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Sample records for higher oxides ionno-luchevoe

  1. Oxidative conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Sofranko, J.A.; Leonard, J.J.; Jones, C.A.

    1987-02-01

    Many transition metal oxides have been evaluated as oxidative coupling catalysts for converting methane to C/sub 2/ and higher hydrocarbons. Reactions were done in a cyclic redox mode in which oxidized catalyst was reacted with methane in the absence of oxygen to form coupling products and reduced catalyst which was reoxidized with air in a separate step. Manganese, indium, germanium, antimony, tin, bismuth, and lead oxides were found to be effective coupling catalysts, giving 10 to 50% selectivity to higher hydrocarbons. Silica is a superior support compared to alumina. Mechanistic studies with manganese oxide on silica indicate that the initial coupling product is ethane which is formed via dimerization of a CH/sub 3/ radical-like species. The ethane is oxidatively dehydrogenated to ethylene which may react with CH/sub 3/ to give propylene. The major path for combustion involves sequential oxidation of products.

  2. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Law, Jack D.; Goff, George S.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Burns, Jon D.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Shehee, Thomas C.; Hobbs, David T.

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non

  3. Americium separation from nuclear fuel dissolution using higher oxidation states.

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Much of the complexity in current AFCI proposals is driven by the need to separate the minor actinides from the lanthanides. Partitioning and recycling Am, but not Cm, would allow for significant simplification because Am has redox chemistry that may be exploited while Cm does not. Here, we have explored methods based on higher oxidation states of Am (AmV and AmVI) to partition Am from the lanthanides. In a separate but related approach we have also initiated an investigation of the utility of TRUEX Am extraction from thiocyanate solution. The stripping of loaded TRUEX by Am oxidation or SCN- has not yet proved successful; however, the partitioning of inextractable AmV by TRUEX shows promise.

  4. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis Shane; Mincher, Bruce Jay; Schmitt, Nicholas C

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  5. Oxidative stress and species of genus Ganoderma (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Cilerdzic, Jasmina; Stajic, Mirjana; Vukojevic, Jelena; Duletic-Lausevic, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is a factor in the aging process and in a series of serious disorders, arises when the reactive oxygen or nitrogen species are produced in excess and the capacity of cellular antioxidant defense is insufficient to detoxify and remove them. An internal antioxidant system is not always active enough to protect the human body from oxidative stress and, therefore, it needs the help of either synthetic or natural antioxidants. Nowadays, there is a growing interest in the substitution of synthetic antioxidants, which could have toxic and mutagen effects, with natural antioxidants. Recent studies revealed that besides their high nutritional value, mushrooms have great potential as antioxidant agents. Species of the genus Ganoderma, especially G. lucidum, are well-known medicinal mushrooms that traditionally are used in the prevention and treatment of many diseases and possess appreciable antioxidant potential. PMID:23510281

  6. Higher in vitro resistance to oxidative stress in extra-pair offspring.

    PubMed

    Losdat, S; Helfenstein, F; Saladin, V; Richner, H

    2011-11-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to act as a universal physiological constraint in life-history evolution of animals. This should be of interest for extra-pair paternity behaviour, and we tested here the prediction that offspring arising from extra-pair matings of female great tits show higher resistance to oxidative stress than within-pair offspring. Resistance to oxidative stress, measured as the whole blood resistance to a controlled free-radical attack, was significantly higher for extra-pair offspring as predicted although these were not heavier or in better body condition than within-pair offspring. Since resistance to oxidative stress has been suggested to enhance survival and reproductive rates, extra-pair offspring with superior resistance to oxidative stress, be it through maternal effects or paternal inheritance, may achieve higher fitness and thus provide significant indirect fitness benefits to their mothers. In addition, because oxidative stress affects colour signals and sperm traits, females may also gain fitness benefits by producing sons that are more attractive (sexy-sons hypothesis) and have sperm of superior quality (sexy-sperm hypothesis). Heritability of resistance to oxidative stress as well as maternal effects may both act as proximate mechanisms for the observed result. Disentangling these two mechanisms would require an experimental approach. Future long-term studies should also aim at experimentally testing whether higher resistance to oxidative stress of EP nestlings indeed translates into fitness benefits to females.

  7. Higher in vitro resistance to oxidative stress in extra-pair offspring.

    PubMed

    Losdat, S; Helfenstein, F; Saladin, V; Richner, H

    2011-11-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to act as a universal physiological constraint in life-history evolution of animals. This should be of interest for extra-pair paternity behaviour, and we tested here the prediction that offspring arising from extra-pair matings of female great tits show higher resistance to oxidative stress than within-pair offspring. Resistance to oxidative stress, measured as the whole blood resistance to a controlled free-radical attack, was significantly higher for extra-pair offspring as predicted although these were not heavier or in better body condition than within-pair offspring. Since resistance to oxidative stress has been suggested to enhance survival and reproductive rates, extra-pair offspring with superior resistance to oxidative stress, be it through maternal effects or paternal inheritance, may achieve higher fitness and thus provide significant indirect fitness benefits to their mothers. In addition, because oxidative stress affects colour signals and sperm traits, females may also gain fitness benefits by producing sons that are more attractive (sexy-sons hypothesis) and have sperm of superior quality (sexy-sperm hypothesis). Heritability of resistance to oxidative stress as well as maternal effects may both act as proximate mechanisms for the observed result. Disentangling these two mechanisms would require an experimental approach. Future long-term studies should also aim at experimentally testing whether higher resistance to oxidative stress of EP nestlings indeed translates into fitness benefits to females. PMID:21899636

  8. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S.; Titov, Anatoly V.; Kiselev, Yuri M.

    2013-07-01

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable.

  9. Development of an electrochemical oxidation method for probing higher order protein structure with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Carlee; Kertesz, Vilmos; Hettich, Robert L

    2008-05-01

    We report here the novel use of electrochemistry to generate covalent oxidative labels on intact proteins in both non-native and physiologically relevant solutions as a surface mapping probe of higher order protein structure. Two different working electrode types were tested across a range of experimental parameters including voltage, flow rate, and solution electrolyte composition to affect the extent of oxidation on intact proteins, as measured both on-line and off-line with mass spectrometry. Oxidized proteins were collected off-line for proteolytic digestion followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Peptide MS/MS data were searched with the InsPecT scoring algorithm for 46 oxidative mass shifts previously reported in the literature. Preliminary data showed reasonable agreement between amino acid solvent accessibility and the resulting oxidation status of these residues in aqueous buffer, while more buried residues were found to be oxidized in non-native solution. Our results indicate that electrochemical oxidation using a boron-doped diamond electrode has the potential to become a useful and easily accessible tool for conducting oxidative surface mapping experiments.

  10. Maternal nicotine exposure leads to higher liver oxidative stress and steatosis in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Conceição, E P; Peixoto-Silva, N; Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2015-04-01

    Early nicotine exposure causes future obesity and insulin resistance. We evaluated the long-term effect of the maternal nicotine exposure during lactation in liver oxidative status, insulin sensitivity and morphology in adult offspring. Two days after birth, osmotic minipumps were implanted in the dams: nicotine (N), 6 mg/kg/day for 14 days or saline (C). Offspring were killed at 180 days. Protein content of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, nitrotyrosine, 4HNE, IRS1, Akt1 and PPARs were measured. MDA, bound protein carbonyl content, SOD, GPx and catalase activities were determined in liver and plasma. Hepatic morphology and triglycerides content were evaluated. Albumin and bilirubin were determined. In plasma, N offspring had higher catalase activity, and SOD/GPx ratio, albumin and bilirubin levels but lower MDA content. In liver, they presented higher MDA and 4HNE levels, bound protein carbonyl content, SOD activity but lower GPx activity. N offspring presented an increase of lipid droplet, higher triglyceride content and a trend to lower PPARα in liver despite unchanged insulin signaling pathway. Early nicotine exposure causes oxidative stress in liver at adulthood, while protect against oxidative stress at plasma level. In addition, N offspring develop liver microsteatosis, which is related to oxidative stress but not to insulin resistance. PMID:25662863

  11. Increased palmitate intake: higher acylcarnitine concentrations without impaired progression of β-oxidation1[S

    PubMed Central

    Kien, C. Lawrence; Matthews, Dwight E.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Crain, Karen I.; Ebenstein, David B.; Tarleton, Emily K.; Stevens, Robert D.; Koves, Timothy R.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is associated with higher blood concentrations of medium-chain acylcarnitines (MCACs), and we hypothesized that PA may inhibit progression of FA β-oxidation. Using a cross-over design, 17 adults were fed high PA (HPA) and low PA/high oleic acid (HOA) diets, each for 3 weeks. The [1-13C]PA and [13-13C]PA tracers were administered with food in random order with each diet, and we assessed PA oxidation (PA OX) and serum AC concentration to determine whether a higher PA intake promoted incomplete PA OX. Dietary PA was completely oxidized during the HOA diet, but only about 40% was oxidized during the HPA diet. The [13-13C]PA/[1-13C]PA ratio of PA OX had an approximate value of 1.0 for either diet, but the ratio of the serum concentrations of MCACs to long-chain ACs (LCACs) was significantly higher during the HPA diet. Thus, direct measurement of PA OX did not confirm that the HPA diet caused incomplete PA OX, despite the modest, but statistically significant, increase in the ratio of MCACs to LCACs in blood. PMID:26156077

  12. Increased palmitate intake: higher acylcarnitine concentrations without impaired progression of β-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kien, C Lawrence; Matthews, Dwight E; Poynter, Matthew E; Bunn, Janice Y; Fukagawa, Naomi K; Crain, Karen I; Ebenstein, David B; Tarleton, Emily K; Stevens, Robert D; Koves, Timothy R; Muoio, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is associated with higher blood concentrations of medium-chain acylcarnitines (MCACs), and we hypothesized that PA may inhibit progression of FA β-oxidation. Using a cross-over design, 17 adults were fed high PA (HPA) and low PA/high oleic acid (HOA) diets, each for 3 weeks. The [1-(13)C]PA and [13-(13)C]PA tracers were administered with food in random order with each diet, and we assessed PA oxidation (PA OX) and serum AC concentration to determine whether a higher PA intake promoted incomplete PA OX. Dietary PA was completely oxidized during the HOA diet, but only about 40% was oxidized during the HPA diet. The [13-(13)C]PA/[1-(13)C]PA ratio of PA OX had an approximate value of 1.0 for either diet, but the ratio of the serum concentrations of MCACs to long-chain ACs (LCACs) was significantly higher during the HPA diet. Thus, direct measurement of PA OX did not confirm that the HPA diet caused incomplete PA OX, despite the modest, but statistically significant, increase in the ratio of MCACs to LCACs in blood.

  13. Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

  14. Do the higher oxidation states of the photosynthetic O2-evolving system contain bound H2O?

    PubMed

    Radmer, R; Ollinger, O

    1986-01-01

    A modified mass spectrometer was used to determine whether the higher oxidation states of the photosynthetic O2-evolving system contain substrate water that is not freely exchangeable with the external medium. Our data indicated that the higher oxidation states contain no appreciable bound, non-exchangeable H2O. This suggests that H2O oxidation takes place via a rapid, concerted, all-or-none mechanism rather than by a mechanism involving stable, partially oxidized, H2O-derived intermediates. These findings set definite constraints on possible mechanisms of O2 evolution.

  15. Isolation and characterization of thermotolerant Gluconobacter strains catalyzing oxidative fermentation at higher temperatures.

    PubMed

    Moonmangmee, D; Adachi, O; Ano, Y; Shinagawa, E; Toyama, H; Theeragool, G; Lotong, N; Matsushita, K

    2000-11-01

    Thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genus Gluconobacter were isolated from various kinds of fruits and flowers from Thailand and Japan. The screening strategy was built up to exclude Acetobacter strains by adding gluconic acid to a culture medium in the presence of 1% D-sorbitol or 1% D-mannitol. Eight strains of thermotolerant Gluconobacter were isolated and screened for D-fructose and L-sorbose production. They grew at wide range of temperatures from 10 degrees C to 37 degrees C and had average optimum growth temperature between 30-33 degrees C. All strains were able to produce L-sorbose and D-fructose at higher temperatures such as 37 degrees C. The 16S rRNA sequences analysis showed that the isolated strains were almost identical to G. frateurii with scores of 99.36-99.79%. Among these eight strains, especially strains CHM16 and CHM54 had high oxidase activity for D-mannitol and D-sorbitol, converting it to D-fructose and L-sorbose at 37 degrees C, respectively. Sugar alcohols oxidation proceeded without a lag time, but Gluconobacter frateurii IFO 3264T was unable to do such fermentation at 37 degrees C. Fermentation efficiency and fermentation rate of the strains CHM16 and CHM54 were quite high and they rapidly oxidized D-mannitol and D-sorbitol to D-fructose and L-sorbose at almost 100% within 24 h at 30 degrees C. Even oxidative fermentation of D-fructose done at 37 degrees C, the strain CHM16 still accumulated D-fructose at 80% within 24 h. The efficiency of L-sorbose fermentation by the strain CHM54 at 37 degrees C was superior to that observed at 30 degrees C. Thus, the eight strains were finally classified as thermotolerant members of G. frateurii.

  16. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valdés, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernández, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernán; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  17. Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia results in higher oxidative stress compared to normobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Ribon, A; Pialoux, V; Saugy, J J; Rupp, T; Faiss, R; Debevec, T; Millet, G P

    2016-03-01

    Sixteen healthy exercise trained participants underwent the following three, 10-h exposures in a randomized manner: (1) Hypobaric hypoxia (HH; 3450m terrestrial altitude) (2) Normobaric hypoxia (NH; 3450m simulated altitude) and (3) Normobaric normoxia (NN). Plasma oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, MDA; advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP) and antioxidant markers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; catalase; ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) were measured before and after each exposure. MDA was significantly higher after HH compared to NN condition (+24%). SOD and GPX activities were increased (vs. before; +29% and +54%) while FRAP was decreased (vs. before; -34%) only after 10h of HH. AOPP significantly increased after 10h for NH (vs. before; +83%), and HH (vs. before; +99%) whereas it remained stable in NN. These results provide evidence that prooxidant/antioxidant balance was impaired to a greater degree following acute exposure to terrestrial (HH) vs. simulated altitude (NH) and that the chamber confinement (NN) did likely not explain these differences. PMID:26732282

  18. METHOD OF MAINTAINING PLUTONIUM IN A HIGHER STATE OF OXIDATION DURING PROCESSING

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.; Miller, D.R.

    1959-06-30

    This patent deals with the oxidation of tetravalent plutonium contained in an aqueous acid solution together with fission products to the hexavalent state, prior to selective fission product precipitation, by adding to the solution bismuthate or ceric ions as the oxidant and a water-soluble dichromate as a holding oxidant. Both oxidant and holding oxidant are preferably added in greater than stoichiometric quantities with regard to the plutonium present.

  19. First-principles investigation of higher oxides of uranium and neptunium: U3O8 and Np2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Y.; Rusz, J.; Suzuki, M.-T.; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2011-02-01

    A computational study is presented of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of U3O8 and Np2O5, which are actinide oxides in a higher oxidation state than the tetravalent state of the common dioxide phases, UO2 and NpO2. The calculations are based on the density functional theory+U approach, in which additional Coulomb correlations on the actinide atom are taken into account. The calculated properties of these two higher oxidized actinide oxides are analyzed and compared to those of their tetravalent analogs. The optimized structural parameters of these noncubic oxides are found to be in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. U3O8 is predicted to be a magnetic insulator, having one U atom in a hexavalent oxidation state and two U atoms in a pentavalent oxidation state. For Np2O5, which is also predicted to be an insulator, a complicated noncollinear magnetic structure is computed, leading to a nonzero overall magnetization with a slight antiferromagnetic canting. The calculated electronic structures are presented and the variation of the U 5f or Np 5f-O 2p hybridization with the oxidation state is analyzed. With increasing oxygen content, the nearly localized 5f electrons of the actinide elements are more positioned near the Fermi level and the hybridization between 5f and 2p states is markedly increased.

  20. Evolution of a Higher Intracellular Oxidizing Environment in Caenorhabditis elegans under Relaxed Selection

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Dustin; Keller, Michelle; Denver, Dee R.; Baer, Charles F.; Estes, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between relaxed selection, oxidative stress, and spontaneous mutation in a set of mutation-accumulation (MA) lines of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and in their common ancestor. We measured steady-state levels of free radicals and oxidatively damaged guanosine nucleosides in the somatic tissues of five MA lines for which nuclear genome base substitution and GC-TA transversion frequencies are known. The two markers of oxidative stress are highly correlated and are elevated in the MA lines relative to the ancestor; point estimates of the per-generation rate of mutational decay (ΔM) of these measures of oxidative stress are similar to those reported for fitness-related traits. Conversely, there is no significant relationship between either marker of oxidative stress and the per-generation frequencies of base substitution or GC-TA transversion. Although these results provide no direct evidence for a causative relationship between oxidative damage and base substitution mutations, to the extent that oxidative damage may be weakly mutagenic in the germline, the case for condition-dependent mutation is advanced. PMID:23776511

  1. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype. PMID:24184606

  2. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype.

  3. Synthesis of o-Carboxyarylacrylic Acids by Room Temperature Oxidative Cleavage of Hydroxynaphthalenes and Higher Aromatics with Oxone.

    PubMed

    Parida, Keshaba Nanda; Moorthy, Jarugu Narasimha

    2015-08-21

    A simple procedure for the synthesis of a variety of o-carboxyarylacrylic acids has been developed with Oxone (2KHSO5·KHSO4·K2SO4); the oxidation reaction involves the stirring of methoxy/hydroxy-substituted naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, etc. with Oxone in an acetonitrile-water mixture (1:1, v/v) at rt. Mechanistically, the reaction proceeds via initial oxidation of naphthalene to o-quinone, which undergoes cleavage to the corresponding o-carboxyarylacrylic acid. The higher aromatics are found to yield carboxymethyl lactones derived from the initially formed o-carboxyarylacrylic acids.

  4. [Oregano essential oil as an inhibitor of higher fatty acid oxidation].

    PubMed

    Terenina, M B; Misharina, T A; Krikunova, N I; Alinkina, E S; Fatkulina, L D; Vorob'eva, A K

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition of the oxidation of fatty acids methyl esters by oregano essential oil was studied using capillary gas chromatography. A mixture of fatty acids which contained saturated, mono-, di-, and polyunsaturated acids with 16-24 carbon atoms was extracted from mice brain. Changes in the composition of esters in hexane solutions both in the presence of oregano essential oil and without it were examined during their autooxidation in light for 1 year. It was found that the oxidation rate of unsaturated fatty acids increases with increasing degree of their unsaturation. Oregano essential oil inhibited the oxidation process. Antioxidant activity of the oil increased with increase of its concentration. It was shown that carvacrol and thymol are the main antioxidant components of oregano oil. PMID:21950127

  5. Higher rate of fat oxidation during rowing compared with cycling ergometer exercise across a range of exercise intensities.

    PubMed

    Egan, B; Ashley, D T; Kennedy, E; O'Connor, P L; O'Gorman, D J

    2016-06-01

    The relative contribution of carbohydrate and fat oxidation to energy expenditure during exercise is dependent on variables including exercise intensity, mode, and recruited muscle mass. This study investigated patterns of substrate utilization during two non-weightbearing exercise modalities, namely cycling and rowing. Thirteen young, moderately trained males performed a continuous incremental (3-min stages) exercise test to exhaustion on separate occasions on an electronically braked cycle (CYC) ergometer and an air-braked rowing (ROW) ergometer, respectively. On two further occasions, participants performed a 20-min steady-state exercise bout at ∼50%VO2peak on the respective modalities. Despite similar oxygen consumption, rates of fat oxidation (FATox ) were ∼45% higher during ROW compared with CYC (P < 0.05) across a range of power output increments. The crossover point for substrate utilization occurred at a higher relative exercise intensity for ROW than CYC (57.8 ± 2.1 vs 42.1 ± 3.6%VO2peak , P < 0.05). During steady-state submaximal exercise, the higher FATox during ROW compared with CYC was maintained (P < 0.05), but absolute FATox were 42% (CYC) and 28% (ROW) lower than during incremental exercise. FATox is higher during ROW compared with CYC exercise across a range of exercise intensities matched for energy expenditure, and is likely as a consequence of larger muscle mass recruited during ROW.

  6. Higher ionic conductive ceria-based electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Shobit; Wachsman, Eric D.; Nino, Juan C.

    2007-10-01

    Codoping is used to enhance the ionic conductivity of ceria-based electrolytes. Sm3+ and Nd3+ were selected as codopants to promote low migration energy paths for oxygen vacancy diffusion, thereby increasing the ionic conductivity. Moreover, the use of codopants also increases the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius relationship, thus further improving the ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity of SmxNdxCe1-2xO2-δ solid solutions is measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was observed that for Sm0.075Nd0.075Ce0.85O2-δ, the grain ionic conductivity was 14.0×10-3Scm-1 at 550°C, which makes it one of the most promising ceria-based electrolytes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

  7. Design issues for lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor with higher breakdown voltage.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kunsik; Won, Taeyoung

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss a new High-Side nLDMOSFET whose breakdown voltage is over 100 V while meeting the thermal budget for the conventional process. The proposed n-channel lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET) has a feature in that the structure comprises a gap of 5 microm between the DEEP N-WELL and the center of the source, the surface of which is implanted by the NADJUST-layer for high breakdown voltage and simultaneously the low specific on-resistance. The computer simulation of the proposed High-Side nLDMOS exhibits BVdss of 126 V and R(ON,sp) of as low as 2.50 m(omega) x cm2. The NBL, which plays a significant role as a blocking layer against the punch-through seems to function as a hurdle for increasing the breakdown voltage. PMID:23858840

  8. The synthesis of higher oxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals in an electric discharge: Theoretical and experimental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, A. T.; Sadhukhan, P.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium hydroxide was subjected to the products of an electrical discharge sustained in oxygen and produced both potassium peroxide and superoxide. The conversion to higher oxides was shown to strongly depend upon the particle size of KOH, the position of KOH in the discharge zone, and the operating conditions of the discharge. Similar experiments were performed with hydroxides of lithium and calcium which do not form superoxides, but are converted to peroxides. The yields of peroxides were shown to strongly depend upon the operating conditions of the discharge. The absence of superoxides and the presence of peroxides of lithium and calcium was explained from the consideration of relative thermodynamic stability of the oxides of lithium and calcium. Thermogravimetric analysis was shown to provide a more accurate means for determining the amount of KO2 than previous methods.

  9. Sex-Specific Differences in Hepatic Fat Oxidation and Synthesis May Explain the Higher Propensity for NAFLD in Men

    PubMed Central

    Pramfalk, Camilla; Pavlides, Michael; Banerjee, Rajarshi; McNeil, Catriona A.; Neubauer, Stefan; Karpe, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: In most populations a greater proportion of men have hepatic steatosis than women. Sex-specific differences in hepatic dietary fatty acid (FA) metabolism have not been well characterized. We compared fasting and postprandial hepatic FA synthesis (de novo lipogenesis [DNL]) and oxidation in men and women. Participants and Methods: Fasting and postprandial hepatic FA metabolism was studied in 22 healthy men (n = 11) and women with similar age, body mass index, and liver fat content using metabolic substrates labeled with stable-isotope tracers (2H2O and [U13C]palmitate). Dietary FA oxidation was assessed by appearance of 13C into plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate and breath CO2 as markers of liver and whole-body FA oxidation, respectively. Results: Despite similar liver fat content, fasting and postprandial plasma triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations were significantly (P < .05) higher in men compared with women. The appearance of 13C from dietary FA into plasma 3-hydroxybutyrate and breath CO2 was greater (P < .05) in women compared with men. Although the contribution of DNL into very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG was similar (∼10%) in the fasting state, there was a divergence in pattern over the course of the study, with men maintaining a higher contribution of DNL to VLDL-TG than women (P = .006 time x sex interaction). Conclusions: The combination of lower dietary FA oxidation and a prolonged increase in DNL observed in men may represent partitioning of FA into esterification and storage pathways within the liver, leading to greater VLDL-TG production, and predispose to the sex difference in hepatic steatosis. PMID:26414963

  10. Resting energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation are higher in elderly patients with COPD: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually have a compromised nutritional status which is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. To know the Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and the substrate oxidation measurement is essential to prevent these complications. This study aimed to compare the REE, respiratory quotient (RQ) and body composition between patients with and without COPD. Methods This case–control study assessed 20 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending a pulmonary rehabilitation program. The group of subjects without COPD (control group) consisted of 20 elderly patients attending a university gym, patients of a private service and a public healthy care. Consumption of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was determined by indirect calorimetry and used for calculating the resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were also measured. Percentage of body fat (%BF), lean mass (kg) and muscle mass (kg) were determined by bioimpedance. The fat free mass index (FFMI) and muscle mass index (MMI) were then calculated. Results The COPD group had lower BMI than control (p = 0.02). However, WC, % BF, FFMI and MM-I did not differ between the groups. The COPD group had greater RQ (p = 0.01), REE (p = 0.009) and carbohydrate oxidation (p = 0.002). Conclusions Elderly patients with COPD had higher REE, RQ and carbohydrate oxidation than controls. PMID:22672689

  11. rapid separation of higher actinide elements by cocrystallization using lower oxidation states

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenskaya, A.N.; Konovalova, N.A.; Kulyukhin, S.A.; Mikheev, N.B.

    1986-07-01

    An express method has been developed for the separation of higher actinides based on their cocrystallization with alkali metal halides. By carrying out reduction with the dichlorides of europium, ytterbium, and samarium it was possible to separate mendelevium from fermium, einsteinium, and californium, fermium from einsteinium and californium, and californium with einsteinium from trivalent actinides in turn. A practically complete purification from lanthanides was achieved in this way. Separation was carried in aqueous ethanol solutions by cocrystallization with NaCl resulting from salting out with ethanol. The purification coefficient of actinides from accompanying elements was 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 4/. The yield on separation was about 90%. The duration of the separation process was 3-5 min.

  12. Adaptation to Resistance Training Is Associated with Higher Phagocytic (but Not Oxidative) Activity in Neutrophils of Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomeu-Neto, João; Brito, Ciro José; Nóbrega, Otávio Toledo; Sousa, Vinícius Carolino; Oliveira Toledo, Juliana; Silva Paula, Roberta; Alves, David Junger Fonseca; Ferreira, Aparecido Pimentel; Franco Moraes, Clayton; Córdova, Cláudio

    2015-01-01

    Failure in antimicrobial activity contributes to high morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. Little is known about the potential effect of resistance training (RT) on the functional properties of the innate immunity. This study aimed to investigate the influence of long-term RT on the endocytic and oxidative activities of neutrophils and monocytes in healthy older women. Our results indicate that the phagocytosis index (PhI) of neutrophils (but not of monocytes) in the RT-adapted group was significantly higher (P < 0.001; effect size, (d) = 0.90, 95% CI: [0.75–1.04]) compared to that in sedentary subjects. In contrast, the oxidative activity of either neutrophils or monocytes was not significantly influenced by RT. Also, total energy and carbohydrate intake as well as serum IL6 levels had a significant influence on the phagocytic activity of neutrophils (P = 0.04), being considered in the model. Multivariate regression identified the physical condition of the subject (β = 0.425; P = 0.01) as a significant predictor of PhI. In conclusion, circulating neutrophils of older women adapted to a long-term RT program expressed higher phagocytic activity. PMID:26524964

  13. Higher diversity of ammonia/ammonium-oxidizing prokaryotes in constructed freshwater wetland than natural coastal marine wetland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2013-08-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, aerobic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are three groups of ammonium/ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes (AOPs) that are involved in the nitrogen cycle. This research compared the AOP communities in a constructed freshwater wetland with a natural coastal marine wetland in the subtropical Hong Kong. Both vegetated/rhizosphere and nonvegetated sediments were investigated to identify the effects of different macrophytes on the AOP communities. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified gene fragments of 16S rRNA and archaeal and bacterial amoA (encoding the ammonia monooxygenase alpha subunit) were applied as molecular biomarkers to analyze the AOPs' phylogeny and diversity. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the abundances of AOPs in the sediments. The results showed that the relatively more heterogeneous freshwater wetland contained a broader range of phylotypes, higher diversity, more complex community structures, and more unevenly distributed abundances of AOPs than the coastal wetland. The effects of vegetation on the community structures of AOPs were plant-specific. The exotic Typha angustifolia affected the community structures of all AOPs and enhanced their abundances in the rhizosphere region. Both Phragmites australis and Cyperus malaccensis showed some effects on the community structures of AOB, but minimal effects on those of anammox bacteria or AOA. Kandelia obovata had almost no detectable effect on all AOPs due to their smaller size. This study suggested that the freshwater and coastal marine wetlands may have different contributions to the inorganic N removal due to the variations in AOP communities and plant types. PMID:23053083

  14. The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): a higher oxidative stress and age-dependent degenerative diseases model.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yoichi; Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Kumagai, Naoko; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Ishii, Sanae; Furukawa, Ayako; Takei, Shiro; Sakura, Masaaki; Kawamura, Noriko; Hosokawa, Masanori

    2009-04-01

    The SAM strain of mice is actually a group of related inbred strains consisting of a series of SAMP (accelerated senescence-prone) and SAMR (accelerated senescence-resistant) strains. Compared with the SAMR strains, the SAMP strains show a more accelerated senescence process, a shorter lifespan, and an earlier onset and more rapid progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to human geriatric disorders. The higher oxidative stress status observed in SAMP mice is partly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and may be a cause of this senescence acceleration and age-dependent alterations in cell structure and function. Based on our recent observations, we discuss a possible mechanism for mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in the excessive production of reactive oxygen species, and a role for the hyperoxidative stress status in neurodegeneration in SAMP mice. These SAM strains can serve as a useful tool to understand the cellular mechanisms of age-dependent degeneration, and to develop clinical interventions. PMID:18688709

  15. Age-related decline in mitochondrial bioenergetics: Does supercomplex destabilization determine lower oxidative capacity and higher superoxide production?

    PubMed Central

    Gόmez, Luis A.; Hagen, Tory M.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial decay plays a central role in the aging process. Although certainly multifactorial in nature, defective operation of the electron transport chain (ETC) constitutes a key mechanism involved in the age-associated loss of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Primarily, mitochondrial dysfunction affects the aging animal by limiting bioenergetic reserve capacity and/or increasing oxidative stress via enhanced electron leakage from the ETC. Even though the important aging characteristics of mitochondrial decay are known, the molecular events underlying inefficient electron flux that ultimately leads to higher superoxide appearance and impaired respiration are not completely understood. This review focuses on the potential role(s) that age-associated destabilization of the macromolecular organization of the ETC (i.e. supercomplexes) may be important for development of the mitochondrial aging phenotype, particularly in post-mitotic tissues. PMID:22521482

  16. A higher oxidative status accelerates senescence and aggravates age-dependent disorders in SAMP strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Masanori

    2002-11-01

    The SAM strain of mice is actually a group of related inbred strains consisting of series of SAMP (accelerated senescence-prone, short-lived) and SAMR (accelerated senescence-resistant, longer-lived) strains. Comparing with the SAMR strains, the SAMP strains of mice show a more accelerated senescence process, shorter lifespan, and an earlier onset and more rapid progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders observed in humans, including senile osteoporosis, degenerative joint disease, age-related deficits in learning and memory, olfactory bulb and forebrain atrophy, presbycusis and retinal atrophy, senile amyloidosis, immunosenescence, senile lungs, and diffuse medial thickening of the aorta. The higher oxidative stress observed in the SAMP strains of mice are partly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and may be one cause of the senescence acceleration and age-dependent alterations in cell structure and function, including neuronal cell degeneration. This senescence acceleration is also observed during senescence/crisis in cultures of isolated fibroblast-like cells from SAMP strains of mice, and was associated with a hyperoxidative status. These observations suggest that the SAM strains are useful tools in the attempt to understand the mechanisms of age-dependent degeneration of cells and tissues, and their aggravation, and to develop clinical interventions. PMID:12470893

  17. Fat Metabolism in Higher Plants. XXXVII. Characterization of the beta-Oxidation Systems From Maturing and Germinating Castor Bean Seeds.

    PubMed

    Hutton, D; Stumpf, P K

    1969-04-01

    In the maturing castor bean seed (Ricinus communis), maximum beta-oxidation appears at 28 days after flowering and in the germinating seed, 4 days after germination. Highest specific activities for both beta-oxidation systems and their component enzymes are associated with cytosomal particles banding at a density of 1.25 g/ml in a sucrose gradient. Substrate specificity studies indicate that of several fatty acids, ricinoleate is oxidized most rapidly by the preparation from the maturing seed (28 days after flowering) while palmitate and linoleate are oxidized most rapidly by extracts obtained from tissue germinated for 4 days. The beta-oxidation activities observed in both systems reflect the expression of activity of at least 3 of the component enzymes, crotonase, beta-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase and beta-keto-thiolase, which rise and fall co-ordinately. Acyl thiokinase does not appear to play a limiting role in regulating beta-oxidation per se under the conditions employed here.

  18. Higher skeletal muscle α2AMPK activation and lower energy charge and fat oxidation in men than in women during submaximal exercise

    PubMed Central

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Thiele, Maja; Hillig, Thore; Pilegaard, Henriette; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Kiens, Bente

    2006-01-01

    5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor activated by perturbed cellular energy status such as during muscle contraction. Activated AMPK is thought to regulate several key metabolic pathways. We used sex comparison to investigate whether AMPK signalling in skeletal muscle regulates fat oxidation during exercise. Moderately trained women and men completed 90 min bicycle exercise at 60% V̇O2peak. Both AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation and α2AMPK activity were increased by exercise in men (∼200%, P < 0.001) but not significantly in women. The sex difference in muscle AMPK activation with exercise was accompanied by an increase in muscle free AMP (∼164%, P < 0.01), free AMP/ATP ratio (159%, P < 0.05), and creatine (∼42%, P < 0.001) in men but not in women (NS), suggesting that lack of AMPK activation in women was due to better maintenance of muscle cellular energy balance compared with men. During exercise, fat oxidation per kg lean body mass was higher in women than in men (P < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed that a higher proportion of type 1 muscle fibres (∼23%, P < 0.01) and a higher capillarization (∼23%, P < 0.05) in women than in men could partly explain the sex difference in α2AMPK activity (r = −0.54, P < 0.05) and fat oxidation (r = 0.64, P < 0.05) during exercise. On the other hand, fat oxidation appeared not to be regulated via AMPK. In conclusion, during prolonged submaximal exercise at 60% V̇O2peak, higher fat oxidation in women cannot be explained by higher AMPK signalling but is accompanied by improved muscle cellular energy balance in women probably due to sex specific muscle morphology. PMID:16600998

  19. Technical decision making with higher order structure data: utilization of differential scanning calorimetry to elucidate critical protein structural changes resulting from oxidation.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Kelly K; Dinh, Nikita; Gabrielson, John P

    2015-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a useful tool for monitoring thermal stability of the molecular conformation of proteins. Here, we present an example of the sensitivity of DSC to changes in stability arising from a common chemical degradation pathway, oxidation. This Note is part of a series of industry case studies demonstrating the application of higher order structure data for technical decision making. For this study, six protein products from three structural classes were evaluated at multiple levels of oxidation. For each protein, the melting temperature (Tm ) decreased linearly as a function of oxidation; however, differences in the rate of change in Tm , as well as differences in domain Tm stability were observed across and within structural classes. For one protein, analysis of the impact of oxidation on protein function was also performed. For this protein, DSC was shown to be a leading indicator of decreased antigen binding suggesting a subtle conformation change may be underway that can be detected using DSC prior to any observable impact on product potency. Detectable changes in oxidized methionine by mass spectrometry (MS) occurred at oxidation levels below those with a detectable conformational or functional impact. Therefore, by using MS, DSC, and relative potency methods in concert, the intricate relationship between a primary structural modification, changes in conformational stability, and functional impact can be elucidated.

  20. Higher levels of oxidative DNA damage in cervical cells are correlated with the grade of dysplasia and HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Visalli, Giuseppa; Riso, Romana; Facciolà, Alessio; Mondello, Placido; Caruso, Carmela; Picerno, Isa; Di Pietro, Angela; Spataro, Pasquale; Bertuccio, Maria Paola

    2016-02-01

    The Human papillomavirus is responsible for the most common sexually transmitted infection and is also known to be an oncogenic virus that is associated with cervical, anogenital, and head-neck cancers. The present study aims to assess whether oxidative DNA damage is correlated with the grade of HPV-related lesions. Moreover, we evaluated clinical data and unhealthy lifestyles to verify their possible influence on the genesis of oxidative DNA damage in cervical cells. We quantified the amount of 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA as a biomarker of oxidative damage in women with and without HPV infection. We also correlated oxidative damage with different stages of cervical lesions and available clinical data (e.g., HPV genotypes). To identify HPV infections, in which proteins with a transforming potential are produced, we performed a qualitative detection of HPV E6/E7 mRNA. Our results showed greater oxidative damage in HPV-related dysplastic cervical lesions compared to samples with normal cytology, especially in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The latter showed a closed link with high-risk HPV genotypes. Reactive oxygen species can induce DNA double-strand breaks in both the host DNA and in the circular viral episome; this could facilitate the integration of the virus, promoting HPV carcinogenesis. Therefore, in HPV-infected women, it could be useful to reduce additional resources of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) with a healthy lifestyle.

  1. Preparation and characterizations of BiVO₄/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with higher visible light reduction activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aolan; Shen, Song; Zhao, Yibo; Wu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Bismuth vanadate/reduced graphene oxide (BiVO4/RGO) composites were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method with graphite oxide, Bi(NO3)3 and NH4VO3 as precursors. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV), fluorescence spectroscopy (FL) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The reduced graphene oxide sheets were decorated by butterfly-like BiVO4 lamellas. Such combination not only alleviated the agglomeration of BiVO4 particles but also restrained the restacking of reduced graphene oxide. A preliminary study on the photo-reductions of Cr (VI) and CO2 under the illumination of simulated sunlight with as-synthesized BiVO4/RGO nanocomposites as catalyst was carried out. The nanocomposites showed better photo-catalytic activity than the conventional BiVO4 particles. The photo-reduction efficiency of BiVO4/RGO nanocomposites increased about 50.1% and the ethanol yield improved about 15.4 μmol/g-cat comparing with pure BiVO4. The enhancements of the photo-catalytic activities were attributed to the effective charge transfer of photo-generated electron from BiVO4 to RGO and improved absorption performance. PMID:25643960

  2. Twofold cost of reproduction: an increase in parental effort leads to higher malarial parasitaemia and to a decrease in resistance to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Christe, Philippe; Glaizot, Olivier; Strepparava, Nicole; Devevey, Godefroy; Fumagalli, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Parental effort is usually associated with high metabolism that could lead to an increase in the production of reactive oxidative species giving rise to oxidative stress. Since many antioxidants involved in the resistance to oxidative stress can also enhance immune function, an increase in parental effort may diminish the level of antioxidants otherwise involved in parasite resistance. In the present study, we performed brood size manipulation in a population of great tits (Parus major) to create different levels of parental effort. We measured resistance to oxidative stress and used a newly developed quantitative PCR assay to quantify malarial parasitaemia. We found that males with an enlarged brood had significantly higher level of malarial parasites and lower red blood cell resistance to free radicals than males rearing control and reduced broods. Brood size manipulation did not affect female parasitaemia, although females with an enlarged brood had lower red blood cell resistance than females with control and reduced broods. However, for both sexes, there was no relationship between the level of parasitaemia and resistance to oxidative stress, suggesting a twofold cost of reproduction. Our results thus suggest the presence of two proximate and independent mechanisms for the well-documented trade-off between current reproductive effort and parental survival. PMID:21920974

  3. High resolution imaging in cross-section of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor using super-higher-order nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinone, N.; Yamasue, K.; Honda, K.; Cho, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) can evaluate carrier or charge distribution in semiconductor devices. High sensitivity to capacitance variation enables SNDM to measure the super-high-order (higher than 3rd) derivative of local capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics directly under the tip (dnC/dVn,n = 3, 4, ...). We demonstrate improvement of carrier density resolution by measurement of dnC/dVn,n = 1, 2, 3, 4 (super-higher-order method) in the cross-sectional observation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor.

  4. Use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate as applied to closed ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The technology of ‘wet incineration' of human exometabolites and inedible plants biomass by means of H2 O2 in alternating electromagnetic field to increase a closure of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) was developed at the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). Human exometabolites mineralized can be used in a nutrient solution for plants cultivation in the BLSS phototrophic link. The objective of the given work appears to be the study of use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels processed by the abovementioned method for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The mineralized human wastes were tested for the purpose of their sterility. Then the effect of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels both on wheat productivity and on the SLS microflora composition was examined. The SLS extract with a definite amount of human mineralized wastes was used as an irrigation solution. The conducted experiments demonstrated that the H2 O2 decreasing to 1 ml on 1 g of feces and to 0.25 ml on 1 ml of urine had not affected the sterility of mineralized human wastes. Wheat cultivation on the SLS with the addition in an irrigation solution of mineralized human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of a daily human diet showed the absence of basic dependence of plants productivity on oxidation level of human exometabolites. Yet the analysis of the microflora composition of the irrigation solutions demonstrated its dependence on the oxidation level of the exometabolites introduced. The amount of yeast-like fungi increased in 20 times in the solutions containing less oxidized exometabolites in comparison with the variant in which the human wastes were subjected to a full-scale oxidation. Besides, the solutions with less oxidized exometabolites displayed a bigger content of plant pathogenic bacteria and denitrifies. Consequently the

  5. Effects of Higher Hydrocarbon Chemistry On Tropospheric Trace Gases and The Yield of Co From Hydrocarbon Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Kuhlmann, R.; Lawrence, M. G.; Crutzen, P. J.

    Non-methane hydrocarbons are known to be emitted in large amounts from anthro- pogenic and biogenic sources. The impact of these emissions on key tropospheric trace gases, such as O3, CO, NOx, and OH are investigated using the Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry, Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry version (MATCH-MPIC). This study expands upon previous work by the use of detailed bud- gets in order to elucidate further the underlying mechanisms of the changes. Isoprene alone, which is emitted in large amounts by tropical ecosystems, is found to contribute more than half of the overall effect of hydrocarbons in the tropics. The model's budget- ing capabilities are further used to determine the yield of CO from methane, isoprene and other hydrocarbons. While 92% of methane is converted to CO, the yields for iso- prene and the sum of other hydrocarbons is lower, both being 39% on a per carbon ba- sis. A detailed analysis of the loss-pathways are also presented and show that a major loss occurs through deposition of soluble intermediates of isoprene oxidation, partic- ularly hydroxy-hydroperoxides, which are explicitly treated in the chemical scheme. The results are compared and discussed with previous estimates from the literature, which shows that the uncertainty in CO production is likely significant compared to the uncertainties in the direct emissions.

  6. CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes.

    PubMed

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Porollo, Aleksey; Lam, Ying Wai; Grimmett, Paul E; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2013-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons, albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was found to possess a broad oxidizing capability toward structurally diverse hydrocarbons belonging to mutagenic/carcinogenic fused-ring higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs), endocrine-disrupting long-chain alkylphenols (APs), and crude oil aliphatic hydrocarbon n-alkanes. A homology-based three-dimensional (3D) model revealed the presence of an extraordinarily large active-site cavity in CYP63A2 compared to the mammalian PAH-oxidizing (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1) and bacterial aliphatic-hydrocarbon-oxidizing (CYP101D and CYP102A1) P450s. This structural feature in conjunction with ligand docking simulations suggested potential versatility of the enzyme. Experimental characterization using recombinantly expressed CYP63A2 revealed its ability to oxidize HMW-PAHs of various ring sizes, including 4 rings (pyrene and fluoranthene), 5 rings [benzo(a)pyrene], and 6 rings [benzo(ghi)perylene], with the highest enzymatic activity being toward the 5-ring PAH followed by the 4-ring and 6-ring PAHs, in that order. Recombinant CYP63A2 activity yielded monohydroxylated PAH metabolites. The enzyme was found to also act as an alkane ω-hydroxylase that oxidized n-alkanes with various chain lengths (C9 to C12 and C15 to C19), as well as alkyl side chains (C3 to C9) in alkylphenols (APs). CYP63A2 showed preferential oxidation of long-chain APs and alkanes. To our knowledge, this is the first P450 identified from any of the biological kingdoms that possesses such broad substrate specificity toward structurally diverse xenobiotics (PAHs, APs, and alkanes), making it a potent enzyme biocatalyst candidate to handle mixed pollution (e.g., crude oil spills).

  7. Higher alcohol synthesis over Cs-doped Cu/Zn/Cr oxide catalysts: Effect of reaction temperature on the product distribution and catalyst stability

    SciTech Connect

    Beretta, A.; Sun, Q.; Herman, R.G.; Klier, K.

    1995-12-01

    Ternary Cu/Zn/Cr oxide catalysts were prepared via hydrotalcite-like precursors and doped with Cs. The reference activity test (310{degrees}C, 7.6 MPa, Hz/CO = 0.45, GHSV = 5330 {ell}/kg{sub cat}/hr) was in full agreement with our previous results; 20.2% CO conversion, methanol yield of {approx}230 g/kg{sub cat}/hr, and productivity to higher alcohols of nearly 100 g/kg{sub cat}/hr. In order to enhance HAS and to better characterize the thermal behavior of the catalyst, the reaction temperature was increased to 340{degrees}C. As expected, methanol production decreased due to the relevant thermodynamic constraint, and increased formation of branched products due to kinetic promotion of the chain growth reactions was observed. The effect of H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio was studied in the range of 0.45-3.0, and it was observed that higher H{sub 2}/CO ratios could be used to advantage at higher temperatures, e.g. 0.75 was the optimal value with respect to isobutanol productivity at 340{degrees}C. The effect of contact time was also studied. Stable catalytic activity was observed for a period of 320 hr (150 hr at high temperature). No reduction of surface area and no significant sintering phenomena were observed after testing (particle size of metallic Cu {approx}60 {Angstrom}).

  8. The higher exercise intensity and the presence of allele I of ACE gene elicit a higher post-exercise blood pressure reduction and nitric oxide release in elderly women: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The absence of the I allele of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with higher levels of circulating ACE, lower nitric oxide (NO) release and hypertension. The purposes of this study were to analyze the post-exercise salivary nitrite (NO2-) and blood pressure (BP) responses to different exercise intensities in elderly women divided according to their ACE genotype. Methods Participants (n = 30; II/ID = 20 and DD = 10) underwent three experimental sessions: incremental test - IT (15 watts workload increase/3 min) until exhaustion; 20 min exercise 90% anaerobic threshold (90% AT); and 20 min control session without exercise. Volunteers had their BP and NO2- measured before and after experimental sessions. Results Despite both intensities showed protective effect on preventing the increase of BP during post-exercise recovery compared to control, post-exercise hypotension and increased NO2- release was observed only for carriers of the I allele (p < 0.05). Conclusion Genotypes of the ACE gene may exert a role in post-exercise NO release and BP response. PMID:22136292

  9. Helicobacter pylori in sedentary men is linked to higher heart rate, sympathetic activity, and insulin resistance but not inflammation or oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Cherkas, Andriy; Eckl, Peter; Guéraud, Françoise; Abrahamovych, Orest; Serhiyenko, Victoria; Yatskevych, Ostap; Pliatsko, Mykhailo; Golota, Sergii

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare anthropometric parameters, body composition, hormonal and inflammatory profiles, oxidative stress indices, and heart rate variability (HRV) in Heliobacter pylori (H.pylori) positive and negative healthy sedentary participants. Methods Among 30 recruited apparently healthy male participants (age between 20 and 40) enrolled in this cross-sectional study, 18 were H.pylori negative and 12 were positive (stool antigen test). Participants underwent routine physical examination and body composition determination. The following biochemical parameters were determined in blood: fasting whole blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, C-peptide, cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone, C-reactive protein, interleukins 6 and 10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and the urinary level of 1,4-dihydroxynonane mercapturic acid. For HRV evaluation, electrocardiogram in supine position and in orthostatic test was performed. Results H.pylori contamination was not significantly associated with any changes in anthropometric parameters, body composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose, or glycated hemoglobin levels. No significant difference was found for inflammatory markers as well as 1,4-dihydroxynonane mercapturic acid. H.pylori-positive participants, however, had significantly higher heart rate (P = 0.009), sympathetic/parasympathetic balance in orthostatic test (P = 0.029), fasting insulin level (P = 0.037), and HOMA-index (P = 0.047). Conclusions H.pylori contamination is linked to a significantly higher heart rate, sympathetic activation, and increased insulin resistance, while inflammatory and oxidative stress markers remain unaffected in healthy sedentary male subjects. PMID:27106356

  10. Higher oxidation states of prostaglandin H synthase. EPR study of a transient tyrosyl radical in the enzyme during the peroxidase reaction.

    PubMed

    Karthein, R; Dietz, R; Nastainczyk, W; Ruf, H H

    1988-01-15

    Purified prostaglandin H synthase (EC 1.14.99.1), reconstituted with hemin, was reacted with substrates of the cyclooxygenase and peroxidase reaction. The resulting EPR spectra were measured below 90 K. Arachidonic acid, added under anaerobic conditions, did not change the EPR spectrum of the native enzyme due to high-spin ferric heme. Arachidonic acid with O2, as well as prostaglandin G2 or H2O2, decreased the spectrum of the native enzyme and concomitantly a doublet signal at g = 2.005 was formed with maximal intensity of 0.35 spins/enzyme and a half-life of less than 20 s at -12 degrees C. From the conditions for the formation and the effect of inhibitors, this doublet signal was assigned to an enzyme intermediate of the peroxidase reaction, namely a higher oxidation state. The doublet signal with characteristic hyperfine structure was nearly identical to the signal of the tyrosyl radical in ribonucleotide reductase (EC 1.17.4.1). Hence the signal of prostaglandin H synthase was assigned to a tyrosyl radical. Electronic spectra as well as decreased power saturation of the tyrosyl radical signal indicated heme in its ferryl state which coupled to the tyrosyl radical weakly. [FeIVO(protoporphyrin IX)]...Tyr+. was suggested as the structure of this two-electron oxidized state of the enzyme. A hypothetical role for the tyrosyl radical could be the abstraction of a hydrogen at C-13 of arachidonic acid which is assumed to be the initial step of the cyclooxygenase reaction.

  11. Use of human wastes oxidized to different degrees in cultivation of higher plants on the soil-like substrate intended for closed ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    To close mass exchange loops in bioregenerative life support systems more efficiently, researchers of the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Krasnoyarsk, Russia) have developed a procedure of wet combustion of human wastes and inedible parts of plants using H 2O 2 in alternating electromagnetic field. Human wastes pretreated in this way can be used as nutrient solutions to grow plants in the phototrophic unit of the LSS. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibilities of using human wastes oxidized to different degrees to grow plants cultivated on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The treated human wastes were analyzed to test their sterility. Then we investigated the effects produced by human wastes oxidized to different degrees on growth and development of wheat plants and on the composition of microflora in the SLS. The irrigation solution contained water, substances extracted from the substrate, and certain amounts of the mineralized human wastes. The experiments showed that the human wastes oxidized using reduced amounts of 30% H 2O 2: 1 ml/g of feces and 0.25 ml/ml of urine were still sterile. The experiments with wheat plants grown on the SLS and irrigated by the solution containing treated human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of the daily diet of a human showed that the degree of oxidation of human wastes did not significantly affect plant productivity. On the other hand, the composition of the microbiota of irrigation solutions was affected by the oxidation level of the added metabolites. In the solutions supplemented with partially oxidized metabolites yeast-like microscopic fungi were 20 times more abundant than in the solutions containing fully oxidized metabolites. Moreover, in the solutions containing incompletely oxidized human wastes the amounts of phytopathogenic bacteria and denitrifying microorganisms were larger. Thus, insufficiently oxidized sterile human wastes added to the irrigation solutions significantly affect the composition of

  12. Photoelectron spectroscopy of higher bromine and iodine oxide anions: Electron affinities and electronic structures of BrO2,3 and IO2-4 radicals.

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Hui; Hou, Gaolei; Huang, Wei; Govind, Niranjan; Wang, Xue B.

    2011-11-14

    This report details a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) investigation on electron affinities (EAs) and electronic structures of several atmospherically relevant higher bromine and iodine oxide molecules in the gas phase. PES spectra of BrO{sub 2}{sup -} and IO{sub 2}{sup -} were recorded at 12 K and four photon energies--355 nm/3.496 eV, 266 nm/4.661 eV, 193 nm/6.424 eV, and 157 nm/7.867 eV--while BrO{sub 3}{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, and IO{sub 4}{sup -} were studied at 193 and 157 nm only due to their expected high electron binding energies. Spectral features corresponding to transitions from the anion ground state to the ground and excited states of the neutral are unraveled and resolved for each species. For the first time, EAs of these bromine and iodine oxides are experimentally determined (except for IO{sub 2}) to be 2.515 {+-} 0.010 (BrO{sub 2}), 2.575 {+-} 0.010 (IO{sub 2}), 4.60 {+-} 0.05 (BrO{sub 3}), 4.70 {+-} 0.05 (IO{sub 3}), and 6.05 {+-} 0.05 eV (IO{sub 4}). Three low-lying excited states with their respective excitation energies are obtained for BrO{sub 2} [1.69 (A {sup 2}B2), 1.79 (B {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 1.99 eV (C {sup 2}A{sub 2})], BrO{sub 3} [0.7 (A {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 1.6 (B {sup 2}E), 3.1 eV (C {sup 2}E)], and IO{sub 3} [0.60 (A {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 1.20 (B {sup 2}E), {approx}3.0 eV (C {sup 2}E)], whereas six excited states of IO{sub 2} are determined with the respective excitation energies of 1.63 (A {sup 2}B{sub 2}), 1.73 (B {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 1.83 (C {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 4.23 (D {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 4.63 (E {sup 2}B{sub 2}), and 5.23 eV (F {sup 2}B{sub 1}). Periodate possesses a very high electron binding energy. Only one excited state feature with 0.95 eV excitation energy is shown in the 157 nm spectrum. The obtained EAs and low-lying excited state information are compared with available theoretical calculations and discussed with their atmospheric implications.

  13. Photoelectron spectroscopy of higher bromine and iodine oxide anions: electron affinities and electronic structures of BrO(2,3) and IO(2-4) radicals.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hui; Hou, Gao-Lei; Huang, Wei; Govind, Niranjan; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2011-11-14

    This report details a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and theoretical investigation of electron affinities (EAs) and electronic structures of several atmospherically relevant higher bromine and iodine oxide molecules in the gas phase. PES spectra of BrO(2)(-) and IO(2)(-) were recorded at 12 K and four photon energies--355 nm/3.496 eV, 266 nm/4.661 eV, 193 nm/6.424 eV, and 157 nm/7.867 eV--while BrO(3)(-), IO(3)(-), and IO(4)(-) were only studied at 193 and 157 nm due to their expected high electron binding energies. Spectral features corresponding to transitions from the anionic ground state to the ground and excited states of the neutral are unraveled and resolved for each species. The EAs of these bromine and iodine oxides are experimentally determined for the first time (except for IO(2)) to be 2.515 ± 0.010 (BrO(2)), 2.575 ± 0.010 (IO(2)), 4.60 ± 0.05 (BrO(3)), 4.70 ± 0.05 (IO(3)), and 6.05 ± 0.05 eV (IO(4)). Three low-lying excited states along with their respective excitation energies are obtained for BrO(2) [1.69 (A (2)B(2)), 1.79 (B (2)A(1)), 1.99 eV (C (2)A(2))], BrO(3) [0.7 (A (2)A(2)), 1.6 (B (2)E), 3.1 eV (C (2)E)], and IO(3) [0.60 (A (2)A(2)), 1.20 (B (2)E), ∼3.0 eV (C (2)E)], whereas six excited states of IO(2) are determined along with their respective excitation energies of 1.63 (A (2)B(2)), 1.73 (B (2)A(1)), 1.83 (C (2)A(2)), 4.23 (D (2)A(1)), 4.63 (E (2)B(2)), and 5.23 eV (F (2)B(1)). Periodate (IO(4)(-)) possesses a very high electron binding energy. Only one excited state feature with 0.95 eV excitation energy is shown in the 157 nm spectrum. Accompanying theoretical calculations reveal structural changes from the anions to the neutrals, and the calculated EAs are in good agreement with experimentally determined values. Franck-Condon factors simulations nicely reproduce the observed vibrational progressions for BrO(2) and IO(2). The low-lying excited state information is compared with theoretical calculations and discussed with their

  14. Fat Metabolism in Higher Plants. XXXVII. Characterization of the β-Oxidation Systems From Maturing and Germinating Castor Bean Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, D.; Stumpf, P. K.

    1969-01-01

    In the maturing castor bean seed (Ricinus communis), maximum β-oxidation appears at 28 days after flowering and in the germinating seed, 4 days after germination. Highest specific activities for both β-oxidation systems and their component enzymes are associated with cytosomal particles banding at a density of 1.25 g/ml in a sucrose gradient. Substrate specificity studies indicate that of several fatty acids, ricinoleate is oxidized most rapidly by the preparation from the maturing seed (28 days after flowering) while palmitate and linoleate are oxidized most rapidly by extracts obtained from tissue germinated for 4 days. The β-oxidation activities observed in both systems reflect the expression of activity of at least 3 of the component enzymes, crotonase, β-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase and β-keto-thiolase, which rise and fall co-ordinately. Acyl thiokinase does not appear to play a limiting role in regulating β-oxidation per se under the conditions employed here. PMID:16657093

  15. CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was fo...

  16. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  17. Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnic, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-02-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with (67)Zn and (70)Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627.

  18. Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnic, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-02-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with (67)Zn and (70)Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  19. Higher Education or Higher Skilling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Steven

    1974-01-01

    Higher education may return to education for a minority, an unlikely course; concentrate on higher skilling, the road we are on today; or restore general education, the most attractive possibility, which can be implemented by restoring basic education in literacy, history, human biology, and language. (JH)

  20. Selective oxidation of glycerol to 1,3-dihydroxyacetone by covalently immobilized glycerol dehydrogenases with higher stability and lower product inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Martin, Javier; Acosta, Andreína; Berenguer, Jose; Guisan, Jose M; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH) catalyzes the regioselective oxidation of glycerol to yield 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA); an important building block in chemical industry. Three recombinant GlyDHs from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, from Citrobacter braakii and from Cellulomonas sp. were stabilized by covalent immobilization. The highest activity recoveries (40-50%) of the insoluble preparations were obtained by immobilizing these enzymes in presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Noteworthy, these immobilized preparations were more stable and less inhibited by DHA than their soluble counterparts. In particular, GlyDH from G.stearothermophilus immobilized on agarose activated with both amine and glyoxyl groups and crosslinked with dextran aldehyde was 3.7-fold less inhibited by DHA than its soluble form and retained 100% of its initial activity after 18h of incubation at 65°C and pH 7. This is one of the few examples where the same immobilization protocol has minimized enzyme product inhibition and maximized thermal stability.

  1. Decreasing methylation of pectin caused by nitric oxide leads to higher aluminium binding in cell walls and greater aluminium sensitivity of wheat roots.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Yu, Yan; Liu, Lijuan; Hu, Yan; Ye, Yiquan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important bioactive molecule involved in cell wall metabolism, which has been recognized as a major target of aluminium (Al) toxicity. We have investigated the effects of Al-induced NO production on cell wall composition and the subsequent Al-binding capacity in roots of an Al-sensitive cultivar of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yang-5). We found that Al exposure induced NO accumulation in the root tips. Eliminating NO production with an NO scavenger (cPTIO) significantly alleviated the Al-induced inhibition of root growth and thus reduced Al accumulation. Elimination of NO, however, did not significantly affect malate efflux or rhizosphere pH changes under Al exposure. Levels of cell wall polysaccharides (pectin, hemicelluloses 1, and hemicelluloses 2) and pectin methylesterase activity, as well as pectin demethylation in the root apex, significantly increased under Al treatment. Exogenous cPTIO application significantly decreased pectin methylesterase activity and increased the degree of methylation of pectin in the root cell wall, thus decreasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin. These results suggest that the Al-induced enhanced production of NO decreases cell wall pectin methylation, thus increasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin and negatively regulating Al tolerance in wheat.

  2. Decreasing methylation of pectin caused by nitric oxide leads to higher aluminium binding in cell walls and greater aluminium sensitivity of wheat roots

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Yu, Yan; Liu, Lijuan; Hu, Yan; Ye, Yiquan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important bioactive molecule involved in cell wall metabolism, which has been recognized as a major target of aluminium (Al) toxicity. We have investigated the effects of Al-induced NO production on cell wall composition and the subsequent Al-binding capacity in roots of an Al-sensitive cultivar of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yang-5). We found that Al exposure induced NO accumulation in the root tips. Eliminating NO production with an NO scavenger (cPTIO) significantly alleviated the Al-induced inhibition of root growth and thus reduced Al accumulation. Elimination of NO, however, did not significantly affect malate efflux or rhizosphere pH changes under Al exposure. Levels of cell wall polysaccharides (pectin, hemicelluloses 1, and hemicelluloses 2) and pectin methylesterase activity, as well as pectin demethylation in the root apex, significantly increased under Al treatment. Exogenous cPTIO application significantly decreased pectin methylesterase activity and increased the degree of methylation of pectin in the root cell wall, thus decreasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin. These results suggest that the Al-induced enhanced production of NO decreases cell wall pectin methylation, thus increasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin and negatively regulating Al tolerance in wheat. PMID:26663393

  3. Exceedingly Higher co-loading of Curcumin and Paclitaxel onto Polymer-functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide for Highly Potent Synergistic Anticancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida; Bai, Renu Geetha; Loh, Hwei-San; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of lung carcinoma to breast and vice versa accounts for one of the vast majority of cancer deaths. Synergistic treatments are proven to be the effective method to inhibit malignant cell proliferation. It is highly advantageous to use the minimum amount of a potent toxic drug, such as paclitaxel (Ptx) in ng/ml together with a natural and safe anticancer drug, curcumin (Cur) to reduce the systemic toxicity. However, both Cur and Ptx suffer from poor bioavailability. Herein, a drug delivery cargo was engineered by functionalizing reduced graphene oxide (G) with an amphiphilic polymer, PF-127 (P) by hydrophobic assembly. The drugs were loaded via pi-pi interactions, resulting in a nano-sized GP-Cur-Ptx of 140 nm. A remarkably high Cur loading of 678 wt.% was achieved, the highest thus far compared to any other Cur nanoformulations. Based on cell proliferation assay, GP-Cur-Ptx is a synergistic treatment (CI < 1) and is highly potent towards lung, A549 (IC50 = 13.24 μg/ml) and breast, MDA-MB-231 (IC50 = 1.450 μg/ml) cancer cells. These positive findings are further confirmed by increased reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential depletion and cell apoptosis. The same dose treated on normal MRC-5 cells shows that the system is biocompatible and cancerous cell-specific. PMID:27597657

  4. Exceedingly Higher co-loading of Curcumin and Paclitaxel onto Polymer-functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide for Highly Potent Synergistic Anticancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida; Bai, Renu Geetha; Loh, Hwei-San; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of lung carcinoma to breast and vice versa accounts for one of the vast majority of cancer deaths. Synergistic treatments are proven to be the effective method to inhibit malignant cell proliferation. It is highly advantageous to use the minimum amount of a potent toxic drug, such as paclitaxel (Ptx) in ng/ml together with a natural and safe anticancer drug, curcumin (Cur) to reduce the systemic toxicity. However, both Cur and Ptx suffer from poor bioavailability. Herein, a drug delivery cargo was engineered by functionalizing reduced graphene oxide (G) with an amphiphilic polymer, PF-127 (P) by hydrophobic assembly. The drugs were loaded via pi-pi interactions, resulting in a nano-sized GP-Cur-Ptx of 140 nm. A remarkably high Cur loading of 678 wt.% was achieved, the highest thus far compared to any other Cur nanoformulations. Based on cell proliferation assay, GP-Cur-Ptx is a synergistic treatment (CI < 1) and is highly potent towards lung, A549 (IC50 = 13.24 μg/ml) and breast, MDA-MB-231 (IC50 = 1.450 μg/ml) cancer cells. These positive findings are further confirmed by increased reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential depletion and cell apoptosis. The same dose treated on normal MRC-5 cells shows that the system is biocompatible and cancerous cell-specific. PMID:27597657

  5. Selective oxidation of glycerol to 1,3-dihydroxyacetone by covalently immobilized glycerol dehydrogenases with higher stability and lower product inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Martin, Javier; Acosta, Andreína; Berenguer, Jose; Guisan, Jose M; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH) catalyzes the regioselective oxidation of glycerol to yield 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA); an important building block in chemical industry. Three recombinant GlyDHs from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, from Citrobacter braakii and from Cellulomonas sp. were stabilized by covalent immobilization. The highest activity recoveries (40-50%) of the insoluble preparations were obtained by immobilizing these enzymes in presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Noteworthy, these immobilized preparations were more stable and less inhibited by DHA than their soluble counterparts. In particular, GlyDH from G.stearothermophilus immobilized on agarose activated with both amine and glyoxyl groups and crosslinked with dextran aldehyde was 3.7-fold less inhibited by DHA than its soluble form and retained 100% of its initial activity after 18h of incubation at 65°C and pH 7. This is one of the few examples where the same immobilization protocol has minimized enzyme product inhibition and maximized thermal stability. PMID:25164336

  6. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This eighth chapter of "The Yearbook of School Law, 1986" summarizes and analyzes over 330 state and federal court cases litigated in 1985 in which institutions of higher education were involved. Among the topics examined were relationships between postsecondary institutions and various governmental agencies; discrimination in the employment of…

  7. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  8. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  9. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  10. Higher Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bok, Derek

    Factors that distinguish the United States higher education system and its performance are considered, with attention to new developments, propsects for change, undergraduate education, and professional schools (especially law, business, and medicine). The way universities change the methods and content of their teaching in response to new…

  11. Mycorrhiza-induced lower oxidative burst is related with higher antioxidant enzyme activities, net H2O2 effluxes, and Ca2+ influxes in trifoliate orange roots under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying-Ning; Huang, Yong-Ming; Wu, Qiang-Sheng; He, Xin-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Mechanisms of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM)-induced lower oxidative burst of host plants under drought stress (DS) are not elucidated. A noninvasive microtest technology (NMT) was used to investigate the effects of Funneliformis mosseae on net fluxes of root hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and calcium ions (Ca2+) in 5-month-old Poncirus trifoliata, in combination with catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as tissue superoxide radical (O2•-) and H2O2 concentrations under DS and well-watered (WW) conditions. A 2-month DS (55% maximum water holding capacity of growth substrates) significantly inhibited AM fungal root colonization, while AM symbiosis significantly increased plant biomass production, irrespective of water status. F. mosseae inoculation generally increased SOD and CAT activity but decreased O2•- and H2O2 concentrations in leaves and roots under WW and DS. Compared with non-AM seedlings, roots of AM seedlings had significantly higher net H2O2 effluxes and net Ca2+ influxes, especially in the meristem zone, but lower net H2O2 efflux in the elongation zone. Net Ca2+ influxes into roots were significantly positively correlated with root net H2O2 effluxes but negatively with root H2O2 concentrations. Results from this study suggest that AM-induced lower oxidative burst is related with higher antioxidant enzyme activities, root net H2O2 effluxes, and Ca2+ influxes under WW and DS.

  12. The extraordinary ability of guanidinate derivatives to stabilize higher oxidation numbers in dimetal units by modification of redox potentials: structures of Mo(2)(5+) and Mo(2)(6+) compounds.

    PubMed

    Cotton, F Albert; Daniels, Lee M; Murillo, Carlos A; Timmons, Daren J; Wilkinson, Chad C

    2002-08-01

    Full characterization of the first homologous series of dimolybdenum paddlewheel compounds having electronic configurations of the types sigma(2)pi(4)delta(x), x = 2, 1, 0, and Mo-Mo bond orders of 4, 3.5, and 3, respectively, has been accomplished with the guanidinate-type ligand hpp (hpp = the anion of 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-pyrimido[1,2-a]pyrimidine). Essentially quantitative oxidation of Mo(2)(hpp)(4), 1, by CH(2)Cl(2) gives Mo(2)(hpp)(4)Cl, 2. The halide in 2 can be replaced by reaction with TlBF(4) to produce Mo(2)(hpp)(4)(BF(4)), 3. Further oxidation of 2 by AgBF(4) produces Mo(2)(hpp)(4)ClBF(4), 4. The change from bond order 4 (in 1) to 3.5 in Mo(2)(hpp)(4)Cl is accompanied by an increase in the Mo-Mo bond length of 0.061 to 2.1280(4) A. A further increase of 0.044 A in the Mo-Mo distance to 2.172(1) A is observed as the bond order decreases to 3 in 4. At the same time, the Mo-N distances decrease smoothly as the oxidation state of the Mo atoms increases. Electrochemical studies have shown two chemically reversible processes at very negative potentials, E(1)(1/2)= -0.444 V and E(2)(1/2)= -1.271 V versus Ag/AgCl. These correspond to the processes Mo(2)(6+/5+) and Mo(2)(5+/4+), respectively. The latter potential is displaced by over 1.5 V relative to those of the Mo(2)(formamidinate)(4) compounds and the first one has never been observed in such complexes. Thus, in surprising contrast to previously observed behavior of the dimolybdenum unit, when it is surrounded by the very basic guanidinate ligand hpp, there is an extraordinary stabilization of the higher oxidation numbers of the molybdenum atoms.

  13. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  14. Oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  15. Cancer Stem Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line H446: Higher Dependency on Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial Substrate-Level Phosphorylation than Non-Stem Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cuicui; Shen, Yao; Jin, Fang; Miao, Yajing; Qiu, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Recently, targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) metabolism is becoming a promising therapeutic approach to improve cancer treatment outcomes. However, knowledge of the metabolic state of CSCs in small cell lung cancer is still lacking. In this study, we found that CSCs had significantly lower oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate than non-stem cancer cells. Meanwhile, this subpopulation of cells consumed less glucose, produced less lactate and maintained lower ATP levels. We also revealed that CSCs could produce more ATP through mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation during respiratory inhibition compared with non-stem cancer cells. Furthermore, they were more sensitive to suppression of oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, oligomycin (inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation) could severely impair sphere-forming and tumor-initiating abilities of CSCs. Our work suggests that CSCs represent metabolically inactive tumor subpopulations which sustain in a state showing low metabolic activity. However, mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation of CSCs may be more active than that of non-stem cancer cells. Moreover, CSCs showed preferential use of oxidative phosphorylation over glycolysis to meet their energy demand. These results extend our understanding of CSCs metabolism, potentially providing novel treatment strategies targeting metabolic pathways in small cell lung cancer. PMID:27167619

  16. Cancer Stem Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line H446: Higher Dependency on Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial Substrate-Level Phosphorylation than Non-Stem Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Fang; Miao, Yajing; Qiu, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Recently, targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) metabolism is becoming a promising therapeutic approach to improve cancer treatment outcomes. However, knowledge of the metabolic state of CSCs in small cell lung cancer is still lacking. In this study, we found that CSCs had significantly lower oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate than non-stem cancer cells. Meanwhile, this subpopulation of cells consumed less glucose, produced less lactate and maintained lower ATP levels. We also revealed that CSCs could produce more ATP through mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation during respiratory inhibition compared with non-stem cancer cells. Furthermore, they were more sensitive to suppression of oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, oligomycin (inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation) could severely impair sphere-forming and tumor-initiating abilities of CSCs. Our work suggests that CSCs represent metabolically inactive tumor subpopulations which sustain in a state showing low metabolic activity. However, mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation of CSCs may be more active than that of non-stem cancer cells. Moreover, CSCs showed preferential use of oxidative phosphorylation over glycolysis to meet their energy demand. These results extend our understanding of CSCs metabolism, potentially providing novel treatment strategies targeting metabolic pathways in small cell lung cancer. PMID:27167619

  17. Highly oxidized graphene oxide and methods for production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Tour, James M.; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.

    2016-08-30

    A highly oxidized form of graphene oxide and methods for production thereof are described in various embodiments of the present disclosure. In general, the methods include mixing a graphite source with a solution containing at least one oxidant and at least one protecting agent and then oxidizing the graphite source with the at least one oxidant in the presence of the at least one protecting agent to form the graphene oxide. Graphene oxide synthesized by the presently described methods is of a high structural quality that is more oxidized and maintains a higher proportion of aromatic rings and aromatic domains than does graphene oxide prepared in the absence of at least one protecting agent. Methods for reduction of graphene oxide into chemically converted graphene are also disclosed herein. The chemically converted graphene of the present disclosure is significantly more electrically conductive than is chemically converted graphene prepared from other sources of graphene oxide.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1545 - Nitrous oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitrous oxide. 184.1545 Section 184.1545 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1545 Nitrous oxide. (a) Nitrous oxide (empirical formula N2O, CAS Reg. No.... Nitrous oxide is manufactured by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Higher oxides of...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1545 - Nitrous oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nitrous oxide. 184.1545 Section 184.1545 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1545 Nitrous oxide. (a) Nitrous oxide (empirical formula N2O, CAS Reg. No.... Nitrous oxide is manufactured by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Higher oxides of...

  20. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  1. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  2. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  3. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  4. Higher Education Exchange, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  5. Higher Education Exchange, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The "Higher Education Exchange" is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  6. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  7. The Higher Education Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia A.

    1991-01-01

    Higher education not only contributes to the development of the human resources and intellectual betterment of the nation but is also a major economic enterprise. This research brief reviews and highlights data on the size and growth of higher education and illustrates how higher education institutions are preparing the future labor force. It…

  8. Reflections on "Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Felix

    1974-01-01

    The elitist, professional, and philosophical elements of higher education are reflected upon with stress on the differences between higher education and higher learning, where education is concerned with giving wider groups a share in a broad image of man, and learning is concerned with increasing specialization. (JH)

  9. Cross-sectional dopant profiling and depletion layer visualization of SiC power double diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor using super-higher-order nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinone, N.; Nakamura, T.; Cho, Y.

    2014-08-01

    The dopant distribution and depletion layer in a cross-section of a SiC double diffused MOSFET (DMOSFET) is visualized using super-higher-order scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SHO-SNDM), which is a form of scanning probe microscopy. Analysis of the data acquired by SHO-SNDM clarifies the dopant distribution in great detail, which is otherwise difficult to detect using conventional scanning capacitance microscopy or scanning microwave microscopy. Moreover, the newly developed SHO-SNDM method enables us to distinguish the n-type, p-type, and depletion layer regions very clearly, and they are found to be consistent with the general DMOSFET structure.

  10. Surface Science and the Advancement of Direct Olefin Epoxidation A Perspective on the Article, ‘‘Partial Oxidation of Higher Olefins on Ag(111) and Ag(110): Conversion of Styrene to Styrene Oxide, Benzene, and Benzoic Acid’’, by Andreas Klust and Robert J. Madix.

    SciTech Connect

    Barteau, Mark A.

    2006-10-04

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Few reactions are as conceptually simple or as devilishly difficult as the epoxidation of ethylene to form ethylene oxide:

  11. Measurements of Oxygenated Organic Chemicals In the Pacific Troposphere During TRACE-P: Higher Aldehydes (less than C(sub 1)), Their Sources, and Potential Role In Atmospheric Oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, L.; Herlth, D.; Viezee, W.; Fried, A.; Jackob, D.; Blake, D.; Heikes, B.; Talbot, R.; Sachse, G.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airborne measurements of a large number of oxygenated organics were carried out in the Pacific troposphere (to 12 km) in the Spring of 2001 (Feb. 24-April 10). Specifically these measurements included acetaldehyde, propanaldehyde, acetone, methylethyl ketone, methanol, ethanol, PAM and organic nitrates. Independent measurements of formaldehyde, peroxides, and tracers were also available. Highly polluted as well as pristine air masses were sampled. Oxygenated organics were abundant in the clean In troposphere and were greatly enhanced in the outflow regions from Asia. Extremely high concentrations of aldehydes could be measured in the troposphere. It is not possible to explain the large abundances of aldehydes in the background troposphere without invoking significant oceanic sources. A strong correlation between the observed mixing ratios of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde is present. We infer that higher aldehydes (such as acetaldehyde and propanaldehyde) may provide a large source of formaldehyde and sequester Cox throughout the troposphere. The atmospheric behavior of acetone, methylethyl ketone, and methanol is generally indicative of their common terrestrial sources with a Image contribution from biomass/biofuel burning. A vast body of data has been collected and it is being analyzed both statistically and with the help of models to better understand the role that oxygenated organics play in the atmosphere and to unravel their sources and sinks. These results will be presented.

  12. Higher Education in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    For the past 7 years, the State Council of Higher Education has published a report of selected characteristics and degree programs for Virginia's state-supported colleges and universities. By combining data from independent institutions with information collected from the state-supported colleges, a more comprehensive picture of higher education…

  13. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

  14. Hypermedia and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses changes in higher education that are resulting from the use of hypermedia. Topics addressed include the structure of traditional texts; a distributed model for academic communication; independent learning as a model for higher education; skills for hypermedia literacy; database searching; information retrieval; authoring skills; design…

  15. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  16. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge produced…

  17. Higher Education Exchange, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological…

  18. PHOENIX. Higher Wage Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bismarck State Coll., ND.

    This document outlines the curriculum plan for the one-semester vocational-technical training component of PHOENIX: A Model Program for Higher-Wage Potential Careers offered by Bismarck State College (North Dakota) which prepares and/or retrains individuals for higher-wage technical careers. The comprehensive model for the program is organized…

  19. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and…

  20. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  1. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  2. On higher structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, Nils A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss various philosophical aspects of the hyperstructure concept extending networks and higher categories. By this discussion, we hope to pave the way for applications and further developments of the mathematical theory of hyperstructures.

  3. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  4. International Higher Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lulat, Y. G-M.

    1988-01-01

    One in a series of bibliographies of articles in international higher education journals lists items on a variety of administrative, financial, faculty, student, curricular, and related issues. Articles on specific geographic regions are categorized separately. (MSE)

  5. Comparative Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    The comparative higher education course offered at the State University of New York at Buffalo is briefly described, and a course schedule is presented, including required and recommended readings for each topic. The course is intended to provide a broad cross-cultural perspective and considers the growth and development of universities in Europe,…

  6. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  7. Higher Education Exchange, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    This annual collection focuses on the obligation of higher education to democracy. Scholars from a variety if disciplines explore this question and related issues, such as the civic mission of the university, what it means to be an "engaged" university, and how a university can itself by a "good citizen." Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the…

  8. Higher Education's Strange Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold, II

    The university which has had the temerity to change the world has not had the nerve to change itself to live in that world. The result is that the university's grading system, curriculum, teaching methods, and philosophies are in conflict with the world beyond the campus gates, and higher education does not meet the intellectual and social needs…

  9. European Higher Education Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal-Grilo, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    In his paper, the author--an academic and former Minister of Education for Portugal--traces the origins of the Bologna Declaration of 1999 and its follow-up studies leading to the Prague Conference of Higher Education Ministers in May 2001. He summarises the outcomes of the Prague Conference, and draws conclusions on the crucial role of…

  10. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  11. Higher Education Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Bencie; Porcari li Destri, Giulia

    This paper discusses issues related to the training and provision of interpreters for deaf students at institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom. Background information provided notes the increasing numbers of deaf and partially hearing students, the existence of funding to pay for interpreters, and trends in the availability of…

  12. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to…

  13. Urban Higher Education Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltridge, James Gilbert

    This is a descriptive and evaluative study of 8 consortia formed by urban institutions of higher education confronted with common problems of minority student recruitment, training of teachers for inner-city schools, and the need for academic expertise to help solve their economic and social problems. Findings show that consortia weaknesses stem…

  14. Higher Level Thinking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Barbara, Ed.

    This report describes two systems designed to improve teaching competencies and to develop higher level thinking abilities, and presents the evaluation design, statistical results, and a brief history of the major events which occurred during development. The McCollum-Davis Model is designed to develop understanding of and skill in relating a…

  15. Workstations in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Ronald F. E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five articles discuss various aspects of workstations and their applications in higher education. Highlights include microcomputers and workstations; UNIX operating system; campus-wide networks; software; Project SOCRATES and the interdisciplinary aspect of engineering; mechanical system design and simulation; and the Creation Station, a…

  16. Higher-order Multiples.

    PubMed

    Stone, Joanne; Kohari, Katherine S

    2015-09-01

    Higher-order multiple gestations have increased since the advent of advanced reproductive technologies. These pregnancies present unique risks to both mothers and fetuses. It is imperative that early diagnosis of chronicity be determined and that proper counseling is performed, so patients understand the risks, evaluation, and management needed.

  17. Higher Education in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy; Cowper, Henry

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes higher education in Scotland in terms of its history and administrative structure and in light of the myths and beliefs about the traditional Scottish university. Differences from English universities are stressed. Journal available from Editor, Gabriel Fragniere, Institute of Education, 60 rue de la Concorde, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.…

  18. Black at Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadi-Hanifi, Karima

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory paper, drawing on the author's experiences as well as those of three other black lecturers in Higher Education (HE). Three interviews were carried out, asking the same five questions around themes of concern to the author. These are about the learning and teaching approaches used by these lecturers; their experiences of…

  19. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…

  20. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenberger, Susan J.

    Educational institutions must seek new approaches to institutional planning because of such factors as shrinking traditional college age populations, eroding grants, governmental and judicial incursion, the tightening economic belt, and concern over the relevance of education to modern day needs. The concept of marketing higher education is…

  1. Higher Education Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    This collection of 10 articles and stories highlights ongoing experiments in colleges and universities which address the relationship of higher education institutions and citizenship responsibility. Following a foreword by Deborah White, articles are: "The Civic Roots of Academic Social Science Scholarship in American" (R. Claire Snyder), which…

  2. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  3. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  4. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  5. Free Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jr., Adolph; Szymanski, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The crisis of affordability in higher education is intensifying. Illustrations of its resonance abound: from the frequent news articles describing and amplifying the crisis and its sources to legislators' and candidates' proposed responses. Republicans' responses tend to be mainly punitive toward institutions; Democrats' proposals are more…

  6. Contracting and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The potential gains in efficiency of three types of contracts in college administration are contrasted. Contract types include explicit contracts in the budgeting process between the state and higher education institutions; institutional contracting for inputs; and interinstitutional contracting. The tradeoff between production cost savings and…

  7. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…

  8. Developing Higher Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbach, Barbara; Waugh, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies an interdisciplinary, five-step process, built upon existing theory and best practices in cognitive development, effective learning environments, and outcomes-based assessment. The "Process for the Development of Higher Level Thinking Skills" provides teachers with an easy to implement method of moving toward a more…

  9. Leadership in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amey, Marilyn J.

    2006-01-01

    At a time when seasoned higher-education leaders are retiring and the challenges facing prospective administrators seem daunting, how do those in positions of authority or aspiring to those roles construct a meaningful and manageable identity as leaders? Where do they look for support and inspiration? How do they learn to lead? The author…

  10. Liberty and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  11. Creativity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  12. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalili, Farid

    The use of marketing activities by educational institutions and the transfer of marketing activities from business to higher education are considered. Market analysis helps colleges and universities determine what programs, scheduling, or services are strong and to which student market the institution should appeal. It is suggested that the…

  13. Curriculum in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, A. I., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Four articles on higher education curriculum are presented. In "The Articulate Curriculum" an approach to curriculum description is presented that is designed to have minimal ambiguity concerning the intention, content, and processes of the curriculum and that will lead to questioning several discrete factors in the curriculum planning process. It…

  14. Higher Education Exchange, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The Kettering Foundation's research has been focused on putting the public back into the public's business for more than thirty years. Some questions that have recently been useful to Kettering researchers as the foundation focuses on its work with institutional actors--especially higher education and its relationship with the public--have…

  15. Online Higher Education Commodity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Paule

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online…

  16. Literature survey on oxidations and fatigue lives at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.; Oshida, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-base superalloys are the most complex and the most widely used for high temperature applications such as aircraft engine components. The desirable properties of nickel-base superalloys at high temperatures are tensile strength, thermomechanical fatigue resistance, low thermal expansion, as well as oxidation resistance. At elevated temperature, fatigue cracks are often initiated by grain boundary oxidation, and fatigue cracks often propagate along grain boundaries, where the oxidation rate is higher. Oxidation takes place at the interface between metal and gas. Properties of the metal substrate, the gaseous environment, as well as the oxides formed all interact to make the oxidation behavior of nickel-base superalloys extremely complicated. The important topics include general oxidation, selective oxidation, internal oxidation, grain boundary oxidation, multilayer oxide structure, accelerated oxidation under stress, stress-generation during oxidation, composition and substrate microstructural changes due to prolonged oxidation, fatigue crack initiation at oxidized grain boundaries and the oxidation accelerated fatigue crack propagation along grain boundaries.

  17. Higher spins and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Per; Ross, Simon F.

    2013-05-01

    The principles of quantum mechanics and relativity impose rigid constraints on theories of massless particles with nonzero spin. Indeed, Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity are the unique solution in the case of spin-1 and spin-2. In asymptotically flat spacetime, there are fundamental obstacles to formulating fully consistent interacting theories of particles of spin greater than 2. However, indications are that such theories are just barely possible in asymptotically anti-de Sitter or de Sitter spacetimes, where the non-existence of an S-matrix provides an escape from the theorems restricting theories in Minkowski spacetime. These higher spin gravity theories are therefore of great intrinsic interest, since they, along with supergravity, provide the only known field theories generalizing the local invariance principles of Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity. While work on higher spin gravity goes back several decades, the subject has gained broader appeal in recent years due to its appearance in the AdS/CFT correspondence. In three and four spacetime dimensions, there exist duality proposals linking higher spin gravity theories to specific conformal field theories living in two and three dimensions respectively. The enlarged symmetry algebra of the conformal field theories renders them exactly soluble, which makes them excellent laboratories for understanding in detail the holographic mechanism behind AdS/CFT duality. Steady progress is also being made on better understanding the space of possible higher spin gravity theories and their physical content. This work includes classifying the possible field multiplets and their interactions, constructing exact solutions of the nonlinear field equations, and relating higher spin theories to string theory. A full understanding of these theories will involve coming to grips with the novel symmetry principles that enlarge those of General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory, and one can hope that this will provide

  18. Higher order Bezier circles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin

    1993-01-01

    Rational Bezier and B-spline representations of circles have been heavily publicized. However, all the literature assumes the rational Bezier segments in the homogeneous space are both planar and (equivalent to) quadratic. This creates the illusion that circles can only be achieved by planar and quadratic curves. Circles that are formed by higher order rational Bezier curves which are nonplanar in the homogeneous space are shown. The problem of whether it is possible to represent a complete circle with one Bezier curve is investigated. In addition, some other interesting properties of cubic Bezier arcs are discussed.

  19. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1992-02-03

    This research program is directed toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of catalyst composition and structure on the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Metal oxide catalysts play an important role in many reactions bearing on the chemical aspects of energy processes. Metal oxides are the catalysts for water-gas shift reactions, methanol and higher alcohol synthesis, isosynthesis, selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides, and oxidation of hydrocarbons. A key limitation to developing insight into how oxides function in catalytic reactions is in not having precise information of the surface composition under reaction conditions. To address this problem we have prepared oxide systems that can be used to study cation-cation effects and the role of bridging (-O-) and/or terminal (=O) surface oxygen anion ligands in a systematic fashion. Since many oxide catalyst systems involve mixtures of oxides, we selected a model system that would permit us to examine the role of each cation separately and in pairwise combinations. Organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes were proposed for use, to prepare model systems consisting of isolated monomeric cations, isolated monometallic dimers and isolated bimetallic dimers supported on silica and alumina. The monometallic and bimetallic dimers were to be used as models of more complex mixed- oxide catalysts. Our current program was to develop the systems and use them in model oxidation reactions.

  20. Higher than Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Paul

    2001-08-01

    Tired of exploring planet Earth? Have you ever imagined what it would be like to explore the Moon? Ever wonder about the topography of Mars? In this unique guidebook all of your extraterrestrial wanderlust can be fulfilled as Paul Hodge takes you on a virtual tour of the most spectacular sites in the Solar System. Hodge includes the latest information about the Solar System into his vivid descriptions of imaginary, challenging expeditions. Imagine: -- Descending into a fabulous canyon on Mars, one that dwarfs the Earth's Grand Canyon; -- Trekking up Venus' precipitous and scorching Mt. Maxwell; -- Journeying through the snows of Saturn's rings and the incredibly high, icy cliff of Miranda, the moon closest to Uranus. A compelling, extensively illustrated introduction to such otherworldly environments, Higher than Everest makes you believe that someday these adventures may actually take place. Paul Hodge is Professor of Astronomy at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Editor-in-Chief of the Astronomical Journal. Higher than Everest is based on a popular undergraduate course on the planets that he has taught for many years. Hodge's research has spanned from interplanetary dust to the extragalactic distance scale and currently includes star-formation and galactic evolution, using the Hubble Space Telescope to investigate nearby galaxies. He has written several books, most recently Meteorite Craters and Impact Structures of the Earth (Cambridge 1994).

  1. Higher harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2005-01-01

    Higher harmonic-generation, including second harmonic generation and third harmonic generation, leaves no energy deposition to the interacted matters due to its virtual-level transition characteristic, providing a truly non-invasive modality and is ideal for in vivo imaging of live specimens without any preparation. Second harmonic generation microscopy provides images on stacked membranes and arranged proteins with organized nano-structures due to the bio-photonic crystalline effect. Third harmonic generation microscopy provides general cellular or subcellular interface imaging due to optical inhomogeneity. Due to their virtual-transition nature, no saturation or bleaching in the generated signal is expected. With no energy release, continuous viewing without compromising sample viability can thus be achieved. Combined with its nonlinearity, higher harmonic generation microscopy provides sub-micron three-dimensional sectioning capability and millimeter penetration in live samples without using fluorescence and exogenous markers, offering morphological, structural, functional, and cellular information of biomedical specimens without modifying their natural biological and optical environments.

  2. Higher dimensional massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-08-01

    We study higher-dimensional scenarios of massive bigravity, which is a very interesting extension of nonlinear massive gravity since its reference metric is assumed to be fully dynamical. In particular, the Einstein field equations along with the following constraint equations for both physical and reference metrics of a five-dimensional massive bigravity will be addressed. Then, we study some well-known cosmological spacetimes such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metrics for the five-dimensional massive bigravity. As a result, we find that massive graviton terms will serve as effective cosmological constants in both physical and reference sectors if a special scenario, in which reference metrics are chosen to be proportional to physical ones, is considered for all mentioned metrics. Thanks to the constancy property of massive graviton terms, consistent cosmological solutions will be figured out accordingly.

  3. Iridium oxide-polymer nanocomposite electrode materials for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lattach, Youssef; Rivera, Juan Francisco; Bamine, Tahya; Deronzier, Alain; Moutet, Jean-Claude

    2014-08-13

    Nanocomposite anode materials for water oxidation have been readily synthesized by electrodeposition of iridium oxide nanoparticles into poly(pyrrole-alkylammonium) films, previously deposited onto carbon electrodes by oxidative electropolymerization of a pyrrole-alkylammonium monomer. The nanocomposite films were characterized by electrochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. They showed an efficient electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction. Data from Tafel plots have demonstrated that the catalytic activity of the iridium oxide nanoparticles is maintained following their inclusion in the polymer matrix. Bulk electrolysis of water at carbon foam modified electrodes have shown that the iridium oxide-polymer composite presents a higher catalytic activity and a better operational stability than regular oxide films.

  4. Hysteresis-free high rate reactive sputtering of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Särhammar, Erik Berg, Sören; Nyberg, Tomas

    2014-07-01

    This work reports on experimental studies of reactive sputtering from targets consisting of a metal and its oxide. The composition of the targets varied from pure metal to pure oxide of Al, Ta, and Nb. This combines features from both the metal target and oxide target in reactive sputtering. If a certain relation between the metal and oxide parts is chosen, it may be possible to obtain a high deposition rate, due to the metal part, and a hysteresis-free process, due to the oxide part. The aim of this work is to quantify the achievable boost in oxide deposition rate from a hysteresis-free process by using a target consisting of segments of a metal and its oxide. Such an increase has been previously demonstrated for Ti using a homogeneous substoichiometric target. The achievable gain in deposition rate depends on transformation mechanisms from oxide to suboxides due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. Such mechanisms are different for different materials and the achievable gain is therefore material dependent. For the investigated materials, the authors have demonstrated oxide deposition rates that are 1.5–10 times higher than what is possible from metal targets in compound mode. However, although the principle is demonstrated for oxides of Al, Ta, and Nb, a similar behavior is expected for most oxides.

  5. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion

  6. Krypton oxides under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Lata, Pawel M.

    2016-01-01

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300 GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamically stable with respect to constituent elements and higher oxides. The monoxide is predicted to form non-molecular crystals with short Kr-O contacts, typical for genuine chemical bonds. PMID:26830129

  7. Krypton oxides under pressure.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Lata, Pawel M

    2016-02-02

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300 GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamically stable with respect to constituent elements and higher oxides. The monoxide is predicted to form non-molecular crystals with short Kr-O contacts, typical for genuine chemical bonds.

  8. Krypton oxides under pressure.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Lata, Pawel M

    2016-01-01

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300 GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamically stable with respect to constituent elements and higher oxides. The monoxide is predicted to form non-molecular crystals with short Kr-O contacts, typical for genuine chemical bonds. PMID:26830129

  9. Zinc in +III oxidation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Devleena; Jena, Puru

    2012-02-01

    The possibility of Group 12 elements, such as Zn, Cd, and Hg existing in an oxidation state of +III or higher has fascinated chemists for decades. Significant efforts have been made in the past to achieve higher oxidation states for the heavier congener mercury (since the 3^rd ionization potential of the elements decrease as we go down the periodic table). It took nearly 20 years before experiment could confirm the theoretical prediction that Hg indeed can exist in an oxidation state of +IV. While this unusual property of Hg is attributed to the relativistic effects, Zn being much lighter than Hg has not been expected to have an oxidation state higher than +II. Using density functional theory we show that an oxidation state of +III for Zn can be realized by choosing specific ligands with large electron affinities i.e. superhalogens. We demonstrate this by a systematic study of the interaction of Zn with F, BO2, and AuF6 ligands whose electron affinities are progressively higher, namely, 3.4 eV, 4.4 eV, and 8.4 eV, respectively. Discovery of higher oxidation states of elements can help in the formulation of new reactions and hence in the development of new chemistry.

  10. Oxide Nanocrystal Model Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weixin

    2016-03-15

    Model catalysts with uniform and well-defined surface structures have been extensively employed to explore structure-property relationships of powder catalysts. Traditional oxide model catalysts are based on oxide single crystals and single crystal thin films, and the surface chemistry and catalysis are studied under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. However, the acquired fundamental understandings often suffer from the "materials gap" and "pressure gap" when they are extended to the real world of powder catalysts working at atmospheric or higher pressures. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis have realized controlled synthesis of catalytic oxide nanocrystals with uniform and well-defined morphologies. These oxide nanocrystals consist of a novel type of oxide model catalyst whose surface chemistry and catalysis can be studied under the same conditions as working oxide catalysts. In this Account, the emerging concept of oxide nanocrystal model catalysts is demonstrated using our investigations of surface chemistry and catalysis of uniform and well-defined cuprous oxide nanocrystals and ceria nanocrystals. Cu2O cubes enclosed with the {100} crystal planes, Cu2O octahedra enclosed with the {111} crystal planes, and Cu2O rhombic dodecahedra enclosed with the {110} crystal planes exhibit distinct morphology-dependent surface reactivities and catalytic properties that can be well correlated with the surface compositions and structures of exposed crystal planes. Among these types of Cu2O nanocrystals, the octahedra are most reactive and catalytically active due to the presence of coordination-unsaturated (1-fold-coordinated) Cu on the exposed {111} crystal planes. The crystal-plane-controlled surface restructuring and catalytic activity of Cu2O nanocrystals were observed in CO oxidation with excess oxygen. In the propylene oxidation reaction with O2, 1-fold-coordinated Cu on Cu2O(111), 3-fold-coordinated O on Cu2O(110), and 2-fold-coordinated O on Cu2O(100) were identified

  11. Lipid oxidation induced oxidative degradation of cereal beta-glucan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jie; Mäkelä, Noora; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula

    2016-04-15

    In food systems, lipid oxidation can cause oxidation of other molecules. This research for the first time investigated oxidative degradation of β-glucan induced by lipid oxidation using an oil-in-water emulsion system which simulated a multi-phased aqueous food system containing oil and β-glucan. Lipid oxidation was monitored using peroxide value and hexanal production while β-glucan degradation was evaluated by viscosity and molecular weight measurements. The study showed that while lipid oxidation proceeded, β-glucan degradation occurred. Emulsions containing β-glucan, oil and ferrous ion showed significant viscosity and molecular weight decrease after 1 week of oxidation at room temperature. Elevated temperature (40°C) enhanced the oxidation reactions causing higher viscosity drop. In addition, the presence of β-glucan appeared to retard the hexanal production in lipid oxidation. The study revealed that lipid oxidation may induce the degradation of β-glucan in aqueous food systems where β-glucan and lipids co-exist.

  12. Comparison of thermal oxidation and plasma oxidation of 4H-SiC (0001) for surface flattening

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Hui; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2014-03-10

    The thermal oxidation and water vapor plasma oxidation of 4H-SiC (0001) were investigated. The initial oxidation rate of helium-based atmospheric-pressure plasma oxidation was six times higher than that of thermal oxidation. The oxide-SiC interface generated by plasma oxidation became flatter with increasing thickness of the oxide, whereas the interface generated by thermal oxidation was atomically flat regardless of the oxide thickness. Many pits were generated on the thermally oxidized surface, whereas few pits were observed on the surface oxidized by plasma. After the oxide layer generated plasma oxidation was removed, an atomically flat and pit-free SiC surface was obtained.

  13. Texas Higher Education in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    The status of higher education in Texas is examined in this major report of changes in higher education over the past decade. Information on enrollment, cost, financial aid, job opportunities, and facilities in higher education institutions is given for private higher education, professional higher education, community colleges, and state colleges…

  14. The oxidative hypothesis of senescence.

    PubMed

    Gilca, M; Stoian, I; Atanasiu, V; Virgolici, B

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative hypothesis of senescence, since its origin in 1956, has garnered significant evidence and growing support among scientists for the notion that free radicals play an important role in ageing, either as "damaging" molecules or as signaling molecules. Age-increasing oxidative injuries induced by free radicals, higher susceptibility to oxidative stress in short-lived organisms, genetic manipulations that alter both oxidative resistance and longevity and the anti-ageing effect of caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are a few examples of accepted scientific facts that support the oxidative theory of senescence. Though not completely understood due to the complex "network" of redox regulatory systems, the implication of oxidative stress in the ageing process is now well documented. Moreover, it is compatible with other current ageing theories (e.g, those implicating the mitochondrial damage/mitochondrial-lysosomal axis, stress-induced premature senescence, biological "garbage" accumulation, etc). This review is intended to summarize and critically discuss the redox mechanisms involved during the ageing process: sources of oxidant agents in ageing (mitochondrial -electron transport chain, nitric oxide synthase reaction- and non-mitochondrial- Fenton reaction, microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, peroxisomal beta -oxidation and respiratory burst of phagocytic cells), antioxidant changes in ageing (enzymatic- superoxide dismutase, glutathione-reductase, glutathion peroxidase, catalase- and non-enzymatic glutathione, ascorbate, urate, bilirubine, melatonin, tocopherols, carotenoids, ubiquinol), alteration of oxidative damage repairing mechanisms and the role of free radicals as signaling molecules in ageing.

  15. Magnesium Oxide

    MedlinePlus

    ... different reasons. Some people use it as an antacid to relieve heartburn, sour stomach, or acid indigestion. ... stomach.Do not take magnesium oxide as an antacid for longer than 2 weeks unless your doctor ...

  16. Antibacterial activity of graphite, graphite oxide, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide: membrane and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaobin; Zeng, Tingying Helen; Hofmann, Mario; Burcombe, Ehdi; Wei, Jun; Jiang, Rongrong; Kong, Jing; Chen, Yuan

    2011-09-27

    Health and environmental impacts of graphene-based materials need to be thoroughly evaluated before their potential applications. Graphene has strong cytotoxicity toward bacteria. To better understand its antimicrobial mechanism, we compared the antibacterial activity of four types of graphene-based materials (graphite (Gt), graphite oxide (GtO), graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)) toward a bacterial model-Escherichia coli. Under similar concentration and incubation conditions, GO dispersion shows the highest antibacterial activity, sequentially followed by rGO, Gt, and GtO. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic light scattering analyses show that GO aggregates have the smallest average size among the four types of materials. SEM images display that the direct contacts with graphene nanosheets disrupt cell membrane. No superoxide anion (O(2)(•-)) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is detected. However, the four types of materials can oxidize glutathione, which serves as redox state mediator in bacteria. Conductive rGO and Gt have higher oxidation capacities than insulating GO and GtO. Results suggest that antimicrobial actions are contributed by both membrane and oxidation stress. We propose that a three-step antimicrobial mechanism, previously used for carbon nanotubes, is applicable to graphene-based materials. It includes initial cell deposition on graphene-based materials, membrane stress caused by direct contact with sharp nanosheets, and the ensuing superoxide anion-independent oxidation. We envision that physicochemical properties of graphene-based materials, such as density of functional groups, size, and conductivity, can be precisely tailored to either reducing their health and environmental risks or increasing their application potentials.

  17. Switching Oxide Traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.

    2003-01-01

    We consider radiation-induced charge trapping in SiO2 dielectric layers, primarily from the point of view of CMOS devices. However, SiO2 insulators are used in many other ways, and the same defects occur in other contexts. The key studies, which determined the nature of the oxide charge traps, were done primarily on gate oxides in CMOS devices, because that was the main radiation problem in CMOS at one time. There are two major reviews of radiation-induced oxide charge trapping already in the literature, which discuss the subject in far greater detail than is possible here. The first of these was by McLean et al. in 1989, and the second, ten years later, was intended as an update, because of additional, new work that had been reported. Basically, the picture that has emerged is that ionizing radiation creates electron-hole pairs in the oxide, and the electrons have much higher mobility than the holes. Therefore, the electrons are swept out of the oxide very rapidly by any field that is present, leaving behind any holes that escape the initial recombination process. These holes then undergo a polaron hopping transport toward the Si/SiO2 interface (under positive bias). Near the interface, some fraction of them fall into deep, relatively stable, long-lived hole traps. The nature and annealing behavior of these hole traps is the main focus of this paper.

  18. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles

  19. Engelhard expands oxidation catalysts portfolio

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1997-02-26

    Engelhard says its agreement earlier this month to market Amoco Chemical`s proprietary maleic anhydride catalyst reflects an effort to expand its speciality catalysts business (CW, Feb. 19, p.5). In particular, the company says it is looking for additional alliances to bolster its oxidation catalysts portfolio. {open_quotes}There are some areas of oxidation catalysis that are reasonably attractive,{close_quotes} says Paul Lamb, marketing director/chemical catalysts. He says that while Engelhard is not interested in commodity oxidation catalysts, such as those used to make sulfuric acid, it does want to boost offerings for higher-value oxidation catalysts. Engelhard is collaborating with Geon to offer oxychlorination catalysts for making ethylene dichloride. It also markets oxidation catalysts for vinyl acetate production.

  20. Cellulose nanocrystal reinforced oxidized natural rubber nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Marcos; El Kissi, Nadia; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-02-10

    Natural rubber (NR) latex particles were oxidized using KMnO4 as oxidant to promote the insertion of hydroxyl groups in the surface polyisoprene chains. Different degrees of oxidation were investigated. Both unoxidized and oxidized NR (ONR) latex were used to prepare nanocomposite films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by casting/evaporation. The oxidation of NR was carried out to promote chemical interactions between the hydroxyl groups of ONR with those of CNCs through hydrogen bonding. The effect of the degree of oxidation of the NR latex on the rheological behavior of CNC/NR and CNC/ONR suspensions, as well as on the mechanical, swelling and thermal properties of ensuing nanocomposites was investigated. Improved properties were observed for intermediate degrees of oxidation but they were found to degrade for higher oxidation levels.

  1. Cellulose nanocrystal reinforced oxidized natural rubber nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Marcos; El Kissi, Nadia; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-02-10

    Natural rubber (NR) latex particles were oxidized using KMnO4 as oxidant to promote the insertion of hydroxyl groups in the surface polyisoprene chains. Different degrees of oxidation were investigated. Both unoxidized and oxidized NR (ONR) latex were used to prepare nanocomposite films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by casting/evaporation. The oxidation of NR was carried out to promote chemical interactions between the hydroxyl groups of ONR with those of CNCs through hydrogen bonding. The effect of the degree of oxidation of the NR latex on the rheological behavior of CNC/NR and CNC/ONR suspensions, as well as on the mechanical, swelling and thermal properties of ensuing nanocomposites was investigated. Improved properties were observed for intermediate degrees of oxidation but they were found to degrade for higher oxidation levels. PMID:26686118

  2. State Intervention in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenny, Lyman A.; Bowen, Frank M.

    State intervention in higher education is discussed, and state and federal regulations that affect higher education are discussed and contrasted. The structures and procedures by which states intervene in higher education are outlined, and the issue of institutional autonomy is considered. Policy areas through which the state can affect higher…

  3. Advancing Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    This special section of the "Journal of Diversity in Higher Education" ("JDHE") on "Advancing Diversity in Higher Education" emerged from the 2012 Association for the Study of Higher Education Council on Ethnic Participation (ASHE-CEP) Pre-Conference Forum. CEP, a standing committee of ASHE, partnered with the…

  4. Capital Formation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Carol; Coldren, Sharon L.

    The need for new capital in higher education and major areas where the interests of the business and higher education communities are aligned are considered. Higher education is a major employer and makes a large contribution to the gross national product. Human capital has become the accepted term for referring to the contribution of education,…

  5. Higher Education Finance Manual 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Douglas J.; Mertins, Paul J.

    The Higher Education Finance Manual (HEFM) is intended to serve as a guide to higher education planners and managers in their understanding and use of institutional finance data. It addresses higher education finance data from the layman's perspective. The document includes definitions of accounting terms and descriptions of generally accepted…

  6. A Tax for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  7. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  8. Commitment to Higher Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imrie, Brad; And Others

    This publication is a history of the College of Higher Vocational Studies (CHVS) since it was established in 1991 and provides commentary on developments in higher vocational education in Hong Kong during a period of unprecedented change and development in the provision of the Higher Diploma. "Principal's Diary" (Bradford Imrie) describes the…

  9. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  10. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  11. People Who Study Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Tony

    2009-01-01

    The study of higher education can seem extraordinarily complex because what counts as knowledge is contestable and the higher education research community is, like Hemingway's Paris, a moveable feast. A lack of epistemological precision and field uncertainty is partly due to the fact that those who study higher education tend to work in higher…

  12. Emerging Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Jonathan D.; Barnett, Lynn

    Trends and projections for higher education are identified. Increased public concern about the purposes and standards of higher education has followed the publication of four major publications about higher education in the United States. Changing demographics are projected for 1983-1993, including fewer 18- to 22-year-olds, decreased full-time…

  13. Higher Education in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, James D.

    Events and conditions over the last 20 years that have altered the course of higher education are briefly noted, and trends in higher education for the early eighties are examined. Among the past influences on higher education that illustrate the wisdom of planning for a realistic period of time, such as five years, are the following: the massive…

  14. History of Higher Education, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History of Higher Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This annual compilation offers six articles on the history of higher education. In the first article, "The Historical Matrix of American Higher Education," Roger L. Geiger provides an overview of the history of American higher education. Following it, E. D. Duryea, Jurgen Herbst, and W. Bruce Leslie comment on his hypothesis which identifies eight…

  15. Oxide Thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, David J

    2008-01-01

    Thermoelectricity in oxides, especially NaxCoO2 and related materials, is discussed from the point of view of first principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory. The electronic structure of this material is exceptional in that it has a combination of very narrow bands and strong hybridization between metal d states and ligand p states. As shown within the framework of conventional Boltzmann transport theory, this leads to high Seebeck coefficients even at metallic carrier densities. This suggests a strategy of searching for other narrow band oxides that can be doped metallic with mobile carriers. Some possible avenues for finding such materials are suggested.

  16. Influence of retardation caused by partially oxidized adsorbate upon the oxidation state of copper catalyst and its performance for selective propylene oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Inui, T.; Ueda, T.; Suehiro, M.

    1980-09-01

    Propylene oxidation to acrolein on copper oxide catalyst was optimized at 300/sup 0/C, a 3.5:1 propylene-oxygen ratio, and a slightly reduced cuprous oxide catalyst of 2.17:1 copper-oxygen ratio. Increasing feed concentrations of both propylene and oxygen (in nitrogen) increased both conversion and selectivity for acrolein. The optimum oxidation state of the catalyst was obtained by starting with completely reduced copper; other initial oxidation states gave steady-state catalysts with higher oxidation states. High oxygen concentrations caused sintering and cupric oxide whisker growth.

  17. Direct growth of flower-like manganese oxide on reduced graphene oxide towards efficient oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintao; Guo, Chunxian; Zhang, Lianying; Li, Chang Ming

    2013-07-18

    Three-dimensional manganese oxide is directly grown on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets, exhibiting comparable catalytic activity, higher selectivity and better stability towards oxygen reduction reaction than those of the commercial Pt/XC-72 catalyst. PMID:23745182

  18. Thallium oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Thallium oxide ; CASRN 1314 - 32 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  19. Propylene oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene oxide ; CASRN 75 - 56 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  20. Nitric oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitric oxide ; CASRN 10102 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  1. Merphos oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Merphos oxide ; CASRN 78 - 48 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  2. Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Michael L.; Sohn, H. Y.; Cutler, Raymond A.

    2013-11-01

    The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB2) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB2 in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB2 beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB2 and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB2 exhibited O2-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O2 than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB2 suggested that Al2O3-B2O3 interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al2O3 on aluminum particles into a Al4B2O9 shell, while the same Al4B2O9 developed a needle-like morphology in AlB2 that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB2, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments.

  3. Higher: Setting a Higher Bar for Higher Ed. 2013 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) is leading the charge to return "higher" to higher education. We are challenging the status quo to restore academic freedom, academic rigor, and real accountability to higher education. And, we are doing so with an ever-widening network of supporters and partners.

  4. Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Occasional Papers on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    Two papers on the funding formula of the Alabama Commission for Higher Education are presented. The first paper, by John F. Porter, Jr., "The Origins and Evolutions of the Funding Formula Model Utilized by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education, 1973-82," presents the historical antecedents for the existing formula elements and notes…

  5. On higher holonomy invariants in higher gauge theory I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    This is the first of a series of two technical papers devoted to the analysis of holonomy invariants in strict higher gauge theory with end applications in higher Chern-Simons theory. For a flat 2-connection, we define the 2-holonomy of surface knots of arbitrary genus and determine its covariance properties under 1-gauge transformation and change of base data.

  6. [Epilepsy with higher brain dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Midorikawa, Akira; Koyama, Shinichi; Futamura, Akinori; Kuroda, Takeshi; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Itaya, Kazuhiro; Ishigaki, Seiichiro; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2013-02-01

    Acquired higher brain dysfunction is for the most part due to cerebral vascular disease, but epilepsy may also be a cause. In this study with five patients, we discuss the advantages of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for persistent higher brain dysfunction. The patients showed chronic amnesia or acute aphasia, with associated symptoms like personality change. All five cases affected automatism or convulsive attack, though only after the emergence of higher brain dysfunction and administration of AEDs. There were underlying diseases like cerebral arteriovenous malformation in four cases, but the other patient had none. Electroencephalogram and single photon emission computed tomography revealed one case of aphasia epilepsy with higher brain dysfunction. These results suggest the potential therapeutic efficacy of AEDs for persistent higher brain dysfunction, and we must differentiate epilepsy with higher brain dysfunction from dementia or cerebral vascular disease. PMID:23399676

  7. New Labour and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper, the first part of an edited version of a Keynote Presentation delivered at the AUA Annual Conference, Queen's University Belfast, on April 11, 2006, describes the fate of UK higher education during the course of the last parliament and identifies New Labour's two successive and contradictory higher education policies. The author…

  8. The Higher Education Research Archipelago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Ever since he stumbled into doing higher education research as a young academic in the 1980s, the author has been trying to understand it as a "field" of study. His career, as a former business lecturer, then an academic developer and now an associate professor for higher education working in an Education Faculty has given him opportunities to see…

  9. The Economy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    The macroeconomic trends shaping the United States economy and the effects of those trends on higher education are considered. Warning institutions of higher education about possible problems in the economy will place them in a better position to react if necessary. The economic environment is discussed in terms of productivity (goods and services…

  10. "Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities and divisions. Here,…

  11. Theorising Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Britain now has the most heavily regulated higher education system in the world and institutions must deliver best educational value. This book explores the political and psychic economy of quality assurance in higher education and interrogates the discourse and practices associated with the audit culture in Britain. Following Acknowledgements and…

  12. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    Reviewed 1998 and early 1999 court decisions related to disability discrimination in higher education. This period witnessed major developments in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education. A major focus was on whether persons whose impairments are ameliorated by treatment are individuals with disabilities covered by…

  13. Asian Americans and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    Unfortunately the story of Asian Americans and higher education is not one of unqualified success. This paper attempts to overview the historical significance and present the problems of Asian Americans in higher education. The first problem is the lack of oral and writing skills among Asian Americans. Part of this problem is cultural, referring…

  14. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally adopted and…

  15. Funding Higher Education: Student Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Selena; Harvey, Lee

    This report documents the results of a survey of 1,139 students at the University of Central England (UCE) in Birmingham in regard to their financial circumstances and their views on the funding of higher education. The report also examines the advantages and disadvantages of six specific higher education funding proposals put forth in recent…

  16. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  17. History of American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  18. Personnel Management in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millett, John D.; And Others

    This document on personnel management in higher education contains three papers that are designed to be used as guidelines for educational administrators. The first two papers, by John D. Millett, discuss the scope and problems of higher education administration and the problems associated with collective bargaining and tenure on college campuses.…

  19. Fact Book on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about long-term trends and…

  20. Alternative Models for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, John G.

    Higher education is beset from all sides by criticism, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and prophecies of doom. While the young call for change, the faculty often resist anything that might reduce their privileges and prerogatives. Before alternative models to the present system of higher education can be considered, it is useful to question present…

  1. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  2. Sexual Harassment in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truax, Anne; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An article and three responses on sexual harassment in higher education are presented: "Sexual Harassment in Higher Education: What We've Learned" (Anne Truax); "Who Is Responsible for Sexual Harassment?" (Barbara G. Taylor); "The Feminist-Unionist Dilemma" (Sherna Berger Gluck); and "Sexual Harassment and Academic Power" (Loralee MacPike). (MLW)

  3. Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

  4. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  5. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  6. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  7. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  8. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  9. Higher Education: Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  10. Women in Higher Education, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…

  11. Empowering Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisker, Gina

    This book focuses on enabling and empowering women in higher education, and it draws both on research and experience with women-centered teaching and learning practices and professional development and training of women staff. The first section of the book concentrates on women students in higher education. Chapters include: "Women Students and…

  12. THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTTER, ALLAN M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION CONTAINS PAPERS PRESENTED AT A COLLOQUIUM HELD BY THE COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIP SERVICE IN 1965. THE PAPERS DEAL BROADLY WITH THE QUESTION OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE METHODS OF FINANCING HIGHER EDUCATION, AND WITH THE ROLE AND PROBLEMS OF THE EDUCATIONAL CONSUMER. THE PAPERS DEAL WITH--(1) THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, (2) PRICING…

  13. Higher Education in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Frederick, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    New York State higher education policy and finance are discussed in four articles. In "Higher Education and Public Policy in New York," Frederick S. Lane considers the state's institutions, policymakers and politics, financing of colleges, enrollment patterns, links to economic development, and the changing educational environment. Paul T.…

  14. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  15. Learning Entrepreneurship in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taatila, Vesa P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There is a constant need to produce more entrepreneurial graduates from higher education institutions. This paper aims to present and discuss several successful cases of entrepreneurial learning environments in order to suggest some important aspects that higher education institutions should consider. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  16. The Higher Learning in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the state of public higher education in the United States focuses on government financing of higher education, the high costs of both government and good education, and student attitudes toward their education. A new general education curriculum design at the University of Chicago (Illinois), designed to alleviate some of these…

  17. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  18. Econometric Studies of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    The econometrics of higher education emerged from the development of human capital theory and efforts to estimate rates of return to education in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper surveys the various strands of the literature on the econometrics of higher education that have developed during the last 40 years and indicates how a collection of papers…

  19. Higher Education Funding in Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Lori

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine perceptions of state legislators regarding funding of public higher education in the State of Missouri. To this end, I sought to determine how Missouri legislators perceive the purpose of higher education and the role the state government should play in funding it. The concept that higher…

  20. Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyring, Henry C.

    2011-01-01

    In "Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education," Henry C. Eyring, a junior majoring in Economics at Brigham Young University-Idaho, argues that one way that the U.S. can compete globally in college attainment is to decrease cost-per-graduate. He explains how many stakeholders in higher education stand to benefit from unexploited…

  1. Assessment Issues in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, M. J.; And Others

    This report reviews assessment issues from a British perspective with particular regard to the implications that the National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) Framework will have for assessment in higher education. It considers assessment in relation to the various purposes of higher education and puts forward a number of practical suggestions for…

  2. Higher Education: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.; Dietrich, Greta L.; Phillips, Gabriele; McCormack, Kevin A.

    This report provides a review of higher education systems in selected developed countries and compares higher education in the United States and other countries. The report draws on data from the Indicators of National Education Systems Project of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic…

  3. Strategy Process in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Higher education institutions educate those who are the most talented and best able to secure the future for the next generation. This study examines an efficient strategy process in higher education and emphasises the importance of sufficient dialogue during the process. The study describes the strategy process of the Turku University of Applied…

  4. Higher Education in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, R. A.

    There are two sectors of higher education in the Netherlands: the universities covered by the University Education Act and the vocationally-oriented colleges covered by the Further Education Act. Following a summary of the main elements of secondary education, higher or tertiary education is defined. Thirteen universities and non-university…

  5. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  6. Does Higher Education Need Deschooling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butson, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to overcome the contemporary obsession with "learning" and proposes that current practices in higher education are aligned too closely with the educational theories and practices developed within pre-university compulsory education. The author takes the position that higher education is substantially different from…

  7. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  8. On higher holonomy invariants in higher gauge theory II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This is the second of a series of two technical papers devoted to the analysis of holonomy invariants in strict higher gauge theory with end applications in higher Chern-Simons theory. We provide a definition of trace over a crossed module to yield surface knot invariants upon application to 2-holonomies. We show further that the properties of the trace are best described using the theory quandle crossed modules.

  9. Ultra supercritical steamside oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David A.; Ochs, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vision 21 goals. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Vision 21 goals include steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems. Emphasis is placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  10. Thatcherism and British Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattock, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of the influence of Britain's prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, on higher education looks at the relationship between the administrator's 10 years in office and the fiscal, educational, and public policy issues currently under debate. (MSE)

  11. Synthesis of higher monocarboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Taikov, B.F.; Novakovskii, E.M.; Zhelkovskaya, V.P.; Shadrova, V.N.; Shcherbik, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    Brown-coal and peat waxes contain higher monocarboxylic acids, alcohols and esters of them as their main components. In view of this, considerable interest is presented by the preparation of individual compounds among those mentioned above, which is particularly important in the study of the composition and development of the optimum variants of the chemical processing of the waxes. In laboratory practice, to obtain higher monocarboxylic acids use is generally made of electrosynthesis according to Kolbe which permits unbranched higher aliphatic acids with given lengths of the hydrocarbon chain to be obtained. The aim of the present work was to synthesize higher monocarboxylic acids: arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, pentacosanoic, erotic, heptacosanoic, montanic, nonacosanoic, melissic, dotriacontanoic and tetratriacontanoic, which are present in waxes. Characteristics of synthesized acids are tabulated. 20 refs.

  12. Solving higher curvature gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sumanta; SenGupta, Soumitra

    2016-10-01

    Solving field equations in the context of higher curvature gravity theories is a formidable task. However, in many situations, e.g., in the context of f( R) theories, the higher curvature gravity action can be written as an Einstein-Hilbert action plus a scalar field action. We show that not only the action but the field equations derived from the action are also equivalent, provided the spacetime is regular. We also demonstrate that such an equivalence continues to hold even when the gravitational field equations are projected on a lower-dimensional hypersurface. We have further addressed explicit examples in which the solutions for Einstein-Hilbert and a scalar field system lead to solutions of the equivalent higher curvature theory. The same, but on the lower-dimensional hypersurface, has been illustrated in the reverse order as well. We conclude with a brief discussion on this technique of solving higher curvature field equations.

  13. Higher Education: Labor Market Linkage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asayeghn, Desta

    1982-01-01

    Examines the methodology of three case studies investigating the linkage between higher education and the world of work in the Sudan, Zambia, and Tanzania. Summarizes 12 main findings. Suggests the studies remain traditional human resources planning efforts. (NEC)

  14. Optimizing fat oxidation through exercise and diet.

    PubMed

    Achten, Juul; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2004-01-01

    Interventions aimed at increasing fat metabolism could potentially reduce the symptoms of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes and may have tremendous clinical relevance. Hence, an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease fat oxidation is important. Exercise intensity and duration are important determinants of fat oxidation. Fat oxidation rates increase from low to moderate intensities and then decrease when the intensity becomes high. Maximal rates of fat oxidation have been shown to be reached at intensities between 59% and 64% of maximum oxygen consumption in trained individuals and between 47% and 52% of maximum oxygen consumption in a large sample of the general population. The mode of exercise can also affect fat oxidation, with fat oxidation being higher during running than cycling. Endurance training induces a multitude of adaptations that result in increased fat oxidation. The duration and intensity of exercise training required to induce changes in fat oxidation is currently unknown. Ingestion of carbohydrate in the hours before or on commencement of exercise reduces the rate of fat oxidation significantly compared with fasted conditions, whereas fasting longer than 6 h optimizes fat oxidation. Fat oxidation rates have been shown to decrease after ingestion of high-fat diets, partly as a result of decreased glycogen stores and partly because of adaptations at the muscle level. PMID:15212756

  15. PREFACE: Semiconducting oxides Semiconducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2011-08-01

    Semiconducting oxides are amongst the most widely studied and topical materials in contemporary condensed matter science, with interest being driven both by the fundamental challenges posed by their electronic and magnetic structures and properties, and by the wide range of applications, including those in catalysis and electronic devices. This special section aims to highlight recent developments in the physics of these materials, and to show the link between developing fundamental understanding and key application areas of oxide semiconductors. Several aspects of the physics of this wide and expanding range of materials are explored in this special section. Transparent semiconducting oxides have a growing role in several technologies, but challenges remain in understanding their electronic structure and the physics of charge carriers. A related problem concerns the nature of redox processes and the reactions which interconvert defects and charge carriers—a key issue which may limit the extent to which doping strategies may be used to alter electronic properties. The magnetic structures of the materials pose several challenges, while surface structures and properties are vital in controlling catalytic properties, including photochemical processes. The field profits from and exploits a wide range of contemporary physical techniques—both experimental and theoretical. Indeed, the interplay between experiment and computation is a key aspect of contemporary work. A number of articles describe applications of computational methods whose use, especially in modelling properties of defects in these materials, has a long and successful history. Several papers in this special section relate to work presented at a symposium within the European Materials Research Society (EMRS) meeting held in Warsaw in September 2010, and we are grateful to the EMRS for supporting this symposium. We would also like to thank the editorial staff of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for

  16. New developments in oxidative fermentation.

    PubMed

    Adachi, O; Moonmangmee, D; Toyama, H; Yamada, M; Shinagawa, E; Matsushita, K

    2003-02-01

    thermotolerant Acetobacter species were found to be useful for vinegar fermentation at a high temperature such 38-40 degrees C, where mesophilic strains showed no growth. They oxidized higher concentrations of ethanol up to 9% without any appreciable lag time, while alcohol oxidation with mesophilic strains was delayed or became almost impossible under such conditions. Several useful Gluconobacter species of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria are also found, especially L-erythrulose-producing strains and cyclic alcohol-oxidizing strains. Gluconobacter frateurii CHM 43 is able to rapidly oxidize meso-erythritol at 37 degrees C leading to the accumulation of L-erythrulose, which may replace dihydroxyacetone in cosmetics. G. frateuriiCHM 9 is able to oxidize cyclic alcohols to their corresponding cyclic ketones or aliphatic ketones, which are known to be useful for preparing many different physiologically active compounds such as oxidized steroids or oxidized bicyclic ketones. The enzymes involved in these meso-erythritol and cyclic alcohol oxidations have been purified and shown to be a similar type of membrane-bound quinoproteins, consisting of a high molecular weight single peptide. This is completely different from another quinoprotein, alcohol dehydrogenase of acetic acid bacteria, which consists of three subunits including hemoproteins. PMID:12664142

  17. 850-nm oxide VCSEL development at Hewlett-Packard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongyu; Dudley, James J.; Lim, Sui F.; Lei, Chun; Liang, Bing; Tashima, M.; Hodge, Lee A.; Zhang, Xuemei; Herniman, John; Herrick, Robert W.

    1999-04-01

    Oxide confined VCSELs are being developed at Hewlett-Packard for the next-generation low cost fiber optics communication applications. Compared to the existing 850 nm implant confined VCSELs, the oxide VCSELs have lower operating voltages, higher slope efficiencies, and better modal bandwidth characteristics. Preliminary data on epitaxy and oxidation control uniformity, device performance, and reliability will be discussed.

  18. Higher Education Accounting Manual. Utah Coordinating Council of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Coordinating Council of Higher Education, Salt Lake City.

    Recognition of a critical need for accurate and detailed information to refine the process of budgeting funds for higher education in Utah led to the preparation of this accounting manual for universities and colleges in the state. The manual presents guidelines for the uniform accounting and reporting of financial and statistical data, and is…

  19. The Hesburgh Papers: Higher Values in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesburgh, Theodore M.

    In this book the president of Notre Dame University responds to the critics who see the teaching of religion and values as a hindrance to institutions of higher learning, suggesting that no university is truly a university unless it is universal and moves every scholar to look to the total universe. The significance of values in education is…

  20. Higher education and civic engagement.

    PubMed

    Egerton, Muriel

    2002-12-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between social engagement, particularly civic engagement, and education. It is well known that more highly educated people are more likely to engage in voluntary work in formalized settings. It has been difficult to disentangle the effect of higher education from that of family origin and occupational socialization. This paper examines the effects of tertiary education on the social and civic engagement of young people, using the British Household Panel Study. The social and civic activity of young people is observed in their late teens, before entering the labour market or tertiary education, and compared with that of the same young people in their early 20s, after completing tertiary education courses or gaining labour market experience. It was found that the social and civic engagement of young people who would enter higher education was higher in their late teens than that of their peers who did not enter. However, higher education had a small additional effect on civic engagement, for both young and mature students. The children of professionals were the social grouping most likely to be involved in civic activities. The relationship of higher education, professional occupations and family socialization is discussed.

  1. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked: considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and ...

  2. Oxidative Reactions with Nonaqueous Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan S. Dordick; Douglas Clark; Brian H Davison; Alexander Klibanov

    2001-12-30

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate a proof-of-concept of enzymatic oxidative processing in nonaqueous media using alkene epoxidation and phenolic polymerization as relevant targets. This project will provide both the fundamental and applied investigations necessary to initiate the implementation of oxidative biocatalysts as commercially relevant alternatives to chemical processing in general, and to phenolic polymerizations and alkene epoxidation specifically. Thus, this work will address the Bioprocessing Solicitation Area to: (1) makes major improvements to phenolic polymerization and alkene epoxidation technologies; (2) is expected to be cost competitive with competing conventional processes; and (3) produces higher yields with less waste.

  3. Oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Willmott, Phil

    2008-07-01

    Although the history of metal oxides and their surfaces goes back several decades to landmark studies, such as Mott and Peierls' explanation of electrical insulation in materials that are predicted in band theory to be conducting, or the observation by Morin of the superfast metal-to-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide, it is only in the last two decades that the world of condensed matter physics has become increasingly dominated by research into complex metal oxides. This has been driven most notably by an attempt to better understand and describe the fundamental physical processes behind their seemingly endless spectrum of properties, which in turn has also led to the discovery of novel phenomena, most prominently demonstrated by the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in 1986, colossal magnetoresistance in 1994, and most recently, the formation of a two-dimensional conducting layer at the interface between two band insulators in 2004. One important reason why metal oxides, particularly in the form of thin films, have become such a popular subject for basic condensed matter research is that they offer a uniquely versatile materials base for the development of novel technologies. They owe this versatility both to the many different elemental combinations that lead to structurally similar forms, and also to the fact that in many cases, the strong interaction between the valence electrons means that there is a subtle interplay between structure and magnetic and electronic properties. This aspect has led in recent years to the birth or renaissance of research fields such as spintronics, orbital ordering, and multiferroics. Surfaces and interfaces are especially interesting in these strongly-correlated electron systems, where the rearrangement of electrical charge resulting from a minimization of surface or interfacial energy can have unexpected and often exciting consequences. Indeed, as the drive to miniaturize devices well below the micron size

  4. Structure and Oxidation State of Silica-Supported Manganese Oxide Catalysts and Reactivity for Acetone Oxidation with Ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Reed,C.; Lee, Y.; Oyama, S.

    2006-01-01

    Silica-supported manganese oxide catalysts with loadings of 3, 10, 15, and 20 wt % (as MnO{sub 2}) were characterized with use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The edge positions in the X-ray absorption spectra indicated that the oxidation state for the manganese decreased with increasing metal oxide loading from a value close to that of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} (+3) to a value close to that of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} (+2 2/3). The XRD was consistent with these results as the diffractograms for the supported catalysts of higher manganese oxide loading matched those of a Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} reference. The reactivity of the silica-supported manganese oxide catalysts in acetone oxidation with ozone as an oxidant was studied over the temperature range of 300 to 600 K. Both oxygen and ozone produced mainly CO{sub 2} as the product of oxidation, but in the case of ozone the reaction temperature and activation energy were significantly reduced. The effect of metal oxide loading was investigated, and the activity for acetone oxidation was greater for a 10 wt % MnO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} catalyst sample compared to a 3 wt % MnO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} sample.

  5. Profile of Pacific Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Comparative data concerning institutions of higher education in the Pacific Islands are tabulated and summarized to aid in program planning, development, and implementation in that region. The jurisdictions covered are: American Samoa; Palau; the Northern Mariana Islands; Micronesia; Kosrae; Pohnpei; Truk; Yap; Guam; Hawaii; and the Marshall…

  6. Social Stratification in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodsky, Eric; Jackson, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the past half century, scholars in a variety of fields have contributed to our understanding of the relationship between higher education and social stratification. We review this literature, highlighting complementarities and inconsistencies. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: We situate our review of the…

  7. Emerging Trends in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayville, Zari

    This literature survey examines trends in higher education requiring a broad base of support from the changing institutions and the people who have to respond to, plan for, and manage the changes. Trends are identified in the areas of enrollment, financial aid, curricula, faculty, financial status, and assessment. Trends affecting enrollment…

  8. Gender Matters in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrop, Alex; Tattersall, Andy; Goody, Adam

    2007-01-01

    Much of the research in higher education has treated student bodies as homogeneous groups with a consequent neglect of any consideration of gender differences. To test the validity of such research a questionnaire was administered to 255 psychology students. The results showed some important differences in responses between the genders. In…

  9. Student Influence and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juola, Arvo E.

    Since 1965, student views and feelings have influenced great changes in higher education, sometimes to the detriment of long-term interests in academic institutions and colleges. One conspicuous recent trend is the desire of college students for more influence, impact, or power. Other prevalent attitudes may be characterized as a desire to be…

  10. Faculty Retention in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Tariq Rahim; Ahmad, Reyaz

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for retaining or firing a highly qualified faculty in higher education in many cases are vague and unclear. This situation is neither a comfortable, nor a healthy, both for the faculty and the administration. Stakeholders have enough reason to blame each other in the absence of transparent mechanism. This paper proposes a transparent…

  11. Asian Americans and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    1980-01-01

    Problems that Asian Americans face in higher education include poor communications skills; stress resulting from family and community pressure to achieve; and universities' reluctance to hire Asian American staff, recruit and provide financial support for Asian American students, and provide relevant curriculum. Various programs have begun to…

  12. The Battle for Higher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Tom; Rush, Mike; Gramer, Rod; Stewart, Roger

    2014-01-01

    To remain internationally competitive, states needed clearer, higher, and comparable K-12 learning standards aligned with college and career expectations, and as ambitious as those of the countries that lead the world in education. Idaho's old academic standards were not preparing students for postsecondary education, which contributed to the…

  13. Transnational Higher Education in Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, E. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of transnational higher education (THE) in Uzbekistan. It includes a brief account of THE current and future market trends. The data, gathered from a literature search, show that the demand for THE (off-campus) is growing even faster than the demand for international (on-campus) programmes. This paper then provides…

  14. Higher Education and Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy

    1979-01-01

    The effect that the university has upon its region and the issue of regional control of higher education are examined. A definition of regional development is offered and regional planning, relevant research, cultural mobilization, and the Jacobin university are described. (Author/MLW)

  15. Today's Higher Education IT Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichsel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The professionals making up the current higher education IT workforce have been asked to adjust to a culture of increased IT consumerization, more sourcing options, broader interest in IT's transformative potential, and decreased resources. Disruptions that include the bring-your-own-everything era, cloud computing, new management practices,…

  16. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  17. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability discrimination. (SLD)

  18. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  19. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  20. Internal Audit in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

    This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues" (Sally Brown…

  1. Diversity in Washington Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Improving the participation and performance of African American, Latino, American Indian, and Asian American students, faculty and staff in Washington state's higher education system represents a pivotal element of the statewide strategic master plan. This report includes current statistics and trend data for student enrollment, retention, and…

  2. Stakeholder Relationships in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a stakeholder map to describe the most important stakeholders and the process of stakeholder relationships in higher education. According to the perspective of the balanced scorecard, the classification of stakeholders integrates stakeholders into strategic management. Stakeholder maps are essential in…

  3. Student Loans for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Charlene Wear

    2008-01-01

    Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and…

  4. New Hierarchies in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furth, Dorothea

    1982-01-01

    Implications of a gradual change in the "pecking order" within higher education in the course of the 1970s are discussed. This change cuts across the traditional university/nonuniversity distinctions, and illustrates the growing vulnerability of certain types and disciplines of university education. Focus is on graduate employability. (MSE)

  5. Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Dana D.; Collins, Natalia D.

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education is currently experiencing a decline in financial support from state governments, an acceleration of enrollment growth, and a shift from a transformational to a transactional student relationship. Private institutions are also struggling with increasing operational costs, and decreases in revenue from endowments and…

  6. 2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Margo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

  7. Higher Education Space: Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of changing demands for space in United Kingdom (UK) higher education. Physical spaces that universities require are related to their functions in complex ways, and the connections between space and academic performance are not well understood. No simple algorithm can calculate a single university's space needs, but a…

  8. Epistemological Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Research has been carried out on students' epistemological development in higher education for at least 50 years. Researchers on both sides of the Atlantic have converged on accounts that describe students' epistemological development in terms of a sequence or hierarchy of qualitatively distinct stages or positions. The rich qualitative data…

  9. The Opening of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    In a 1974 report presented to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Martin Trow laid out a framework for understanding large-scale, worldwide changes in higher education. Trow's essay also pointed to the problems that "arise out of the transition from one phase to another in a broad pattern of development of higher…

  10. Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George A.

    1988-01-01

    Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

  11. Digital Storytelling in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    Digital storytelling is a promising instructional strategy as well as an emerging field of study in higher education. Courses on digital storytelling are offered in communications and creative writing programs at a number of universities. However, the potential for digital storytelling extends far beyond the fields of communication and media…

  12. On Education: The Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Thomas G.

    1980-01-01

    Higher education is described as a name for the highest formation of soul and mind, and the highest goal of education is "wisdom." Practical wisdom and theoretical wisdom are seen as exemplified at their peak in the comprehension of the genuine statesman and the genuine philosopher. (MLW)

  13. Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

  14. Danger: Work on Higher Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Archie E.

    The Assessment Policy Committee of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has directed the NAEP staff to focus the 1985-86 Assessments of Reading, Mathematics, Science, and Computer Competence on the higher-order skills. Each Learning Area Committee worked independently developing three-dimensional models. These defined what could…

  15. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study and review…

  16. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  17. Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

  18. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

  19. Sustainability: Higher Education's New Fundamentalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rachelle; Wood, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    "Sustainability" is a key idea on college campuses in the United States and the rest of the Western world. To the unsuspecting, sustainability is just a new name for environmentalism. This report is the first in-depth critical study of the sustainability movement in higher education. The focus of this study is on how the sustainability…

  20. Electronic Assessment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Roelien; Lautenbach, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is an important cornerstone of education. A world trend in staying abreast of the latest developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to an increased demand for electronic assessment in education circles. The critical need and responsibility for higher education to stay on par with the latest…

  1. Benefit Plans in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Francis P.; Cook, Thomas J.

    Fifth in a series and the latest of several studies on employee benefits in higher education, this book constitutes a full-scale revision of the earlier "Benefit Plans in American Colleges" (1969). The principal benefit plans provided by U.S. colleges and universities are described, analyzed, and evaluated. Included are retirement (including…

  2. History of Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The four papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. institutions. The first paper is: "The Harvard Tutors: The Beginning of an Academic Profession, 1690-1825" (John D. Burton), which discusses the shift from Harvard's original tutorship model to its modern…

  3. Academic Rewards in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrel R., Ed.; Becker, William E., Jr., Ed.

    A colloquium series in higher education at the University of Minnesota in the fall and winter of 1977-1978 examined the influence of academic reward systems on faculty behavior and academic productivity. These essays are the collective results of their findings and recommendations. Essays include: "Perspectives from Psychology: Financial…

  4. Fiscal Issues in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigolot, Carol, Ed.

    Forty colleges and life insurance presidents met to discuss key historical and contemporary factors influencing fiscal management in higher education, including inflation, salaries, diminishing enrollment figures, energy costs, federal regulations and the increasing cost of research. Differences and similarities between business and academia were…

  5. Customer Service in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sines, Robert G., Jr.; Duckworth, Eric A.

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that colleges and universities need to understand the importance of customer service in student retention, particularly in a competitive marketplace. Customer service concepts that work in the private sector are seen as useful in higher education, and a model is proposed. (MSE)

  6. Higher Education as Virtual Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins-Bell, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not it is an accurate portrayal, the old stereotype of higher education is the lecture hall, where students sit passively and take notes from a wise professor whose experience and knowledge can be shared only in the classroom. The professor's role is to dispense information, and the students' role is to receive it. However idealistic…

  7. Mobile Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraga, Lucretia M.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study investigated the beliefs of university faculty regarding mobile learning. As well as to determine if providing technology professional development to university faculty supports the increase of mobile learning opportunities in higher education. This study used the Beliefs About Mobile Learning Inventory (BAMLI) to…

  8. Women in Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 12 issues of this newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, faculty, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. The issues' main articles address: women in athletics; leadership development for women; the first year in academic administration;…

  9. Project Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

  10. Higher Education & the Consumer Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knefelcamp, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Higher education is capable of responding constructively to social change, diversification of the student body, and student learning needs. It can do this by integrating itself into the community; focusing on the classroom, not the campus, as the center of learning; and adapting to new roles and structures as needed. (MSE)

  11. Class Struggle in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Dan; Leiblum, Mishy

    2008-01-01

    Public higher education has undergone a process similar to that in the national polity: a one-sided struggle by those with power to shape the institution to be more market driven, more focused on what will generate (non-state) revenues, more dominated by top administrators, and less concerned about the working class and people of color. This…

  12. Women in Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  13. Higher Education in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Berdahl, Robert O., Ed.

    The wide-ranging impact of social, political and economic forces on higher education and their specific consequences for faculty, students, and administrators is addressed within the broad context of autonomy and accountability. The book is organized around several themes. The first section discusses such basic issues as: the historical…

  14. Higher Education: A Critical Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    Current concepts of critical thinking need to be reconstrued into the much broader concept of "critical being" and applied to higher education. Under this construct, critical persons (students) become more than just critical thinkers; they engage critically with the world and with themselves; they not only reflect critically on knowledge, but also…

  15. Evaluating Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bruce A.; Hashimoto, Masanori; Fleisher, Belton M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors develop an original measure of learning in higher education, based on grades in subsequent courses. Using this measure of learning, they show that student evaluations are positively related to current grades but unrelated to learning once current grades are controlled. They offer evidence that the weak relationship between learning and…

  16. Gender Issues within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

  17. Instructional Designers in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskal, Tami Marie

    2012-01-01

    Research about the preparation and competencies of instructional designers in higher education has not been addressed. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore individuals in this context by focusing on their employment and academic backgrounds, as well as their responsibilities, qualifications, and expectations as reported by their…

  18. A Balanced Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the academy and the wider society. Such a scheme…

  19. Higher Education: Building Connecticut's Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisa, Cynthia L.; Placzek, Dana W.

    2004-01-01

    The Connecticut Departments of Labor (DOL) and Higher Education (DHE), working in close collaboration with the University of Connecticut, Connecticut State University, Connecticut Community Colleges and Charter Oak State College, present this comprehensive report on employment outcomes for graduates of the State's public college system. This…

  20. Extremal higher spin black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañados, Máximo; Castro, Alejandra; Faraggi, Alberto; Jottar, Juan I.

    2016-04-01

    The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3 d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and show that, as usual, not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries. Remarkably, we find in addition that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutions. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W (3|2) symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N = 2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W (3|2) BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to extremal black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3 d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N = 2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.

  1. PREFACE: Semiconducting oxides Semiconducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2011-08-01

    Semiconducting oxides are amongst the most widely studied and topical materials in contemporary condensed matter science, with interest being driven both by the fundamental challenges posed by their electronic and magnetic structures and properties, and by the wide range of applications, including those in catalysis and electronic devices. This special section aims to highlight recent developments in the physics of these materials, and to show the link between developing fundamental understanding and key application areas of oxide semiconductors. Several aspects of the physics of this wide and expanding range of materials are explored in this special section. Transparent semiconducting oxides have a growing role in several technologies, but challenges remain in understanding their electronic structure and the physics of charge carriers. A related problem concerns the nature of redox processes and the reactions which interconvert defects and charge carriers—a key issue which may limit the extent to which doping strategies may be used to alter electronic properties. The magnetic structures of the materials pose several challenges, while surface structures and properties are vital in controlling catalytic properties, including photochemical processes. The field profits from and exploits a wide range of contemporary physical techniques—both experimental and theoretical. Indeed, the interplay between experiment and computation is a key aspect of contemporary work. A number of articles describe applications of computational methods whose use, especially in modelling properties of defects in these materials, has a long and successful history. Several papers in this special section relate to work presented at a symposium within the European Materials Research Society (EMRS) meeting held in Warsaw in September 2010, and we are grateful to the EMRS for supporting this symposium. We would also like to thank the editorial staff of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for

  2. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping

  3. Choline Oxidation by Intact Spinach Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Pierre; Lerma, Claudia; Hanson, Andrew D.

    1988-01-01

    Plants synthesize betaine by a two-step oxidation of choline (choline → betaine aldehyde → betaine). Protoplast-derived chloroplasts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) carry out both reactions, more rapidly in light than in darkness (AD Hanson et al. 1985 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 3678-3682). We investigated the light-stimulated oxidation of choline, using spinach chloroplasts isolated directly from leaves. The rates of choline oxidation obtained (dark and light rates: 10-50 and 100-300 nanomoles per hour per milligram chlorophyll, respectively) were approximately 20-fold higher than for protoplast-derived chloroplasts. Betaine aldehyde was the main product. Choline oxidation in darkness and light was suppressed by hypoxia. Neither uncouplers nor the Calvin cycle inhibitor glyceraldehyde greatly affected choline oxidation in the light, and maximal choline oxidation was attained far below light saturation of CO2 fixation. The light stimulation of choline oxidation was abolished by the PSII inhibitors DCMU and dibromothymoquinone, and was partially restored by adding reduced diaminodurene, an electron donor to PSI. Both methyl viologen and phenazine methosulfate prevented choline oxidation. Adding dihydroxyacetone phosphate, which can generate NADPH in organello, doubled the dark rate of choline oxidation. These results indicate that choline oxidation in chloroplasts requires oxygen, and reducing power generated from PSI. Enzymic reactions consistent with these requirements are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16665893

  4. Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-07-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n+1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n+1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n+1 dimensional model and the 3+1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology.

  5. Abelian duality at higher genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Chris

    2014-07-01

    In three dimensions, a free, periodic scalar field is related by duality to an abelian gauge field. Here I explore aspects of this duality when both theories are quantized on a Riemann surface of genus g. At higher genus, duality involves an identification of winding with momentum on the Jacobian variety of the Riemann surface. I also consider duality for monopole and loop operators on the surface and exhibit the operator algebra, a refinement of the Wilson-'t Hooft algebra.

  6. Higher dimensional nonlinear massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by a recent ghost-free nonlinear massive gravity in four-dimensional spacetime, we study its higher dimensional scenarios. As a result, we are able to show the constantlike behavior of massive graviton terms for some well-known metrics such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini (anti-) de Sitter metrics in a specific five-dimensional nonlinear massive gravity under an assumption that its fiducial metrics are compatible with physical ones. In addition, some simple cosmological solutions of the five-dimensional massive gravity are figured out consistently.

  7. Oxide fiber targets at ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, U.; Bergmann, U. C.; Carminati, D.; Catherall, R.; Cederkäll, J.; Correia, J. G.; Crepieux, B.; Dietrich, M.; Elder, K.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Fraile, L.; Franchoo, S.; Fynbo, H.; Georg, U.; Giles, T.; Joinet, A.; Jonsson, O. C.; Kirchner, R.; Lau, Ch.; Lettry, J.; Maier, H. J.; Mishin, V. I.; Oinonen, M.; Peräjärvi, K.; Ravn, H. L.; Rinaldi, T.; Santana-Leitner, M.; Wahl, U.; Weissman, L.; Isolde Collaboration

    2003-05-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxide fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxide fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce very intense 6He beams (order of 10 13 ions per second) via the 9Be(n,α) reaction using spallation neutrons.

  8. Oxidation resistance of silicon ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasutoshi, H.; Hirota, K.

    1984-01-01

    Oxidation resistance, and examples of oxidation of SiC, Si3N4 and sialon are reviewed. A description is given of the oxidation mechanism, including the oxidation product, oxidation reaction and the bubble size. The oxidation reactions are represented graphically. An assessment is made of the oxidation process, and an oxidation example of silicon ceramics is given.

  9. Nitric oxide inhibition strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Vivian (Wai Chong); Lerner, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide is involved in many physiologic processes. There are efforts, described elsewhere in this volume, to deliver nitric oxide to tissues as a therapy. Nitric oxide also contributes to pathophysiologic processes. Inhibiting nitric oxide or its production can thus also be of therapeutic benefit. This article addresses such inhibitory strategies. PMID:26634146

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Indirect cholesterol electrochemical oxidation in the presence of various mediators leads to electrophilic addition to the double bond, oxidation at the allylic position, oxidation of the hydroxy group, or functionalization of the side chain. Recent studies have proven that direct electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol is also possible and affords different products depending on the reaction conditions. PMID:25977713

  11. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  12. Oxidative stress decreases with elevation in the lizard Psammodromus algirus.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Senda; Zamora-Camacho, Francisco J; Trenzado, Cristina E; Sanz, Ana; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress is considered one of the main ecological and evolutionary forces. Several environmental stressors vary geographically and thus organisms inhabiting different sites face different oxidant environments. Nevertheless, there is scarce information about how oxidative damage and antioxidant defences vary geographically in animals. Here we study how oxidative stress varies from lowlands (300-700 m asl) to highlands (2200-2500 m asl) in the lizard Psammodromus algirus. To accomplish this, antioxidant enzymatic activity (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase, DT-diaphorase) and lipid peroxidation were assayed in tissue samples from the lizards' tail. Lipid peroxidation was higher in individuals from lowlands than from highlands, indicating higher oxidative stress in lowland lizards. These results suggest that environmental conditions are less oxidant at high elevations with respect to low ones. Therefore, our study shows that oxidative stress varies geographically, which should have important consequences for our understanding of geographic variation in physiology and life-history of organisms.

  13. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    PubMed

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena.

  14. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    PubMed

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena. PMID:26403987

  15. Plastid transformation in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Maliga, Pal

    2004-01-01

    Plastids of higher plants are semi-autonomous organelles with a small, highly polyploid genome and their own transcription-translation machinery. This review provides an overview of the technology for the genetic modification of the plastid genome including: vectors, marker genes and gene design, the use of gene knockouts and over-expression to probe plastid function and the application of site-specific recombinases for excision of target DNA. Examples for applications in basic science include the study of plastid gene transcription, mRNA editing, photosynthesis and evolution. Examples for biotechnological applications are incorporation of transgenes in the plastid genome for containment and high-level expression of recombinant proteins for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Plastid transformation is routine only in tobacco. Progress in implementing the technology in other crops is discussed.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    SciTech Connect

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  17. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  18. SPH based modelling of oxide and oxide film formation in gravity die castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellingsen, K.; Coudert, T.; M'Hamdi, M.

    2015-06-01

    Gravity die casting is an important casting process which has the capability of making complicated, high-integrity components for e.g. the automotive industry. Oxides and oxide films formed during filling affect the cast product quality. The Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is particularly suited to follow complex flows. The SPH method has been used to study filling of a gravity die including the formation and transport of oxides and oxide films for two different filling velocities. A low inlet velocity leads to a higher amount of oxides and oxide films in the casting. The study demonstrates the usefulness of the SPH method for an increased understanding of the effect of different filling procedures on the cast quality.

  19. Adsorption of lead over graphite oxide.

    PubMed

    Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Oyefusi, Adebola; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Oki, Aderemi

    2014-01-24

    The adsorption efficiency and kinetics of removal of lead in presence of graphite oxide (GO) was determined using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The GO was prepared by the chemical oxidation of graphite and characterized using FTIR, SEM, TGA and XRD. The adsorption efficiency of GO for the solution containing 50, 100 and 150 ppm of Pb(2+) was found to be 98%, 91% and 71% respectively. The adsorption ability of GO was found to be higher than graphite. Therefore, the oxidation of activated carbon in removal of heavy metals may be a viable option to reduce pollution in portable water.

  20. [Paradigm shift in higher education].

    PubMed

    Csóka, Mária

    2009-08-30

    The fast changes that took place in the last quarter of the 20th century made the professionals dealing with pedagogy realize that our school system followed the economical changes in terms of training supply and the matter of education very slowly, if at all; let alone the educational methods. We had to realize that the maintaining of this conservative system is not rational, education has become the most important part of the globalisational competition and the key to the 21st century is learning. Accordingly, the spatial and temporal expenditure of education has become a new trend, namely lifelong learning (LLL). The social needs on education have increased, the expectations of economy and employers have changed: knowledge has become the fund of competitiveness. In this process, universities have got an accentuated role: in addition to being the place of undergraduate training they have become the site of postgraduate courses for the increasing graduate adult masses. Therefore, reform processes have started in a number of European countries in the nineties. The Bologna Declaration signed on 19th June 1999 set a common direction for these reforms, with its signatories aiming to establish a standard European Higher Education Area with harmonized and comparable educational systems by 2010. However, the administrative change itself is not enough to reach the goals; a formal innovation has to be followed by a reform of the contents which means reformation of higher education. In recent years, Hungarian colleges and universities have worked out their educational programs that are suitable for the new structure; it is only the new educational programs that started from 1st September 2006. The author determines the most important parts of the reform of the training system of Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Sciences, which are the following: redrawing of the training philosophy and paradigm, the reform of the training structure of macro level (cognition

  1. [Paradigm shift in higher education].

    PubMed

    Csóka, Mária

    2009-08-30

    The fast changes that took place in the last quarter of the 20th century made the professionals dealing with pedagogy realize that our school system followed the economical changes in terms of training supply and the matter of education very slowly, if at all; let alone the educational methods. We had to realize that the maintaining of this conservative system is not rational, education has become the most important part of the globalisational competition and the key to the 21st century is learning. Accordingly, the spatial and temporal expenditure of education has become a new trend, namely lifelong learning (LLL). The social needs on education have increased, the expectations of economy and employers have changed: knowledge has become the fund of competitiveness. In this process, universities have got an accentuated role: in addition to being the place of undergraduate training they have become the site of postgraduate courses for the increasing graduate adult masses. Therefore, reform processes have started in a number of European countries in the nineties. The Bologna Declaration signed on 19th June 1999 set a common direction for these reforms, with its signatories aiming to establish a standard European Higher Education Area with harmonized and comparable educational systems by 2010. However, the administrative change itself is not enough to reach the goals; a formal innovation has to be followed by a reform of the contents which means reformation of higher education. In recent years, Hungarian colleges and universities have worked out their educational programs that are suitable for the new structure; it is only the new educational programs that started from 1st September 2006. The author determines the most important parts of the reform of the training system of Semmelweis University Faculty of Health Sciences, which are the following: redrawing of the training philosophy and paradigm, the reform of the training structure of macro level (cognition

  2. The Enzymatic Oxidation of Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kotchey, Gregg P.; Allen, Brett L.; Vedala, Harindra; Yanamala, Naveena; Kapralov, Alexander A.; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kagan, Valerian E.; Star, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphitic carbon is a new material with many emerging applications, and studying its chemical properties is an important goal. Here, we reported a new phenomenon – the enzymatic oxidation of a single layer of graphitic carbon by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (~40 µM), HRP catalyzed the oxidation of graphene oxide, which resulted in the formation of holes on its basal plane. During the same period of analysis, HRP failed to oxidize chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The enzymatic oxidation was characterized by Raman, UV-Vis, EPR and FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, AFM, SDS-PAGE, and GC-MS. Computational docking studies indicated that HRP was preferentially bound to the basal plane rather than the edge for both graphene oxide and RGO. Due to the more dynamic nature of HRP on graphene oxide, the heme active site of HRP was in closer proximity to graphene oxide compared to RGO, thereby facilitating the oxidation of the basal plane of graphene oxide. We also studied the electronic properties of the reduced intermediate product, holey reduced graphene oxide (hRGO), using field-effect transistor (FET) measurements. While RGO exhibited a V-shaped transfer characteristic similar to a single layer of graphene that was attributed to its zero band gap, hRGO demonstrated a p-type semiconducting behavior with a positive shift in the Dirac points. This p-type behavior rendered hRGO, which can be conceptualized as interconnected graphene nanoribbons, as a potentially attractive material for FET sensors. PMID:21344859

  3. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  4. Quantization of higher spin fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenaar, J. W.; Rijken, T. A

    2009-11-15

    In this article we quantize (massive) higher spin (1{<=}j{<=}2) fields by means of Dirac's constrained Hamilton procedure both in the situation were they are totally free and were they are coupled to (an) auxiliary field(s). A full constraint analysis and quantization is presented by determining and discussing all constraints and Lagrange multipliers and by giving all equal times (anti)commutation relations. Also we construct the relevant propagators. In the free case we obtain the well-known propagators and show that they are not covariant, which is also well known. In the coupled case we do obtain covariant propagators (in the spin-3/2 case this requires b=0) and show that they have a smooth massless limit connecting perfectly to the massless case (with auxiliary fields). We notice that in our system of the spin-3/2 and spin-2 case the massive propagators coupled to conserved currents only have a smooth limit to the pure massless spin-propagator, when there are ghosts in the massive case.

  5. Chromosomal replicons of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1987-03-16

    This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs.

  6. Radiation oxidation and subsequent thermal curing of polyacrylonitrile fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weihua; Wang, Mouhua; Xing, Zhe; Wu, Guozhong

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers were exposed to gamma-ray irradiation at room temperature under vacuum, air and oxygen to investigate the radiation oxidation effects on PAN fibers. Radiation-induced oxidation degradation and crosslinking was evaluated by measuring the gel fraction. It was found that radiation oxidation took place mainly on the fiber surface due to the limited penetration of oxygen into PAN fibers from the surface, and the oxidation thickness increased with the oxygen pressure. Chain scission was dominant in the oxidized area, and crosslinking occurred in the inner part of the fibers. However, the oxidized regions of the fibers can be converted to gel via crosslinking by thermal curing at 160 °C in a N2 atmosphere. Higher extents of radiation oxidation degradation led to a greater increase in the gel fraction. These results suggest that the radiation treatment of PAN fibers prior to thermal oxidation may be useful for manufacturing carbon fibers.

  7. Review of oxidation of Nb-1Zr

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.

    1989-04-01

    A major objective of the SP-100 Program Nuclear Assembly Test is to demonstrate the performance of a full-scale nuclear subsystem of a 100-kWe space nuclear power supply. The test will be run in a large vacuum chamber to protect the Nb-1Zr components from oxidation during operation. Much information about the oxidation of niobium and Nb-1Zr alloy already exists, and previous work in this area is reviewed. Oxidation of Nb-1Zr can proceed by solution, internal oxidation, and/or film formation. At temperatures up to about 650 K (377/degree/C), oxidation generally follows a parabolic rate law because of the formation of protective oxide(s). At higher temperatures, oxidation becomes linear, but results are extremely sensitive to pressure and other system variables. Results obtained by several investigators could not be predicted using empirical equations developed by one investigator relating the increase in oxygen concentration to pressure, temperature, time, and specimen thickness. Additional data are required to provide more reliable guidelines for system operation that will protect against catastrophic effects. 20 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Anaerobic Methane Oxidation: Occurrence and Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Brock, Thomas D.

    1980-01-01

    Anoxic sediments and digested sewage sludge anaerobically oxidized methane to carbon dioxide while producing methane. This strictly anaerobic process showed a temperature optimum between 25 and 37°C, indicating an active microbial participation in this reaction. Methane oxidation in these anaerobic habitats was inhibited by oxygen. The rate of the oxidation followed the rate of methane production. The observed anoxic methane oxidation in Lake Mendota and digested sewage sludge was more sensitive to 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid than the simultaneous methane formation. Sulfate diminished methane formation as well as methane oxidation. However, in the presence of iron and sulfate the ratio of methane oxidized to methane formed increased markedly. Manganese dioxide and higher partial pressures of methane also stimulated the oxidation. The rate of methane oxidation in untreated samples was approximately 2% of the CH4 production rate in Lake Mendota sediments and 8% of that in digested sludge. This percentage could be increased up to 90% in sludge in the presence of 10 mM ferrous sulfate and at a partial pressure of methane of 20 atm (2,027 kPa). PMID:16345488

  9. Catalysts for conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1993-01-01

    Catalysts for converting methane to higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and ethylene in the presence of oxygen at temperatures in the range of about 700.degree. to 900.degree. C. are described. These catalysts comprise calcium oxide or gadolinium oxide respectively promoted with about 0.025-0.4 mole and about 0.1-0.7 mole sodium pyrophosphate. A preferred reaction temperature in a range of about 800.degree. to 850.degree. C. with a preferred oxygen-to-methane ratio of about 2:1 provides an essentially constant C.sub.2 hydrocarbon yield in the range of about 12 to 19 percent over a period of time greater than about 20 hours.

  10. Method and reaction pathway for selectively oxidizing organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    A method of selectively oxidizing an organic compound in a single vessel comprises: a) combining an organic compound, an acid solution in which the organic compound is soluble, a compound containing two oxygen atoms bonded to one another, and a metal ion reducing agent capable of reducing one of such oxygen atoms, and thereby forming a mixture; b) reducing the compound containing the two oxygen atoms by reducing one of such oxygen atoms with the metal ion reducing agent to, 1) oxidize the metal ion reducing agent to a higher valence state, and 2) produce an oxygen containing intermediate capable of oxidizing the organic compound; c) reacting the oxygen containing intermediate with the organic compound to oxidize the organic compound into an oxidized organic intermediate, the oxidized organic intermediate having an oxidized carbon atom; d) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the acid counter ion and higher valence state metal ion to bond the acid counter ion to the oxidized carbon atom and thereby produce a quantity of an ester incorporating the organic intermediate and acid counter ion; and e) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the higher valence state metal ion and water to produce a quantity of alcohol which is less than the quantity of ester, the acid counter ion incorporated in the ester rendering the carbon atom bonded to the counter ion less reactive with the oxygen containing intermediate in the mixture than is the alcohol with the oxygen containing intermediate.

  11. Enhanced colonic nitric oxide generation and nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Stamler, J S; Bachwich, D; Karmeli, F; Ackerman, Z; Podolsky, D K

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO.), the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may play a part in tissue injury and inflammation through its oxidative metabolism. In this study the colonic generation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide synthase activity was determined in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from inflammatory bowel disease patients and from normal controls. Mucosal explants were cultured in vitro for 24 hours and NOx generation was determined. Nitric oxide synthase activity was monitored by the conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to citrulline. Median NOx generation by inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis was 4.2- and 8.1-fold respectively higher than that by normal human colonic mucosa. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis nitric oxide synthase activity was 10.0- and 3.8-fold respectively higher than in normal subjects. Colonic NOx generation is significantly decreased by methylprednisolone and ketotifen. The decrease in NOx generation by cultured colonic mucosa induced by methylprednisolone suggests that NO synthase activity is induced during the culture and the steroid effect may contribute to its therapeutic effect. Enhanced colonic NOx generation by stimulated nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:7541008

  12. Massless higher spins and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, E.; Sundell, P.

    2002-11-01

    We treat free large N superconformal field theories as holographic duals of higher spin (HS) gauge theories expanded around AdS spacetime with radius R. The HS gauge theories contain massless and light massive AdS fields. The HS current correlators are written in a crossing symmetric form including only exchange of other HS currents. This and other arguments point to the existence of a consistent truncation to massless HS fields. A survey of massless HS theories with 32 supersymmetries in D=4,5,7 (where the 7D results are new) is given and the corresponding composite operators are discussed. In the case of AdS4, the cubic couplings of a minimal bosonic massless HS gauge theory are described. We examine high energy/small tension limits giving rise to massless HS fields in the type IIB string on AdS5× S5 and M-theory on AdS4/7× S7/4. We discuss breaking of HS symmetries to the symmetries of ordinary supergravity, and a particularly natural Higgs mechanism in AdS5× S5 and AdS4× S7 where the HS symmetry is broken by finite gYM. In AdS5× S5 it is shown that the supermultiplets of the leading Regge trajectory cross over into the massless HS spectrum. We propose that gYM2=0 corresponds to a critical string tension of order 1/ R2 and a finite string coupling of order 1/ N. In AdS7× S4 we give a rotating membrane solution coupling to the massless HS currents, and describe these as limits of Wilson surfaces in the AN-1 (2,0) SCFT, expandable in terms of operators with anomalous dimensions that are asymptotically small for large spin. The minimal energy configurations have semi-classical energy E= s for all s and the geometry of infinitely stretched strings with energy and spin density concentrated at the endpoints.

  13. The fate of arsenic adsorbed on iron oxides in the presence of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhennan; Yin, Naiyi; Du, Huili; Cai, Xiaolin; Cui, Yanshan

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a redox-active metalloid whose toxicity and mobility in soil depend on its oxidation state. Arsenite [As(III)] can be oxidized by microbes and adsorbed by minerals in the soil. However, the combined effects of these abiotic and biotic processes are not well understood. In this study, the fate of arsenic in the presence of an isolated As(III)-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. HN-1, 10(9) colony-forming units (CFUs)·ml(-1)) and three iron oxides (goethite, hematite, and magnetite at 1.6 g L(-1)) was determined using batch experiments. The total As adsorption by iron oxides was lower with bacteria present and was higher with iron oxides alone. The total As adsorption decreased by 78.6%, 36.0% and 79.7% for goethite, hematite and magnetite, respectively, due to the presence of bacteria. As(III) adsorbed on iron oxides could also be oxidized by Pseudomonas sp. HN-1, but the oxidation rate (1.3 μmol h(-1)) was much slower than the rate in the aqueous phase (96.2 μmol h(-1)). Therefore, the results of other studies with minerals only might overestimate the adsorptive capacity of solids in natural systems; the presence of minerals might hinder As(III) oxidation by microbes. Under aerobic conditions, in the presence of iron oxides and As(III)-oxidizing bacteria, arsenic is adsorbed onto iron oxides within the adsorption capacity, and As(V) is the primary form in the solid and aqueous phases.

  14. Opportunities for functional oxides in yttrium oxide-titanium oxide-zirconium oxide system: Applications for novel thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francillon, Wesley

    a single tetragonal phase. Thus, compositions are of single phase tetragonal phase, theoretically, should not undergo high temperature partitioning. Single Tetragonal phase oxides of Ti-YSZ also offer the possibility of enhanced toughness and higher temperature stability akin to those observed in yttria partially stabilized zirconia. Many pyrochlore oxides are under review because they have shown to have lower thermal conductivity than YSZ oxides. This study focused on chemically synthesizing homogeneous starting material compositions in a metastable state (preferably amorphous), following its evolution according to the phase hierarchy under conditions of kinetic constraints. The current equilibrium diagram of YO1.5-TiO2-ZrO 2 is based on theoretical calculations. One of the contributions of this work is the redefined phase fields in YO1.5-TiO2-ZrO 2 based on our experimental results. Investigated compositions were based on tie lines of Y2-xTi2ZrxO7+x/2 and Y2Ti2-yZryO7 representing substitution of Zr4+ for Y3+ and Zr4+ for Ti4+ respectively. More notably, we observed extended metastable phases in pyrochlore and fluorite oxides at low temperature. The significance of this result is that it offers a larger compositional range for investing pyrochlore oxides with associated high temperature phase stability for TBC applications. In tetragonal oxides, our results showed that Ti-YSZ results have slower partitioning kinetics in comparison to YSZ at high temperature. This study also emphasized the deposition of advanced ceramic coatings by plasma spray for tetragonal and pyrochlore systems, compositionally complex functional oxides that may potentially have lower thermal conductivity values compared to current YSZ oxides. Next generation thermal barrier coatings require powders with high chemical purity, chemical homogeneity, controlled particle size/shape and pertinent phase state. Thermal spray offers an avenue to create novel materials and deposits directly from the

  15. Vascular oxidative stress, nitric oxide and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Huige; Horke, Sven; Förstermann, Ulrich

    2014-11-01

    In the vascular wall, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by several enzyme systems including NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. On the other hand, the vasculature is protected by antioxidant enzyme systems, including superoxide dismutases, catalase, glutathione peroxidases and paraoxonases, which detoxify ROS. Cardiovascular risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus enhance ROS generation, resulting in oxidative stress. This leads to oxidative modification of lipoproteins and phospholipids, mechanisms that contribute to atherogenesis. In addition, oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin may cause eNOS uncoupling and thus potentiation of oxidative stress and reduction of eNOS-derived NO, which is a protective principle in the vasculature. This review summarizes the latest advances in the role of ROS-producing enzymes, antioxidative enzymes as well as NO synthases in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis.

  16. NO2 oxidation reactivity and burning mode of diesel particulates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Strzelec, Andrea; Vander Wal, Randy L.; Thompson, Thomas N.; Toops, Todd J.; Daw, C. Stuart

    2016-03-24

    The NO2 oxidation kinetics and burning mode for diesel particulate from light-duty and medium-duty engines fueled with either ultra low sulfur diesel or soy methyl ester biodiesel blends have been investigated and are shown to be significantly different from oxidation by O2. Oxidation kinetics were measured using a flow-through packed bed microreactor for temperature programmed reactions and isothermal differential pulsed oxidation reactions. The burning mode was evaluated using the same reactor system for flowing BET specific surface area measurements and HR-TEM with fringe analysis to evaluate the nanostructure of the nascent and partially oxidized particulates. The low activation energy measured,more » specific surface area progression with extent of oxidation, HR-TEM images and difference plots of fringe length and tortuosity paint a consistent picture of higher reactivity for NO2, which reacts indiscriminately immediately upon contact with the surface, leading to the Zone I or shrinking core type oxidation. In comparison, O2 oxidation is shown to have relatively lower reactivity, preferentially attacking highly curved lamella, which are more reactive due to bond strain, and short lamella, which have a higher proportion of more reactive edge sites. Furthermore, this preferential oxidation leads to Zone II type oxidation, where solid phase diffusion of oxygen via pores contributes significantly to slowing the overall oxidation rate, by comparison.« less

  17. Electrolytic oxidation of anthracite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Patton, K.M.; Heard, I.

    1981-01-01

    An anthracite slurry can be oxidized only with difficulty by electrolytic methods in which aqueous electrolytes are used if the slurry is confined to the region of the anode by a porous pot or diaphragm. However, it can be easily oxidized if the anthracite itself is used as the anode. No porous pot or diaphragm is needed. Oxidative consumption of the coal to alkali-soluble compounds is found to proceed preferentially at the edges of the aromatic planes. An oxidation model is proposed in which the chief oxidants are molecular and radical species formed by the electrolytic decomposition of water at the coal surface-electrolyte interface. The oxidation reactions proposed account for the opening of the aromatic rings and the subsequent formation of carboxylic acids. The model also explains the observed anisotropic oxidation and the need for the porous pot or diaphragm used in previous studies of the oxidation of coal slurries. ?? 1981.

  18. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  19. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  20. Mixed Acid Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    1999-10-26

    Several non-thermal processes have been developed to destroy organic waste compounds using chemicals with high oxidation potentials. These efforts have focused on developing technologies that work at low temperatures, relative to incineration, to overcome many of the regulatory issues associated with obtaining permits for waste incinerators. One such technique with great flexibility is mixed acid oxidation. Mixed acid oxidation, developed at the Savannah River Site, uses a mixture of an oxidant (nitric acid) and a carrier acid (phosphoric acid). The carrier acid acts as a non-volatile holding medium for the somewhat volatile oxidant. The combination of acids allows appreciable amounts of the concentrated oxidant to remain in the carrier acid well above the oxidant''s normal boiling point.

  1. The oxidation and surface speciation of indium and indium oxides exposed to atmospheric oxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, Zachary M.; Wulfsberg, Steven M.; Frith, Matthew G.; Bocarsly, Andrew B.; Bernasek, Steven L.

    2016-06-01

    Metallic indium and its oxides are useful in electronics applications, in transparent conducting electrodes, as well as in electrocatalytic applications. In order to understand more fully the speciation of the indium and oxygen composition of the indium surface exposed to atmospheric oxidants, XPS, HREELS, and TPD were used to study the indium surface exposed to water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. Clean In and authentic samples of In2O3 and In(OH)3 were examined with XPS to provide standard spectra. Indium was exposed to O2 and H2O, and the ratio of O2 - to OH- in the O1s XPS region was used to monitor oxidation and speciation of the surface. HREELS and TPD indicate that water dissociates on the indium surface even at low temperature, and that In2O3 forms at higher temperatures. Initially, OH- is the major species at the surface. Pure In2O3 is also OH- terminated following water exposure. Ambient pressure XPS studies of water exposure to these surfaces suggest that high water pressures tend to passivate the surface, inhibiting extensive oxide formation.

  2. Microbial Manganese Oxidation in Saltmarsh Surface Sediments Using a Leuco Crystal Violet Manganese Oxide Detection Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Henry G.; Siekmann, Ellen C.; Hodson, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    (II) concentration ranged from 0·49 to 2·7 nmol mg dwt -1 h -1 and were nearly four times higher in surface sediments from creek banks than in sediments from the high marsh. The microorganisms associated with saltmarsh creek water particulate matter oxidized Mn(II) at rates intermediate to the values obtained for the two types of surface sediments, averaging 0·98 nmol mg dwt -1 h -1.

  3. Polyoxometalate water oxidation catalysts and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Craig L.; Gueletii, Yurii V.; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Yin, Qiushi; Botar, Bogdan

    2014-09-02

    Homogeneous water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) for the oxidation of water to produce hydrogen ions and oxygen, and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. In a preferred embodiment, the WOC is a polyoxometalate WOC which is hydrolytically stable, oxidatively stable, and thermally stable. The WOC oxidized waters in the presence of an oxidant. The oxidant can be generated photochemically, using light, such as sunlight, or electrochemically using a positively biased electrode. The hydrogen ions are subsequently reduced to form hydrogen gas, for example, using a hydrogen evolution catalyst (HEC). The hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in combustion reactions and/or in hydrogen fuel cells. The catalysts described herein exhibit higher turn over numbers, faster turn over frequencies, and/or higher oxygen yields than prior art catalysts.

  4. Glycothermal synthesis of metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masashi

    2004-04-01

    The author has been exploring the synthesis of inorganic materials in organic solvents at temperatures (200-300 °C) higher than their boiling points (solvothermal reaction), and has developed various reaction methods for the synthesis of ultrafine particles of metal oxides. In this paper, the reactions of aluminium compounds (aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3; gibbsite), aluminium alkoxides, and aluminium salts) in various organic solvents (alcohols, glycols, aminoalcohols, and inert organic solvents) are first reviewed, and reaction mechanisms and effects of the starting materials and solvents on the products are discussed. Then, the specificity of the use of glycols, especially 1,4-butanediol (glycothermal reaction), is clarified, and glycothermal synthesis of crystalline mixed oxides such as yttrium aluminium garnet is described. Finally, the use of the solvothermally prepared products as the catalyst materials is described.

  5. Studies in zirconium oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draley, J. E.; Drunen, C. J.; Levitan, J.

    1968-01-01

    Study provides insight into the oxidation mechanism of zirconium by combining electrical measurements with oxidation data. The measurement of electrical potential across growing scale on zirconium and the determination of conventional weight-change oxidation data were carried out at 550, 700, and 800 degrees C.

  6. Congruently melting complex oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahams, S.C.; Brandle, C.D. Jr.

    1988-04-26

    A device is described comprising: a material including a complex oxide, characterized in that the complex oxide is essentially free of gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, gadolinium gallium garnet and lithium niobate, and the composition of the complex oxide is congruent and differs from stoichiometry by at least 0.1 atomic percent for at least one constituent element.

  7. High reactivity of nanosized niobium oxide cluster cations in methane activation: A comparison with vanadium oxides.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xun-Lei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Xiao-Nan; Li, Zi-Yu; Zhao, Yan-Xia; He, Sheng-Gui

    2015-09-28

    The reactions between methane and niobium oxide cluster cations were studied and compared to those employing vanadium oxides. Hydrogen atom abstraction (HAA) reactions were identified over stoichiometric (Nb2O5)N(+) clusters for N as large as 14 with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The reactivity of (Nb2O5)N(+) clusters decreases as the N increases, and it is higher than that of (V 2O5)N(+) for N ≥ 4. Theoretical studies were conducted on (Nb2O5)N(+) (N = 2-6) by density functional calculations. HAA reactions on these clusters are all favorable thermodynamically and kinetically. The difference of the reactivity with respect to the cluster size and metal type (Nb vs V) was attributed to thermodynamics, kinetics, the electron capture ability, and the distribution of the unpaired spin density. Nanosized Nb oxide clusters show higher HAA reactivity than V oxides, indicating that niobia may serve as promising catalysts for practical methane conversion.

  8. Fast and efficient benign oxidation of native wheat starch by acidic bromate under microwave activation.

    PubMed

    Komulainen, Sanna; Diaz, Estibaliz; Pursiainen, Jouni; Lajunen, Marja

    2013-02-15

    A simple oxidation of starch in water by bromate was substantially improved by microwave activation. In the oxidation of native wheat starch its advantages were the highly reduced need of oxidant from 1.05 to 0.1-0.25 equiv, shortened reaction time from 2 to 5.5h to 10 min, and moderate or high yields of oxidation content (degree of oxidation 0.22-0.55) of water-soluble products. Acidic treatment before the oxidation reaction promoted the carbonyl formation yielding higher contents of oxidized products (degree of oxidation 0.43-0.55) than without it (degree of oxidation 0.22-0.28). The pretreatment did not have similar effect on the amount of carboxyl groups. The oxidation route of acidic bromate oxidation of starch is discussed.

  9. Master Plan for Texas Higher Education 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin.

    This 5-year plan for Texas higher education, designed to present a "road-map" for all participants in Texas higher education to use in their fulfillment of the higher education mission as established by the Texas Charter for Public Higher Education, is organized around six principles established by the charter. Following an overview on Texas…

  10. Quality Assurance in Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Quality assurance has been integrated into the fabric of higher education in China, with the issue of quality in higher education--how to evaluate it and how to enhance it--now taking centre stage in Chinese higher education. In the past decade, the development of quality assurance in Chinese higher education has covered a broad spectrum of…

  11. The 1987 NEA Almanac of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Harold, Ed.

    Statistics on higher education, a review of developments during 1985-1986, a list of resources and references, and information on the National Education Association (NEA) are presented. Information is included on: new books on higher education, federal legislation concerning higher education, federal higher education grants, and winners of college…

  12. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in African higher…

  13. Organizing Higher Education in a Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleiklie, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The integration of higher education systems in the Western world has led both to development of overall strategies for the organization of higher education institutions by public authorities, as well as to strategies by higher education institutions aiming to position themselves within emerging higher education systems. This article first asks…

  14. Redefining External Stakeholders in Nordic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musial, Kazimierz

    2010-01-01

    Present higher education reforms in the Nordic countries diminish the role and influence of the state on the governance of higher education institutions. While still providing a framework for the management of higher education, in general, the state supervises rather than controls higher education institutions (HEIs). The rhetoric of change…

  15. Higher plant antioxidants and redox signaling under environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hong-bo; Chu, Li-ye; Shao, Ming-an; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul; Mi, Hong-mei

    2008-06-01

    Main antioxidants in higher plants include glutathione, ascorbate, tocopherol, proline, betaine, and others, which are also information-rich redox buffers and important redox signaling components that interact with biomembrane-related compartments. As an evolutionary consequence of aerobic life for higher plants, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed by partial reduction of molecular oxygen. The above enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in higher plants can protect their cells from oxidative damage by scavenging ROS. In addition to crucial roles in defense system and as enzyme cofactors, antioxidants influence higher plant growth and development by modifying processes from mitosis and cell elongation to senescence and death. Most importantly, they provide essential information on cellular redox state, and regulate gene expression associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses to optimize defense and survival. An overview of the literature is presented in terms of main antioxidants and redox signaling in plant cells. Special attention is given to ROS and ROS-antioxidant interaction as a metabolic interface for different types of signals derived from metabolism and from the changing environment, which regulates the appropriate induction of acclimation processes or, execution of cell death programs, which are the two essential directions for higher plants.

  16. Study of the formation process of titanium oxides containing micro arc oxidation film on Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yingwei; Dong, Kaihui; Shan, Dayong; Han, En-Hou

    2014-09-01

    A novel micro arc oxidation (MAO) film is developed to protect Mg alloys from corrosion. This film contains plenty of titanium oxides, which exhibits higher chemical stability than traditional MAO films. Especially, the micropores on the surface of the film are in situ sealed during the film formation process instead of the sealing pores post treatment. The film formation process is investigated by the observation of surface and cross-section morphologies and analysis of chemical composition. It is found that the sizes of micropores increase but the quantities decrease with increasing oxidation voltages. The micropores are open in the initial stage of oxidation and then they are sealed gradually. The growth direction of the film takes place change at different oxidation voltages. The elements of F and Ti play a significant role in the film growth process.

  17. Laccase-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Assemblies as Efficient Nanobiocatalysts for Oxidation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Patila, Michaela; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Stamatis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Multi-layer graphene oxide-enzyme nanoassemblies were prepared through the multi-point covalent immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL) on functionalized graphene oxide (fGO). The catalytic properties of the fGO-TvL nanoassemblies were found to depend on the number of the graphene oxide-enzyme layers present in the nanostructure. The fGO-TvL nanoassemblies exhibit an enhanced thermal stability at 60 °C, as demonstrated by a 4.7-fold higher activity as compared to the free enzyme. The multi-layer graphene oxide-enzyme nanoassemblies can efficiently catalyze the oxidation of anthracene, as well as the decolorization of an industrial dye, pinacyanol chloride. These materials retained almost completely their decolorization activity after five reaction cycles, proving their potential as efficient nano- biocatalysts for various applications. PMID:26927109

  18. Rhodium oxides in unusual oxidation states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisner, Barbara Alice

    Mixed valence RhIII/RhIV oxides have been proposed as a promising class of candidate compounds for superconductivity. Unfortunately, it is difficult to stabilize rhodates with a formal oxidation state approaching RhIV, as other techniques used for the synthesis of rhodium. oxides favor the most commonly observed formal oxidation state, RhIII. One technique which has been used to stabilize metal oxides in high formal oxidation states is crystallization from molten hydroxides. This thesis explores the use of molten hydroxides to enhance the reactivity of rhodium oxides in order to synthesize rhodates with high formal oxidation states. K0.5RhO2, Rb0.2RhO2, and CsxRhO2 were synthesized from pure alkali metal hydroxides. All crystallized with a previously unobserved polytype in the alkali metal rhodate system. Due to the low activity of dissolved oxygen species in LiOH and NaOH, LiRhO2 and NaRhO2 cannot be crystallized. The formal oxidation state of rhodium in AxRhO2 (A = K, Rb, Cs) is a function of the alkali metal hydroxide used to synthesize these oxides. These materials exhibit remarkable stability for layered metal oxides containing the heavier alkali metals, but all phases are susceptible to intercalation by water. The synthesis, structural characterization, magnetic susceptibility, and reactivity of these oxides are reported. Sr2RhO4 and a new rhodate were crystallized from a KOH-Sr(OH)2 flux. The synthesis and characterization of these materials is reported. Efforts to substitute platinum for rhodium in Sr 2RhO4 are also discussed. Mixed alkali metal-alkaline earth metal hydroxide fluxes were used to crystallize LiSr3RhO6, and NaSr3RhO 6. The synthesis of LiSr3RhO6 and NaSr3RhO 6 represents the first example of the stabilization of a rhodium oxide with a formal oxidation state approaching RhV. X-ray diffraction, electron beam microprobe analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, potentiometric titrations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility

  19. High ethylene to ethane processes for oxidative coupling

    DOEpatents

    Chafin, Richard B.; Warren, Barbara K.

    1991-01-01

    Oxidative coupling of lower alkane to higher hydrocarbon is conducted using catalyst comprising barium and/or strontium component and a metal oxide combustion promoter in the presence of vapor phase halogen component. High ethylene to ethane mole ratios in the product can be obtained over extended operating periods.

  20. High ethylene to ethane processes for oxidative coupling

    DOEpatents

    Chafin, R.B.; Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Oxidative coupling of lower alkane to higher hydrocarbon is conducted using a catalyst comprising barium and/or strontium component and a metal oxide combustion promoter in the presence of vapor phase halogen component. High ethylene to ethane mole ratios in the product can be obtained over extended operating periods.

  1. Oxidation phenomena in water treeing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Noirhomme, B.; Bulinski, A.T.; Bamji, S.S.; Crine, J.P.; Densley, R.J.

    1993-08-01

    An investigation of oxidation of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation determined that it is only one parameter influencing water treeing and not necessarily the controlling or major one. Oxygen presence during water treeing influences water tree propagation more than water tree initiation. Very high levels of oxidation, to the extent that dielectric losses increase, were found to retard water tree growth. 1. The investigative team sought oxidation in many service-aged cables via diagnostic techniques including FTIR; oxidation in the water tree stem and branches, and outside the water trees of adjacent insulation, was studied. 2. XLPE insulation was intentionally oxidized via thermal treatment, and water tree growth under controlled degrees of oxidation was studied. 3. Water trees were grown in an inert (nitrogen) environment to determine the influence of oxygen on water tree initiation and propagation. Field-aged cables studied do not reveal any excess degree of oxidation inside water trees relative to nontreed regions (carbonyl, carboxylate) via the diagnostics employed. Oxygen presence does not influence water tree initiation; however, water tree propagation was enhanced by the presence of oxygen (versus nitrogen) and ionic impurities; tree length was reduced in the presence of nitrogen. Preoxidation of XLPE insulation does not enhance water tree growth (initiation/propagation). Very high levels of preoxidation, induced thermally, lead to fewer and shorter water trees; very heavy preoxidation treatment (higher than seen in service) causes an increase in dielectric losses and reduces tree growth.

  2. All-Oxide Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Rühle, Sven; Anderson, Assaf Y; Barad, Hannah-Noa; Kupfer, Benjamin; Bouhadana, Yaniv; Rosh-Hodesh, Eli; Zaban, Arie

    2012-12-20

    Recently, a new field in photovoltaics (PV) has emerged, focusing on solar cells that are entirely based on metal oxide semiconductors. The all-oxide PV approach is very attractive due to the chemical stability, nontoxicity, and abundance of many metal oxides that potentially allow manufacturing under ambient conditions. Already today, metal oxides (MOs) are widely used as components in PV cells such as transparent conducting front electrodes or electron-transport layers, while only very few MOs have been used as light absorbers. In this Perspective, we review recent developments of all-oxide PV systems, which until today were mostly based on Cu2O as an absorber. Furthermore, ferroelectric BiFeO3-based PV systems are discussed, which have recently attracted considerable attention. The performance of all-oxide PV cells is discussed in terms of general PV principles, and directions for progress are proposed, pointing toward the development of novel metal oxide semiconductors using combinatorial methods.

  3. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  4. Exceptionally Active and Stable Spinel Nickel Manganese Oxide Electrocatalysts for Urea Oxidation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Periyasamy, Sivakumar; Subramanian, Palaniappan; Levi, Elena; Aurbach, Doron; Gedanken, Aharon; Schechter, Alex

    2016-05-18

    Spinel nickel manganese oxides, widely used materials in the lithium ion battery high voltage cathode, were studied in urea oxidation catalysis. NiMn2O4, Ni1.5Mn1.5O4, and MnNi2O4 were synthesized by a simple template-free hydrothermal route followed by a thermal treatment in air at 800 °C. Rietveld analysis performed on nonstoichiometric nickel manganese oxide-Ni1.5Mn1.5O4 revealed the presence of three mixed phases: two spinel phases with different lattice parameters and NiO unlike the other two spinels NiMn2O4 and MnNi2O4. The electroactivity of nickel manganese oxide materials toward the oxidation of urea in alkaline solution is evaluated using cyclic voltammetric measurements. Ni1.5Mn1.5O4 exhibits excellent redox characteristics and lower charge transfer resistances in comparison with other compositions of nickel manganese oxides and nickel oxide prepared under similar conditions.The Ni1.5Mn1.5O4modified electrode oxidizes urea at 0.29 V versus Ag/AgCl with a corresponding current density of 6.9 mA cm(-2). At a low catalyst loading of 50 μg cm(-2), the urea oxidation current density of Ni1.5Mn1.5O4 in alkaline solution is 7 times higher than that of nickel oxide and 4 times higher than that of NiMn2O4 and MnNi2O4, respectively. PMID:27123873

  5. Exceptionally Active and Stable Spinel Nickel Manganese Oxide Electrocatalysts for Urea Oxidation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Periyasamy, Sivakumar; Subramanian, Palaniappan; Levi, Elena; Aurbach, Doron; Gedanken, Aharon; Schechter, Alex

    2016-05-18

    Spinel nickel manganese oxides, widely used materials in the lithium ion battery high voltage cathode, were studied in urea oxidation catalysis. NiMn2O4, Ni1.5Mn1.5O4, and MnNi2O4 were synthesized by a simple template-free hydrothermal route followed by a thermal treatment in air at 800 °C. Rietveld analysis performed on nonstoichiometric nickel manganese oxide-Ni1.5Mn1.5O4 revealed the presence of three mixed phases: two spinel phases with different lattice parameters and NiO unlike the other two spinels NiMn2O4 and MnNi2O4. The electroactivity of nickel manganese oxide materials toward the oxidation of urea in alkaline solution is evaluated using cyclic voltammetric measurements. Ni1.5Mn1.5O4 exhibits excellent redox characteristics and lower charge transfer resistances in comparison with other compositions of nickel manganese oxides and nickel oxide prepared under similar conditions.The Ni1.5Mn1.5O4modified electrode oxidizes urea at 0.29 V versus Ag/AgCl with a corresponding current density of 6.9 mA cm(-2). At a low catalyst loading of 50 μg cm(-2), the urea oxidation current density of Ni1.5Mn1.5O4 in alkaline solution is 7 times higher than that of nickel oxide and 4 times higher than that of NiMn2O4 and MnNi2O4, respectively.

  6. Anomalous behaviour of magnetic coercivity in graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bagani, K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Kaur, J.; Rai Chowdhury, A.; Ghosh, B.; Banerjee, S.

    2014-01-14

    In this report, we present the temperature dependence of the magnetic coercivity of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). We observe an anomalous decrease in coercivity of GO and RGO with decreasing temperature. The observation could be understood by invoking the inherent presence of wrinkles on graphene oxide due to presence of oxygen containing groups. Scanning electron microscopic image reveals high wrinkles in GO than RGO. We observe higher coercivity in RGO than in GO. At room temperature, we observe antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic behaviours in GO and RGO, respectively. Whereas, at low temperatures (below T = 60–70 K), both materials show paramagnetic behaviour.

  7. Biological water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Nicholas; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2013-07-16

    Photosystem II (PSII), a multisubunit pigment-protein supercomplex found in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, catalyzes a unique reaction in nature: the light-driven oxidation of water. Remarkable recent advances in the structural analysis of PSII now give a detailed picture of the static supercomplex on the molecular level. These data provide a solid foundation for future functional studies, in particular the mechanism of water oxidation and oxygen release. The catalytic core of the PSII is a tetramanganese-calcium cluster (Mn₄O₅Ca), commonly referred to as the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC). The function of the OEC rests on its ability to cycle through five metastable states (Si, i = 0-4), transiently storing four oxidizing equivalents, and in so doing, facilitates the four electron water splitting reaction. While the latest crystallographic model of PSII gives an atomic picture of the OEC, the exact connectivity within the inorganic core and the S-state(s) that the X-ray model represents remain uncertain. In this Account, we describe our joint experimental and theoretical efforts to eliminate these ambiguities by combining the X-ray data with spectroscopic constraints and introducing computational modeling. We are developing quantum chemical methods to predict electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters for transition metal clusters, especially focusing on spin-projection approaches combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We aim to resolve the geometric and electronic structures of all S-states, correlating their structural features with spectroscopic observations to elucidate reactivity. The sequence of manganese oxidations and concomitant charge compensation events via proton transfer allow us to rationalize the multielectron S-state cycle. EPR spectroscopy combined with theoretical calculations provides a unique window into the tetramangenese complex, in particular its protonation states and metal ligand sphere evolution, far

  8. Expanded Definition of the Oxidation State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loock, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    A proposal to define the oxidation state of an atom in a compound as the hypothetical charge of the corresponding atomic ion that is obtained by heterolytically cleaving its bonds such that the atom with the higher electronegativity in a bond is allocated all electrons in the bond. Bonds between like atoms are cleaved homolytically. This…

  9. Oxide ion transport for selective oxidative coupling of methane with new membrane reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Takao; Fujimoto, Kaoru . Dept. of Synthetic Chemistry)

    1994-05-01

    Oxidative coupling of methane was conducted by using membrane reactors. The nonporous membrane film that consisted of PbO modified by alkaline or alkaline earth compound was supported on porous SiO[sub 2]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] tube. Higher hydrocarbons were successfully synthesized with high selectivity (about 90%). A kinetic analysis was conducted to clarify whether oxide ion transportation through PbO film participated in the oxidative coupling of methane. The evaluated value of the diffusion coefficient of oxide ion transport based on the methane oxidation agreed well with that of published data. The simulated gradient of the oxide ion concentration through the PbO membrane agreed well with that measured by electron probe X-ray microanalyzer. A transient response simulated by using kinetic parameters evaluated from steady-state analysis also agreed well with the experiment. These results prove the validity of the reaction model that consists of surface reactions of methane with oxide ion which is transferred from inside to outside of the membrane reactor. Alkali modifiers on the PbO membrane surface exhibited a promotional effect on the surface reaction of methane coupling. Another membrane reactor containing Bi[sub 2]O[sub 3] showed higher activity than the PbO membrane.

  10. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  11. Zirconium Oxide Nanostructures Prepared by Anodic Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Ying Yi; Bhuiyan, Md S; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic films can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide film to flake off. Further studies are needed to define the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  12. A potential biomarker for fatigue: Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Okawa, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity could act as biomarkers that discriminate patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from healthy volunteers at acute and sub-acute fatigue and resting conditions. We calculated the oxidative stress index (OSI) from reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We determined changes in d-ROMs, BAP, and OSI in acute and sub-acute fatigue in two healthy groups, and compared their values at rest between patients with CFS (diagnosed by Fukuda 1994 criteria) and another group of healthy controls. Following acute fatigue in healthy controls, d-ROMs and OSI increased, and BAP decreased. Although d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher after sub-acute fatigue, BAP did not decrease. Resting condition yielded higher d-ROMs, higher OSI, and lower BAP in patients with CFS than in healthy volunteers, but lower d-ROMs and OSI when compared with sub-acute controls. BAP values did not significantly differ between patients with CFS and controls in the sub-acute condition. However, values were significantly higher than in the resting condition for controls. Thus, measured of oxidative stress (d-ROMS) and anti-oxidative activity (BAP) might be useful for discriminating acute, sub-acute, and resting fatigue in healthy people from patients with CFS, or for evaluating fatigue levels in healthy people.

  13. A potential biomarker for fatigue: Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Okawa, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity could act as biomarkers that discriminate patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from healthy volunteers at acute and sub-acute fatigue and resting conditions. We calculated the oxidative stress index (OSI) from reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We determined changes in d-ROMs, BAP, and OSI in acute and sub-acute fatigue in two healthy groups, and compared their values at rest between patients with CFS (diagnosed by Fukuda 1994 criteria) and another group of healthy controls. Following acute fatigue in healthy controls, d-ROMs and OSI increased, and BAP decreased. Although d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher after sub-acute fatigue, BAP did not decrease. Resting condition yielded higher d-ROMs, higher OSI, and lower BAP in patients with CFS than in healthy volunteers, but lower d-ROMs and OSI when compared with sub-acute controls. BAP values did not significantly differ between patients with CFS and controls in the sub-acute condition. However, values were significantly higher than in the resting condition for controls. Thus, measured of oxidative stress (d-ROMS) and anti-oxidative activity (BAP) might be useful for discriminating acute, sub-acute, and resting fatigue in healthy people from patients with CFS, or for evaluating fatigue levels in healthy people. PMID:27224647

  14. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming Hua; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline K; Tarpy, David R; Rueppell, Olav

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked; considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and typically covaries with life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether stress-resistant, long-lived individuals avoid, repair, or tolerate molecular damage to survive longer than others. The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is an emerging model system that is well-suited to address this question. Furthermore, this species is the most economically important pollinator, whose health may be compromised by pesticide exposure, including oxidative stressors. Here, we develop a protocol for inducing oxidative stress in honey bee males (drones) via Paraquat injection. After injection, individuals from different colony sources were kept in common social conditions to monitor their survival compared to saline-injected controls. Oxidative stress was measured in susceptible and resistant individuals. Paraquat drastically reduced survival but individuals varied in their resistance to treatment within and among colony sources. Longer-lived individuals exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation than individuals dying early. In contrast, the level of protein carbonylation was not significantly different between the two groups. This first study of oxidative stress in male honey bees suggests that survival of an acute oxidative stressor is due to tolerance, not prevention or repair, of oxidative damage to lipids. It also demonstrates colony differences in oxidative stress resistance that might be useful for breeding stress-resistant honey bees.

  15. Fatty Acid Composition as a Predictor for the Oxidation Stability of Korean Vegetable Oils with or without Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jung-Mi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the fatty acid composition could make a significant contribution to the oxidation stability of vegetable oils marketed in Korea. Ten kinds, 97 items of vegetable oils that were produced in either an industrialized or a traditional way were collected and analyzed for their fatty acid compositions and lipid oxidation products, in the absence or presence of oxidative stress. Peroxidability index (PI) calculations based on the fatty acid composition ranged from 7.10 to 111.87 with the lowest value found in olive oils and the highest in perilla oils. In the absence of induced oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), the secondary lipid oxidation product, was generated more in the oils with higher PI (r=0.890), while the tendency was not observed when the oils were subjected to an oxidation-accelerating system. In the presence of the oxidative stress, the perilla oils produced in an industrialized manner generated appreciably higher amounts of MDA than those produced in a traditional way, although both types of oils presented similar PIs. The results implicate that the fatty acid compositions could be a predictor for the oxidation stability of the vegetable oils at the early stage of oil oxidation, but not for those at a later stage of oxidation. PMID:24471078

  16. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  17. The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies

  18. Deposition and Oxidation of Oxide-Dispersed CoNiCrAlY Bondcoats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Mitsutoshi; Vassen, Robert; Karger, Matthias; Sebold, Doris; Mack, Daniel; Jarligo, Maria Ophelia; Bozza, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    CoNiCrAlY powder and nano-size alumina powder were milled by a high-energy-attrition ball-mill, and an oxide-dispersed powder was produced with a mixed structure of metal and alumina in each particle. The oxide-dispersed bond coat powder was deposited by HVOF. Pores, however, were observed in the coating since the alumina was deposited without sufficient melting. Isothermal oxidation tests were carried out for the bond coat specimens at a temperature of 1373 K up to 1000 h in air. As a result, oxidation proceeded inside the coating, since oxygen penetrated through pores formed in the dispersed alumina. However, the authors find that another deposition using higher power levels led to a bond coat without pores. A commercially available oxide-dispersed CoNiCrAlY powder was also deposited by HVOF and VPS, and isothermal oxidation tests were performed. The analysis clarifies that the HVOF bond coat exhibited the thinnest thermally grown oxide than those of the VPS bond coat and conventional metallic bond coat. Furnace cycling tests were conducted using the specimens with an additional ceramic thermal-barrier coating. The specimen with the bond coat sprayed by VPS using commercial oxide-dispersed powder showed almost same number of cycles to delamination compared with the specimen with the conventional metal bond coat.

  19. Synthesis of manganese oxide supported on mesoporous titanium oxide: Influence of the block copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Schmit, F.; Bois, L.; Chiriac, R.; Toche, F.; Chassagneux, F.; Besson, M.; Descorme, C.; Khrouz, L.

    2015-01-15

    Manganese oxides supported on mesoporous titanium oxides were synthesized via a sol–gel route using block copolymer self-assembly. The oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analyses, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, electron microscopy and electronic paramagnetic resonance. A mesoporous anatase containing amorphous manganese oxide particles could be obtained with a 0.2 Mn:Ti molar ratio. At higher manganese loading (0.5 Mn:Ti molar ratio), segregation of crystalline manganese oxide occurred. The influence of block copolymer and manganese salt on the oxide structure was discussed. The evolution of the textural and structural characteristics of the materials upon hydrothermal treatment was also investigated. - Graphical abstract: One-pot amorphous MnO{sub 2} supported on mesoporous anataseTiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Mesoporous manganese titanium oxides were synthesized using block copolymer. • Block copolymers form complexes with Mn{sup 2+} from MnCl{sub 2}. • With block copolymer, manganese oxide can be dispersed around the titania crystallites. • With Mn(acac){sub 2}, manganese is dispersed inside titania. • MnOOH crystallizes outside mesoporous titania during hydrothermal treatment.

  20. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Shinbuhm; Meyer, Tricia L.; Park, Sungkyun; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2014-12-05

    Precise control of the chemical valence or oxidation state of vanadium in vanadium oxide thin films is highly desirable for not only fundamental research, but also technological applications that utilize the subtle change in the physical properties originating from the metalinsulator transition (MIT) near room temperature. However, due to the multivalent nature of vanadium and the lack of a good understanding on growth control of the oxidation state, stabilization of phase pure vanadium oxides with a single oxidation state is extremely challenging. Here, we systematically varied the growth conditions to clearly map out the growth window for preparing phase pure epitaxial vanadium oxides by pulsed laser deposition for providing a guideline to grow high quality thin films with well-defined oxidation states of V₂⁺²O₃, V⁺⁴O₂, and V₂⁺⁵O₅. A well pronounced MIT was only observed in VO₂ films grown in a very narrow range of oxygen partial pressure P(O₂). The films grown either in lower (< 10 mTorr) or higher P(O₂) (> 25 mTorr) result in V₂O₃ and V₂O₅ phases, respectively, thereby suppressing the MIT for both cases. We have also found that the resistivity ratio before and after the MIT of VO₂ thin films can be further enhanced by one order of magnitude when the films are further oxidized by post-annealing at a well-controlled oxidizing ambient. This result indicates that stabilizing vanadium into a single valence state has to compromise with insufficient oxidation of an as grown thin film and, thereby, a subsequent oxidation is required for an 3 improved MIT behavior.

  1. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, Shinbuhm; Meyer, Tricia L.; Park, Sungkyun; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2014-12-05

    Precise control of the chemical valence or oxidation state of vanadium in vanadium oxide thin films is highly desirable for not only fundamental research, but also technological applications that utilize the subtle change in the physical properties originating from the metalinsulator transition (MIT) near room temperature. However, due to the multivalent nature of vanadium and the lack of a good understanding on growth control of the oxidation state, stabilization of phase pure vanadium oxides with a single oxidation state is extremely challenging. Here, we systematically varied the growth conditions to clearly map out the growth window for preparing phase puremore » epitaxial vanadium oxides by pulsed laser deposition for providing a guideline to grow high quality thin films with well-defined oxidation states of V₂⁺²O₃, V⁺⁴O₂, and V₂⁺⁵O₅. A well pronounced MIT was only observed in VO₂ films grown in a very narrow range of oxygen partial pressure P(O₂). The films grown either in lower (< 10 mTorr) or higher P(O₂) (> 25 mTorr) result in V₂O₃ and V₂O₅ phases, respectively, thereby suppressing the MIT for both cases. We have also found that the resistivity ratio before and after the MIT of VO₂ thin films can be further enhanced by one order of magnitude when the films are further oxidized by post-annealing at a well-controlled oxidizing ambient. This result indicates that stabilizing vanadium into a single valence state has to compromise with insufficient oxidation of an as grown thin film and, thereby, a subsequent oxidation is required for an 3 improved MIT behavior.« less

  2. Growth control of the oxidation state in vanadium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Shinbuhm; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Park, Sungkyun; Egami, Takeshi

    2014-12-01

    Precise control of the chemical valence or oxidation state of vanadium in vanadium oxide thin films is highly desirable for not only fundamental research but also technological applications that utilize the subtle change in the physical properties originating from the metal-insulator transition (MIT) near room temperature. However, due to the multivalent nature of vanadium and the lack of a good understanding on growth control of the oxidation state, stabilization of phase pure vanadium oxides with a single oxidation state is extremely challenging. Here, we systematically varied the growth conditions to clearly map out the growth window for preparing phase pure epitaxial vanadium oxides by pulsed laser deposition for providing a guideline to grow high quality thin films with well-defined oxidation states of V{sub 2}{sup +3}O{sub 3}, V{sup +4}O{sub 2}, and V{sub 2}{sup +5}O{sub 5}. A well pronounced MIT was only observed in VO{sub 2} films grown in a very narrow range of oxygen partial pressure P(O{sub 2}). The films grown either in lower (<10 mTorr) or higher P(O{sub 2}) (>25 mTorr) result in V{sub 2}O{sub 3} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phases, respectively, thereby suppressing the MIT for both cases. We have also found that the resistivity ratio before and after the MIT of VO{sub 2} thin films can be further enhanced by one order of magnitude when the films are further oxidized by post-annealing at a well-controlled oxidizing ambient. This result indicates that stabilizing vanadium into a single valence state has to compromise with insufficient oxidation of an as grown thin film and, thereby, a subsequent oxidation is required for an improved MIT behavior.

  3. Biological applications of graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürel, Hikmet Hakan; Salmankurt, Bahadır

    2016-03-01

    Graphene as a 2D material has unique chemical and electronic properties. Because of its unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties, its interesting shape and size make it a promising nanomaterial in many biological applications. However, the lower water-solubility and the irreversible aggregation due to the strong π-π stacking hinder the wide application of graphene nanosheets in biomedical field. Thus, graphene oxide (GO), one derivative of graphene, has been used more frequently in the biological system owing to its relatively higher water solubility and biocompatibility. Recently, it has been demonstrated that nanomaterials with different functional groups on the surface can be used to bind the drug molecules with high affinity. GO has different functional groups such as H, OH and O on its surface; it can be a potential candidate as a drug carrier. The interactions of biomolecules and graphene like structures are long-ranged and very weak. Development of new techniques is very desirable for design of bioelectronics sensors and devices. In this work, we present first-principles spin polarized calculations within density functional theory to calculate effects of charging on DNA/RNA nucleobases on graphene oxide. It is shown that how modify structural and electronic properties of nucleobases on graphene oxide by applied charging.

  4. Reclaiming Our Soul: Democracy and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Arthur W.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how, as higher education faces new financial realities together with escalating demands for more accountability, a call to reclaim the soul of higher education and with it, the soul of democracy, will require significant institutional and personal transformations. (EV)

  5. Hispanics and Higher Education: Multicultural Myopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlach, David

    2000-01-01

    Hispanic Americans are underrepresented in higher education and in business faculty. Their career development is often hindered by discrimination and they are often channeled into two-year colleges where attrition is higher. (SK)

  6. New Programs Urged for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education released a report which calls for three new programs of Federal aid to higher education: tuition equalization grants, national student loan bank, support for large research libraries. (GS)

  7. Hispanic Higher Education and HSIs. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents facts about Hispanic higher education. Facts on the following topics are presented: (1) Hispanic demographics; (2) Hispanic academic attainment; (3) Hispanic higher education; and (4) Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs).

  8. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  9. Oxidants, antioxidants and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Gibanananda; Husain, Syed Akhtar

    2002-11-01

    Reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), such as superoxide anions (O2*-) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (*OH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) are directly or indirectly involved in multistage process of carcinogenesis. They are mainly involved in DNA damage leading sometimes to mutations in tumour suppressor genes. They also act as initiator and/or promotor in carcinogenesis. Some of them are mutagenic in mammalian systems. O2*-, H2O2 and *OH are reported to be involved in higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosome breaks and gaps (CBGs). MDA, a bi-product of lipid peroxidation (LPO), is said to be involved in DNA adduct formations, which are believed to be responsible for carcinogenesis. NO, on the other hand, plays a duel role in cancer. At high concentration it kills tumour cells, but at low concentration it promotes tumour growth and metastasis. It causes DNA single and double strand breaks. The metabolites of NO such as peroxynitrite (OONO-) is a potent mutagen that can induce transversion mutations. NO can stimulate O2*-/H2O2/*OH-induced LPO. These deleterious actions of oxidants can be countered by antioxidant defence system in humans. There are first line defense antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT). SOD converts O2*- to H2O2, which is further converted to H2O with the help of GPx and CAT. SOD inhibits *OH production. SOD also act as antipoliferative agent, anticarcinogens, and inhibitor at initiation and promotion/transformation stage in carcinogenesis. GPx is another antioxidative enzyme which catalyses to convert H2O2, to H2O. The most potent enzyme is CAT. GPx and CAT are important in the inactivation of many environmental mutagens. CAT is also found to reduce the SCE levels and chromosomal aberrations. Antioxidative vitamins such as vitamin A, E, and C have a number of biological activities such as immune stimulation, inhibition of

  10. Design for Oxidation Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Schaeffer, Jon C.; Barrett, Charles A.

    1997-01-01

    Alloys intended for use in high-temperature environment rely on the formation of a continuous, compact, slow-growing oxide layer for oxidation and hot corrosion resistance. To be protective, this oxide layer must be chemically, thermodynamically stable. Successful alloy design for oxidative environment is best achieved by developing alloys that are capable of forming adherent scales of either alumina (Al2O3), chromia (Cr2O3), or silica (SiO2). In this article, emphasis has been placed on the issue related to high-temperature oxidation of superalloys used in gas turbine engine application. Despite the complexity of these alloys, optimal performance has been associated with protective alumina scale formation. As will be described below, both compositional makeup and protective coatings play key role in providing oxidation protection. Other high-temperature materials described include nickel and titanium aluminide intermetallics, refractory metal, and ceramics.

  11. Character Development Practices in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Vernon L.

    2010-01-01

    Character Development continues to be the all too unintentional elephant in the room of Higher Education. This project looked at what character development practices are being accomplished and who in higher education is making it happen. No longer satisfied with leaving the task to elementary and secondary education, higher education has begun to…

  12. The Incentive System in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landfried, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the incentive system in German higher education. He states that the underdeveloped incentive and management mechanisms in German higher education result in mistaken allocations in the higher education system in general and in some individual institutions in particular. He believes that the only way to optimize…

  13. Planning, Designing and Managing Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneau, William A.; Valenti, Mark S.; Ricciarini, Sylvana; Bender, Stephen O.; Alleyne, Nicole; Di Grappa, Michael; Duart, Josep M.; Lupianez, Francisco; Sanchez, Miguel Angel Ehrenzweig

    2005-01-01

    The OECD Programme on Educational Building, together with the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers (APPA) and the OECD Programme on Institutional Management in Higher Education, organised an international conference on the planning, design and management of facilities for higher education institutions on April 24-27, 2005. The…

  14. The Virginia Plan for Higher Education, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    The Council of Higher Education, in this state-mandated biennial plan, sets four goals for Virginia's state-supported system of higher education to achieve: access, excellence, accountability, and placement among the best systems of higher education in the United States. The plan concentrates on the 84 degree-granting institutions that have been…

  15. New Directions in Professional Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourner, Tom, Ed.; Katz, Tim, Ed.; Watson, David, Ed.

    This collection contains a series of analytical case studies of developing practices that respond to the challenges to higher education in the United Kingdom at the start of the new millennium. Chapters addressing important themes in developing professional higher education are: (1) "Lifelong Learning and Professional Higher Education" (David…

  16. Computing and Higher Education: An Accidental Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Robert G.; Dicaro, Deborah A.

    As the applications of computing have expanded, the issues of computing and higher education have enlarged to include questions about the nature of information transfer on campus and the role of higher education in an information society. A broad view of the national issues and opportunities of computing in higher education is presented. A panel…

  17. State Priorities in Higher Education: 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenth, Charles S.

    The report provides information on the current issues, financial priorities, and legislative concerns faced by higher education at the state level, based upon observations of State Higher Education Executive Officers in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. The most important tasks facing higher education were identified as…

  18. How to Pay for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, Charles C.

    The financial crisis for institutions of higher education is deepening. Higher tuition rates may be one of the answers, but this would exclude even more young people from attending college because of inability to pay, at a time when greater equality of opportunity in higher education has become an important goal. Federal support has helped but not…

  19. Colorado Higher Education Financing Study. Executive Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Commission initiated a funding to review national funding models for higher education led by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS). Each institution contributed to the cost of the study and participated in the effort. NCHEMS' key recommendation is to move the funding discussions for higher education away from a…

  20. Higher Education Leadership Graduate Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Sydney, Jr.; Chambers, Crystal Renée; Newton, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Graduate programs in higher education administration and leadership have sought to equip students with the knowledge, skills, and competencies for higher education leadership; that is, to prepare globally minded leaders who can navigate the internal and external demands of, and for, higher education. With the use of the Lattuca and Stark model of…

  1. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  2. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  3. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  4. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  5. Manpower Aspects of Higher Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Qamar Uddin

    Using data from various published sources, this report reviews the growth of higher education in India over the last 30 years, analyzes employers' needs for higher education graduates since 1950, and suggests guidelines for involving educational planning with manpower planning. The author describes the growth of Indian higher education in the…

  6. Higher Education and Civic Engagement: Comparative Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlrath, Lorraine, Ed.; Lyons, Ann, Ed.; Munck, Ronaldo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Higher Education and Civic Engagement provides an original and challenging contribution to contemporary debates on the civic purpose of higher education. It explores teaching and learning, research, and service in a range of international contexts. This book is essential reading for higher education leaders, faculty, administrators, and members of…

  7. The Redesign of Governance in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Roger; And Others

    This report, part of a project called "Redesigning Higher Education", argues that a set of fundamental changes underlies the growing number of critical difficulties faced by higher education in the United States. It finds the governance structures of American higher education inadequate to deal with a changing and increasingly cost-conscious…

  8. Hispanics in Higher Education: On the Move!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennen, Estela Marin

    2005-01-01

    The American Association of Hispanics in Higher Education (AAHHE) is a new national organization "dedicated to improving the quality of higher education." The AAHHE believes higher education institutions can, and should, do a better job of "meeting the needs of a changing US demography." AAHHE's roots lie in the Hispanic Caucus of the now-defunct…

  9. Branding Canadian Higher Education. CBIE Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizilbash, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    The branding of national higher education systems is a global trend that has become increasingly common over the last decade. One of the main motives driving this trend is the view that branding a national higher education system will increase that country's market share of international students. This is evident as national higher education…

  10. NEJHE's Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemer, Sue, Comp.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the New England Journal of Higher Education (NEJHE) Trends & Indicators in Higher Education, featuring 64 tables and charts exploring New England's demography, high school performance and graduation, college enrollment, college graduation rates and degree production, higher education financing, and university research. The…

  11. Part Time Study in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Colin

    This document, which is intended for adults considering enrolling in part-time study in higher education, examines the objectives and experiences of adults who have pursued part-time study in higher education in the United Kingdom. The following reasons why adults return to higher education are discussed: personal development; self-fulfillment;…

  12. The Changing Nature of China's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the changing nature of China's higher education by turning to the changes that happened to China's higher education system brought about by implementing different government policies of higher education. The implementation of the policies, the restructuring of universities and independent colleges in 1952, the enrolling of…

  13. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream…

  14. Lutheran Higher Education in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Richard W.

    An overview is provided of the history and mission of Lutheran higher education in North America. The contributions of Lutheran colleges and universities to the church, to society and to higher education are discussed in the following chapters: (1) "Reformation Roots"; (2) "Foothold in America"; (3) "Early Ventures in Lutheran Higher Education";…

  15. Private Higher Education and Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private…

  16. Guidelines for Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kenneth E.; Acero, Herman D.

    Guidelines for planning in higher education (which might have an application in Colombia) are described. Chapter 1 provides an expanded definition of higher education that includes noncollege channels to lifelong education and embraces all viable postsecondary education. Chapter 2 addresses current problems facing higher education, such as lack of…

  17. National Focus on Postmodernism in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monica G.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of postmodernism in higher education is a widely debated issue. Critics of postmodernism in higher education hold the position that postmodernism breeds an unruliness of knowledge. Academicians in higher education often choose to educate students through means of prescription rather than implementing innovation in classroom…

  18. The Risks of Privatisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation looks at the latest statistics on participation in Higher Education, to question whether privatisation of systems has significant effects on participation, affordability and equity of Higher Education. It further looks into questions of autonomy and governance of Higher Education systems in private and public systems, and finally…

  19. Higher Education Research Institutes in Chinese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Liu, Nian Cai

    2014-01-01

    Initially emerged in 1978, higher education research institutes (HERIs) in Mainland China have experienced rapid expansion and have become a major force in higher education reform in the last three decades. The development of these research institutes is closely related to the substantive growth of the higher education system itself as well as…

  20. Expatriate Workers in International Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dennis C.

    2015-01-01

    With Western higher education practices being adopted and adapted in emerging higher education centers around the world, expatriate workers from the West are frequently used as consultants, employees, and trainers to help build capacity in new institutions where higher education opportunity has previously been scarce. For those who choose to take…

  1. Student Volunteering in English Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Clare; Quinn, Jocey

    2010-01-01

    Volunteering in English higher education has come under political scrutiny recently, with strong cross-party support for schemes to promote undergraduate volunteering in particular. Recent targeted initiatives and proposals have sought to strengthen both the role of volunteering in higher education and synergies between higher education and…

  2. The Yearbook of Higher Education Law, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. Parker, Ed.

    A comprehensive summary and analysis of all state and federal court cases involving higher education reported during the year of 1980 is provided in this fifth annual volume. The document constitutes an annual reference to higher education law for those interested in both public and private institutions of higher education. Each chapter has been…

  3. Higher Education Accountability Report 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report is one of several efforts designed to monitor outcomes in Washington's higher education system, and fulfills the biennial requirement that the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) inform the higher education and fiscal committees of the legislature of progress toward goals. The portrait that emerges from this review of…

  4. The National Investment in Higher Education, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC. Association Council for Policy Analysis and Research.

    Key trends in higher education in the 1970s are summarized, and the current condition of higher education in terms of its human, physical, and financial resources is reviewed. Attention is directed to progress to broaden access to higher education, to preserve quality programs and services, and to maintain fiscal health. Data are presented to…

  5. Perspectives of Financing Higher Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frackmann, Edgar

    1991-01-01

    The general structure of higher education finance in Germany and current and possible future developments in German higher education financing are analyzed. A shift from input budgeting to a more output-oriented steering of higher education is identified. Methods of dealing with the problems introduced by new mechanisms of decision making and fund…

  6. Blending Learning: Widening Participation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Norah; Lau, Alice Man Sze

    2010-01-01

    Widening participation has increased in emphasis in Higher Education over recent years. While there has been some progress in making higher education more accessible to students who have traditionally been excluded, widening participation is still being described as one of the major challenges facing Higher Education Institutions. Likewise…

  7. Transforming Higher Education in East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rudder, Helmut

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in the former German Democratic Republic looks at the common historical roots of central European universities, the different directions higher education took in East and West Germany after 1945, and the current turbulent transformation of higher education in East Germany during German unification. (Author/MSE)

  8. Discipline and Methodology in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Higher education research is a multidisciplinary field, engaging researchers from across the academy who make use of a wide range of methodological approaches. This article examines the relation between discipline and methodology in higher education research, analysing a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals…

  9. Resources and Higher Education. SRHE Monograph 51.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Alfred, Ed.; Sizer, John, Ed.

    Resource allocation for higher education in England is addressed in 11 papers from a l982 Leverhulme seminar of the Society for Research into Higher Education. Major seminar questions include the following: whether higher education institutions should become less dependent upon public funds; the extent to which funds should flow through grants to…

  10. When Higher Working Memory Capacity Hinders Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCaro, Marci S.; Van Stockum, Charles A., Jr.; Wieth, Mareike B.

    2016-01-01

    Higher working memory capacity (WMC) improves performance on a range of cognitive and academic tasks. However, a greater ability to control attention sometimes leads individuals with higher WMC to persist in using complex, attention-demanding approaches that are suboptimal for a given task. We examined whether higher WMC would hinder insight…

  11. The Changing Landscape of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, David J.; Trinkle, Dennis A.

    2011-01-01

    The landscape of higher education--the growing variety of higher education institutions, the cultural environment, the competitive ecosystem--is changing rapidly and disruptively. The higher education landscape is metaphorically crossed with fault lines, those fissures in the landscape creating potential areas of dramatic change, and is as…

  12. Colleges and the Governance of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    The governance of higher education in colleges and college sectors that offer other types of education and training is distinctive in four main respects. First, governance structures are frequently separate and different for higher education and for other segments of tertiary education. Second, the size and scope of the higher-level education…

  13. Reconfiguring the Higher Education Value Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Virendra; Pathak, Kavita

    2010-01-01

    Forces of demand and supply are changing the dynamics of the higher education market. Transformation of institutions of higher learning into competitive enterprise is underway. Higher education institutions are seemingly under intense pressure to create value and focus their efforts and scarce funds on activities that drive up value for their…

  14. A Strategic Vision for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Where is the manual on American higher education in the 21st century? In this article, the author argues that there is none and that it is up to the federal government and higher education leaders to provide this strategic vision. She further states that the federal government and higher education leaders must have the vision to see where higher…

  15. Higher Education and Basic Health Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar on higher education's commitment to the basic health needs of society are recorded. The first part of the seminar contains the official opening and several addresses that focus on basic health care in Southeast Asia. Part II, "Contributions of Higher Education…

  16. Ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xuefeng; Fuchsman, Clara A.; Jayakumar, Amal; Oleynik, Sergey; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Devol, Allan H.; Ward, Bess B.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrification plays a key role in the marine nitrogen (N) cycle, including in oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which are hot spots for denitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Recent evidence suggests that nitrification links the source (remineralized organic matter) and sink (denitrification and anammox) of fixed N directly in the steep oxycline in the OMZs. We performed shipboard incubations with 15N tracers to characterize the depth distribution of nitrification in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP). Additional experiments were conducted to investigate photoinhibition. Allylthiourea (ATU) was used to distinguish the contribution of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidation. The abundance of archaeal and β-proteobacterial ammonia monooxygenase gene subunit A (amoA) was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The rates of ammonia and nitrite oxidation showed distinct subsurface maxima, with the latter slightly deeper than the former. The ammonia oxidation maximum coincided with the primary nitrite concentration maximum, archaeal amoA gene maximum, and the subsurface nitrous oxide maximum. Negligible rates of ammonia oxidation were found at anoxic depths, where high rates of nitrite oxidation were measured. Archaeal amoA gene abundance was generally 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than bacterial amoA gene abundance, and inhibition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria with 10 μM ATU did not affect ammonia oxidation rates, indicating the dominance of archaea in ammonia oxidation. These results depict highly dynamic activities of ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the oxycline of the ETNP OMZ.

  17. Anodic oxidation of sulfide ions in molten lithium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, C.L.; Gilbert, J.B. II . Applied Research Lab.)

    1994-10-01

    The study of sulfur and sulfide oxidation in molten salt systems is of current interest in high energy battery, and metallurgical applications. Cyclic voltammetry experiments have been performed on lithium sulfide in a lithium fluoride electrolyte at 1,161 K using a graphite working electrode and a platinum quasi-reference electrode. Two distinct oxidation mechanisms are observed for the sulfide ions. The first oxidation produces sulfur and at a higher potential a disulfide species is proposed to have formed. Both oxidations appear to be reversible and diffusion controlled.

  18. The combined oxidation of methanol and ethanol on silver catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kurina, L.N.; Gryaznov, V.M.; Gul yanova, S.G.; Plakidkin, A.A.; Vedernikov, V.I.

    1985-10-01

    The authors study the oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and mixtures of these alcohols on industrial silver-pumice and silver membrane catalysts as well as the adsorption of these alcohols on silver. The oxidation of the alcohol mixture on the industrial silver-pumice catalyst gives higher yields of both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde than in the oxidation of the alcohols taken individually. It is also shown that an increase in the rates of formaldehyde formation in the combined oxidation of methanol and ethanol was observed on the silver membrane catalyst.

  19. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  20. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  1. Multifunctional Oxide Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tsymbal, E Y; Dagotto, Elbio R; Eom, Professor Chang-Beom; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    This book is devoted to the rapidly developing field of oxide thin-films and heterostructures. Oxide materials combined with atomic-scale precision in a heterostructure exhibit an abundance of macroscopic physical properties involving the strong coupling between the electronic, spin, and structural degrees of freedom, and the interplay between magnetism, ferroelectricity, and conductivity. Recent advances in thin-film deposition and characterization techniques made possible the experimental realization of such oxide heterostructures, promising novel functionalities and device concepts.

  2. Oxidation resistance and electrical properties of anodically electrodeposited Mn-Co oxide coatings for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Weifeng; Chen, Weixing; Ivey, Douglas G.

    Co-rich and crack-free Mn-Co oxide coatings were deposited on AISI 430 substrates by anodic electrodeposition from aqueous solutions. The as-deposited Mn-Co oxide coatings, with nano-scale fibrous morphology and a metastable rock salt-type structure, evolved into a (Cr,Mn,Co) 3O 4 spinel layer due to the outward diffusion of Cr from the AISI 430 substrates when pretreated in air. The Mn-Co oxide coatings were reduced into metallic Co and Mn 3O 4 phases when annealed in a reducing atmosphere of 5% H 2-95% N 2. In contrast to the degraded oxidation resistance and electrical properties observed for the air-pretreated Mn-Co oxide coated samples, the H 2-pretreated Mn-Co oxide coatings not only acted as a protective barrier to reduce the Cr outward diffusion, but also improved the electrical performance of the steel interconnects. The improvement in electronic conductivity can be ascribed to the higher electronic conductivity of the Co-rich spinel layer and better adhesion of the scale to the steel substrate, thereby eliminating scale spallation.

  3. Kinetic study of the oxidation of n-butane on vanadium oxide supported on Al/Mg mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dejoz, A.; Vazquez, I.; Nieto, J.M.L.; Melo, F.

    1997-07-01

    The reaction kinetics of the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of n-butane over vanadia supported on a heat-treated Mg/Al hydrotalcite (37.3 wt % of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) was investigated by both linear and nonlinear regression techniques. A reaction network including the formation of butenes (1-, 2-cis-, and 2-trans-butene), butadiene, and carbon oxides by parallel and consecutive reactions, at low and high n-butane conversions, has been proposed. Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) models can be used as suitable models which allows reproduction of the global kinetic behavior, although differences between oxydehydrogenation and deep oxidation reactions have been observed. Thus, the formation of oxydehydrogenation products can be described by a LH equation considering a dissociative adsorption of oxygen while the formation of carbon oxides is described by a LH equation with a nondissociative adsorption of oxygen. Two different mechanisms operate on the catalyst: (i) a redox mechanism responsible of the formation of olefins and diolefins and associated to vanadium species, which is initiated by a hydrogen abstraction; (ii) a radical mechanism responsible of the formation of carbon oxides from n-butane and butenes and associated to vanadium-free sites of the support. On the other hand, the selectivity to oxydehydrogenation products increases with the reaction temperature. This catalytic performance can be explained taking into account the low reducibility of V{sup 5+}-sites and the higher apparent activation energies of the oxydehydrogenation reactions with respect to deep oxidation reactions.

  4. Mitochondrial free fatty acid β-oxidation supports oxidative phosphorylation and proliferation in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Hernández-Esquivel, Luz; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Pacheco-Velázquez, Silvia C; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) is functional and sustains tumor proliferation in several cancer cell types. To establish whether mitochondrial β-oxidation of free fatty acids (FFAs) contributes to cancer OxPhos functioning, its protein contents and enzyme activities, as well as respiratory rates and electrical membrane potential (ΔΨm) driven by FFA oxidation were assessed in rat AS-30D hepatoma and liver (RLM) mitochondria. Higher protein contents (1.4-3 times) of β-oxidation (CPT1, SCAD) as well as proteins and enzyme activities (1.7-13-times) of Krebs cycle (KC: ICD, 2OGDH, PDH, ME, GA), and respiratory chain (RC: COX) were determined in hepatoma mitochondria vs. RLM. Although increased cholesterol content (9-times vs. RLM) was determined in the hepatoma mitochondrial membranes, FFAs and other NAD-linked substrates were oxidized faster (1.6-6.6 times) by hepatoma mitochondria than RLM, maintaining similar ΔΨm values. The contents of β-oxidation, KC and RC enzymes were also assessed in cells. The mitochondrial enzyme levels in human cervix cancer HeLa and AS-30D cells were higher than those observed in rat hepatocytes whereas in human breast cancer biopsies, CPT1 and SCAD contents were lower than in human breast normal tissue. The presence of CPT1 and SCAD in AS-30D mitochondria and HeLa cells correlated with an active FFA utilization in HeLa cells. Furthermore, the β-oxidation inhibitor perhexiline blocked FFA utilization, OxPhos and proliferation in HeLa and other cancer cells. In conclusion, functional mitochondria supported by FFA β-oxidation are essential for the accelerated cancer cell proliferation and hence anti-β-oxidation therapeutics appears as an alternative promising approach to deter malignant tumor growth.

  5. Oxidative DNA damage in relation to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dusinská, M

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative DNA damage in humans could arise also from incorrect nutritional habit and life style. DNA strand breaks with apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, oxidized purines and oxidized pyrimidines were assessed in 24 subjectively healthy vegetarians (plant food, dairy products, eggs) and compared with 24 non-vegetarians (traditional diet, general population). DNA strand breaks + oxidized purines are significantly reduced in vegetarians (p<0.05), DNA strand breaks are nonsignificantly decreased. The sufficient antioxidative status (overthreshold values of natural essential antioxidants, which mean a reduced risk of free radical disease) is crucial in free radical defense. Intake of protective food commodities (fruit, vegetables, dark grain products, grain sprouts, oil seeds) is significantly higher in vegetarians. Alternative nutrition subjects have a significantly increased plasma levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene with high incidence of overthreshold values (92% vs. 42% - vitamin C, 67% vs. 33% - vitamin E, 67% vs. 17% - beta-carotene). There is recorded a significant inverse linear correlation between values of DNA strand breaks + oxidized purines and vitamin C or beta-carotene levels (p<0.01, p<0.05). Vegetarian diet is significantly more rich source of antioxidants. The results of reduced endogenous DNA damage and higher antioxidative status in vegetarians document that a correct vegetarian nutrition might represent an effective cancer prevention.

  6. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  7. Photocatalytic oxidation of pesticide rinsate.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen S

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide rinsate has been considered as one of the major threats for the environment. In this study, photocatalysts such as TiO2 and O3 were used to promote the efficiency of direct UV photolysis to prevent such wastewater pollution. Carbofuran (a carbamate pesticide) and mevinphos (an organophosphate pesticide) with a concentration of 100 mg/L were selected as the test pesticide rinsates. Parent pesticide compound, COD, and microtoxicity analysis were employed to investigate the effect of photocatalyst on the degradation efficiency of pesticide in rinsate. It was found that the photocatalytic oxidation process (UV/O3, UV/TiO2) showed much higher COD removal and microtoxicity reduction efficiency for pesticide rinsate than did direct UV photolysis under the imposed conditions, suggesting that photocatalytic oxidation processes such as UV/O3 and UV/TiO2 could be a better alternative to treat pesticide rinsate. In addition, it was noted that increasing the initial pH of mevinphos rinsate to a basic level was required to reach higher COD removal efficiency and positive microtoxicity reduction efficiency while it was not necessary for the treatment of carbofuran rinsate.

  8. Mutagenicity study of workers exposed to alkylene oxides (ethylene oxide/propylene oxide) and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thiess, A M; Schwegler, H; Fleig, I; Stocker, W G

    1981-05-01

    Employees of plants where alkylene oxide is manufactured or processed were subjected to mutagenicity studies carried out on lymphocyte cultures in accordance with the methods of Moorhead at al, de Jong and Anders. The employees were divided into four groups, according to their periods of exposure: (1) Long-term exposure for more than 20 years; (2) exposure for less than 20 years; (3) long-term exposure and accident (ethylene oxide inhalation or skin contact); and (4) accident, i.e., brief high exposure to ethylene oxide. Measurement of the concentrations in various sections of the plant yielded values of up to 3 ppm under conditions of normal operation. However, this figure rose briefly to 1900 ppm under plant breakdown hat workers were subjected to higher exposure in the past. One hundred metaphases per person were analyzed for chromosome aberrations. The results are given in Tables 1 through 4. A significant increase in the aberration rate was found only in employees in Group 1. This was confirmed by a control examination carried out one year later. The employees of groups 2, 3 and 4 displayed no significant increases. However, in evaluating these findings, it should be noted that the employees had been in contact with a wide range of substances and products in the course of their occupation, which means that the increased aberrations rate found cannot be attributed unequivocally to exposure to a particular substance.

  9. Melatonin involvement in oxidative processes.

    PubMed

    Ianăş, O; Olinescu, R; Bădescu, I

    1991-01-01

    The fact that the pineal gland, by its melatonin (MT) production, responds to environmental light variations (the day-night cycle), being also a modulator of the body adaptation to these conditions, may lead to the assumption of its involvement in the body oxidative processes. The redox capacity of melatonin was followed-up in vitro by the chemiluminescence phenomenon. The system generating chemiluminescence as well as free radicals was made up of luminol and H2O2. Incubation of melatonin in doses of 0.08-0.5 microM/ml with the generating system showed that in doses under 0.25 microM/ml melatonin has a pro-oxidative effect while in doses above this value it has an antioxidative effect. The diagram of the results shows the answer specific to a modulator. The study of the correlation between the dose of melatonin with highest pro-oxidative properties and the various peroxide concentrations in the generating system showed that melatonin gets antioxidative properties with the increase in peroxide concentrations (less than 8 mM/ml). In the presence of a hypothalamic homogenate, which is a stimulant of the chemiluminescence-generating system (PXI = 16), melatonin has a dose-dependent antioxidative effect. Similar results were also obtained by adding tryptophan--a free radicals acceptor (PXI = 0.1) and the substrate in melatonin synthesis to the reaction medium. Melatonin in low concentrations (greater than 0.1 microM/ml) has an antioxidative effect while in higher doses it has a dose-dependent pro-oxidative effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1821072

  10. Oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueping; Guo, Chunyan; Kong, Jiming

    2012-02-15

    Reactive oxygen species are constantly produced in aerobic organisms as by-products of normal oxygen metabolism and include free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2 (-)) and hydroxyl radical (OH(-)), and non-radical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The mitochondrial respiratory chain and enzymatic reactions by various enzymes are endogenous sources of reactive oxygen species. Exogenous reactive oxygen species -inducing stressors include ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and divergent oxidizing chemicals. At low concentrations, reactive oxygen species serve as an important second messenger in cell signaling; however, at higher concentrations and long-term exposure, reactive oxygen species can damage cellular macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, which leads to necrotic and apoptotic cell death. Oxidative stress is a condition of imbalance between reactive oxygen species formation and cellular antioxidant capacity due to enhanced ROS generation and/or dysfunction of the antioxidant system. Biochemical alterations in these macromolecular components can lead to various pathological conditions and human diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases are morphologically featured by progressive cell loss in specific vulnerable neuronal cells, often associated with cytoskeletal protein aggregates forming inclusions in neurons and/or glial cells. Deposition of abnormal aggregated proteins and disruption of metal ions homeostasis are highly associated with oxidative stress. The main aim of this review is to present as much detailed information as possible that is available on various neurodegenerative disorders and their connection with oxidative stress. A variety of therapeutic strategies designed to address these pathological processes are also described. For the future therapeutic direction, one specific pathway that involves the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 is receiving considerable attention.

  11. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides. Progress report, August 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1992-02-03

    This research program is directed toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of catalyst composition and structure on the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Metal oxide catalysts play an important role in many reactions bearing on the chemical aspects of energy processes. Metal oxides are the catalysts for water-gas shift reactions, methanol and higher alcohol synthesis, isosynthesis, selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides, and oxidation of hydrocarbons. A key limitation to developing insight into how oxides function in catalytic reactions is in not having precise information of the surface composition under reaction conditions. To address this problem we have prepared oxide systems that can be used to study cation-cation effects and the role of bridging (-O-) and/or terminal (=O) surface oxygen anion ligands in a systematic fashion. Since many oxide catalyst systems involve mixtures of oxides, we selected a model system that would permit us to examine the role of each cation separately and in pairwise combinations. Organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes were proposed for use, to prepare model systems consisting of isolated monomeric cations, isolated monometallic dimers and isolated bimetallic dimers supported on silica and alumina. The monometallic and bimetallic dimers were to be used as models of more complex mixed- oxide catalysts. Our current program was to develop the systems and use them in model oxidation reactions.

  12. Oxidants and oxidation in the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The 1994 BOC Priestley Conference was held at Bucknell University in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, from June 24 through June 27, 1994. This conference, managed by the American Chemical Society (ACS), was a joint celebration with the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) commemorating Joseph Priestley's arrival in the U.S. and his discovery of oxygen. The basic theme of the conference was 'Oxidants and Oxidation in the Earth's Atmosphere,' with a keynote lecture on the history of ozone. A distinguished group of U.S. and international atmospheric chemists addressed the issues dominating current research and policy agendas. Topics crucial to the atmospheric chemistry of global change and local and regional air pollution were discussed. The program for the conference included four technical sessions on the following topics: (1) Oxidative Fate of Atmospheric Pollutants; (2) Photochemical Smog and Ozone; (3) Stratospheric Ozone; and (4) Global Tropospheric Ozone.

  13. Generalized structure of higher order nonclassicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban

    2010-02-01

    A generalized notion of higher order nonclassicality (in terms of higher order moments) is introduced. Under this generalized framework of higher order nonclassicality, conditions of higher order squeezing and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics are derived. A simpler form of the Hong-Mandel higher order squeezing criterion is derived under this framework by using an operator ordering theorem introduced by us in [A. Pathak, J. Phys. A 33 (2000) 5607]. It is also generalized for multi-photon Bose operators of Brandt and Greenberg. Similarly, condition for higher order subpoissonian photon statistics is derived by normal ordering of higher powers of number operator. Further, with the help of simple density matrices, it is shown that the higher order antibunching (HOA) and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics (HOSPS) are not the manifestation of the same phenomenon and consequently it is incorrect to use the condition of HOA as a test of HOSPS. It is also shown that the HOA and HOSPS may exist even in absence of the corresponding lower order phenomenon. Binomial state, nonlinear first order excited squeezed state (NLESS) and nonlinear vacuum squeezed state (NLVSS) are used as examples of quantum state and it is shown that these states may show higher order nonclassical characteristics. It is observed that the Binomial state which is always antibunched, is not always higher order squeezed and NLVSS which shows higher order squeezing does not show HOSPS and HOA. The opposite is observed in NLESS and consequently it is established that the HOSPS and HOS are two independent signatures of higher order nonclassicality.

  14. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Erhan; Akaln, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women.Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated.Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status markers

  15. Polyacrylonitrile fibers containing graphene oxide nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Chien, An-Ting; Liu, H Clive; Newcomb, Bradley A; Xiang, Changsheng; Tour, James M; Kumar, Satish

    2015-03-11

    Graphene oxide nanoribbon (GONR) made by the oxidative unzipping of multiwalled carbon nanotube was dispersed in dimethylformamide and mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) to fabricate continuous PAN/GONR composite fibers by gel spinning. Subsequently, PAN/GONR composite fibers were stabilized and carbonized in a batch process to fabricate composite carbon fibers. Structure, processing, and properties of the composite precursor and carbon fibers have been studied. This study shows that GONR can be used to make porous precursor and carbon fibers. In addition, GONR also shows the potential to make higher mechanical property carbon fibers than that achieved from PAN precursor only. PMID:25671488

  16. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Erhan; Akalın, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women. Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status

  17. Pyrite oxidation by microbial consortia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostick, B. C.; Revill, K. L.; Doyle, C.; Kendelewicz, T.; Brown, G. E.; Spormann, A. M.; Fendorf, S.

    2003-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is formed through pyrite oxidation, which produces acidity and releases toxic metals associated with pyrite and other sulfide minerals. Microbes accelerate pyrite oxidation markedly, thereby playing a major role in the production of AMD. Here, we probe pyrite oxidation by consortia of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and thiooxidans using surface-sensitive photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy and compare them with surfaces oxidized through chemical and single species cultures. Microbial oxidation resulted in the formation of distinct oxidized surface species distributed non-uniformly over the pyrite surface; consortia produced a surface both more heterogeneous and more oxidized. In contrast, chemical oxidation proceeds without the build-up of passivating oxidation products. Surface morphology was not correlated with sites of nucleation or oxidation in any obvious manner. These results demonstrate that microbial oxidation occurs through a similar mechanism to chemical oxidation, but that the presence of complex microbial communities may impact the manner by which pyrite oxidation proceeds.

  18. Catalytic process for formaldehyde oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); D'Ambrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for oxidizing formaldehyde to carbon dioxide and water without the addition of energy. A mixture of formaldehyde and an oxidizing agent (e.g., ambient air containing formaldehyde) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

  19. Dry sliding wear behaviour of magnesium oxide and zirconium oxide plasma electrolytic oxidation coated magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala Srinivasan, P.; Liang, J.; Blawert, C.; Dietzel, W.

    2010-03-01

    Two types of PEO coatings, one consisting of magnesium oxide (MgO) and the other comprising zirconium oxide (ZrO 2) as the main phase composition were produced on AM50 magnesium alloy from alkaline and acidic electrolytes, respectively. The ZrO 2 coating was found to be spongy and thicker with a higher roughness, whilst the relatively more compact MgO coating was having contrasting features. In the dry sliding oscillating wear tests under two different loads viz., 2 N and 5 N, the ZrO 2 coating exhibited a very poor wear resistance. The MgO coating showed an excellent resistance to sliding wear under 2 N load; however, the load bearing capacity of the coating was found to be insufficient to resist the wear damage under 5 N load. The higher specific wear rates of the MgO coating under 5 N load and that of the ZrO 2 coating under 2 N and 5 N loads were attributed to the poor load bearing capacity and a three-body-abrasive wear mechanism.

  20. Fusion Techniques for the Oxidation of Refractory Actinide Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-04-15

    Small-scale experiments were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of fusing refractory actinide oxides with a series of materials commonly used to decompose minerals, glasses, and other refractories as a pretreatment to dissolution and subsequent recovery operations. In these experiments, 1-2 g of plutonium or neptunium oxide (PuO2 or NpO2) were calcined at 900 degrees Celsius, mixed and heated with the fusing reagent(s), and dissolved. For refractory PuO2, the most effective material tested was a lithium carbonate (Li2CO3)/sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7) mixture which aided in the recovery of 90 percent of the plutonium. The fused product was identified as a lithium plutonate (Li3PuO4) by x-ray diffraction. The use of a Li2CO3/Na2B4O7 mixture to solubilize high-fired NpO2 was not as effective as demonstrated for refractory PuO2. In a small-scale experiment, 25 percent of the NpO2 was oxidized to a neptunium (VI) species that dissolved in nitric acid. The remaining neptunium was then easily recovered from the residue by fusing with sodium peroxide (Na2O2). Approximately 70 percent of the neptunium dissolved in water to yield a basic solution of neptunium (VII). The remainder was recovered as a neptunium (VI) solution by dissolving the residue in 8M nitric acid. In subsequent experiments with Na2O2, the ratio of neptunium (VII) to (VI) was shown to be a function of the fusion temperature, with higher temperatures (greater than approximately 400 degrees C) favoring the formation of neptunium (VII). The fusion of an actual plutonium-containing residue with Na2O2 and subsequent dissolution was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of a pretreatment process on a larger scale. Sodium peroxide was chosen due

  1. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  2. A novel approach in psoriasis: first usage of known protein oxidation markers to prove oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Cevat; Köse, Kader; Utaş, Serap; Tanrikulu, Esen; Taşlidere, Nazan

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, an inflammatory/hyperproliferative skin disease characterized by the cutaneous accumulation of neutrophils releasing reactive oxygen species, as revealed in a number of studies. This study was performed to demonstrate the presence of oxidative stress in psoriasis, as measured by protein oxidation markers. Twenty-nine psoriasis patients were selected based on disease severity assessment using body surface area as well as the psoriasis area severity index (PASI), and were grouped as mild (PASI ≤ 10) and moderate-to-severe (PASI > 10). The measured parameters in psoriatic patients and fourteen healthy volunteers were as follows: erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, neopterin, total lipid hydroperoxides (LHP), pyrrolized protein (PP), protein carbonyl compounds (PCC), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), thiol levels, along with complete blood count. Except lower thiols, all parameters were found to be higher in total patients as well as in subgroups, compared to controls. There was no significant difference among the subgroups. In conclusion, protein oxidation in psoriatics, not only in moderate-to-severe, but also in mild patients, may be explained by the findings of inflammation, phagocytic cell oxidation, and MPO-hypochlorous acid-oxidation reactions; as reflected by increased total/differential leucocytes counts, CRP, ESR as well as MPO, neopterin, AOPP, PCC, PP, LHP, and decreased thiol levels. Demonstrating the AOPP and PP formation for the first time, oxidants from active neutrophils/monocytes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, leading to oxidative stress, especially by protein oxidation.

  3. Nanostructured manganese oxides as highly active water oxidation catalysts: a boost from manganese precursor chemistry.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Prashanth W; Indra, Arindam; Littlewood, Patrick; Schwarze, Michael; Göbel, Caren; Schomäcker, Reinhard; Driess, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    We present a facile synthesis of bioinspired manganese oxides for chemical and photocatalytic water oxidation, starting from a reliable and versatile manganese(II) oxalate single-source precursor (SSP) accessible through an inverse micellar molecular approach. Strikingly, thermal decomposition of the latter precursor in various environments (air, nitrogen, and vacuum) led to the three different mineral phases of bixbyite (Mn2 O3 ), hausmannite (Mn3 O4 ), and manganosite (MnO). Initial chemical water oxidation experiments using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) gave the maximum catalytic activity for Mn2 O3 and MnO whereas Mn3 O4 had a limited activity. The substantial increase in the catalytic activity of MnO in chemical water oxidation was demonstrated by the fact that a phase transformation occurs at the surface from nanocrystalline MnO into an amorphous MnOx (1oxidizing agent. Photocatalytic water oxidation in the presence of [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) as a sensitizer and peroxodisulfate as an electron acceptor was carried out for all three manganese oxides including the newly formed amorphous MnOx . Both Mn2 O3 and the amorphous MnOx exhibit tremendous enhancement in oxygen evolution during photocatalysis and are much higher in comparison to so far known bioinspired manganese oxides and calcium-manganese oxides. Also, for the first time, a new approach for the representation of activities of water oxidation catalysts has been proposed by determining the amount of accessible manganese centers. PMID:25044528

  4. Nanostructured manganese oxides as highly active water oxidation catalysts: a boost from manganese precursor chemistry.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Prashanth W; Indra, Arindam; Littlewood, Patrick; Schwarze, Michael; Göbel, Caren; Schomäcker, Reinhard; Driess, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    We present a facile synthesis of bioinspired manganese oxides for chemical and photocatalytic water oxidation, starting from a reliable and versatile manganese(II) oxalate single-source precursor (SSP) accessible through an inverse micellar molecular approach. Strikingly, thermal decomposition of the latter precursor in various environments (air, nitrogen, and vacuum) led to the three different mineral phases of bixbyite (Mn2 O3 ), hausmannite (Mn3 O4 ), and manganosite (MnO). Initial chemical water oxidation experiments using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) gave the maximum catalytic activity for Mn2 O3 and MnO whereas Mn3 O4 had a limited activity. The substantial increase in the catalytic activity of MnO in chemical water oxidation was demonstrated by the fact that a phase transformation occurs at the surface from nanocrystalline MnO into an amorphous MnOx (1oxidizing agent. Photocatalytic water oxidation in the presence of [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) as a sensitizer and peroxodisulfate as an electron acceptor was carried out for all three manganese oxides including the newly formed amorphous MnOx . Both Mn2 O3 and the amorphous MnOx exhibit tremendous enhancement in oxygen evolution during photocatalysis and are much higher in comparison to so far known bioinspired manganese oxides and calcium-manganese oxides. Also, for the first time, a new approach for the representation of activities of water oxidation catalysts has been proposed by determining the amount of accessible manganese centers.

  5. Operando XAS study of the influence of CO and NO on methane oxidation by Pd/Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchionni, V.; Nachtegaal, M.; Petrov, A.; Kröcher, O.; Ferri, D.

    2016-05-01

    Methane oxidation on Pd/Al2O3 has been investigated using operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Pd K-edge. The influence of CO and NO on methane abatement has been addressed performing temperature programmed reaction runs while recording simultaneously XANES spectra. During CO oxidation Pd is reduced while methane conversion is shifted to higher temperature. NO strongly inhibits both CO and CH4 oxidation, despite the higher fraction of oxidized palladium.

  6. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  7. Monolithic metal oxide transistors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongsuk; Park, Won-Yeong; Kang, Moon Sung; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-04-28

    We devised a simple transparent metal oxide thin film transistor architecture composed of only two component materials, an amorphous metal oxide and ion gel gate dielectric, which could be entirely assembled using room-temperature processes on a plastic substrate. The geometry cleverly takes advantage of the unique characteristics of the two components. An oxide layer is metallized upon exposure to plasma, leading to the formation of a monolithic source-channel-drain oxide layer, and the ion gel gate dielectric is used to gate the transistor channel effectively at low voltages through a coplanar gate. We confirmed that the method is generally applicable to a variety of sol-gel-processed amorphous metal oxides, including indium oxide, indium zinc oxide, and indium gallium zinc oxide. An inverter NOT logic device was assembled using the resulting devices as a proof of concept demonstration of the applicability of the devices to logic circuits. The favorable characteristics of these devices, including (i) the simplicity of the device structure with only two components, (ii) the benign fabrication processes at room temperature, (iii) the low-voltage operation under 2 V, and (iv) the excellent and stable electrical performances, together support the application of these devices to low-cost portable gadgets, i.e., cheap electronics. PMID:25777338

  8. PROCESS OF OXIDIZING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Coryell, C.D.

    1959-08-25

    The oxidation of plutonium to the plus six valence state is described. The oxidation is accomplished by treating the plutonium in aqueous solution with a solution above 0.01 molar in argentic ion, above 1.1 molar in nitric acid, and above 0.02 molar in argentous ion.

  9. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOEpatents

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  10. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOEpatents

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  11. Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Oxidative stability of tree nut oils.

    PubMed

    Miraliakbari, Homan; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2008-06-25

    The oxidative stability of selected tree nut oils was examined. The oils of almond, Brazil nut, hazelnut, pecan, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut were extracted using two solvent extraction systems, namely, hexane and chloroform/methanol. The chloroform/methanol system afforded a higher oil yield for each tree nut type examined (pine nut had the highest oil content, whereas almond had the lowest). The fatty acid compositions of tree nut oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, showing that oleic acid was the predominant fatty acid in all samples except pine nut and walnut oils, which contained high amounts of linoleic acid. The tocopherol compositions were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, showing that alpha- and gamma-tocopherols were the predominant tocopherol homologues present; however delta- and beta-tocopherols were also detected in some samples. The oxidative stability of nonstripped and stripped tree nut oils was examined under two conditions, namely, accelerated autoxidation and photooxidation. Progression of oxidation was monitored using tests for conjugated dienes, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, and headspace volatiles. Primary products of oxidation persisted in the earlier stages of oxidation, whereas secondary oxidation product levels increased dramatically during the later stages of oxidation. Hexanal was the major headspace aldehyde formed in all oxidized samples except walnut oil, which contained primarily propanal. Results showed that chloroform/methanol-extracted oils were more stable than hexane-extracted oils in both the accelerated autoxidation and photooxidation studies. Oils of pecan and pistachio were the most stable, whereas oils of pine nut and walnut were the least stable. PMID:18494484

  13. Electrooxidation of aliphatic alcohols on electrodes consisting of hydrophobicized supports coated with nickel oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Chaenko, N.V.; Kornienko, V.L.; Avrutskaya, I.A.; Fioshin, M.Ya.

    1987-12-01

    Two methods are presented to intensify the electrooxidation of aliphatic alcohols with low water solubility and to simplify end-product separation. One method comprised direct addition of higher nickel oxides to the active material of the electrode to be fabricated; the other involved depositing a layer of higher nickel oxides on a hydrophobicized support consisting of a mixture of a conducting material and the FP-4D hydrophobicizer. Electrolysis was carried out in a diaphragm-free two-compartment cell, one reagent and the other the electrolyte. Results are shown of hexyl alcohol oxidation on various composition supports coated with higher nickel oxides.

  14. Creating an Integrated Curriculum--The 'Higher' In Higher Education. 1981 Current Issues in Higher Education, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Higher Education, Washington, DC.

    Perspectives on creating an integrated college curriculum are presented in four papers. In "What is 'Higher' About Higher Education?" Harlan Cleveland suggests that colleges and universities should promote a global view and understanding of problems on society and international interdependence and should develop the capacity to analyze and…

  15. Coastal water column ammonium and nitrite oxidation are decoupled in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiss, Elise M.; Fulweiler, Robinson W.

    2016-09-01

    Water column nitrification is a key process in the nitrogen cycle as it links reduced and oxidized forms of nitrogen and also provides the substrate (nitrate) needed for reactive nitrogen removal by denitrification. We measured potential water column ammonium and nitrite oxidation rates at four sites along an estuary to continental shelf gradient over two summers. In most cases, nitrite oxidation rates outpaced ammonium oxidation rates. Overall, ammonium and nitrite oxidation rates were higher outside of the estuary, and this trend was primarily driven by higher oxidation rates in deeper waters. Additionally, both ammonium and nitrite oxidation rates were impacted by different in situ variables. Ammonium oxidation rates throughout the water column as a whole were most positively correlated to depth and salinity and negatively correlated to dissolved oxygen and light. In contrast, nitrite oxidation rates throughout the water column were negatively correlated with light and pH. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that while both surface (<20 m) and deep (>20 m) ammonium oxidation rates were most strongly predicted by depth and light, surface rates were also regulated by salinity and deep rates by temperature. Surface (<20 m) nitrite oxidation rates were best explained by [H+] (i.e. pH) alone, while salinity, [H+], temperature, and depth all played a role in predicting deep (>20 m) nitrite oxidation rates. These results support the growing body of evidence that ammonium oxidation and nitrite oxidation are not always coupled, should be measured separately, and are influenced by different environmental conditions.

  16. Oxidation State 10 Exists.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haoyu S; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-07-25

    In a recent paper, Wang et al. found an iridium-containing compound with a formal oxidation state of 9. This is the highest oxidation state ever found in a stable compound. To learn if this is the highest chemical oxidation state possible, Kohn-Sham density functional theory was used to study various compounds, including PdO4 (2+) , PtO4 (2+) , PtO3 F2 (2+) , PtO4 OH(+) , PtO5 , and PtO4 SH(+) , in which the metal has an oxidation state of 10. It was found that PtO4 (2+) has a metastable state that is kinetically stable with a barrier height for decomposition of 31 kcal mol(-1) and a calculated lifetime of 0.9 years. All other compounds studied would readily decompose to lower oxidation states.

  17. Organic Oxidations Using Geomimicry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziming; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Shock, Everett L; Gould, Ian R

    2015-12-18

    Oxidations of phenylacetic acid to benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde, and benzaldehyde to benzoic acid have been observed, in water as the solvent and using only copper(II) chloride as the oxidant. The reactions are performed at 250 °C and 40 bar, conditions that mimic hydrothermal reactions that are geochemically relevant. Speciation calculations show that the oxidizing agent is not freely solvated copper(II) ions, but complexes of copper(II) with chloride and carboxylate anions. Measurements of the reaction stoichiometries and also of substituent effects on reactivity allow plausible mechanisms to be proposed. These oxidation reactions are relevant to green chemistry in that they proceed in high chemical yield in water as the solvent and avoid the use of toxic heavy metal oxidizing reagents. PMID:26561976

  18. Death from Nitrous Oxide.

    PubMed

    Bäckström, Björn; Johansson, Bengt; Eriksson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and deaths, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental deaths related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available. PMID:26258592

  19. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part I Microstructural investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Piotrowska, Kamila; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    The surface treatment of aluminium alloys under steam containing KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in the formation of an oxide layer having a thickness of up to 825 nm. The use of KMnO4 and HNO3 in the steam resulted in incorporation of the respective chemical species into the oxide layer. Steam treatment with solution containing HNO3 caused dissolution of Cu and Si from the intermetallic particles in the aluminium substrate. The growth rate of oxide layer was observed to be a function of MnO4- and NO3- ions present in the aqueous solution. The NO3- ions exhibit higher affinity towards the intermetallic particles resulting in poor coverage by the steam generated oxide layer compared to the coating formed using MnO4- ions. Further, increase in the concentration of NO3- ions in the solution retards precipitation of the steam generated aluminium hydroxide layer.

  20. Oxidation characteristics of molybdenum-zirconium oxide cermets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitzinger, B.

    1984-01-01

    The oxidation of molybdenum is affected by the factors of temperature, the oxygen pressure in the oxidizing atmosphere, and the time of exposure. Studies of the oxidation characteristics of Mo show that the oxidation rate increases strongly when the temperature exceeds 600 C. Investigations of the behavior of cermets with various percentages of zirconium oxide are discussed, taking into account oxidation conditions at temperatures under and above the melting point of molybdenum trioxide.

  1. Diffusional transport during the cyclic oxidation of gamma + beta, Ni-Cr-Al(Y, Zr) alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, J. A.; Heckel, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    The cyclic oxidation behavior of several cast gamma + beta, Ni-Cr-Al(Y, Zr) alloys and one low-pressure plasma spraying gamma + beta, Ni-Co-Cr-Al(Y) alloy was studied. Cyclic oxidation was found to result in a decreasing Al concentration at the oxide-metal interface due to a high rate of Al consumption coupled with oxide scale cracking and spalling. Diffusion paths plotted on the ternary phase diagram showed higher Ni concentrations with increasing cyclic oxidation exposures. The alloy with the highest rate of Al consumption and the highest Al content underwent breakaway oxidation following 500 1-hr cycles at 1200 C.

  2. Green synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticle: A prospective drug against oxidative harm.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debanjan; Mukherjee, Riya; Patra, Mousumi; Banik, Milon; Dasgupta, Rakhi; Mukherjee, Manabendra; Basu, Tarakdas

    2016-11-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticle (CeONP) of size 2-3nm was synthesized by a new, simple and green method at ambient temperature, using cerium nitrate as prime precursor and Aloe vera leaf extract as stabilizing agent. Of the two oxidation states (+3) and (+4) of cerium, it was dominantly present in (+3) state in CeONP and cyclic conversion of Ce(III)O→Ce(IV)O→Ce(III)O by reaction with H2O2 implied uninterrupted antioxidant property of CeONP. Moreover, the higher oxygen defect in the crystal lattice produced particles with higher antioxidant activity. CeONP was found to neutralize the deleterious effects of H2O2 viz., cell death, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and loss of connectivity in mouse neural cells. Therefore, CeONP might have potential use in future as an anti-oxidant drug.

  3. Green synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticle: A prospective drug against oxidative harm.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debanjan; Mukherjee, Riya; Patra, Mousumi; Banik, Milon; Dasgupta, Rakhi; Mukherjee, Manabendra; Basu, Tarakdas

    2016-11-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticle (CeONP) of size 2-3nm was synthesized by a new, simple and green method at ambient temperature, using cerium nitrate as prime precursor and Aloe vera leaf extract as stabilizing agent. Of the two oxidation states (+3) and (+4) of cerium, it was dominantly present in (+3) state in CeONP and cyclic conversion of Ce(III)O→Ce(IV)O→Ce(III)O by reaction with H2O2 implied uninterrupted antioxidant property of CeONP. Moreover, the higher oxygen defect in the crystal lattice produced particles with higher antioxidant activity. CeONP was found to neutralize the deleterious effects of H2O2 viz., cell death, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and loss of connectivity in mouse neural cells. Therefore, CeONP might have potential use in future as an anti-oxidant drug. PMID:27478962

  4. Biocompatibility of Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kan; Ruan, Jing; Song, Hua; Zhang, Jiali; Wo, Yan; Guo, Shouwu; Cui, Daxiang

    2011-12-01

    Herein, we report the effects of graphene oxides on human fibroblast cells and mice with the aim of investigating graphene oxides' biocompatibility. The graphene oxides were prepared by the modified Hummers method and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscope and atomic force microscopy. The human fibroblast cells were cultured with different doses of graphene oxides for day 1 to day 5. Thirty mice divided into three test groups (low, middle, high dose) and one control group were injected with 0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 mg graphene oxides, respectively, and were raised for 1 day, 7 days, and 30 days, respectively. Results showed that the water-soluble graphene oxides were successfully prepared; graphene oxides with dose less than 20 μg/mL did not exhibit toxicity to human fibroblast cells, and the dose of more than 50 μg/mL exhibits obvious cytotoxicity such as decreasing cell adhesion, inducing cell apoptosis, entering into lysosomes, mitochondrion, endoplasm, and cell nucleus. Graphene oxides under low dose (0.1 mg) and middle dose (0.25 mg) did not exhibit obvious toxicity to mice and under high dose (0.4 mg) exhibited chronic toxicity, such as 4/9 mice death and lung granuloma formation, mainly located in lung, liver, spleen, and kidney, almost could not be cleaned by kidney. In conclusion, graphene oxides exhibit dose-dependent toxicity to cells and animals, such as inducing cell apoptosis and lung granuloma formation, and cannot be cleaned by kidney. When graphene oxides are explored for in vivo applications in animal or human body, its biocompatibility must be considered.

  5. CoxFe1-x oxide coatings on metallic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fengyu; Lu, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve the performance of Cr-containing steel as an interconnect material for solid oxide fuel cells, CoFe alloy coatings with Co:Fe ratios of 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, and 5:5 are deposited by electrodeposition and then oxidized to CoxFe1-x oxide coatings with a thickness of ∼6 μm as protective layers on the interconnect. The area specific resistance of the coated interconnect increases with the Fe content. Higher Co content oxide coatings are more effective in limiting the growth of the chromia scale while all coatings are effective in inhibiting Cr diffusion and evaporation. With the Co0.8Fe0.2 oxide coated interconnect, the electrochemical performance of the Sm0.5Sr0.5Co0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode is improved. Only 1.54 atomic percentage of Cr is detected on the surface of the Sm0.5Sr0.5Co0.2Fe0.8O3 cathode while no Cr is detected 0.66 μm or more into the cathode. CoxFe1-x oxide coatings are promising candidates for solid oxide fuel cell interconnects with the advantage of using existing cathode species for compatibility and performance enhancement.

  6. Choline oxidation by intact spinach chloroplasts. [Spinacia oleracea L

    SciTech Connect

    Weigel, P.; Lerma, C.; Hanson, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    Plants synthesize betaine by a two-step oxidation of choline (choline ..-->.. betaine aldehyde ..-->.. betaine). Protoplast-derived chloroplasts of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) carry out both reactions, more rapidly in light than in darkness. We investigated the light-stimulated oxidation of choline, using spinach chloroplasts isolated directly from leaves. The rates of choline oxidation obtained (dark and light rates: 10-50 and 100-300 nanomoles per hour per milligram chlorophyll, respectively) were approximately 20-fold higher than for protoplast-derived chloroplasts. Betaine aldehyde was the main product. Choline oxidation in darkness and light was suppressed by hypoxia. Neither uncouplers not the Calvin cycle inhibitor glyceraldehyde greatly affected choline oxidation in the light, and maximal choline oxidation was attained far below light saturation of CO/sub 2/ fixation. The light stimulation of choline oxidation was abolished by the PSII inhibitors DCMU and dibromothymoquinone, and was partially restored by adding reduced diaminodurene, an electron donor to PSI. Both methyl viologen and phenazine methosulfate prevented choline oxidation. Adding dihydroxyacetone phosphate, which can generate NADPH in organello, doubled the dark rate of choline oxidation. These results indicate that choline oxidation in chloroplasts requires oxygen, and reducing power generated from PSI. Enzymic reactions consistent with these requirements are discussed.

  7. [Oxidation behavior and kinetics of representative VOCs emitted from petrochemical industry over CuCeOx composite oxides].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Wei; Yu, Yan-Ke; Chen, Jin-Sheng; He, Chi

    2013-12-01

    CuCeOx composite catalysts were synthesized via coprecipitation (COP-CuCeO,) and incipient impregnation (IMP-CuCeOx) methods, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the samples were characterized by XRD, low-temperature N2 sorption, H2-TPR and O2-TPD. The influences of reactant composition and concentration, reaction space velocity, O2 content, H2O concentration, and catalyst type on the oxidation behaviors of benzene, toluene, and n-hexane emitted from petrochemical industry were systematically investigated. In addition, the related kinetic parameters were model fitted. Compared with IMP-CuCeOx, COP-CuCeOx had well-dispersed active phase, better low-temperature reducibility, and more active surface oxygen species. The increase of reactant concentration was unfavorable for toluene oxidation, while the opposite phenomenon could be observed in n-hexane oxidation. The inlet concentration of benzene was irrelevant to its conversion under high oxidation rate. The introduction of benzene obviously inhibited the oxidation of toluene and n-hexane, while the presence of toluene had a positive effect on beuzene conversion. The presence of n-hexane could promote the oxidation of toluene, while toluene had a negative influence on e-hexane oxidation. Both low space velocity and high oxygen concentration were beneficial for the oxidation process, and the variation of oxygen content had negligible effect on n-hexane and henzene oxidation. The presence of H2O noticeably inhibited the oxidation of toluene, while significantly accelerated the oxidation procedure of henzene and n-hexane. COP-CuCeOx had superior catalytic performance for toluene and benzene oxidation, while IMP-CuCeOx showed higher n-hexane oxidation activity under dry condition. The oxidation behaviors under different conditions could be well fitted and predicted by the pseudo first-order kinetic model.

  8. Oral or intraperitoneal binge drinking and oxidative balance in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Nogales, Fátima; Rua, Rui M; Ojeda, Maria Luisa; Murillo, Maria Luisa; Carreras, Olimpia

    2014-11-17

    Oxidative imbalance is one of the most important mechanisms of alcohol-induced injury. Acute alcohol exposure induces a significant amount of reactive oxygen species during its hepatic metabolism via the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system. During adolescence, the physiological development is still taking place; therefore, ethanol's effects differ in adolescents compared to that in adults. Because binge drinking is the most important model of ethanol intake used by adolescents and because little is known about its effects on the liver, we have used two routes of acute ethanol administration (oral and intraperitoneal) in adolescent rats in order to analyze the oxidative damage caused in the periphery and liver. Here, it has been demonstrated for the first time that binge drinking in adolescents causes peripheral oxidation of lipid and DNA as well as lipid and protein hepatic oxidation, which are related to lower glutathione peroxidise (GPx) activity, higher catalase (CAT) activity, and higher expression of NADPHoxidase, contributing to hepatic damage. In addition, it is shown that the intraperitoneal administration route results in increased oxidative damage, which is probably related to the resulting general stress response that causes higher DNA and protein oxidation due to higher NADPHoxidase expression and higher CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. According to these results, it is concluded that binge drinking induces hepatic damage during adolescence, at least in part, as consequence of oxidative stress because the antioxidant response was insufficient to avoid liver oxidation. Alcohol administered intraperitoneally provoked more DNA oxidation than that from the oral alcohol exposure model. PMID:25330177

  9. Environmental Controls of Biological Manganese Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, A. P.; Ahn, C. C.; Nealson, K. H.

    2001-12-01

    Biological catalysis of manganese oxidation represents an important contribution to global manganese cycling; biological oxidation rates are several orders of magnitude higher than those of abiotic processes. Despite recent genetics advances, ongoing behavioral studies, and a large pool of knowledge regarding manganese chemistry, the links between biology and environmental chemistry remain unresolved. We have performed experiments on batch cultures of Leptothrix discophora SS-1 to explore the physiology of biological manganese oxidation. We have further conducted spectroscopic and microscopic studies of the mechanism as manganese proceeds from the soluble Mn2+ species to the insoluble Mn(III) and Mn(IV) phases. These investigations suggest roles for aqueous chemistry, mineralogy, and microbial physiology in controlling manganese fluxes in metal-rich environments.

  10. Oxidation Mechanisms of Toluene and Benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1995-01-01

    An expanded and improved version of a previously published benzene oxidation mechanism is presented and shown to model published experimental data fairly successfully. This benzene submodel is coupled to a modified version of a toluene oxidation submodel from the recent literature. This complete mechanism is shown to successfully model published experimental toluene oxidation data for a highly mixed flow reactor and for higher temperature ignition delay times in a shock tube. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis showing the most important reactions is presented for both the benzene and toluene reacting systems. The NASA Lewis toluene mechanism's modeling capability is found to be equivalent to that of the previously published mechanism which contains a somewhat different benzene submodel.

  11. Thermal oxidative decomposition studies of neoprene compositions.

    PubMed

    Paciorek, K L; Kratzer, R H; Kaufman, J; Nakahara, J; Harstein, A M

    1975-01-01

    Four neoprene compositions--uncured gum, known cured rubber, cable insulation, and hose conduit, the latter two used in underground mining--were subjected to thermal oxidative degradation under static and dynamic environments, and the volatile products were quantitated on a milligrams-per-gram basis. In a quiescent system at 370 degrees C, no glow was observed, the extent of oxidation was low, up to 84% of the chlorine content was evolved as hydrogen chloride, and the sulfur present was released largely in the form of carbon disulfide. Under more drastic conditions (higher temperatures and flowing air), glow occurred in several instances resulting in an increased production oxidation products as represented by CO2, COS, SO2, HCOOH, and CH3COOH, among others. Thermogravimetric investigations of the neoprene compositions show the first weight loss to correlate closely with hydrogen chloride evolution; furthermore, the use of thermogravimetric curves as means of meterial differentiation appears to offer a definite promise.

  12. Significant role of Mn(III) sites in e(g)(1) configuration in manganese oxide catalysts for efficient artificial water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Indra, Arindam; Menezes, Prashanth W; Schuster, Felix; Driess, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Development of efficient bio-inspired water oxidation system with transition metal oxide catalyst has been considered as the one of the most challenging task in the recent years. As the oxygen evolving center of photosystem II consists of Mn4CaO5 cluster, most of the water oxidation study was converged to build up manganese oxide based catalysts. Here we report the synthesis of efficient artificial water oxidation catalysts by transferring the inactive manganese monooxide (MnO) under highly oxidizing conditions with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) and ozone (O3). MnO was partially oxidized to form mixed-valent manganese oxide (MnOx) with CAN whereas completely oxidized to mineral phase of ε-MnO2 (Akhtenskite) upon treatment of O3 in acidic solution, which we explore first time as a water oxidation catalyst. Chemical water oxidation, as well as the photochemical water oxidation in the presence of sacrificial electron acceptor and photosensitizer with the presented catalysts were carried out that followed the trends: MnOx>MnO2>MnO. Structural and activity correlation reveals that the presence of larger extent of Mn(III) in MnOx is the responsible factor for higher activity compared to MnO2. Mn(III) species in octahedral system with eg(1) configuration furnishes and facilitates the Mn-O and Mn-Mn bond enlargement with required structural flexibility and disorder in the manganese oxide structure which indeed facilitates water oxidation.

  13. State Spending on Higher Education Capital Outlays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role that state spending on higher education capital outlays plays in state budgets by considering the functional form of the relationship between state spending on higher education capital outlays and four types of state expenditures. Three possible functional forms are tested: a linear model, a quadratic model, and the…

  14. Policy Dimensions of Analytics in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Rodney J.

    2012-01-01

    The current higher education landscape is replete with demands for improving accountability, increasing efficiency, and controlling costs. At the same time, information technologies make it easier to collect and analyze information to measure outcomes or to assist in decision making. Consequently, there is a higher demand for better information…

  15. Instructional Resources Handbook for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tritschler, Donald, Ed.

    Six annotated bibliographies and lists of resource materials and organizations are presented as aids to faculty teaching graduate courses in higher education as a discipline. The first bibliography, "Bibliographies of Higher Education," (Peter P. Olevnik), is designed as a guide for the graduate student to general and special reference sources…

  16. Dateline 2000: The New Higher Education Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnell, Dale

    Drawing from current statistical data and the views of educational, civic, and business leaders, this book analyzes the environmental, societal, and demographic changes to be expected in the 1990's and their implications for higher education. Chapter I examines the opportunities and challenges facing higher education in the 1990's. Chapter II…

  17. Russian Higher Education: Who Can Afford It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gounko, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The article explores the issue of access and equity in the Russian higher education system by examining recent government initiatives. While recently introduced measures such as the Unified State Examination and student loan project are designed to aid students and expand participation, they alone cannot ensure equitable access to higher education…

  18. Sustainability of Higher Education Institutions in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, H. Jenny; Chang, Tzu-chau

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide the rationale and context for recent national policy and funded initiatives to support sustainability developments within higher education in Taiwan, including practical and educational aspects. Concrete examples and specific outcomes are reviewed, to produce a profile across the higher education…

  19. Site Planning: Auraria Higher Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auraria Higher Education Center, Denver, CO.

    This book presents the site master plan for the Auraria Higher Education Center, which is dedicated to the offering of an urban-oriented program in higher education and is made up of three institutions -- the Denver Center of the University of Colorado, Metropolitan State College, and the Community College of Denver located on a single site in the…

  20. Translating Governance Ideas in Danish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degn, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Many of the same ideas seem to crop up repeatedly in the higher education governance reform wave in recent decades, with accountability, flexibility, and strategic capacity being a few of the common concepts. Several studies have shown, however, that national higher education systems receive these inputs very differently, leading to dissimilar…