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Sample records for higher oxides ionno-luchevoe

  1. Higher Americium Oxidation State Research Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Law, Jack D.; Goff, George S.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Burns, Jon D.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Shehee, Thomas C.; Hobbs, David T.

    2015-12-18

    The partitioning of hexavalent Am from dissolved nuclear fuel requires the ability to efficiently oxidize Am(III) to Am(VI) and to maintain that oxidation state for a length of time sufficient to perform the separation. Several oxidants have been, or are being developed. Chemical oxidants include Ag-catalyzed ozone, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate, Cu(III) periodate, and sodium bismuthate. Hexavalent americium has also now successfully been prepared by electrolysis, using functionalized electrodes. So-called auto-reduction rates of Am(VI) are sufficiently slow to allow for separations. However, for separations based on solvent extraction or ion exchange using organic resins, the high valence state must be maintained under the reducing conditions of the organic phase contact, and a holding oxidant is probably necessary. Until now, only Cu(III) periodate and sodium bismuthate oxidation have been successfully combined with solvent extraction separations. Bismuthate oxidation provided the higher DAm, since it acts as its own holding oxidant, and a successful hot test using centrifugal contactors was performed. For the other oxidants, Ag-catalyzed peroxydisulfate will not oxidize americium in nitric acid concentrations above 0.3 M, and it is not being further investigated. Peroxydisulfate in the absence of Ag catalysis is being used to prepare Am(V) in ion exchange work, discussed below. Preliminary work with Ag-catalyzed ozone has been unsuccessful for extractions of Am(VI) from 6.5 M HNO3, and only one attempt at extraction, also from 6.5 M HNO3, using the electrolytic oxidation has been attempted. However, this high acid concentration was based on the highest Am extraction efficiency using the bismuthate oxidant; which is only sparingly soluble, and thus the oxidation yield is based on bismuthate solubility. Lower acid concentrations may be sufficient with alternative oxidants and work with Ag-ozone, Cu(III) and electrolysis is on-going. Two non

  2. Mitochondrial glycolate oxidation contributes to photorespiration in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Markus; Thiruveedhi, Krishnaveni; Rosenkranz, Ruben; Kebeish, Rashad; Hirsch, Heinz-Josef; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Peterhänsel, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate is an important reaction step in photorespiration. Land plants and charophycean green algae oxidize glycolate in the peroxisome using oxygen as a co-factor, whereas chlorophycean green algae use a mitochondrial glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH) with organic co-factors. Previous analyses revealed the existence of a GDH in the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGDH). In this study, the contribution of AtGDH to photorespiration was characterized. Both RNA abundance and mitochondrial GDH activity were up-regulated under photorespiratory growth conditions. Labelling experiments indicated that glycolate oxidation in mitochondrial extracts is coupled to CO(2) release. This effect could be enhanced by adding co-factors for aminotransferases, but is inhibited by the addition of glycine. T-DNA insertion lines for AtGDH show a drastic reduction in mitochondrial GDH activity and CO(2) release from glycolate. Furthermore, photorespiration is reduced in these mutant lines compared with the wild type, as revealed by determination of the post-illumination CO(2) burst and the glycine/serine ratio under photorespiratory growth conditions. The data show that mitochondrial glycolate oxidation contributes to photorespiration in higher plants. This indicates the conservation of chlorophycean photorespiration in streptophytes despite the evolution of leaf-type peroxisomes.

  3. Americium separation from nuclear fuel dissolution using higher oxidation states.

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher

    2009-09-01

    Much of the complexity in current AFCI proposals is driven by the need to separate the minor actinides from the lanthanides. Partitioning and recycling Am, but not Cm, would allow for significant simplification because Am has redox chemistry that may be exploited while Cm does not. Here, we have explored methods based on higher oxidation states of Am (AmV and AmVI) to partition Am from the lanthanides. In a separate but related approach we have also initiated an investigation of the utility of TRUEX Am extraction from thiocyanate solution. The stripping of loaded TRUEX by Am oxidation or SCN- has not yet proved successful; however, the partitioning of inextractable AmV by TRUEX shows promise.

  4. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, Travis Shane; Mincher, Bruce Jay; Schmitt, Nicholas C

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  5. Alternative system of succinate oxidation in glyoxysomes of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Igamberdiev, A U; Popov, V N; Falaleeva, M I

    1995-07-03

    Succinate oxidation in scutella of germinating seeds of wheat and maize was investigated. Besides oxidation via succinate dehydrogenase (SDH; EC 1.3.99.1), an alternative path of succinate oxidation insensitive to SDH inhibitors--malonate and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA)--was revealed. Using isopicnic sucrose gradient it was shown that this path is localized in glyoxysomal membranes. Glyoxysomal succinate oxidase (GSO) converts succinate directly into malate with the production of hydrogen peroxide identified using auxiliary enzymes malate dehydrogenase and peroxidase. GSO is most active during the intensive operation of the glyoxylate cycle (3-5 days of germination). Quinacrine, the inhibitor of flavine-containing oxidases, strongly suppressed the activity of GSO. Km for succinate is 18 mM for GSO from maize scutellum. It is concluded that in scutella of cereal seeds the glyoxysomal succinate oxidation non-linked with ATP synthesis operates.

  6. Evidence of Higher Oxidative Status in Depression and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Grases, G.; Colom, M. A.; Fernandez, R. A.; Costa-Bauzá, A.; Grases, F.

    2014-01-01

    We use a simple method for evaluating antioxidative status, by measuring the redox potential of urine, and correlate the findings with measures of anxiety and depression. We include 63 individuals (28 males and 35 females aged between 20 and 65 years). The validated anxiety State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and the validated BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) questionnaire were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Antioxidative status was determined by measuring the redox potential of urine collected in standard conditions. Correlation of the antioxidant capacity of urines evaluated using the ferric ion/specific dye method or through redox potential using the platinum electrode demonstrated the suitability of this last procedure. We found that normal anxiety state values corresponded to low urine redox potentials, whereas higher anxiety states were associated with high urinary redox potential. We also found that individuals with normal BDI values had significantly lower urine redox potentials than individuals with higher BDI values. PMID:24876911

  7. Higher in vitro resistance to oxidative stress in extra-pair offspring.

    PubMed

    Losdat, S; Helfenstein, F; Saladin, V; Richner, H

    2011-11-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to act as a universal physiological constraint in life-history evolution of animals. This should be of interest for extra-pair paternity behaviour, and we tested here the prediction that offspring arising from extra-pair matings of female great tits show higher resistance to oxidative stress than within-pair offspring. Resistance to oxidative stress, measured as the whole blood resistance to a controlled free-radical attack, was significantly higher for extra-pair offspring as predicted although these were not heavier or in better body condition than within-pair offspring. Since resistance to oxidative stress has been suggested to enhance survival and reproductive rates, extra-pair offspring with superior resistance to oxidative stress, be it through maternal effects or paternal inheritance, may achieve higher fitness and thus provide significant indirect fitness benefits to their mothers. In addition, because oxidative stress affects colour signals and sperm traits, females may also gain fitness benefits by producing sons that are more attractive (sexy-sons hypothesis) and have sperm of superior quality (sexy-sperm hypothesis). Heritability of resistance to oxidative stress as well as maternal effects may both act as proximate mechanisms for the observed result. Disentangling these two mechanisms would require an experimental approach. Future long-term studies should also aim at experimentally testing whether higher resistance to oxidative stress of EP nestlings indeed translates into fitness benefits to females.

  8. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules.

    PubMed

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S; Titov, Anatoly V; Kiselev, Yuri M

    2013-07-21

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable.

  9. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S.; Titov, Anatoly V.; Kiselev, Yuri M.

    2013-07-01

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable.

  10. Increased palmitate intake: higher acylcarnitine concentrations without impaired progression of β-oxidation1[S

    PubMed Central

    Kien, C. Lawrence; Matthews, Dwight E.; Poynter, Matthew E.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Crain, Karen I.; Ebenstein, David B.; Tarleton, Emily K.; Stevens, Robert D.; Koves, Timothy R.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is associated with higher blood concentrations of medium-chain acylcarnitines (MCACs), and we hypothesized that PA may inhibit progression of FA β-oxidation. Using a cross-over design, 17 adults were fed high PA (HPA) and low PA/high oleic acid (HOA) diets, each for 3 weeks. The [1-13C]PA and [13-13C]PA tracers were administered with food in random order with each diet, and we assessed PA oxidation (PA OX) and serum AC concentration to determine whether a higher PA intake promoted incomplete PA OX. Dietary PA was completely oxidized during the HOA diet, but only about 40% was oxidized during the HPA diet. The [13-13C]PA/[1-13C]PA ratio of PA OX had an approximate value of 1.0 for either diet, but the ratio of the serum concentrations of MCACs to long-chain ACs (LCACs) was significantly higher during the HPA diet. Thus, direct measurement of PA OX did not confirm that the HPA diet caused incomplete PA OX, despite the modest, but statistically significant, increase in the ratio of MCACs to LCACs in blood. PMID:26156077

  11. Maternal nicotine exposure leads to higher liver oxidative stress and steatosis in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Conceição, E P; Peixoto-Silva, N; Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2015-04-01

    Early nicotine exposure causes future obesity and insulin resistance. We evaluated the long-term effect of the maternal nicotine exposure during lactation in liver oxidative status, insulin sensitivity and morphology in adult offspring. Two days after birth, osmotic minipumps were implanted in the dams: nicotine (N), 6 mg/kg/day for 14 days or saline (C). Offspring were killed at 180 days. Protein content of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, nitrotyrosine, 4HNE, IRS1, Akt1 and PPARs were measured. MDA, bound protein carbonyl content, SOD, GPx and catalase activities were determined in liver and plasma. Hepatic morphology and triglycerides content were evaluated. Albumin and bilirubin were determined. In plasma, N offspring had higher catalase activity, and SOD/GPx ratio, albumin and bilirubin levels but lower MDA content. In liver, they presented higher MDA and 4HNE levels, bound protein carbonyl content, SOD activity but lower GPx activity. N offspring presented an increase of lipid droplet, higher triglyceride content and a trend to lower PPARα in liver despite unchanged insulin signaling pathway. Early nicotine exposure causes oxidative stress in liver at adulthood, while protect against oxidative stress at plasma level. In addition, N offspring develop liver microsteatosis, which is related to oxidative stress but not to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

  13. Mitochondria from females exhibit higher antioxidant gene expression and lower oxidative damage than males.

    PubMed

    Borrás, Consuelo; Sastre, Juan; García-Sala, David; Lloret, Ana; Pallardó, Federico V; Viña, José

    2003-03-01

    We have investigated the differential mitochondrial oxidative stress between males and females to understand the molecular mechanisms enabling females to live longer than males. Mitochondria are a major source of free radicals in cells. Those from female rats generate half the amount of peroxides than those of males. This does not occur in ovariectomized animals. Estrogen replacement therapy prevents the effect of ovariectomy. Mitochondria from females have higher levels of reduced glutathione than those from males. Those from ovariectomized rats have similar levels to males, and estrogen therapy prevents the fall in glutathione levels that occurs in ovariectomized animals. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in males is 4-fold higher than that in females. This is due to higher expression and activities of Mn-superoxide dismutase and of glutathione peroxidase in females, which behave as double transgenics overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, conferring protection against free-radical-mediated damage in aging. Moreover, 16S rRNA expression, which decreases significantly with aging, is four times higher in mitochondria from females than in those from males of the same chronological age. The facts reported here provide molecular evidence to explain the different life span in males and females.

  14. Higher serum lipids and oxidative stress in patients with normal tension glaucoma, but not pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Necat; Coban, Deniz Turgut; Bayindir, Asli; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Giray, Ozlem; Sayrac, Suha; Tekeli, Seckin Ozgur; Eren, Esin

    2016-01-01

    This study entailed a cross-examination of oxidant/antioxidant balance, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-linked paraoxonase 1 (PON1) phenotypes, and levels of serum routine lipids among patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) or pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEXG) compared with healthy control groups. We aimed to investigate the links between oxidative stress (OS), HDL-related antioxidant enzyme activities and dyslipidemia in distinct subtypes of glaucoma. The study included 32 patients with NTG, 31 patients with PEXG, and 40 control subjects. Levels of PON1 and arylesterase enzymatic activity, total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status were measured by spectrophotometry and OS indexes (OSI) were calculated. The phenotype distribution of PON1 was determined using the dual substrate method. Blood serum levels of HDL, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) were measured. The TOS and OSI values in the NTG group were significantly higher compared with the other groups (both p < 0.01). The phenotype distribution found in the glaucoma and control groups were NTG: QQ, 59.4%; QR, 37.5%; RR, 3.1%; PEXG: QQ, 45.1%; QR, 48.4%; RR, 6.5%; and in the control group: QQ, 42.5%; QR, 50.0%; RR, 7.5%. Serum TC levels were significantly higher than the control in both NTG and PEXG groups, whereas TG was significantly higher in NTG only (p < 0.01 and p < 0.02, respectively). Hyperlipidemia, OS and variations in phenotype distribution of PON1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of different types of glaucoma. PMID:26773174

  15. Interaction of metal oxide nanoparticles with higher terrestrial plants: Physiological and biochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenchao; Tan, Wenjuan; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Ji, Rong; Yin, Ying; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Multiple applications of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) could result in their accumulation in soil, threatening higher terrestrial plants. Several reports have shown the effects of MONPs on plants. In this review, we analyze the most recent reports about the physiological and biochemical responses of plants to stress imposed by MONPs. Findings demonstrate that MONPs may be taken up and accumulated in plant tissues causing adverse or beneficial effects on seed germination, seedling elongation, photosynthesis, antioxidative stress response, agronomic, and yield characteristics. Given the importance of determining the potential risks of MONPs on crops and other terrestrial higher plants, research questions about field long-term conditions, transgenernational phytotoxicity, genotype specific sensitivity, and combined pollution problems should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Induction of mesenchymal stem cells leads to HSP72 synthesis and higher resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Cízková, Dasa; Rosocha, Ján; Vanický, Ivo; Radonák, Jozef; Gálik, Ján; Cízek, Milan

    2006-08-01

    The phenomenon of neuronal transdifferentiation performed on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been criticized by recent studies indicating that acquired neuron-like morphology of induced MSCs is caused by cellular stress. Therefore, to test this hypothesis we have investigated whether exposure of rat MSCs (rMSCs) to chemical inducer 2 mM beta-mercaptoethanol (BME) for 1-3 h followed by 24 h incubation leads to HSP72 synthesis, thus suggesting higher resistance of rMSCs to oxidative damage. Present data from immunohistochemistry clearly indicate development of time-dependent sub-cellular HSP72 distribution, initially seen in nuclei at 1 h followed by its translocation to surrounding central cytoplasm and processes at 2-3 h after BME stimulation. Western blot (WB) analysis confirmed the expression of HSP72 protein in induced rMSCs at both stimulation periods. Furthermore, preconditioned rMSCs with BME for 1 h expressing HSP72 positivity at 24 h showed higher resistance (78 +/- 10% of survival cells) to oxidative stress caused by 1 mM H(2)O(2) when compared to those preconditioned for 3 h (59 +/- 8% of survival cells) or control-unconditioned rMSCs exposed to the same stressor conditions (56 +/- 6% of survival cells). Thus, the cellular protection was lost if the duration of BME preconditioning was increased as far as possible (3 h) (while still remaining sub-lethal). This suggests that exposure of rMSCs to the optimal concentration of BME (2 mM) during optimal induction period (1 h) mediate their protection and increases resistance to oxidative injury, while over crossing these limits is in-effective. In addition, our findings confirm that cultured rMSCs remain competent to be preconditioned by BME, through a pathway that may increase the antioxidant balance or involve activation of HSP72 protein induced tolerance.

  17. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valdés, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernández, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernán; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  18. METHOD OF MAINTAINING PLUTONIUM IN A HIGHER STATE OF OXIDATION DURING PROCESSING

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.; Miller, D.R.

    1959-06-30

    This patent deals with the oxidation of tetravalent plutonium contained in an aqueous acid solution together with fission products to the hexavalent state, prior to selective fission product precipitation, by adding to the solution bismuthate or ceric ions as the oxidant and a water-soluble dichromate as a holding oxidant. Both oxidant and holding oxidant are preferably added in greater than stoichiometric quantities with regard to the plutonium present.

  19. Higher serum iron is associated with increased oxidant stress in HIV-infected men

    PubMed Central

    Crist, Matthew B.; Melekhin, Vlada V.; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi; Milne, Ginger L.; Kallianpur, Asha R.; Dageforde, Leigh Anne; Haas, David W.; Hulgan, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Background F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoP) are oxidant stress biomarkers that are higher in HIV-infected women than men. We explored whether the effect of hemoglobin (Hgb), serum iron, or anemia on F2-IsoP is different between HIV-infected women and men. Methods Plasma F2-IsoP were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; clinical and laboratory data were collected at enrollment or from the medical record. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess associations between F2-IsoP and Hgb, anemia as a dichotomous variable, and serum iron with adjustment for age, sex, race, body-mass index, CD4+ lymphocyte count, self-reported current smoking status, and antiretroviral therapy. Results Compared to men, women had lower Hgb (median [IQR] 12.7 [11.8-13.9] vs. 14.9 [13.7-15.8] g/dL, P<0.001), lower iron levels (75 [47-97] vs. 90 [69-121] μg/dL, P=0.004), more anemia (29% vs. 10%, P<0.001), and higher levels of F2-IsoP (42 [32-62] vs. 36 [25-46] pg/mL, P<0.001). The relationship between iron and F2-IsoP differed significantly between men and women (interaction P=0.02). Men had a 21% (95% CI: 8%-36%) increase in F2-IsoP per interquartile increase in iron (P=0.001); while no relationship was seen among women (-4% [-17%-13%], P=0.65). Conclusions Although women have overall higher F2-IsoP than men, a relationship between circulating F2-IsoP and iron levels was observed in men but not in women with HIV infection. The association between female sex and higher F2-IsoP is not explained by iron or Hgb levels as the association persists when controlling for these factors. The role of iron in oxidant stress and sex-specific differences among HIV-infected individuals require further study. PMID:24169121

  20. First-principles investigation of higher oxides of uranium and neptunium: U3O8 and Np2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Y.; Rusz, J.; Suzuki, M.-T.; Oppeneer, P. M.

    2011-02-01

    A computational study is presented of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of U3O8 and Np2O5, which are actinide oxides in a higher oxidation state than the tetravalent state of the common dioxide phases, UO2 and NpO2. The calculations are based on the density functional theory+U approach, in which additional Coulomb correlations on the actinide atom are taken into account. The calculated properties of these two higher oxidized actinide oxides are analyzed and compared to those of their tetravalent analogs. The optimized structural parameters of these noncubic oxides are found to be in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. U3O8 is predicted to be a magnetic insulator, having one U atom in a hexavalent oxidation state and two U atoms in a pentavalent oxidation state. For Np2O5, which is also predicted to be an insulator, a complicated noncollinear magnetic structure is computed, leading to a nonzero overall magnetization with a slight antiferromagnetic canting. The calculated electronic structures are presented and the variation of the U 5f or Np 5f-O 2p hybridization with the oxidation state is analyzed. With increasing oxygen content, the nearly localized 5f electrons of the actinide elements are more positioned near the Fermi level and the hybridization between 5f and 2p states is markedly increased.

  1. Higher dermal exposure of cashiers to BPA and its association with DNA oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yanshan; Lu, Shaoyou; Dai, Yanyan; Rui, Caiyan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhou, Yuanxiu; Li, Yanru; Pang, Qihua; Fan, Ruifang

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used chemical in the production of many polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resin linings for food and beverage containers and thermal papers. Oral intakes from the contaminated diets were considered as the predominant source of BPA exposure for humans. However, due to the high levels of BPA on thermal receipts and their wide applications in our daily life, the amount of BPA be transferred to the skin after holding thermal paper should not be underestimated, particularly for cashiers. To investigate the contribution of BPA exposure levels via the dermal contact route and the relationship between BPA exposure level and oxidative DNA damage, six male volunteers were recruited and required to simulate the cashiers' work and handle the thermal receipts during the study period. Triclosan (TCS, an antimicrobial compound used widely in personal health and skin care products) was applied as a reference compound. Their urinary BPA, TCS and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography/ tandem spectrometer (LC/MS/MS). The results showed that after handling the thermal receipts, the urinary BPA concentrations of volunteers increased 3 times of those before the experimental period. But TCS levels in urine kept stable. There existed a correlation between BPA exposure and 8-OHdG (R(2)=0.237, p<0.001), but not between TCS and 8-OHdG concentrations (R(2)=0.026, p<0.777), indicating that more BPA exposure could lead to higher oxidative DNA damage. That the increases in 8-OHdG levels in urine being almost consistent with those of BPA suggested that handling thermal receipts resulted in the increasing BPA intakes and BPA exposure was correlated with DNA oxidative damage. After 48h of the end of handling thermal receipts, the urinary BPA levels did not descend to the levels before experiment, suggesting that the excretion of BPA via dermal contact was over 48h. BPA exposure through dermal contact

  2. Diabetes is Associated with Higher Trimethylamine N-oxide Plasma Levels.

    PubMed

    Dambrova, M; Latkovskis, G; Kuka, J; Strele, I; Konrade, I; Grinberga, S; Hartmane, D; Pugovics, O; Erglis, A; Liepinsh, E

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed strong associations between systemic trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. In addition, plasma L-carnitine levels in patients with high TMAO concentrations predicted an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and incident major adverse cardiac events. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between TMAO and L-carnitine plasma levels and diabetes. Blood plasma samples were collected from 12 and 20 weeks old db/db mice and patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Diabetic compared to non-diabetic db/L mice presented 10-fold higher TMAO, but lower L-carnitine plasma concentrations at 12 weeks of age. After 8 weeks of observation, diabetic db/db mice had significantly increased body weight, insulin resistance and TMAO concentration in comparison to non-diabetic control. In 191 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention the median (interquartile range) plasma concentration of TMAO was 1.8 (1.2-2.6) µmol/L. Analysis of the samples showed a bivariate association of TMAO level with age, total cholesterol and L-carnitine. The multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that, in addition to L-carnitine as the strongest predictor of log transformed TMAO (p<0.001), the parameters of age, diabetes status and body mass index (BMI) were independently associated with increased log transformed TMAO levels (p<0.01).Our data provide evidence that age, diabetes and BMI are associated with higher TMAO levels independently of L-carnitine. These data support the hypothesis of TMAO as a cardiovascular risk marker and warrant further investigation of TMAO for diabetes research applications. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Direct synthesis of higher alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation of carbon oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.F.

    1986-01-01

    Three objectives of this research project were : 1) to derive a catalyst and operating conditions which would result in the conversion of synthesis gas to as near 100% methanol as possible with no by-products such as methane, dimethyl-ether, or higher alcohols; 2) to derive catalysts and conditions whereby CO, H/sub 2/, and optionally CO/sub 2/ would be converted to crude alcohols containing 65 to 75% methanol and 25 to 35% higher alcohols (C/sub 2/ to C/sub 6/) while reacting 5% or less of the CO to CH/sub 4/ and other hydrocarbons; and 3) to attain this product at a rate of 0.5 ml/hr/(ml catalyst). The crucial factors in the catalyst composition and processing conditions are as follows: (1) A relatively high proportion of Cu (4 molar) and Mn (3 molar), (2) Zn equivalent to approximately 25% (molar) of the Cu or Mn, (3) Co equivalent to approximately 0.1% to 0.6% (molar) of the Cu, (4) A stabilizer-promoter which consists of Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and optionally oxides of Al, Zr, Mg (10% and 5% by weight) respectively, (5) A moderator, approximately 4% (by weight) of the total catalyst employed, consisting of Rb, Cs, or K, or some combination of these, (6) Preferred operating conditions of 2500 psi pressure, 40,000 hr/sup -1/ space velocity, approximately 400/sup 0/C, and an almost stoichiometric feed-gas composition somewhat rich in CO, which is a unique departure from normal operation conditions. The catalyst preparation procedure is critical and is reported in detail. The catalyst has also been physically characterized in the used and unused conditions, and these observations are also reported. The mechanistic implications of the results of this study are discussed. Pathways involving the crossed aldol condensation (for the formation of primary aldehydes and alcohols) and the Claisen condensation (for the generation of ketones and secondary alcohols) for the higher alcohols synthesis are proposed.

  4. Disease progression and oxidative stress are associated with higher serum ferritin levels in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Katerine Panichi Zanin; Oliveira, Sayonara R; Kallaur, Ana Paula; Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio R; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson B; de Almeida, Elaine Regina Delicato; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Mezzaroba, Leda; Dichi, Isaias; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Simão, Andréa Name Colado

    2017-02-15

    Hyperferritinemia and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum levels of ferritin and to verify their association with oxidative stress markers and MS progression. This study included 164 MS patients, which were divided in two groups according to their levels of ferritin (cut off 125.6μg/L). Oxidative stress was evaluated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence (CL-LOOH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), carbonyl protein, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), sulfhydryl groups of protein and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). MS patients with elevated levels of ferritin showed higher disease progression (p=0.030), AOPP (p=0.001), and lower plasma NOx levels (p=0.031) and TRAP (p=0.006) than MS patients with lower ferritin levels. The multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that increased AOPP and progression of disease were significantly and positively associated with increase of ferritin. The combination of serum ferritin levels and oxidative stress markers were responsible for 13,9% in the disease progression. In conclusion, our results suggest that ferritin could aggravate oxidative stress in patients with MS and contribute to progression of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Decreased cell proliferation and higher oxidative stress in fibroblasts from Down Syndrome fetuses. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Amparo; García-Giménez, José Luis; Audí, Laura; Toran, Nuria; Andaluz, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Viña, José; Pallardó, Federico V

    2014-01-01

    Down Syndrome is the most common chromosomal disease and is also known for its decreased incidence of solid tumors and its progeroid phenotype. Cellular and systemic oxidative stress has been considered as one of the Down Syndrome phenotype causes. We correlated, in a preliminary study, the fibroblast proliferation rate and different cell proliferation key regulators, like Rcan1 and the telomere length from Down Syndrome fetuses, with their oxidative stress profile and the Ribonucleic acid and protein expression of the main antioxidant enzymes together with their activity. Increased oxidized glutathione/glutathione ratio and high peroxide production were found in our cell model. These results correlated with a distorted antioxidant shield. The messenger RNA (SOD1) and protein levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase were increased together with a decreased mRNA expression and protein levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). As a consequence the [Cu/ZnSOD/(catalase+GPx)] activity ratio increases which explains the oxidative stress generated in the cell model. In addition, the expression of thioredoxin 1 and glutaredoxin 1 is decreased. The results obtained show a decreased antioxidant phenotype that correlates with increased levels of Regulator of calcineurin 1 and attrition of telomeres, both related to oxidative stress and cell cycle impairment. Our preliminary results may explain the proneness to a progeroid phenotype. © 2013.

  6. Non-classical behaviour of higher valence dopants in chromium (III) oxide by a Cr vacancy compensation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, John J.; Nolan, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Modification of metal oxides with dopants that have a stable oxidation in their parent oxides which is higher than the host system is expected to introduce extra electrons into the material to improve carrier mobility. This is essential for applications in catalysis, SOFCs and solar energy materials. Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the change in electronic and geometric structure of chromium (III) oxide by higher valence dopants, namely; Ce, Ti, V and Zr. For single metal doping, we find that the dopants with variable oxidation states, Ce, Ti and V, adopt a valence state of  +3, while Zr dopant has a  +4 oxidation state and reduces a neighbouring Cr cation. Chromium vacancy formation is greatly enhanced for all dopants, and favoured over oxygen vacancy formation. The Cr vacancies generate holes which oxidise Ce, Ti and V from  +3 to  +4, while also oxidising lattice oxygen sites. For Zr doping, the generated holes oxidise the reduced Cr2+ cation back to Cr3+ and also two lattice oxygen atoms. Three metal atoms in the bulk lattice facilitate spontaneous Cr vacancy from charge compensation. A non-classical compensation mechanism is observed for Ce, Ti and V; all three metals are oxidised from  +3 to  +4, which explains experimental observations that these metals have a  +4 oxidation state in Cr2O3. Charge compensation of the three Zr metals proceeds by a classical higher valence doping mechanism; the three dopants reduce three Cr cations, which are subsequently charge compensated by a Cr vacancy oxidising three Cr2+ to Cr3+. The compensated structures are the correct ground state electronic structure for these doped systems, and used as a platform to investigate cation/anion vacancy formation. Unlike the single metal doped bulks, preference is now given for oxygen vacancy formation over Cr vacancy formation, indicating that the dopants increase the reducibility of Cr2O3 with Ce doping showing the strongest

  7. Higher rate of fat oxidation during rowing compared with cycling ergometer exercise across a range of exercise intensities.

    PubMed

    Egan, B; Ashley, D T; Kennedy, E; O'Connor, P L; O'Gorman, D J

    2016-06-01

    The relative contribution of carbohydrate and fat oxidation to energy expenditure during exercise is dependent on variables including exercise intensity, mode, and recruited muscle mass. This study investigated patterns of substrate utilization during two non-weightbearing exercise modalities, namely cycling and rowing. Thirteen young, moderately trained males performed a continuous incremental (3-min stages) exercise test to exhaustion on separate occasions on an electronically braked cycle (CYC) ergometer and an air-braked rowing (ROW) ergometer, respectively. On two further occasions, participants performed a 20-min steady-state exercise bout at ∼50%VO2peak on the respective modalities. Despite similar oxygen consumption, rates of fat oxidation (FATox ) were ∼45% higher during ROW compared with CYC (P < 0.05) across a range of power output increments. The crossover point for substrate utilization occurred at a higher relative exercise intensity for ROW than CYC (57.8 ± 2.1 vs 42.1 ± 3.6%VO2peak , P < 0.05). During steady-state submaximal exercise, the higher FATox during ROW compared with CYC was maintained (P < 0.05), but absolute FATox were 42% (CYC) and 28% (ROW) lower than during incremental exercise. FATox is higher during ROW compared with CYC exercise across a range of exercise intensities matched for energy expenditure, and is likely as a consequence of larger muscle mass recruited during ROW.

  8. The synthesis of higher oxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals in an electric discharge: Theoretical and experimental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, A. T.; Sadhukhan, P.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium hydroxide was subjected to the products of an electrical discharge sustained in oxygen and produced both potassium peroxide and superoxide. The conversion to higher oxides was shown to strongly depend upon the particle size of KOH, the position of KOH in the discharge zone, and the operating conditions of the discharge. Similar experiments were performed with hydroxides of lithium and calcium which do not form superoxides, but are converted to peroxides. The yields of peroxides were shown to strongly depend upon the operating conditions of the discharge. The absence of superoxides and the presence of peroxides of lithium and calcium was explained from the consideration of relative thermodynamic stability of the oxides of lithium and calcium. Thermogravimetric analysis was shown to provide a more accurate means for determining the amount of KO2 than previous methods.

  9. Resting energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation are higher in elderly patients with COPD: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually have a compromised nutritional status which is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. To know the Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and the substrate oxidation measurement is essential to prevent these complications. This study aimed to compare the REE, respiratory quotient (RQ) and body composition between patients with and without COPD. Methods This case–control study assessed 20 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending a pulmonary rehabilitation program. The group of subjects without COPD (control group) consisted of 20 elderly patients attending a university gym, patients of a private service and a public healthy care. Consumption of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was determined by indirect calorimetry and used for calculating the resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were also measured. Percentage of body fat (%BF), lean mass (kg) and muscle mass (kg) were determined by bioimpedance. The fat free mass index (FFMI) and muscle mass index (MMI) were then calculated. Results The COPD group had lower BMI than control (p = 0.02). However, WC, % BF, FFMI and MM-I did not differ between the groups. The COPD group had greater RQ (p = 0.01), REE (p = 0.009) and carbohydrate oxidation (p = 0.002). Conclusions Elderly patients with COPD had higher REE, RQ and carbohydrate oxidation than controls. PMID:22672689

  10. Resting energy expenditure and carbohydrate oxidation are higher in elderly patients with COPD: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Ramires, Bruna Rubi; de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; McLellan, Kátia Cristina Portero; Nakato, Darlan Muller; Faganello, Márcia Maria; Galhardo, Maurício Longo; Venâncio, Luciene de Souza

    2012-06-06

    Elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually have a compromised nutritional status which is an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. To know the Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and the substrate oxidation measurement is essential to prevent these complications. This study aimed to compare the REE, respiratory quotient (RQ) and body composition between patients with and without COPD. This case-control study assessed 20 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending a pulmonary rehabilitation program. The group of subjects without COPD (control group) consisted of 20 elderly patients attending a university gym, patients of a private service and a public healthy care. Consumption of oxygen (O₂) and carbon dioxide (CO₂) was determined by indirect calorimetry and used for calculating the resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were also measured. Percentage of body fat (%BF), lean mass (kg) and muscle mass (kg) were determined by bioimpedance. The fat free mass index (FFMI) and muscle mass index (MMI) were then calculated. The COPD group had lower BMI than control (p = 0.02). However, WC, % BF, FFMI and MM-I did not differ between the groups. The COPD group had greater RQ (p = 0.01), REE (p = 0.009) and carbohydrate oxidation (p = 0.002). Elderly patients with COPD had higher REE, RQ and carbohydrate oxidation than controls.

  11. rapid separation of higher actinide elements by cocrystallization using lower oxidation states

    SciTech Connect

    Kamenskaya, A.N.; Konovalova, N.A.; Kulyukhin, S.A.; Mikheev, N.B.

    1986-07-01

    An express method has been developed for the separation of higher actinides based on their cocrystallization with alkali metal halides. By carrying out reduction with the dichlorides of europium, ytterbium, and samarium it was possible to separate mendelevium from fermium, einsteinium, and californium, fermium from einsteinium and californium, and californium with einsteinium from trivalent actinides in turn. A practically complete purification from lanthanides was achieved in this way. Separation was carried in aqueous ethanol solutions by cocrystallization with NaCl resulting from salting out with ethanol. The purification coefficient of actinides from accompanying elements was 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 4/. The yield on separation was about 90%. The duration of the separation process was 3-5 min.

  12. Adaptation to Resistance Training Is Associated with Higher Phagocytic (but Not Oxidative) Activity in Neutrophils of Older Women.

    PubMed

    Bartholomeu-Neto, João; Brito, Ciro José; Nóbrega, Otávio Toledo; Sousa, Vinícius Carolino; Oliveira Toledo, Juliana; Silva Paula, Roberta; Alves, David Junger Fonseca; Ferreira, Aparecido Pimentel; Franco Moraes, Clayton; Córdova, Cláudio

    2015-01-01

    Failure in antimicrobial activity contributes to high morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. Little is known about the potential effect of resistance training (RT) on the functional properties of the innate immunity. This study aimed to investigate the influence of long-term RT on the endocytic and oxidative activities of neutrophils and monocytes in healthy older women. Our results indicate that the phagocytosis index (PhI) of neutrophils (but not of monocytes) in the RT-adapted group was significantly higher (P < 0.001; effect size, (d) = 0.90, 95% CI: [0.75-1.04]) compared to that in sedentary subjects. In contrast, the oxidative activity of either neutrophils or monocytes was not significantly influenced by RT. Also, total energy and carbohydrate intake as well as serum IL6 levels had a significant influence on the phagocytic activity of neutrophils (P = 0.04), being considered in the model. Multivariate regression identified the physical condition of the subject (β = 0.425; P = 0.01) as a significant predictor of PhI. In conclusion, circulating neutrophils of older women adapted to a long-term RT program expressed higher phagocytic activity.

  13. Adaptation to Resistance Training Is Associated with Higher Phagocytic (but Not Oxidative) Activity in Neutrophils of Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomeu-Neto, João; Brito, Ciro José; Nóbrega, Otávio Toledo; Sousa, Vinícius Carolino; Oliveira Toledo, Juliana; Silva Paula, Roberta; Alves, David Junger Fonseca; Ferreira, Aparecido Pimentel; Franco Moraes, Clayton; Córdova, Cláudio

    2015-01-01

    Failure in antimicrobial activity contributes to high morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. Little is known about the potential effect of resistance training (RT) on the functional properties of the innate immunity. This study aimed to investigate the influence of long-term RT on the endocytic and oxidative activities of neutrophils and monocytes in healthy older women. Our results indicate that the phagocytosis index (PhI) of neutrophils (but not of monocytes) in the RT-adapted group was significantly higher (P < 0.001; effect size, (d) = 0.90, 95% CI: [0.75–1.04]) compared to that in sedentary subjects. In contrast, the oxidative activity of either neutrophils or monocytes was not significantly influenced by RT. Also, total energy and carbohydrate intake as well as serum IL6 levels had a significant influence on the phagocytic activity of neutrophils (P = 0.04), being considered in the model. Multivariate regression identified the physical condition of the subject (β = 0.425; P = 0.01) as a significant predictor of PhI. In conclusion, circulating neutrophils of older women adapted to a long-term RT program expressed higher phagocytic activity. PMID:26524964

  14. Age-related decline in mitochondrial bioenergetics: Does supercomplex destabilization determine lower oxidative capacity and higher superoxide production?

    PubMed Central

    Gόmez, Luis A.; Hagen, Tory M.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial decay plays a central role in the aging process. Although certainly multifactorial in nature, defective operation of the electron transport chain (ETC) constitutes a key mechanism involved in the age-associated loss of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Primarily, mitochondrial dysfunction affects the aging animal by limiting bioenergetic reserve capacity and/or increasing oxidative stress via enhanced electron leakage from the ETC. Even though the important aging characteristics of mitochondrial decay are known, the molecular events underlying inefficient electron flux that ultimately leads to higher superoxide appearance and impaired respiration are not completely understood. This review focuses on the potential role(s) that age-associated destabilization of the macromolecular organization of the ETC (i.e. supercomplexes) may be important for development of the mitochondrial aging phenotype, particularly in post-mitotic tissues. PMID:22521482

  15. Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide enhancement is associated with higher loss of brain tissue structure in clinically isolated syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maarouf, Adil; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Le Troter, Arnaud; Bannier, Elise; Berry, Isabelle; Guye, Maxime; Pierot, Laurent; Barillot, Christian; Pelletier, Jean; Tourbah, Ayman; Edan, Gilles; Audoin, Bertrand; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Macrophages are important components of inflammatory processes in multiple sclerosis, closely linked to axonal loss, and can now be observed in vivo using ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO). In the present 1-year longitudinal study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and the impact on tissue injury of macrophage infiltration in patients after the first clinical event of multiple sclerosis. Thirty-five patients, 32 years mean age, were imaged in a mean of 66 days after their first event using conventional magnetic resonance imaging, gadolinium (Gd) to probe blood-brain barrier integrity, USPIO to study macrophage infiltration and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) to assess tissue structure integrity. Statistics were performed using two-group repeated-measures ANOVA. Any patient received treatment at baseline. At baseline, patients showed 17 USPIO-positive lesions reflecting infiltration of macrophages present from the onset. This infiltration was associated with local higher loss of tissue structure as emphasized by significant lower MTRnorm values (p<0.03) in USPIO(+)/Gd(+) lesions (n=16; MTRnormUSPIO(+)/Gd(+)=0.78 at baseline, MTRnormUSPIO(+)/Gd(+)=0.81 at M12) relative to USPIO(-)/Gd(+) lesions (n=67; MTRnormUSPIO(-)/Gd(+)=0.82 at baseline, MTRnormUSPIO(-)/Gd(+)=0.85 at M12). No interaction in MTR values was observed during the 12 months follow-up (lesion type × time). Infiltration of activated macrophages evidenced by USPIO enhancement, is present at the onset of multiple sclerosis and is associated with higher and persistent local loss of tissue structure. Macrophage infiltration affects more tissue structure while tissue recovery during the following year has a similar pattern for USPIO and Gd-enhanced lesions, leading to relative higher persistent local loss of tissue structure in lesions showing USPIO enhancement at baseline. © The Author(s), 2015.

  16. Method of CO and/or CO.sub.2 hydrogenation to higher hydrocarbons using doped mixed-metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Shekhawat, Dushyant; Berry, David A.; Haynes, Daniel J.; Abdelsayed, Victor; Smith, Mark W.; Spivey, James J.

    2017-03-21

    A method of hydrogenation utilizing a reactant gas mixture comprising a carbon oxide and a hydrogen agent, and a hydrogenation catalyst comprising a mixed-metal oxide containing metal sites supported and/or incorporated into the lattice. The mixed-metal oxide comprises a pyrochlore, a brownmillerite, or mixtures thereof doped at the A-site or the B-site. The metal site may comprise a deposited metal, where the deposited metal is a transition metal, an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, or mixtures thereof. Contact between the carbon oxide, hydrogen agent, and hydrogenation catalyst under appropriate conditions of temperature, pressure and gas flow rate generate a hydrogenation reaction and produce a hydrogenated product made up of carbon from the carbon oxide and some portion of the hydrogen agent. The carbon oxide may be CO, CO.sub.2, or mixtures thereof and the hydrogen agent may be H.sub.2. In a particular embodiment, the hydrogenated product comprises olefins, paraffins, or mixtures thereof.

  17. Higher skeletal muscle α2AMPK activation and lower energy charge and fat oxidation in men than in women during submaximal exercise

    PubMed Central

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Thiele, Maja; Hillig, Thore; Pilegaard, Henriette; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Kiens, Bente

    2006-01-01

    5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor activated by perturbed cellular energy status such as during muscle contraction. Activated AMPK is thought to regulate several key metabolic pathways. We used sex comparison to investigate whether AMPK signalling in skeletal muscle regulates fat oxidation during exercise. Moderately trained women and men completed 90 min bicycle exercise at 60% V̇O2peak. Both AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation and α2AMPK activity were increased by exercise in men (∼200%, P < 0.001) but not significantly in women. The sex difference in muscle AMPK activation with exercise was accompanied by an increase in muscle free AMP (∼164%, P < 0.01), free AMP/ATP ratio (159%, P < 0.05), and creatine (∼42%, P < 0.001) in men but not in women (NS), suggesting that lack of AMPK activation in women was due to better maintenance of muscle cellular energy balance compared with men. During exercise, fat oxidation per kg lean body mass was higher in women than in men (P < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed that a higher proportion of type 1 muscle fibres (∼23%, P < 0.01) and a higher capillarization (∼23%, P < 0.05) in women than in men could partly explain the sex difference in α2AMPK activity (r = −0.54, P < 0.05) and fat oxidation (r = 0.64, P < 0.05) during exercise. On the other hand, fat oxidation appeared not to be regulated via AMPK. In conclusion, during prolonged submaximal exercise at 60% V̇O2peak, higher fat oxidation in women cannot be explained by higher AMPK signalling but is accompanied by improved muscle cellular energy balance in women probably due to sex specific muscle morphology. PMID:16600998

  18. Does a higher metal oxidation state necessarily imply higher reactivity toward H-atom transfer? A computational study of C-H bond oxidation by high-valent iron-oxo and -nitrido complexes.

    PubMed

    Geng, Caiyun; Ye, Shengfa; Neese, Frank

    2014-04-28

    In this work, the reactions of C-H bond activation by two series of iron-oxo ( (Fe(IV)), (Fe(V)), (Fe(VI))) and -nitrido model complexes ( (Fe(IV)), (Fe(V)), (Fe(VI))) with a nearly identical coordination geometry but varying iron oxidation states ranging from iv to vi were comprehensively investigated using density functional theory. We found that in a distorted octahedral coordination environment, the iron-oxo species and their isoelectronic nitrido analogues feature totally different intrinsic reactivities toward C-H bond cleavage. In the case of the iron-oxo complexes, the reaction barrier monotonically decreases as the iron oxidation state increases, consistent with the gradually enhanced electrophilicity across the series. The iron-nitrido complex is less reactive than its isoelectronic iron-oxo species, and more interestingly, a counterintuitive reactivity pattern was observed, i.e. the activation barriers essentially remain constant independent of the iron oxidation states. The detailed analysis using the Polanyi principle demonstrates that the different reactivities between these two series originate from the distinct thermodynamic driving forces, more specifically, the bond dissociation energies (BDEE-Hs, E = O, N) of the nascent E-H bonds in the FeE-H products. Further decomposition of the BDEE-Hs into the electron and proton affinity components shed light on how the oxidation states modulate the BDEE-Hs of the two series.

  19. Technical decision making with higher order structure data: utilization of differential scanning calorimetry to elucidate critical protein structural changes resulting from oxidation.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Kelly K; Dinh, Nikita; Gabrielson, John P

    2015-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a useful tool for monitoring thermal stability of the molecular conformation of proteins. Here, we present an example of the sensitivity of DSC to changes in stability arising from a common chemical degradation pathway, oxidation. This Note is part of a series of industry case studies demonstrating the application of higher order structure data for technical decision making. For this study, six protein products from three structural classes were evaluated at multiple levels of oxidation. For each protein, the melting temperature (Tm ) decreased linearly as a function of oxidation; however, differences in the rate of change in Tm , as well as differences in domain Tm stability were observed across and within structural classes. For one protein, analysis of the impact of oxidation on protein function was also performed. For this protein, DSC was shown to be a leading indicator of decreased antigen binding suggesting a subtle conformation change may be underway that can be detected using DSC prior to any observable impact on product potency. Detectable changes in oxidized methionine by mass spectrometry (MS) occurred at oxidation levels below those with a detectable conformational or functional impact. Therefore, by using MS, DSC, and relative potency methods in concert, the intricate relationship between a primary structural modification, changes in conformational stability, and functional impact can be elucidated.

  20. Higher levels of oxidative DNA damage in cervical cells are correlated with the grade of dysplasia and HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Visalli, Giuseppa; Riso, Romana; Facciolà, Alessio; Mondello, Placido; Caruso, Carmela; Picerno, Isa; Di Pietro, Angela; Spataro, Pasquale; Bertuccio, Maria Paola

    2016-02-01

    The Human papillomavirus is responsible for the most common sexually transmitted infection and is also known to be an oncogenic virus that is associated with cervical, anogenital, and head-neck cancers. The present study aims to assess whether oxidative DNA damage is correlated with the grade of HPV-related lesions. Moreover, we evaluated clinical data and unhealthy lifestyles to verify their possible influence on the genesis of oxidative DNA damage in cervical cells. We quantified the amount of 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA as a biomarker of oxidative damage in women with and without HPV infection. We also correlated oxidative damage with different stages of cervical lesions and available clinical data (e.g., HPV genotypes). To identify HPV infections, in which proteins with a transforming potential are produced, we performed a qualitative detection of HPV E6/E7 mRNA. Our results showed greater oxidative damage in HPV-related dysplastic cervical lesions compared to samples with normal cytology, especially in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The latter showed a closed link with high-risk HPV genotypes. Reactive oxygen species can induce DNA double-strand breaks in both the host DNA and in the circular viral episome; this could facilitate the integration of the virus, promoting HPV carcinogenesis. Therefore, in HPV-infected women, it could be useful to reduce additional resources of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) with a healthy lifestyle.

  1. Control of trap density in channel layer for the higher stability of oxide thin film transistors under gate bias stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Y. K.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, K. T.; Han, D. S.; Shin, S. Y.; Park, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated turn-on voltage (VON) stability of oxide-based TFTs under constant voltage stress for the TFTs including intrinsic ZnO, Hf-doped ZnO, and Hf-Zn-Sn-O channel layer. Also, to verify the effects of interfacial trap density on the TFTs stability, we employed SiNX and SiO2/SiNX as gate insulator, respectively. We found that the low trap density of the TFTs, including the interfacial trap density between channel and gate insulator, and oxide semiconductor bulk trap density is intimately related to excellent gate bias and temperature stability.

  2. Preparation and characterizations of BiVO₄/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites with higher visible light reduction activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aolan; Shen, Song; Zhao, Yibo; Wu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Bismuth vanadate/reduced graphene oxide (BiVO4/RGO) composites were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method with graphite oxide, Bi(NO3)3 and NH4VO3 as precursors. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV), fluorescence spectroscopy (FL) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The reduced graphene oxide sheets were decorated by butterfly-like BiVO4 lamellas. Such combination not only alleviated the agglomeration of BiVO4 particles but also restrained the restacking of reduced graphene oxide. A preliminary study on the photo-reductions of Cr (VI) and CO2 under the illumination of simulated sunlight with as-synthesized BiVO4/RGO nanocomposites as catalyst was carried out. The nanocomposites showed better photo-catalytic activity than the conventional BiVO4 particles. The photo-reduction efficiency of BiVO4/RGO nanocomposites increased about 50.1% and the ethanol yield improved about 15.4 μmol/g-cat comparing with pure BiVO4. The enhancements of the photo-catalytic activities were attributed to the effective charge transfer of photo-generated electron from BiVO4 to RGO and improved absorption performance.

  3. Importance of the higher retention of tocopherols and sterols for the oxidative stability of soybean and rapeseed oils.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Shen, Yue Min

    2017-06-01

    Tocopherols and sterols were lost considerably during the refining process of vegetable oils, resulting in a dramatic decrease in the oxidation stability. However, the oxidation stability of vegetable oils was not directly proportional to tocopherol content, not mention to its synergistic interaction with sterol. Based on the peroxide values of oils with different content of tocopherols and sterols during storage at 65 °C, it was found that soybean oil (SO) had the best stability when the content of tocopherols and sterols was 0.14 and 1.09%, respectively, whereas the value in rapeseed oil (RO) was 0.06% and 1.14-2.90%. The optimal content of tocopherol in RO was lower than that in SO was due to the different tocopherol isoforms. Furthermore, it was found that the storage stability decreased significantly when adding a same content of α-tocopherol, compared with that by retaining more tocopherol isoforms existed in SO. It was suggested that retaining more tocopherol and sterol during vegetable oils refining improved the oxidation stability, however, it did not mean the more the better. The oxidation stability was dependent on both the content and the isoform. This study helps to define the effective contents of tocopherol and sterol under the moderate refining technology.

  4. Oxidation of L-cysteine at a fluorosurfactant-modified gold electrode: lower overpotential and higher selectivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuofeng; Zheng, Huzhi; Lu, Chao; Zu, Yanbing

    2007-10-09

    We describe the oxidation of L-cysteine (CySH) at a fluorosurfactant (i.e., Zonyl FSO)-modified gold electrode (FSO-Au). Significantly reduced anodic overpotential of CySH was observed. The FSO layer inhibited the adsorption of CySH and its oxidation products at the gold electrode surface, and the low coverage of the adsorbed thiol-containing species might account for the more facile electron-transfer kinetics of free CySH at low potentials. An electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study revealed the lower charge-transfer resistance of CySH oxidation at the FSO-Au electrode as compared to that at a bare gold electrode. Interestingly, although the FSO layer facilitated CySH oxidation, the anodic responses of other electroactive biological species such as glucose, uric acid, and ascorbic acid were generally suppressed. Furthermore, the modified electrode was capable of differentiating CySH from other low-molecular-mass biothiols such as homocysteine and glutathione. The unique features of the FSO-Au electrode allowed for the development of a highly selective method of detecting CySH in complex biological matrices. The direct determination of free reduced and total CySH in human urine samples has been successfully carried out without the assistance of any separation techniques.

  5. Polarized Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Monolayers Have Higher Resistance to Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death Than Nonpolarized Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hsiung, Jamie; Zhu, Danhong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress-mediated injury to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major factor involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived RPE cells are currently being evaluated for their potential for cell therapy in AMD patients through subretinal injection of cells in suspension and subretinal placement as a polarized monolayer. To gain an understanding of how transplanted RPE cells will respond to the highly oxidatively stressed environment of an AMD patient eye, we compared the survival of polarized and nonpolarized RPE cultures following oxidative stress treatment. Polarized, nonpolarized/confluent, nonpolarized/subconfluent hESC-RPE cells were treated with H2O2. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling stains revealed the highest amount of cell death in subconfluent hESC-RPE cells and little cell death in polarized hESC-RPE cells with H2O2 treatment. There were higher levels of proapoptotic factors (phosphorylated p38, phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, Bax, and cleaved caspase 3 fragments) in treated nonpolarized RPE—particularly subconfluent cells—relative to polarized cells. On the other hand, polarized RPE cells had constitutively higher levels of cell survival and antiapoptotic signaling factors such as p-Akt and Bcl-2, as well as antioxidants superoxide dismutase 1 and catalase relative to nonpolarized cells, that possibly contributed to polarized cells’ higher tolerance to oxidative stress compared with nonpolarized RPE cells. Subconfluent cells were particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that implantation of polarized hESC-RPE monolayers for treating AMD patients with geographic atrophy should have better survival than injections of hESC-RPE cells in suspension. PMID:25411476

  6. Compromised liver mitochondrial function and complex activity in low feed efficient broilers are associated with higher oxidative stress and differential protein expression.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Pumford, N R; Tang, Z X; Lassiter, K; Ojano-Dirain, C; Wing, T; Cooper, M; Bottje, W

    2005-06-01

    Variations in broiler growth and efficiency have been explained in part by differences in mitochondrial function and biochemistry in broilers. To further our knowledge in this regard, 2 experiments were carried out to determine the relationships of a) mitochondrial function and activities of various electron transport chain (ETC) complexes; b) production of H2O2, a reactive oxygen species (ROS), and its association with protein oxidation; and c) mitochondrial protein expression in liver of a single line male broilers with low or high feed efficiency (FE, n = 5 to 8 per group). Mitochondrial function and complex activities were measured polarographically and spectrophotometrically, respectively. H2O2 was measured fluorimetrically, whereas oxidized protein (carbonyls) and specific mitochondrial proteins were analyzed using Western blots. Mitochondrial function (ETC coupling) and activities of ETC complexes (I, II, III, and IV) were higher in high FE compared with low FE broilers. H2O2 and protein carbonyls were higher in the livers of low FE broilers than in high FE broilers. Whereas the expression of 4 immunoreactive proteins [NAD3 (complex I), subunit VII (complex III), cytochrome c oxidase subunits (COX) II, and COX IVb (complex IV)] were higher in low FE liver mitochondria and 2 proteins [subunit 70 (complex II) and a-ATP synthase (complex V)] were higher in high FE birds, there were no differences between groups in the expression of 18 other mitochondrial proteins. In conclusion, increases in oxidative stress in low FE broilers were caused by or may contribute to differences in mitochondrial function (ETC coupling and complex activities) or the differential expression of steady-state levels of some mitochondrial proteins in the liver. Understanding the role of oxidative stress in Low FE broilers will provide clues in understanding the cellular basis of feed efficiency.

  7. Low feed efficient broilers within a single genetic line exhibit higher oxidative stress and protein expression in breast muscle with lower mitochondrial complex activity.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Pumford, N R; Tang, Z X; Lassiter, K; Wing, T; Cooper, M; Bottje, W

    2004-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of low or high feed efficiency (FE) on a) protein oxidation, b) the activities of various respiratory chain complexes, and c) expression of various mitochondrial proteins in male broilers within a single genetic line. Tissue homogenate or mitochondria were isolated from breast muscle of broilers with high (0.80 +/- 0.01) and low FE (0.62 +/- 0.02). The complex activities were measured spectrophotometrically, and the levels of oxidized protein (carbonyl) and immunoreactive mitochondrial proteins were analyzed using Western blots. Protein carbonyl levels were higher in low FE compared with high FE broilers breast muscle, which indicated enhanced protein oxidation in low FE mitochondria. Activities of all respiratory chain complexes (I, II, III, IV) were higher in high FE compared with low FE broilers for breast mitochondria. Whereas the expression of immunoreactive proteins was higher in low FE muscle mitochondria for 5 mitochondrial proteins [core I, cyt c1, cyt b (complex III), COX II (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, complex IV), and adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT1)], there were no differences between groups in the expression of 9 other respiratory chain protein subunits associated with complexex I, II, III, IV, and V. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein band of 47 kDa that was expressed at a higher level in low FE compared with high FE mitochondria. The differential expression of certain mitochondrial proteins and the 47-kDa band might be a compensatory response either to the lower complex activities or increased protein oxidation observed in low FE birds.

  8. High resolution imaging in cross-section of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor using super-higher-order nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinone, N.; Yamasue, K.; Honda, K.; Cho, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) can evaluate carrier or charge distribution in semiconductor devices. High sensitivity to capacitance variation enables SNDM to measure the super-high-order (higher than 3rd) derivative of local capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics directly under the tip (dnC/dVn,n = 3, 4, ...). We demonstrate improvement of carrier density resolution by measurement of dnC/dVn,n = 1, 2, 3, 4 (super-higher-order method) in the cross-sectional observation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor.

  9. Migraines Are Correlated with Higher Levels of Nitrate-, Nitrite-, and Nitric Oxide-Reducing Oral Microbes in the American Gut Project Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Antonio; Hyde, Embriette; Sangwan, Naseer; Gilbert, Jack A.; Viirre, Erik

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nitrates, such as cardiac therapeutics and food additives, are common headache triggers, with nitric oxide playing an important role. Facultative anaerobic bacteria in the oral cavity may contribute migraine-triggering levels of nitric oxide through the salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Using high-throughput sequencing technologies, we detected observable and significantly higher abundances of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide reductase genes in migraineurs versus nonmigraineurs in samples collected from the oral cavity and a slight but significant difference in fecal samples. IMPORTANCE Recent work has demonstrated a potentially symbiotic relationship between oral commensal bacteria and humans through the salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway (C. Duncan et al., Nat Med 1:546–551, 1995, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm0695-546). Oral nitrate-reducing bacteria contribute physiologically relevant levels of nitrite and nitric oxide to the human host that may have positive downstream effects on cardiovascular health (V. Kapil et al., Free Radic Biol Med 55:93–100, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.11.013). In the work presented here, we used 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing to determine whether a connection exists between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, nitrates for cardiovascular disease, and migraines, which are a common side effect of nitrate medications (U. Thadani and T. Rodgers, Expert Opin Drug Saf 5:667–674, 2006, http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14740338.5.5.667). PMID:27822557

  10. Use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate as applied to closed ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Illiada; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    The technology of ‘wet incineration' of human exometabolites and inedible plants biomass by means of H2 O2 in alternating electromagnetic field to increase a closure of mass exchange processes in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) was developed at the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (Krasnoyarsk, Russia). Human exometabolites mineralized can be used in a nutrient solution for plants cultivation in the BLSS phototrophic link. The objective of the given work appears to be the study of use resources of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels processed by the abovementioned method for higher plants cultivation on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The mineralized human wastes were tested for the purpose of their sterility. Then the effect of human exometabolites of different oxidation levels both on wheat productivity and on the SLS microflora composition was examined. The SLS extract with a definite amount of human mineralized wastes was used as an irrigation solution. The conducted experiments demonstrated that the H2 O2 decreasing to 1 ml on 1 g of feces and to 0.25 ml on 1 ml of urine had not affected the sterility of mineralized human wastes. Wheat cultivation on the SLS with the addition in an irrigation solution of mineralized human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of a daily human diet showed the absence of basic dependence of plants productivity on oxidation level of human exometabolites. Yet the analysis of the microflora composition of the irrigation solutions demonstrated its dependence on the oxidation level of the exometabolites introduced. The amount of yeast-like fungi increased in 20 times in the solutions containing less oxidized exometabolites in comparison with the variant in which the human wastes were subjected to a full-scale oxidation. Besides, the solutions with less oxidized exometabolites displayed a bigger content of plant pathogenic bacteria and denitrifies. Consequently the

  11. Low Plasma Zinc Is Associated with Higher Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Faster Liver Fibrosis Development in the Miami Adult Studies in HIV Cohort.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Sabrina S; Campa, Adriana; Li, Yinghui; Fleetwood, Christina; Stewart, Tiffanie; Ramamoorthy, Venkataraghavan; Baum, Marianna K

    2017-04-01

    Background: Oxidative stress and reduced antioxidants may be a trigger for liver fibrogenesis. Reducing oxidative stress through higher antioxidant concentration may be a potential antifibrotic target.Objective: We aimed to investigate longitudinally whether plasma zinc, an antioxidant, is related to mitochondrial oxidative stress and the progression of liver fibrosis in the Miami Adult Studies in HIV (MASH) cohort.Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 487 predominantly African American HIV-monoinfected and HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected adults with a mean ± SD age of 47.08 ± 7.67 y from the MASH cohort and followed for a median of 34 mo. Blood was collected for plasma zinc and measures were used to calculate the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score (aspartate amino transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and platelets). Plasma zinc deficiency was defined as <0.75 mg/L. Total DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) was determined. Adjusted mixed models were used to assess the relations between zinc, stage of liver disease, and oxidative stress over time and compared between HIV and HIV/HCV groups.Results: Zinc concentrations (β: -0.368, SE = 0.172; P = 0.033) and deficiency were associated with lower FIB-4 scores over time (β: 0.381, SE = 0.118; P = 0.001). Compared with those who were not zinc deficient, zinc-deficient participants had an increased risk of having more-progressed liver disease (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.16; P = 0.012). Higher mtDNA 8-oxo-dG was associated with zinc deficiency (β: 0.049, SE = 0.024; P = 0.044) and higher FIB-4 scores over time (β: 0.597, SE = 0.168, P < 0.001).Conclusions: Lower plasma zinc concentrations were associated with liver fibrosis progression and mitochondrial oxidative stress in the HIV and HIV/HCV groups. Zinc may play a role in the impact of liver disease outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes.

    PubMed

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Porollo, Aleksey; Lam, Ying Wai; Grimmett, Paul E; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2013-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons, albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was found to possess a broad oxidizing capability toward structurally diverse hydrocarbons belonging to mutagenic/carcinogenic fused-ring higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs), endocrine-disrupting long-chain alkylphenols (APs), and crude oil aliphatic hydrocarbon n-alkanes. A homology-based three-dimensional (3D) model revealed the presence of an extraordinarily large active-site cavity in CYP63A2 compared to the mammalian PAH-oxidizing (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1) and bacterial aliphatic-hydrocarbon-oxidizing (CYP101D and CYP102A1) P450s. This structural feature in conjunction with ligand docking simulations suggested potential versatility of the enzyme. Experimental characterization using recombinantly expressed CYP63A2 revealed its ability to oxidize HMW-PAHs of various ring sizes, including 4 rings (pyrene and fluoranthene), 5 rings [benzo(a)pyrene], and 6 rings [benzo(ghi)perylene], with the highest enzymatic activity being toward the 5-ring PAH followed by the 4-ring and 6-ring PAHs, in that order. Recombinant CYP63A2 activity yielded monohydroxylated PAH metabolites. The enzyme was found to also act as an alkane ω-hydroxylase that oxidized n-alkanes with various chain lengths (C9 to C12 and C15 to C19), as well as alkyl side chains (C3 to C9) in alkylphenols (APs). CYP63A2 showed preferential oxidation of long-chain APs and alkanes. To our knowledge, this is the first P450 identified from any of the biological kingdoms that possesses such broad substrate specificity toward structurally diverse xenobiotics (PAHs, APs, and alkanes), making it a potent enzyme biocatalyst candidate to handle mixed pollution (e.g., crude oil spills).

  13. CYP63A2, a Catalytically Versatile Fungal P450 Monooxygenase Capable of Oxidizing Higher-Molecular-Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Alkylphenols, and Alkanes

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Porollo, Aleksey; Lam, Ying Wai; Grimmett, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons, albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was found to possess a broad oxidizing capability toward structurally diverse hydrocarbons belonging to mutagenic/carcinogenic fused-ring higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs), endocrine-disrupting long-chain alkylphenols (APs), and crude oil aliphatic hydrocarbon n-alkanes. A homology-based three-dimensional (3D) model revealed the presence of an extraordinarily large active-site cavity in CYP63A2 compared to the mammalian PAH-oxidizing (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1) and bacterial aliphatic-hydrocarbon-oxidizing (CYP101D and CYP102A1) P450s. This structural feature in conjunction with ligand docking simulations suggested potential versatility of the enzyme. Experimental characterization using recombinantly expressed CYP63A2 revealed its ability to oxidize HMW-PAHs of various ring sizes, including 4 rings (pyrene and fluoranthene), 5 rings [benzo(a)pyrene], and 6 rings [benzo(ghi)perylene], with the highest enzymatic activity being toward the 5-ring PAH followed by the 4-ring and 6-ring PAHs, in that order. Recombinant CYP63A2 activity yielded monohydroxylated PAH metabolites. The enzyme was found to also act as an alkane ω-hydroxylase that oxidized n-alkanes with various chain lengths (C9 to C12 and C15 to C19), as well as alkyl side chains (C3 to C9) in alkylphenols (APs). CYP63A2 showed preferential oxidation of long-chain APs and alkanes. To our knowledge, this is the first P450 identified from any of the biological kingdoms that possesses such broad substrate specificity toward structurally diverse xenobiotics (PAHs, APs, and alkanes), making it a potent enzyme biocatalyst candidate to handle mixed pollution (e.g., crude oil spills). PMID:23416995

  14. Methane-derived carbon flows through methane-oxidizing bacteria to higher trophic levels in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Deines, Peter; Bodelier, Paul L E; Eller, Gundula

    2007-05-01

    Recent investigations have shown that biogenic methane can be a carbon source for macro invertebrates in freshwater food webs. Stable carbon isotopic signatures, used to infer an organism's food source, indicated that methane can play a major role in the nutrition of chironomid larvae. However, the pathway of methane-derived carbon into invertebrate biomass is still not confirmed. It has been proposed that chironomid larvae ingest methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), but this has not been experimentally demonstrated to date. Using (13)C-labelled methane we could show for the first time that chironomid larvae assimilate methane-derived carbon through MOB. Chironomid larval biomass was significantly (13)C-enriched after dwelling for 10 days in lake sediment enriched with labelled methane. Moreover, phospholipid fatty acids diagnostic for MOB were detected in larval tissue and were significantly (13)C-enriched, which encompasses the (13)C-uptake predicted for a methane-based nutrition. Additionally, chironomid larvae fed on sediment and water-column derived MOB biomass.

  15. Increased plasma peroxides and serum oxidized low density lipoprotein antibodies in major depression: markers that further explain the higher incidence of neurodegeneration and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michael; Mihaylova, Ivanka; Kubera, Marta; Uytterhoeven, Marc; Vrydags, Nicolas; Bosmans, Eugene

    2010-09-01

    Major depression is characterized by a decreased antioxidant status, an induction of the inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways and inflammatory-neurodegenerative (I&ND) pathways. This study examines two markers of oxidative stress in depression, i.e. plasma peroxides and serum oxidized LDL (oxLDL) antibodies. Blood was sampled in 54 patients with major depression (mean+/-SD age=43.5+/-11.6 years) and 37 normal volunteers (43.6+/-11.1 years). The severity of illness was measured by means of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Rating Scale was used to measure severity of "psychosomatic" symptoms in depression. We found significantly higher plasma peroxides (p=0.002) and serum oxLDL antibodies (p=0.0002) in depressed patients as compared to normal controls. There was no significant correlation between both markers and both independently from each other predicted major depression. There were significant correlations between the oxLDL antibodies and the scores on two items of the FF scale, i.e. gastro-intestinal symptoms and headache. The results show that major depression is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. These results further extend the IO&NS pathophysiology of major depression. Since increased peroxides and oxLDL antibodies are predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) and neurodegeneration, our findings suggest that IO&NS pathways are involved in the increased incidence of both CAD and neurodegeneration in depression. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fas receptor-deficient lpr mice are protected against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity due to higher glutathione synthesis and enhanced detoxification of oxidant stress.

    PubMed

    Williams, C David; McGill, Mitchell R; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-08-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a classical model of hepatocellular necrosis; however, the involvement of the Fas receptor in the pathophysiology remains controversial. Fas receptor-deficient (lpr) and C57BL/6 mice were treated with APAP to compare the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. Lpr mice were partially protected against APAP hepatotoxicity as indicated by reduced plasma ALT and GDH levels and liver necrosis. Hepatic Cyp2e1 protein, adduct formation and hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion were similar, demonstrating equivalent reactive metabolite generation. There was no difference in cytokine formation or hepatic neutrophil recruitment. Interestingly, hepatic GSH recovered faster in lpr mice than in wild type animals resulting in enhanced detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Driving the increased GSH levels, mRNA induction and protein expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase (gclc) were higher in lpr mice. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein levels at 6h were significantly lower in lpr mice, which correlated with reduced nitrotyrosine staining. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA levels were substantially higher in lpr mice after APAP. Our data suggest that the faster recovery of hepatic GSH levels during oxidant stress and peroxynitrite formation, reduced iNOS expression and enhanced induction of Hsp70 attenuated the susceptibility to APAP-induced cell death in lpr mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fas Receptor-deficient lpr Mice are protected against Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity due to Higher Glutathione Synthesis and Enhanced Detoxification of Oxidant Stress

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a classical model of hepatocellular necrosis; however, the involvement of the Fas receptor in the pathophysiology remains controversial. Fas receptor-deficient (lpr) and C57BL/6 mice were treated with APAP to compare the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. Lpr mice were partially protected against APAP hepatotoxicity as indicated by reduced plasma ALT and GDH levels and liver necrosis. Hepatic Cyp2e1 protein, adduct formation and hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion were similar, demonstrating equivalent reactive metabolite generation. There was no difference in cytokine formation or hepatic neutrophil recruitment. Interestingly, hepatic GSH recovered faster in lpr mice than in wild type animals resulting in enhanced detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Driving the increased GSH levels, mRNA induction and protein expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase (gclc) were higher in lpr mice. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein levels at 6h were significantly lower in lpr mice, which correlated with reduced nitrotyrosine staining. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) mRNA levels were substantially higher in lpr mice after APAP. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the faster recovery of hepatic GSH levels during oxidant stress and peroxynitrite formation, reduced iNOS expression and enhanced induction of Hsp70 attenuated the susceptibility to APAP-induced cell death in lpr mice. PMID:23628456

  18. Achieving Lower Nitrogen Balance and Higher Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency Reduces Nitrous Oxide Emissions in North America's Maize Cropping Systems

    PubMed Central

    Omonode, Rex A.; Halvorson, Ardell D.; Gagnon, Bernard; Vyn, Tony J.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the common, yet unproven, hypothesis that an increase of plant nitrogen (N) uptake and/or recovery efficiency (NRE) will reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during crop production. Understanding the relationships between N2O emissions and crop N uptake and use efficiency parameters can help inform crop N management recommendations for both efficiency and environmental goals. Analyses were conducted to determine which of several commonly used crop N uptake-derived parameters related most strongly to growing season N2O emissions under varying N management practices in North American maize systems. Nitrogen uptake-derived variables included total aboveground N uptake (TNU), grain N uptake (GNU), N recovery efficiency (NRE), net N balance (NNB) in relation to GNU [NNB(GNU)] and TNU [NNB(TNU)], and surplus N (SN). The relationship between N2O and N application rate was sigmoidal with relatively small emissions for N rates <130 kg ha−1, and a sharp increase for N rates from 130 to 220 kg ha−1; on average, N2O increased linearly by about 5 g N per kg of N applied for rates up to 220 kg ha−1. Fairly strong and significant negative relationships existed between N2O and NRE when management focused on N application rate (r2 = 0.52) or rate and timing combinations (r2 = 0.65). For every percentage point increase, N2O decreased by 13 g N ha−1 in response to N rates, and by 20 g N ha−1 for NRE changes in response to rate-by-timing treatments. However, more consistent positive relationships (R2 = 0.73–0.77) existed between N2O and NNB(TNU), NNB(GNU), and SN, regardless of rate and timing of N application; on average N2O emission increased by about 5, 7, and 8 g N, respectively, per kg increase of NNB(GNU), NNB(TNU), and SN. Neither N source nor placement influenced the relationship between N2O and NRE. Overall, our analysis indicated that a careful selection of appropriate N rate applied at the right time can both increase NRE and reduce N2O

  19. Abdominal fat deposition and fatty acid synthesis are lower and beta-oxidation is higher in broiler chickens fed diets containing unsaturated rather than saturated fat.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Menoyo, D; Bautista, J M

    2000-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of dietary fat type on fat metabolism and deposition in broiler chickens. Birds were fed diets containing either 8 g dietary saturated (beef tallow) or polyunsaturated fat (sunflower oil)/100 g for 32 d. The abdominal fat deposition of chickens fed the sunflower oil-enriched diet was significantly lower than that of chickens fed the tallow-enriched diet (2.63 +/- 0.47 versus 3.03 +/- 0.44 g/100 g live wt.; P = 0.033). The specific activities of heart carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase were higher (P < or = 0.03) in chickens fed the sunflower oil-enriched diets, indicating a greater rate of beta-oxidation. Liver fatty acid synthetase activity was lower (P = 0.01) in chickens fed the sunflower oil-enriched diet, suggesting reduced hepatic lipogenesis in this group. Postprandial plasma triglyceride levels were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in birds fed the sunflower oil-enriched diet, indicating a higher rate of dietary lipid clearance from the bloodstream to tissues. In conclusion, the lower fat deposition observed in broilers fed sunflower oil-enriched diets appears to be the net result of an increased rate of lipid catabolism and lower rate of fatty acid synthesis despite higher dietary fat absorption.

  20. Combined effects of ghrelin and higher food intake enhance skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and AKT phosphorylation in rats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Barazzoni, Rocco; Zhu, Xinxia; Deboer, Mark; Datta, Rakesh; Culler, Michael D; Zanetti, Michela; Guarnieri, Gianfranco; Marks, Daniel L

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance occur in chronic kidney disease. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone previously shown to enhance muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities and AKT-mediated insulin signaling independent of food intake in healthy rats. Here we determined the impact of ghrelin treatment on anorexia, skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity, AKT phosphorylation as a measure of insulin signaling, and lean body mass in a rat model of chronic kidney disease. Ghrelin infusion promoted higher food intake and lean body mass. Further, although muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities were low in the rats with CKD (chronic kidney disease), they normalized with ghrelin treatment, a change that was consistent with the increase in the transcript levels of regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid metabolism. This was associated with a lower muscle triglyceride content and higher AKT phosphorylation. Pair-feeding showed that mitochondrial effects of ghrelin are independent of changes in food intake, whereas combined ghrelin treatment and higher food intake were needed to enhance AKT phosphorylation. Thus, ghrelin-induced muscle mitochondrial changes and lower tissue triglycerides could favor insulin action and muscle anabolism in the presence of improvement in food intake. Our study shows that combined effects of ghrelin on appetite and muscle mitochondria improve muscle metabolic and nutritional alterations in chronic kidney disease. This could have potential beneficial impact on patient morbidity and survival.

  1. Helicobacter pylori in sedentary men is linked to higher heart rate, sympathetic activity, and insulin resistance but not inflammation or oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Cherkas, Andriy; Eckl, Peter; Guéraud, Françoise; Abrahamovych, Orest; Serhiyenko, Victoria; Yatskevych, Ostap; Pliatsko, Mykhailo; Golota, Sergii

    2016-01-01

    Aim To compare anthropometric parameters, body composition, hormonal and inflammatory profiles, oxidative stress indices, and heart rate variability (HRV) in Heliobacter pylori (H.pylori) positive and negative healthy sedentary participants. Methods Among 30 recruited apparently healthy male participants (age between 20 and 40) enrolled in this cross-sectional study, 18 were H.pylori negative and 12 were positive (stool antigen test). Participants underwent routine physical examination and body composition determination. The following biochemical parameters were determined in blood: fasting whole blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, insulin, C-peptide, cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone, C-reactive protein, interleukins 6 and 10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and the urinary level of 1,4-dihydroxynonane mercapturic acid. For HRV evaluation, electrocardiogram in supine position and in orthostatic test was performed. Results H.pylori contamination was not significantly associated with any changes in anthropometric parameters, body composition, blood pressure, fasting glucose, or glycated hemoglobin levels. No significant difference was found for inflammatory markers as well as 1,4-dihydroxynonane mercapturic acid. H.pylori-positive participants, however, had significantly higher heart rate (P = 0.009), sympathetic/parasympathetic balance in orthostatic test (P = 0.029), fasting insulin level (P = 0.037), and HOMA-index (P = 0.047). Conclusions H.pylori contamination is linked to a significantly higher heart rate, sympathetic activation, and increased insulin resistance, while inflammatory and oxidative stress markers remain unaffected in healthy sedentary male subjects. PMID:27106356

  2. The higher exercise intensity and the presence of allele I of ACE gene elicit a higher post-exercise blood pressure reduction and nitric oxide release in elderly women: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The absence of the I allele of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with higher levels of circulating ACE, lower nitric oxide (NO) release and hypertension. The purposes of this study were to analyze the post-exercise salivary nitrite (NO2-) and blood pressure (BP) responses to different exercise intensities in elderly women divided according to their ACE genotype. Methods Participants (n = 30; II/ID = 20 and DD = 10) underwent three experimental sessions: incremental test - IT (15 watts workload increase/3 min) until exhaustion; 20 min exercise 90% anaerobic threshold (90% AT); and 20 min control session without exercise. Volunteers had their BP and NO2- measured before and after experimental sessions. Results Despite both intensities showed protective effect on preventing the increase of BP during post-exercise recovery compared to control, post-exercise hypotension and increased NO2- release was observed only for carriers of the I allele (p < 0.05). Conclusion Genotypes of the ACE gene may exert a role in post-exercise NO release and BP response. PMID:22136292

  3. Higher glucose level and systemic oxidative stress decrease the mean velocity index of the retinal artery during flickering light stimulation in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Debelić, Vladimir; Drnovšek Olup, Brigita; Žižek, Bogomir; Skitek, Milan; Jerin, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine whether higher glucose level and systemic oxidative stress decrease mean velocity (MV) index of the central retinal artery (CRA) during flickering light stimulation in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods The study was performed in the period from 2008 to 2015 at the University Eye Clinic in Ljubljana. 41 patients with T1D and 37 participants without diabetes were included. MV in the CRA was measured using Doppler ultrasound diagnostics in basal conditions and during 8 Hz flickering light irritation. The plasma levels of glucose, fructosamine, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were measured. Results Patients with T1D had significantly higher levels of blood glucose (P < 0.001), fructosamine (P < 0.001), and 8-OHdG (P < 0.001), but there were no significant differences in triglycerides (P = 0.108), cholesterol (P = 0.531), and LDL (P = 0.645) between the groups. Patients with T1D also had a significantly lower MV index in the CRA (1.11 ± 0.15 vs 1.24 ± 0.23; P = 0.010). In the T1D group, a significant negative correlation was found between the level of glucose (r = −0.58; P < 0.001), fructosamine (r = −0.46; P = 0.003), 8-OHdG (r = −0.48; P = 0.002) and the MV index in the CRA. At the same time, in this group fructosamine and 8-OHdG levels had a separate effect on the MV index (adjusted R2 = 0.38, P < 0.001). Conclusion Higher glucose levels, the medium-term glucose level, and systemic oxidative stress could importantly reduce retinal vasodilatation during flickering light irritation in patients with T1D. PMID:27815934

  4. Dietary protein requirement of female adults >65 years determined by the indicator amino acid oxidation technique is higher than current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Mahroukh; Chapman, Karen; Owens, Jillian; Elango, Rajavel; Campbell, Wayne W; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    Studies on protein requirements in vulnerable groups such as older adults are few, and results are conflicting. The main objective of this study was to determine the protein requirements of free-living women >65 y by measuring the oxidation of l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO2 in response to graded intakes of protein. Twelve subjects participated in the study, with protein intakes ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) for a total of 82 studies. The diets provided energy at 1.5 times each subject's resting energy expenditure and were isocaloric. Protein was given as an amino acid mixture on the basis of the egg protein pattern, except for phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were maintained constant across the protein intake amounts. All subjects were adapted for 2 d before the study day to a protein intake of 1.0 g · kg(-1) · d(-1). The mean protein requirement was determined by applying a mixed-effects change-point regression analysis to F(13)CO2 (label tracer oxidation in (13)CO2 breath), which identified a breakpoint in the F(13)CO2 in response to graded amounts of protein. The mean estimated average requirement (EAR) and upper 95% CI (approximating the RDA) protein requirement of women >65 y were 0.96 and 1.29 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), respectively. These estimates of protein requirements for older women are higher than the current EAR and RDA based on nitrogen balance data, which are 0.66 and 0.80 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), respectively. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01604980. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Ni-Co oxide formation with Cu assisted method on Ni foam: Unexpected higher areal capacitance of inner layer with naturally formed nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Diwen; Zhang, Liuyang; Gong, Hao

    2017-09-01

    Ni Foam substrate directly serves as the Ni source for the final Ni-Co oxide product with a Cu assisted chemical method. Especially, after shaking off top layer of Ni-Co oxide grown on Ni Foam, the sample unexpectedly exhibits a greatly enhanced areal capacitance from 4.17 to 11.44 F cm-2 (1 mA cm-2). Finer structures including oxide nanotubes are interestingly found underneath the top layer, which may account for this extraordinary phenomenon.

  6. Increased methylation of repetitive elements and DNA repair genes is associated with higher DNA oxidation in children in an urbanized, industrial environment.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel; Sánchez-Guerra, Marco; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Mugica, Violeta; Pelallo-Martínez, Nadia Azenet; Solís-Heredia, María de Jesús; Byun, Hyang-Min; Baccarelli, Andrea; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation in DNA repair genes participates in the DNA damage regulation. Particulate matter (PM), which has metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed, among others has been linked to adverse health outcomes and may modify DNA methylation. To evaluate PM exposure impact on repetitive elements and gene-specific DNA methylation and DNA damage, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 150 schoolchildren (7-10 years old) from an urbanized, industrial area of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC), which frequently exhibits PM concentrations above safety standards. Methylation (5mC) of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE1) and DNA repair gene (OGG1, APEX, and PARP1) was assessed by pyrosequencing in peripheral mononuclear cells, DNA damage by comet assay and DNA oxidation by 8-OHdG content. PAH and metal contents in PM10 (≤10μm aerodynamic diameter) were determined by HPLC-MS and ICP-AES, respectively. Multiple regression analysis between DNA methylation, DNA damage, and PM10 exposure showed that PM10 was significantly associated with oxidative DNA damage; a 1% increase in 5mC at all CpG sites in PARP1 promoter was associated with a 35% increase in 8-OHdG, while a 1% increase at 1, 2, and 3 CpG sites resulted in 38, 9, and 56% increments, respectively. An increase of 10pg/m(3) in benzo[b]fluoranthene content of PM10 was associated with a 6% increase in LINE1 methylation. Acenaphthene, indene [1,2,3-cd] pyrene, and pyrene concentrations correlated with higher dinucleotide methylation in OGG1, APEX and PARP1 genes, respectively. Vanadium concentration correlated with increased methylation at selected APEX and PARP1 CpG sites. DNA repair gene methylation was significantly correlated with DNA damage and with specific PM10-associated PAHs and Vanadium. Data suggest that exposure to PM and its components are associated with differences in DNA methylation of repair genes in children, which may contribute to DNA damage. Copyright © 2016

  7. Use of human wastes oxidized to different degrees in cultivation of higher plants on the soil-like substrate intended for closed ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    To close mass exchange loops in bioregenerative life support systems more efficiently, researchers of the Institute of Biophysics SB RAS (Krasnoyarsk, Russia) have developed a procedure of wet combustion of human wastes and inedible parts of plants using H 2O 2 in alternating electromagnetic field. Human wastes pretreated in this way can be used as nutrient solutions to grow plants in the phototrophic unit of the LSS. The purpose of this study was to explore the possibilities of using human wastes oxidized to different degrees to grow plants cultivated on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The treated human wastes were analyzed to test their sterility. Then we investigated the effects produced by human wastes oxidized to different degrees on growth and development of wheat plants and on the composition of microflora in the SLS. The irrigation solution contained water, substances extracted from the substrate, and certain amounts of the mineralized human wastes. The experiments showed that the human wastes oxidized using reduced amounts of 30% H 2O 2: 1 ml/g of feces and 0.25 ml/ml of urine were still sterile. The experiments with wheat plants grown on the SLS and irrigated by the solution containing treated human wastes in the amount simulating 1/6 of the daily diet of a human showed that the degree of oxidation of human wastes did not significantly affect plant productivity. On the other hand, the composition of the microbiota of irrigation solutions was affected by the oxidation level of the added metabolites. In the solutions supplemented with partially oxidized metabolites yeast-like microscopic fungi were 20 times more abundant than in the solutions containing fully oxidized metabolites. Moreover, in the solutions containing incompletely oxidized human wastes the amounts of phytopathogenic bacteria and denitrifying microorganisms were larger. Thus, insufficiently oxidized sterile human wastes added to the irrigation solutions significantly affect the composition of

  8. Photoelectron spectroscopy of higher bromine and iodine oxide anions: Electron affinities and electronic structures of BrO2,3 and IO2-4 radicals.

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Hui; Hou, Gaolei; Huang, Wei; Govind, Niranjan; Wang, Xue B.

    2011-11-14

    This report details a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) investigation on electron affinities (EAs) and electronic structures of several atmospherically relevant higher bromine and iodine oxide molecules in the gas phase. PES spectra of BrO{sub 2}{sup -} and IO{sub 2}{sup -} were recorded at 12 K and four photon energies--355 nm/3.496 eV, 266 nm/4.661 eV, 193 nm/6.424 eV, and 157 nm/7.867 eV--while BrO{sub 3}{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, and IO{sub 4}{sup -} were studied at 193 and 157 nm only due to their expected high electron binding energies. Spectral features corresponding to transitions from the anion ground state to the ground and excited states of the neutral are unraveled and resolved for each species. For the first time, EAs of these bromine and iodine oxides are experimentally determined (except for IO{sub 2}) to be 2.515 {+-} 0.010 (BrO{sub 2}), 2.575 {+-} 0.010 (IO{sub 2}), 4.60 {+-} 0.05 (BrO{sub 3}), 4.70 {+-} 0.05 (IO{sub 3}), and 6.05 {+-} 0.05 eV (IO{sub 4}). Three low-lying excited states with their respective excitation energies are obtained for BrO{sub 2} [1.69 (A {sup 2}B2), 1.79 (B {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 1.99 eV (C {sup 2}A{sub 2})], BrO{sub 3} [0.7 (A {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 1.6 (B {sup 2}E), 3.1 eV (C {sup 2}E)], and IO{sub 3} [0.60 (A {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 1.20 (B {sup 2}E), {approx}3.0 eV (C {sup 2}E)], whereas six excited states of IO{sub 2} are determined with the respective excitation energies of 1.63 (A {sup 2}B{sub 2}), 1.73 (B {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 1.83 (C {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 4.23 (D {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 4.63 (E {sup 2}B{sub 2}), and 5.23 eV (F {sup 2}B{sub 1}). Periodate possesses a very high electron binding energy. Only one excited state feature with 0.95 eV excitation energy is shown in the 157 nm spectrum. The obtained EAs and low-lying excited state information are compared with available theoretical calculations and discussed with their atmospheric implications.

  9. Photoelectron spectroscopy of higher bromine and iodine oxide anions: electron affinities and electronic structures of BrO(2,3) and IO(2-4) radicals.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hui; Hou, Gao-Lei; Huang, Wei; Govind, Niranjan; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2011-11-14

    This report details a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and theoretical investigation of electron affinities (EAs) and electronic structures of several atmospherically relevant higher bromine and iodine oxide molecules in the gas phase. PES spectra of BrO(2)(-) and IO(2)(-) were recorded at 12 K and four photon energies--355 nm/3.496 eV, 266 nm/4.661 eV, 193 nm/6.424 eV, and 157 nm/7.867 eV--while BrO(3)(-), IO(3)(-), and IO(4)(-) were only studied at 193 and 157 nm due to their expected high electron binding energies. Spectral features corresponding to transitions from the anionic ground state to the ground and excited states of the neutral are unraveled and resolved for each species. The EAs of these bromine and iodine oxides are experimentally determined for the first time (except for IO(2)) to be 2.515 ± 0.010 (BrO(2)), 2.575 ± 0.010 (IO(2)), 4.60 ± 0.05 (BrO(3)), 4.70 ± 0.05 (IO(3)), and 6.05 ± 0.05 eV (IO(4)). Three low-lying excited states along with their respective excitation energies are obtained for BrO(2) [1.69 (A (2)B(2)), 1.79 (B (2)A(1)), 1.99 eV (C (2)A(2))], BrO(3) [0.7 (A (2)A(2)), 1.6 (B (2)E), 3.1 eV (C (2)E)], and IO(3) [0.60 (A (2)A(2)), 1.20 (B (2)E), ∼3.0 eV (C (2)E)], whereas six excited states of IO(2) are determined along with their respective excitation energies of 1.63 (A (2)B(2)), 1.73 (B (2)A(1)), 1.83 (C (2)A(2)), 4.23 (D (2)A(1)), 4.63 (E (2)B(2)), and 5.23 eV (F (2)B(1)). Periodate (IO(4)(-)) possesses a very high electron binding energy. Only one excited state feature with 0.95 eV excitation energy is shown in the 157 nm spectrum. Accompanying theoretical calculations reveal structural changes from the anions to the neutrals, and the calculated EAs are in good agreement with experimentally determined values. Franck-Condon factors simulations nicely reproduce the observed vibrational progressions for BrO(2) and IO(2). The low-lying excited state information is compared with theoretical calculations and discussed with their

  10. Photoelectron spectroscopy of higher bromine and iodine oxide anions: Electron affinities and electronic structures of BrO2,3 and IO2-4 radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hui; Hou, Gao-Lei; Huang, Wei; Govind, Niranjan; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2011-11-01

    This report details a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and theoretical investigation of electron affinities (EAs) and electronic structures of several atmospherically relevant higher bromine and iodine oxide molecules in the gas phase. PES spectra of BrO2- and IO2- were recorded at 12 K and four photon energies—355 nm/3.496 eV, 266 nm/4.661 eV, 193 nm/6.424 eV, and 157 nm/7.867 eV—while BrO3-, IO3-, and IO4- were only studied at 193 and 157 nm due to their expected high electron binding energies. Spectral features corresponding to transitions from the anionic ground state to the ground and excited states of the neutral are unraveled and resolved for each species. The EAs of these bromine and iodine oxides are experimentally determined for the first time (except for IO2) to be 2.515 ± 0.010 (BrO2), 2.575 ± 0.010 (IO2), 4.60 ± 0.05 (BrO3), 4.70 ± 0.05 (IO3), and 6.05 ± 0.05 eV (IO4). Three low-lying excited states along with their respective excitation energies are obtained for BrO2 [1.69 (A 2B2), 1.79 (B 2A1), 1.99 eV (C 2A2)], BrO3 [0.7 (A 2A2), 1.6 (B 2E), 3.1 eV (C 2E)], and IO3 [0.60 (A 2A2), 1.20 (B 2E), ˜3.0 eV (C 2E)], whereas six excited states of IO2 are determined along with their respective excitation energies of 1.63 (A 2B2), 1.73 (B 2A1), 1.83 (C 2A2), 4.23 (D 2A1), 4.63 (E 2B2), and 5.23 eV (F 2B1). Periodate (IO4-) possesses a very high electron binding energy. Only one excited state feature with 0.95 eV excitation energy is shown in the 157 nm spectrum. Accompanying theoretical calculations reveal structural changes from the anions to the neutrals, and the calculated EAs are in good agreement with experimentally determined values. Franck-Condon factors simulations nicely reproduce the observed vibrational progressions for BrO2 and IO2. The low-lying excited state information is compared with theoretical calculations and discussed with their atmospheric implications.

  11. Oxidative stress in microorganisms--I. Microbial vs. higher cells--damage and defenses in relation to cell aging and death.

    PubMed

    Sigler, K; Chaloupka, J; Brozmanová, J; Stadler, N; Höfer, M

    1999-01-01

    Oxidative stress in microbial cells shares many similarities with other cell types but it has its specific features which may differ in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. We survey here the properties and actions of primary sources of oxidative stress, the role of transition metals in oxidative stress and cell protective machinery of microbial cells, and compare them with analogous features of other cell types. Other features to be compared are the action of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) on cell constituents, secondary lipid- or protein-based radicals and other stress products. Repair of oxidative injury by microorganisms and proteolytic removal of irreparable cell constituents are briefly described. Oxidative damage of aerobically growing microbial cells by endogenously formed ROS mostly does not induce changes similar to the aging of multiplying mammalian cells. Rapid growth of bacteria and yeast prevents accumulation of impaired macromolecules which are repaired, diluted or eliminated. During growth some simple fungi, such as yeast or Podospora spp., exhibit aging whose primary cause seems to be fragmentation of the nucleolus or impairment of mitochondrial DNA integrity. Yeast cell aging seems to be accelerated by endogenous oxidative stress. Unlike most growing microbial cells, stationary-phase cells gradually lose their viability because of a continuous oxidative stress, in spite of an increased synthesis of antioxidant enzymes. Unlike in most microorganisms, in plant and animal cells a severe oxidative stress induces a specific programmed death pathway--apoptosis. The scant data on the microbial death mechanisms induced by oxidative stress indicate that in bacteria cell death can result from activation of autolytic enzymes (similarly to the programmed mother-cell death at the end of bacillary sporulation). Yeast and other simple eukaryotes contain components of a proapoptotic pathway which are silent under normal conditions but can be activated by oxidative

  12. CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was fo...

  13. Achieving lower nitrogen balance and higher nitrogen recovery efficiency reduces nitrous oxide emissions in North America’s maize cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Few studies have assessed the common, yet unproven, hypothesis that an increase of plant nitrogen (N) uptake and/or recovery efficiency (NRE) will reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during crop production. Understanding the relationships between N2O emissions and crop N uptake and use efficiency p...

  14. CYP63A2, a catalytically versatile fungal P450 monooxygenase capable of oxidizing higher-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and alkanes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are known to oxidize hydrocarbons albeit with limited substrate specificity across classes of these compounds. Here we report a P450 monooxygenase (CYP63A2) from the model ligninolytic white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium that was fo...

  15. Higher Vulnerability of Menadione-Exposed Cortical Astrocytes of Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficient Mice to Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Cell Death: Implications for the Neurodegeneration in Glutaric Aciduria Type I.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marília Danyelle Nunes; Seminotti, Bianca; Zanatta, Ângela; de Mello Gonçalves, Aline; Bellaver, Bruna; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Quincozes-Santos, André; Goodman, Stephen Irwin; Woontner, Michael; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Wajner, Moacir

    2017-08-01

    Patients affected by glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) show progressive cortical leukoencephalopathy whose pathogenesis is poorly known. In the present work, we exposed cortical astrocytes of wild-type (Gcdh (+/+) ) and glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase knockout (Gcdh (-/-) ) mice to the oxidative stress inducer menadione and measured mitochondrial bioenergetics, redox homeostasis, and cell viability. Mitochondrial function (MTT and JC1-mitochondrial membrane potential assays), redox homeostasis (DCFH oxidation, nitrate and nitrite production, GSH concentrations and activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPx), and cell death (propidium iodide incorporation) were evaluated in primary cortical astrocyte cultures of Gcdh (+/+) and Gcdh (-/-) mice unstimulated and stimulated by menadione. We also measured the pro-inflammatory response (TNFα levels, IL1-β and NF-ƙB) in unstimulated astrocytes obtained from these mice. Gcdh (-/-) mice astrocytes were more vulnerable to menadione-induced oxidative stress (decreased GSH concentrations and altered activities of the antioxidant enzymes), mitochondrial dysfunction (decrease of MTT reduction and JC1 values), and cell death as compared with Gcdh (+/+) astrocytes. A higher inflammatory response (TNFα, IL1-β and NF-ƙB) was also observed in Gcdh (-/-) mice astrocytes. These data indicate a higher susceptibility of Gcdh (-/-) cortical astrocytes to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, probably leading to cell death. It is presumed that these pathomechanisms may contribute to the cortical leukodystrophy observed in GA-I patients.

  16. Zinc Absorption by Young Adults from Supplemental Zinc Citrate Is Comparable with That from Zinc Gluconate and Higher than from Zinc Oxide123

    PubMed Central

    Wegmüller, Rita; Tay, Fabian; Zeder, Christophe; Brnić, Marica; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with 67Zn and 70Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6–71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6–71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9–57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627. PMID:24259556

  17. Hepatoprotective Activity of Water Extracts from Chaga Medicinal Mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Liver Injury in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Bae; Noh, Dong Ouk; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the hepatoprotective activity of Inonotus obliquus water extract (IO-W) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative liver injury in the primary cultured rat hepatocyte. The 50% radical scavenging concentrations (SC50s) of IO-W for radical-scavenging activity against 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothi- azoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) were 5.19 mg/mL and 0.39 mg/mL, respectively. IO-W pretreatment to the primary cultured hepatocytes significantly (p<0.05) protected the cells from t-BHP-induced cytotoxic injury even at a low concentration of IO-W (10 µg/mL). The cellular leakage of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation caused by t-BHP were significantly (p<0.05) suppressed by IO-W pretreatment (>100 µg/ mL). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that IO-W exhibited hepatoprotective activity against t-BHP-induced oxidative liver injury in the primary cultured hepatocyte probably via its abilities of quenching free radicals, inhibiting the leakage of ALT, AST, and LDH, and decreasing MDA formation.

  18. Effect of nonionic fluorosurfactant on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence of the tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)/tri-n-propylamine system: lower oxidation potential and higher emission intensity.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Zu, Yanbing

    2004-03-15

    Fluorosurfactants are commercially available, and their applications in electrochemical systems have been the interest of many studies. Here, we describe a novel effect of a nonionic fluorosurfactant (Zonyl FSN) on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of the tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)/tri-n-propylamine (TPrA) system at gold and platinum electrodes. Compared with its hydrocarbon analogue (Triton X-100), the adsorbed fluorosurfactant species not only rendered the electrode surfaces more hydrophobic but also significantly retarded the growth of the electrode oxide layers. As a result, more facile direct oxidation of TPrA was achieved, which led to the appearance of a low oxidation potential ECL signal (below 1.0 V vs SCE). At the gold electrode, the ECL peak appeared at 0.82 V, approximately 400 mV more negative than usual; while its intensity was approximately 50 times higher. The generation of the intense ECL signal at low oxidation potential may lead to the development of more efficient ECL analysis.

  19. Increased Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Organs Is Associated with a Higher Severity of H5N1 Influenza Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Burggraaf, Simon; Bingham, John; Payne, Jean; Kimpton, Wayne G.; Lowenthal, John W.; Bean, Andrew G. D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The mechanisms of disease severity caused by H5N1 influenza virus infection remain somewhat unclear. Studies have indicated that a high viral load and an associated hyper inflammatory immune response are influential during the onset of infection. This dysregulated inflammatory response with increased levels of free radicals, such as nitric oxide (NO), appears likely to contribute to disease severity. However, enzymes of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family such as the inducible form of NOS (iNOS) generate NO, which serves as a potent anti-viral molecule to combat infection in combination with acute phase proteins and cytokines. Nevertheless, excessive production of iNOS and subsequent high levels of NO during H5N1 infection may have negative effects, acting with other damaging oxidants to promote excessive inflammation or induce apoptosis. Methodology/Principal Findings There are dramatic differences in the severity of disease between chickens and ducks following H5N1 influenza infection. Chickens show a high level of mortality and associated pathology, whilst ducks show relatively minor symptoms. It is not clear how this varying pathogenicty comes about, although it has been suggested that an overactive inflammatory immune response to infection in the chicken, compared to the duck response, may be to blame for the disparity in observed pathology. In this study, we identify and investigate iNOS gene expression in ducks and chickens during H5N1 influenza infection. Infected chickens show a marked increase in iNOS expression in a wide range of organs. Contrastingly, infected duck tissues have lower levels of tissue related iNOS expression. Conclusions/Significance The differences in iNOS expression levels observed between chickens and ducks during H5N1 avian influenza infection may be important in the inflammatory response that contributes to the pathology. Understanding the regulation of iNOS expression and its role during H5N1 influenza infection may

  20. Low temperature formation of higher-k cubic phase HfO{sub 2} by atomic layer deposition on GeO{sub x}/Ge structures fabricated by in-situ thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.; Huang, P.-C.; Taoka, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Takenaka, M.; Takagi, S.

    2016-02-01

    We have demonstrated a low temperature formation (300 °C) of higher-k HfO{sub 2} using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on an in-situ thermal oxidation GeO{sub x} interfacial layer. It is found that the cubic phase is dominant in the HfO{sub 2} film with an epitaxial-like growth behavior. The maximum permittivity of 42 is obtained for an ALD HfO{sub 2} film on a 1-nm-thick GeO{sub x} form by the in-situ thermal oxidation. It is suggested from physical analyses that the crystallization of cubic phase HfO{sub 2} can be induced by the formation of six-fold crystalline GeO{sub x} structures in the underlying GeO{sub x} interfacial layer.

  1. Dietary Protein Requirement of Men >65 Years Old Determined by the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique Is Higher than the Current Estimated Average Requirement.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Mahroukh; Chapman, Karen; Elango, Rajavel; Campbell, Wayne W; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Courtney-Martin, Glenda

    2016-03-09

    The current estimated average requirement (EAR) and RDA for protein of 0.66 and 0.8 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1), respectively, for adults, including older men, are based on nitrogen balance data analyzed by monolinear regression. Recent studies in young men and older women that used the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique suggest that those values may be too low. This observation is supported by 2-phase linear crossover analysis of the nitrogen balance data. The main objective of this study was to determine the protein requirement for older men by using the IAAO technique. Six men aged >65 y were studied; each individual was tested 7 times with protein intakes ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) in random order for a total of 42 studies. The diets provided energy at 1.5 times the resting energy expenditure and were isocaloric. Protein was consumed hourly for 8 h as an amino acid mixture with the composition of egg protein with l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine as the indicator amino acid. The group mean protein requirement was determined by applying a mixed-effects change-point regression analysis to F(13)CO2 (label tracer oxidation in breath (13)CO2), which identified a breakpoint in F(13)CO2 in response to graded intakes of protein. The estimated protein requirement and RDA for older men were 0.94 and 1.24 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1), respectively, which are not different from values we published using the same method in young men and older women. The current intake recommendations for older adults for dietary protein of 0.66 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) for the EAR and 0.8 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) for the RDA appear to be underestimated by ∼30%. Future longer-term studies should be conducted to validate these results. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01948492. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Blocking the mitogen activated protein kinase-p38 pathway is associated with increase expression of nitric oxide synthase and higher production of nitric oxide by bovine macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Cleverson D

    2015-03-15

    This study evaluated the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p38 pathway in the nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by bovine monocyte-derived macrophages ingesting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) organisms in vitro. Bovine monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with MAP organisms with or without a specific inhibitor of the MAPKp38 pathway and activation of the MAPKp38, interleukin - (IL) IL-10, IL-12, iNOS mRNA expression and NO production were evaluated. Incubation of macrophages with MAP organisms activates the MAPKp38 pathway at early time points post infection. Chemically inhibition of MAPKp38 before incubation of bovine macrophages with MAP resulted in increased expression of IL-12 mRNA at 2, 6 and 24h, decreased expression of IL-10 mRNA at 2, 6 and 24h and increased expression of iNOS mRNA at 2 and 6h. Nitric oxide was evaluated to indirectly determine the effects of MAPKp38 pathway on the anti-microbial activity of bovine macrophages. Incubation of bovine macrophages with MAP resulted in modest increased production of NO at 4 and 6h post infection. Pretreatment of bovine macrophages with the MAPKp38 inhibitor SB203580 before addition of MAP organisms resulted in increased production of NO at 2, 4, 6 and 24h post infection. This study expanded our knowledge of the importance of the MAPKp38 pathway in limiting an appropriate macrophage response to MAP and suggested how activation of MAPKp38 pathway may be a target of this organism to disrupt earlier antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages. These findings raises the interesting possibility that the cellular manipulation of MAPKp38 may be useful in designing novel vaccines against MAP.

  3. Decreasing methylation of pectin caused by nitric oxide leads to higher aluminium binding in cell walls and greater aluminium sensitivity of wheat roots

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Yu, Yan; Liu, Lijuan; Hu, Yan; Ye, Yiquan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important bioactive molecule involved in cell wall metabolism, which has been recognized as a major target of aluminium (Al) toxicity. We have investigated the effects of Al-induced NO production on cell wall composition and the subsequent Al-binding capacity in roots of an Al-sensitive cultivar of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yang-5). We found that Al exposure induced NO accumulation in the root tips. Eliminating NO production with an NO scavenger (cPTIO) significantly alleviated the Al-induced inhibition of root growth and thus reduced Al accumulation. Elimination of NO, however, did not significantly affect malate efflux or rhizosphere pH changes under Al exposure. Levels of cell wall polysaccharides (pectin, hemicelluloses 1, and hemicelluloses 2) and pectin methylesterase activity, as well as pectin demethylation in the root apex, significantly increased under Al treatment. Exogenous cPTIO application significantly decreased pectin methylesterase activity and increased the degree of methylation of pectin in the root cell wall, thus decreasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin. These results suggest that the Al-induced enhanced production of NO decreases cell wall pectin methylation, thus increasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin and negatively regulating Al tolerance in wheat. PMID:26663393

  4. Decreasing methylation of pectin caused by nitric oxide leads to higher aluminium binding in cell walls and greater aluminium sensitivity of wheat roots.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Yu, Yan; Liu, Lijuan; Hu, Yan; Ye, Yiquan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2016-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important bioactive molecule involved in cell wall metabolism, which has been recognized as a major target of aluminium (Al) toxicity. We have investigated the effects of Al-induced NO production on cell wall composition and the subsequent Al-binding capacity in roots of an Al-sensitive cultivar of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yang-5). We found that Al exposure induced NO accumulation in the root tips. Eliminating NO production with an NO scavenger (cPTIO) significantly alleviated the Al-induced inhibition of root growth and thus reduced Al accumulation. Elimination of NO, however, did not significantly affect malate efflux or rhizosphere pH changes under Al exposure. Levels of cell wall polysaccharides (pectin, hemicelluloses 1, and hemicelluloses 2) and pectin methylesterase activity, as well as pectin demethylation in the root apex, significantly increased under Al treatment. Exogenous cPTIO application significantly decreased pectin methylesterase activity and increased the degree of methylation of pectin in the root cell wall, thus decreasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin. These results suggest that the Al-induced enhanced production of NO decreases cell wall pectin methylation, thus increasing the Al-binding capacity of pectin and negatively regulating Al tolerance in wheat. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Selective oxidation of glycerol to 1,3-dihydroxyacetone by covalently immobilized glycerol dehydrogenases with higher stability and lower product inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Martin, Javier; Acosta, Andreína; Berenguer, Jose; Guisan, Jose M; Lopez-Gallego, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH) catalyzes the regioselective oxidation of glycerol to yield 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA); an important building block in chemical industry. Three recombinant GlyDHs from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, from Citrobacter braakii and from Cellulomonas sp. were stabilized by covalent immobilization. The highest activity recoveries (40-50%) of the insoluble preparations were obtained by immobilizing these enzymes in presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Noteworthy, these immobilized preparations were more stable and less inhibited by DHA than their soluble counterparts. In particular, GlyDH from G.stearothermophilus immobilized on agarose activated with both amine and glyoxyl groups and crosslinked with dextran aldehyde was 3.7-fold less inhibited by DHA than its soluble form and retained 100% of its initial activity after 18h of incubation at 65°C and pH 7. This is one of the few examples where the same immobilization protocol has minimized enzyme product inhibition and maximized thermal stability.

  6. Exceedingly Higher co-loading of Curcumin and Paclitaxel onto Polymer-functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide for Highly Potent Synergistic Anticancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Muthoosamy, Kasturi; Abubakar, Ibrahim Babangida; Bai, Renu Geetha; Loh, Hwei-San; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis of lung carcinoma to breast and vice versa accounts for one of the vast majority of cancer deaths. Synergistic treatments are proven to be the effective method to inhibit malignant cell proliferation. It is highly advantageous to use the minimum amount of a potent toxic drug, such as paclitaxel (Ptx) in ng/ml together with a natural and safe anticancer drug, curcumin (Cur) to reduce the systemic toxicity. However, both Cur and Ptx suffer from poor bioavailability. Herein, a drug delivery cargo was engineered by functionalizing reduced graphene oxide (G) with an amphiphilic polymer, PF-127 (P) by hydrophobic assembly. The drugs were loaded via pi-pi interactions, resulting in a nano-sized GP-Cur-Ptx of 140 nm. A remarkably high Cur loading of 678 wt.% was achieved, the highest thus far compared to any other Cur nanoformulations. Based on cell proliferation assay, GP-Cur-Ptx is a synergistic treatment (CI < 1) and is highly potent towards lung, A549 (IC50 = 13.24 μg/ml) and breast, MDA-MB-231 (IC50 = 1.450 μg/ml) cancer cells. These positive findings are further confirmed by increased reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential depletion and cell apoptosis. The same dose treated on normal MRC-5 cells shows that the system is biocompatible and cancerous cell-specific. PMID:27597657

  7. Metal-free, mild, nonepimerizing, chemo- and enantio- or diastereoselective N-alkylation of amines by alcohols via oxidation/imine-iminium formation/reductive amination: a pragmatic synthesis of octahydropyrazinopyridoindoles and higher ring analogues.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran A; Saxena, Anil K

    2013-12-06

    A mild step and atom-economical nonepimerizing chemo- and enantioselective N-alkylating procedure has been developed via oxidation/imine-iminium formation/reduction cascade using TEMPO-BAIB-HEH-Brønsted acid catalysis in DMPU as solvent and a stoichiometric amount of amine. The optimized conditions were further extended for the nonenzymatic kinetic resolution of the chiral amine thus formed under nonenzymatic in situ hydrogen-transfer conditions using VAPOL-derived phosphoric acid (VAPOL-PA) as the Brønsted acid catalyst. The enantioselective cascade of the presented reaction was successfully utilized in the synthesis of octahydropyrazinopyridoindole and its higher ring analogues.

  8. The medicinal cracked-cap polypore mushroom Phellinus rimosus (higher Basidiomycetes) attenuates alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Rony, Kuttikkadan A; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil A; Mathew, John; Janardhanan, Kainoor K

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is usually associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), impaired antioxidant defense systems, or both, which result in oxidative damage and lead to ROS-mediated diabetic pathogenesis. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the role of extract from the wood-inhabiting polypore medicinal mushroom Phellinus rimosus in an alloxan-induced diabetic model and the oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Oral administration of extract at doses of 50 and 250 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days to rats with alloxan-induced diabetes was found to possess significant dose-dependent hypoglycemic activity. In the oral glucose tolerance test, hypoglycemic effect of P. rimosus (250 mg/kg) was significant (P < 0.01) and maximum at 90 minutes after the glucose challenge when compared with that of control group. The effect of extract on antioxidant status in the pancreas, liver, and kidney was estimated. The diabetic control rats exhibited elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and lower activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in pancreatic, hepatic, and renal tissues compared with normal tissues. The activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH were found to be increased in diabetic rats treated with the extract. The increased level of lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats also was found to revert to near-normal status in groups treated with the extract. The findings thus suggest the therapeutic efficiency of Ph. Rimosus against declined antioxidant status as well as hyperglycemia associated with diabetes.

  9. Mycorrhiza-induced lower oxidative burst is related with higher antioxidant enzyme activities, net H2O2 effluxes, and Ca2+ influxes in trifoliate orange roots under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying-Ning; Huang, Yong-Ming; Wu, Qiang-Sheng; He, Xin-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Mechanisms of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM)-induced lower oxidative burst of host plants under drought stress (DS) are not elucidated. A noninvasive microtest technology (NMT) was used to investigate the effects of Funneliformis mosseae on net fluxes of root hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and calcium ions (Ca2+) in 5-month-old Poncirus trifoliata, in combination with catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities as well as tissue superoxide radical (O2•-) and H2O2 concentrations under DS and well-watered (WW) conditions. A 2-month DS (55% maximum water holding capacity of growth substrates) significantly inhibited AM fungal root colonization, while AM symbiosis significantly increased plant biomass production, irrespective of water status. F. mosseae inoculation generally increased SOD and CAT activity but decreased O2•- and H2O2 concentrations in leaves and roots under WW and DS. Compared with non-AM seedlings, roots of AM seedlings had significantly higher net H2O2 effluxes and net Ca2+ influxes, especially in the meristem zone, but lower net H2O2 efflux in the elongation zone. Net Ca2+ influxes into roots were significantly positively correlated with root net H2O2 effluxes but negatively with root H2O2 concentrations. Results from this study suggest that AM-induced lower oxidative burst is related with higher antioxidant enzyme activities, root net H2O2 effluxes, and Ca2+ influxes under WW and DS.

  10. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  11. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  12. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    Themes in 1989 higher education case law reflect the difficulty in reducing the federal deficit, increased service demands on state budgets, and an economic condition of marginal growth. The interpretation of constitutional rights in relationships between the institution and students, employees, and communities continues to be heavily litigated.…

  13. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Laurence W.; Wedlock, Eldon D., Jr.

    Courts have been consistently reluctant to interfere with governing boards' powers to control the administration of institutions of higher education. This deference seems to be based on the belief that board expertise makes it significantly more qualified than are the courts to make the necessary administrative decisions. Uncritical deference by…

  14. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  15. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  16. Temperature-programmed reaction of C sub 4 oxygenates on unpromoted and K-promoted ZnCr oxide in relation to the mechanism of the higher alcohol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lietti, L.; Forzatti, P.; Tronconi, E.; Pasquon, I. )

    1990-12-01

    The reaction mechanisms operating in the chain growth to C{sub 3+}primary alcohols and in the formation of ketones, secondary alcohols, methyl esters, ethers, and hydrocarbons during higher alcohol synthesis (HAS) over high-temperature modified methanol catalysts have been investigated by the temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) technique. Experiments with linear and branched C{sub 4} alcohols, aldehydes, and acids over an unpromoted ZnCr oxide sample have indicated a series of major catalyst functions, namely aldol-like condensation (also with oxygen retention reversal), decarboxylation and decarboxylative condensations, hydrogenation-dehydrogenation, dehydration and hydrolysis, along with isomerization and cracking. TPSR experiments with linear C{sub 4} molecules over K-promoted ZnCr oxide have demonstrated the effects of alkali addition on the catalyst functions. The results are supportive of a mechanism of chain growth to C{sub 3+} primary alcohols based on a sequence of aldolic condensations of aldehydes, which do not operate over 2-methyl species. Formation of ketones under TPSR conditions is explained by decarboxylative condensation reactions of aldehydic and carboxylate species, as well as by aldol-like condensation reactions with oxygen retention reversal. Secondary alcohols detected in the products of the synthesis are formed by hydrogenation of ketones. Methyl esters and ethers are produced in the synthesis by alcoholysis of carboxylate and alkoxide species, respectively. Decarboxylation of carboxylate species, along with dehydration, may also play a role in the formation hydrocarbons during HAS.

  17. Oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  18. The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method with the Use of l-[1-13C]Leucine Suggests a Higher than Currently Recommended Protein Requirement in Children with Phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Turki, Abrar; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Salvarinova, Ramona; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2017-02-01

    Phenylketonuria is characterized by mutations in the Phe hydroxylase gene that leads to the accumulation of Phe in plasma and the brain. The standard of care for phenylketonuria is nutritional management with dietary restriction of Phe and the provision of sufficient protein and energy for growth and health maintenance. The protein requirement in children with phenylketonuria is empirically determined based upon phenylketonuria nutritional guidelines that are adjusted individually in response to biochemical markers and growth. We determined dietary protein requirements in children with phenylketonuria with the use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, with l-[1-(13)C]Leu as the indicator amino acid. Four children (2 males; 2 females) aged 9-18 y with phenylketonuria [mild hyperphenylalanemia (mHPA); 6-10 mg/dL (360-600 μmol/L)] were recruited to participate in ≥7 separate test protein intakes (range: 0.2-3.2 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) with the IAAO protocol with the use of l-[1-(13)C]Leu followed by the collection of breath and urine samples over 8 h. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 times the resting energy expenditure. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on an egg protein pattern, except Phe and Leu, which were maintained at a constant across intakes. Protein requirement was determined with the use of a 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the rate of l-[1-(13)C]Leu tracer oxidation. The mean protein requirement was determined to be 1.85 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) (R(2) = 0.66; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.33). This result is substantially higher than the 2014 phenylketonuria recommendations (1.14-1.33 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1); based on 120-140% above the current RDA for age). To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly define a quantitative requirement for protein intake in children with mHPA and indicates that current protein recommendations in children with phenylketonuria may be insufficient

  19. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  20. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma.

    PubMed

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity.

  1. Highly oxidized graphene oxide and methods for production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Tour, James M.; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.

    2016-08-30

    A highly oxidized form of graphene oxide and methods for production thereof are described in various embodiments of the present disclosure. In general, the methods include mixing a graphite source with a solution containing at least one oxidant and at least one protecting agent and then oxidizing the graphite source with the at least one oxidant in the presence of the at least one protecting agent to form the graphene oxide. Graphene oxide synthesized by the presently described methods is of a high structural quality that is more oxidized and maintains a higher proportion of aromatic rings and aromatic domains than does graphene oxide prepared in the absence of at least one protecting agent. Methods for reduction of graphene oxide into chemically converted graphene are also disclosed herein. The chemically converted graphene of the present disclosure is significantly more electrically conductive than is chemically converted graphene prepared from other sources of graphene oxide.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1545 - Nitrous oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitrous oxide. 184.1545 Section 184.1545 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1545 Nitrous oxide. (a) Nitrous oxide (empirical formula N2O, CAS Reg. No.... Nitrous oxide is manufactured by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Higher oxides of...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1545 - Nitrous oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitrous oxide. 184.1545 Section 184.1545 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1545 Nitrous oxide. (a) Nitrous oxide (empirical formula N2O, CAS Reg. No.... Nitrous oxide is manufactured by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Higher oxides of...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1545 - Nitrous oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitrous oxide. 184.1545 Section 184.1545 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1545 Nitrous oxide. (a) Nitrous oxide (empirical formula N2O, CAS Reg. No.... Nitrous oxide is manufactured by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Higher oxides of...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1545 - Nitrous oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nitrous oxide. 184.1545 Section 184.1545 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1545 Nitrous oxide. (a) Nitrous oxide (empirical formula N2O, CAS Reg. No.... Nitrous oxide is manufactured by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Higher oxides of...

  6. Cancer Stem Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Line H446: Higher Dependency on Oxidative Phosphorylation and Mitochondrial Substrate-Level Phosphorylation than Non-Stem Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Fang; Miao, Yajing; Qiu, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Recently, targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) metabolism is becoming a promising therapeutic approach to improve cancer treatment outcomes. However, knowledge of the metabolic state of CSCs in small cell lung cancer is still lacking. In this study, we found that CSCs had significantly lower oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate than non-stem cancer cells. Meanwhile, this subpopulation of cells consumed less glucose, produced less lactate and maintained lower ATP levels. We also revealed that CSCs could produce more ATP through mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation during respiratory inhibition compared with non-stem cancer cells. Furthermore, they were more sensitive to suppression of oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, oligomycin (inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation) could severely impair sphere-forming and tumor-initiating abilities of CSCs. Our work suggests that CSCs represent metabolically inactive tumor subpopulations which sustain in a state showing low metabolic activity. However, mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation of CSCs may be more active than that of non-stem cancer cells. Moreover, CSCs showed preferential use of oxidative phosphorylation over glycolysis to meet their energy demand. These results extend our understanding of CSCs metabolism, potentially providing novel treatment strategies targeting metabolic pathways in small cell lung cancer. PMID:27167619

  7. Periodontal treatment decreases plasma oxidized LDL level and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Reiko; Morita, Manabu

    2011-12-01

    Periodontitis induces excessive production of reactive oxygen species in periodontal lesions. This may impair circulating pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and induce the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in blood. The purpose of this study was to monitor circulating oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in subjects with chronic periodontitis following non-surgical periodontal treatment. Plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in 22 otherwise healthy non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (mean age 44.0 years) were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. At baseline, chronic periodontitis patients had higher plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress than healthy subjects (p < 0.001). Periodontal treatment was associated with a significant reduction in plasma levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL)(p < 0.001) and oxidative stress (p < 0.001). At 2 months after periodontal treatment, the degree of change in the oxLDL was positively correlated with that in the oxidative stress (r = 0.593, p = 0.004). These observations indicate that periodontitis patients showed higher levels of circulating oxLDL and oxidative stress than healthy subjects. In addition, improved oral hygiene and non-surgical periodontal treatment were effective in decreasing oxLDL, which was positively associated with a reduction in circulating oxidative stress.

  8. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  9. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  10. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  11. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  12. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  13. Higher Education Exchange, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  14. Surface Science and the Advancement of Direct Olefin Epoxidation A Perspective on the Article, ‘‘Partial Oxidation of Higher Olefins on Ag(111) and Ag(110): Conversion of Styrene to Styrene Oxide, Benzene, and Benzoic Acid’’, by Andreas Klust and Robert J. Madix.

    SciTech Connect

    Barteau, Mark A.

    2006-10-04

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Few reactions are as conceptually simple or as devilishly difficult as the epoxidation of ethylene to form ethylene oxide:

  15. Ethylene Oxide Gaseous Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Robert R.; Shull, James J.

    1962-01-01

    The relationships of reaction temperature and concentration of gaseous ethylene oxide to the time required for inactivation of air-dried Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores are more complex than previously reported. A plot of temperature vs. the logarithm of “thermochemical death time” (TCDT) resulted in a straight line between 18 and 57 C for systems of “high” ethylene oxide concentration. The TCDT values were independent of ethylene oxide concentrations above certain temperature-dependent limits. A given ethylene oxide concentration produced a TCDT curve identical in the upper temperature regions with that for higher concentrations. As the temperature was lowered beyond a critical point, this curve diverged from that for higher concentrations, as a straight line of lesser slope. Thus, a series of curves exists for a range of ethylene oxide concentrations. They are characterized by two segments, both logarithmic, intersecting at a critical temperature for each concentration. The intersecting point is at a temperature inversely related to the ethylene oxide gas concentration. The temperature quotient for the high temperature segments of all systems was 1.8. This value was characteristic for ethylene oxide concentrations of 440 and 880 mg/liter at temperatures above 40.6 and 33.4 C, respectively. Below these critical temperatures, the Q10 values for the respective systems were 3.2 and 2.3. PMID:13890659

  16. Financing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermenev, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses problems related to financing of higher education in the Soviet Union and concludes that further study of higher education expenses is necessary in order to work out the most rational financing system. (Author/DB)

  17. Higher Education: Paradise Lost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Clark

    1978-01-01

    Some of the reasons for the comparative decline of the elite sector are analyzed, including (1) the historical transition from elite to mass access to universal higher education, (2) the politicization of higher education, and (3) the increasing submergence of higher education under external social controls. The preservation of an elite or "highly…

  18. Disorders in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Clarence C.; Bolman, Frederick deW.

    Conditions affecting the moral and intellectual integrity of American colleges and universities are discussed in a series of papers collected from the 56th American Assembly on "The Integrity of Higher Education." An erosion of public confidence in higher education is noted and it is suggested that the expectations of higher education have not…

  19. Higher Education: Paradise Lost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Clark

    1978-01-01

    Some of the reasons for the comparative decline of the elite sector are analyzed, including (1) the historical transition from elite to mass access to universal higher education, (2) the politicization of higher education, and (3) the increasing submergence of higher education under external social controls. The preservation of an elite or "highly…

  20. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  1. Higher Education Exchange, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" discuss the concept of growing public scholars; each contribution incorporates a student component. Articles…

  2. India's Higher Education Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  3. Reflections on "Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Felix

    1974-01-01

    The elitist, professional, and philosophical elements of higher education are reflected upon with stress on the differences between higher education and higher learning, where education is concerned with giving wider groups a share in a broad image of man, and learning is concerned with increasing specialization. (JH)

  4. Measurements of Oxygenated Organic Chemicals In the Pacific Troposphere During TRACE-P: Higher Aldehydes (less than C(sub 1)), Their Sources, and Potential Role In Atmospheric Oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, L.; Herlth, D.; Viezee, W.; Fried, A.; Jackob, D.; Blake, D.; Heikes, B.; Talbot, R.; Sachse, G.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airborne measurements of a large number of oxygenated organics were carried out in the Pacific troposphere (to 12 km) in the Spring of 2001 (Feb. 24-April 10). Specifically these measurements included acetaldehyde, propanaldehyde, acetone, methylethyl ketone, methanol, ethanol, PAM and organic nitrates. Independent measurements of formaldehyde, peroxides, and tracers were also available. Highly polluted as well as pristine air masses were sampled. Oxygenated organics were abundant in the clean In troposphere and were greatly enhanced in the outflow regions from Asia. Extremely high concentrations of aldehydes could be measured in the troposphere. It is not possible to explain the large abundances of aldehydes in the background troposphere without invoking significant oceanic sources. A strong correlation between the observed mixing ratios of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde is present. We infer that higher aldehydes (such as acetaldehyde and propanaldehyde) may provide a large source of formaldehyde and sequester Cox throughout the troposphere. The atmospheric behavior of acetone, methylethyl ketone, and methanol is generally indicative of their common terrestrial sources with a Image contribution from biomass/biofuel burning. A vast body of data has been collected and it is being analyzed both statistically and with the help of models to better understand the role that oxygenated organics play in the atmosphere and to unravel their sources and sinks. These results will be presented.

  5. Measurements of Oxygenated Organic Chemicals In the Pacific Troposphere During TRACE-P: Higher Aldehydes (less than C(sub 1)), Their Sources, and Potential Role In Atmospheric Oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, L.; Herlth, D.; Viezee, W.; Fried, A.; Jackob, D.; Blake, D.; Heikes, B.; Talbot, R.; Sachse, G.; hide

    2002-01-01

    Airborne measurements of a large number of oxygenated organics were carried out in the Pacific troposphere (to 12 km) in the Spring of 2001 (Feb. 24-April 10). Specifically these measurements included acetaldehyde, propanaldehyde, acetone, methylethyl ketone, methanol, ethanol, PAM and organic nitrates. Independent measurements of formaldehyde, peroxides, and tracers were also available. Highly polluted as well as pristine air masses were sampled. Oxygenated organics were abundant in the clean In troposphere and were greatly enhanced in the outflow regions from Asia. Extremely high concentrations of aldehydes could be measured in the troposphere. It is not possible to explain the large abundances of aldehydes in the background troposphere without invoking significant oceanic sources. A strong correlation between the observed mixing ratios of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde is present. We infer that higher aldehydes (such as acetaldehyde and propanaldehyde) may provide a large source of formaldehyde and sequester Cox throughout the troposphere. The atmospheric behavior of acetone, methylethyl ketone, and methanol is generally indicative of their common terrestrial sources with a Image contribution from biomass/biofuel burning. A vast body of data has been collected and it is being analyzed both statistically and with the help of models to better understand the role that oxygenated organics play in the atmosphere and to unravel their sources and sinks. These results will be presented.

  6. Literature survey on oxidations and fatigue lives at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. W.; Oshida, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-base superalloys are the most complex and the most widely used for high temperature applications such as aircraft engine components. The desirable properties of nickel-base superalloys at high temperatures are tensile strength, thermomechanical fatigue resistance, low thermal expansion, as well as oxidation resistance. At elevated temperature, fatigue cracks are often initiated by grain boundary oxidation, and fatigue cracks often propagate along grain boundaries, where the oxidation rate is higher. Oxidation takes place at the interface between metal and gas. Properties of the metal substrate, the gaseous environment, as well as the oxides formed all interact to make the oxidation behavior of nickel-base superalloys extremely complicated. The important topics include general oxidation, selective oxidation, internal oxidation, grain boundary oxidation, multilayer oxide structure, accelerated oxidation under stress, stress-generation during oxidation, composition and substrate microstructural changes due to prolonged oxidation, fatigue crack initiation at oxidized grain boundaries and the oxidation accelerated fatigue crack propagation along grain boundaries.

  7. Higher Education Exchange, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological…

  8. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge…

  9. Higher Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluczynski, J.

    The current problems of higher education in Poland are addressed, with focus on its variety, operation, and history. The emphasis is on the development of events during the past decade and particularly since 1980. One in a series of monographs on national systems of higher education in Europe, this report covers the following: (1) introduction;…

  10. Higher Order Crossings (HOC).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Results on the higher order crossings approach to signal detection were obtained. In politicular, the earth:s polar notion was analyzed and new...periodicities were obtained. Another application was to online testing for white noise. It was also demonstrated that a higher order crossing sequence will converge to a frequency regardless of the signal to noise ratio. (kr)

  11. PHOENIX. Higher Wage Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bismarck State Coll., ND.

    This document outlines the curriculum plan for the one-semester vocational-technical training component of PHOENIX: A Model Program for Higher-Wage Potential Careers offered by Bismarck State College (North Dakota) which prepares and/or retrains individuals for higher-wage technical careers. The comprehensive model for the program is organized…

  12. UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCGRATH, EARL J.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS A REPORT ON A GROUP INQUIRY INTO THE SUBSTANCE AND IMPLICATIONS OF UNIVERSAL HIGHER EDUCATION. ELEVEN CHAPTERS ARE PAPERS PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE HELD UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE INSTITUTE OF HIGHER EDUCATION, TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, IN PUERTO RICO, NOVEMBER 15-21, 1964, FORECASTING THE FORM AND MISSION OF AMERICAN…

  13. Comparative Higher Education: Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozier, V. R.

    This comparative higher education bibliography from the graduate program in Higher Education at University of Texas at Austin provides references with publication dates through 1990 under the following categories: "General and Canada" (85); "Africa (Sub-Sahara)" (23); "Asia" (122); "Australia and New…

  14. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don…

  15. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don…

  16. Quality in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent…

  17. Happiness in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwick, Alex; Cannizzaro, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the higher education literature surrounding happiness and related notions: satisfaction, despair, flourishing and well-being. It finds that there is a real dearth of literature relating to profound happiness in higher education: much of the literature using the terms happiness and satisfaction interchangeably as if one were…

  18. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  19. Quality in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This volume contains 21 new and classic papers and readings on quality philosophies and concepts, first, as they have been applied in business and industry but primarily as they relate to and can be applied in higher education. The introduction is titled "The Quality Approach in Higher Education: Context and Concepts for Change" by Brent…

  20. Transitions in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussey, Trevor; Smith, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers ideas towards a solution of some of the problems that arise due to the extension of higher education to an ever wider range of students: especially student drop-out. It suggests that, as far as is practical, the design and delivery of higher education should be based upon the major changes or transitions which the students…

  1. Chicanos in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Juan M., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special theme" journal issue focuses on higher education of Chicanos and Latinos. The journal includes the following articles: (1) "Dilemmas of Chicano and Latino Professors in U.S. Universities" (Hisauro Garza); (2) "Analysis of Tenure Among Hispanic Higher Education Faculty" (Richard R. Verdugo); (3)…

  2. Hypermedia and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses changes in higher education that are resulting from the use of hypermedia. Topics addressed include the structure of traditional texts; a distributed model for academic communication; independent learning as a model for higher education; skills for hypermedia literacy; database searching; information retrieval; authoring skills; design…

  3. Higher Education in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  4. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  5. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  6. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  7. Higher Education in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    For the past 7 years, the State Council of Higher Education has published a report of selected characteristics and degree programs for Virginia's state-supported colleges and universities. By combining data from independent institutions with information collected from the state-supported colleges, a more comprehensive picture of higher education…

  8. Higher Education's Caste System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannone, Ron

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the history of the present caste system in higher education. He shows how the public's perception of this caste system is based on image and not usually on the quality of teaching and curriculum in colleges and universities. Finally, he discusses a model for accessibility to higher education and how higher…

  9. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  10. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  11. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  12. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge,…

  13. Equity in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bane, Mary Jo; Winston, Kenneth I.

    Equity within U.S. higher education is examined in three parts: Practices, Principles, and Policies. Public/private problems, attendance variables, and public subsidies to higher education are included in the Practices section. Part 2, Principles, discusses the place of philosophy, meanings of equity, remedying discrimination, and equality of…

  14. Higher Education in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  15. An improved reservoir oxide cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Liao, Xianheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Qinglan

    2005-09-01

    A new type of reservoir oxide cathode has been developed in IECAS. The emission characteristics of the cathode are tested. The results show the new cathode has higher emission current density and better resistance to poisoning at same operating condition compared with those of conventional reservoir oxide cathode.

  16. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1992-02-03

    This research program is directed toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of catalyst composition and structure on the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Metal oxide catalysts play an important role in many reactions bearing on the chemical aspects of energy processes. Metal oxides are the catalysts for water-gas shift reactions, methanol and higher alcohol synthesis, isosynthesis, selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides, and oxidation of hydrocarbons. A key limitation to developing insight into how oxides function in catalytic reactions is in not having precise information of the surface composition under reaction conditions. To address this problem we have prepared oxide systems that can be used to study cation-cation effects and the role of bridging (-O-) and/or terminal (=O) surface oxygen anion ligands in a systematic fashion. Since many oxide catalyst systems involve mixtures of oxides, we selected a model system that would permit us to examine the role of each cation separately and in pairwise combinations. Organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes were proposed for use, to prepare model systems consisting of isolated monomeric cations, isolated monometallic dimers and isolated bimetallic dimers supported on silica and alumina. The monometallic and bimetallic dimers were to be used as models of more complex mixed- oxide catalysts. Our current program was to develop the systems and use them in model oxidation reactions.

  17. Higher Order Crossings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    L AD-A199 489 HIGHER ORDER CROSSIMGSCU) MRRYLANDUUNIV COLLEGE PARK B KEDEN RAY 87 AFOSR-TR-87-1768 AFOSR-82-ai87 UNCLASSIFIED FVG 12/2 ML 6oi 132. @4...20332-6448 611027 2304 A5 MIt.rA TILsk~bbibl cankusd"i Higher Order Crossings M2 PAOWNAL AUTHORS1) B. Kedem all, TYP6 OF REPORT 1 136, TIME COVERED Lj...device that is useful as a diagnostic tool for higher order crossings was introduced. The graphical tool is also useful as a descriptive similarity

  18. Cobalt promoted copper manganese oxide catalysts for ambient temperature carbon monoxide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher; Taylor, Stuart H; Burrows, Andrew; Crudace, Mandy J; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2008-04-14

    Low levels of cobalt doping (1 wt%) of copper manganese oxide enhances its activity for carbon monoxide oxidation under ambient conditions and the doped catalyst can display higher activity than current commercial catalysts.

  19. Perspectives on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Lewis B.

    1971-01-01

    A review of Human Resources and Higher Education: Staff Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education (New York; Basic, 1970) by John K. Folger, Helen S. Astin, and Alan E. Bayer. (DB)

  20. Perspectives on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Lewis B.

    1971-01-01

    A review of Human Resources and Higher Education: Staff Report of the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Education (New York; Basic, 1970) by John K. Folger, Helen S. Astin, and Alan E. Bayer. (DB)

  1. Reflections on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    Four problems of higher education are discussed. These include the relationship between society's manpower needs and educational policy; egalitarian admission policies and faculty workloads; government control of monetary appropriations; and economic viability of the institution. (DE)

  2. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  3. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  4. [Nitric oxide].

    PubMed

    Rovira, I

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide was identified as the relaxing factor derived from the endothelium in 1987. Nitric oxide synthesis allows the vascular system to maintain a state of vasodilation, thereby regulating arterial pressure. Nitric oxide is also found in platelets, where it inhibits adhesion and aggregation; in the immune system, where it is responsible for the cytotoxic action of macrophages; and in the nervous system, where it acts as neurotransmitter. A deficit in endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide contributes to such conditions as essential arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and heart disease. An excess of nitrous oxide induced by endotoxins and cytokinins, meanwhile, is believed to be responsible for hypotension in septic shock and for hyperdynamic circulatory state in cirrhosis of the liver. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the rejection of transplanted organs and in cell damage after reperfusion. Inhaled nitrous oxide gas reduces pulmonary hypertension without triggering systemic hypotension in both experimental and clinical conditions. It also produces selective vasodilation when used to ventilate specific pulmonary areas, thereby improving the ventilation/perfusion ratio and, hence, oxygenation. Nitric oxide inhalation is effective in pulmonary hypertension-coincident with chronic obstructive lung disease, in persistent neonatal pulmonary hypertension and in pulmonary hypertension with congenital or acquired heart disease. Likewise, it reduces intrapulmonary shunt in acute respiratory failure and improves gas exchange. Under experimental conditions nitric oxide acts as a bronchodilator, although it seems to be less effective for this purpose in clinical use.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Integrity of Higher Education,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Winter 1979. Callan, Patrick M. State role after Bakke: toward collaborative actioe. New Dixetions for Highe Aducation no. 23:53-60, 1978. Carnegie...monitor sex bias In sports . Chronicle of Higher Education 18:12, 18 June 1979. . igh court-clarifies colleges’ obligation to the handicapped. Chronicle...of Higher Education 18:14, 18 June 1979. .What colleges mst do to avoid sex bias in sports . HEW Iasues guidelines for compliance with title TX

  6. Supersymmetric higher spin theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per

    2013-05-01

    We revisit the higher spin extensions of the anti de Sitter algebra in four dimensions that incorporate internal symmetries and admit representations that contain fermions, classified long ago by Konstein and Vasiliev. We construct the dS4, Euclidean and Kleinian version of these algebras, as well as the corresponding fully nonlinear Vasiliev type higher spin theories, in which the reality conditions we impose on the master fields play a crucial role. The N=2 supersymmetric higher spin theory in dS4, on which we elaborate further, is included in this class of models. A subset of the Konstein-Vasiliev algebras are the minimal higher spin extensions of the AdS4 superalgebra osp(4|N ) with N=1, 2, 4 mod 4, whose R-symmetry can be realized using fermionic oscillators. We tensor these algebras with appropriate internal symmetry algebras, namely u(n) for N= 2 mod 4 and so(n) or usp(n) for N=1,4 mod 4. We show that the N= 3 mod 4 higher spin algebras are isomorphic to those with N = 4 mod 4. We describe the fully nonlinear higher spin theories based on these algebras, including the coupling between the adjoint and twisted-adjoint master fields. We elaborate further on the N = 6 model in AdS4, and provide two equivalent descriptions one of which exhibits manifestly its relation to the N = 8 model. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  7. Hysteresis-free high rate reactive sputtering of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Särhammar, Erik Berg, Sören; Nyberg, Tomas

    2014-07-01

    This work reports on experimental studies of reactive sputtering from targets consisting of a metal and its oxide. The composition of the targets varied from pure metal to pure oxide of Al, Ta, and Nb. This combines features from both the metal target and oxide target in reactive sputtering. If a certain relation between the metal and oxide parts is chosen, it may be possible to obtain a high deposition rate, due to the metal part, and a hysteresis-free process, due to the oxide part. The aim of this work is to quantify the achievable boost in oxide deposition rate from a hysteresis-free process by using a target consisting of segments of a metal and its oxide. Such an increase has been previously demonstrated for Ti using a homogeneous substoichiometric target. The achievable gain in deposition rate depends on transformation mechanisms from oxide to suboxides due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. Such mechanisms are different for different materials and the achievable gain is therefore material dependent. For the investigated materials, the authors have demonstrated oxide deposition rates that are 1.5–10 times higher than what is possible from metal targets in compound mode. However, although the principle is demonstrated for oxides of Al, Ta, and Nb, a similar behavior is expected for most oxides.

  8. Oxide Nanocrystal Model Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weixin

    2016-03-15

    Model catalysts with uniform and well-defined surface structures have been extensively employed to explore structure-property relationships of powder catalysts. Traditional oxide model catalysts are based on oxide single crystals and single crystal thin films, and the surface chemistry and catalysis are studied under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. However, the acquired fundamental understandings often suffer from the "materials gap" and "pressure gap" when they are extended to the real world of powder catalysts working at atmospheric or higher pressures. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis have realized controlled synthesis of catalytic oxide nanocrystals with uniform and well-defined morphologies. These oxide nanocrystals consist of a novel type of oxide model catalyst whose surface chemistry and catalysis can be studied under the same conditions as working oxide catalysts. In this Account, the emerging concept of oxide nanocrystal model catalysts is demonstrated using our investigations of surface chemistry and catalysis of uniform and well-defined cuprous oxide nanocrystals and ceria nanocrystals. Cu2O cubes enclosed with the {100} crystal planes, Cu2O octahedra enclosed with the {111} crystal planes, and Cu2O rhombic dodecahedra enclosed with the {110} crystal planes exhibit distinct morphology-dependent surface reactivities and catalytic properties that can be well correlated with the surface compositions and structures of exposed crystal planes. Among these types of Cu2O nanocrystals, the octahedra are most reactive and catalytically active due to the presence of coordination-unsaturated (1-fold-coordinated) Cu on the exposed {111} crystal planes. The crystal-plane-controlled surface restructuring and catalytic activity of Cu2O nanocrystals were observed in CO oxidation with excess oxygen. In the propylene oxidation reaction with O2, 1-fold-coordinated Cu on Cu2O(111), 3-fold-coordinated O on Cu2O(110), and 2-fold-coordinated O on Cu2O(100) were identified

  9. Krypton oxides under pressure.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Lata, Pawel M

    2016-02-02

    Under high pressure, krypton, one of the most inert elements is predicted to become sufficiently reactive to form a new class of krypton compounds; krypton oxides. Using modern ab-initio evolutionary algorithms in combination with Density Functional Theory, we predict the existence of several thermodynamically stable Kr/O species at elevated pressures. In particular, our calculations indicate that at approx. 300 GPa the monoxide, KrO, should form spontaneously and remain thermo- and dynamically stable with respect to constituent elements and higher oxides. The monoxide is predicted to form non-molecular crystals with short Kr-O contacts, typical for genuine chemical bonds.

  10. Lipid oxidation induced oxidative degradation of cereal beta-glucan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Jie; Mäkelä, Noora; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula

    2016-04-15

    In food systems, lipid oxidation can cause oxidation of other molecules. This research for the first time investigated oxidative degradation of β-glucan induced by lipid oxidation using an oil-in-water emulsion system which simulated a multi-phased aqueous food system containing oil and β-glucan. Lipid oxidation was monitored using peroxide value and hexanal production while β-glucan degradation was evaluated by viscosity and molecular weight measurements. The study showed that while lipid oxidation proceeded, β-glucan degradation occurred. Emulsions containing β-glucan, oil and ferrous ion showed significant viscosity and molecular weight decrease after 1 week of oxidation at room temperature. Elevated temperature (40°C) enhanced the oxidation reactions causing higher viscosity drop. In addition, the presence of β-glucan appeared to retard the hexanal production in lipid oxidation. The study revealed that lipid oxidation may induce the degradation of β-glucan in aqueous food systems where β-glucan and lipids co-exist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher spin cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash; Roy, Shubho; Thakur, Somyadip

    2014-02-01

    We construct cosmological solutions of higher spin gravity in 2+1 dimensional de Sitter space. We show that a consistent thermodynamics can be obtained for their horizons by demanding appropriate holonomy conditions. This is equivalent to demanding the integrability of the Euclidean boundary conformal field theory partition function, and it reduces to Gibbons-Hawking thermodynamics in the spin-2 case. By using the prescription of Maldacena, we relate the thermodynamics of these solutions to those of higher spin black holes in AdS3.

  12. Higher than Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Paul

    2001-08-01

    Preface; 1. Higher than Everest; 2. Higher than that? - Other high peaks of Mars; 3. Descent into the Martian deep; 4. The cliffs of coprates; 5. A polar crossing; 6. The other Alps - climbing Mt. Blanc; 7. Pico peak - Monadnock of the moon; 8. The great Copernicus traverse; 9. Maxwell, mountains of mystery; 10. Volcanoes of Venus; 11. The cliff of discovery; 12. Descent into the maelstrom; 13. An Ionian adventure; 14. Mountain climbing in pizzaland; 15. Under the frozen sea; 16. Snowboarding through Saturn's rings; 17. Titan's tarry seas; 18. Climbing the cliff of Miranda; 19. The Yellowstone of the solar system; 20. All nine.

  13. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…

  14. Demanage Higher Education!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammartino, Peter

    This book about the problems facing the president of a college or university is intended mainly for administrative personnel but may be of interest to college trustees, faculty members, and individuals interested in higher education. It is claimed that it is impossible economically to sustain the many non-educative activities that are borne by…

  15. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to…

  16. Liberty and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  17. CENTRALIZATION AND HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEAN, ROLAND N.

    SUGGESTED COSTS AND BENEFITS OF CENTRALIZED AUTHORITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION AS THEY AFFECT THE BEHAVIOR OF LEGISLATORS, ADMINISTRATORS, VOTERS, TEACHERS, AND STUDENTS, WERE EXAMINED BY COMPARING POLICIES OF DIFFERENT INSTITUTIONS (TWO MULTIVERSITIES OR COORDINATED STATE COLLEGE SYSTEMS, TWO RELATIVELY INDEPENDENT PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN ONE STATE,…

  18. Higher Education Exchange 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    A foreword and 11 articles discuss the nature and structure of public scholarship. The contents include: "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (1) "Public Scholarship: The Dissemination of Knowledge" (Jean Cameron) which maintains the public has claims on higher education as a creator and disseminator of knowledge; (2) "Daring to Be…

  19. Changing Values & Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagschal, Harry; Beagle, Robert

    A transcript of a two-member panel discussion on changing values and higher education is presented. The transcript includes two speeches and members' responses to the questions of the moderator and audience. The first paper, presented by Robert Beagle (Assistant to the President, Edinboro State College, Pennsylvania) stresses that the key to…

  20. Free Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Jr., Adolph; Szymanski, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    The crisis of affordability in higher education is intensifying. Illustrations of its resonance abound: from the frequent news articles describing and amplifying the crisis and its sources to legislators' and candidates' proposed responses. Republicans' responses tend to be mainly punitive toward institutions; Democrats' proposals are more…

  1. Higher Education Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    This collection of 10 articles and stories highlights ongoing experiments in colleges and universities which address the relationship of higher education institutions and citizenship responsibility. Following a foreword by Deborah White, articles are: "The Civic Roots of Academic Social Science Scholarship in American" (R. Claire Snyder), which…

  2. Higher Education Exchange 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.

    Nine articles discuss the relationship between the higher education community and the public. The articles are: (1) "On a Certain Blindness in Teaching" by Michael S. Roth, who stresses the necessity of political citizenship education for a healthy democracy; (2) "Monocultural Perspectives and Campus Diversity" by Jane Fried,…

  3. Curriculum in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, A. I., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Four articles on higher education curriculum are presented. In "The Articulate Curriculum" an approach to curriculum description is presented that is designed to have minimal ambiguity concerning the intention, content, and processes of the curriculum and that will lead to questioning several discrete factors in the curriculum planning…

  4. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  5. Higher Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    This study was commissioned to examine Minnesota's four public higher education systems to identify possible duplication and inefficiency in instructional programs. Study findings indicate that the two-year college systems offer a significant number of occupational programs with low student/teacher ratios, low graduate placement rates, or both.…

  6. Higher Education Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Bencie; Porcari li Destri, Giulia

    This paper discusses issues related to the training and provision of interpreters for deaf students at institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom. Background information provided notes the increasing numbers of deaf and partially hearing students, the existence of funding to pay for interpreters, and trends in the availability of…

  7. Creativity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspar, Drazena; Mabic, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research related to perception of creativity in higher education made by the authors at the University of Mostar from Bosnia and Herzegovina. This research was based on a survey conducted among teachers and students at the University. The authors developed two types of questionnaires, one for teachers and the other…

  8. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  9. Higher Education's Strange Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold, II

    The university which has had the temerity to change the world has not had the nerve to change itself to live in that world. The result is that the university's grading system, curriculum, teaching methods, and philosophies are in conflict with the world beyond the campus gates, and higher education does not meet the intellectual and social needs…

  10. Higher Education in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Teiichi

    This paper presents a portrait of the higher education system in Japan. After providing demographic information about Japan, the document outlines the overall educational structure through brief statements about kindergarten education, compulsory education, the elementary school, the lower secondary school, upper secondary education, curriculum,…

  11. Liberty and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis F.

    1989-01-01

    John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty is discussed with the view that it needs to be revised to guide moral judgments in higher education. Three key elements need to be modified: the action that is constrained; the constraint on the action; and the agent whose action is constrained. (MLW)

  12. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  13. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  14. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amano, Masako

    1997-01-01

    The high level of college admission of women in Japan is analyzed relative to changes in social and educational values, continuing evidence of gender tracking, persistent doubts regarding "appropriateness" of higher education for women, employment opportunities and related national legislation, and values held by Japanese women…

  15. Videoconferencing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Neil; Davidson, Kirsty; Goldfinch, Judy

    2000-01-01

    Describes examples of videoconferencing usage in higher education: project management, dissemination, lecture courses, keynote lectures, small groups, orals and interviews. Gives an account of staff and student experiences in each example, in the context of a collaborative project. Presents evaluation results, leading to a generally favorable…

  16. Higher Education Exchange, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The Kettering Foundation's research has been focused on putting the public back into the public's business for more than thirty years. Some questions that have recently been useful to Kettering researchers as the foundation focuses on its work with institutional actors--especially higher education and its relationship with the public--have…

  17. Marketing in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenberger, Susan J.

    Educational institutions must seek new approaches to institutional planning because of such factors as shrinking traditional college age populations, eroding grants, governmental and judicial incursion, the tightening economic belt, and concern over the relevance of education to modern day needs. The concept of marketing higher education is…

  18. Higher Education in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy; Cowper, Henry

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes higher education in Scotland in terms of its history and administrative structure and in light of the myths and beliefs about the traditional Scottish university. Differences from English universities are stressed. Journal available from Editor, Gabriel Fragniere, Institute of Education, 60 rue de la Concorde, B-1050, Brussels, Belgium.…

  19. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  20. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  1. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  2. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…

  3. Online Higher Education Commodity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chau, Paule

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the current trend towards online education. It examines some of the reasons for the trend and the ramifications it may have on students, faculty and institutions of higher learning. The success and profitability of online programs and institutions such as the University of Phoenix has helped to make the move towards online…

  4. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  5. Unraveling Higher Education's Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Gus; Charles, Maria

    1998-01-01

    The activity-based costing (ABC) method of analyzing institutional costs in higher education involves four procedures: determining the various discrete activities of the organization; calculating the cost of each; determining the cost drivers; tracing cost to the cost objective or consumer of each activity. Few American institutions have used the…

  6. Futurism in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of "futurism" in higher education program planning, self-study and goal setting is taking on increasing significance. Two research techniques for "futures forecasting" are discussed: the Delphi and the Scenario. These techniques have been used successfully in institutional self-study and program evaluation.…

  7. Working in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthbert, Rob, Ed.

    This collection contains 14 papers that focus on the work and workers in higher education (HE) from a British perspective for the purpose of encouraging further research, study and debate in the exploration of the dynamics within HE. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 addresses the workers, part 2 the work, and part 3 the work context.…

  8. Futurism in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of "futurism" in higher education program planning, self-study and goal setting is taking on increasing significance. Two research techniques for "futures forecasting" are discussed: the Delphi and the Scenario. These techniques have been used successfully in institutional self-study and program evaluation.…

  9. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  10. Microcomputers in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Robert S., Ed.; McLean, Ruth W., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the areas in which Ontario educators currently employ microcomputers in higher education are addressed in several articles, bibliographies, and book reviews. Various uses of computer-managed instruction and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at Humber College of Applied Arts and Technology are outlined by Frank A. Ford. Microcomputer CAI…

  11. Higher Education Accountability Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Washington state's public four-year universities and college have submitted their 2003-05 accountability plans to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB). The state operating budget directs the Board to review these plans and set biennial performance targets for each institution. For 2003-05, the four-year institutions are reporting on a…

  12. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  13. Higher Education Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    Eight papers, arising from a June 1998 seminar on the professions and public life, examine issues related to the practice of public scholarship and the new connections that institutions of higher education are forging with the public. Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the papers are: (1) "The Academy and Public Life: Healing the Rift" (Scott…

  14. Comparison of thermal oxidation and plasma oxidation of 4H-SiC (0001) for surface flattening

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Hui; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2014-03-10

    The thermal oxidation and water vapor plasma oxidation of 4H-SiC (0001) were investigated. The initial oxidation rate of helium-based atmospheric-pressure plasma oxidation was six times higher than that of thermal oxidation. The oxide-SiC interface generated by plasma oxidation became flatter with increasing thickness of the oxide, whereas the interface generated by thermal oxidation was atomically flat regardless of the oxide thickness. Many pits were generated on the thermally oxidized surface, whereas few pits were observed on the surface oxidized by plasma. After the oxide layer generated plasma oxidation was removed, an atomically flat and pit-free SiC surface was obtained.

  15. Higher spins and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Per; Ross, Simon F.

    2013-05-01

    The principles of quantum mechanics and relativity impose rigid constraints on theories of massless particles with nonzero spin. Indeed, Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity are the unique solution in the case of spin-1 and spin-2. In asymptotically flat spacetime, there are fundamental obstacles to formulating fully consistent interacting theories of particles of spin greater than 2. However, indications are that such theories are just barely possible in asymptotically anti-de Sitter or de Sitter spacetimes, where the non-existence of an S-matrix provides an escape from the theorems restricting theories in Minkowski spacetime. These higher spin gravity theories are therefore of great intrinsic interest, since they, along with supergravity, provide the only known field theories generalizing the local invariance principles of Yang-Mills theory and General Relativity. While work on higher spin gravity goes back several decades, the subject has gained broader appeal in recent years due to its appearance in the AdS/CFT correspondence. In three and four spacetime dimensions, there exist duality proposals linking higher spin gravity theories to specific conformal field theories living in two and three dimensions respectively. The enlarged symmetry algebra of the conformal field theories renders them exactly soluble, which makes them excellent laboratories for understanding in detail the holographic mechanism behind AdS/CFT duality. Steady progress is also being made on better understanding the space of possible higher spin gravity theories and their physical content. This work includes classifying the possible field multiplets and their interactions, constructing exact solutions of the nonlinear field equations, and relating higher spin theories to string theory. A full understanding of these theories will involve coming to grips with the novel symmetry principles that enlarge those of General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory, and one can hope that this will provide

  16. The oxidative hypothesis of senescence.

    PubMed

    Gilca, M; Stoian, I; Atanasiu, V; Virgolici, B

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative hypothesis of senescence, since its origin in 1956, has garnered significant evidence and growing support among scientists for the notion that free radicals play an important role in ageing, either as "damaging" molecules or as signaling molecules. Age-increasing oxidative injuries induced by free radicals, higher susceptibility to oxidative stress in short-lived organisms, genetic manipulations that alter both oxidative resistance and longevity and the anti-ageing effect of caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are a few examples of accepted scientific facts that support the oxidative theory of senescence. Though not completely understood due to the complex "network" of redox regulatory systems, the implication of oxidative stress in the ageing process is now well documented. Moreover, it is compatible with other current ageing theories (e.g, those implicating the mitochondrial damage/mitochondrial-lysosomal axis, stress-induced premature senescence, biological "garbage" accumulation, etc). This review is intended to summarize and critically discuss the redox mechanisms involved during the ageing process: sources of oxidant agents in ageing (mitochondrial -electron transport chain, nitric oxide synthase reaction- and non-mitochondrial- Fenton reaction, microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, peroxisomal beta -oxidation and respiratory burst of phagocytic cells), antioxidant changes in ageing (enzymatic- superoxide dismutase, glutathione-reductase, glutathion peroxidase, catalase- and non-enzymatic glutathione, ascorbate, urate, bilirubine, melatonin, tocopherols, carotenoids, ubiquinol), alteration of oxidative damage repairing mechanisms and the role of free radicals as signaling molecules in ageing.

  17. Preparation of Mixed Perovskite Oxides for Blue-Green Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    higher for oxide or fluoride . 𔃽. A high radiative lifetime and high fluorescent quantum yield for Ce or the rare earth are desirable. 3 + 4...for all of our single crystal -4- preparations are lanthanum oxide (La„0 ), aluminum oxide (Al^O^) , scandium oxide (Sc„0-.) , and cerium oxide (Ce...crystal material is highly important. Ideally, oxides should be grown in O2, fluorides in ?„, and so forth in order to prevent defects such as

  18. Enhanced mercury oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Gretta, W.J.; Wu, S.; Kikkawa, H.

    2009-06-15

    A new catalyst offers a new way to enhance mercury control from bituminous coal-fired power plants. Hitachi has developed an SCR catalyst which satisfies high Hg{sup 0} oxidation and low SO{sub 2} oxidation requirements under high temperatures (716 to 770 F). This triple action catalysts, TRAC can significantly enhance mercury oxidation and reduce or eliminate the need for additional mercury control measures such as activated carbon injection. After laboratory testing, pilot-scale tests confirmed an activity of 1.4-1.7 times higher than that of conventional SCR catalyst. The new catalyst has been successfully applied in a commercial PRB-fired boiler without the need for halogens to be added to the fuel feed or flue gas. 2 figs.

  19. Chiral higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2017-06-01

    We construct a candidate for the most general chiral higher spin theory with AdS3 boundary conditions. In the Chern-Simons language, on the left it has the Drinfeld-Sokolov reduced form, but on the right all charges and chemical potentials are turned on. Altogether (for the spin-3 case) these are 19 functions. Despite this, we show that the resulting metric has the form of the "most general" AdS3 boundary conditions discussed by Grumiller and Riegler. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is a product of a W3 algebra on the left and an affine s l (3 )k current algebra on the right, as desired. The metric and higher spin fields depend on all the 19 functions. We compare our work with previous results in the literature.

  20. Iron Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Amonette, James E.

    2016-09-19

    Abstract: Fe oxides are common clay-sized oxide, oxyhydroxide and hydroxide soil minerals. They are compounds of Fe, O, and H that have structures based on close-packed arrays of O. The octahedral and tetrahedral cavities within these arrays are filled with either Fe3+ or Fe2+ to form Fe(O/OH)6, FeO6, or FeO4 structural units. All of the naturally occurring Fe oxide minerals usually undergo some degree of isomorphous substitution of other metal ions for Fe in their structures. Relatively simple techniques may be used to identify Fe oxides in the field based on their typical colors and magnetic properties. In the laboratory, a variety of instrumental techniques can be used to confirm phase identity and to quantify amount. Of these, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopy, thermal analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy are the most commonly used techniques. As oxides, the functional groups on their surfaces may have positive, negative, or no charge depending on pH and on the concentration and nature of other ions in the contact solution. A net positive surface charge usually is observed in soils because Fe oxides have a point-of-zero-charge in the neutral or slightly basic pHs. The functional groups on the surface form complexes with cations and anions from the aqueous phase. Their sorption and electron-buffering properties significantly affect the geochemical cycles of almost all elements having agronomic or environmental significance.

  1. Antibacterial activity of graphite, graphite oxide, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide: membrane and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaobin; Zeng, Tingying Helen; Hofmann, Mario; Burcombe, Ehdi; Wei, Jun; Jiang, Rongrong; Kong, Jing; Chen, Yuan

    2011-09-27

    Health and environmental impacts of graphene-based materials need to be thoroughly evaluated before their potential applications. Graphene has strong cytotoxicity toward bacteria. To better understand its antimicrobial mechanism, we compared the antibacterial activity of four types of graphene-based materials (graphite (Gt), graphite oxide (GtO), graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)) toward a bacterial model-Escherichia coli. Under similar concentration and incubation conditions, GO dispersion shows the highest antibacterial activity, sequentially followed by rGO, Gt, and GtO. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and dynamic light scattering analyses show that GO aggregates have the smallest average size among the four types of materials. SEM images display that the direct contacts with graphene nanosheets disrupt cell membrane. No superoxide anion (O(2)(•-)) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is detected. However, the four types of materials can oxidize glutathione, which serves as redox state mediator in bacteria. Conductive rGO and Gt have higher oxidation capacities than insulating GO and GtO. Results suggest that antimicrobial actions are contributed by both membrane and oxidation stress. We propose that a three-step antimicrobial mechanism, previously used for carbon nanotubes, is applicable to graphene-based materials. It includes initial cell deposition on graphene-based materials, membrane stress caused by direct contact with sharp nanosheets, and the ensuing superoxide anion-independent oxidation. We envision that physicochemical properties of graphene-based materials, such as density of functional groups, size, and conductivity, can be precisely tailored to either reducing their health and environmental risks or increasing their application potentials. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Switching Oxide Traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.

    2003-01-01

    We consider radiation-induced charge trapping in SiO2 dielectric layers, primarily from the point of view of CMOS devices. However, SiO2 insulators are used in many other ways, and the same defects occur in other contexts. The key studies, which determined the nature of the oxide charge traps, were done primarily on gate oxides in CMOS devices, because that was the main radiation problem in CMOS at one time. There are two major reviews of radiation-induced oxide charge trapping already in the literature, which discuss the subject in far greater detail than is possible here. The first of these was by McLean et al. in 1989, and the second, ten years later, was intended as an update, because of additional, new work that had been reported. Basically, the picture that has emerged is that ionizing radiation creates electron-hole pairs in the oxide, and the electrons have much higher mobility than the holes. Therefore, the electrons are swept out of the oxide very rapidly by any field that is present, leaving behind any holes that escape the initial recombination process. These holes then undergo a polaron hopping transport toward the Si/SiO2 interface (under positive bias). Near the interface, some fraction of them fall into deep, relatively stable, long-lived hole traps. The nature and annealing behavior of these hole traps is the main focus of this paper.

  3. [Research on synergy of combining electrochemical oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Li, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Fang; Huang, Ju-Wen

    2009-07-15

    A new catalytic wet oxidation fixed-bed reactor combined with three-dimensional electric-field was developed to investigate catalytic wet oxidation, electrochemical oxidation and electroassisted catalytic wet oxidation of the solution containing phenol in the presence of a catalyst Mn-Sn-Sb-3/gamma-Al2O3. Good electroassisted catalytic wet oxidation efficiency was obtained in the setup for the combination system even at mild conditions (T = 130 degrees C, po2 = 1.0 MPa) that the phenol conversion and TOC reduction were up to 94.0% and 88.4% after 27 min treatment, respectively. The result also shows that the rate constants of electroassisted catalytic wet oxidation are much higher than that of not only both catalytic wet oxidation and electrochemical oxidation process alone but also additive efficiencies of catalytic wet oxidation and electrochemical oxidation processes, which indicates an apparent synergetic effect between CWO and ECO processes.

  4. Higher than Everest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Paul

    2001-08-01

    Tired of exploring planet Earth? Have you ever imagined what it would be like to explore the Moon? Ever wonder about the topography of Mars? In this unique guidebook all of your extraterrestrial wanderlust can be fulfilled as Paul Hodge takes you on a virtual tour of the most spectacular sites in the Solar System. Hodge includes the latest information about the Solar System into his vivid descriptions of imaginary, challenging expeditions. Imagine: -- Descending into a fabulous canyon on Mars, one that dwarfs the Earth's Grand Canyon; -- Trekking up Venus' precipitous and scorching Mt. Maxwell; -- Journeying through the snows of Saturn's rings and the incredibly high, icy cliff of Miranda, the moon closest to Uranus. A compelling, extensively illustrated introduction to such otherworldly environments, Higher than Everest makes you believe that someday these adventures may actually take place. Paul Hodge is Professor of Astronomy at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Editor-in-Chief of the Astronomical Journal. Higher than Everest is based on a popular undergraduate course on the planets that he has taught for many years. Hodge's research has spanned from interplanetary dust to the extragalactic distance scale and currently includes star-formation and galactic evolution, using the Hubble Space Telescope to investigate nearby galaxies. He has written several books, most recently Meteorite Craters and Impact Structures of the Earth (Cambridge 1994).

  5. Higher powers in gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, Timothy

    2008-10-15

    We consider the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies of theories of gravity that generalize the Einstein-Hilbert action by replacing the Ricci scalar R with some function f(R). The general asymptotic behavior of these cosmologies is found, at both early and late times, and the effects of adding higher and lower powers of R to the Einstein-Hilbert action is investigated. The assumption that the highest powers of R should dominate the Universe's early history, and that the lowest powers should dominate its future is found to be inaccurate. The behavior of the general solution is complicated, and while it can be the case that single powers of R dominate the dynamics at late times, it can be either the higher or lower powers that do so. It is also shown that it is often the lowest powers of R that dominate at early times, when approach to a bounce or a Tolman solution are generic possibilities. Various examples are considered, and both vacuum and perfect fluid solutions are investigated.

  6. Room Temperature Chemical Oxidation of Delafossite-Type Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trari, M.; Töpfer, J.; Doumerc, J. P.; Pouchard, M.; Ammar, A.; Hagenmuller, P.

    1994-07-01

    Examination of the delafossite-type structure of CuLaO 2 and CuYO 2 suggests that there is room enough to accomodate intercalated oxide ions and the charge compensation resulting simply from the oxidation of an equivalent amount of Cu + into Cu 2+. Reaction with hypohalites in an aqueous solution leads to color change. Evidence of the formation of Cu 2+ is given by TGA, iodometric titration, and magnetic (static and EPR) measurements. The obtained La and Y compounds seem to behave in a different way: whereas CuLaO 2+ x appears as a single phase, CuYO 2+ x corresponds to a two-phase mixture, with respectively low and high x values, the latter being isostructural with the thermally oxidized compound recently reported by Cava et al. Comparison is stressed between the oxides obtained by oxidation at room and those obtained at higher temperatures.

  7. Higher dimensional massive bigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-08-01

    We study higher-dimensional scenarios of massive bigravity, which is a very interesting extension of nonlinear massive gravity since its reference metric is assumed to be fully dynamical. In particular, the Einstein field equations along with the following constraint equations for both physical and reference metrics of a five-dimensional massive bigravity will be addressed. Then, we study some well-known cosmological spacetimes such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metrics for the five-dimensional massive bigravity. As a result, we find that massive graviton terms will serve as effective cosmological constants in both physical and reference sectors if a special scenario, in which reference metrics are chosen to be proportional to physical ones, is considered for all mentioned metrics. Thanks to the constancy property of massive graviton terms, consistent cosmological solutions will be figured out accordingly.

  8. Semistrict higher gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurčo, Branislav; Sämann, Christian; Wolf, Martin

    2015-04-01

    We develop semistrict higher gauge theory from first principles. In particular, we describe the differential Deligne cohomology underlying semistrict principal 2-bundles with connective structures. Principal 2-bundles are obtained in terms of weak 2-functors from the Čech groupoid to weak Lie 2-groups. As is demonstrated, some of these Lie 2-groups can be differentiated to semistrict Lie 2-algebras by a method due to Ševera. We further derive the full description of connective structures on semistrict principal 2-bundles including the non-linear gauge transformations. As an application, we use a twistor construction to derive superconformal constraint equations in six dimensions for a non-Abelian tensor multiplet taking values in a semistrict Lie 2-algebra.

  9. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles

  10. Oxide Thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, David J

    2008-01-01

    Thermoelectricity in oxides, especially NaxCoO2 and related materials, is discussed from the point of view of first principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory. The electronic structure of this material is exceptional in that it has a combination of very narrow bands and strong hybridization between metal d states and ligand p states. As shown within the framework of conventional Boltzmann transport theory, this leads to high Seebeck coefficients even at metallic carrier densities. This suggests a strategy of searching for other narrow band oxides that can be doped metallic with mobile carriers. Some possible avenues for finding such materials are suggested.

  11. Cellulose nanocrystal reinforced oxidized natural rubber nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Marcos; El Kissi, Nadia; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-02-10

    Natural rubber (NR) latex particles were oxidized using KMnO4 as oxidant to promote the insertion of hydroxyl groups in the surface polyisoprene chains. Different degrees of oxidation were investigated. Both unoxidized and oxidized NR (ONR) latex were used to prepare nanocomposite films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by casting/evaporation. The oxidation of NR was carried out to promote chemical interactions between the hydroxyl groups of ONR with those of CNCs through hydrogen bonding. The effect of the degree of oxidation of the NR latex on the rheological behavior of CNC/NR and CNC/ONR suspensions, as well as on the mechanical, swelling and thermal properties of ensuing nanocomposites was investigated. Improved properties were observed for intermediate degrees of oxidation but they were found to degrade for higher oxidation levels.

  12. Oxidation kinetics of Si and SiGe by dry rapid thermal oxidation, in-situ steam generation oxidation and dry furnace oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozé, Fabien; Gourhant, Olivier; Blanquet, Elisabeth; Bertin, François; Juhel, Marc; Abbate, Francesco; Pribat, Clément; Duru, Romain

    2017-06-01

    The fabrication of ultrathin compressively strained SiGe-On-Insulator layers by the condensation technique is likely a key milestone towards low-power and high performances FD-SOI logic devices. However, the SiGe condensation technique still requires challenges to be solved for an optimized use in an industrial environment. SiGe oxidation kinetics, upon which the condensation technique is founded, has still not reached a consensus in spite of various studies which gave insights into the matter. This paper aims to bridge the gaps between these studies by covering various oxidation processes relevant to today's technological needs with a new and quantitative analysis methodology. We thus address oxidation kinetics of SiGe with three Ge concentrations (0%, 10%, and 30%) by means of dry rapid thermal oxidation, in-situ steam generation oxidation, and dry furnace oxidation. Oxide thicknesses in the 50 Å to 150 Å range grown with oxidation temperatures between 850 and 1100 °C were targeted. The present work shows first that for all investigated processes, oxidation follows a parabolic regime even for thin oxides, which indicates a diffusion-limited oxidation regime. We also observe that, for all investigated processes, the SiGe oxidation rate is systematically higher than that of Si. The amplitude of the variation of oxidation kinetics of SiGe with respect to Si is found to be strongly dependent on the process type. Second, a new quantitative analysis methodology of oxidation kinetics is introduced. This methodology allows us to highlight the dependence of oxidation kinetics on the Ge concentration at the oxidation interface, which is modulated by the pile-up mechanism. Our results show that the oxidation rate increases with the Ge concentration at the oxidation interface.

  13. ALTERNATIVE OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study chloramines, chlorine dioxide and ozone as alternative oxidants/disinfectants to chlorine for the control of disinfection by-rpdocuts (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes and haloa...

  14. Propylene oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene oxide ; CASRN 75 - 56 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. Merphos oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Merphos oxide ; CASRN 78 - 48 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  16. Thallium oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Thallium oxide ; CASRN 1314 - 32 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  17. Ethylene oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 16 / 350Fc www.epa.gov / iris Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ( CASRN 75 - 21 - 8 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 201 6 National Center for Environmental Assessment Office

  18. Nitric oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitric oxide ; CASRN 10102 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  19. Increased oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage in non-remission schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Sertan Copoglu, U; Virit, Osman; Hanifi Kokacya, M; Orkmez, Mustafa; Bulbul, Feridun; Binnur Erbagci, A; Semiz, Murat; Alpak, Gokay; Unal, Ahmet; Ari, Mustafa; Savas, Haluk A

    2015-09-30

    Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. But there is not any study which examines the effects of oxidative stress on DNA in schizophrenia patients. Therefore we aimed to assess the oxidative stress levels and oxidative DNA damage in schizophrenia patients with and without symptomatic remission. A total of 64 schizophrenia patients (38 with symptomatic remission and 26 without symptomatic remission) and 80 healthy volunteers were included in the study. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were measured in plasma. TOS, oxidative stress index (OSI) and 8-OHdG levels were significantly higher in non-remission schizophrenic (Non-R-Sch) patients than in the controls. TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher in remission schizophrenic (R-Sch) patients than in the controls. TAS level were significantly lower and TOS and OSI levels were significantly higher in R-Sch patients than in Non-R-Sch patients. Despite the ongoing oxidative stress in patients with both R-Sch and Non-R-Sch, oxidative DNA damage was higher in only Non-R-Sch patients compared to controls. It is suggested that oxidative stress can cause the disease via DNA damage, and oxidative stress plays a role in schizophrenia through oxidative DNA damage.

  20. Evaluation of biochars by temperature programmed oxidation/mass spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biochar from the thermochemical conversion of biomass was evaluated by Temperature Programmed Oxidation (TPO) coupled with mass spectroscopy. This technique can be used to assess the oxidative reactivity of carbonaceous solids where higher temperature reactivity indicates greater structural order. ...

  1. Alumina composites for oxide/oxide fibrous monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, T. A.; Polzin, B. J.; Picciolo, J. J.; Singh, D.; Tsaliagos, R. N.; Goretta, K. C.

    2000-03-01

    Most work on ceramic fibrous monoliths (FMs) has focused on the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/BN system. In an effort to develop oxidation-resistant FMs, several oxide systems have recently been examined. Zirconia-toughened alumina and alumina/mullite appear to be good candidates for the cell phase of FMs. These composites offer higher strength and toughness than pure alumina and good high-temperature stability. By combining these oxides, possibly with a weaker high-temperature oxide as the cell-boundary phase, it should be possible to product a strong, resilient FM that exhibits graceful failure. Several material combinations have been examined. Results on FM fabrication and microstructural development are presented.

  2. Aerial oxidation of hydrazines to nitrosamines

    SciTech Connect

    Lunn, G.; Sansone, E.B.; Andrews, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    When 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and N-aminopiperidine were deliberately exposed to air substantial amounts of the corresponding carcinogenic nitrosamines were formed. Unoxidized samples of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine were not mutagenic while oxidized samples (which contained much higher levels of nitrosamines) were mutagenic. Both unoxidized and oxidized samples of N-aminopiperidine were mutagenic.

  3. The Case for Higher Education Marketing: Scouting the Higher Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Peter

    1987-01-01

    A discussion of strategies marketing in higher education focuses on the social marketing approach, outlining a conceptual framework, and looking at specific concerns and costs. The issue of entrepreneurialism's effect on higher education institutions is considered. (MSE)

  4. Ultra supercritical steamside oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David A.; Ochs, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vision 21 goals. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Vision 21 goals include steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems. Emphasis is placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  5. Higher Education and Work. Higher Education Policy Series 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, John, Ed.; And Others

    The relationship between higher education and the world of work is examined in terms of the changing structures of higher education institutions and the effect of the relationship on curricula. An international perspective is provided on the changing nature of employment and the labor market; the increasing diversification of higher education…

  6. PREFACE: Semiconducting oxides Semiconducting oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2011-08-01

    Semiconducting oxides are amongst the most widely studied and topical materials in contemporary condensed matter science, with interest being driven both by the fundamental challenges posed by their electronic and magnetic structures and properties, and by the wide range of applications, including those in catalysis and electronic devices. This special section aims to highlight recent developments in the physics of these materials, and to show the link between developing fundamental understanding and key application areas of oxide semiconductors. Several aspects of the physics of this wide and expanding range of materials are explored in this special section. Transparent semiconducting oxides have a growing role in several technologies, but challenges remain in understanding their electronic structure and the physics of charge carriers. A related problem concerns the nature of redox processes and the reactions which interconvert defects and charge carriers—a key issue which may limit the extent to which doping strategies may be used to alter electronic properties. The magnetic structures of the materials pose several challenges, while surface structures and properties are vital in controlling catalytic properties, including photochemical processes. The field profits from and exploits a wide range of contemporary physical techniques—both experimental and theoretical. Indeed, the interplay between experiment and computation is a key aspect of contemporary work. A number of articles describe applications of computational methods whose use, especially in modelling properties of defects in these materials, has a long and successful history. Several papers in this special section relate to work presented at a symposium within the European Materials Research Society (EMRS) meeting held in Warsaw in September 2010, and we are grateful to the EMRS for supporting this symposium. We would also like to thank the editorial staff of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for

  7. Higher Education and the Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author explores the answers to the following questions: (1) What does the "marketisation" of higher education mean? (2) What are the potential implications for United Kingdom higher education? and (3) How should everyone handle those implications? He also cites the three main reasons why higher education cannot simply…

  8. Commitment to Higher Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imrie, Brad; And Others

    This publication is a history of the College of Higher Vocational Studies (CHVS) since it was established in 1991 and provides commentary on developments in higher vocational education in Hong Kong during a period of unprecedented change and development in the provision of the Higher Diploma. "Principal's Diary" (Bradford Imrie)…

  9. Higher Education Finance Manual 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Douglas J.; Mertins, Paul J.

    The Higher Education Finance Manual (HEFM) is intended to serve as a guide to higher education planners and managers in their understanding and use of institutional finance data. It addresses higher education finance data from the layman's perspective. The document includes definitions of accounting terms and descriptions of generally accepted…

  10. Higher Education Studies in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneko, Motohisa

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of higher education in the postwar period has given rise to various problems, and higher education studies in Japan have developed in response to them. What have been the major issues, and how did academic research respond to them, in postwar Japan? This article delineates an outline of higher education studies in general,…

  11. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  12. Higher Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeao, Jose Raymundo Martins

    2003-01-01

    Presents an analysis of, and proposals for, international cooperation in higher education. Focuses on Latin American higher education, its current situation, and the expected transformation of the goals of higher education in the context of international cooperation. Describes the challenges that globalization poses to Latin American higher…

  13. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  14. Higher Education in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, James D.

    Events and conditions over the last 20 years that have altered the course of higher education are briefly noted, and trends in higher education for the early eighties are examined. Among the past influences on higher education that illustrate the wisdom of planning for a realistic period of time, such as five years, are the following: the massive…

  15. Higher Education and Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Policy debate about whether to maintain public subsidies for higher education has stimulated reconsideration of the public mission of higher education institutions, especially those that provide student places conferring private benefits. If the work of higher education institutions is defined simply as the aggregation of private interests, this…

  16. A Tax for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  17. State Intervention in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenny, Lyman A.; Bowen, Frank M.

    State intervention in higher education is discussed, and state and federal regulations that affect higher education are discussed and contrasted. The structures and procedures by which states intervene in higher education are outlined, and the issue of institutional autonomy is considered. Policy areas through which the state can affect higher…

  18. A Tax for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  19. People Who Study Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Tony

    2009-01-01

    The study of higher education can seem extraordinarily complex because what counts as knowledge is contestable and the higher education research community is, like Hemingway's Paris, a moveable feast. A lack of epistemological precision and field uncertainty is partly due to the fact that those who study higher education tend to work in higher…

  20. Advancing Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    This special section of the "Journal of Diversity in Higher Education" ("JDHE") on "Advancing Diversity in Higher Education" emerged from the 2012 Association for the Study of Higher Education Council on Ethnic Participation (ASHE-CEP) Pre-Conference Forum. CEP, a standing committee of ASHE, partnered with the…

  1. New developments in oxidative fermentation.

    PubMed

    Adachi, O; Moonmangmee, D; Toyama, H; Yamada, M; Shinagawa, E; Matsushita, K

    2003-02-01

    thermotolerant Acetobacter species were found to be useful for vinegar fermentation at a high temperature such 38-40 degrees C, where mesophilic strains showed no growth. They oxidized higher concentrations of ethanol up to 9% without any appreciable lag time, while alcohol oxidation with mesophilic strains was delayed or became almost impossible under such conditions. Several useful Gluconobacter species of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria are also found, especially L-erythrulose-producing strains and cyclic alcohol-oxidizing strains. Gluconobacter frateurii CHM 43 is able to rapidly oxidize meso-erythritol at 37 degrees C leading to the accumulation of L-erythrulose, which may replace dihydroxyacetone in cosmetics. G. frateuriiCHM 9 is able to oxidize cyclic alcohols to their corresponding cyclic ketones or aliphatic ketones, which are known to be useful for preparing many different physiologically active compounds such as oxidized steroids or oxidized bicyclic ketones. The enzymes involved in these meso-erythritol and cyclic alcohol oxidations have been purified and shown to be a similar type of membrane-bound quinoproteins, consisting of a high molecular weight single peptide. This is completely different from another quinoprotein, alcohol dehydrogenase of acetic acid bacteria, which consists of three subunits including hemoproteins.

  2. Higher Capacity, Improved Conductive Matrix VB2/Air Batteries (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-18

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0326 HIGHER CAPACITY, IMPROVED CONDUCTIVE MATRIX VB2/AIR BATTERIES (POSTPRINT) Matthew Lefler, Jessica...Interim 8 September 2014 – 20 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HIGHER CAPACITY, IMPROVED CONDUCTIVE MATRIX VB2/AIR BATTERIES (POSTPRINT) 5a... batteries is that resistive oxide products impede the discharge depth, and only thin anode batteries (for example 10 mAh in a 1 cm diameter cell

  3. Pretreatment for reducing oxidative reactivity of baseoils

    SciTech Connect

    Dickakian, G.B.

    1989-11-28

    This patent describes a method of producing lubricating oil baseoil having a reduced coking tendency. It comprises: subjecting the baseoil to conditions which accelerate formation of asphaltene coking precursors in the baseoil. The conditions comprising oxidizing the baseoil by sparging the baseoil with an oxidizing gas selected from the group consisting of air, oxygen; ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and mixtures thereof; and removing the asphaltene formed from the baseoil by contacting the baseoil with a liquid antisolvent. The liquid antisolvent being miscible with the baseoil and having a higher insolubility for the asphaltene than the baseoil has for the asphaltene whereby the asphaltene is precipitated.

  4. Lipid oxidation and improving the oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Zhong, Ying

    2010-11-01

    Lipids are a major component of food and important structural and functional constituents of cells in biological systems. However, this diverse group of substances is prone to oxidation through various pathways. Their oxidative stability depends on a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including the unsaturation of their fatty acids, composition of minor components, environment conditions, delivery techniques and use of antioxidants, among others. Lipid oxidation has detrimental effects on both food quality and human health, and efforts must be made to minimize oxidation and improve oxidative stability of lipid products. Antioxidant strategy has been successfully employed in the food industry for quality preservation of the food products and in the medicinal industry for risk reduction of numerous oxidative stress-mediated diseases. This tutorial review will provide important knowledge about lipid oxidation, including the mechanism and factors involved in oxidation, as well as strategies for improving oxidative stability of lipids.

  5. Graphene oxide nanocolloids.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiayan; Cote, Laura J; Tung, Vincent C; Tan, Alvin T L; Goins, Philip E; Wu, Jinsong; Huang, Jiaxing

    2010-12-22

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanocolloids-sheets with lateral dimension smaller than 100 nm-were synthesized by chemical exfoliation of graphite nanofibers, in which the graphene planes are coin-stacked along the length of the nanofibers. Since the upper size limit is predetermined by the diameter of the nanofiber precursor, the size distribution of the GO nanosheets is much more uniform than that of common GO synthesized from graphite powders. The size can be further tuned by the oxidation time. Compared to the micrometer-sized, regular GO sheets, nano GO has very similar spectroscopic characteristics and chemical properties but very different solution properties, such as surface activity and colloidal stability. Due to higher charge density originating from their higher edge-to-area ratios, aqueous GO nanocolloids are significantly more stable. Dispersions of GO nanocolloids can sustain high-speed centrifugation and remain stable even after chemical reduction, which would result in aggregates for regular GO. Therefore, nano GO can act as a better dispersing agent for insoluble materials (e.g., carbon nanotubes) in water, creating a more stable colloidal dispersion.

  6. Oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Willmott, Phil

    2008-07-02

    Although the history of metal oxides and their surfaces goes back several decades to landmark studies, such as Mott and Peierls' explanation of electrical insulation in materials that are predicted in band theory to be conducting, or the observation by Morin of the superfast metal-to-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide, it is only in the last two decades that the world of condensed matter physics has become increasingly dominated by research into complex metal oxides. This has been driven most notably by an attempt to better understand and describe the fundamental physical processes behind their seemingly endless spectrum of properties, which in turn has also led to the discovery of novel phenomena, most prominently demonstrated by the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in 1986, colossal magnetoresistance in 1994, and most recently, the formation of a two-dimensional conducting layer at the interface between two band insulators in 2004. One important reason why metal oxides, particularly in the form of thin films, have become such a popular subject for basic condensed matter research is that they offer a uniquely versatile materials base for the development of novel technologies. They owe this versatility both to the many different elemental combinations that lead to structurally similar forms, and also to the fact that in many cases, the strong interaction between the valence electrons means that there is a subtle interplay between structure and magnetic and electronic properties. This aspect has led in recent years to the birth or renaissance of research fields such as spintronics, orbital ordering, and multiferroics. Surfaces and interfaces are especially interesting in these strongly-correlated electron systems, where the rearrangement of electrical charge resulting from a minimization of surface or interfacial energy can have unexpected and often exciting consequences. Indeed, as the drive to miniaturize devices well below the micron size

  7. Nitric oxide ameliorates the damaging effects of oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Manish Singh; Srivastava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Alka; Singh, Anumeha; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2016-11-01

    In cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120, iron deficiency leads to oxidative stress with unavoidable consequences. Nitric oxide reduces pigment damage and supported the growth of Anabaena 7120 in iron-deficient conditions. Elevation in nitric oxide accumulation and reduced superoxide radical production justified the role of nitric oxide in alleviating oxidative stress in iron deficiency. Increased activities of antioxidative enzymes and higher levels of ROS scavengers (ascorbate, glutathione and thiol) in iron deficiency were also observed in the presence of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide also supported the membrane integrity of Anabaena cells and reduces protein and DNA damage caused by oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency. Results suggested that nitric oxide alleviates the damaging effects of oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

  8. Higher: Setting a Higher Bar for Higher Ed. 2013 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council of Trustees and Alumni, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The American Council of Trustees and Alumni (ACTA) is leading the charge to return "higher" to higher education. We are challenging the status quo to restore academic freedom, academic rigor, and real accountability to higher education. And, we are doing so with an ever-widening network of supporters and partners.

  9. Oxidative Reactions with Nonaqueous Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan S. Dordick; Douglas Clark; Brian H Davison; Alexander Klibanov

    2001-12-30

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate a proof-of-concept of enzymatic oxidative processing in nonaqueous media using alkene epoxidation and phenolic polymerization as relevant targets. This project will provide both the fundamental and applied investigations necessary to initiate the implementation of oxidative biocatalysts as commercially relevant alternatives to chemical processing in general, and to phenolic polymerizations and alkene epoxidation specifically. Thus, this work will address the Bioprocessing Solicitation Area to: (1) makes major improvements to phenolic polymerization and alkene epoxidation technologies; (2) is expected to be cost competitive with competing conventional processes; and (3) produces higher yields with less waste.

  10. Higher Education in the USSR. Monographs on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelyev, A. Y.; And Others

    This monograph describes the system of higher education in the United Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The preface points out that despite perestroika, two features of Soviet education persist, a high degree of unity and centralization and a close link between higher education and employers. Chapter 1, "Historical Overview," begins…

  11. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked: considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and ...

  12. Oxidative damage in dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Seet, Raymond C S; Lee, Chung-Yung J; Lim, Erle C H; Quek, Amy M L; Yeo, Leonard L L; Huang, Shan-Hong; Halliwell, Barry

    2009-08-15

    Oxidative stress may be important in the pathogenesis of dengue infection. Using accurate markers of oxidative damage, we assessed the extent of oxidative damage in dengue patients. The levels of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid products (HETEs), F(2)-isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs), and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were measured in 28 adult dengue patients and 28 age-matched study controls during the febrile, defervescent, and convalescent stages of infection. We compared the absolute and the percentage change in these markers in relation to key clinical parameters and inflammatory markers. The levels of total HETEs and total HETEs/arachidonate, total F(2)-IsoPs/arachidonate, and COPs/cholesterol were higher during the febrile compared to the convalescent level. Total HETEs correlated positively with admission systolic blood pressure (r=0.52, p<0.05), whereas an inverse relationship was found between 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.61 and -0.59, respectively, p<0.01). The urinary F(2)-IsoP level was higher in urine during the febrile stage compared to the convalescent level. Despite lower total cholesterol levels during the febrile stage compared to convalescent levels, a higher percentage of cholesterol was found as COPs (7beta-, 24-, and 27-hydroxycholesterol). The levels of platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase activity, vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were higher during the febrile stage compared to their convalescent levels (p<0.01). Markers of oxidative damage are altered during the various stages of dengue infection.

  13. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  14. Rapid thermal oxidation of silicon in ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhenjiang; Madsen, Jonathan M.; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2000-06-01

    Rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of Si in ozone gas is studied at temperatures between 200 and 550 °C, and the properties of the resulting ultrathin oxides are characterized using in situ mirror-enhanced reflection Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Thus, the frequency and intensity of the longitudinal optical vibrational mode of the Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching from ultrathin oxide films (<30 Å) are probed in different processing environments and related to the oxidation kinetics and interfacial layer properties. The oxidation rate in ozone is found to be comparable to the one in pure oxygen at approximately 200 °C higher temperature. Analyses of the oxidation in ozone show a fast oxidation regime followed by a slow one with activation energies of 0.13±0.01 and 0.19±0.04 eV, respectively. Two regions are also observed for the oxidation in pure O2 with activation energies of 0.20±0.03 eV for the fast oxidation regime and 0.36±0.04 eV for the slow one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results and IR spectral feature frequency shifts suggest that the RTO of silicon in ozone ambient results in a thinner, less-stressed interfacial layer than the one obtained in pure O2. Preliminary electrical characterization using surface charge analyses indicates that the oxides formed in ozone are of superior quality.

  15. Institutional Change and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Steven; Rodriguez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Institutional change includes the supplanting of the old model of production with a new one, the elimination of old markets and the emergence of new ones. As higher education around the world shifts from national markets to an integrated transnational market, and possibly toward a virtual market, Christian higher education, like other market…

  16. The Higher Education Research Archipelago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Ever since he stumbled into doing higher education research as a young academic in the 1980s, the author has been trying to understand it as a "field" of study. His career, as a former business lecturer, then an academic developer and now an associate professor for higher education working in an Education Faculty has given him opportunities to see…

  17. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  18. Women in Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the issues of a 1996 newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main articles concern: (1) a successful campaign to increase female…

  19. Afrocentricity: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiele, Jerome H.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses some ideas about how Afrocentricity can be promoted and integrated in institutions of higher education in the United States. It argues that Afrocentricity offers an alternative to the more dominant Eurocentric view found in higher education and the world and states that the Eurocentric view subscribes to itself exclusive rights to…

  20. Polish Higher Education: Intersectoral Distinctiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musial, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes degrees of differences between the private and public sectors of Polish higher education. It finds them to be strong: Polish private institutions function very differently from Polish public institutions and these differences correspond with those found in the literature on higher education elsewhere in the world. Polish…

  1. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  2. Higher Education: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.; Dietrich, Greta L.; Phillips, Gabriele; McCormack, Kevin A.

    This report provides a review of higher education systems in selected developed countries and compares higher education in the United States and other countries. The report draws on data from the Indicators of National Education Systems Project of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic…

  3. Latino Males in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 fact sheet profiles the status of Latino males in higher education, providing information on population, college enrollment, and educational attainment. While college enrollment among Latino males continues to increase, they still lag behind Latino females in college enrollment--a disparity that increases as the level of higher education…

  4. Effective Communication in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The intent for this paper is to show that communication within the higher education field is a current problem. By looking first at the different styles, forms, and audiences for communication, the reader will hopefully gain perspective as to why this is such a problem in higher education today. Since the Millennial generation is the newest set of…

  5. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  6. Strategy Process in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Higher education institutions educate those who are the most talented and best able to secure the future for the next generation. This study examines an efficient strategy process in higher education and emphasises the importance of sufficient dialogue during the process. The study describes the strategy process of the Turku University of Applied…

  7. History of Higher Education, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History of Higher Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This annual compilation presents four papers which focus on significant developments in higher education in nineteenth-century Europe and the United States. An introduction to the volume by Roger L. Geiger notes commonalities across the four papers and major trends in historical research on institutions of higher education. The first paper, by…

  8. Financing Higher Education. Current Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gareth

    The nature of the changes in the patterns of financing and control of higher education systems which have been observed in the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries over the last decade are discussed. In particular, the report analyzes the links between expenditure patterns, costs and efficiency in higher education…

  9. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  10. History of Higher Education, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The six papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. Institutions. The first paper is: "The Articulation of Secondary and Higher Education: Four Historical Models at the University of Georgia" (J. Patrick McCarthy), which discusses the efforts of…

  11. Higher Education: Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  12. Theorising Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Britain now has the most heavily regulated higher education system in the world and institutions must deliver best educational value. This book explores the political and psychic economy of quality assurance in higher education and interrogates the discourse and practices associated with the audit culture in Britain. Following Acknowledgements and…

  13. Theorising Quality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Britain now has the most heavily regulated higher education system in the world and institutions must deliver best educational value. This book explores the political and psychic economy of quality assurance in higher education and interrogates the discourse and practices associated with the audit culture in Britain. Following Acknowledgements and…

  14. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  15. Systems of Higher Education: Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Alfonso Rangel

    This report on Mexico was prepared as part of a comparative study of higher education in 12 countries. After a brief historical statement, the concept of autonomy, which is most important to understanding Mexican higher education, is explained. The main part of the report is divided into three sections: a description of the growth and organization…

  16. Barriers to Universal Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrin, Richard I.

    This report was prepared as a background paper for a national study of changes in the accessibility of higher education fromm l958 to l968. It out- lines four major barriers to higher education: the financial, the academic, the motivational, and the geographic. Efforts to reduce these barriers have included (1) the creation of junior colleges; (2)…

  17. Canuck-Do Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, like Australia, Canadian higher education has experienced large-scale cuts in government funding, the deregulation of tuition and general cost shifting to students, inability to accommodate increased student demand, faculty "brain drain" and shortages, and an erosion of public policy toward viewing higher education as a…

  18. Higher Education and Social Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, S.; Virasai, Banphot, Eds.

    The proceedings of the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development's seminar and the meaning and implications of social commitment in higher education are reported. The welcoming address (S. Nasution) and the opening address (Y. B. Dato' Murad bin Mohd. Noor) welcome the participants and set the tone for the discussions to follow. The…

  19. Higher Education and the Masses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The responsibility and relationship of the Asian system of higher education to the masses is the theme of these proceedings of the German Foundation for International Development (DSE) and the Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development (RIHED) joint conference. Objectives of the conference were the following: (1) to examine the…

  20. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  1. Funding Higher Education: Student Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Selena; Harvey, Lee

    This report documents the results of a survey of 1,139 students at the University of Central England (UCE) in Birmingham in regard to their financial circumstances and their views on the funding of higher education. The report also examines the advantages and disadvantages of six specific higher education funding proposals put forth in recent…

  2. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  3. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  4. Innovation Processes in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Barbro; Ostergren, Bertil

    1979-01-01

    Innovation processes in the Swedish Higher Education System are described and related to a general theory of innovation. Using the theories of Kurt Lewin, characteristics of higher education as a social system and factors which determine the nature of the forces towards a certain type of change are defined. (JMF)

  5. Higher Education and Ethical Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the importance of ethical value in higher education as well as the relevance between ethical value and higher education. In order to examine the study logically, three research questions are addressed: First, what is value, ethical value, and Asiatic ethical value? Second, for whom and what is higher…

  6. Disruptive Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of "disruptive" innovative technologies in higher education. In this country and elsewhere, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have invested significant sums in learning technologies, with Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) being more or less universal, but these technologies have not been universally…

  7. Fact Book on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Joseph L.; Diaz, Alicia A.

    2009-01-01

    The "Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) Fact Book on Higher Education" is one of the nation's most comprehensive collections of comparative data on higher education. For decades, state leaders, policy-makers, researchers and journalists have used the "Fact Book" to find useful data quickly--and to learn more about…

  8. Higher Education Trends and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Most people in higher education believe in continuity, in respecting traditions. That makes it easy to miss the startling changes and compelling opportunities that confront the academic enterprise. In this article, the author presents a few trends that are dramatically altering higher education in New England: (1) more women than men are attending…

  9. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  10. Directory of Higher Education, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This directory lists the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of members of higher education organizations in the state of Illinois. Included for the Illinois Board of Higher Education is an organization chart, list of board and staff members, and a list of members of the Illinois Century Network. Board members and administrative officers are…

  11. Tort Litigation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Gerichten, Edward

    1999-01-01

    A survey of case law relating to tort litigation in 1998 does not reveal any watershed cases that change the legal landscape for institutions of higher education, but it does show that institutions of higher education continue to face a myriad of tort claims of a diverse nature from diverse and expanding constituencies. (SLD)

  12. Tort Litigation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Peter F.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies the significant trends and notable decisions in tort litigation regarding higher education in 1999. Cases for this year show that litigation remains common in higher education, and that many cases challenged the traditional norms of education law. An unmistakable trend is the increasing tendency to see student and university…

  13. Institutional Change and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Steven; Rodriguez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Institutional change includes the supplanting of the old model of production with a new one, the elimination of old markets and the emergence of new ones. As higher education around the world shifts from national markets to an integrated transnational market, and possibly toward a virtual market, Christian higher education, like other market…

  14. Higher Education, Poverty and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    2010-01-01

    There is a presumption among many policy makers that higher education is not necessary for economic growth and development; it is literacy and basic education and at best secondary education that are argued to be important. Estimates of internal rate of return contributed to strengthening of such a presumption. Accordingly, higher education has…

  15. "Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities…

  16. Women in Higher Education, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenninger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document consists of the 12 monthly issues of a newsletter on women students, teachers, and administrators in higher education, issued in 1994. Each issue includes feature articles, news on higher education, profiles of significant people in the field, and job announcements. The issues' main article topics are: (1) campuses's changing…

  17. Feminist Research in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca; Winters, Kelly T.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of feminist methodology and its potential to enhance the study of higher education. Foregrounding the multiple purposes and research relationships developed through feminist research, the essay urges higher education scholars to engage feminist theories, epistemologies, and methods to inform policy, research, and…

  18. Higher Education: Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilde, Christian, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses a problem in higher learning, which is newly recognized in the academic spotlight: the overcommercialization of higher education. The book asks that you, the reader, think about the following: Did you go to a Coke or Pepsi school? Do your children attend a Nike or Adidas school? Is the college in your town a Dell or Gateway…

  19. A Higher Education Issues Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balm, Gerald J.; Blomberg, Robert

    1987-01-01

    As part of a strategic planning effort guiding community socioeconomic development through 2000, the citizens of Rochester, Minnesota, tackled the problem of providing equitable, accessible, and accountable higher education. Studying external factors and developing an internal situation analysis led to a set of higher education issues and…

  20. Minority Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nathaniel

    2012-01-01

    Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans are entitled to equal access to all institutions of higher education. Ensuring greater access and participation by minorities in higher education is one of the most practical ways of moving America closer to the ideal of equal opportunity, which is the actualization of the American dream.…

  1. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  2. Strategic Planning for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Philip; Murphy, Patrick E.

    1981-01-01

    The framework necessary for achieving a strategic planning posture in higher education is outlined. The most important benefit of strategic planning for higher education decision makers is that it forces them to undertake a more market-oriented and systematic approach to long- range planning. (Author/MLW)

  3. THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTTER, ALLAN M.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PUBLICATION CONTAINS PAPERS PRESENTED AT A COLLOQUIUM HELD BY THE COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIP SERVICE IN 1965. THE PAPERS DEAL BROADLY WITH THE QUESTION OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE METHODS OF FINANCING HIGHER EDUCATION, AND WITH THE ROLE AND PROBLEMS OF THE EDUCATIONAL CONSUMER. THE PAPERS DEAL WITH--(1) THE ECONOMICS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, (2) PRICING…

  4. Higher Education and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Shirley M.

    1993-01-01

    Higher education has related asynchronously to recent cycles in social movements affecting school reform. Current efforts in Oregon illustrate this pattern in public colleges. Although higher education is not likely to overcome its skepticism of reform dynamics, there is both reason and potential for promising alliances with schools. (Author/MSE)

  5. Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyring, Henry C.

    2011-01-01

    In "Unexploited Efficiencies in Higher Education," Henry C. Eyring, a junior majoring in Economics at Brigham Young University-Idaho, argues that one way that the U.S. can compete globally in college attainment is to decrease cost-per-graduate. He explains how many stakeholders in higher education stand to benefit from unexploited…

  6. The Overselling of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leef, George C.

    2006-01-01

    There is not enough substance behind a degree to warrant the ubiquitous belief that a stint in higher education is a "sine qua non" for success in America. While college diplomas may translate into higher-paying jobs for some, high school signifies little in the way of education these days, so jaded employers' estimates of the real value of…

  7. Econometric Studies of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    The econometrics of higher education emerged from the development of human capital theory and efforts to estimate rates of return to education in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper surveys the various strands of the literature on the econometrics of higher education that have developed during the last 40 years and indicates how a collection of papers…

  8. Alternative Models for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, John G.

    Higher education is beset from all sides by criticism, fear, doubt, uncertainty, and prophecies of doom. While the young call for change, the faculty often resist anything that might reduce their privileges and prerogatives. Before alternative models to the present system of higher education can be considered, it is useful to question present…

  9. Queering Transformation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Msibi, Thabo

    2013-01-01

    Transformation in higher education has tended to focus on race and sex, at the expense of other forms of discrimination. This article addresses the silencing of "queer" issues in higher education. Using queer theory as a framework, and drawing on current literature, popular media reports, two personal critical incidents and a project…

  10. Higher Education in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, R. A.

    There are two sectors of higher education in the Netherlands: the universities covered by the University Education Act and the vocationally-oriented colleges covered by the Further Education Act. Following a summary of the main elements of secondary education, higher or tertiary education is defined. Thirteen universities and non-university…

  11. Innovations in Higher Education? Hah!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    One can hardly mention higher education today without hearing the word "innovation," or its understudies "change," "reinvention," "transformation." Last summer the National Governors Association opened its meeting with a plenary session on higher education, innovation, and economic growth. But there is nothing funny about the need for innovation…

  12. History of Higher Education, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The six papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. Institutions. The first paper is: "The Articulation of Secondary and Higher Education: Four Historical Models at the University of Georgia" (J. Patrick McCarthy), which discusses the efforts of…

  13. Postmodernism in Higher Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaris, Michalyn C.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    Postmodernism has many inferences that can be applied to the theory and practice of higher educational administration. Today, in higher education administrators are continuously focused on strategies that will ensure the future of minority educational institutions. As a result postmodernism is an important factor in the future of higher…

  14. Detecting oxidized contaminants in water using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Van Ginkel, Steven W; Hassan, Sedky H A; Ok, Yong Sik; Yang, Jae E; Kim, Yong-Seong; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2011-04-15

    For the rapid and reliable detection of oxidized contaminants (i.e., nitrite, nitrate, perchlorate, dichromate) in water, a novel toxicity detection methodology based on sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) has been developed. The methodology exploits the ability of SOB to oxidize elemental sulfur to sulfuric acid in the presence of oxygen. The reaction results in an increase in electrical conductivity (EC) and a decrease in pH. When oxidized contaminants were added to the system, the effluent EC decreased and the pH increased due to the inhibition of the SOB. We found that the system can detect these contaminants in the 5-50 ppb range (in the case of NO(3)(-), 10 ppm was detected), which is lower than many whole-cell biosensors to date. At low pH, the oxidized contaminants are mostly in their acid or nonpolar, protonated form which act as uncouplers and make the SOB biosensor more sensitive than other whole-cell biosensors which operate at higher pH values where the contaminants exist as dissociated anions. The SOB biosensor can detect toxicity on the order of minutes to hours which can serve as an early warning so as to not pollute the environment and affect public health.

  15. Effects of pork meat cut and packaging type on lipid oxidation and oxidative products during refrigerated storage (8 degrees C).

    PubMed

    Park, S Y; Kim, Y J; Lee, H C; Yoo, S S; Shim, J H; Chin, K B

    2008-04-01

    Lipid oxidation and oxidative products as affected by pork meat cut, packaging method, and storage time were evaluated during refrigerated storage. Pork belly had higher pH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values than pork loin, and aerobic-packaged belly had higher TBARS than vacuum-packaged counterparts. Loin had higher free fatty acid (FFA) values than belly, and increased FFA values were observed with increased storage time. Peroxide values increased up to 7 d and decreased thereafter. Volatile compounds such as alkanes, aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols with high volatility in belly were higher than those in loin. Nonanoic acid, ethyl ester in belly, and hexadecanoic acid in loin might be considered as indices of lipid oxidation. Overall, vacuum packaging was better than aerobic packaging to retard lipid oxidation and production of oxidative products, and loin was more sensitive to lipid oxidation than belly.

  16. Correlates of oxidative stress in wild kestrel nestlings (Falco tinnunculus).

    PubMed

    Costantini, David; Casagrande, Stefania; De Filippis, Stefania; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fanfani, Alberto; Tagliavini, James; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2006-05-01

    The fitness of an organism can be affected by conditions experienced during early development. In light of the impact that oxidative stress can have on the health and ageing of a bird species, this study evaluated factors accounting for the variation in oxidative stress levels in nestlings of the Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) by measuring the serum concentration of reactive oxygen metabolites and the serum antioxidant barrier against hypochlorite-induced oxidation. The ratio between these two variables was considered as an index of oxidative stress, with higher values meaning higher oxidative damage. Six-chick broods showed the highest level of oxidative stress, while no effect of sex was found. Age showed an inverse relationship with the oxidants and the levels of oxidative stress, with younger birds having higher levels. Hatching date, body condition, body mass and carotenoid concentration did not show any relationship with oxidants, antioxidants or degree of oxidative stress. These findings suggest that intrabrood sibling competition could play a role in determining oxidative stress, and that in carnivorous birds other antioxidant molecules could be more important than carotenoids to reduce oxidative stress.

  17. Oxidation at Surfaces of Uranium Oxide Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueneman, Richard; Burgraff, Larry

    2001-04-01

    Uranium dioxide (UO2 (S)) is unstable in an oxidizing environment and oxidizes until covered with a layer of uranium trioxide (UO3 (C)). During the oxidation process, uranium cations change from U+4 to U+6 and the oxide crystal structure changes from face centered cubic to orthorhombic. Seven UO2(S) samples were prepared by pressing UO2 (S) powder into a tungsten screen and then subjected to five different temperatures and three partial pressures of oxygen. UO2 (S) oxidation was monitored with in situ photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Quantitative oxidation data was obtained with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The in situ PL spectra did not identify UO3 (C) forming on the sample surfaces however, a new PL signature not associated with uranyl was observed. SIMS and XPS data from oxidized UO2 (S) samples indicated that at low temperatures, surface oxidation is kinetically limited and at high temperatures, surface oxidation is limited by diffusion. A model for the oxidation rate to UO3 (C) was not developed due to the temperature dependant oxidation process and high vacuum reduction of amorphous UO3 (A) present on the UO2 (S) sample surfaces prior to oxidation. A PL emission spectra intensity reduction was noticed on a UO3 (C) sample at room temperature under high vacuum. A reduction and re-oxidation of three additional UO3 (C) samples identified a kinetically irreversible reduction process for UO3(C) under high vacuum. A SIMS surface scan was performed on a fourth UO3(C) sample before and after exposure to ultra-high vacuum (10-8 torr) and the results suggest the reduction of UO3(C) to lower oxides (U3O8, U3O7 and UO2) at room temperature.

  18. Oxidation resistance of silicon ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasutoshi, H.; Hirota, K.

    1984-01-01

    Oxidation resistance, and examples of oxidation of SiC, Si3N4 and sialon are reviewed. A description is given of the oxidation mechanism, including the oxidation product, oxidation reaction and the bubble size. The oxidation reactions are represented graphically. An assessment is made of the oxidation process, and an oxidation example of silicon ceramics is given.

  19. Oxide fiber targets at ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, U.; Bergmann, U. C.; Carminati, D.; Catherall, R.; Cederkäll, J.; Correia, J. G.; Crepieux, B.; Dietrich, M.; Elder, K.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Fraile, L.; Franchoo, S.; Fynbo, H.; Georg, U.; Giles, T.; Joinet, A.; Jonsson, O. C.; Kirchner, R.; Lau, Ch.; Lettry, J.; Maier, H. J.; Mishin, V. I.; Oinonen, M.; Peräjärvi, K.; Ravn, H. L.; Rinaldi, T.; Santana-Leitner, M.; Wahl, U.; Weissman, L.; Isolde Collaboration

    2003-05-01

    Many elements are rapidly released from oxide matrices. Some oxide powder targets show a fast sintering, thus losing their favorable release characteristics. Loosely packed oxide fiber targets are less critical since they may maintain their open structure even when starting to fuse together at some contact points. The experience with various oxide fiber targets (titania, zirconia, ceria and thoria) used in the last years at ISOLDE is reviewed. For short-lived isotopes of Cu, Ga and Xe the zirconia and ceria targets respectively provided significantly higher yields than any other target (metal foils, oxide powders, etc.) tested before. Titania fibers, which were not commercially available, were produced in a relic process by impregnation of a rayon felt in a titanium chloride solution and subsequent calcination by heating the dried felt in air. Thoria fibers were obtained either by the same process or by burning commercial gas lantern mantle cloth. In the future a beryllia fiber target could be used to produce very intense 6He beams (order of 10 13 ions per second) via the 9Be(n,α) reaction using spallation neutrons.

  20. The Legalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.

  1. Differentiation of Higher Education Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazenave, P.; Lapointe, S.

    1983-01-01

    Historical and political influences in the trend toward diversification in French universities are traced. Related issues discussed include institutional versus governmental preferences, institutional functions (curriculum, vocational training, research), and implications for the quality and democratization of higher education. (MSE)

  2. Trends in Higher Education Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the effects which changes in computer technology are having on the organization, staffing, and budgets at institutions of higher education. Trends in computer hardware, computer software, and in office automation are also discussed. (JN)

  3. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  4. Electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Indirect cholesterol electrochemical oxidation in the presence of various mediators leads to electrophilic addition to the double bond, oxidation at the allylic position, oxidation of the hydroxy group, or functionalization of the side chain. Recent studies have proven that direct electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol is also possible and affords different products depending on the reaction conditions. PMID:25977713

  5. Ultra Supercritical Steamside Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538 C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620 C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which require steam temperatures of up to 760 C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  6. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  7. Metal Atom Oxidation Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    mixtures of dusts of rare earth fluorides and oxides administered intratracheally and by inhalation. Some of the test animals (guinea pigs) died of...neodymium and cerium oxides were also made. These dusts were administered intratracheally to white rats. The investigation showed that these oxides...but milder. Cerium oxide was the least damaging of the three. With regard to the" aerosols of the oxides of yttrium, neodymium and other rare earth

  8. Hydrothermal processing of cellulose: A comparison between oxidative and non-oxidative processes.

    PubMed

    Yousefifar, Azadeh; Baroutian, Saeid; Farid, Mohammed M; Gapes, Daniel J; Young, Brent R

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates oxidative and non-oxidative hydrothermal processing of cellulose at five different temperatures (180-260°C). Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration, total suspended solid (TSS) degradation, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured and compared in both processes. Moreover, the existence of hydrogen peroxide in both oxidative and non-oxidative processes was confirmed experimentally for the first time in literature. At temperatures ⩽220°C the amount of H2O2 produced in the oxidative process was higher (50 fold) than that of in the non-oxidative while at higher temperatures (⩾240°C) it was more for non-oxidative (3.5-5 fold). The concentration of VFAs in the non-oxidative process was lower than 10% of that in oxidative process. In both processes soluble COD increased with time and temperature, however at 260°C after reaching a maximum, it decreased with time due to conversion of some soluble intermediates to CO2 and water.

  9. The Hesburgh Papers: Higher Values in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesburgh, Theodore M.

    In this book the president of Notre Dame University responds to the critics who see the teaching of religion and values as a hindrance to institutions of higher learning, suggesting that no university is truly a university unless it is universal and moves every scholar to look to the total universe. The significance of values in education is…

  10. The Hesburgh Papers: Higher Values in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesburgh, Theodore M.

    In this book the president of Notre Dame University responds to the critics who see the teaching of religion and values as a hindrance to institutions of higher learning, suggesting that no university is truly a university unless it is universal and moves every scholar to look to the total universe. The significance of values in education is…

  11. Revitalizing Higher Education. The Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.

    This volume contains six essays on higher education which provide lessons and successful techniques for meeting the challenges of the future. The first essay, "Academic Renewal at Michigan" (James Duderstadt), describes the modern research university as a complex corporate conglomerate in danger of diluting its core business. The…

  12. Revitalizing Higher Education. The Stanford Forum for Higher Education Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.; Massy, William F., Ed.

    This volume contains six essays on higher education which provide lessons and successful techniques for meeting the challenges of the future. The first essay, "Academic Renewal at Michigan" (James Duderstadt), describes the modern research university as a complex corporate conglomerate in danger of diluting its core business. The…

  13. Allene oxide synthases and allene oxides.

    PubMed

    Tijet, Nathalie; Brash, Alan R

    2002-08-01

    Allene oxides are unstable epoxides formed by the enzymatic dehydration of the lipoxygenase products of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The allene oxide synthases are of two structurally-unrelated types. In plants, a subfamily of cytochromes P450, designated as CYP74A, use the hydroperoxides of linoleic and linolenic acids as substrate. Both the 9- and 13-hydroperoxides may be converted to allene oxides and subsequently give rise to plant signaling molecules. In corals, a catalase-related hemoprotein functions as the allene oxide synthase. These marine invertebrates, as well as starfish, form allene oxides from the 8R-hydroperoxide of arachidonic acid. The coral allene oxide synthase from Plexaura homomalla occurs as the N-terminal domain of a natural fusion protein with the 8R-lipoxygenase that forms its substrate. This enzyme may be involved in biosynthesis of the cyclopentenone eicosanoids such as the clavulones.

  14. Capacitive behavior of highly-oxidized graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciszewski, Mateusz; Mianowski, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    Capacitive behavior of a highly-oxidized graphite is presented in this paper. The graphite oxide was synthesized using an oxidizing mixture of potassium chlorate and concentrated fuming nitric acid. As-oxidized graphite was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed with respect to the oxygen content and the species of oxygen-containing groups. Electrochemical measurements were performed in a two-electrode symmetric cell using KOH electrolyte. It was shown that prolonged oxidation causes an increase in the oxygen content while the interlayer distance remains constant. Specific capacitance increased with oxygen content in the electrode as a result of pseudo-capacitive effects, from 0.47 to 0.54 F/g for a scan rate of 20 mV/s and 0.67 to 1.15 F/g for a scan rate of 5 mV/s. Better cyclability was observed for the electrode with a higher oxygen amount.

  15. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Gary T.

    2012-04-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.

  16. The Enzymatic Oxidation of Graphene Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Kotchey, Gregg P.; Allen, Brett L.; Vedala, Harindra; Yanamala, Naveena; Kapralov, Alexander A.; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kagan, Valerian E.; Star, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphitic carbon is a new material with many emerging applications, and studying its chemical properties is an important goal. Here, we reported a new phenomenon – the enzymatic oxidation of a single layer of graphitic carbon by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (~40 µM), HRP catalyzed the oxidation of graphene oxide, which resulted in the formation of holes on its basal plane. During the same period of analysis, HRP failed to oxidize chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The enzymatic oxidation was characterized by Raman, UV-Vis, EPR and FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, AFM, SDS-PAGE, and GC-MS. Computational docking studies indicated that HRP was preferentially bound to the basal plane rather than the edge for both graphene oxide and RGO. Due to the more dynamic nature of HRP on graphene oxide, the heme active site of HRP was in closer proximity to graphene oxide compared to RGO, thereby facilitating the oxidation of the basal plane of graphene oxide. We also studied the electronic properties of the reduced intermediate product, holey reduced graphene oxide (hRGO), using field-effect transistor (FET) measurements. While RGO exhibited a V-shaped transfer characteristic similar to a single layer of graphene that was attributed to its zero band gap, hRGO demonstrated a p-type semiconducting behavior with a positive shift in the Dirac points. This p-type behavior rendered hRGO, which can be conceptualized as interconnected graphene nanoribbons, as a potentially attractive material for FET sensors. PMID:21344859

  17. The enzymatic oxidation of graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Kotchey, Gregg P; Allen, Brett L; Vedala, Harindra; Yanamala, Naveena; Kapralov, Alexander A; Tyurina, Yulia Y; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kagan, Valerian E; Star, Alexander

    2011-03-22

    Two-dimensional graphitic carbon is a new material with many emerging applications, and studying its chemical properties is an important goal. Here, we reported a new phenomenon--the enzymatic oxidation of a single layer of graphitic carbon by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (∼40 μM), HRP catalyzed the oxidation of graphene oxide, which resulted in the formation of holes on its basal plane. During the same period of analysis, HRP failed to oxidize chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The enzymatic oxidation was characterized by Raman, ultraviolet-visible, electron paramagnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Computational docking studies indicated that HRP was preferentially bound to the basal plane rather than the edge for both graphene oxide and RGO. Owing to the more dynamic nature of HRP on graphene oxide, the heme active site of HRP was in closer proximity to graphene oxide compared to RGO, thereby facilitating the oxidation of the basal plane of graphene oxide. We also studied the electronic properties of the reduced intermediate product, holey reduced graphene oxide (hRGO), using field-effect transistor (FET) measurements. While RGO exhibited a V-shaped transfer characteristic similar to a single layer of graphene that was attributed to its zero band gap, hRGO demonstrated a p-type semiconducting behavior with a positive shift in the Dirac points. This p-type behavior rendered hRGO, which can be conceptualized as interconnected graphene nanoribbons, as a potentially attractive material for FET sensors.

  18. Complex higher order derivative theories

    SciTech Connect

    Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David

    2012-08-24

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  19. Iron oxide particles as a catalyst in chemical oxidation of organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Gurol, M.D.; Lin, S.S.; Bhat, N.

    1995-12-31

    This research addresses the use of ozone and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of iron oxide particles which provide a catalytic surface for conversion to hydroxyl free radical. N-butylchloride (BuCl) and monochlorobenzene (MCB) were oxidized using goethite as the catalyst. The effect of varying the dosage of hydrogen peroxide or ozone, the mass and the size of the geothite particles, the mixing speed, and the gas flow rate for ozonation was investigated. The effect of water quality in terms of pH, carbonate alkalinity and initial organic concentration on reaction rates was addressed as well. Experimental observations showed that varying the stirring speed in the reactor or the size of the iron oxide particles did not have any significant effect on the oxidation rates, indicating that the rate was controlled by the intrinsic reaction rates on iron oxide surfaces. The presence of hydrogen peroxide significantly increased the removal of BuCl, and higher dosages caused considerably higher removal. Results also demonstrated a strong dependence of BuCl removal on the iron oxide dosage. MCB adsorbed strongly on goethite, but was oxidized effectively by ozone. Hydrogen peroxide decomposed rapidly in the presence of goethite at a rate directly proportional to the rate of BuCl oxidation. These results indicate that the interaction of hydrogen peroxide with goethite particles leads to the formation of hydroxyl free radical, which is responsible for oxidation of BuCl. Similarly, ozone decomposed in the presence of goethite. The oxidation efficiency for hydrogen peroxide/goethite remained unaffected when the pH and the alkalinity were varied. Furthermore, the ozone/goethite system provided mineralization as measured by the removal of the total organic carbon. Hence, both of these oxidation processes promise to be effective in oxidation of organic compounds, and may not suffer from the limitations of other radical processes.

  20. Adsorption of lead over graphite oxide.

    PubMed

    Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Oyefusi, Adebola; Neelgund, Gururaj M; Oki, Aderemi

    2014-01-24

    The adsorption efficiency and kinetics of removal of lead in presence of graphite oxide (GO) was determined using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The GO was prepared by the chemical oxidation of graphite and characterized using FTIR, SEM, TGA and XRD. The adsorption efficiency of GO for the solution containing 50, 100 and 150 ppm of Pb(2+) was found to be 98%, 91% and 71% respectively. The adsorption ability of GO was found to be higher than graphite. Therefore, the oxidation of activated carbon in removal of heavy metals may be a viable option to reduce pollution in portable water. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Adsorption of lead over Graphite Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Oyefusi, Adebola; Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption efficiency and kinetics of removal of lead in presence of graphite oxide (GO) was determined using the Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The GO was prepared by the chemical oxidation of graphite and characterized using FTIR, SEM, TGA and XRD. The adsorption efficiency of GO for the solution containing 50, 100 and 150 ppm of Pb2+ was found to be 98, 91 and 71% respectively. The adsorption ability of GO was found to be higher than graphite. Therefore, the oxidation of activated carbon in removal of heavy metals may be a viable option to reduce pollution in portable water. PMID:24152870

  2. Adsorption of lead over graphite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanipekun, Opeyemi; Oyefusi, Adebola; Neelgund, Gururaj M.; Oki, Aderemi

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption efficiency and kinetics of removal of lead in presence of graphite oxide (GO) was determined using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The GO was prepared by the chemical oxidation of graphite and characterized using FTIR, SEM, TGA and XRD. The adsorption efficiency of GO for the solution containing 50, 100 and 150 ppm of Pb2+ was found to be 98%, 91% and 71% respectively. The adsorption ability of GO was found to be higher than graphite. Therefore, the oxidation of activated carbon in removal of heavy metals may be a viable option to reduce pollution in portable water.

  3. Distribution of nitric oxide in cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Mesáros, S; Grunfeld, S

    1997-01-01

    We report here the in vitro measurements of nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system using a porphyrinic sensor specific for NO. Nitric oxide concentrations were measured directly in different parts of the heart and also in different arteries and veins, ranging from 100 microm to 5 mm in diameter. Highest NO. concentrations were found in the heart and particularly in the areas of aortic and pulmonary valves. The NO. concentration in the arteries was higher than in the veins. A clearcut positive correlation was obtained by plotting the vessel diameter and production of nitric oxide.

  4. Spirituality and Contemporary Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Though religion played a central role in the founding of U.S. higher education, over the centuries, its influence was diluted by competing secular emphases. In recent decades, religion has seen a resurgence in academic and co-curricular attention on campuses. In addition, a spirituality not based on religion has gained increasing attention. The…

  5. Cleanliness & Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jeffrey L.; Bigger, Alan S.

    2008-01-01

    In 1992 APPA published a seminal work titled "Custodial Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities." The work was based on a concept that was in the embryonic stage in 1986 and then grew in momentum through 1988 when the APPA Board of Directors commissioned a task force to address custodial staffing issues at institutions of higher education.…

  6. Higher Education Litigation: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the frequency of reported litigation in higher education, a WESTLAW search of the institutional, employees, and student categories under the topic "Colleges and Universities" was conducted. The institutional cases declined notably in the 1980s while the employee and student cases increased slightly. (MLF)

  7. Equity, Envy, and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandra R.; Schwartz, Saul

    1986-01-01

    Develops and tests an empirical measure of fairness and envy over access to higher education for 12,000 high school students. Results suggest that, given the existence of current government subsidies, financial barriers do not prevent a significant number of high school graduates from attending college. (Author/TRS)

  8. 2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Margo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

  9. Digital Storytelling in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    Digital storytelling is a promising instructional strategy as well as an emerging field of study in higher education. Courses on digital storytelling are offered in communications and creative writing programs at a number of universities. However, the potential for digital storytelling extends far beyond the fields of communication and media…

  10. Legislative Actions Affecting Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Council for Postsecondary Education, Olympia.

    Legislative actions pertaining to Washington public higher education during the last two years are described. The reports list the major resolutions passed, laws enacted, and legislative appropriations. State legislation dealt with: establishment of the Washington library network; retirement systems; bookkeeping transactions; travel expenses; bond…

  11. Social Justice and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Massification of higher education has not been able to solve societal issues in the UK to the extent originally envisaged. Whilst universities have achieved increased student numbers and widened participation from various societal groups, those coming from socially disadvantaged groups can still often have a very different experience of university…

  12. History of Higher Education, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Robert L., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    The four papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. institutions. The first paper is: "The Harvard Tutors: The Beginning of an Academic Profession, 1690-1825" (John D. Burton), which discusses the shift from Harvard's original tutorship model to…

  13. Russian Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khisamutdinov, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, Russian emigrants in China established a network of higher education institutions based on the prerevolutionary Russian educational system. By referring to memoirs and publications in the periodical press, the author traces the history of the most significant educational establishments: Harbin School of…

  14. Faculty Retention in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soomro, Tariq Rahim; Ahmad, Reyaz

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for retaining or firing a highly qualified faculty in higher education in many cases are vague and unclear. This situation is neither a comfortable, nor a healthy, both for the faculty and the administration. Stakeholders have enough reason to blame each other in the absence of transparent mechanism. This paper proposes a transparent…

  15. Gender Issues within Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

  16. Project Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

  17. Today's Higher Education IT Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichsel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The professionals making up the current higher education IT workforce have been asked to adjust to a culture of increased IT consumerization, more sourcing options, broader interest in IT's transformative potential, and decreased resources. Disruptions that include the bring-your-own-everything era, cloud computing, new management practices,…

  18. Mobile Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraga, Lucretia M.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study investigated the beliefs of university faculty regarding mobile learning. As well as to determine if providing technology professional development to university faculty supports the increase of mobile learning opportunities in higher education. This study used the Beliefs About Mobile Learning Inventory (BAMLI) to…

  19. Evaluating Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bruce A.; Hashimoto, Masanori; Fleisher, Belton M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors develop an original measure of learning in higher education, based on grades in subsequent courses. Using this measure of learning, they show that student evaluations are positively related to current grades but unrelated to learning once current grades are controlled. They offer evidence that the weak relationship between learning and…

  20. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at…

  1. Fiscal Issues in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigolot, Carol, Ed.

    Forty colleges and life insurance presidents met to discuss key historical and contemporary factors influencing fiscal management in higher education, including inflation, salaries, diminishing enrollment figures, energy costs, federal regulations and the increasing cost of research. Differences and similarities between business and academia were…

  2. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  3. Higher Education Law: The Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poskanzer, Steven G.

    Legal requirements and lawsuits have become an established part of the U.S. higher education. This book was written to help faculty and administrators navigate critical legal issues pertaining to faculty activities and avoid potential legal pitfalls. The chapters are: (1) The Lay of the Land; (2) Scholarship; (3) In the Classroom; (4) Faculty as…

  4. Social Stratification in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodsky, Eric; Jackson, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the past half century, scholars in a variety of fields have contributed to our understanding of the relationship between higher education and social stratification. We review this literature, highlighting complementarities and inconsistencies. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: We situate our review of the…

  5. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study…

  6. Digital Resilience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Martin; Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions face a number of opportunities and challenges as the result of the digital revolution. The institutions perform a number of scholarship functions which can be affected by new technologies, and the desire is to retain these functions where appropriate, whilst the form they take may change. Much of the reaction to…

  7. Scenario Planning in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieley, James B.

    1997-01-01

    Proposes scenario planning in preparing for the future of higher education. Delineates a methodology for effective scenario planning: identifying potential future scenarios; examining social, economic, political, environmental, and technological influences; exploring mental models while looking through systems maps, and developing potential…

  8. Aptitude Tests for Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two research studies reported in the three publications discussed in this article had their origins in discussions of the Robbins Committee prior to 1963. Two of the Committee's recommendations related to possible changes in the selection of students for higher education. (Author/RK)

  9. Student Influence and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juola, Arvo E.

    Since 1965, student views and feelings have influenced great changes in higher education, sometimes to the detriment of long-term interests in academic institutions and colleges. One conspicuous recent trend is the desire of college students for more influence, impact, or power. Other prevalent attitudes may be characterized as a desire to be…

  10. The Battle for Higher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Tom; Rush, Mike; Gramer, Rod; Stewart, Roger

    2014-01-01

    To remain internationally competitive, states needed clearer, higher, and comparable K-12 learning standards aligned with college and career expectations, and as ambitious as those of the countries that lead the world in education. Idaho's old academic standards were not preparing students for postsecondary education, which contributed to the…

  11. A Balanced Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the…

  12. Digital Resilience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Martin; Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions face a number of opportunities and challenges as the result of the digital revolution. The institutions perform a number of scholarship functions which can be affected by new technologies, and the desire is to retain these functions where appropriate, whilst the form they take may change. Much of the reaction to…

  13. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  14. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability…

  15. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  16. Higher Education and Governmental Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manahan, Richard A.

    1978-01-01

    Legislators and higher education leaders need to recognize that there will probably always be conflict and tension between them, but both must attempt to keep this conflict and tension under control and direct it so as to provide a constructive relationship. (Author/IRT)

  17. The Governors and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, L. Edward, Ed.; Beyle, Thad L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between higher education and governors and state government is explored in eight articles. Brief introductions are provided by Samuel K. Gove of the University of Illinois and Governor Lamar Alexander, who served as a National Governors' Association chairman. An overview of the 1985 Wingspread Conference, which focused on the…

  18. Student Loans for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Charlene Wear

    2008-01-01

    Student loans are a rapidly growing $85 billion a year industry fueled by the substantial higher economic returns associated with a college education, increased demand from students and their parents, and grant and scholarship funds that have not kept pace with rising school tuition and fees. This report describes federally subsidized and…

  19. What's Ahead for Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens, William H.

    Forces that will greatly affect higher education in the 1980s are described, and trends during the 1970s are briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on educational finance. During the 1970s, the number of students increased by 24.3 percent, total educational and general revenues more than doubled, the state's proportion of these revenues rose by 5.2…

  20. Electronic Assessment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Roelien; Lautenbach, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is an important cornerstone of education. A world trend in staying abreast of the latest developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to an increased demand for electronic assessment in education circles. The critical need and responsibility for higher education to stay on par with the latest…

  1. History of Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This annual publication presents six articles on historical aspects of higher education. The first article is "The Urban Catholic University in the Early Twentieth Century: A Social Profile of DePaul, 1898-1940" by John L. Rury. It traces student characteristics during this period from primarily the sons (and later daughters) of European…

  2. Benefit Plans in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Francis P.; Cook, Thomas J.

    Fifth in a series and the latest of several studies on employee benefits in higher education, this book constitutes a full-scale revision of the earlier "Benefit Plans in American Colleges" (1969). The principal benefit plans provided by U.S. colleges and universities are described, analyzed, and evaluated. Included are retirement…

  3. Internal Audit in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

    This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues"…

  4. Higher Education and Native Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhauer, Noella

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the feelings of displacement and alienation suffered by members of aboriginal groups who must leave their communities to attend institutions of higher education. Notes specific problems encountered by these individuals and suggests some solutions that can ameliorate the lack of cultural support in urban areas. (DSK)

  5. Higher Education as Virtual Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins-Bell, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not it is an accurate portrayal, the old stereotype of higher education is the lecture hall, where students sit passively and take notes from a wise professor whose experience and knowledge can be shared only in the classroom. The professor's role is to dispense information, and the students' role is to receive it. However idealistic…

  6. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  7. Women in Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The 12 issues of this newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, faculty, and administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. The issues' main articles address: women in athletics; leadership development for women; the first year in academic administration;…

  8. Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Dana D.; Collins, Natalia D.

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education is currently experiencing a decline in financial support from state governments, an acceleration of enrollment growth, and a shift from a transformational to a transactional student relationship. Private institutions are also struggling with increasing operational costs, and decreases in revenue from endowments and…

  9. Stakeholder Relationships in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a stakeholder map to describe the most important stakeholders and the process of stakeholder relationships in higher education. According to the perspective of the balanced scorecard, the classification of stakeholders integrates stakeholders into strategic management. Stakeholder maps are essential in…

  10. Spirituality and Contemporary Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Though religion played a central role in the founding of U.S. higher education, over the centuries, its influence was diluted by competing secular emphases. In recent decades, religion has seen a resurgence in academic and co-curricular attention on campuses. In addition, a spirituality not based on religion has gained increasing attention. The…

  11. Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George A.

    1988-01-01

    Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

  12. Higher Education Space: Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of changing demands for space in United Kingdom (UK) higher education. Physical spaces that universities require are related to their functions in complex ways, and the connections between space and academic performance are not well understood. No simple algorithm can calculate a single university's space needs, but a…

  13. Academic Rewards in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrel R., Ed.; Becker, William E., Jr., Ed.

    A colloquium series in higher education at the University of Minnesota in the fall and winter of 1977-1978 examined the influence of academic reward systems on faculty behavior and academic productivity. These essays are the collective results of their findings and recommendations. Essays include: "Perspectives from Psychology: Financial…

  14. Art in American Higher Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Edmund Burke, Ed.

    This volume of 11 articles contains a comprehensive statement about the visual arts as they are encountered in post-secondary education. The articles are: (1) "Art and the Liberal Arts: A Trivial, Artificial, Irrelevant Antagonism" by Albert Bush-Brown; (2) "The Arts in Higher Education: A Question of Priorities" by Lawrence Dennis; (3) "Access to…

  15. Profile of Pacific Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Development Cadre, Honolulu, HI.

    Comparative data concerning institutions of higher education in the Pacific Islands are tabulated and summarized to aid in program planning, development, and implementation in that region. The jurisdictions covered are: American Samoa; Palau; the Northern Mariana Islands; Micronesia; Kosrae; Pohnpei; Truk; Yap; Guam; Hawaii; and the Marshall…

  16. Stakeholder Relationships in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a stakeholder map to describe the most important stakeholders and the process of stakeholder relationships in higher education. According to the perspective of the balanced scorecard, the classification of stakeholders integrates stakeholders into strategic management. Stakeholder maps are essential in…

  17. The Battle for Higher Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Tom; Rush, Mike; Gramer, Rod; Stewart, Roger

    2014-01-01

    To remain internationally competitive, states needed clearer, higher, and comparable K-12 learning standards aligned with college and career expectations, and as ambitious as those of the countries that lead the world in education. Idaho's old academic standards were not preparing students for postsecondary education, which contributed to the…

  18. Transnational Higher Education in Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, E. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of transnational higher education (THE) in Uzbekistan. It includes a brief account of THE current and future market trends. The data, gathered from a literature search, show that the demand for THE (off-campus) is growing even faster than the demand for international (on-campus) programmes. This paper then provides…

  19. Higher Education and Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy

    1979-01-01

    The effect that the university has upon its region and the issue of regional control of higher education are examined. A definition of regional development is offered and regional planning, relevant research, cultural mobilization, and the Jacobin university are described. (Author/MLW)

  20. Project Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Shannon Atkinson

    2011-01-01

    This study identified factors that influenced the use of project management in higher education research projects. Using a qualitative grounded theory approach that included in-depth interviews with assistant professors, the researcher examined how these individuals were using project management processes and tools and factors that enabled,…

  1. OSHA: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Presented in this document are several articles concerning recommendations about the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) and its implications for higher education. It is time for an educated look at facilities and programs and the beginning of plans which, in the long run, will bring colleges and universities into compliance with…

  2. Disability Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    As a topic of study, disability is not new at institutions of higher education. Psychological and intellectual disabilities have been of interest in psychiatry and psychology at least since the late 1800s and early 1900s. The post-World War II era, in particular, witnessed the rapid expansion of academic programs in special education, vocational…

  3. The Opening of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    In a 1974 report presented to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Martin Trow laid out a framework for understanding large-scale, worldwide changes in higher education. Trow's essay also pointed to the problems that "arise out of the transition from one phase to another in a broad pattern of development of higher…

  4. Leveraging Philanthropy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransen, Frederic J.

    2007-01-01

    Looking at potential sources of funding for education reform, Frederic Fransen outlines the dynamics in play as a pragmatist might calculate the worthiness of a cause for his philanthropy. Preeminent is bang for the buck, of course. And though the way to reinvigorate the insatiable blob of higher education isn't readily apparent to Dr. Fransen,…

  5. Higher Education and European Regionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Speculates about the relationship between two fundamental social changes occurring in Europe: the development of a mass higher education system and the slow decay of the old states that were inherited from the 19th century, eroded from below by various movements for national and regional autonomy, and eroded from above by the growing power and…

  6. Women in Higher Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenniger, Mary Dee Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve consecutive numbers of the newsletter "Women in Education", published during 1998. This newsletter focus on issues concerned with women students, women faculty, and women administrators in higher education. Each issue includes feature articles, news items, and profiles of significant people. Feature articles…

  7. On nonlinear higher spin curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manvelyan, Ruben; Mkrtchyan, Karapet; Rühl, Werner; Tovmasyan, Murad

    2011-05-01

    We present the first nonlinear term of the higher spin curvature which is covariant with respect to deformed gauge transformations that are linear in the field. We consider the case of spin 3 after presenting spin 2 as an example, and then construct the general spin s quadratic term of the de Wit-Freedman curvature.

  8. Catholic Higher Education as Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowery, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the work of Anthony J. Gittins to reframe our understanding of Catholic higher education as mission. The broad adoption of this framework would require a common intellectual foundation, the possibility of which is dismissed by many. An accessible ontology is implied, however, in the existential analysis and theology of Karl…

  9. Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

  10. The Opening of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    In a 1974 report presented to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Martin Trow laid out a framework for understanding large-scale, worldwide changes in higher education. Trow's essay also pointed to the problems that "arise out of the transition from one phase to another in a broad pattern of development of higher…

  11. Art in American Higher Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Edmund Burke, Ed.

    This volume of 11 articles contains a comprehensive statement about the visual arts as they are encountered in post-secondary education. The articles are: (1) "Art and the Liberal Arts: A Trivial, Artificial, Irrelevant Antagonism" by Albert Bush-Brown; (2) "The Arts in Higher Education: A Question of Priorities" by Lawrence Dennis; (3) "Access to…

  12. Today's Higher Education IT Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bichsel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The professionals making up the current higher education IT workforce have been asked to adjust to a culture of increased IT consumerization, more sourcing options, broader interest in IT's transformative potential, and decreased resources. Disruptions that include the bring-your-own-everything era, cloud computing, new management practices,…

  13. A Balanced Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article explores what is meant by "a balanced higher education system". It argues that the Clarkian "triangle of coordination" (Clark, 1983) and the more recent model of Martinez and Richardson (2003) should be replaced by one that distinguishes between "self" and "collective" interests in both the…

  14. Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George A.

    1988-01-01

    Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

  15. Higher Education as Virtual Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins-Bell, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not it is an accurate portrayal, the old stereotype of higher education is the lecture hall, where students sit passively and take notes from a wise professor whose experience and knowledge can be shared only in the classroom. The professor's role is to dispense information, and the students' role is to receive it. However idealistic…

  16. Embodying Authenticity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Orienting to the community of higher education involves a learning experience that is authentic and embodied for one new college administrator. Reflecting on her experience, she articulates how her relationship to her body helps to understand and respond to the tensions of engaging with a scholarly community.

  17. Epistemological Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Research has been carried out on students' epistemological development in higher education for at least 50 years. Researchers on both sides of the Atlantic have converged on accounts that describe students' epistemological development in terms of a sequence or hierarchy of qualitatively distinct stages or positions. The rich qualitative data…

  18. Public Perceptions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, T. Brooke

    1993-01-01

    States that the importance of higher education on Great Britain's economic and social fortunes is appreciated by academics but not by the general public. Reviews public relations efforts by universities in France, Germany, and the United States and recommends more effective public relations efforts by British universities. (CFR)

  19. Electronic Assessment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Roelien; Lautenbach, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Assessment is an important cornerstone of education. A world trend in staying abreast of the latest developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) has led to an increased demand for electronic assessment in education circles. The critical need and responsibility for higher education to stay on par with the latest…

  20. Aptitude Tests for Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two research studies reported in the three publications discussed in this article had their origins in discussions of the Robbins Committee prior to 1963. Two of the Committee's recommendations related to possible changes in the selection of students for higher education. (Author/RK)

  1. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  2. Student Influence and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juola, Arvo E.

    Since 1965, student views and feelings have influenced great changes in higher education, sometimes to the detriment of long-term interests in academic institutions and colleges. One conspicuous recent trend is the desire of college students for more influence, impact, or power. Other prevalent attitudes may be characterized as a desire to be…

  3. Assessing Cyberbullying in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to expose information educators to various aspects of cyberbullying for the purpose of policy development in an environment of higher education. The preponderance of nation-wide research on cyberbullying is concentrated on adolescents; such efforts in college campuses are limited to individual endeavors. Cyberbullying research on…

  4. History of Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This annual publication presents six articles on historical aspects of higher education. The first article is "The Urban Catholic University in the Early Twentieth Century: A Social Profile of DePaul, 1898-1940" by John L. Rury. It traces student characteristics during this period from primarily the sons (and later daughters) of European…

  5. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  6. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability…

  7. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  8. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews developments in 2000 in the law of disability discrimination as it relates to higher education, which falls into five categories: (1) definition of a qualified individual; (2) accommodations, access, undue burden, and fundamental alteration of programs; (3) intentional discrimination, harassment, and retaliation; (4) Eleventh Amendment…

  9. Transnational Higher Education in Uzbekistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sia, E. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of transnational higher education (THE) in Uzbekistan. It includes a brief account of THE current and future market trends. The data, gathered from a literature search, show that the demand for THE (off-campus) is growing even faster than the demand for international (on-campus) programmes. This paper then provides…

  10. 2011 Higher Education Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Margo, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Looking through the lens of AASHE Bulletin stories in 2011, this year's review reveals an increased focus on higher education access, affordability, and success; more green building efforts than ever before; and growing campus-community engagement on food security, among many other achievements. Contributors include James Applegate (Lumina…

  11. Diversity in Washington Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Improving the participation and performance of African American, Latino, American Indian, and Asian American students, faculty and staff in Washington state's higher education system represents a pivotal element of the statewide strategic master plan. This report includes current statistics and trend data for student enrollment, retention, and…

  12. Leveraging Philanthropy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransen, Frederic J.

    2007-01-01

    Looking at potential sources of funding for education reform, Frederic Fransen outlines the dynamics in play as a pragmatist might calculate the worthiness of a cause for his philanthropy. Preeminent is bang for the buck, of course. And though the way to reinvigorate the insatiable blob of higher education isn't readily apparent to Dr. Fransen,…

  13. Elevating the Higher Education Beat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    1998-01-01

    Problems in media coverage of higher education in New England are examined, noting high turnover in journalists covering colleges and universities and journalists' lack of time to visit campuses. What coverage there is appears to be focused heavily on a few prestigious institutions and state colleges where news is easily gathered from bureaucrats…

  14. Wanted: Successful Higher Education Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrana, Maryann; Grills, Caroline

    2001-01-01

    Discusses an expert roundtable's list of desirable qualities for higher education managers: strong leadership, ability to teach others, ability to develop a cadre of people who can carry out the mission, partnering well with outsiders, managing well, adaptability, being a change agent, understanding the competition, and having an entrepreneurial…

  15. Sustainability: Higher Education's New Fundamentalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rachelle; Wood, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    "Sustainability" is a key idea on college campuses in the United States and the rest of the Western world. To the unsuspecting, sustainability is just a new name for environmentalism. This report is the first in-depth critical study of the sustainability movement in higher education. The focus of this study is on how the sustainability…

  16. Internal Audit in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alison, Ed.; Brown, Sally, Ed.

    This book describes a range of examples of internal audit in higher education as part of a process of the exchange of good practice. The book recognizes well-established links with audit theory from other contexts and makes use of theoretical perspectives explored in the financial sector. The chapters are: (1) "Quality Audit Issues"…

  17. Higher Education: A Global Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranton, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Although college faculty cope with changing higher education (technological innovation, larger classes, student needs, preparation for the workplace), they are also being challenged to pay more attention to teaching. Developing an international perspective can help, by promoting an understanding that those in other cultures face similar issues and…

  18. Women in Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  19. Digital Storytelling in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    Digital storytelling is a promising instructional strategy as well as an emerging field of study in higher education. Courses on digital storytelling are offered in communications and creative writing programs at a number of universities. However, the potential for digital storytelling extends far beyond the fields of communication and media…

  20. Disability Studies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    As a topic of study, disability is not new at institutions of higher education. Psychological and intellectual disabilities have been of interest in psychiatry and psychology at least since the late 1800s and early 1900s. The post-World War II era, in particular, witnessed the rapid expansion of academic programs in special education, vocational…

  1. Equity, Envy, and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandra R.; Schwartz, Saul

    1986-01-01

    Develops and tests an empirical measure of fairness and envy over access to higher education for 12,000 high school students. Results suggest that, given the existence of current government subsidies, financial barriers do not prevent a significant number of high school graduates from attending college. (Author/TRS)

  2. Student Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Often, campus policies and public debate on student success has been too heavily focused on standardization of curriculum and assessment and on an unacceptably flawed graduation rate formula. The report, "Student Success in Higher Education," brings the voice of front-line faculty and staff into student success policymaking to ensure…

  3. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at…

  4. Best Practices in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hezel, Richard T.; Nanjiani, Nader

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the best practices for distance learning programs in higher education. Highlights include the planning stage, including institutional mission, business planning and financial issues, needs assessment, collaboration with other schools and businesses, and technology feasibility; and the implementation stages, including faculty support,…

  5. Higher Education Profiles & Trends 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The statute [T.C.A. Section 49-7-202(c)(7)] requires the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to prepare a biennial report for the governor and the general assembly, "commenting upon major developments, trends, new policies, budgets and financial considerations which in the judgment of the commission will be useful to the governor and to the…

  6. Systems Applications in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schure, Alexander

    This paper discusses the application of computers for higher education and describes a philosophy and initial application of an accountability system that can aid in coping with the problems of occupationally related schools. Discussed are: (1) the role of computers in systems application; (2) the need for systems related information: the…

  7. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  8. Anti- and pro-oxidant effects of (+)-catechin on hemoglobin-induced protein oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Naihao; Chen, Puqing; Yang, Qin; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    Evidence to support the role of heme proteins as major inducers of oxidative damage is increasingly present. Flavonoids have been widely used to ameliorate oxidative damage in vivo and in vitro, where the mechanism of this therapeutic action was usually dependent on their anti-oxidant effects. In this study, we investigated the influence of (+)-catechin, a polyphenol identified in tea, cocoa, and red wine, on hemoglobin-induced protein oxidative damage. It was found that (+)-catechin had the capacities to act as a free radical scavenger and reducing agent to remove cytotoxic ferryl hemoglobin, demonstrating apparent anti-oxidant activities. However, the presence of (+)-catechin surprisingly promoted hemoglobin-induced protein oxidation, which was probably due to the ability of this anti-oxidant to rapidly trigger the oxidative degradation of normal hemoglobin. In addition, hemoglobin-H2O2-induced protein carbonyl formation was significantly enhanced by (+)-catechin at lower concentrations, while it was efficiently inhibited when higher concentrations were used. These novel results showed that the dietary intake and therapeutic use of catechins might possess pro-oxidant activity through aggravating hemoglobin-related oxidative damage. The dual effects on hemoglobin redox reactions may provide new insights into the physiological implications of tea extract and wine (catechins) with cellular heme proteins.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOEpatents

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  10. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping

  11. Solubility Enhanced Oxidation of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boving, T. B.; Eberle, D. E.; Ball, R.

    2012-12-01

    In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a remediation technique considered to be effective at overcoming some of the limitations of conventional subsurface treatment processes for volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminants (VOC, SVOC). ISCO reactions occur predominately in the aqueous phase and as a result, contaminant availability is a major limiting factor, i.e. contaminants with higher aqueous solubility's are typically more accessible for oxidation than more hydrophobic, sorbed compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a new integrated desorption-oxidation process for the remediation of contaminated waters and sediments. Specifically, this study examined the potential of using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), a modified cyclic sugar, and a blend of oxidants commercially known as OxyZone® (U.S. patent No. 7,667,087) for the remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Laboratory scale batch experiments confirmed prior studies that HPCD increases the aqueous concentration of these contaminants, making a greater mass of contaminant available for subsequent oxidation. When exposed to the same amount of oxidant, the mass of PAH destroyed increased linearly with increasing HPCD concentration. Relative to PAH saturated solutions without HPCD, 11 times more PAH mass was destroyed when a PAH saturated 15 g/L HPCD solution was treated with the same mass of oxidant. Destruction of the aqueous phase contaminants followed first order exponential decay kinetics in both deionized water and HPCD solutions. However, the destruction of complexed PAH was slower than for uncomplexed PAH. The cause of this is likely due to the preferential destruction of the HPCD molecule by the oxidant, followed by the subsequent oxidation of the PAH. The destruction of the cyclodextrin was minimized by modifying the oxidant formulation. Overall, these findings establish the potential of utilizing HPCD and OxyZone® as an integrated desorption-oxidation

  12. Classification of Simple Oxides: A Polarizability Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Vesselin; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    A simple oxide classification has been proposed on the basis of correlation between electronic polarizabilities of the ions and their binding energies determined by XPS. Three groups of oxides have been considered taking into account the values obtained on refractive-index- or energy-gap-based oxide ion polarizability, cation polarizability, optical basicity, O 1s binding energy, metal (or nonmetal) binding energy, and Yamashita-Kurosawa's interaction parameter of the oxides. The group of semicovalent predominantly acidic oxides includes BeO, B2O3, P2O5, SiO2, Al2O3, GeO2, and Ga2O3 with low oxide ion polarizability, high O 1s binding energy, low cation polarizability, high metal (or nonmetal) outermost binding energy, comparatively low optical basicity, and strong interionic interaction, leading to the formation of strong covalent bonds. Some main group oxides so-called ionic or basic such as CaO, In2O3, SnO2, and TeO2 and most transition metal oxides show relatively high oxide ion polarizability, O 1s binding energy in a very narrow medium range, high cation polarizability, and low metal (or nonmetal) binding energy. Their optical basicity varies in a narrow range and it is close to that of CaO. The group of very ionic or very basic oxides includes CdO, SrO, and BaO as well as PbO, Sb2O3, and Bi2O3, which possess very high oxide ion polarizability, low O 1s binding energy, very high cation polarizability, and very low metal (or nonmetal) binding energy. Their optical basicity is higher than that of CaO and the interionic interaction is very weak, giving rise to the formation of very ionic chemical bonds.

  13. Review of oxidation of Nb-1Zr

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R.

    1989-04-01

    A major objective of the SP-100 Program Nuclear Assembly Test is to demonstrate the performance of a full-scale nuclear subsystem of a 100-kWe space nuclear power supply. The test will be run in a large vacuum chamber to protect the Nb-1Zr components from oxidation during operation. Much information about the oxidation of niobium and Nb-1Zr alloy already exists, and previous work in this area is reviewed. Oxidation of Nb-1Zr can proceed by solution, internal oxidation, and/or film formation. At temperatures up to about 650 K (377/degree/C), oxidation generally follows a parabolic rate law because of the formation of protective oxide(s). At higher temperatures, oxidation becomes linear, but results are extremely sensitive to pressure and other system variables. Results obtained by several investigators could not be predicted using empirical equations developed by one investigator relating the increase in oxygen concentration to pressure, temperature, time, and specimen thickness. Additional data are required to provide more reliable guidelines for system operation that will protect against catastrophic effects. 20 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Oxidative stress and myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Tada, Yuko; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide are produced highly in myocarditis. ROS, which not only act as effectors for pathogen killing but also mediate signal transduction in the stress responsive pathways, are closely related with both innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand, oxidative stress overwhelming the capacity of anti-oxidative system generated in severe inflammation has been suggested to damage tissues and exacerbate inflammation. Oxidative stress worsens the autoimmunological process of myocarditis, and suppression of the anti-oxidative system and long-lasting oxidative stress could be one of the pathological mechanisms of cardiac remodeling leading to inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is considered to be one of the promising treatment targets of myocarditis. Evidences of anti-oxidative treatments in myocarditis have not been fully established. Basic strategies of anti-oxidative treatments include inhibition of ROS production, activation of anti-oxidative enzymes and elimination of generated free radicals. ROS are produced by mitochondrial respiratory chain reactions and enzymes including NADPH oxidases, cyclooxygenase, and xanthine oxidase. Other systems involved in inflammation and stress response, such as NF-κB, Nrf2/Keap1, and neurohumoral factors also influence oxidative stress in myocarditis. The efficacy of anti-oxidative treatments could also depend on the etiology and the phases of myocarditis. We review in this article the pathological significance of ROS and oxidative stress, and the potential anti-oxidative treatments in myocarditis.

  15. Charged gravastars in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Rahaman, F.; Guha, B. K.; Ray, Saibal

    2017-04-01

    We explore possibility to find out a new model of gravastars in the extended D-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell space-time. The class of solutions as obtained by Mazur and Mottola of a neutral gravastar [1,2] have been observed as a competent alternative to D-dimensional versions of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. The outer region of the charged gravastar model therefore corresponds to a higher dimensional Reissner-Nordström black hole. In connection to this junction conditions, therefore we have formulated mass and the related Equation of State of the gravastar. It has been shown that the model satisfies all the requirements of the physical features. However, overall observational survey of the results also provide probable indication of non-applicability of higher dimensional approach for construction of a gravastar with or without charge from an ordinary 4-dimensional seed as far as physical ground is concerned.

  16. Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-07-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n+1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n+1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n+1 dimensional model and the 3+1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology.

  17. Topologically massive higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Lal, Shailesh; Saha, Arunabha; Sahoo, Bindusar

    2011-10-01

    We look at the generalisation of topologically massive gravity (TMG) to higher spins, specifically spin-3. We find a special "chiral" point for the spin-three, analogous to the spin-two example, which actually coincides with the usual spin-two chiral point. But in contrast to usual TMG, there is the presence of a non-trivial trace and its logarithmic partner at the chiral point. The trace modes carry energy opposite in sign to the traceless modes. The logarithmic partner of the traceless mode carries negative energy indicating an instability at the chiral point. We make several comments on the asymptotic symmetry and its possible deformations at this chiral point and speculate on the higher spin generalisation of LCFT2 dual to the spin-3 massive gravity at the chiral point.

  18. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pitocco, Dario; Zaccardi, Francesco; Di Stasio, Enrico; Romitelli, Federica; Santini, Stefano A; Zuppi, Cecilia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In the recent decades, oxidative stress has become focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence from research on several diseases show that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on this research, the emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the "final common pathway", through which risk factors of several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell-cell homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients.

  19. Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pitocco, Dario; Zaccardi, Francesco; Di Stasio, Enrico; Romitelli, Federica; Santini, Stefano A.; Zuppi, Cecilia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In the recent decades, oxidative stress has become focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence from research on several diseases show that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on this research, the emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the “final common pathway”, through which risk factors of several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell-cell homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients. PMID:20703435

  20. The fate of arsenic adsorbed on iron oxides in the presence of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhennan; Yin, Naiyi; Du, Huili; Cai, Xiaolin; Cui, Yanshan

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a redox-active metalloid whose toxicity and mobility in soil depend on its oxidation state. Arsenite [As(III)] can be oxidized by microbes and adsorbed by minerals in the soil. However, the combined effects of these abiotic and biotic processes are not well understood. In this study, the fate of arsenic in the presence of an isolated As(III)-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. HN-1, 10(9) colony-forming units (CFUs)·ml(-1)) and three iron oxides (goethite, hematite, and magnetite at 1.6 g L(-1)) was determined using batch experiments. The total As adsorption by iron oxides was lower with bacteria present and was higher with iron oxides alone. The total As adsorption decreased by 78.6%, 36.0% and 79.7% for goethite, hematite and magnetite, respectively, due to the presence of bacteria. As(III) adsorbed on iron oxides could also be oxidized by Pseudomonas sp. HN-1, but the oxidation rate (1.3 μmol h(-1)) was much slower than the rate in the aqueous phase (96.2 μmol h(-1)). Therefore, the results of other studies with minerals only might overestimate the adsorptive capacity of solids in natural systems; the presence of minerals might hinder As(III) oxidation by microbes. Under aerobic conditions, in the presence of iron oxides and As(III)-oxidizing bacteria, arsenic is adsorbed onto iron oxides within the adsorption capacity, and As(V) is the primary form in the solid and aqueous phases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Indonesian low rank coal oxidation: The effect of H2O2 concentration and oxidation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahayu, S. S.; Findiati, F.; Aprilia, F.

    2016-11-01

    Extraction of Indonesian low rank coals by alkaline solution has been performed to isolate the humic substances. Pretreatments of the coals by oxidation using H2O2 prior to extraction are required to have higher yield of humic substances. In the previous research, only the extraction process was considered. Therefore, the effects of reaction temperature and residence time on coal oxidation and composition of extract residues are also investigated in this research. The oxidation temperatures studied were 40°C, 50°C, and 70°C and the H2O2 concentrations studied were 5%, 15%, 20 %, and 30 %. All the oxidation variables were studied for 90 minutes. The results show that the higher the concentration of H2O2 used, the less oxidized coal produced. The same trend was obtained by using higher oxidation temperature. The effect of H2O2 concentration, oxidation temperature and reaction time to the yield of humic substances extraction have positive trends.

  2. Enhanced colonic nitric oxide generation and nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Stamler, J S; Bachwich, D; Karmeli, F; Ackerman, Z; Podolsky, D K

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO.), the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may play a part in tissue injury and inflammation through its oxidative metabolism. In this study the colonic generation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide synthase activity was determined in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from inflammatory bowel disease patients and from normal controls. Mucosal explants were cultured in vitro for 24 hours and NOx generation was determined. Nitric oxide synthase activity was monitored by the conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to citrulline. Median NOx generation by inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis was 4.2- and 8.1-fold respectively higher than that by normal human colonic mucosa. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis nitric oxide synthase activity was 10.0- and 3.8-fold respectively higher than in normal subjects. Colonic NOx generation is significantly decreased by methylprednisolone and ketotifen. The decrease in NOx generation by cultured colonic mucosa induced by methylprednisolone suggests that NO synthase activity is induced during the culture and the steroid effect may contribute to its therapeutic effect. Enhanced colonic NOx generation by stimulated nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:7541008

  3. Higher prices, higher quality? Evidence from German nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Herr, Annika; Hottenrott, Hanna

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between prices and quality of 7400 German nursing homes. We use a cross section of public quality reports for all German nursing homes, which had been evaluated between 2010 and 2013 by external institutions. Our analysis is based on multivariate regressions in a two stage least squares framework, where we instrument prices to explain their effect on quality controlling for income, nursing home density, demographics, labour market characteristics, and infrastructure at the regional level. Descriptive analysis shows that prices and quality do not only vary across nursing homes, but also across counties and federal states and that quality and prices correlate positively. Second, the econometric analysis, which accounts for the endogenous relation between negotiated price and reported quality, shows that quality indeed positively depends on prices. In addition, more places in nursing homes per people in need are correlated with both lower prices and higher quality. Finally, unobserved factors at the federal state level capture some of the variation of reported quality across nursing homes. Our results suggest that higher prices increase quality. Furthermore, since reported quality and prices vary substantially across federal states, we conclude that the quality and prices of long-term care facilities may well be compared within federal states but not across. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Zinc oxide overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  5. Electrolytic oxidation of anthracite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Patton, K.M.; Heard, I.

    1981-01-01

    An anthracite slurry can be oxidized only with difficulty by electrolytic methods in which aqueous electrolytes are used if the slurry is confined to the region of the anode by a porous pot or diaphragm. However, it can be easily oxidized if the anthracite itself is used as the anode. No porous pot or diaphragm is needed. Oxidative consumption of the coal to alkali-soluble compounds is found to proceed preferentially at the edges of the aromatic planes. An oxidation model is proposed in which the chief oxidants are molecular and radical species formed by the electrolytic decomposition of water at the coal surface-electrolyte interface. The oxidation reactions proposed account for the opening of the aromatic rings and the subsequent formation of carboxylic acids. The model also explains the observed anisotropic oxidation and the need for the porous pot or diaphragm used in previous studies of the oxidation of coal slurries. ?? 1981.

  6. Oxidative stress and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Rammal, Hassan; Soulimani, Rachid

    2009-01-01

    High O2 consumption, modest antioxidant defenses and a lipid-rich constitution make the brain highly vulnerable to redox imbalances. Oxidative damage in the brain causes nervous system impairment. Recently, oxidative stress has also been implicated in depression, anxiety disorders and high anxiety levels. The findings which establish a link between oxidative stress and pathological anxiety have inspired a number of other recent studies focusing on the link between oxidative status and normal anxiety and also on a possible causal relationship between cellular oxidative stress and emotional stress. This review examines the recent discoveries made on the link between oxidative status and normal anxiety levels and the putative role of oxidative stress in genesis of anxiety. We discuss the different opinions and questions that exist in the field and review the methodological approaches that are being used to determine a causal relationship between oxidative and emotional stress. PMID:20357926

  7. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  8. Method and reaction pathway for selectively oxidizing organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Lilga, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    A method of selectively oxidizing an organic compound in a single vessel comprises: a) combining an organic compound, an acid solution in which the organic compound is soluble, a compound containing two oxygen atoms bonded to one another, and a metal ion reducing agent capable of reducing one of such oxygen atoms, and thereby forming a mixture; b) reducing the compound containing the two oxygen atoms by reducing one of such oxygen atoms with the metal ion reducing agent to, 1) oxidize the metal ion reducing agent to a higher valence state, and 2) produce an oxygen containing intermediate capable of oxidizing the organic compound; c) reacting the oxygen containing intermediate with the organic compound to oxidize the organic compound into an oxidized organic intermediate, the oxidized organic intermediate having an oxidized carbon atom; d) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the acid counter ion and higher valence state metal ion to bond the acid counter ion to the oxidized carbon atom and thereby produce a quantity of an ester incorporating the organic intermediate and acid counter ion; and e) reacting the oxidized organic intermediate with the higher valence state metal ion and water to produce a quantity of alcohol which is less than the quantity of ester, the acid counter ion incorporated in the ester rendering the carbon atom bonded to the counter ion less reactive with the oxygen containing intermediate in the mixture than is the alcohol with the oxygen containing intermediate.

  9. [Effect of pH for the electrochemical oxidation products and oxidation pathways of ammonia].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-luan; Shi, Han-chang; Xu, Li-li

    2008-08-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of ammonia in wastewater was investigated in a flow electrochemical cell. The effect of pH on ammonia removal efficiency, oxidation products and oxidation pathways was elucidated. The experimental results indicated that, the higher production efficiency of free chlorine and hydroxyl radical can be obtained under the moderate alkaline condition, and the electrochemical oxidation rate of ammonia was higher in this condition. In existence of chloride ions, chloramines produced during the electrolysis of ammonia. The constituent of chloramines related with the pH of reaction system. When pH was higher than 9, monochloramine was dominant; When pH was equal to 7, monochloramine and dichloramine existed at the same time and the concentration of the two chloramines was an approximation of the same; When pH was smaller than 5, most of the production was dichloramine. The production of nitrogen trichloride can be avoided when pH was higher than 5. Under the current density of 20 mA/cm2, the concentration of hydroxyl radical produced by electrolysis was smaller than 5 x 10(-15) mol/L. The indirect oxidation was the dominant reaction in the two pathways of electrochemical oxidation of ammonia.

  10. NO2 oxidation reactivity and burning mode of diesel particulates

    DOE PAGES

    Strzelec, Andrea; Vander Wal, Randy L.; Thompson, Thomas N.; ...

    2016-03-24

    The NO2 oxidation kinetics and burning mode for diesel particulate from light-duty and medium-duty engines fueled with either ultra low sulfur diesel or soy methyl ester biodiesel blends have been investigated and are shown to be significantly different from oxidation by O2. Oxidation kinetics were measured using a flow-through packed bed microreactor for temperature programmed reactions and isothermal differential pulsed oxidation reactions. The burning mode was evaluated using the same reactor system for flowing BET specific surface area measurements and HR-TEM with fringe analysis to evaluate the nanostructure of the nascent and partially oxidized particulates. The low activation energy measured,more » specific surface area progression with extent of oxidation, HR-TEM images and difference plots of fringe length and tortuosity paint a consistent picture of higher reactivity for NO2, which reacts indiscriminately immediately upon contact with the surface, leading to the Zone I or shrinking core type oxidation. In comparison, O2 oxidation is shown to have relatively lower reactivity, preferentially attacking highly curved lamella, which are more reactive due to bond strain, and short lamella, which have a higher proportion of more reactive edge sites. Furthermore, this preferential oxidation leads to Zone II type oxidation, where solid phase diffusion of oxygen via pores contributes significantly to slowing the overall oxidation rate, by comparison.« less

  11. A comprehensive study of oxidative stress in sudden hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Gul, Fatih; Muderris, Togay; Yalciner, Gokhan; Sevil, Ergun; Bercin, Sami; Ergin, Merve; Babademez, Mehmet Ali; Kiris, Muzaffer

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the association between idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and oxidative stress. We investigated changes in a wide range of oxidants and antioxidants to create a comprehensive picture of oxidative imbalance. In the peripheral blood of 50 ISSNHL patients and 50 healthy subjects, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), paraoxonase (PON), thiol/disulphide levels were measured. Moreover, a global oxidative stress index, reflecting both oxidative and antioxidant counterparts, was also calculated. One-way analysis between oxidative markers and severity of hearing loss were evaluated. The ISSNHL patients showed significantly higher TOS levels than controls (6.02 ± 3.17 vs. 4.5 ± 2.22; p = 0.018). The oxidative index was also significantly higher in patients than controls (0.39 ± 0.19 vs. 0.3 ± 0.14; p = 0.035). TAS, PON, native thiol, and total thiol were not altered. There was no statistical significance between oxidative markers and severity of hearing loss. The binary logistic regression model revealed that disulphide and TOS were associated with ISSNHL. There are alterations in a wide array of oxidants and antioxidants, with balance shifting toward increased oxidative stress in ISSNHL. Our findings may suggest endothelial dysfunction in ISSNHL etiopathogenesis.

  12. Studies in zirconium oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draley, J. E.; Drunen, C. J.; Levitan, J.

    1968-01-01

    Study provides insight into the oxidation mechanism of zirconium by combining electrical measurements with oxidation data. The measurement of electrical potential across growing scale on zirconium and the determination of conventional weight-change oxidation data were carried out at 550, 700, and 800 degrees C.

  13. Comparing Course Assessments: When Lower is Higher and Higher, Lower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Dave; Dobele, Tony; Greber, Myles; Roberts, Tim

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes an exercise in determining the cognitive difficulty of the assessment tasks in six computing courses within an Information Technology (IT) degree, importing Bloom's taxonomy from the field of educational psychology as an analytical framework. Three of the six courses comprise a Programming stream and three a Data Communications and Networking stream. Bloom's taxonomy is described and we present other studies within computer science based on it. Next, we introduce the courses that were selected for the study and describe the process of analysis. The aggregated results are then presented and some inferences made. The results indicate that the programming courses required a relatively higher cognitive level in assessment tasks compared to the data communications and networking courses. This outcome suggests the need for alternative approaches to assessment.

  14. Canonical bifurcation in higher derivative, higher spin, theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.; Ertl, S.; Grumiller, D.

    2013-05-01

    We present a non-perturbative canonical analysis of the D = 3 quadratic-curvature, yet ghost-free, model to exemplify a novel, ‘constraint bifurcation’, effect. Consequences include a jump in excitation count: a linearized level gauge variable is promoted to a dynamical one in the full theory. We illustrate these results with their concrete perturbative counterparts. They are of course mutually consistent, as are perturbative findings in related models. A geometrical interpretation in terms of propagating torsion reveals the model’s relation to an (improved) version of Einstein-Weyl gravity at the linearized level. Finally, we list some necessary conditions for triggering the bifurcation phenomenon in general interacting gauge systems. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  15. Oxidative modification and poor protective activity of HDL on LDL oxidation in thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Unchern, Supeenun; Laohareungpanya, Narumon; Sanvarinda, Yupin; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Tanratana, Pansakorn; Chantharaksri, Udom; Sibmooh, Nathawut

    2010-07-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported in thalassemia, which is a consequence of oxidative stress. However, the levels of oxidized high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in thalassemia have not been evaluated and it is unclear whether HDL oxidation may be linked to LDL oxidation. In this study, the levels of total cholesterol, iron, protein, conjugated diene (CD), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were determined in HDL from healthy volunteers and patients with beta-thalassemia intermedia with hemoglobin E (beta-thal/Hb E). The protective activity of thalassemic HDL on LDL oxidation was also investigated. The iron content of HDL(2) and HDL(3) from beta-thal/HbE patients was higher while the cholesterol content was lower than those in healthy volunteers. Thalassemic HDL(2) and HDL(3) had increased levels of lipid peroxidation markers i.e., conjugated diene, LOOH, and TBARs. Thalassemic HDL had lower peroxidase activity than control HDL and was unable to protect LDL from oxidation induced by CuSO(4). Our findings highlight the oxidative modification and poor protective activity of thalassemic HDL on LDL oxidation which may contribute to cardiovascular complications in thalassemia.

  16. Higher-order uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünsche, A.

    2006-07-01

    Using the non-negativity of Gram determinants of arbitrary order, we derive higher-order uncertainty relations for the symmetric uncertainty matrices of corresponding order n?>?2 to n Hermitean operators (n?=?2 is the usual case). The special cases of third-order and fourth-order uncertainty relations are considered in detail. The obtained third-order uncertainty relations are applied to the Lie groups SU(1,1) with three Hermitean basis operators (K1,K2,K0) and SU(2) with three Hermitean basis operators (J1,J2,J3) where, in particular, the group-coherent states of Perelomov type and of Barut Girardello type for SU(1,1) and the spin or atomic coherent states for SU(2) are investigated. The uncertainty relations for the determinant of the third-order uncertainty matrix are satisfied with the equality sign for coherent states and this determinant becomes vanishing for the Perelomov type of coherent states for SU(1,1) and SU(2). As an example of the application of fourth-order uncertainty relations, we consider the canonical operators (Q1,P1,Q2,P2) of two boson modes and the corresponding uncertainty matrix formed by the operators of the corresponding mean deviations, taking into account the correlations between the two modes. In two mathematical appendices, we prove the non-negativity of the determinant of correlation matrices of arbitrary order and clarify the principal structure of higher-order uncertainty relations.

  17. Higher spins and Yangian symmetries

    DOE PAGES

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Li, Wei; ...

    2017-04-26

    The relation between the bosonic higher spin W∞[λ]W∞[λ] algebra, the affine Yangian of gl1, and the SHc algebra is established in detail. For generic λ we find explicit expressions for the low-lying W∞[λ] modes in terms of the affine Yangian generators, and deduce from this the precise identification between λ and the parameters of the affine Yangian. Furthermore, for the free field cases corresponding to λ = 0 and λ = 1 we give closed-form expressions for the affine Yangian generators in terms of the free fields. Interestingly, the relation between the W∞ modes and those of the affine Yangianmore » is a non-local one, in general. We also establish the explicit dictionary between the affine Yangian and the SHc generators. Lastly, given that Yangian algebras are the hallmark of integrability, these identifications should pave the way towards uncovering the relation between the integrable and the higher spin symmetries.« less

  18. Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Michael L.; Sohn, H.Y.; Cutler, Raymond A.

    2013-11-15

    The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB{sub 2} beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB{sub 2} exhibited O{sub 2}-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O{sub 2} than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} suggested that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on aluminum particles into a Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} shell, while the same Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} developed a needle-like morphology in AlB{sub 2} that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB{sub 2}, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB{sub 2} in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Time

  19. Polyoxometalate water oxidation catalysts and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Craig L.; Gueletii, Yurii V.; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Yin, Qiushi; Botar, Bogdan

    2014-09-02

    Homogeneous water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) for the oxidation of water to produce hydrogen ions and oxygen, and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. In a preferred embodiment, the WOC is a polyoxometalate WOC which is hydrolytically stable, oxidatively stable, and thermally stable. The WOC oxidized waters in the presence of an oxidant. The oxidant can be generated photochemically, using light, such as sunlight, or electrochemically using a positively biased electrode. The hydrogen ions are subsequently reduced to form hydrogen gas, for example, using a hydrogen evolution catalyst (HEC). The hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in combustion reactions and/or in hydrogen fuel cells. The catalysts described herein exhibit higher turn over numbers, faster turn over frequencies, and/or higher oxygen yields than prior art catalysts.

  20. Rhodium oxides in unusual oxidation states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisner, Barbara Alice

    Mixed valence RhIII/RhIV oxides have been proposed as a promising class of candidate compounds for superconductivity. Unfortunately, it is difficult to stabilize rhodates with a formal oxidation state approaching RhIV, as other techniques used for the synthesis of rhodium. oxides favor the most commonly observed formal oxidation state, RhIII. One technique which has been used to stabilize metal oxides in high formal oxidation states is crystallization from molten hydroxides. This thesis explores the use of molten hydroxides to enhance the reactivity of rhodium oxides in order to synthesize rhodates with high formal oxidation states. K0.5RhO2, Rb0.2RhO2, and CsxRhO2 were synthesized from pure alkali metal hydroxides. All crystallized with a previously unobserved polytype in the alkali metal rhodate system. Due to the low activity of dissolved oxygen species in LiOH and NaOH, LiRhO2 and NaRhO2 cannot be crystallized. The formal oxidation state of rhodium in AxRhO2 (A = K, Rb, Cs) is a function of the alkali metal hydroxide used to synthesize these oxides. These materials exhibit remarkable stability for layered metal oxides containing the heavier alkali metals, but all phases are susceptible to intercalation by water. The synthesis, structural characterization, magnetic susceptibility, and reactivity of these oxides are reported. Sr2RhO4 and a new rhodate were crystallized from a KOH-Sr(OH)2 flux. The synthesis and characterization of these materials is reported. Efforts to substitute platinum for rhodium in Sr 2RhO4 are also discussed. Mixed alkali metal-alkaline earth metal hydroxide fluxes were used to crystallize LiSr3RhO6, and NaSr3RhO 6. The synthesis of LiSr3RhO6 and NaSr3RhO 6 represents the first example of the stabilization of a rhodium oxide with a formal oxidation state approaching RhV. X-ray diffraction, electron beam microprobe analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, potentiometric titrations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility