the pulse parameters when the width of the input pulse is slightly less than that of the unperturbed CB pulse. The combination of these terms, indispensable for describing ultrashort pulses, reproduces all these phenomena in the CB pulse behavior. Further, other properties are observed, namely, the pulse decay, the breathing mode even when the unperturbed CB pulse is taken as the input signal, and the attenuated pulse. These results are in good agreement with the results of the direct numerical simulations of the DNNLS equation with HO terms.

  15. Output Feedback Distributed Containment Control for High-Order Nonlinear Multiagent Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Yafeng; Hua, Changchun; Wu, Shuangshuang; Guan, Xinping

    2017-01-31

    In this paper, we study the problem of output feedback distributed containment control for a class of high-order nonlinear multiagent systems under a fixed undirected graph and a fixed directed graph, respectively. Only the output signals of the systems can be measured. The novel reduced order dynamic gain observer is constructed to estimate the unmeasured state variables of the system with the less conservative condition on nonlinear terms than traditional Lipschitz one. Via the backstepping method, output feedback distributed nonlinear controllers for the followers are designed. By means of the novel first virtual controllers, we separate the estimated state variables of different agents from each other. Consequently, the designed controllers show independence on the estimated state variables of neighbors except outputs information, and the dynamics of each agent can be greatly different, which make the design method have a wider class of applications. Finally, a numerical simulation is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. An expansion formula with higher-order derivatives for fractional operators of variable order.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ricardo; Torres, Delfim F M

    2013-01-01

    We obtain approximation formulas for fractional integrals and derivatives of Riemann-Liouville and Marchaud types with a variable fractional order. The approximations involve integer-order derivatives only. An estimation for the error is given. The efficiency of the approximation method is illustrated with examples. As applications, we show how the obtained results are useful to solve differential equations, and problems of the calculus of variations that depend on fractional derivatives of Marchaud type.

  17. An Expansion Formula with Higher-Order Derivatives for Fractional Operators of Variable Order

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We obtain approximation formulas for fractional integrals and derivatives of Riemann-Liouville and Marchaud types with a variable fractional order. The approximations involve integer-order derivatives only. An estimation for the error is given. The efficiency of the approximation method is illustrated with examples. As applications, we show how the obtained results are useful to solve differential equations, and problems of the calculus of variations that depend on fractional derivatives of Marchaud type. PMID:24319382

  18. Effect of reduction time on third order optical nonlinearity of reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V. G.; Vinitha, G.; Reshmi, R.; Anila, E. I.; Jayaraj, M. K.

    2017-04-01

    We report the influence of reduction time on structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) thin films synthesized by spin coating method. We observed that the structural, linear and nonlinear optical properties can be tuned with reduction time in GO is due to the increased structural ordering because of the restoration of sp2 carbon atoms with the time of reduction. The nonlinear absorption studies by open aperture Z-scan technique exhibited a saturable absorption. The nonlinear refraction studies showed the self de focusing nature of rGO by closed aperture Z scan technique. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity varies with the time for reduction of GO which is attributed to the depletion of valence band and the conduction band filling effect. Our results emphasize duration for reduction of GO dependent optical nonlinearity of rGO thin films to a great extent and explore its applications Q switched mode locking laser systems for generating ultra short laser pulses and in optical sensors. The rGO coated films were characterized by X-Ray diffraction method (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Photoluminescence (PL) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurements.

  19. High Order Finite Volume Nonlinear Schemes for the Boltzmann Transport Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bihari, B L; Brown, P N

    2005-03-29

    The authors apply the nonlinear WENO (Weighted Essentially Nonoscillatory) scheme to the spatial discretization of the Boltzmann Transport Equation modeling linear particle transport. The method is a finite volume scheme which ensures not only conservation, but also provides for a more natural handling of boundary conditions, material properties and source terms, as well as an easier parallel implementation and post processing. It is nonlinear in the sense that the stencil depends on the solution at each time step or iteration level. By biasing the gradient calculation towards the stencil with smaller derivatives, the scheme eliminates the Gibb's phenomenon with oscillations of size O(1) and reduces them to O(h{sup r}), where h is the mesh size and r is the order of accuracy. The current implementation is three-dimensional, generalized for unequally spaced meshes, fully parallelized, and up to fifth order accurate (WENO5) in space. For unsteady problems, the resulting nonlinear spatial discretization yields a set of ODE's in time, which in turn is solved via high order implicit time-stepping with error control. For the steady-state case, they need to solve the non-linear system, typically by Newton-Krylov iterations. There are several numerical examples presented to demonstrate the accuracy, non-oscillatory nature and efficiency of these high order methods, in comparison with other fixed-stencil schemes.

  20. β-Octakis(methylthio)porphycenes: synthesis, characterisation and third order nonlinear optical studies.

    PubMed

    Rana, Anup; Lee, Sangsu; Kim, Dongho; Panda, Pradeepta K

    2015-05-04

    A novel electron deficient β-octakis(methylthio)porphycene, along with its Zn(ii) and Ni(ii) derivatives, was synthesized for the first time. The macrocyclic structure exhibits core ruffling with a largely red shifted absorption band (∼750 nm) and also a large enhancement in the third order nonlinear optical response.

  1. New solutions for two integrable cases of a generalized fifth-order nonlinear equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-complexiton solutions for a new generalized fifth-order nonlinear integrable equation are constructed with the help of the Hirota's method and the simplified Hirota's method. By extending the real parameters into complex parameters, nonsingular complexiton solutions are obtained for two specific coefficients of the new generalized equation.

  2. Nonlinear W∞ as asymptotic symmetry of three-dimensional higher spin AdS gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneaux, Marc; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the asymptotic symmetry algebra of (2+1)-dimensional higher spin, anti-de Sitter gravity. We use the formulation of the theory as a Chern-Simons gauge theory based on the higher spin algebra hs(1 , 1). Expanding the gauge connection around asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime, we specify consistent boundary conditions on the higher spin gauge fields. We then study residual gauge transformation, the corresponding surface terms and their Poisson bracket algebra. We find that the asymptotic symmetry algebra is a nonlinearly realized W ∞ algebra with classical central charges. We discuss implications of our results to quantum gravity and to various situations in string theory.

  3. Assessing School Work Culture: A Higher-Order Analysis and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.; Zimmerman, Kurt J.

    This paper reviews a work culture productivity model and reports the development of a work culture instrument based on the culture productivity model. Higher order principal components analysis was used to assess work culture, and a third-order factor analysis shows how the first-order factors group into higher-order factors. The school work…

  4. Discrete-time adaptive backstepping nonlinear control via high-order neural networks.

    PubMed

    Alanis, Alma Y; Sanchez, Edgar N; Loukianov, Alexander G

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with adaptive tracking for discrete-time multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems in presence of bounded disturbances. In this paper, a high-order neural network (HONN) structure is used to approximate a control law designed by the backstepping technique, applied to a block strict feedback form (BSFF). This paper also includes the respective stability analysis, on the basis of the Lyapunov approach, for the whole controlled system, including the extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based NN learning algorithm. Applicability of the scheme is illustrated via simulation for a discrete-time nonlinear model of an electric induction motor.

  5. Thermal poling induced second-order nonlinearity in femtosecond- laser-modified fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    An Honglin; Fleming, Simon; McMillen, Benjamin W.; Chen, Kevin P.; Snoke, David

    2008-08-11

    Thermal poling was utilized to induce second-order nonlinearity in regions of fused silica modified by 771 nm femtosecond laser pulses. With second-harmonic microscopy, it was found that the nonlinearity in the laser-modified region was much lower than that in nonmodified regions. This is attributed to a more rigid glass network after irradiation by the femtosecond laser pulses and/or lack of mobile alkali ions. Measurement of the distribution of chemical elements in the femtosecond-laser-modified region in a soda lime glass revealed a lower level of sodium ions.

  6. Computation of Nonlinear Backscattering Using a High-Order Numerical Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fibich, G.; Ilan, B.; Tsynkov, S.

    2001-01-01

    The nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS) is the standard model for propagation of intense laser beams in Kerr media. The NLS is derived from the nonlinear Helmholtz equation (NLH) by employing the paraxial approximation and neglecting the backscattered waves. In this study we use a fourth-order finite-difference method supplemented by special two-way artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) to solve the NLH as a boundary value problem. Our numerical methodology allows for a direct comparison of the NLH and NLS models and for an accurate quantitative assessment of the backscattered signal.

  7. Nonlinear H ∞ control of a Quadrotor (UAV), using high order sliding mode disturbance estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerma, Mokhtar; Mokhtari, Abdellah; Abdelaziz, Benallegue; Orlov, Yuri

    2012-12-01

    A nonlinear H ∞ output feedback controller is proposed and coupled to a high-order sliding mode estimator to regulate an UAV in the presence of the unmatched perturbations. The plant to be controlled is a Quadrotor helicopter described by nonlinear dynamics with plant uncertainties due to the variations of inertia moments and payload operation. A robust state estimation is considered under model uncertainties as well as external/measurement disturbances. Performance issues of the controller are illustrated in a simulation study made for an UAV prototype.

  8. Third-order nonlinearities and optical limiting properties of complex Co 2L 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Sheng-Li; Li, Tie-Pan; Wang, Tie-Bang; Liu, Zhao-Sen; Cao, Tian-De

    2007-01-01

    With nanosecond pulses at a wavelength of 532 nm, we investigated the third-order optical nonlinearities of a dinuclear Co(II) triple-helical complex Co 2L 3 {L = bis[4-(2-pyridyl-methyleneamino) phenyl] methane} by a Z-scan technique. The optical limiting properties are measured by a transmission technique. The experimental data are theoretically fitted; the mechanism for the optical nonlinearities and the optical limiting properties is discussed. The absorption cross-sections of the ground state and the excited states are evaluated by a rate equation model.

  9. Third-order optical nonlinearity at 800 and 1300 nm in bismuthate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feifei; Cheng, Junwen; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Zhe; Ji, Wei; Tan, Ruiqin; Zhang, Qinyuan

    2014-06-02

    Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities in Ag-doped bismuthate glasses which are prepared by incorporating Ag ions into bismuthate glasses to form Ag nanoparticles through a consecutive melting-quenching-annealing technique are reported. Due to the high refractive index of bismuthate glass, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles is extendable to 1400 nm, resulting in a higher nonlinear refractive index than bismuthate glass. Femtosecond Z-scans show that the nonlinear refractive index, as high as 9.4 × 10(-17) and 5.6 × 10(-18) m(2) W(-1) at 800 and 1300 nm, respectively, can be achieved by selecting an optimized concentration of Ag nano-sized particles. And two-photon absorption at 800 nm is suppressed due to a blue shift in the band-gap of Ag-doped bismuthate glasses, as compared to pristine bismuthate glasses. Optical Kerr shutter technique reveals that these nonlinearities have a relaxation time of < 1 ps.

  10. Second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of nonelectrically poled DR1-PMMA guest-host polymers.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Atsushi; Sato, Yasuaki; Ito, Kazuma; Murakami, Kenta; Tamaki, Yasuaki; Mase, Nobuyuki; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Tasaka, Shigeru

    2013-11-27

    Guest-host nonlinear optical polymers have attracted considerable interest due to their applications in fast electro-optical modulators and wavelength converters. In general, the electrical poling procedures, for which high DC external fields are applied, are necessary for aligning guest chromophores in polar order and activating the second-order nonlinearity. We present the nonelectrical poling behaviors for guest-host polymers: DR1 (4-[ethyl (2-hydroxyethyl) amino]-4'-nitroazobenzene) is the guest, and PMMA (poly (methyl methacrylate)) is the host. Second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility was induced in the conventional guest-host polymers after annealing at temperatures above the glass transition points of the host polymer even without applying the external fields. This phenomenon did not occur in the side-chain polymers, where the guests were directly bonded to the host chains. The guest polar alignments were most likely generated from the guest hydroxyl groups chemisorbing on the substrates. The polar alignments of the guest formed not only near the surface of the substrate, but also inside the host polymers. The optimized conditions for the SHG conversion were examined in the context of the polymer film thickness and guest concentration. The nonelectrical poling techniques described in this study are useful for enhancing the surface nonlinearity in the several materials, and they will be useful for further developments in nanophotonics and plasmonics.

  11. Synthesis of second-order nonlinearities in dielectric-semiconductor-dielectric metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hung-Hsi; Yang, Mu-Han; Sharma, Rajat; Puckett, Matthew W.; Montoya, Sergio; Wurm, Christian D.; Vallini, Felipe; Fullerton, Eric E.; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate a large effective second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility in electronic optical metamaterials based on sputtered dielectric-semiconductor-dielectric multilayers of silicon dioxide/amorphous silicon (a-Si)/aluminum oxide. The interfacial fixed charges (Qf) with opposite signs on either side of dielectric-semiconductor interfaces result in a non-zero built-in electric field within the a-Si layer, which couples to the large third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor of a-Si and induces an effective second-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor χeff(2). The value of the largest components of the effective χeff(2) tensor, i.e., χ(2)zzz, is determined experimentally to be 2 pm/V for the as-fabricated metamaterials and increases to 8.5 pm/V after the post-thermal annealing process. The constituents and fabrication methods make these metamaterials CMOS compatible, enabling efficient nonlinear devices for chip-scale silicon photonic integrated circuits.

  12. A hierarchical generalization of the acoustic reciprocity theorem involving higher-order derivatives and interaction quantities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ju; Li, Jie; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Ning

    2016-10-01

    An acoustic reciprocity theorem is generalized, for a smoothly varying perturbed medium, to a hierarchy of reciprocity theorems including higher-order derivatives of acoustic fields. The standard reciprocity theorem is the first member of the hierarchy. It is shown that the conservation of higher-order interaction quantities is related closely to higher-order derivative distributions of perturbed media. Then integral reciprocity theorems are obtained by applying Gauss's divergence theorem, which give explicit integral representations connecting higher-order interactions and higher-order derivative distributions of perturbed media. Some possible applications to an inverse problem are also discussed.

  13. Third order nonlinear optical response exhibited by mono- and few-layers of WS2

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Torres, Carlos; Perea-López, Néstor; Elías, Ana Laura; Gutiérrez, Humberto R.; Cullen, David A.; Berkdemir, Ayse; López-Urías, Florentino; Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-04-13

    In this work, strong third order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by WS2 layers are presented. Optical Kerr effect was identified as the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these third order optical nonlinearities. An extraordinary nonlinear refractive index together with an important contribution of a saturated absorptive response was observed to depend on the atomic layer stacking. Comparative experiments performed in mono- and few-layer samples of WS2 revealed that this material is potentially capable of modulating nonlinear optical processes by selective near resonant induced birefringence. In conclusion, we envision applications for developing all-optical bidimensional nonlinear optical devices.

  14. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Wender, Heberton; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Teixeira, Sergio R.; Dupont, Jairton; Hickmann, Jandir M.

    2013-11-01

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  15. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Hickmann, Jandir M.; Wender, Heberton; Teixeira, Sergio R.; Dupont, Jairton

    2013-11-14

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  16. Efficient Modal Basis Selection Criteria for Reduced-Order Nonlinear Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    A modal basis selection technique for a reduced-order nonlinear numerical simulation with application to two-dimensional structures is presented as a two-step procedure. A system identification analysis is first performed using proper orthogonal decomposition. Using these results, a set of load-invariant bases consisting of the normal modes is next selected. Two criteria for making the basis selection are offered; one using the modal assurance criterion and the other using the modal expansion theorem. The quality of the subsequent reduced-order analyses are examined through comparison with computationally intensive finite element nonlinear simulations in physical degrees-of-freedom. A clamped flat isotropic plate under a random acoustic loading is considered to demonstrate the procedure. It is found that the subject procedure enables formation of an accurate and computationally efficient reduced-order system applicable to a broad range of loading conditions.

  17. Alternative Modal Basis Selection Procedures For Reduced-Order Nonlinear Random Response Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Guo, Xinyun; Rizi, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Three procedures to guide selection of an efficient modal basis in a nonlinear random response analysis are examined. One method is based only on proper orthogonal decomposition, while the other two additionally involve smooth orthogonal decomposition. Acoustic random response problems are employed to assess the performance of the three modal basis selection approaches. A thermally post-buckled beam exhibiting snap-through behavior, a shallowly curved arch in the auto-parametric response regime and a plate structure are used as numerical test articles. The results of a computationally taxing full-order analysis in physical degrees of freedom are taken as the benchmark for comparison with the results from the three reduced-order analyses. For the cases considered, all three methods are shown to produce modal bases resulting in accurate and computationally efficient reduced-order nonlinear simulations.

  18. Nonlinear Reduced Order Random Response Analysis of Structures With Shallow Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures with shallow curvature under random loadings. For reduced order analysis, the modal basis selection must be capable of reflecting the coupling in both the linear and nonlinear stiffness. For the symmetric shallow arch under consideration, four categories of modal basis functions are defined. Those having symmetric transverse displacements (ST modes) can be designated as transverse dominated (ST-T) modes and in-plane dominated (ST-I) modes. Those having anti-symmetric transverse displacements (AT modes) can similarly be designated as transverse dominated (AT-T) modes and in-plane dominated (AT-I) modes. The response of an aluminum arch under a uniformly distributed transverse random loading is investigated. Results from nonlinear modal simulations made using various modal bases are compared with those obtained from a numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. While inclusion of ST-T modes is important for all response regimes, it is found that the ST-I modes become increasingly important in the nonlinear response regime, and that AT-T and AT-I modes are critical in the autoparametric regime.

  19. Nonlinear Reduced Order Random Response Analysis of Structures with Shallow Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to further develop nonlinear modal numerical simulation methods for application to geometrically nonlinear response of structures with shallow curvature under random loadings. For reduced order analysis, the modal basis selection must be capable of reflecting the coupling in both the linear and nonlinear stiffness. For the symmetric shallow arch under consideration, four categories of modal basis functions are defined. Those having symmetric transverse displacements (ST modes) can be designated as transverse dominated (ST-T) modes and in-plane dominated (ST-I) modes. Those having anti-symmetric transverse displacements (AT modes) can similarly be designated as transverse dominated (AT-T) modes and in-plane dominated (AT-I) modes. The response of an aluminum arch under a uniformly distributed transverse random loading is investigated. Results from nonlinear modal simulations made using various modal bases are compared with those obtained from a numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. While inclusion of ST-T modes is important for all response regimes, it is found that the ST-I modes become increasingly important in the nonlinear response regime, and that AT-T and AT-I modes are critical in the autoparametric regime.

  20. Modeling and analysis of smart piezoelectric beams using simple higher order shear deformation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnan Elshafei, M.; Alraiess, Fuzy

    2013-03-01

    In the current work, a finite element formulation is developed for modeling and analysis of isotropic as well as orthotropic composite beams with distributed piezoelectric actuators subjected to both mechanical and electrical loads. The proposed model is developed based on a simple higher order shear deformation theory where the displacement field equations in the model account for a parabolic distribution of the shear strain and the nonlinearity of in-plane displacements across the thickness and subsequently the shear correction factor is not involved. The virtual displacement method is used to formulate the equations of motion of the structure system. The model is valid for both segmented and continuous piezoelectric elements, which can be either surface bonded or embedded in the laminated beams. A two-node element with four mechanical degrees of freedom in addition to one electrical degree of freedom for each node is used in the finite element formulation. The electric potential is considered as a function of the thickness and the length of the beam element. A MATLAB code is developed to compute the static deformation and free vibration parameters of the beams with distributed piezoelectric actuators. The obtained results from the proposed model are compared with the available analytical results and the finite element results of other researchers.

  1. Higher-order harmonics coupling in different free-electron laser codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannessi, L.; Freund, H. P.; Musumeci, P.; Reiche, S.

    2008-08-01

    The capability for simulation of the dynamics of a free-electron laser including the higher-order harmonics in linear undulators exists in several existing codes as MEDUSA [H.P. Freund, S.G. Biedron, and S.V. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27 (2000) 243; H.P. Freund, Phys. Rev. ST-AB 8 (2005) 110701] and PERSEO [L. Giannessi, Overview of Perseo, a system for simulating FEL dynamics in Mathcad, < http://www.jacow.org>, in: Proceedings of FEL 2006 Conference, BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 2006, p. 91], and has been recently implemented in GENESIS 1.3 [See < http://www.perseo.enea.it>]. MEDUSA and GENESIS also include the dynamics of even harmonics induced by the coupling through the betatron motion. In addition MEDUSA, which is based on a non-wiggler averaged model, is capable of simulating the generation of even harmonics in the transversally cold beam regime, i.e. when the even harmonic coupling arises from non-linear effects associated with longitudinal particle dynamics and not to a finite beam emittance. In this paper a comparison between the predictions of the codes in different conditions is given.

  2. Experimental study of non-linear second-order analytical data with focus on the second-order advantage.

    PubMed

    Culzoni, María J; Damiani, Patricia C; García-Reiriz, Alejandro; Goicoechea, Héctor C; Olivieri, Alejandro C

    2007-07-01

    Three different experimental systems have been studied regarding the determination of analytes in complex samples, using non-linear second-order instrumental data, which are intrinsically able to provide the second-order advantage. This permits the quantitation of calibrated analytes in the presence of unexpected sample components, although a suitable algorithm is required. The recently described combination of artificial neural networks with post-training residual bilinearization has been applied to the three data sets, with successful results concerning prediction accuracy and precision, as well as profile recovery for the potential interferents in test samples. The studies involve: (1) the determination of two pharmaceuticals in the presence of an unexpected excipient by absorbance-pH matrix measurements, (2) the quantitation of iron(II) by its catalytic effect on the kinetics of the bromate oxidation of a colorant in the presence of a second interfering organic dye, and (3) the analysis of the antibiotic amoxicillin by fluorescence excitation-emission matrices in the presence of a fluorescent anti-inflammatory. The prediction results were compared and shown to be significantly better than those yielded by the unfolded partial least-squares/residual bilinearization model, due to the non-linear nature of the studied data.

  3. Multi-Order Investigation of the Nonlinear Susceptibility Tensors of Individual Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Cédric; Riporto, Jérémy; Uldry, Aline; Rogov, Andrii; Mugnier, Yannick; Dantec, Ronan Le; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Bonacina, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    We use Hyper Rayleigh Scattering and polarization resolved multiphoton microscopy to investigate simultaneously the second and third-order nonlinear response of Potassium Niobate and Bismuth Ferrite harmonic nanoparticles. We first derive the second-to-third harmonic intensity ratio for colloidal ensembles and estimate the average third-order efficiency of these two materials. Successively, we explore the orientation dependent tensorial response of individual nanoparticles fixed on a substrate. The multi-order polarization resolved emission curves are globally fitted with an analytical model to retrieve individual elements of susceptibility tensors.

  4. Time-ordering effects in the generation of entangled photons using nonlinear optical processes.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Nicolás; Sipe, J E

    2015-03-06

    We study the effects of time ordering in photon generation processes such as spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) and four wave mixing (SFWM). The results presented here are used to construct an intuitive picture that allows us to predict when time-ordering effects significantly modify the joint spectral amplitude (JSA) of the photons generated in SPDC and SFWM. These effects become important only when the photons being generated lie with the pump beam that travels through the nonlinear material for a significant amount of time. Thus sources of spectrally separable photons are ideal candidates for the observation of modifications of the JSA due to time ordering.

  5. Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy of the Two-Order-Parameter Compound YMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröhlich, D.; Leute, St.; Pavlov, V. V.; Pisarev, R. V.

    1998-10-01

    We have observed two types of optical second harmonic spectra of Mn3+ ions in hexagonal YMnO3, one of which is caused by the noncentrosymmetric ferroelectric ordering of charges, whereas the other is due to the centrosymmetric antiferromagnetic ordering of spins. Partial overlapping between the electronic transitions gives rise to a new kind of nonlinear optical polarization P\\(2ω\\) = PFE\\(2ω\\)+PAFM\\(2ω\\), which depends on two order parameters. The magnitude and phase of P\\(2ω\\) can be changed by varying the ratio between the two contributions, as demonstrated by changing the contrast between 180° antiferromagnetic domains, which are indistinguishable in linear optics.

  6. Nonlinear first order PDEs reducible to autonomous form polynomially homogeneous in the derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgone, Matteo; Oliveri, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    It is proved a theorem providing necessary and sufficient conditions enabling one to map a nonlinear system of first order partial differential equations, polynomial in the derivatives, to an equivalent autonomous first order system polynomially homogeneous in the derivatives. The result is intimately related to the symmetry properties of the source system, and the proof, involving the use of the canonical variables associated to the admitted Lie point symmetries, is constructive. First order Monge-Ampère systems, either with constant coefficients or with coefficients depending on the field variables, where the theorem can be successfully applied, are considered.

  7. Approximated Lax pairs for the reduced order integration of nonlinear evolution equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric; Lombardi, Damiano

    2014-05-01

    A reduced-order model algorithm, called ALP, is proposed to solve nonlinear evolution partial differential equations. It is based on approximations of generalized Lax pairs. Contrary to other reduced-order methods, like Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, the basis on which the solution is searched for evolves in time according to a dynamics specific to the problem. It is therefore well-suited to solving problems with progressive front or wave propagation. Another difference with other reduced-order methods is that it is not based on an off-line/on-line strategy. Numerical examples are shown for the linear advection, KdV and FKPP equations, in one and two dimensions.

  8. Multi-Order Investigation of the Nonlinear Susceptibility Tensors of Individual Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Cédric; Riporto, Jérémy; Uldry, Aline; Rogov, Andrii; Mugnier, Yannick; Dantec, Ronan Le; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Bonacina, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    We use Hyper Rayleigh Scattering and polarization resolved multiphoton microscopy to investigate simultaneously the second and third-order nonlinear response of Potassium Niobate and Bismuth Ferrite harmonic nanoparticles. We first derive the second-to-third harmonic intensity ratio for colloidal ensembles and estimate the average third-order efficiency of these two materials. Successively, we explore the orientation dependent tensorial response of individual nanoparticles fixed on a substrate. The multi-order polarization resolved emission curves are globally fitted with an analytical model to retrieve individual elements of susceptibility tensors. PMID:27140074

  9. Growth and characterization of a third order nonlinear optical single crystal: Ethylenediamine-4-nitrophenolate monohydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanalakshmi, B.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Subhashini, V.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • EDA4NPH crystal possesses negative nonlinear refractive index. • The crystal exhibits high third-order NLO susceptibility. • Wide transparency of the crystal makes it suitable for NLO applications. • Dielectric studies substantiate the suitability for electro-optic applications. • The crystal possesses suitable mechanical strength for device fabrication. - Abstract: Bulk crystals of the charge-transfer complex, ethylenediamine-4-nitrophenolate monohydrate, were grown by slow solvent evaporation method from aqueous solution at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the crystal belongs to centrosymmetric space group C2/c of monoclinic system. The functional groups in the complex were identified using FTIR, FTRaman and FTNMR analyses. The Z-scan measurements revealed the negative nonlinear refractive index of the crystal. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and third order nonlinear optical susceptibility calculated from the measurements were −3.5823 × 10{sup −3} cm/W and 2.3762 × 10{sup −6} esu respectively. The crystal was shown to be highly transparent above 366 nm by UV–vis spectroscopy and a yellow fluorescence was observed from PL spectrum. The TG–DTA and DSC analyses showed that the crystal is thermally stable up to 117.4 °C. The crystals were characterized by dielectric, etching and microhardness studies.

  10. Tuned longitudinal surface plasmon resonance and third-order nonlinear optical properties of gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Yushi; Hayakawa, Tomokatsu; Kawamura, Go; Nogami, Masayuki

    2011-07-08

    In order to elucidate the relationship for third-order nonlinear optical properties of anisotropic metal nanoparticles between the incident laser wavelength and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) wavelength, gold nanorods (GNRs) with a tuned longitudinal SPR mode in frequency were prepared by seed-mediated methods with two different surfactants, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and benzyldimethylammonium chloride (BDAC). The real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities χ(3) were examined by near-infrared (800 nm) femtosecond Z-scan and I-scan techniques for various gold sols with SPR wavelengths of 530 nm (spheres), 800 nm (nanorods) and 1000 nm (nanorods), named as 530GNSs, 800GNRs and 1000GNRs, respectively. All the samples showed intrinsically third-order nonlinear optical refractive responses. However, as for the real part of χ(3) for one particle, 800GNRs whose plasmon peak was tuned to the incident laser wavelength exhibited a Reχ(3) value 45 times stronger than 530GNSs. More interestingly, the imaginary part of χ(3) was more greatly influenced at the tuned SPR wavelength. Here we first demonstrate that 800GNRs showed plasmon-enhanced saturable absorption (SA) due to a longitudinal SPR tuned to the incident laser wavelength.

  11. Nonlinear filtering and limiting in high order methods for ideal and non-ideal MHD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee,H. C.; Sjogreen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The various filtering mechanisms and base scheme options of the newly developed adaptive numerical dissipation control in spatially high order filter schemes for the ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations are investigated. These filter schemes are applicable to complex unsteady MHD high-speed shock/shear/turbulence problems. They also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error. The type of spatial base scheme to be used in conjunction with our filter idea is very general. For example, spectral, compact and non-compact spatially central finite difference schemes are possible candidates. The adaptive numerical dissipation mechanism consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and to leave the rest of the region free from numerical dissipation contamination. The numerical dissipation considered consists of high order linear dissipation for the suppression of high frequency oscillation and the nonlinear dissipative portion of high-resolution shock-capturing methods for discontinuity capturing. The applicable nonlinear dissipative portion of high-resolution shock-capturing methods is also very general. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of using compact and non-compact central base schemes in conjunction with three commonly used types of nonlinear numerical dissipation for both the ideal and non-ideal MHD. This extended abstract shows the performance of three nonlinear filters in conjunction with a sixth-order non-compact spatial central base scheme. In the final paper, the high order compact spatial central base scheme will be illustrated and compared with the non-compact base scheme. The reason for the investigation of the high order compact spatial central base scheme over the non-compact base scheme is to evaluate if additional accuracy can be gained in regions of

  12. Third-order nonlinear and linear time-dependent dynamical diffraction of X-rays in crystals.

    PubMed

    Balyan, Minas K

    2016-07-01

    For the first time the third-order nonlinear time-dependent Takagi's equations of X-rays in crystals are obtained and investigated. The third-order nonlinear and linear time-dependent dynamical diffraction of X-rays spatially restricted in the diffraction plane pulses in crystals is investigated theoretically. A method of solving the linear and the third-order nonlinear time-dependent Takagi's equations is proposed. Based on this method, results of analytical and numerical calculations for both linear and nonlinear diffraction cases are presented and compared.

  13. A Numerical Solution of the Second-Order-Nonlinear Acoustic Wave Equation in One and in Three Dimensions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-08

    as it propagates over a small interval, and then to correct for absorption. Another nonlinear wave equation of great interest is the Korteweg - DeVries ...acoustics are described by the second-order-nonlinear wave equation , which is derived in this thesis and solved by numerical means. the validity of the...no approximations are made in the second-order-nonlinear acoustic wave equation as it is solved . This represents an advance on the prior art, in which

  14. Higher order multi-dimensional extensions of Cesàro theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Luigi; Ji, Un Cig; Saitô, Kimiaki

    2015-12-01

    The Cesàro theorem is extended to the cases: (1) higher order Cesàro mean for sequence (discrete case); and (2) higher order, multi-dimensional and continuous Cesàro mean for functions. Also, we study the Cesàro theorem for the case of positive-order.

  15. Higher Order Thinking Skills among Secondary School Students in Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saido, Gulistan Mohammed; Siraj, Saedah; Bin Nordin, Abu Bakar; Al Amedy, Omed Saadallah

    2015-01-01

    A central goal of science education is to help students to develop their higher order thinking skills to enable them to face the challenges of daily life. Enhancing students' higher order thinking skills is the main goal of the Kurdish Science Curriculum in the Iraqi-Kurdistan region. This study aimed at assessing 7th grade students' higher order…

  16. Tensor based geology preserving reservoir parameterization with Higher Order Singular Value Decomposition (HOSVD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afra, Sardar; Gildin, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Parameter estimation through robust parameterization techniques has been addressed in many works associated with history matching and inverse problems. Reservoir models are in general complex, nonlinear, and large-scale with respect to the large number of states and unknown parameters. Thus, having a practical approach to replace the original set of highly correlated unknown parameters with non-correlated set of lower dimensionality, that captures the most significant features comparing to the original set, is of high importance. Furthermore, de-correlating system's parameters while keeping the geological description intact is critical to control the ill-posedness nature of such problems. We introduce the advantages of a new low dimensional parameterization approach for reservoir characterization applications utilizing multilinear algebra based techniques like higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). In tensor based approaches like HOSVD, 2D permeability images are treated as they are, i.e., the data structure is kept as it is, whereas in conventional dimensionality reduction algorithms like SVD data has to be vectorized. Hence, compared to classical methods, higher redundancy reduction with less information loss can be achieved through decreasing present redundancies in all dimensions. In other words, HOSVD approximation results in a better compact data representation with respect to least square sense and geological consistency in comparison with classical algorithms. We examined the performance of the proposed parameterization technique against SVD approach on the SPE10 benchmark reservoir model as well as synthetic channelized permeability maps to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. Moreover, to acquire statistical consistency, we repeat all experiments for a set of 1000 unknown geological samples and provide comparison using RMSE analysis. Results prove that, for a fixed compression ratio, the performance of the proposed approach

  17. Higher and sub-harmonic Lamb wave mode generation due to debond-induced contact nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Anurup; Bijudas, C. R.

    2016-04-01

    Non-cumulative higher and sub-harmonic Lamb wave mode generation as a result of partial-debond of piezoelectric wafer transducers (PWT) bonded onto an Aluminium plate, is numerically investigated and experimentally validated. The influence of excitation frequency on the extent of nonlinearity due to clapping mechanism of the partially-debonded PWTs is discussed. A set of specific frequency range is arrived at based on the Eigen-value and Harmonic analyses of PWTs used in the model. It is found that, at these frequencies, which are integral multiple of the first width-direction mode of a PWT, significantly higher amplitudes of higher-harmonics are observed. It is also seen that at specific debond-positions and lengths, sharp sub-harmonics in addition to higher-harmonics are present. Signal processing is carried out using Fast Fourier transform, which is normalized for comparisons.

  18. Higher-order vector discrete rogue-wave states in the coupled Ablowitz-Ladik equations: Exact solutions and stability.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Yong; Yan, Zhenya; Malomed, Boris A

    2016-12-01

    An integrable system of two-component nonlinear Ablowitz-Ladik equations is used to construct complex rogue-wave (RW) solutions in an explicit form. First, the modulational instability of continuous waves is studied in the system. Then, new higher-order discrete two-component RW solutions of the system are found by means of a newly derived discrete version of a generalized Darboux transformation. Finally, the perturbed evolution of these RW states is explored in terms of systematic simulations, which demonstrates that tightly and loosely bound RWs are, respectively, nearly stable and strongly unstable solutions.

  19. Higher-order vector discrete rogue-wave states in the coupled Ablowitz-Ladik equations: Exact solutions and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Yong; Yan, Zhenya; Malomed, Boris A.

    2016-12-01

    An integrable system of two-component nonlinear Ablowitz-Ladik equations is used to construct complex rogue-wave (RW) solutions in an explicit form. First, the modulational instability of continuous waves is studied in the system. Then, new higher-order discrete two-component RW solutions of the system are found by means of a newly derived discrete version of a generalized Darboux transformation. Finally, the perturbed evolution of these RW states is explored in terms of systematic simulations, which demonstrates that tightly and loosely bound RWs are, respectively, nearly stable and strongly unstable solutions.

  20. Nonlinear Asymptotic Integration Algorithms for One-dimensional Autonomous Dissipative First-order Odes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslach, Henry W., Jr.; Freed, Alan D.; Walker, Kevin P.

    1994-01-01

    Nonlinear asymptotic integrators are applied to one-dimensional, nonlinear, autonomous, dissipative, ordinary differential equations. These integrators, including a one-step explicit, a one-step implicit, and a one- and two-step midpoint algorithm, are designed to follow the asymptotic behavior of a system approaching a steady state. The methods require that the differential equation be written in a particular asymptotic form. This is always possible for a one-dimensional equation with a globally asymptotic steady state. In this case, conditions are obtained to guarantee that the implicit algorithms are well defined. Further conditions are determined for the implicit methods to be contractive. These methods are all first order accurate, while under certain conditions the midpoint algorithms may also become second order accurate. The stability of each method is investigated and an estimate of the local error is provided.

  1. A nonlinear manifold-based reduced order model for multiscale analysis of heterogeneous hyperelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Satyaki; Matouš, Karel

    2016-05-01

    A new manifold-based reduced order model for nonlinear problems in multiscale modeling of heterogeneous hyperelastic materials is presented. The model relies on a global geometric framework for nonlinear dimensionality reduction (Isomap), and the macroscopic loading parameters are linked to the reduced space using a Neural Network. The proposed model provides both homogenization and localization of the multiscale solution in the context of computational homogenization. To construct the manifold, we perform a number of large three-dimensional simulations of a statistically representative unit cell using a parallel finite strain finite element solver. The manifold-based reduced order model is verified using common principles from the machine-learning community. Both homogenization and localization of the multiscale solution are demonstrated on a large three-dimensional example and the local microscopic fields as well as the homogenized macroscopic potential are obtained with acceptable engineering accuracy.

  2. Third-order nonlinear optical response in quantum dot-metal nanoparticle hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. N.; Yao, D. Z.; Zhou, H. M.; Chen, F.; Xiong, G. G.

    2013-12-01

    Third-order nonlinear optical response of a semiconductor quantum dot, modulated by the metal nanoparticle (MNP), has been studied by using the effective mass and the rotating wave approximation. Considering multiple effects in the local and nonlocal optical response of the MNP, the dependence of the dispersion and the absorption on the size of the hybrid system are investigated in detail. By controlling the geometrical parameters of the hybrid structure and the direction of the electric field polarization, a significant enhancement of the nonlinear response is shown. The enhancement factor is nearly two orders of the magnitude, which is consistent with the experiment. Compared to the results obtained with the local effect, the center frequency shows blueshift obviously in the case of the nonlocal effect. In particular, the presence of the MNP leads to a strong absorption band appearance, which promises applications in the field of light transmission and the optical switching.

  3. A reduced-order nonlinear sliding mode observer for vehicle slip angle and tyre forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuhang; Ji, Yunfeng; Guo, Konghui

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a reduced-order sliding mode observer (RO-SMO) is developed for vehicle state estimation. Several improvements are achieved in this paper. First, the reference model accuracy is improved by considering vehicle load transfers and using a precise nonlinear tyre model 'UniTire'. Second, without the reference model accuracy degraded, the computing burden of the state observer is decreased by a reduced-order approach. Third, nonlinear system damping is integrated into the SMO to speed convergence and reduce chattering. The proposed RO-SMO is evaluated through simulation and experiments based on an in-wheel motor electric vehicle. The results show that the proposed observer accurately predicts the vehicle states.

  4. Harnessing second-order optical nonlinearities at interfaces in multilayer silicon-oxy-nitride waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Dylan F.; Alamin Dow, Ali B.; Stepanov, Dmitri; Abolghasem, Payam; Kherani, Nazir P.; Helmy, Amr S.

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate multi-layer silicon-oxy-nitride (SiON) waveguides as a platform for broadband tunable phase-matching of second-order nonlinear interactions arising at material interfaces. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is measured with a 2 ps pulsed pump of 1515-1535 nm wavelength, where 6 nW power is generated by an average pump power of 30 mW in a 0.92 mm long device. The wavelength acceptance bandwidth of the SHG is as broad as 20 nm due to the low material dispersion of SiON waveguides. The waveguide structure provides a viable method for utilizing second order nonlinearity for light generation and manipulation in silicon photonic circuits.

  5. Assessing first-order emulator inference for physical parameters in nonlinear mechanistic models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Leeds, William B.; Fiechter, Jerome; Wikle, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach for estimating physical parameters in nonlinear models that relies on an approximation to the mechanistic model itself for computational efficiency. The proposed methodology is validated and applied in two different modeling scenarios: (a) Simulation and (b) lower trophic level ocean ecosystem model. The approach we develop relies on the ability to predict right singular vectors (resulting from a decomposition of computer model experimental output) based on the computer model input and an experimental set of parameters. Critically, we model the right singular vectors in terms of the model parameters via a nonlinear statistical model. Specifically, we focus our attention on first-order models of these right singular vectors rather than the second-order (covariance) structure.

  6. Cascaded third-harmonic generation in a single short-range-ordered nonlinear photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yan; Saltiel, Solomon M; Koynov, Kaloian

    2009-03-01

    Collinear third-harmonic generation at 526.7 nm was realized by the simultaneous phase matching of two second-order processes in a single quadratic crystal: second-harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency mixing (SFM). The measured conversion efficiency was 12%. As a nonlinear medium a LiNbO(3) nonlinear photonic crystal with short-range order was used that allowed simultaneous phase matching by use of discrete reciprocal vector (for the SHG process) and continuous reciprocal vectors (for the SFM process). It was demonstrated that the third harmonic could be generated efficiently in such a crystal even if the intermediate process of SHG was not perfectly phase matched.

  7. Third-order-accurate numerical methods for efficient, large time-step solutions of mixed linear and nonlinear problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    There is an increasing need for more accurate numerical methods for large-scale nonlinear magneto-fluid turbulence calculations. These methods should not only increase the current state of the art in terms of accuracy, but should also continue to optimize other desired properties such as simplicity, minimized computation, minimized memory requirements, and robust stability. This includes the ability to stably solve stiff problems with long time-steps. This work discusses a general methodology for deriving higher-order numerical methods. It also discusses how the selection of various choices can affect the desired properties. The explicit discussion focuses on third-order Runge-Kutta methods, including general solutions and five examples. The study investigates the linear numerical analysis of these methods, including their accuracy, general stability, and stiff stability. Additional appendices discuss linear multistep methods, discuss directions for further work, and exhibit numerical analysis results for some other commonly used lower-order methods.

  8. A framework for simulating ultrasound imaging based on first order nonlinear pressure-velocity relations.

    PubMed

    Du, Yigang; Fan, Rui; Li, Yong; Chen, Siping; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-07-01

    An ultrasound imaging framework modeled with the first order nonlinear pressure-velocity relations (NPVR) and implemented by a half-time staggered solution and pseudospectral method is presented in this paper. The framework is capable of simulating linear and nonlinear ultrasound propagation and reflections in a heterogeneous medium with different sound speeds and densities. It can be initialized with arbitrary focus, excitation and apodization for multiple individual channels in both 2D and 3D spatial fields. The simulated channel data can be generated using this framework, and ultrasound image can be obtained by beamforming the simulated channel data. Various results simulated by different algorithms are illustrated for comparisons. The root mean square (RMS) errors for each compared pulses are calculated. The linear propagation is validated by an angular spectrum approach (ASA) with a RMS error of 3% at the focal point for a 2D field, and Field II with RMS errors of 0.8% and 1.5% at the electronic and the elevation focuses for 3D fields, respectively. The accuracy for the NPVR based nonlinear propagation is investigated by comparing with the Abersim simulation for pulsed fields and with the nonlinear ASA for monochromatic fields. The RMS errors of the nonlinear pulses calculated by the NPVR and Abersim are respectively 2.4%, 7.4%, 17.6% and 36.6% corresponding to initial pressure amplitudes of 50kPa, 200kPa, 500kPa and 1MPa at the transducer. By increasing the sampling frequency for the strong nonlinearity, the RMS error for 1MPa initial pressure amplitude is reduced from 36.6% to 27.3%.

  9. The third-order optical nonlinearities of Ge-Ga-Sb(In)-S chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Haitao; Chen, Hongyan; Hou, Chaoqi; Lin, Aoxiang; Zhu, Yonggang; Lu, Shoudi; Gu, Shaoxuan; Lu, Min; Peng, Bo

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} It is firstly demonstrated that the nonlinear refractive index n{sub 2} is dependent on the covalency of bonds in chalcogenide glass. {yields} Homopolar metallic bonds in chalcogenide glass have positive contribution to large nonlinear refractive index n{sub 2} also. {yields} The 80GeS{sub 2}.20Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} glass would be expected to be used in the all-optical switches working at 1330 nm and 1550 nm telecommunication wavelengths. -- Abstract: The third-order optical nonlinearities of 80GeS{sub 2}.(20 - x)Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3}.xY{sub 2}S{sub 3} (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and Y = Sb or In) chalcogenide glasses were investigated utilizing the Z-scan method at the wavelength of 800 nm and their linear optical properties and structure were also studied. By analyzing the compositional dependences and possible influencing factors including the linear refractive index, the concentration of lone electron pairs, the optical bandgap and the amount of weak covalent/homopolar bonds, it indicates that the electronic contribution in weak heteropolar covalent and homopolar metallic bonds is responsible for large nonlinear refractive index n{sub 2} in the chalcogenide glasses. These chalcogenide glasses have characteristics of environmentally friendship, wide transparency in the visible region, high nonlinear refractive index n{sub 2} and low nonlinear absorption coefficient {beta}, and would be expected to be used in the all-optical switches working at 1330 nm and 1550 nm telecommunication wavelengths.

  10. Implementation of Improved Transverse Shear Calculations and Higher Order Laminate Theory Into Strain Rate Dependent Analyses of Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Lin-Fa; Kim, Soo; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical procedure has been developed to investigate the nonlinear and strain rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composite laminated plates under high strain rate impact loadings. A recently developed strength of materials based micromechanics model, incorporating a set of nonlinear, strain rate dependent constitutive equations for the polymer matrix, is extended to account for the transverse shear effects during impact. Four different assumptions of transverse shear deformation are investigated in order to improve the developed strain rate dependent micromechanics model. The validities of these assumptions are investigated using numerical and theoretical approaches. A method to determine through the thickness strain and transverse Poisson's ratio of the composite is developed. The revised micromechanics model is then implemented into a higher order laminated plate theory which is modified to include the effects of inelastic strains. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the mechanical response of composite plates under high strain rate loadings. Results show the transverse shear stresses cannot be neglected in the impact problem. A significant level of strain rate dependency and material nonlinearity is found in the deformation response of representative composite specimens.

  11. Higher-Order Harmonic Generation from Fullerene by Means of the Plasma Harmonic Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ozaki, T.; Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J. P.; Bhardwaj, V. R.

    2009-01-09

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-order harmonic generation from C{sub 60} by an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. Laser-produced plasmas from C{sub 60}-rich epoxy and C{sub 60} films were used as the nonlinear media. Harmonics up to the 19th order were observed. The harmonic yield from fullerene-rich plasma is about 25 times larger compared with those produced from a bulk carbon target. Structural studies of plasma debris confirm the presence and integrity of fullerenes within the plasma plume, indicating fullerenes as the source of high-order harmonics.

  12. Finite-time state feedback stabilisation of stochastic high-order nonlinear feedforward systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Xing-Hui; Zhang, Kemei

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the finite-time state feedback stabilisation of stochastic high-order nonlinear feedforward systems. Based on the stochastic Lyapunov theorem on finite-time stability, by using the homogeneous domination method, the adding one power integrator and sign function method, constructing a ? Lyapunov function and verifying the existence and uniqueness of solution, a continuous state feedback controller is designed to guarantee the closed-loop system finite-time stable in probability.

  13. Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing Measurements of High Order Nonlinearities in Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    2274 IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS. VOL. 27, NO. IO. OCTOBER 1991 Degenerate Four -Wave Mixing Measurements of High Order Nonlinearities in... four -wave mixing experi- ments on ZnSe and CdTe semiconductor samples with pico- second laser pulses at wavelengths below the bandgap. Nonlin- earities...three-photon absorption. I. INTRODUCTION WE repo~ ~ series of picose~ond degenerate four -wave mixmg (DFWM) studies conducted in ZnSe and CdTe at

  14. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Analysis of Orthotropic Beams Using a General Third-Order Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-20

    continuous functions for all the primary variables, thus simplifying the implementation . A two-point recur- rence scheme is developed such that history from...Keywords: Finite element model Spectral/hp approximations General third-order beam theory Viscoelastic behavior von Kármán nonlinearity a b s t r a c t...The fully discretized finite element equations are obtained by approximating the convolution integrals using a trapezoidal rule. A two-point recurrence

  15. Perturbation expansion and Nth order Fermi golden rule of the nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Gang

    2007-05-01

    In this paper we consider generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equations with external potentials. We find the expressions for the fourth and the sixth order Fermi golden rules (FGRs), conjectured in Gang and Sigal [Rev. Math. Phys. 17, 1143-1207 (2005); Geom. Funct. Anal. 16, No. 7, 1377-1390 (2006)]. The FGR is a key condition in a study of the asymptotic dynamics of trapped solitons.

  16. Phase-dependent ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearities in metallophthalocyanine thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Samir; Anil Kumar, K. V.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.; Das, Ritwick

    2016-09-01

    We present a comprehensive study on the impact of phase transformations of metallophthalocyanine thin films on their third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The metallophthalocyanine thin films are prepared by thermally evaporating the commercially available Copper(II)2,9,16,23-Tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and Zinc(II) 2,9,16,23-Tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) powder on glass substrate. Thermal annealing causes a phase transformation which has a distinct signature in powder X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. The NLO characteristics which include nonlinear refractive index n2, as well as nonlinear absorption coefficient (βeff), were measured by using a single beam Z-scan technique. An ultrashort pulsed fiber laser emitting femtosecond pulses (Δτ ≈ 250 fs) at 1064 nm central wavelength is used as a source for the Z-scan experiment. The βeff values in as prepared thin films were ascertained to be smaller as compared to the annealed one due to the smaller value of saturation intensity (Is) which, in turn, is a consequence of ground-state bleaching in the thermally unstable amorphous state of the molecule. Interestingly, the nonlinear refractive indices bear opposite sign for CuPc and ZnPc. The variations in the third-order nonlinearity in CuPc and ZnPc are discussed in terms of molecular packing and geometries of metallophthalocyanine molecules.

  17. The effect of doping acid on the third-order nonlinearity of carboxymethyl cellulose by the Z-scan technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, A.; Naderali, R.; Motiei, H.

    2017-02-01

    The studies on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of carboxymethyl cellulose nanocomposite in the absence and presence of inorganic acid as a dopant was reported. The Z-scan technique was used to measure the nonlinear refraction n2, and absorption β, indexes and the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ3. Characterization of this nanocomposite was performed by using scanning electron microscopy and Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectroscopy in two different solvents; Dimethylformamide and N-Methylpyrrolidone. Additionally X-ray diffraction was used to study their crystal structure. The measured values of the nonlinear refraction of each sample in both of the solutions were in the order of 10-9m2/w and the corresponding third-order nonlinear susceptibilities were in the order 10-4 esu.

  18. Study of the third order nonlinear optical properties of Zn1-xMgxSe and Cd1-xMgxSe crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkowska, B.; Firszt, F.; Sahraoui, B.; Marasek, A.; Kujawa, M.

    2008-03-01

    Third order nonlinear optical susceptibilities χ<3> of ternary Zn1-xMgxSe and Cd1-xMgxSe crystals have been measured using standard degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) method at 532 nm. The nonlinear transmission technique has been applied to check if our crystals exhibit two-photon absorption. The studied Zn1-xMgxSe and Cd1-xMgxSe solid solutions were grown from the melt by the modified high-pressure Bridgman method. For both crystals the energy gap increases with increasing Mg content. In the case of Zn1-xMgxSe, it was found that the value of third order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ<3> decreases with increasing Mg content. An explanation of this behaviour results from the dependence of optical nonlinearities on the energy band gap Eg of the studied crystals. In the case of Cd1txMgxSe with low content of Mg, no response was observed for the studied wavelength since the energy gap in such crystals is smaller than the photon energy of the used laser radiation. It was also found that the value of third order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ<3> for Cd0.70Mg0.30Se is higher than for Zn0.67Mg0.33Se. This behaviour can be understood if one take into consideration that the free carrier concentration in Cd1-xMgxSe samples is about four orders of magnitude higher than that in Zn1txMgxSe ones with comparable Mg content respectively. It is commonly known that when the electric conductivity increases, the values of nonlinear optical properties increase. From the performed measurements one can conclude that the incorporation of Mg as constituent into ZnSe and CdSe crystals leads to a change of the third order nonlinear optical susceptibilities.

  19. Reconstruction of noise-driven nonlinear networks from node outputs by using high-order correlations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Chen, Tianyu; Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Many practical systems can be described by dynamic networks, for which modern technique can measure their outputs, and accumulate extremely rich data. Nevertheless, the network structures producing these data are often deeply hidden in the data. The problem of inferring network structures by analyzing the available data, turns to be of great significance. On one hand, networks are often driven by various unknown facts, such as noises. On the other hand, network structures of practical systems are commonly nonlinear, and different nonlinearities can provide rich dynamic features and meaningful functions of realistic networks. Although many works have considered each fact in studying network reconstructions, much less papers have been found to systematically treat both difficulties together. Here we propose to use high-order correlation computations (HOCC) to treat nonlinear dynamics; use two-time correlations to decorrelate effects of network dynamics and noise driving; and use suitable basis and correlator vectors to unifiedly infer all dynamic nonlinearities, topological interaction links and noise statistical structures. All the above theoretical frameworks are constructed in a closed form and numerical simulations fully verify the validity of theoretical predictions. PMID:28322230

  20. Reconstruction of noise-driven nonlinear networks from node outputs by using high-order correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Chen, Tianyu; Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    2017-03-01

    Many practical systems can be described by dynamic networks, for which modern technique can measure their outputs, and accumulate extremely rich data. Nevertheless, the network structures producing these data are often deeply hidden in the data. The problem of inferring network structures by analyzing the available data, turns to be of great significance. On one hand, networks are often driven by various unknown facts, such as noises. On the other hand, network structures of practical systems are commonly nonlinear, and different nonlinearities can provide rich dynamic features and meaningful functions of realistic networks. Although many works have considered each fact in studying network reconstructions, much less papers have been found to systematically treat both difficulties together. Here we propose to use high-order correlation computations (HOCC) to treat nonlinear dynamics; use two-time correlations to decorrelate effects of network dynamics and noise driving; and use suitable basis and correlator vectors to unifiedly infer all dynamic nonlinearities, topological interaction links and noise statistical structures. All the above theoretical frameworks are constructed in a closed form and numerical simulations fully verify the validity of theoretical predictions.

  1. Electric field effect on the second-order nonlinear optical properties in semiparabolic quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jian-Hui; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Yan; Mo, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Hai

    2016-03-01

    Electric field effect on the second-order nonlinear optical properties in semiparabolic quantum wells are studied theoretically. Both the second-harmonic generation susceptibility and nonlinear optical rectification depend dramatically on the direction and the strength of the electric field. Numerical results show that both the second-harmonic generation susceptibility and nonlinear optical rectification are always weakened as the electric field increases where the direction of the electric field is along the growth direction of the quantum wells, which is in contrast to the conventional case. However, the second-harmonic generation susceptibility is weakened, but the nonlinear optical rectification is strengthened as the electric field increases where the direction of the electric field is against the growth direction of the quantum wells. Also it is the blue (or red) shift of the resonance that is induced by increasing of the electric field when the direction of the electric field is along (or against) the growth direction of the quantum wells. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding to the resonant energy are also taken into account.

  2. Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for autonomous higher order dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2011-09-01

    The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of Skinner and Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, as well as for first-order and higher order field theories. However, a complete generalization to higher order mechanical systems is yet to be described. In this work, after reviewing the natural geometrical setting and the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms for higher order autonomous mechanical systems, we develop a complete generalization of the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for these kinds of systems, and we use it to analyze some physical models from this new point of view.

  3. Interactive point-based rendering of higher-order tetrahedral data.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Garland, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Computational simulations frequently generate solutions defined over very large tetrahedral volume meshes containing many millions of elements. Furthermore, such solutions may often be expressed using non-linear basis functions. Certain solution techniques, such as discontinuous Galerkin methods, may even produce non-conforming meshes. Such data is difficult to visualize interactively, as it is far too large to fit in memory and many common data reduction techniques, such as mesh simplification, cannot be applied to non-conforming meshes. We introduce a point-based visualization system for interactive rendering of large, potentially non-conforming, tetrahedral meshes. We propose methods for adaptively sampling points from non-linear solution data and for decimating points at run time to fit GPU memory limits. Because these are streaming processes, memory consumption is independent of the input size. We also present an order-independent point rendering method that can efficiently render volumes on the order of 20 million tetrahedra at interactive rates.

  4. Fourth order exponential time differencing method with local discontinuous Galerkin approximation for coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Xiao; Khaliq, Abdul Q. M.; Xing, Yulong

    2015-01-23

    In this paper, we study a local discontinuous Galerkin method combined with fourth order exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta time discretization and a fourth order conservative method for solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Based on different choices of numerical fluxes, we propose both energy-conserving and energy-dissipative local discontinuous Galerkin methods, and have proven the error estimates for the semi-discrete methods applied to linear Schrödinger equation. The numerical methods are proven to be highly efficient and stable for long-range soliton computations. Finally, extensive numerical examples are provided to illustrate the accuracy, efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods.

  5. Energy Stable Flux Formulas For The Discontinuous Galerkin Discretization Of First Order Nonlinear Conservation Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Charrier, Pierre; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We consider the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element discretization of first order systems of conservation laws derivable as moments of the kinetic Boltzmann equation. This includes well known conservation law systems such as the Euler For the class of first order nonlinear conservation laws equipped with an entropy extension, an energy analysis of the DG method for the Cauchy initial value problem is developed. Using this DG energy analysis, several new variants of existing numerical flux functions are derived and shown to be energy stable.

  6. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  7. Exact Nonlinear Fourth-order Equation for Two Coupled Oscillators: Metamorphoses of Resonance Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyzioł, J.; Okniński, A.

    We study dynamics of two coupled periodically driven oscillators. The internal motion is separated off exactly to yield a nonlinear fourth-order equation describing inner dynamics. Periodic steady-state solutions of the fourth-order equation are determined within the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky approach - we compute the amplitude profiles, which from mathematical point of view are algebraic curves. In the present paper we investigate metamorphoses of amplitude profiles induced by changes of control parameters near singular points of these curves. It follows that dynamics changes qualitatively in the neighbourhood of a singular point.

  8. Higher order feed-forward control of reticle writing error fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haren, Richard; Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Beltman, Jan; Pastol, Anne; Sundermann, Frank; Gatefait, Maxime

    2015-10-01

    The understanding and control of the intra-field overlay budget becomes crucial particularly after the introduction of multi-patterning applications. The intra-field overlay budget is built-up out of many contributors, each with its own characteristic. Some of them are (semi-)static like the reticle writing error (RWE) fingerprint, the scanner lens fingerprint, or the intra-field processing signature. Others are more dynamic. Examples are reticle heating and lens heating due to the absorption of a small portion of the exposure light. Ideally, all overlay contributors that are understood and known could be taken out of the feed-back control loop and send as feed-forward corrections to the scanner. As a consequence, only non-correctable overlay residuals are measured on the wafer. In the current work, we have studied the possibility to characterize the reticle writing error fingerprint by an off-line position measurement tool and use this information to send feed-forward corrections to the ASML TWINSCANTM exposure tool. The current work is an extension of the work we published earlier. To this end, we have selected a reticle pair out of 50 production reticles that are used to manufacture a 28-nm technology device. These two reticles are special in the sense that the delta fingerprint contains a significant higher order RWE signature. While previously only the linear parameters were sent as feed-forward corrections to the ASML TWINSCANTM exposure tool, this time we additionally demonstrate the capability to correct for the non-linear terms as well. Since the concept heavily relies on the quality of the off-line mask registration measurements, a state-of-the-art reticle registration tool was chosen. Special care was taken to eliminate any effects of the tool induced shifts that may affect the quality of the measurements. The on-wafer overlay verification measurements were performed on an ASML YieldStar metrology tool as well as on a different vendor tool. In conclusion

  9. Order reduction and efficient implementation of nonlinear nonlocal cochlear response models.

    PubMed

    Filo, Maurice; Karameh, Fadi; Awad, Mariette

    2016-12-01

    The cochlea is an indispensable preliminary processing stage in auditory perception that employs mechanical frequency-tuning and electrical transduction of incoming sound waves. Cochlear mechanical responses are shown to exhibit active nonlinear spatiotemporal response dynamics (e.g., otoacoustic emission). To model such phenomena, it is often necessary to incorporate cochlear fluid-membrane interactions. This results in both excessively high-order model formulations and computationally intensive solutions that limit their practical use in simulating the model and analyzing its response even for simple single-tone inputs. In order to address these limitations, the current work employs a control-theoretic framework to reformulate a nonlinear two-dimensional cochlear model into discrete state space models that are of considerably lower order (factor of 8) and are computationally much simpler (factor of 25). It is shown that the reformulated models enjoy sparse matrix structures which permit efficient numerical manipulations. Furthermore, the spatially discretized models are linearized and simplified using balanced transformation techniques to result in lower-order (nonlinear) realizations derived from the dominant Hankel singular values of the system dynamics. Accuracy and efficiency of the reduced-order reformulations are demonstrated under the response to two fixed tones, sweeping tones and, more generally, a brief speech signal. The corresponding responses are compared to those produced by the original model in both frequency and spatiotemporal domains. Although carried out on a specific instance of cochlear models, the introduced framework of control-theoretic model reduction could be applied to a wide class of models that address the micro- and macro-mechanical properties of the cochlea.

  10. On controlling nonlinear dissipation in high order filter methods for ideal and non-ideal MHD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The newly developed adaptive numerical dissipation control in spatially high order filter schemes for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations has been recently extended to the ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. These filter schemes are applicable to complex unsteady MHD high-speed shock/shear/turbulence problems. They also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error. The adaptive numerical dissipation mechanism consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free from numerical dissipation contamination. The numerical dissipation considered consists of high order linear dissipation for the suppression of high frequency oscillation and the nonlinear dissipative portion of high-resolution shock-capturing methods for discontinuity capturing. The applicable nonlinear dissipative portion of high-resolution shock-capturing methods is very general. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of three commonly used types of nonlinear numerical dissipation for both the ideal and non-ideal MHD.

  11. Asymptotic integration algorithms for nonhomogeneous, nonlinear, first order, ordinary differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, K. P.; Freed, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    New methods for integrating systems of stiff, nonlinear, first order, ordinary differential equations are developed by casting the differential equations into integral form. Nonlinear recursive relations are obtained that allow the solution to a system of equations at time t plus delta t to be obtained in terms of the solution at time t in explicit and implicit forms. Examples of accuracy obtained with the new technique are given by considering systems of nonlinear, first order equations which arise in the study of unified models of viscoplastic behaviors, the spread of the AIDS virus, and predator-prey populations. In general, the new implicit algorithm is unconditionally stable, and has a Jacobian of smaller dimension than that which is acquired by current implicit methods, such as the Euler backward difference algorithm; yet, it gives superior accuracy. The asymptotic explicit and implicit algorithms are suitable for solutions that are of the growing and decaying exponential kinds, respectively, whilst the implicit Euler-Maclaurin algorithm is superior when the solution oscillates, i.e., when there are regions in which both growing and decaying exponential solutions exist.

  12. An all-optical switch and third-order optical nonlinearity of 3,4-pyridinediamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badran, Hussain A.; Abul-Hail, Riyadh Ch.; Shaker, Hussain S.; musa, Abdulameer I.; Hassan, Qusay M. A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the third-order nonlinear optical properties of 3,4-pyridinediamine solution. The nonlinear measurements were taken by using single-beam Z-scan technique with cw laser at 473 nm. The effect of varying glucose concentration in a sample solution has been studied. The experimental results show that the nonlinear refractive index, n 2, and nonlinear absorption coefficient, β, are strongly dependent on the glucose concentration in a sample solution. The optical limiting properties are measured by a transmission technique. We find that the limiting threshold can be improved by a proper choice of glucose concentration in sample solution. A 3,4-pyridinediamine with 80 mmol glucose concentration showed a good switching property. This phenomenon was demonstrated by waveguiding a transistor-transistor logic modulated cw 473 nm laser beam as an excitation beam modulated at 10 Hz frequency collinearly with a continuous-wave SDL-635-100T laser beam of wavelength 653 nm through a quartz cuvette of thickness 1 mm. The results of pump-probe experiments show that the time of switch-on and switch-off of the 3,4-pyridinediamine was in μs for the pump intensity. The energy-dependent transmission studies also reveal better limiting property of the sample compound at nanosecond regime. Also, thermo-optic coefficients have been determined by thermal lens (TL) technique (-9.54 × 10-5 K-1) and it was found to be temperature dependent. This value was compared with result obtained by Z-scan calculations (-7.46 × 10-5 K-1). Thus, the nonlinear response of the material suggests that it has a potential application for high-sensitive photonic devices.

  13. Solving nonlinear system of third-order boundary value problems using block method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Phang Pei; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Suleiman, Mohamed; Ismail, Fudziah Bt; Othman, Khairil Iskandar

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm of two-point block method to solve the nonlinear system of third-order boundary value problems directly. The proposed method is presented in a simple form of Adams type and two approximate solutions will be obtained simultaneously with the block method using variable step size strategy. The method will be implemented with the multiple shooting technique via the three-step iterative method to generate the missing initial value. Most of the existence method will reduce the third-order boundary value problems to a system of first order equations where the systems of six equations need to be solved. The method we proposed in this paper will solve the third-order boundary value problems directly. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  14. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin sputtered gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Aloukos, P.; Couris, S.; Kaminska, E.; Piotrowska, A.; Dynowska, E.

    2007-07-01

    Au films of thickness ranging between 5 and 52 nm were prepared by sputtering on quartz substrates and their third-order nonlinear optical response was investigated by Optical Kerr effect (OKE) and Z-scan techniques using 532 nm, 35 ps laser pulses. All prepared films were characterized by XRD, AFM and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry while their third-order susceptibility χ(3) was measured and found to be of the order of 10 -9 esu. The real and imaginary parts of the third-order susceptibility were found in very good agreement with experimental results and theoretical predictions reported by Smith et al. [D.D. Smith, Y. Yoon, R.W. Boyd, Y.K. Cambell, L.A. Baker, R.M. Crooks, M. George, J. Appl. Phys. 86 (1999) 6200].

  15. Ultrafast control of third-order optical nonlinearities in fishnet metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Shorokhov, Alexander S.; Okhlopkov, Kirill I.; Reinhold, Jörg; Helgert, Christian; Shcherbakov, Maxim R.; Pertsch, Thomas; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear photonic nanostructures that allow efficient all-optical switching are considered to be a prospective platform for novel building blocks in photonics. We performed time-resolved measurements of the photoinduced transient third-order nonlinear optical response of a fishnet metamaterial. The mutual influence of two non-collinear pulses exciting the magnetic resonance of the metamaterial was probed by detecting the third-harmonic radiation as a function of the time delay between pulses. Subpicosecond-scale dynamics of the metamaterial’s χ(3) was observed; the all-optical χ(3) modulation depth was found to be approximately 70% at a pump fluence of only 20 μJ/cm2. PMID:27335268

  16. Ultrafast control of third-order optical nonlinearities in fishnet metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorokhov, Alexander S.; Okhlopkov, Kirill I.; Reinhold, Jörg; Helgert, Christian; Shcherbakov, Maxim R.; Pertsch, Thomas; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear photonic nanostructures that allow efficient all-optical switching are considered to be a prospective platform for novel building blocks in photonics. We performed time-resolved measurements of the photoinduced transient third-order nonlinear optical response of a fishnet metamaterial. The mutual influence of two non-collinear pulses exciting the magnetic resonance of the metamaterial was probed by detecting the third-harmonic radiation as a function of the time delay between pulses. Subpicosecond-scale dynamics of the metamaterial’s χ(3) was observed; the all-optical χ(3) modulation depth was found to be approximately 70% at a pump fluence of only 20 μJ/cm2.

  17. Higher-order paraxial theory of the propagation of ring rippled laser beam in plasma: Relativistic ponderomotive regime

    SciTech Connect

    Purohit, Gunjan Rawat, Priyanka; Chauhan, Prashant; Mahmoud, Saleh T.

    2015-05-15

    This article presents higher-order paraxial theory (non-paraxial theory) for the ring ripple formation on an intense Gaussian laser beam and its propagation in plasma, taking into account the relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity. The intensity dependent dielectric constant of the plasma has been determined for the main laser beam and ring ripple superimposed on the main laser beam. The dielectric constant of the plasma is modified due to the contribution of the electric field vector of ring ripple. Nonlinear differential equations have been formulated to examine the growth of ring ripple in plasma, self focusing of main laser beam, and ring rippled laser beam in plasma using higher-order paraxial theory. These equations have been solved numerically for different laser intensities and plasma frequencies. The well established experimental laser and plasma parameters are used in numerical calculation. It is observed that the focusing of the laser beams (main and ring rippled) becomes fast in the nonparaxial region by expanding the eikonal and other relevant quantities up to the fourth power of r. The splitted profile of laser beam in the plasma is observed due to uneven focusing/defocusing of the axial and off-axial rays. The growths of ring ripple increase when the laser beam intensity increases. Furthermore, the intensity profile of ring rippled laser beam gets modified due to the contribution of growth rate.

  18. Questions for Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills: It's Not Just Bloom's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick

    2013-01-01

    We present an exploratory study of biologists' ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  19. Family Consumer Sciences Teachers' Use of Technology to Teach Higher Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Beth Erica

    2009-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences (FACS) high school teachers were surveyed on their use of technology to teach higher order thinking skills (HOTS). This study determined if teachers had enough support and training to use technology. Lesson plans were accumulated that required both technology and higher order thinking skills. These lessons were then…

  20. Improving Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Higher-Order Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Kelsey J.; Renshaw, Carl E.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has been shown to enhance rote memory skills and improve higher order critical thinking skills. The challenge now is to identify what aspects of CAI improve which specific higher-order skills. This study focuses on the effectiveness of using CAI to teach logarithmic graphing and dimensional analysis. Two groups…

  1. Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…

  2. Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…

  3. From "Hello" to Higher-Order Thinking: The Effect of Coaching and Feedback on Online Chats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David S.; Wanstreet, Constance E.; Slagle, Paula; Trinko, Lynn A.; Lutz, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the effect of a coaching and feedback intervention in teaching presence and social presence on higher-order thinking in an online community of inquiry. Coaching occurred before each chat, and feedback was provided immediately afterwards. The findings suggest that over time, the frequency of higher-order thinking…

  4. Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Constructs by Using an Information-Processing Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickison, Philip; Luo, Xiao; Kim, Doyoung; Woo, Ada; Muntean, William; Bergstrom, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Designing a theory-based assessment with sound psychometric qualities to measure a higher-order cognitive construct is a highly desired yet challenging task for many practitioners. This paper proposes a framework for designing a theory-based assessment to measure a higher-order cognitive construct. This framework results in a modularized yet…

  5. Authentic Instruction for 21st Century Learning: Higher Order Thinking in an Inclusive School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preus, Betty

    2012-01-01

    The author studied a public junior high school identified as successfully implementing authentic instruction. Such instruction emphasizes higher order thinking, deep knowledge, substantive conversation, and value beyond school. To determine in what ways higher order thinking was fostered both for students with and without disabilities, the author…

  6. An Analysis of Higher-Order Thinking on Algebra I End-of-Course Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This research provides insight into one US state's effort to incorporate higher-order thinking on its Algebra I End-of-Course tests. To facilitate the inclusion of higher-order thinking, the state used "Dimensions of Thinking" (Marzano et al., 1988) and "Bloom's Taxonomy" (Bloom et al., 1956). An analysis of Algebra I test…

  7. Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…

  8. An Investigation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Smaller Learning Community Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…

  9. Calculation of Moment Matrix Elements for Bilinear Quadrilaterals and Higher-Order Basis Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-06

    B. M. Kolundzija and A. R. Djordjević, Electromagnetic Modeling of Composite Metallic and Dielectric Structures . Boston: Artech House, 2002...REPORT REPORT NO: NAWCADPAX/TR-2015/241 CALCULATION OF MOMENT MATRIX ELEMENTS FOR BILINEAR QUADRILATERALS AND HIGHER-ORDER BASIS...CALCULATION OF MOMENT MATRIX ELEMENTS FOR BILINEAR QUADRILATERALS AND HIGHER-ORDER BASIS FUNCTIONS by John S. Asvestas

  10. Assessing Teachers' Beliefs Regarding Issues Pertaining to Instruction of Higher Order Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwartzer, Noa; Zohar, Anat

    The purposes of this study are to describe the development and validation of a research instrument for assessing teachers' beliefs regarding issues pertaining to the instruction of higher order thinking, and to explore the beliefs of Israeli science teachers regarding issues pertaining to instruction of higher order thinking. This paper describes…

  11. High-order Two-way Artificial Boundary Conditions for Nonlinear Wave Propagation with Backscattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fibich, Gadi; Tsynkov, Semyon

    2000-01-01

    When solving linear scattering problems, one typically first solves for the impinging wave in the absence of obstacles. Then, by linear superposition, the original problem is reduced to one that involves only the scattered waves driven by the values of the impinging field at the surface of the obstacles. In addition, when the original domain is unbounded, special artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) that would guarantee the reflectionless propagation of waves have to be set at the outer boundary of the finite computational domain. The situation becomes conceptually different when the propagation equation is nonlinear. In this case the impinging and scattered waves can no longer be separated, and the problem has to be solved in its entirety. In particular, the boundary on which the incoming field values are prescribed, should transmit the given incoming waves in one direction and simultaneously be transparent to all the outgoing waves that travel in the opposite direction. We call this type of boundary conditions two-way ABCs. In the paper, we construct the two-way ABCs for the nonlinear Helmholtz equation that models the laser beam propagation in a medium with nonlinear index of refraction. In this case, the forward propagation is accompanied by backscattering, i.e., generation of waves in the direction opposite to that of the incoming signal. Our two-way ABCs generate no reflection of the backscattered waves and at the same time impose the correct values of the incoming wave. The ABCs are obtained for a fourth-order accurate discretization to the Helmholtz operator; the fourth-order grid convergence is corroborated experimentally by solving linear model problems. We also present solutions in the nonlinear case using the two-way ABC which, unlike the traditional Dirichlet boundary condition, allows for direct calculation of the magnitude of backscattering.

  12. Higher and lowest order mixed finite element approximation of subsurface flow problems with solutions of low regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bause, Markus

    2008-02-01

    In this work we study mixed finite element approximations of Richards' equation for simulating variably saturated subsurface flow and simultaneous reactive solute transport. Whereas higher order schemes have proved their ability to approximate reliably reactive solute transport (cf., e.g. [Bause M, Knabner P. Numerical simulation of contaminant biodegradation by higher order methods and adaptive time stepping. Comput Visual Sci 7;2004:61-78]), the Raviart- Thomas mixed finite element method ( RT0) with a first order accurate flux approximation is popular for computing the underlying water flow field (cf. [Bause M, Knabner P. Computation of variably saturated subsurface flow by adaptive mixed hybrid finite element methods. Adv Water Resour 27;2004:565-581, Farthing MW, Kees CE, Miller CT. Mixed finite element methods and higher order temporal approximations for variably saturated groundwater flow. Adv Water Resour 26;2003:373-394, Starke G. Least-squares mixed finite element solution of variably saturated subsurface flow problems. SIAM J Sci Comput 21;2000:1869-1885, Younes A, Mosé R, Ackerer P, Chavent G. A new formulation of the mixed finite element method for solving elliptic and parabolic PDE with triangular elements. J Comp Phys 149;1999:148-167, Woodward CS, Dawson CN. Analysis of expanded mixed finite element methods for a nonlinear parabolic equation modeling flow into variably saturated porous media. SIAM J Numer Anal 37;2000:701-724]). This combination might be non-optimal. Higher order techniques could increase the accuracy of the flow field calculation and thereby improve the prediction of the solute transport. Here, we analyse the application of the Brezzi- Douglas- Marini element ( BDM1) with a second order accurate flux approximation to elliptic, parabolic and degenerate problems whose solutions lack the regularity that is assumed in optimal order error analyses. For the flow field calculation a superiority of the BDM1 approach to the RT0 one is

  13. Second order nonlinearity in Si by inhomogeneous strain and electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Jörg; Schriever, Clemens; Bianco, Federica; Cazzanelli, Massimo; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    The lack of a dipolar second order susceptibility (χ(2)) in silicon due to its centro-symmetric diamond lattice usually inhibits efficient second order nonlinear optical processes in the silicon bulk. Depositing stressed silicon nitride layers or growing a thermal oxide layer introduces an inhomogeneous strain into the silicon lattice and breaks the centro-symmetry of its crystal structure thereby creating a χ(2). This causes enhanced second harmonic generation and was observed in reflection and transmission measurements for wavelengths in the infrared. However strain is not the only means to break the structures symmetry. Fixed charges at the silicon nitride/silicon interface cause a high electric field close to the silicon interface which causes electric-field-induced-second-harmonic (EFISH) contributions too. The combination of both effects leads to χ(2) values which are estimated to be of the order as classic χ(2) materials like KDP or LiNiO3. This paves the way for the exploitation of other second order nonlinear processes in the area of silicon photonics and is an example how fundamental optical properties of materials can be altered by strain.

  14. Higher-order contributions to ion-acoustic solitary waves in a multicomponent plasma consisting of warm ions and two-component nonisothermal electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Das, K.P.; Majumdar, S.R.; Paul, S.N. ||

    1995-05-01

    An integrated form of the governing equations in terms of pseudopotential higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects is obtained by applying the reductive perturbation method for ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisionless unmagnetized multicomponent plasma having warm ions and two-component nonisothermal electrons. The present method is advantageous because instead of solving an inhomogeneous second-order differential equation at each order, as in the standard procedure, we solve a first-order inhomogeneous equation at each order except at the lowest. The expressions of both Mach number and width of the solitary wave are obtained as a function of the amplitude of the wave for third-order nonlinear and dispersive effects. The variations of potential, width, and Mach number against soliton amplitude are shown graphically, taking into consideration the nonisothermality of two-component electrons in the plasma.

  15. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists.

  16. The Synthesis and Evaluation of Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities of Model Compounds Containing Benzothiazole, Benzimidazole and Benzoxazole Moieties.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    AD-A235 622 WL-TR-91-4015 THE SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF THIRD-ORDER OPTICAL NONLINEARITIES OF MODEL COMPOUNDS CONTAINING BENZOTHIAZOLE ...Nonlinearities of Model Compounds Containing Benzothiazole , Benzimidazole, and Benzoxazole Moieties 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Bruce A. Reinhardt, Marilyn R...necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP nonlinear optical properties benzothiazole u/ 03 degenerate four-wave mixing benzimidazole 21

  17. Higher-order terms in sensitivity analysis through a differential approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dubi, A.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1981-06-01

    A differential approach to sensitivity analysis has been developed that eliminates some difficulties existing in previous work. The new development leads to simple explicit expressions for the first-order perturbation as well as any higher-order terms. The higher-order terms are dependent only on differentials of the transport operator, the unperturbed flux, the adjoint flux, and the unperturbed Green's function of the system.

  18. a Higher Order Theory for STATIC-DYNAMIC Analysis of Laminated Plates Using a Warping Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HASSIS, H.

    2000-08-01

    A higher order theory is developed to model the behaviour of laminated plates. This theory is based on a warping theory of plate deformation developed by Hassis [1]. Through comparison with elasticity solutions obtained with classical models [2-6] and the higher order theory of Lo et al.[7, 8], it is shown that the present theory correctly models effects not attainable by the low order theories.

  19. Development of higher-order modal methods for transient thermal and structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1989-01-01

    A force-derivative method which produces higher-order modal solutions to transient problems is evaluated. These higher-order solutions converge to an accurate response using fewer degrees-of-freedom (eigenmodes) than lower-order methods such as the mode-displacement or mode-acceleration methods. Results are presented for non-proportionally damped structural problems as well as thermal problems modeled by finite elements.

  20. Higher-order Schrödinger and Hartree–Fock equations

    SciTech Connect

    Carles, Rémi; Lucha, Wolfgang; Moulay, Emmanuel

    2015-12-15

    The domain of validity of the higher-order Schrödinger equations is analyzed for harmonic-oscillator and Coulomb potentials as typical examples. Then, the Cauchy theory for higher-order Hartree–Fock equations with bounded and Coulomb potentials is developed. Finally, the existence of associated ground states for the odd-order equations is proved. This renders these quantum equations relevant for physics.

  1. Workshop on Higher-Order Spectral Analysis Held at Vail, Colorado on 28- 30 June 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-28

    PROJECT REPORT Workshop on Higher-Order Spectral Analysis Jerry M. Mendel University of Southern California Dept. of Elec. Engineering-:ystems Los...material contained herein. I-o WORKSHOP ON HIGHER-ORDER SPECTRAL ANALYSIS June 28-30, 1989 Vail, Colorado SUMMARY by C. L. Nikias and J. M. Mendel A\\bout...ordering with cortical EEGs laboratory we reported in using bispectral recorded during sLow wave sleep having analysis of the hippocampal EEG during REM

  2. Higher Order Characterization of Heuristics for Compass and Straight Edge Constructions in Geometry. Report No. 70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Joseph M.; And Others

    A quasi-systematic strategy of devising rule sets for problem solving is applied to ruler and compass geometrical constructions. "Lower order" rules consisting of basic skills and "higher order" rules which govern the selection and combination of lower order rules are identified by an analysis of problem types; three types of…

  3. Geometric Integrators for Higher-Order Variational Systems and Their Application to Optimal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; Ferraro, Sebastián; Martín de Diego, David

    2016-12-01

    Numerical methods that preserve geometric invariants of the system, such as energy, momentum or the symplectic form, are called geometric integrators. In this paper we present a method to construct symplectic-momentum integrators for higher-order Lagrangian systems. Given a regular higher-order Lagrangian L:T^{(k)}Q→ R with k≥ 1, the resulting discrete equations define a generally implicit numerical integrator algorithm on T^{(k-1)}Q× T^{(k-1)}Q that approximates the flow of the higher-order Euler-Lagrange equations for L. The algorithm equations are called higher-order discrete Euler-Lagrange equations and constitute a variational integrator for higher-order mechanical systems. The general idea for those variational integrators is to directly discretize Hamilton's principle rather than the equations of motion in a way that preserves the invariants of the original system, notably the symplectic form and, via a discrete version of Noether's theorem, the momentum map. We construct an exact discrete Lagrangian L_d^e using the locally unique solution of the higher-order Euler-Lagrange equations for L with boundary conditions. By taking the discrete Lagrangian as an approximation of L_d^e, we obtain variational integrators for higher-order mechanical systems. We apply our techniques to optimal control problems since, given a cost function, the optimal control problem is understood as a second-order variational problem.

  4. Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Larciprete, M.C.; Passeri, D.; Michelotti, F.; Paoloni, S.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Belardini, A.; Sarto, F.; Somma, F.; Lo Mastro, S.

    2005-01-15

    We investigated second order optical nonlinearity of zinc oxide thin films, grown on glass substrates by the dual ion beam sputtering technique under different deposition conditions. Linear optical characterization of the films was carried out by spectrophotometric optical transmittance and reflectance measurements, giving the complex refractive index dispersion. Resistivity of the films was determined using the four-point probe sheet resistance method. Second harmonic generation measurements were performed by means of the Maker fringes technique where the fundamental beam was originated by nanosecond laser at {lambda}=1064 nm. We found a relatively high nonlinear optical response, and evidence of a dependence of the nonlinear coefficient on the deposition parameters for each sample. Moreover, the crystalline properties of the films were investigated by x-ray diffraction measurements and correlation with second order nonlinearity were analyzed. Finally, we investigated the influence of the oxygen flow rate during the deposition process on both the second order nonlinearity and the structural properties of the samples.

  5. The massive O(N) non-linear sigma model at high orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijnens, Johan; Carloni, Lisa

    2011-02-01

    We extend our earlier work on the massive O(N) non-linear sigma model to other observables. We derive expressions at leading order in the large N expansion at all orders in the loop expansion for the decay constant, vacuum expectation value, meson-meson scattering and the scalar and vector form factors. This is done using cactus diagram resummation using a generalized gap equation and other recursion relations. For general N we derive the expressions for the n-th-loop-order leading logarithms (M/Flog (/M))n, up to five loops for the decay constant and vacuum expectation value (VEV) and up to four loops for meson-meson scattering, the scalar and vector form factors. We also quote our earlier result for the mass. The large N results do not give a good approximation for the case N=3. We use our results to study the convergence of the perturbative series and compare with elastic unitarity.

  6. Entropy solutions for a nonlinear parabolic problems with lower order term in Orlicz spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabdaoui, M.; Moussa, H.; Rhoudaf, M.

    2017-03-01

    We shall give the proof of existence results for the entropy solutions of the following nonlinear parabolic problem ... where A is a Leray-Lions operator having a growth not necessarily of polynomial type. The lower order term Φ :Ω × (0,T)× R→ R^N is a Carathéodory function, for a.e. (x,t)in Q_T and for all sin R, satisfying only a growth condition and the right hand side f belongs to L^1(Q_T).

  7. Second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of AIIBVI and AIIIBV semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; Sinha, Anita; Singh, B. P.; Chandra, S.

    2016-10-01

    The second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibilities χ123(2) of AIIBVI and AIIIBV groups of semiconductors with zincblende (ZB) structure have been studied. Two relations have been proposed for the calculation of χ123(2) (0) at zero frequency. One is based on bond charge model of Levine and the other is based on plasma oscillations theory of solids. Calculated values of χ123(2) (0) for all compounds are in fair agreement with the available experimental and reported values.

  8. Validation of a High-Order Prefactored Compact Code on Nonlinear Flows with Complex Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, R.; Mankbadi, R. R.; Scott, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    A finite-difference time domain solution of the airfoil gust problem is obtained using a high-accuracy nonlinear computational aeroacoustics code. For computational efficiency, the equations are cast in chain-rule curvilinear form, and a structured multiblock solver is used in parallel. In order to fully investigate the performance of this solver, a test matrix of eight problems are computed (two airfoil geometries, two gust frequencies, and two gust configurations). These results are compared to solutions obtained by the GUST3D frequency-domain solver both on the airfoil surface and in the far field. Grid density and domain size studies are included.

  9. Entropy solutions for a nonlinear parabolic problems with lower order term in Orlicz spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabdaoui, M.; Moussa, H.; Rhoudaf, M.

    2016-03-01

    We shall give the proof of existence results for the entropy solutions of the following nonlinear parabolic problem [Equation not available: see fulltext.]where A is a Leray-Lions operator having a growth not necessarily of polynomial type. The lower order term Φ :Ω × (0,T)× {R}→ {R}^N is a Carathéodory function, for a.e. (x,t)in Q_T and for all sin R , satisfying only a growth condition and the right hand side f belongs to L^1(Q_T).

  10. POD/MAC-Based Modal Basis Selection for a Reduced Order Nonlinear Response Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to explore the applicability of a POD/MAC basis selection technique to a nonlinear structural response analysis. For the case studied the application of the POD/MAC technique resulted in a substantial improvement of the reduced order simulation when compared to a classic approach utilizing only low frequency modes present in the excitation bandwidth. Further studies are aimed to expand application of the presented technique to more complex structures including non-planar and two-dimensional configurations. For non-planar structures the separation of different displacement components may not be necessary or desirable.

  11. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  12. Accommodation with higher-order monochromatic aberrations corrected with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Kruger, Philip B.; Hofer, Heidi; Singer, Ben; Williams, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order monochromatic aberrations in the human eye cause a difference in the appearance of stimuli at distances nearer and farther from best focus that could serve as a signed error signal for accommodation. We explored whether higher-order monochromatic aberrations affect the accommodative response to 0.5 D step changes in vergence in experiments in which these aberrations were either present as they normally are or removed with adaptive optics. Of six subjects, one could not accommodate at all for steps in either condition. One subject clearly required higher-order aberrations to accommodate at all. The remaining four subjects could accommodate in the correct direction even when higher-order aberrations were removed. No subjects improved their accommodation when higher-order aberrations were corrected, indicating that the corresponding decrease in the depth of field of the eye did not improve the accommodative response. These results are consistent with previous findings of large individual differences in the ability to accommodate in impoverished conditions. These results suggest that at least some subjects can use monochromatic higher-order aberrations to guide accommodation. They also show that some subjects can accommodate correctly when higher-order monochromatic aberrations as well as established cues to accommodation are greatly reduced.

  13. SVP-like MADS-box protein from Carya cathayensis forms higher-order complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Hou, Chuanming; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Zhengjia; Xu, Yingwu

    2015-03-01

    To properly regulate plant flowering time and construct floral pattern, MADS-domain containing transcription factors must form multimers including homo- and hetero-dimers. They are also active in forming hetero-higher-order complexes with three to five different molecules. However, it is not well known if a MADS-box protein can also form homo-higher-order complex. In this study a biochemical approach is utilized to provide insight into the complex formation for an SVP-like MADS-box protein cloned from hickory. The results indicated that the protein is a heterogeneous higher-order complex with the peak population containing over 20 monomers. Y2H verified the protein to form homo-complex in yeast cells. Western blot of the hickory floral bud sample revealed that the protein exists in higher-order polymers in native. Deletion assays indicated that the flexible C-terminal residues are mainly responsible for the higher-order polymer formation and the heterogeneity. Current results provide direct biochemical evidences for an active MADS-box protein to be a high order complex, much higher than a quartermeric polymer. Analysis suggests that a MADS-box subset may be able to self-assemble into large complexes, and thereby differentiate one subfamily from the other in a higher-order structural manner. Present result is a valuable supplement to the action of mechanism for MADS-box proteins in plant development.

  14. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse correlator

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-16

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a demodulation decoder coupled to the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a clock coupled to the demodulation decoder; and a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to both the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator and the clock. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  15. Soliton solutions of the KdV equation with higher-order corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2010-10-01

    In this work, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with higher-order corrections is examined. We studied the KdV equation with first-order correction and that with second-order correction that include the terms of the fifth-order Lax, Sawada-Kotera and Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon equations. The simplified form of the bilinear method was used to show the integrability of the first-order models and therefore to obtain multiple soliton solutions for each one. The obstacles to integrability of some of the models with second-order corrections are examined as well.

  16. Theoretical investigation on electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of novel hexamolybdate-organoimido-(car)borane hybrid.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nana; Yan, Likai; Guan, Wei; Qiu, Yongqing; Su, Zhongmin

    2012-04-28

    We report a theoretical study based on density functional theory (DFT) on the geometric and electronic structure, linear optical and second-order nonlinear optical properties of a series of new inorganic-organic hybrid hexamolybdate-organoimido-(car)boranes. By the incorporation of borane/carborane at the end of the phenyl ring of the organoimido segment, the studied systems show excellent nonlinear optical (NLO) response than the organoimido-substituted hexamolybdate. The computed static first hyperpolarizability β(vec) value of [Mo(6)O(18)(NC(8)H(8))(B(12)H(11))](4-) (II) is largest, -167.2 × 10(-30) esu, and a higher β(vec) value of [Mo(6)O(18)(NC(8)H(8))(C(2)B(10)H(11))](2-) (III-2p) is 58.6 × 10(-30) esu. Moreover, the time-dependent (TD)DFT calculation illustrates that the maximum absorption, which is helpful for the large NLO responses, is mainly assigned to the charge transfer (CT) from (car)borane and organoimido segment to the hexamolybdate cluster. The density of density (DOS) calculations further illustrate the excitation from valence orbitals of boron atoms to that of Mo and O atoms in hexamolybdate can be responsible for larger NLO responses. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of species III both vary with the position of the vertex on the carborane. Furthermore, the order of the β(vec) values is consistent with the bathochromic shift of the maximum absorption for our studied systems, and the studied systems show a wider transparency range extending into the entire visible and infrared (IR) region.

  17. A reduced-rank approach for implementing higher-order Volterra filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O. Batista, Eduardo L.; Seara, Rui

    2016-12-01

    The use of Volterra filters in practical applications is often limited by their high computational burden. To cope with this problem, many strategies for implementing Volterra filters with reduced complexity have been proposed in the open literature. Some of these strategies are based on reduced-rank approaches obtained by defining a matrix of filter coefficients and applying the singular value decomposition to such a matrix. Then, discarding the smaller singular values, effective reduced-complexity Volterra implementations can be obtained. The application of this type of approach to higher-order Volterra filters (considering orders greater than 2) is however not straightforward, which is especially due to some difficulties encountered in the definition of higher-order coefficient matrices. In this context, the present paper is devoted to the development of a novel reduced-rank approach for implementing higher-order Volterra filters. Such an approach is based on a new form of Volterra kernel implementation that allows decomposing higher-order kernels into structures composed only of second-order kernels. Then, applying the singular value decomposition to the coefficient matrices of these second-order kernels, effective implementations for higher-order Volterra filters can be obtained. Simulation results are presented aiming to assess the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Vibration suppression of laminated shell structures investigated using higher order shear deformation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. J.; Reddy, J. N.

    2004-10-01

    Third-order shear deformation theories of laminated composite shells are developed using the strain-displacement relations of Donnell and Sanders theories. These theories also account for geometric nonlinearity in the von Kármán sense. Analytical (Navier) solutions for vibration suppression in cross-ply laminated composite shells with surface mounted smart material layers are developed using the linear versions of the two shell theories and for simply supported boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented to bring out the parametric effects of shell types (cylindrical, spherical, and doubly curved shells) and material properties on vibration suppression. A simple negative velocity feedback control in a closed loop is used.

  19. New organic second-order nonlinear optical crystals of benzylidene-aniline derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunekawa, Tetsuya; Gotoh, Tetsuya; Mataki, Hiroshi; Kondo, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Seiji; Iwamoto, Masao

    1990-12-01

    The benzylidene-aniline derivative with an electron-donating group at 4-position and an electron-accepting group at 4'-position has been suggested by MO calculation, to have a small molecular dipole moment but a large second-order hyperpolarizability in comparison with those of p-nitroaniline analogous molecules, hence, to be a promising molecule on searching for a new organic crystal with large second-order optical nonlinearity. Chemical modification of the molecule suggested led to a discovery of a series of crystals having high activities in second harmonic generation ( SHG ) ; one of which, 4'-nitrobenzylidene-3-acetamino-4-methoxyaniline ( MNBA ) crystal in monodinic Cc with four molecules per unit cell showed larger powder SHG than 2-methyl-4-mtroaniline ( MNA ) crystal in a preliminary powder SHG experiment. A strongly polarized non-centrosymmetric molecular packing has been achieved in this crystal by the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bond between neighboring acetainino groups. Calculation by an oriented gas model with the use of the detailed structural data from X-ray analysis for the MNBA crystal predicted that the crystal may have up to ca. 2.9 times larger macroscopic optical nonlinearity than MNA crystal. This has been experimentally proven by measuring the d for SHG by Maker fringe method. The largest d coefficient was found to be dii , and the value obtained was 454 pm/V which is 1.8 times larger than d11 of MNA crystal and 13 times larger than of lithium mobate ( ) crystal.

  20. Multiclass first-order simulation model to explain non-linear traffic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoduy, D.; Liu, R.

    2007-11-01

    With the first-order traffic model of Lighthill, Whitham and Richard (LWR), many simple traffic problems can be represented analytically such as a shock formation. However, the LWR model has some deficiencies. For example, among the other things, it fails to replicate interesting non-linear phenomena such as hysteresis and capacity drop as well as the dispersion of traffic platoon when there exists a distribution of desired speeds in heterogeneous traffic. To this end, in this paper, we propose a novel multiclass first-order simulation model based on an approximation of Riemann solver. In the developed model, each vehicle class is only characterized by their desired speeds in a free-flow traffic state where overtaking is allowed. However, when traffic is congested, all vehicle classes must travel at the same congested speed and overtaking is not possible. Numerical results show that the proposed model is not only more accurate and reliable than the existing models but also able to explain non-linear traffic phenomena on freeways.