Science.gov

Sample records for higher plants ii

  1. Functional architecture of higher plant photosystem II supercomplexes

    PubMed Central

    Caffarri, Stefano; Kouřil, Roman; Kereïche, Sami; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large multiprotein complex, which catalyses water splitting and plastoquinone reduction necessary to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Detailed functional and structural studies of the complex from higher plants have been hampered by the impossibility to purify it to homogeneity. In this work, homogeneous preparations ranging from a newly identified particle composed by a monomeric core and antenna proteins to the largest C2S2M2 supercomplex were isolated. Characterization by biochemical methods and single particle electron microscopy allowed to relate for the first time the supramolecular organization to the protein content. A projection map of C2S2M2 at 12 Å resolution was obtained, which allowed determining the location and the orientation of the antenna proteins. Comparison of the supercomplexes obtained from WT and Lhcb-deficient plants reveals the importance of the individual subunits for the supramolecular organization. The functional implications of these findings are discussed and allow redefining previous suggestions on PSII energy transfer, assembly, photoinhibition, state transition and non-photochemical quenching. PMID:19696744

  2. Excitation energy transfer in vitro between phycobiliproteins and thylakoid photosystem II of higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaonan; Tseng, C. K.

    1992-12-01

    The excitation energy transfer from phycobiliproteins to thylakoid PSII of higher plants was investigated. When incubated with spinach thylakoids, phycobiliproteins isolated from red and blue-green algae transferred light energy absorbed to spinach PSII. The efficiency of energy transfer was dependent on the kind of phycobiliproteins used. If spinach thylakoids were replaced by the thylakoids of Brassica chinensis, R-phycoerythin or C-phycocyanin did not transfer their excitation energy to PSII of Brassica chinensis unless allophycocyanin was present.

  3. Ultrafast spectroscopy of trimeric light-harvesting complex II from higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, J.P.; Mueller, G.M.; Hucke, M.; Gatzen, G.; Holzwarth, A.R.; Mullineaux, C.W.; Ruban, A.V.; Horton, P.

    1997-03-06

    Time-resolved femtosecond transient absorption measurements have been carried out at room temperature on light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein complex of photosystem II (LHC II) trimers prepared from spinach. Exciting in the chlorophyll (Chl) b region at 650 nm with very low intensity, virtually annihilation-free two-color transient absorption measurement of the kinetics over 100 ps, between 645 and 690 nm, yield global lifetimes of 175 fs, 625 fs, and 5 ps and a long component (>=790 ps) where the three fastest lifetimes reflect Chl b to Chl a energy transfer. On the basis of these results and recent electron diffraction structural data, a preliminary three-pool Ch a, three-pool Chl b kinetic model is proposed. The possible influence of variable xanthophyll composition on quenching in LHC II preparations isolated from light- and dark-adapted leaves has been investigated using time-resolved picosecond fluorescence at room temperature. Global lifetimes of 5 ps and 3.6 ns, the lifetimes of the terminal LHC II excited state, were obtained. No discernable quenching effect due to the presence of zeaxanthin was observed. 38 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Ab initio calculations of the Fe(II) and Fe(III) isotopic effects in citrates, nicotianamine, and phytosiderophore, and new Fe isotopic measurements in higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Wang, Kun; Foriel, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant transition metal in higher plants and variations in its isotopic compositions can be used to trace its utilization. In order to better understand the effect of plant-induced isotopic fractionation on the global Fe cycling, we have estimated by quantum chemical calculations the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation between different Fe species relevant to the transport and storage of Fe in higher plants: Fe(II)-citrate, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(II)-nicotianamine, and Fe(III)-phytosiderophore. The ab initio calculations show firstly, that Fe(II)-nicotianamine is ˜3‰ (56Fe/54Fe) isotopically lighter than Fe(III)-phytosiderophore; secondly, even in the absence of redox changes of Fe, change in the speciation alone can create up to ˜1.5‰ isotopic fractionation. For example, Fe(III)-phytosiderophore is up to 1.5‰ heavier than Fe(III)-citrate2 and Fe(II)-nicotianamine is up to 1‰ heavier than Fe(II)-citrate. In addition, in order to better understand the Fe isotopic fractionation between different plant components, we have analyzed the iron isotopic composition of different organs (roots, seeds, germinated seeds, leaves and stems) from six species of higher plants: the dicot lentil (Lens culinaris), and the graminaceous monocots Virginia wild rye (Elymus virginicus), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), river oat (Uniola latifolia), and Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica). The calculations may explain that the roots of strategy-II plants (Fe(III)-phytosiderophore) are isotopically heavier (by about 1‰ for the δ56Fe) than the upper parts of the plants (Fe transported as Fe(III)-citrate in the xylem or Fe(II)-nicotianamine in the phloem). In addition, we suggest that the isotopic variations observed between younger and older leaves could be explained by mixing of Fe received from the xylem and the phloem.

  5. Two Chains of Rhamnogalacturonan II Are Cross-Linked by Borate-Diol Ester Bonds in Higher Plant Cell Walls.

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, M.; Matoh, T.; Azuma, Ji.

    1996-01-01

    Polysaccharide moiety of the boron-polysaccharide complex (T. Matoh, K. Ishigaki, K. Ohno, J. Azuma [1993] Plant Cell Physiol 34: 639-642) isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus) roots has been shown to be rhamnogalacturonan II by glycosyl-linkage analysis and the presence of diagnostic monosaccharides, including apiose, aceric acid, 2-O-methylfucose, and 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid. Removal of boron from the complex reduced the molecular weight by one-half without causing a significant increase in the number of reducing end groups, indicating that boron, as boric acid, links two rhamnogalacturonan II chains together to form the boron-polysaccharide complex. PMID:12226238

  6. Size determination of cyanobacterial and higher plant photosystem II by gel permeation chromatography, light scattering, and ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Zouni, Athina; Kern, Jan; Frank, Joachim; Hellweg, Thomas; Behlke, Joachim; Saenger, Wolfram; Irrgang, Klaus-Dieter

    2005-03-22

    The oxygen-evolving photosystem II core complexes (PSIIcc) from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus (PSIIccTe) and the higher plant Spinacia oleracea (PSIIccSo) have been isolated from the thylakoid membrane by solubilization with n-dodecyl-beta-d-maltoside, purified and characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC). DLS suggests that PSIIcc from both organisms exists as a monomer in dilute solution and aggregates with increasing protein concentration. In contrast to DLS, GPC and AUC showed that PSIIcc of both organisms occur as monomers and dimers, and it became clear from our studies that calibration of GPC columns with soluble proteins leads to wrong estimates of the molecular masses of membrane proteins. At a PSIIcc protein concentration of 0.2 mg/mL, molar masses, M, of 756 +/- 18 kDa and 710 +/- 15 kDa for dimeric PSIIccTe and PSIIccSo, respectively, were determined by analytical ultracentrifugation. At very low protein concentrations, at or below 0.05 mg/mL, the dimeric form of PSIIccTe partially dissociates (20-30%) to form monomers. On the basis of these studies 3-dimensional crystals of PSIIccTe were obtained that contain dimers in the asymmetric unit [Zouni, A. et al. (2001) Nature 409, 739-743]. Using synchrotron radiation the crystals diffract to a resolution of 3.8 A, which has been improved recently to 3.2 A [Biesiadka, J., et al. (2004) Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 4733-4736].

  7. PsbP protein, but not PsbQ protein, is essential for the regulation and stabilization of photosystem II in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Ifuku, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Ono, Taka-Aki; Ishihara, Seiko; Sato, Fumihiko

    2005-11-01

    PsbP and PsbQ proteins are extrinsic subunits of photosystem II (PSII) and participate in the normal function of photosynthetic water oxidation. Both proteins exist in a broad range of the oxygenic photosynthetic organisms; however, their physiological roles in vivo have not been well defined in higher plants. In this study, we established and analyzed transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants in which the levels of PsbP or PsbQ were severely down-regulated by the RNA interference technique. A plant that lacked PsbQ showed no specific phenotype compared to a wild-type plant. This suggests that PsbQ in higher plants is dispensable under the normal growth condition. On the other hand, a plant that lacked PsbP showed prominent phenotypes: drastic retardation of growth, pale-green-colored leaves, and a marked decrease in the quantum yield of PSII evaluated by chlorophyll fluorescence. In PsbP-deficient plant, most PSII core subunits were accumulated in thylakoids, whereas PsbQ, which requires PsbP to bind PSII in vitro, was dramatically decreased. PSII without PsbP was hypersensitive to light and rapidly inactivated when the repair process of the damaged PSII was inhibited by chloramphenicol. Furthermore, thermoluminescence studies showed that the catalytic manganese cluster in PsbP-deficient leaves was markedly unstable and readily disassembled in the dark. The present results demonstrated that PsbP, but not PsbQ, is indispensable for the normal PSII function in higher plants in vivo.

  8. Expression of a higher plant psbA gene in Synechocystis 6803 yields a functional hybrid photosystem II reaction center complex.

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, P J; Rögner, M; Diner, B A

    1991-01-01

    The psbA gene codes for the D1 polypeptide of the photosystem II reaction center complex and is found in all photosynthetic organisms that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. Here we describe the construction and characterization of a strain of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 in which the three endogenous psbA genes are replaced by a single psbA gene from the chloroplast genome of the higher plant Poa annua. The resulting chimeric strain, KWPAS, grows photoautotrophically with a doubling time of 26 hours compared with 20 hours for wild-type Synechocystis 6803. The mutant oxidizes water to oxygen at light-saturated rates comparable with wild type, despite differences in 15% of the primary structure of D1 between these species. RNA gel blot analysis indicates the presence in KWPAS of a psbA transcript of approximately 1.25 kilobases, consistent with the chloroplast promoter also acting as a promoter in Synechocystis. By using antibodies specific for the carboxyl-terminal extension of the D1 polypeptide of higher plants, we showed that the D1 polypeptide synthesized by KWPAS is post-translationally modified at the carboxyl terminus, probably through processing. A detailed biophysical analysis of the chimeric photosystem II complex indicated that the rates of forward electron transfer are similar to wild type. The rates of charge recombination between the donor and acceptor sides of the reaction center are, however, accelerated by as much as a factor of nine (QA- to S2) and are the most likely explanation for the lower rate of photoautotrophic growth in the mutant. We conclude that the psbA gene from a higher plant can be expressed in cyanobacteria and its product processed and assembled into a functional chimeric photosystem II reaction center. PMID:1840918

  9. Borate-Rhamnogalacturonan II Bonding Reinforced by Ca2+ Retains Pectic Polysaccharides in Higher-Plant Cell Walls1

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hironobu; Asaka, Tomoyuki; Matoh, Toru

    1999-01-01

    The extent of in vitro formation of the borate-dimeric-rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) complex was stimulated by Ca2+. The complex formed in the presence of Ca2+ was more stable than that without Ca2+. A naturally occurring boron (B)-RG-II complex isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv Aokubi-daikon) root contained equimolar amounts of Ca2+ and B. Removal of the Ca2+ by trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid induced cleavage of the complex into monomeric RG-II. These data suggest that Ca2+ is a normal component of the B-RG-II complex. Washing the crude cell walls of radish roots with a 1.5% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate solution, pH 6.5, released 98% of the tissue Ca2+ but only 13% of the B and 22% of the pectic polysaccharides. The remaining Ca2+ was associated with RG-II. Extraction of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-washed cell walls with 50 mm trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid, pH 6.5, removed the remaining Ca2+, 78% of B, and 49% of pectic polysaccharides. These results suggest that not only Ca2+ but also borate and Ca2+ cross-linking in the RG-II region retain so-called chelator-soluble pectic polysaccharides in cell walls. PMID:9880361

  10. Use of Protein Cross-Linking and Radiolytic Labeling To Elucidate the Structure of PsbO within Higher-Plant Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Mummadisetti, Manjula P; Frankel, Laurie K; Bellamy, Henry D; Sallans, Larry; Goettert, Jost S; Brylinski, Michal; Bricker, Terry M

    2016-06-14

    We have used protein cross-linking with the zero-length cross-linker 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide, and radiolytic footprinting coupled with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, to examine the structure of higher-plant PsbO when it is bound to Photosystem II. Twenty intramolecular cross-linked residue pairs were identified. On the basis of this cross-linking data, spinach PsbO was modeled using the Thermosynechococcus vulcanus PsbO structure as a template, with the cross-linking distance constraints incorporated using the MODELLER program. Our model of higher-plant PsbO identifies several differences between the spinach and cyanobacterial proteins. The N-terminal region is particularly interesting, as this region has been suggested to be important for oxygen evolution and for the specific binding of PsbO to Photosystem II. Additionally, using radiolytic mapping, we have identified regions on spinach PsbO that are shielded from the bulk solvent. These domains may represent regions on PsbO that interact with other components, as yet unidentified, of the photosystem. PMID:27203407

  11. Solution NMR and molecular dynamics reveal a persistent alpha helix within the dynamic region of PsbQ from photosystem II of higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Rathner, Petr; Rathner, Adriana; Horničáková, Michaela; Wohlschlager, Christian; Chandra, Kousik; Kohoutová, Jaroslava; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The extrinsic proteins of photosystem II of higher plants and green algae PsbO, PsbP, PsbQ, and PsbR are essential for stable oxygen production in the oxygen evolving center. In the available X‐ray crystallographic structure of higher plant PsbQ residues S14‐Y33 are missing. Building on the backbone NMR assignment of PsbQ, which includes this “missing link”, we report the extended resonance assignment including side chain atoms. Based on nuclear Overhauser effect spectra a high resolution solution structure of PsbQ with a backbone RMSD of 0.81 Å was obtained from torsion angle dynamics. Within the N‐terminal residues 1–45 the solution structure deviates significantly from the X‐ray crystallographic one, while the four‐helix bundle core found previously is confirmed. A short α‐helix is observed in the solution structure at the location where a β‐strand had been proposed in the earlier crystallographic study. NMR relaxation data and unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations corroborate that the N‐terminal region behaves as a flexible tail with a persistent short local helical secondary structure, while no indications of forming a β‐strand are found. Proteins 2015; 83:1677–1686. © 2015 The Authors. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26138376

  12. Chromosomal replicons of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1987-03-16

    This brief discussion of replicons of higher plants offers a glimpse into the properties of chromosomal DNA replication. It gives evidence that the S phase of unrelated plant species is comprised of temporally ordered replicon families that increase in number with genome size. This orderly process, which assures a normal inheritance of genetic material to recipient daughter cells, is maintained at the level of replicon clusters by two mutually exclusive mechanisms, one involving the rate at which single replicons replicate their allotment of DNA, and another by means of the tempo-pause. The same two mechanisms are used by cells to alter the pattern of chromosomal DNA replication just prior to and during normal development. Both mechanisms are genetically determined and produce genetic effects when disturbed of disrupted by additional non-conforming DNAs. Further insight into how these two mechanisms operate requires more molecular information about the nature of replicons and the factors that govern when a replicon family replicates. Plant material is a rich and ideal source for this information just awaiting exploitation. 63 refs.

  13. Plastid transformation in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Maliga, Pal

    2004-01-01

    Plastids of higher plants are semi-autonomous organelles with a small, highly polyploid genome and their own transcription-translation machinery. This review provides an overview of the technology for the genetic modification of the plastid genome including: vectors, marker genes and gene design, the use of gene knockouts and over-expression to probe plastid function and the application of site-specific recombinases for excision of target DNA. Examples for applications in basic science include the study of plastid gene transcription, mRNA editing, photosynthesis and evolution. Examples for biotechnological applications are incorporation of transgenes in the plastid genome for containment and high-level expression of recombinant proteins for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Plastid transformation is routine only in tobacco. Progress in implementing the technology in other crops is discussed.

  14. High Yield Non-detergent Isolation of Photosystem I-Light-harvesting Chlorophyll II Membranes from Spinach Thylakoids: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF THE PS I ANTENNAE IN HIGHER PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Bell, Adam J; Frankel, Laurie K; Bricker, Terry M

    2015-07-24

    Styrene-maleic acid copolymer was used to effect a non-detergent partial solubilization of thylakoids from spinach. A high density membrane fraction, which was not solubilized by the copolymer, was isolated and was highly enriched in the Photosystem (PS) I-light-harvesting chlorophyll (LHC) II supercomplex and depleted of PS II, the cytochrome b6/f complex, and ATP synthase. The LHC II associated with the supercomplex appeared to be energetically coupled to PS I based on 77 K fluorescence, P700 photooxidation, and PS I electron transport light saturation experiments. The chlorophyll (Chl) a/b ratio of the PS I-LHC II membranes was 3.2 ± 0.9, indicating that on average, three LHC II trimers may associate with each PS I. The implication of these findings within the context of higher plant PS I antenna organization is discussed.

  15. Higher plant photosystem II light-harvesting antenna, not the reaction center, determines the excited-state lifetime-both the maximum and the nonphotochemically quenched.

    PubMed

    Belgio, Erica; Johnson, Matthew P; Jurić, Snježana; Ruban, Alexander V

    2012-06-20

    The maximum chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime in isolated photosystem II (PSII) light-harvesting complex (LHCII) antenna is 4 ns; however, it is quenched to 2 ns in intact thylakoid membranes when PSII reaction centers (RCIIs) are closed (Fm). It has been proposed that the closed state of RCIIs is responsible for the quenching. We investigated this proposal using a new, to our knowledge, model system in which the concentration of RCIIs was highly reduced within the thylakoid membrane. The system was developed in Arabidopsis thaliana plants under long-term treatment with lincomycin, a chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor. The treatment led to 1), a decreased concentration of RCIIs to 10% of the control level and, interestingly, an increased antenna component; 2), an average reduction in the yield of photochemistry to 0.2; and 3), an increased nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ). Despite these changes, the average fluorescence lifetimes measured in Fm and Fm' (with NPQ) states were nearly identical to those obtained from the control. A 77 K fluorescence spectrum analysis of treated PSII membranes showed the typical features of preaggregation of LHCII, indicating that the state of LHCII antenna in the dark-adapted photosynthetic membrane is sufficient to determine the 2 ns Fm lifetime. Therefore, we conclude that the closed RCs do not cause quenching of excitation in the PSII antenna, and play no role in the formation of NPQ.

  16. Pantothenate biosynthesis in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Coxon, K M; Chakauya, E; Ottenhof, H H; Whitney, H M; Blundell, T L; Abell, C; Smith, A G

    2005-08-01

    Pantothenate (vitamin B5) is a water-soluble vitamin essential for the synthesis of CoA and ACP (acyl-carrier protein, cofactors in energy yielding reactions including carbohydrate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis. Pantothenate is synthesized de novo by plants and micro-organisms; however, animals obtain the vitamin through their diet. Utilizing our knowledge of the pathway in Escherichia coli, we have discovered and cloned genes encoding the first and last enzymes of the pathway from Arabidopsis, panB1, panB2 and panC. It is unlikely that there is a homologue of the E. coli panD gene, therefore plants must make beta-alanine by an alternative route. Possible candidates for the remaining gene, panE, are being investigated. GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusions of the three identified plant enzymes have been generated and the subcellular localization of the enzymes studied. Work is now being performed to elucidate expression patterns of the transcripts and characterize the proteins encoded by these genes.

  17. Gravitropism in Higher Plant Shoots

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1981-01-01

    It has long been known that applied ethylene can redirect the gravitropic response, but only occasionally has it been suggested that ethylene normally plays a role in gravitropism. Two inhibitors of ethylene synthesis [Co2+ and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG)] and two inhibitors of ethylene action (Ag+ and CO2) were shown to delay the gravitropic response of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) stems. Gentle shaking on a mechanical shaker does not inhibit the gravitropic response, but vigorous hand shaking for 120 seconds delays the response somewhat. AVG and Ag+ further delay the response of mechanically stimulated plants. AVG delays the response of defoliated and of decapitated plants. Plants laid on their side and restricted so that they cannot bend upward store both bending energy and gravitropic stimulus; they bend immediately when released from restriction (stored energy) and continue to bend for some hours after (stored stimulus). AVG retards the storage of bending energy but not of stimulus. In gravitropism, graviperception may first stimulate ethylene evolution, which may then influence bending directly, or responses involving ethylene could be more indirect. PMID:16661736

  18. Sucrose transporters of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Christina; Grof, Christopher P L

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances have provided new insights into how sucrose is moved from sites of synthesis to sites of utilisation or storage in sink organs. Sucrose transporters play a central role, as they orchestrate sucrose allocation both intracellularly and at the whole plant level. Sucrose produced in mesophyll cells of leaves may be effluxed into the apoplasm of mesophyll or phloem parenchyma cells by a mechanism that remains elusive, but experimentally consistent with facilitated transport or energy-dependent sucrose/H(+) antiport. From the apoplasm, sucrose/H(+) symporters transport sucrose across the plasma membrane of cells making up the sieve element/companion cell (SE/CC) complex, the long distance conduits of the phloem. Phloem unloading of sucrose in key sinks such as developing seeds involves two sequential transport steps, sucrose efflux followed by sucrose influx. Besides plasma membrane specific sucrose transporters, sucrose transporters on the tonoplast contribute to the capacity for elevated sucrose accumulation in storage organs such as sugar beet roots or sugarcane culms. Except for several sucrose facilitators from seed coats of some leguminous plants all sucrose transporters cloned to date, including recently identified vacuolar sucrose transporters, have been characterised as sucrose/H(+) symporters. Transporters functioning to efflux sucrose into source or sink apoplasms as well as those supporting sucrose/H(+) antiport on tonoplasts, remain to be identified. Sucrose transporter expression and activity is tightly regulated at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional as well as post-translational levels. Light quality and phytohormones play essential regulatory roles and the sucrose molecule itself functions as a signal.

  19. Resolution and identification of the protein components of the photosystem II antenna system of higher plants by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray-mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Corradini, D; Huber, C G; Timperio, A M; Zolla, L

    2000-07-21

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) was interfaced to mass spectrometry (MS) with an electrospray ion (ESI) source for the separation and accurate molecular mass determination of the individual intrinsic membrane proteins that comprise the photosystem II (PS II) major light-harvesting complex (LHC II) and minor (CP24, CP26 and CP29) antenna system, whose molecular masses range between 22,000 and 29,000. PS II is a supramolecular complex intrinsic of the thylacoid membrane, which plays the important role in photosynthesis of capturing solar energy, and transferring it to photochemical reaction centers where energy conversion occurs. The protein components of the PS II major and minor antenna systems were extracted from spinach thylacoid membranes and separated using a butyl-silica column eluted by an acetonitrile gradient in 0.05% (v/v) aqueous trifluoroacetic acid. On-line electrospray MS allowed accurate molecular mass determination and identification of the protein components of PS II major and minor antenna system. The proposed RPLC-ESI-MS method holds several advantages over sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the conventional technique for studying membrane proteins, including a better protein separation, mass accuracy, speed and efficiency.

  20. Phosphorylation of photosystem II components, CP43 apoprotein, D1, D2, and 10 to 11 kilodalton protein in chloroplast thylakoids of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeuchi, M.; Plumley, F.G.; Inoue, Y.; Schmidt, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    Phosphorylated thylakoid proteins of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) were solubilized, fractionated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and analyzed by gel electrophoresis and crossed immunoelectrophoresis to identify the phosphoproteins. It was found that in addition to intense phosphorylation of light-harvesting chlorophyll complex II, four photosystem II components, CP43 apoprotein, D1, D2, and a 10 to 11 kilodalton protein, are substantially phosphorylated in the light. Furthermore, the CP43 apoprotein, D1 and D2 can be resolved into two electrophoretic subspecies, only one of which is phosphorylated. This indicates that only a fraction of the PSII polypeptides is phosphorylated. Finally, analysis of detergent procedures suggests that the 10 to 11 kilodalton phosphoprotein is a peripheral component of the O/sub 2/-evolving PSII reaction center complex.

  1. The size of the light-harvesting antenna of higher plant photosystem II is regulated by illumination intensity through transcription of antenna protein genes.

    PubMed

    Borisova-Mubarakshina, M M; Vetoshkina, D V; Rudenko, N N; Shirshikova, G N; Fedorchuk, T P; Naydov, I A; Ivanov, B N

    2014-06-01

    In arabidopsis plants, with an increase in illumination intensity during growth the extent of reduction of the plastoquinone pool in the photosynthetic electron transport chain increased, whereas the effective quantum yield of photosynthesis decreased. After 5 days of growth under high illumination intensity, these parameters in high light returned to values observed in "shade-adapted" plants in low light. During the same period, the size of the antenna decreased, correlating with a decrease in the amounts of proteins of peripheral pigment-protein complexes. It was found that the decrease in the amounts of these proteins occurred due to suppression of transcription of their genes.

  2. Xenobiotic sensing and signalling in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Ramel, Fanny; Sulmon, Cécile; Serra, Anne-Antonella; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Couée, Ivan

    2012-06-01

    Anthropogenic changes and chemical pollution confront plant communities with various xenobiotic compounds or combinations of xenobiotics, involving chemical structures that are at least partially novel for plant species. Plant responses to chemical challenges and stimuli are usually characterized by the approaches of toxicology, ecotoxicology, and stress physiology. Development of transcriptomics and proteomics analysis has demonstrated the importance of modifications to gene expression in plant responses to xenobiotics. It has emerged that xenobiotic effects could involve not only biochemical and physiological disruption, but also the disruption of signalling pathways. Moreover, mutations affecting sensing and signalling pathways result in modifications of responses to xenobiotics, thus confirming interference or crosstalk between xenobiotic effects and signalling pathways. Some of these changes at gene expression, regulation and signalling levels suggest various mechanisms of xenobiotic sensing in higher plants, in accordance with xenobiotic-sensing mechanisms that have been characterized in other phyla (yeast, invertebrates, vertebrates). In higher plants, such sensing systems are difficult to identify, even though different lines of evidence, involving mutant studies, transcription factor analysis, or comparative studies, point to their existence. It remains difficult to distinguish between the hypothesis of direct xenobiotic sensing and indirect sensing of xenobiotic-related modifications. However, future characterization of xenobiotic sensing and signalling in higher plants is likely to be a key element for determining the tolerance and remediation capacities of plant species. This characterization will also be of interest for understanding evolutionary dynamics of stress adaptation and mechanisms of adaptation to novel stressors.

  3. Modeling the NMR signatures associated with the functional conformational switch in the major light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Christopher D P; Pandit, Anjali; Ruban, Alexander V

    2014-03-28

    The major photosystem II antenna complex, LHCII, possesses an intrinsic conformational switch linked to the formation of a photoprotective, excitation-quenching state. Recent solid state NMR experiments revealed that aggregation-induced quenching in (13)C-enriched LHCII from C. reinhardtii is associated with changes to the chemical shifts of three specific (13)C atoms in the Chla conjugated macrocycle. We performed DFT-based NMR calculations on the strongly-quenched crystal structure of LHCII (taken from spinach). We demonstrate that specific Chla-xanthophyll interactions in the quenched structure lead to changes in the Chla(13)C chemical shifts that are qualitatively similar to those observed by solid state NMR. We propose that these NMR changes are due to modulations in Chla-xanthophyll associations that occur due to a quenching-associated functional conformation change in the lutein and neoxanthin domains of LHCII. The combination of solid-state NMR and theoretical modeling is therefore a powerful tool for assessing functional conformational switching in the photosystem II antenna.

  4. On higher holonomy invariants in higher gauge theory II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchini, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This is the second of a series of two technical papers devoted to the analysis of holonomy invariants in strict higher gauge theory with end applications in higher Chern-Simons theory. We provide a definition of trace over a crossed module to yield surface knot invariants upon application to 2-holonomies. We show further that the properties of the trace are best described using the theory quandle crossed modules.

  5. Regulation of cell division in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    Cell division is arguably the most fundamental of all developmental processes. In higher plants, mitotic activity is largely confined to foci of patterned cell divisions called meristems. From these perpetually embryonic tissues arise the plant's essential organs of light capture, support, protection and reproduction. Once an adequate understanding of plant cell mitotic regulation is attained, unprecedented opportunities will ensue for analyzing and genetically controlling diverse aspects of development, including plant architecture, leaf shape, plant height, and root depth. The mitotic cycle in a variety of model eukaryotic systems in under the control of a regulatory network of striking evolutionary conservation. Homologues of the yeast cdc2 gene, its catalytic product, p34, and the cyclin regulatory subunits of the MPF complex have emerged as ubiquitous mitotic regulators. We have cloned cdc2-like and cyclin genes from pea. As in other eukaryotic model systems, p34 of Pisum sativum is a subunit of a high molecular weight complex which binds the fission yeast p13 protein and displays histone H1 kinase activity in vitro. Our primary objective in this study is to gain baseline information about the regulation of this higher plant cell division control complex in non-dividing, differentiated cells as well as in synchronous and asynchronous mitotic cells. We are investigating cdc2 and cyclin expression at the levels of protein abundance, protein phosphorylation and quaternary associations.

  6. Nickel: a micronutrient essential for higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.H.; Welch, R.M.; Cary, E.E.

    1987-11-01

    Nickel was established as an essential micronutrient for the growth of temperate cereal crops. Grain from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Onda; containing 40 to 80 nanograms of Ni per gram dry weight) grown in solution culture with negligible Ni concentrations (<30 nanograms of Ni per liter) exhibited greatly reduced germination rates (i.e. 50% less than grain from Ni-adequate plants) and seeding vigor of the viable grain was greatly depressed. Grain containing less than 30 nanograms per gram dry weight was inviable. Under Ni-deficient conditions, barley plants fail to produce viable grain because of a disruption of the maternal plants normal grain-filling and maturation processes that occur following formation of the grain embryo. The observations that (a) barley plants fail to complete their life cycle in the absence of Ni and (b) addition of Ni to the growth medium completely alleviates deficiency symptoms in the maternal plants satisfies the essentiality criteria; thus Ni should be considered a micronutrient for cereals. Because Ni is required by legumes, and is now established for cereals, the authors conclude that Ni should be added to the list of micronutrients essential for all higher plant growth.

  7. Fate of excess sulfur in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rennenberg, H.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms which have evolved in higher plants to cope with excess sulfur in their environments are reviewed. Survival in a sulfur-rich environment is seldom achieved through avoidance of the intake of sulfur. The presence of excess sulfur in the soil or in the air usually results in an intake of excess sulfur into plants. An immediate injury by the excess sulfur taken up is, however, prevented by a series of metabolic processes. Storage of excess sulfur in a metabolically inactive compartment, i.e. the vacuole, appears to occur in most plants. The finding of a storage of glutathione is several investigations suggests that with increasing accumulation of sulfate its reduction also increases. Under these conditions the cysteine concentration in different compartments of the cell may still be maintained at a low level by the incorporation of the excess cysteine synthesized into glutathione. This peptide appears to be the storage form of reduced sulfur in higher plants. 167 references, 2 figures.

  8. Higher Education: A Bibliographic Handbook, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent, Ed.

    Higher education topics that pertain to the individual institution are addressed in this annotated bibliography, which primarily covers publications issued during 1968-1980. In addition, introductory descriptions of each topic and outlines of subtopics are provided. The 20 major topics and the compilers for each topic are as follows:…

  9. Cosmic censorship in higher dimensions. II

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, Ashutosh; Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2005-07-15

    Generalizing earlier results on dust collapse in higher dimensions, we show here that cosmic censorship can be restored in some classes of gravitational collapse models with tangential pressure present, if we take the spacetime dimension to be N{>=}6. This is under conditions to be motivated physically, such as smoothness of initial data from which the collapse develops. The models considered here with nonzero pressure include the Einstein cluster spacetimes which have been earlier studied extensively. Our work provides a step towards an understanding of the cosmic censorship conjecture and the necessary conditions for its validity.

  10. Nickel: an essential element for higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The inability of cereal crops to complete their life cycle in the absence of Ni demonstrates that Ni is an essential micronutrient for the growth of higher plants. The growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Onda), wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Era), and oats (Avena sativa L., cv. Astro) is depressed under Ni deficient conditions, and grain of severely Ni deficient barley was inviable. Evidence suggests that Ni is essential to the formation of the grain embryo and in the remobilization of N from the leaves to the grain during plant maturation. Nickel deficiency produces characteristic deficiency symptoms in cereals including, leaf chlorosis, premature senescence in oats, and the development of interveinal necrosis. Metabolic effects of Ni deficiency are extensive and cannot be alleviated by the addition of any other essential element.

  11. Photosynthetic gene expression in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Berry, James O; Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Zielinski, Amy M; Mure, Christopher M

    2013-11-01

    Within the chloroplasts of higher plants and algae, photosynthesis converts light into biological energy, fueling the assimilation of atmospheric carbon dioxide into biologically useful molecules. Two major steps, photosynthetic electron transport and the Calvin-Benson cycle, require many gene products encoded from chloroplast as well as nuclear genomes. The expression of genes in both cellular compartments is highly dynamic and influenced by a diverse range of factors. Light is the primary environmental determinant of photosynthetic gene expression. Working through photoreceptors such as phytochrome, light regulates photosynthetic genes at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Other processes that affect photosynthetic gene expression include photosynthetic activity, development, and biotic and abiotic stress. Anterograde (from nucleus to chloroplast) and retrograde (from chloroplast to nucleus) signaling insures the highly coordinated expression of the many photosynthetic genes between these different compartments. Anterograde signaling incorporates nuclear-encoded transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators, such as sigma factors and RNA-binding proteins, respectively. Retrograde signaling utilizes photosynthetic processes such as photosynthetic electron transport and redox signaling to influence the expression of photosynthetic genes in the nucleus. The basic C3 photosynthetic pathway serves as the default form used by most of the plant species on earth. High temperature and water stress associated with arid environments have led to the development of specialized C4 and CAM photosynthesis, which evolved as modifications of the basic default expression program. The goal of this article is to explain and summarize the many gene expression and regulatory processes that work together to support photosynthetic function in plants.

  12. Effect of free fall on higher plants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The influence of exposure to the free-fall state on the orientation, morphogenesis, physiology, and radiation response of higher plants is briefly summarized. It is proposed that the duration of the space-flight experiments has been to brief to permit meaningful effects of free fall on general biochemistry, growth, and development to appear. However, two types of significant effect did occur. The first is on differential growth - i.e., tropism and epinasty - resulting from the absence of a normal geostimulus. For these phenomena it is suggested that ground-based experiments with the clinostat would suffice to mimic the effect of the free-fall state. The second is an apparent interaction between the radiation response and some flight condition, yielding an enhanced microspore abortion, a disturbed spindle function, and a stunting of stamen hairs. It is suggested that this apparent interaction may be derived from a shift in the rhythm of the cell cycle, induced by the free fall.

  13. Endogenous peptide elicitors in higher plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense responses against invading organisms are initiated through the perception of molecules associated with attacking microbes and herbivores by pattern recognition receptors. In addition to elicitor molecules derived from attacking organisms, plants recognize host-derived molecules. Thes...

  14. Developing Higher Plant Systems in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of hypogravity and microgravity environments on plant cells are discussed. Experiments on embryos of carrots are discussed. Simulation and spacecraft environments were used in experiments.

  15. The cytoskeleton and gravitropism in higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2002-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the gravitropic response of plants have continued to elude plant biologists despite more than a century of research. Lately there has been increased attention on the role of the cytoskeleton in plant gravitropism, but several controversies and major gaps in our understanding of cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism remain. A major question in the study of plant gravitropism is how the cytoskeleton mediates early sensing and signal transduction events in plants. Much has been made of the actin cytoskeleton as the cellular structure that sedimenting amyloplasts impinge upon to trigger the downstream signaling events leading to the bending response. There is also strong molecular and biochemical evidence that the transport of auxin, an important player in gravitropism, is regulated by actin. Organizational changes in microtubules during the growth response phase of gravitropism have also been well documented, but the significance of such reorientations in controlling differential cellular growth is unclear. Studies employing pharmacological approaches to dissect cytoskeletal involvement in gravitropism have led to conflicting results and therefore need to be interpreted with caution. Despite the current controversies, the revolutionary advances in molecular, biochemical, and cell biological techniques have opened up several possibilities for further research into this difficult area. The myriad proteins associated with the plant cytoskeleton that are being rapidly characterized provide a rich assortment of candidate regulators that could be targets of the gravity signal transduction chain. Cytoskeletal and ion imaging in real time combined with mutant analysis promises to provide a fresh start into this controversial area of research.

  16. Higher plant mitochondrial DNA: Genomes, genes, mutants, transcription, translation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains brief summaries of 63 presentations given at the International Workshop on Higher Plant Mitochondrial DNA. The presentations are organized into topical discussions addressing plant genomes, mitochondrial genes, cytoplasmic male sterility, transcription, translation, plasmids and tissue culture. (DT)

  17. Vitamin B6 biosynthesis in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Tambasco-Studart, Marina; Titiz, Olca; Raschle, Thomas; Forster, Gabriela; Amrhein, Nikolaus; Fitzpatrick, Teresa B.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is an essential metabolite in all organisms. It can act as a coenzyme for numerous metabolic enzymes and has recently been shown to be a potent antioxidant. Plants and microorganisms have a de novo biosynthetic pathway for vitamin B6, but animals must obtain it from dietary sources. In Escherichia coli, it is known that the vitamin is derived from deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (an intermediate in the nonmevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis) and 4-phosphohydroxy-l-threonine. It has been assumed that vitamin B6 is synthesized in the same way in plants, but this hypothesis has never been experimentally proven. Here, we show that, in plants, synthesis of the vitamin takes an entirely different route, which does not involve deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate but instead utilizes intermediates from the pentose phosphate pathway, i.e., ribose 5-phosphate or ribulose 5-phosphate, and from glycolysis, i.e., dihydroxyacetone phosphate or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The revelation is based on the recent discovery that, in bacteria and fungi, a novel pathway is in place that involves two genes (PDX1 and PDX2), neither of which is homologous to any of those involved in the previously doctrined E. coli pathway. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana has two functional homologs of PDX1 and a single homolog of PDX2. Furthermore, and contrary to what was inferred previously, we show that the pathway appears to be cytosolic and is not localized to the plastid. Last, we report that the single PDX2 homolog is essential for plant viability. PMID:16157873

  18. DNA microarray analyses in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, David W

    2006-01-01

    DNA microarrays were originally devised and described as a convenient technology for the global analysis of plant gene expression. Over the past decade, their use has expanded enormously to cover all kingdoms of living organisms. At the same time, the scope of applications of microarrays has increased beyond expression analyses, with plant genomics playing a leadership role in the on-going development of this technology. As the field has matured, the rate-limiting step has moved from that of the technical process of data generation to that of data analysis. We currently face major problems in dealing with the accumulating datasets, not simply with respect to how to archive, access, and process the huge amounts of data that have been and are being produced, but also in determining the relative quality of the different datasets. A major recognized concern is the appropriate use of statistical design in microarray experiments, without which the datasets are rendered useless. A vigorous area of current research involves the development of novel statistical tools specifically for microarray experiments. This article describes, in a necessarily selective manner, the types of platforms currently employed in microarray research and provides an overview of recent activities using these platforms in plant biology.

  19. Gravitropism in Higher Plant Shoots 1

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Julianne E.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1984-01-01

    Cross and longitudinal sections were prepared for light microscopy from vertical control plants (Xanthium strumarium L. Chicago strain), free-bending horizontal stems, plants restrained 48 hours in a horizontal position, and plants restrained 48 hours and then released, bending immediately about 130°. Top cells of free-bending stems shrink or elongate little; bottom cells continue to elongate. In restrained stems, bottom cells elongate some and increase in diameter; top cells elongate about as much but decrease in diameter. Upon release, bottom cells elongate more and decrease in diameter, while top cells shorten and increase in diameter, accounting for the bend. During restraint, bottom cells take up water while tissue pressures increase; top cells fail to take up water although tissue pressures are decreasing. Settling of amyloplasts was observed in cells of the starch sheath. Removal of different amounts of stem (Xanthium; Lycopersicon esculentum Miller, cv Bonny Best; Ricinus communis L. cv Yolo Wonder) showed that perception of gravity occurs in the bending (elongation) zone, although bending of fourth and fifth internodes from the top was less than in uncut controls. Uniform application of 1% indoleacetic acid in lanolin to cut stem surfaces partially restored bending. Reversing the gradient in tension/compression in horizontal stems (top under compression, bottom under tension) did not affect gravitropic bending. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:16663939

  20. Passive CO2 concentration in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Sage, Rowan F; Khoshravesh, Roxana

    2016-06-01

    Photorespiratory limitations on C3 photosynthesis are substantial in warm, low CO2 conditions. To compensate, certain plants evolved mechanisms to actively concentrate CO2 around Rubisco using ATP-supported CO2 pumps such as C4 photosynthesis. Plants can also passively accumulate CO2 without additional ATP expenditure by localizing the release of photorespired and respired CO2 around Rubisco that is diffusively isolated from peripheral air spaces. Passive accumulation of photorespired CO2 occurs when glycine decarboxylase is localized to vascular sheath cells in what is termed C2 photosynthesis, and through forming sheaths of chloroplasts around the periphery of mesophyll cells. The peripheral sheaths require photorespired CO2 to re-enter chloroplasts where it can be refixed. Passive accumulation of respiratory CO2 is common in organs such as stems, fruits and flowers, due to abundant heterotrophic tissues and high diffusive resistance along the organ periphery. Chloroplasts within these organs are able to exploit this high CO2 to reduce photorespiration. CO2 concentration can also be enhanced passively by channeling respired CO2 from roots and rhizomes into photosynthetic cells of stems and leaves via lacunae, aerenchyma and the xylem stream. Through passive CO2 concentration, C3 species likely improved their carbon economy and maintained fitness during episodes of low atmospheric CO2.

  1. Gravitropism in Higher Plant Shoots 1

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; White, Rosemary G.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene at 1.0 and 10.0 cubic centimeters per cubic meter decreased the rate of gravitropic bending in stems of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), but 0.1 cubic centimeter per cubic meter ethylene had little effect. Treating cocklebur plants with 1.0 millimolar aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) (ethylene synthesis inhibitor) delayed stem bending compared with controls, but adding 0.1 cubic centimeter per cubic meter ethylene in the surrounding atmosphere (or applying 0.1% ethephon solution) partially restored the rate of bending of AVG-treated plants. Ethylene increases in bending stems, and AVG inhibits this. Virtually all newly synthesized ethylene appeared in bottom halves of horizontal stems, where ethylene concentrations were as much as 100 times those in upright stems or in top halves of horizontal stems. This was especially true when horizontal stems were physically restrained from bending. Ethylene might promote cell elongation in bottom tissues of a horizontal stem or indicate other factors there (e.g. a large amount of `functioning' auxin). Or top and bottom tissues may become differentially sensitive to ethylene. Auxin applied to one side of a vertical stem caused extreme bending away from that side; gibberellic acid, kinetin, and abscisic acid were without effect. Acidic ethephon solutions applied to one side of young seedlings of cocklebur, tomato, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) caused bending away from that side, but neutral ethephon solutions did not cause bending. Buffered or unbuffered acid (HCl) caused similar bending. Neutral ethephon solutions produced typical ethylene symptoms (i.e. epinasty, inhibition of stem elongation). HCl or acidic ethephon applied to the top of horizontal stems caused downward bending, but these substances applied to the bottom of such stems inhibited growth and upward bending—an unexpected result. PMID:11539089

  2. Regulation of myosin II during cytokinesis in higher eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Fumio

    2005-07-01

    Cellular myosin II is the principal motor responsible for cytokinesis. In higher eukaryotes, phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (MLC) of myosin II is a primary means of activating myosin II and is known to be crucial for the execution of cell division. Because signals transmitted by the mitotic spindle coordinate key spatial and temporal aspects of cytokinesis, such signals should ultimately function to activate myosin II. Thus, it follows that identification of regulatory factors involved in MLC phosphorylation should elucidate the nature of spindle-derived regulatory signals and lead to a model for how they control cytokinesis. However, the identity of these upstream molecules remains elusive. This review (which is part of the Cytokinesis series) summarizes current views of the regulatory pathway controlling MLC phosphorylation and features four candidate molecules that are likely immediate upstream myosin regulators. I discuss proposed functions for MLCK, ROCK, citron kinase and myosin phosphatase during cytokinesis and consider the possibility of a link between these molecules and the signals transmitted by the mitotic spindle.

  3. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Use of Higher Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbits, T. W.; Alford, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Results of two workshops concerning the use of higher plants in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) are summarized. Criteria for plant selection were identified from these categories: food production, nutrition, oxygen production and carbon dioxide utilization, water recycling, waste recycling, and other morphological and physiological considerations. Types of plant species suitable for use in CELSS, growing procedures, and research priorities were recommended. Also included are productivity values for selected plant species.

  4. Parameters, limits and higher derivative type II string corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubay, Finn; West, Peter

    2012-11-01

    String theory in d dimensions has n + 1 = 11 - d parameters that may be thought of as being inherited from the geometry of an n + 1 torus which may be used to construct the theory using dimensional reduction from eleven dimensions. We give the precise relationship between these parameters and the expectation values of the scalar fields that parameterise the E n+1 coset of the d dimensional theory. This allows us to examine all possible limits of the automorphic forms which occur as the coefficient functions of the higher derivative corrections to the d dimensional type II string effective action.

  5. Higher Plants in life support systems: design of a model and plant experimental compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezard, Pauline; Farges, Berangere; Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    The development of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) requires full control and efficient engineering for fulfilling the common objectives of water and oxygen regeneration, CO2 elimination and food production. Most of the proposed CELSS contain higher plants, for which a growth chamber and a control system are needed. Inside the compartment the development of higher plants must be understood and modeled in order to be able to design and control the compartment as a function of operating variables. The plant behavior must be analyzed at different sub-process scales : (i) architecture and morphology describe the plant shape and lead to calculate the morphological parameters (leaf area, stem length, number of meristems. . . ) characteristic of life cycle stages; (ii) physiology and metabolism of the different organs permit to assess the plant composition depending on the plant input and output rates (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and nutrients); (iii) finally, the physical processes are light interception, gas exchange, sap conduction and root uptake: they control the available energy from photosynthesis and the input and output rates. These three different sub-processes are modeled as a system of equations using environmental and plant parameters such as light intensity, temperature, pressure, humidity, CO2 and oxygen partial pressures, nutrient solution composition, total leaf surface and leaf area index, chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, water potential, organ biomass distribution and composition, etc. The most challenging issue is to develop a comprehensive and operative mathematical model that assembles these different sub-processes in a unique framework. In order to assess the parameters for testing a model, a polyvalent growth chamber is necessary. It should permit a controlled environment in order to test and understand the physiological response and determine the control strategy. The final aim of this model is to have an envi

  6. Effect of iodine disinfection products on higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D.; Macler, B.; Macelroy, R. D.; Thorstenson, Y.; Sauer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect potable water on United States spacecraft. Iodinated potable water will likely be used to grow plants in space. Little is known about the effects of iodine disinfection products on plants. Seeds of select higher plants were germinated in water iodinated using the Shuttle Microbial Check Valve, and water to which measured amounts of iodine was added. Percent germination was decreased in seeds of most species germinated in iodinated water. Beans were most affected. Germination rates, determined from germination half-times, were decreased for beans germinated in iodinated water, and water to which iodide was added. Development was retarded and rootlets were conspicuously absent in bean and several other plant species germinated in iodinated water. Iodide alone did not elicit these responses. Clearly iodine disinfection products can affect higher plants. These effects must be carefully considered for plant experimentation and cultivation in space, and in design and testing of closed environmental life support systems.

  7. Controlled ecological life support system higher plant flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for spaceflight experments which involve higher plants were determined. The plants are studied for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS). Two categories of research requirements are discussed: (1) the physical needs which include nutrient, water and gas exchange requirements; (2) the biological and physiological functions which affect plants in zero gravity environments. Physical problems studies are given the priority since they affect all biological experiments.

  8. Design of components for growing higher plants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to design unique systems and components for growing higher plants in microgravity during long-term space missions (Mars and beyond). Specific design tasks were chosen to contribute to and supplement NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project. Selected tasks were automated seeding of plants, plant health sensing, and food processing. Prototype systems for planting both germinated and nongerminated seeds were fabricated and tested. Water and air pressure differences and electrostatic fields were used to trap seeds for separation and transport for planting. An absorption spectrometer was developed to measure chlorophyll levels in plants as an early warning of plant health problems. In the area of food processing, a milling system was created using high-speed rotating blades which were aerodynamically configured to produce circulation and retractable to prevent leakage. The project produced significant results having substantial benefit to NASA. It also provided an outstanding learning experience for the students involved.

  9. Discovery of new anticancer agents from higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Chai, Hee-Byung; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2012-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT Small organic molecules derived from higher plants have been one of the mainstays of cancer chemotherapy for approximately the past half a century. In the present review, selected single chemical entity natural products of plant origin and their semi-synthetic derivatives currently in clinical trials are featured as examples of new cancer chemotherapeutic drug candidates. Several more recently isolated compounds obtained from plants showing promising in vivo biological activity are also discussed in terms of their potential as anticancer agents, with many of these obtained from species that grow in tropical regions. Since extracts of only a relatively small proportion of the ca. 300,000 higher plants on earth have been screened biologically to date, bioactive compounds from plants should play an important role in future anticancer drug discovery efforts. PMID:22202049

  10. Higher plant antioxidants and redox signaling under environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hong-bo; Chu, Li-ye; Shao, Ming-an; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul; Mi, Hong-mei

    2008-06-01

    Main antioxidants in higher plants include glutathione, ascorbate, tocopherol, proline, betaine, and others, which are also information-rich redox buffers and important redox signaling components that interact with biomembrane-related compartments. As an evolutionary consequence of aerobic life for higher plants, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed by partial reduction of molecular oxygen. The above enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in higher plants can protect their cells from oxidative damage by scavenging ROS. In addition to crucial roles in defense system and as enzyme cofactors, antioxidants influence higher plant growth and development by modifying processes from mitosis and cell elongation to senescence and death. Most importantly, they provide essential information on cellular redox state, and regulate gene expression associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses to optimize defense and survival. An overview of the literature is presented in terms of main antioxidants and redox signaling in plant cells. Special attention is given to ROS and ROS-antioxidant interaction as a metabolic interface for different types of signals derived from metabolism and from the changing environment, which regulates the appropriate induction of acclimation processes or, execution of cell death programs, which are the two essential directions for higher plants.

  11. Heat tolerance of higher plants cenosis to damaging air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakova, Sofya; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina

    Designing sustained biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS) including higher plants as a part of a photosynthesizing unit, it is important to foresee the multi species cenosis reaction on either stress-factors. Air temperature changing in BTLSS (because of failure of a thermoregulation system) up to the values leading to irreversible damages of photosynthetic processes is one of those factors. However, it is possible to increase, within the certain limits, the plant cenosis tolerance to the unfavorable temperatures’ effect due to the choice of the higher plants possessing resistance both to elevated and to lowered air temperatures. Besides, the plants heat tolerance can be increased when subjecting them during their growing to the hardening off temperatures’ effect. Thus, we have come to the conclusion that it is possible to increase heat tolerance of multi species cenosis under the damaging effect of air temperature of 45 (°) СC.

  12. Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. II. Different Mechanisms for Copper versus Cadmium Detoxification in the Copper-Sensitive Cadmium/Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype)1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M.H.; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 μm Cu2+ remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the “sun reaction” type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  13. Complexation and toxicity of copper in higher plants. II. Different mechanisms for copper versus cadmium detoxification in the copper-sensitive cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype).

    PubMed

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M H; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-10-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 microm Cu(2+) remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the "sun reaction" type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  14. Fungal elicitors of the phytoalexin response in higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Charles A.

    1981-09-01

    Several types of fungal molecules including cell wall polysaccharides, polypeptides, glycoproteins and lipid molecules have been found to serve as elicitors of phytoalexins in higher plants. Recent work has shown that an extracellular enzyme, endopolygalacturonase, from culture filtrates of the fungus Rhizopus stolonifer elicits the biosynthesis of an antifungal antibiotic, casbene, in extracts of treated castor bean ( Ricinus communis L.) seedlings. A suggested mode of action of this elicitor in the plant in which fragments of the plant cell wall released through the catalytic action of the enzyme serve as secondary elicitors to trigger the plant response is proposed on the basis of preliminary observations. Possible modes of interaction of other types of fungal elicitors with plants are also discussed.

  15. Fractionation of metal stable isotopes by higher plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Blanckenburg, F.; Von Wiren, N.; Guelke, M.; Weiss, D.J.; Bullen, T.D.

    2009-01-01

    Higher plants induce chemical reactions in the rhizosphere, facilitating metal uptake by roots. Fractionation of the isotopes in nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc produces a stable isotope composition in the plants that generally differs from that of the growth medium. Isotope fractionation also occurs during transport of the metals within most plants, but its extent depends on plant species and on the metal, in particular, on the metal's redox state and what ligand it is bound to. The metal stable isotope variations observed in plants create an isotope signature of life at the Earth's surface, contributing substantially to our understanding of metal cycling processes in the environment and in individual organisms.

  16. Octadecanoid-Mediated Signal Transduction in Higher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Elmar W.

    The observation that methyljasmonate is a strong promoter of senescence marked the discovery of lipid-derived signaling molecules of higher plants. This group of compounds, now collectively termed octadecanoids, is derived from the fatty acid α-linolenic acid and involved in physiological processes such diverse as the triggering of defense reactions against herbivores and pathogens, mechanotransduction, plant volatile emission, potato tuberization, and many others. Recent research has yielded clues to a deeper understanding of octadecanoid biology. Control over this central signaling system may open new avenues in biological pest control through plant defense regulators.

  17. The Interactions of Aquaporins and Mineral Nutrients in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Ding, Lei; Gao, Limin; Li, Yingrui; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins, major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) present in the plasma and intracellular membranes, facilitate the transport of small neutral molecules across cell membranes in higher plants. Recently, progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of aquaporin subcellular localization, transport selectivity, and gating properties. Although the role of aquaporins in maintaining the plant water status has been addressed, the interactions between plant aquaporins and mineral nutrients remain largely unknown. This review highlights the roles of various aquaporin orthologues in mineral nutrient uptake and transport, as well as the regulatory effects of mineral nutrients on aquaporin expression and activity, and an integrated link between aquaporins and mineral nutrient metabolism was identified. PMID:27483251

  18. The Interactions of Aquaporins and Mineral Nutrients in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Ding, Lei; Gao, Limin; Li, Yingrui; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins, major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) present in the plasma and intracellular membranes, facilitate the transport of small neutral molecules across cell membranes in higher plants. Recently, progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of aquaporin subcellular localization, transport selectivity, and gating properties. Although the role of aquaporins in maintaining the plant water status has been addressed, the interactions between plant aquaporins and mineral nutrients remain largely unknown. This review highlights the roles of various aquaporin orthologues in mineral nutrient uptake and transport, as well as the regulatory effects of mineral nutrients on aquaporin expression and activity, and an integrated link between aquaporins and mineral nutrient metabolism was identified. PMID:27483251

  19. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, T.W.

    1992-07-01

    Cell division is arguably the most fundamental of all developmental processes. In higher plants, mitotic activity is largely confined to foci of patterned cell divisions called meristems. From these perpetually embryonic tissues arise the plant`s essential organs of light capture, support, protection and reproduction. Once an adequate understanding of plant cell mitotic regulation is attained, unprecedented opportunities will ensue for analyzing and genetically controlling diverse aspects of development, including plant architecture, leaf shape, plant height, and root depth. The mitotic cycle in a variety of model eukaryotic systems in under the control of a regulatory network of striking evolutionary conservation. Homologues of the yeast cdc2 gene, its catalytic product, p34, and the cyclin regulatory subunits of the MPF complex have emerged as ubiquitous mitotic regulators. We have cloned cdc2-like and cyclin genes from pea. As in other eukaryotic model systems, p34 of Pisum sativum is a subunit of a high molecular weight complex which binds the fission yeast p13 protein and displays histone H1 kinase activity in vitro. Our primary objective in this study is to gain baseline information about the regulation of this higher plant cell division control complex in non-dividing, differentiated cells as well as in synchronous and asynchronous mitotic cells. We are investigating cdc2 and cyclin expression at the levels of protein abundance, protein phosphorylation and quaternary associations.

  20. Electrochemical Microsensors for the Detection of Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Krystofova, Olga; Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Zehnalek, Josef; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Routine determination of trace metals in complex media is still a difficult task for many analytical instruments. The aim of this work was to compare three electro-chemical instruments [a standard potentiostat (Autolab), a commercially available miniaturized potentiostat (PalmSens) and a homemade micropotentiostat] for easy-to-use and sensitive determination of cadmium(II) and lead(II) ions. The lowest detection limits (hundreds of pM) for both metals was achieved by using of the standard potentiostat, followed by the miniaturized potentiostat (tens of nM) and the homemade instrument (hundreds of nM). Nevertheless, all potentiostats were sensitive enough to evaluate contamination of the environment, because the environmental limits for both metals are higher than detection limits of the instruments. Further, we tested all used potentiostats and working electrodes on analysis of environmental samples (rainwater, flour and plant extract) with artificially added cadmium(II) and lead(II). Based on the similar results obtained for all potentiostats we choose a homemade instrument with a carbon tip working electrode for our subsequent environmental experiments, in which we analyzed maize and sunflower seedlings and rainwater obtained from various sites in the Czech Republic. PMID:22219663

  1. Cellular Mechanisms of Gravitropic Response in Higher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Sergei; Smolikova, Galina; Pozhvanov, Gregory; Suslov, Dmitry

    The evolutionary success of land plants in adaptation to the vectorial environmental factors was based mainly on the development of polarity systems. In result, normal plant ontogenesis is based on the positional information. Polarity is a tool by which the developing plant organs and tissues are mapped and the specific three-dimensional structure of the organism is created. It is due to their polar organization plants are able to orient themselves relative to the gravity vector and different vectorial cues, and to respond adequately to various stimuli. Gravitation is one of the most important polarized environmental factor that guides the development of plant organisms in space. Every plant can "estimate" its position relative to the gravity vector and correct it, if necessary, by means of polarized growth. The direction and the magnitude of gravitational stimulus are constant during the whole plant ontogenesis. The key plant response to the action of gravity is gravitropism, i.e. the directed growth of organs with respect to the gravity vector. This response is a very convenient model to study the mechanisms of plant orientation in space. The present report is focused on the main cellular mechanisms responsible for graviropic bending in higher plants. These mechanisms and structures include electric polarization of plant cells, Ca ({2+) }gradients, cytoskeleton, G-proteins, phosphoinositides and the machinery responsible for asymmetric auxin distribution. Those mechanisms tightly interact demonstrating some hierarchy and multiple feedbacks. The Ca (2+) gradients provide the primary physiological basis of polarity in plant cells. Calcium ions influence on the bioelectric potentials, the organization of actin cytoskeleton, the activity of Ca (2+) -binding proteins and Ca (2+) -dependent protein kinases. Protein kinases modulate transcription factors activity thereby regulating the gene expression and switching the developmental programs. Actin cytoskeleton affects

  2. 97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. Catalog B, Higher Plants, 200 2 American Chestnut Tree, Negative No. 6032 (Photographer and date unknown) THIS GHOST FOREST OF BLIGHTED CHESTNUTS ONCE STOOD APPROXIMATELY AT THE LOCATION OF THE BYRD VISITOR CENTER. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  3. Enhanced bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils with higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.

    1996-10-01

    Introduction of higher plants into a bioremediation system can enhance degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons and target compounds, particularly relatively immobile and recalcitrant organic molecules. Over the past several years, an interdisciplinary team of civil engineers, chemical engineers, soil chemists, soil microbiologists, and plant scientists at Kansas State University have been studying phytoremediation systems. Greenhouse experiments have focused on selecting plants that are most adapted to degrading target compounds and to surviving in soils highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Plant species do not seem to differ in their ability to aid in the decomposition of pyrene and anthracene, but benzo[a]pyrene is much more difficult to degrade. Most species are ineffective in enhancing the degradation of benzo[a]pyrene. Four field studies have been initiated in California, Texas, New Jersey, and Virginia to test some of our greenhouse observations.

  4. Higher plant biomarkers reflect palaeovegetation changes during Jurassic times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aarssen, Ben G. K.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert I.

    2000-04-01

    The relative abundances of three higher-plant-derived biomarkers, retene, cadalene and ip-iHMN, have been measured in marine sedimentary rocks from the northwest margin of Australia. It is thought that each biomarker represents input from a different plant type. The distributions of these three compounds form a fingerprint, representing higher plant input (HPF). Variations in HPF in Oxfordian sediments were nearly identical in all three locations, with retene becoming very abundant relative to the other two compounds with decreasing age of the sediment. This finding strongly suggests that the composition of terrestrial input during deposition largely determines HPF and that the possible effects of diagenesis and catagenesis on the distribution of the three biomarkers are relatively unimportant. The marked increase in the abundance of retene relative to that of cadalene during the Oxfordian is interpreted to reflect an increase in the contribution of plants that produced precursors for retene, i.e., conifers, brought about by a significant change in climate. This was exemplified by measuring the distributions of retene and cadalene, expressed in the higher plant parameter (HPP) for a suite of sediments from the Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia, covering the complete Jurassic period. The HPP profile displays three major cycles, each covering a period of at least 10 million years. This profile not only compared well with published palaeoclimate data, but also showed a remarkable similarity with second order cycles in the global sea level curve, thus strongly supporting the proposal that variations in HPF and HPP are indications of changes in palaeoclimate. The relation with global sea level further suggests that global factors, e.g., the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, may play a major role in determining the observed variations in the distributions of these higher-plant-derived biomarkers.

  5. Plants at high altitude exhibit higher component of alternative respiration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narinder; Vyas, Dhiraj; Kumar, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Total respiration, capacities of cytochrome (CytR) and alternative respiration (AR) were studied in two varieties of barley (Horedum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) each and one variety of pea (Pisum sativum) at low (Palampur; 1300 m) and high altitudes (Kibber; 4200 m). Similar studies were carried out in naturally growing Rumex nepalensis and Trifoilum repenses at Palampur, Palchan (2250 m) and Marhi (3250 m). All the plants species exhibited lower CytR but significantly higher AR capacity at high altitude (HA) (72-1117% higher) as compared to those at low altitude (LA). Glycolytic product, pyruvate and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, citrate increased with increase in altitude. While the role of these metabolites in relation to HA biology is discussed, significantly higher AR at HA is proposed to be an adaptive mechanism against the metabolic perturbations wherein it might act to lower reactive oxygen species and also provides metabolic homeostasis to plants under the environment of HA.

  6. The Relevance of Higher Plants in Lead Compound Discovery Programs⊥

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Pan, Li; Fletcher, Joshua N.; Chai, Heebyung

    2011-01-01

    Along with compounds from terrestrial microorganisms, the constituents of higher plants have provided a substantial number of the natural product-derived drugs used currently in western medicine. Interest in the elucidation of new structures of the secondary metabolite constituents of plants has remained high among the natural products community over the first decade of the 21st century, particularly of species that are used in systems of traditional medicine or are utilized as botanical dietary supplements. In this review, progress made in the senior author’s laboratory in research work on naturally occurring sweeteners and other taste-modifying substances and on potential anticancer agents from tropical plants will be described. PMID:21650152

  7. Shedding light on ethylene metabolism in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Maria A.; Bianchetti, Ricardo E.; Freschi, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Ethylene metabolism in higher plants is regulated by a wide array of endogenous and environmental factors. During most physiological processes, ethylene levels are mainly determined by a strict control of the rate-limiting biosynthetic steps responsible for the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and its subsequent conversion to ethylene. Responsible for these reactions, the key enzymes ACC synthase and ACC oxidase are encoded by multigene families formed by members that can be differentially regulated at the transcription and post-translational levels by specific developmental and environmental signals. Among the wide variety of environmental cues controlling plant ethylene production, light quality, duration, and intensity have consistently been demonstrated to influence the metabolism of this plant hormone in diverse plant tissues, organs, and species. Although still not completely elucidated, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between light signal transduction and ethylene evolution appears to involve a complex network that includes central transcription factors connecting multiple signaling pathways, which can be reciprocally modulated by ethylene itself, other phytohormones, and specific light wavelengths. Accumulating evidence has indicated particular photoreceptors as essential mediators in light-induced signaling cascades affecting ethylene levels. Therefore, this review specifically focuses on discussing the current knowledge of the potential molecular mechanisms implicated in the light-induced responses affecting ethylene metabolism during the regulation of developmental and metabolic plant responses. Besides presenting the state of the art in this research field, some overlooked mechanisms and future directions to elucidate the exact nature of the light–ethylene interplay in higher plants will also be compiled and discussed. PMID:25520728

  8. How Ethylene Works in the Reproductive Organs of Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Francisco; del Carmen Rodríguez-Gacio, María

    2006-01-01

    Ethylene (ET) is a notable signaling molecule in higher plants. In the year 1993 the ET receptor gene, ETR1, was identified; this ETR1 receptor protein being the first plant hormone receptor to be isolated. It is striking that there are six ET receptors in tomato instead of five in Arabidopsis, the two best-known signaling-model systems. Even though over the last few years great progress has been made in elucidating the genes and proteins involved in ET signaling, the complete pathway remains to be established. The present review examines the most representative successive advances that have taken place in this millennium in terms of the signaling pathway of ET, as well as the implications of the signaling in the reproductive organs of plants (i.e., flowers, fruits, seeds and pollen grains). A detailed comparative study is made on the advances in knowledge in the last decade, showing how the characterization of ET signaling provides clues for understanding how higher plants regulate their ET sensitivity. Also, it is indicated that ET signaling is at present sparking interest within phytohormonal molecular physiology and biology, and it is explained why several socio-economic aspects (flowering and fruit ripening) are undoubtedly involved in ET physiology. PMID:19516984

  9. Higher plant origins and the phylogeny of green algae.

    PubMed

    Devereux, R; Loeblich, A R; Fox, G E

    1990-07-01

    5S rRNA sequences from six additional green algae lend strong molecular support for the major outlines of higher plant and green algae phylogeny that have been proposed under varying naming conventions by several authors. In particular, the molecular evidence now available unequivocally supports the existence of at least two well-separated divisions of the Chlorobionta: the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta (i.e., charophytes) (according to the nomenclature of Bremer). The chlamydomonad 5S rRNAs are, however, sufficiently distinct from both clusters that it may ultimately prove preferable to establish a third taxon for them. In support of these conclusions 5S rRNA sequence data now exist for members of four diverse classes of chlorophytes. These sequences all exhibit considerably more phylogenetic affinity to one another than any of them show toward members of the other cluster, the Streptophyta, or the two Chlamydomonas strains. Among the Charophyceae, new 5S rRNA sequences are provided herein for three genera, Spirogyra, Klebsormidium, and Coleochaete. All of these sequences and the previously published Nitella sequence show greater resemblance among themselves and to the higher plants than they do to any of the other green algae examined to date. These results demonstrate that an appropriately named taxon that includes these green algae and the higher plants is strongly justified. The 5S rRNA data lack the resolution needed, however, to unequivocally determine which of several subdivisions of the charophytes is the sister group of the land plants. The evolutionary diversity of Chlamydomonas relative to the other green algae was recognized in earlier 5S rRNA studies but was unanticipated by ultrastructural work.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Experimental determination of magnesium isotope fractionation during higher plant growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolou-Bi, Emile B.; Poszwa, Anne; Leyval, Corinne; Vigier, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    Two higher plant species (rye grass and clover) were cultivated under laboratory conditions on two substrates (solution, phlogopite) in order to constrain the corresponding Mg isotope fractionations during plant growth and Mg uptake. We show that bulk plants are systematically enriched in heavy isotopes relative to their nutrient source. The Δ 26Mg plant-source range from 0.72‰ to 0.26‰ for rye grass and from 1.05‰ to 0.41‰ for clover. Plants grown on phlogopite display Mg isotope signatures (relative to the Mg source) ˜0.3‰ lower than hydroponic plants. For a given substrate, rye grass display lower δ 26Mg (by ˜0.3‰) relative to clover. Magnesium desorbed from rye grass roots display a δ 26Mg greater than the nutrient solution. Adsorption experiments on dead and living rye grass roots also indicate a significant enrichment in heavy isotopes of the Mg adsorbed on the root surface. Our results indicate that the key processes responsible for heavy isotope enrichment in plants are located at the root level. Both species also exhibit an enrichment in light isotopes from roots to shoots (Δ 26Mg leaf-root = -0.65‰ and -0.34‰ for rye grass and clover grown on phlogopite respectively, and Δ 26Mg leaf-root of -0.06‰ and -0.22‰ for the same species grown hydroponically). This heavy isotope depletion in leaves can be explained by biological processes that affect leaves and roots differently: (1) organo-Mg complex (including chlorophyll) formation, and (2) Mg transport within plant. For both species, a positive correlation between δ 26Mg and K/Mg was observed among the various organs. This correlation is consistent with the link between K and Mg internal cycles, as well as with formation of organo-magnesium compounds associated with enrichment in heavy isotopes. Considering our results together with the published range for δ 26Mg of natural plants and rivers, we estimate that a significant change in continental vegetation would induce a change of

  11. Shoot phototropism in higher plants: new light through old concepts.

    PubMed

    Christie, John M; Murphy, Angus S

    2013-01-01

    Light is a key environmental factor that drives many aspects of plant growth and development. Phototropism, the reorientation of growth toward or away from light, represents one of these important adaptive processes. Modern studies of phototropism began with experiments conducted by Charles Darwin demonstrating that light perception at the shoot apex of grass coleoptiles induces differential elongation in the lower epidermal cells. This led to the discovery of the plant growth hormone auxin and the Cholodny-Went hypothesis attributing differential tropic bending to lateral auxin relocalization. In the past two decades, molecular-genetic analyses in the model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana has identified the principal photoreceptors for phototropism and their mechanism of activation. In addition, several protein families of auxin transporters have been identified. Despite extensive efforts, however, it still remains unclear as to how photoreceptor activation regulates lateral auxin transport to establish phototropic growth. This review aims to summarize major developments from over the last century and how these advances shape our current understanding of higher plant phototropism. Recent progress in phototropism research and the way in which this research is shedding new light on old concepts, including the Cholodny-Went hypothesis, is also highlighted.

  12. Phototolerance of lichens, mosses and higher plants in an alpine environment: analysis of photoreactions.

    PubMed

    Heber, U; Bilger, W; Bligny, R; Lange, O L

    2000-11-01

    Adaptation to excessive light is one of the requirements of survival in an alpine environment particularly for poikilohydric organisms which in contrast to the leaves of higher plants tolerate full dehydration. Changes in modulated chlorophyll fluorescence and 820-nm absorption were investigated in the lichens Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. and Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC, in the moss Grimmia alpestris Limpr. and the higher plants Geum montanum L., Gentiana lutea L. and Pisum sativum L., all collected at altitudes higher than 2000 m above sea level. In the dehydrated state, chlorophyll fluorescence was very low in the lichens and the moss, but high in the higher plants. It increased on rehydration in the lichens and the moss, but decreased in the higher plants. Light-induced charge separation in photosystem II was indicated by pulse-induced fluorescence increases only in dried leaves, not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Strong illumination caused photodamage in the dried leaves, but not in the dry moss and dry lichens. Light-dependent increases in 820-nm absorption revealed formation of potential quenchers of chlorophyll fluorescence in all dehydrated plants, but energy transfer to quenchers decreased chlorophyll fluorescence only in the moss and the lichens, not in the higher plants. In hydrated systems, coupled cyclic electron transport is suggested to occur concurrently with linear electron transport under strong actinic illumination particularly in the lichens because far more electrons became available after actinic illumination for the reduction of photo-oxidized P700 than were available in the pool of electron carriers between photosystems II and I. In the moss Grimmia, but not in the lichens or in leaves, light-dependent quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence was extensive even under nitrogen, indicating anaerobic thylakoid acidification by persistent cyclic electron transport. In the absence of actinic illumination, acidification by ca. 8% CO2 in

  13. Cloning higher plants from aseptically cultured tissues and cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    A review of aseptic culture methods for higher plants is presented, which focuses on the existing problems that limit or prevent the full realization of cloning plants from free cells. It is shown that substantial progress in clonal multiplication has been made with explanted stem tips or lateral buds which can be stimulated to produce numerous precocious axillary branches. These branches can then be separated or subdivided and induced to root in order to yield populations of genetically and phenotypically uniorm plantlets. Similarly, undifferentiated calluses can sometimes be induced to form shoots and/or roots adventitiously. Although the cell culture techniques required to produce somatic embryos are presently rudimentary, steady advances are being made in learning how to stimulate formation of somatic or adventive embryos from totipotent cells grown in suspension cultures. It is concluded that many problems exist in the producing and growing of totipotent or morphogenetically competent cell suspensions, but the potential benefits are great.

  14. Lessons from natural and artificial polyploids in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, M; Coate, J; Sherman-Broyles, S; Abbott, R; Hiscock, S; Doyle, J

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidy in higher plants is a major source of genetic novelty upon which selection may act to drive evolution, as evidenced by the widespread success of polyploid species in the wild. However, research into the effects of polyploidy can be confounded by the entanglement of several processes: genome duplication, hybridisation (allopolyploidy is frequent in plants) and subsequent evolution. The discovery of the chemical agent colchicine, which can be used to produce artificial polyploids on demand, has enabled scientists to unravel these threads and understand the complex genomic changes involved in each. We present here an overview of lessons learnt from studies of natural and artificial polyploids, and from comparisons between the 2, covering basic cellular and metabolic consequences through to alterations in epigenetic gene regulation, together with 2 in-depth case studies in Senecio and Glycine. See also the sister article focusing on animals by Arai and Fujimoto in this themed issue. PMID:23816545

  15. Higgs mechanism for gravity. II. Higher spin connections

    SciTech Connect

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Kirsch, Ingo

    2006-06-15

    We continue the work of [Phys. Rev. D 72, 024001 (2005)] in which gravity is considered as the Goldstone realization of a spontaneously broken diffeomorphism group. We complete the discussion of the coset space Diff (d,R)/SO(1,d-1) formed by the d-dimensional group of analytic diffeomorphisms and the Lorentz group. We find that this coset space is parametrized by coordinates, a metric, and an infinite tower of higher-spin or generalized connections. We then study effective actions for the corresponding symmetry breaking which gives mass to the higher spin connections. Our model predicts that gravity is modified at high energies by the exchange of massive higher spin particles.

  16. Higher Education and Older People: Some Theoretical Considerations, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Herbert C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes disengagement, activity, lifespan, subcultural, and continuity theories of social gerontology in light of participation in higher education by older students. Argues that continuity theory holds the most promise in accounting for older students. Emphasizes the need to stress the positive roles of old age. (JAC)

  17. Light regulation of gene expression in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, E.M.; Silverthorne, J.

    1985-01-01

    In this review areas of currently active research are considered which have demonstrated that a plant's response to light involves changes in the expression of specific genes at the level of RNA. The regulation of gene expression by phytochrome and the UV-sensitive photoreceptor have been studied most extensively at the molecular level, and this review particularly focuses on such studies in higher plants. Some of the observations made on the differences in gene expression between light-grown and dark-grown plants are also included, although the photoreceptor(s) responsible for the differences may not have been ascertained. In some of these cases, phytochrome involvement has been or may be demonstrated in later studies, while in others the observed differences may be a result of the action of other photoreceptors or of multiple light-affected processes. One such process is the development of chloroplasts, a major developmental step triggered by light in angiosperms. In addition, many of the genes whose expression is changed by light and which have been studied at a molecular level encode chloroplast proteins. 156 references.

  18. Metabolic engineering of higher plants and algae for isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    Kempinski, Chase; Jiang, Zuodong; Bell, Stephen; Chappell, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of compounds derived from the five carbon precursors, dimethylallyl diphosphate, and isopentenyl diphosphate. These molecules present incredible natural chemical diversity, which can be valuable for humans in many aspects such as cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine. However, many terpenoids are only produced in small quantities by their natural hosts and can be difficult to generate synthetically. Therefore, much interest and effort has been directed toward capturing the genetic blueprint for their biochemistry and engineering it into alternative hosts such as plants and algae. These autotrophic organisms are attractive when compared to traditional microbial platforms because of their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as a carbon substrate instead of supplied carbon sources like glucose. This chapter will summarize important techniques and strategies for engineering the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites into higher plants and algae by choosing the correct host, avoiding endogenous regulatory mechanisms, and optimizing potential flux into the target compound. Future endeavors will build on these efforts by fine-tuning product accumulation levels via the vast amount of available "-omic" data and devising metabolic engineering schemes that integrate this into a whole-organism approach. With the development of high-throughput transformation protocols and synthetic biology molecular tools, we have only begun to harness the power and utility of plant and algae metabolic engineering.

  19. Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Jinya; Liu, Huiyuan; Qin, Haining

    2016-01-01

    Identifying biodiversity hotspots has become a central issue in setting up priority protection areas, especially as financial resources for biological diversity conservation are limited. Taking China’s Higher Plants Red List (CHPRL), including Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, as the data source, we analyzed the geographic patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment via data processing at a fine grid-scale with an average edge length of 30 km based on three aspects of richness information: species richness, endemic species richness, and threatened species richness. We sought to test the accuracy of hotspots used in identifying conservation priorities with regard to higher plants. Next, we tested the congruence of the three aspects and made a comparison of the similarities and differences between the hotspots described in this paper and those in previous studies. We found that over 90% of threatened species in China are concentrated. While a high spatial congruence is observed among the three measures, there is a low congruence between two different sets of hotspots. Our results suggest that biodiversity information should be considered when identifying biological hotspots. Other factors, such as scales, should be included as well to develop biodiversity conservation plans in accordance with the region’s specific conditions.

  20. Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Jinya; Liu, Huiyuan; Qin, Haining

    2016-01-01

    Identifying biodiversity hotspots has become a central issue in setting up priority protection areas, especially as financial resources for biological diversity conservation are limited. Taking China's Higher Plants Red List (CHPRL), including Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, as the data source, we analyzed the geographic patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment via data processing at a fine grid-scale with an average edge length of 30 km based on three aspects of richness information: species richness, endemic species richness, and threatened species richness. We sought to test the accuracy of hotspots used in identifying conservation priorities with regard to higher plants. Next, we tested the congruence of the three aspects and made a comparison of the similarities and differences between the hotspots described in this paper and those in previous studies. We found that over 90% of threatened species in China are concentrated. While a high spatial congruence is observed among the three measures, there is a low congruence between two different sets of hotspots. Our results suggest that biodiversity information should be considered when identifying biological hotspots. Other factors, such as scales, should be included as well to develop biodiversity conservation plans in accordance with the region's specific conditions. PMID:26750244

  1. Distribution, congruence, and hotspots of higher plants in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lina; Li, Jinya; Liu, Huiyuan; Qin, Haining

    2016-01-01

    Identifying biodiversity hotspots has become a central issue in setting up priority protection areas, especially as financial resources for biological diversity conservation are limited. Taking China’s Higher Plants Red List (CHPRL), including Bryophytes, Ferns, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, as the data source, we analyzed the geographic patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment via data processing at a fine grid-scale with an average edge length of 30 km based on three aspects of richness information: species richness, endemic species richness, and threatened species richness. We sought to test the accuracy of hotspots used in identifying conservation priorities with regard to higher plants. Next, we tested the congruence of the three aspects and made a comparison of the similarities and differences between the hotspots described in this paper and those in previous studies. We found that over 90% of threatened species in China are concentrated. While a high spatial congruence is observed among the three measures, there is a low congruence between two different sets of hotspots. Our results suggest that biodiversity information should be considered when identifying biological hotspots. Other factors, such as scales, should be included as well to develop biodiversity conservation plans in accordance with the region’s specific conditions. PMID:26750244

  2. 5-Oxoprolinase (l-Pyroglutamate Hydrolase) in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mazelis, Mendel; Creveling, Richard K.

    1978-01-01

    5-Oxoprolinase has been found to be widely distributed in higher plants. This enzyme catalyzes the ATP-dependent hydrolysis of 5-oxo-l-proline (l-pyrollidone carboxylate, l-pyroglutamate) to glutamate. The enzyme has been purified almost 60 fold from wheat germ (Triticum aestivum L). This enzyme requires a divalent cation, either Mn2+ or Mg2+, and a combination of both appears to be the most effective. There is also an absolute requirement for a monovalent cation best fulfilled by either NH4+ or K+. The Km for ATP is 0.4 mm and for 5-oxo-l-proline is 14 μm. A small amount of activity is observed when other purine nucleotides such as ITP and GTP replace ATP. The substitution of the pyrimidine nucleotides CTP and UTP for ATP yield almost completely inactive preparations. The enzyme appears to have an active sulfhydryl group since there is an increase in activity in the presence of dithioerythritol. Preincubation with reagents such as N-ethylmaleimide or iodoacetamide lead to complete inactivation. The presence of this enzyme leads to the speculation of the possible presence of a γ-glutamyl cycle in higher plants. PMID:16660609

  3. Diagenesis of higher plant triterpenes in evaporitic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Poinsot, J.; Adam, P.; Trendel, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Several samples from a Tertiary carbonated evaporitic series (Sainte-Cecile, Camargue, France) were investigated. Their analysis revealed a high abundance of new or uncommon hydrocarbons and organic S compounds related to higher plant triterpenes. Several of them, in particular, 12,29-cyclolupa-12,18,20(29)-triene 1, could be positively identified. These triterpenoids are generally absent from non-evaporitic sediments which contain essentially aromatic triterpenoids resulting from microbially mediated aromatization processes starting in ring A (or in ring B when preceded by the loss of ring A). The uncommon transformations undergone by higher plant triterpenes in the highly anoxic sediments from Sainte-Cecile are specific for each series of triterpenes (i.e., oleanane, ursane, lupane) and are probably linked with the rapid disappearance of the functionality located in ring A by reduction or by the incorporation of the triterpenes in S-rich macromolecules by reaction with inorganic S species. These biological markers represent new source parameters which may be quite useful as indicators of terrestrial inputs in evaporitic deposits. 33 refs., 10 figs.

  4. [90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of the Chernobyl nuclear plant exlusion zone

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B

    2001-01-01

    The content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in higher aquatic plants of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. Biodiversity of phytocenose was studied and species-indicators of radioactive contamination were revealed. The seasonal dynamics of radionuclide content in macrophytes was studied and the role of main aquatic plant clumps in processes of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in abiotic component of biohydrocenose was demonstrated.

  5. Dynamics of higher plant photosystem cross-section associated with state transitions.

    PubMed

    Ruban, Alexander V; Johnson, Matthew P

    2009-03-01

    Photosynthetic state transitions are a well-known phenomenon of short-term adaptation of the photosynthetic membrane to changes in spectral quality of light in low light environments. The principles of the monitoring and quantification of the process in higher plants are revised here. The use of the low-temperature excitation fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of the photosystem I antenna cross-section dynamics is described. This cross section was found to increase by 20-25% exclusively due to the migration and attachment of LHCIIb complex in State 2. Analysis of the fine structure of the additional PSI cross-section spectrum revealed the 510 nm band, characteristic of Lutein 2 of LHCIIb and present only when the complex is in a trimeric state. The excitation fluorescence spectrum of the phospho-LHCII resembles the spectrum of aggregated and hence quenched LHCII. This novel observation could explain the fact that at no point in the course of the state transition high fluorescence and long lifetime components of detached trimeric LHCII have ever been observed. In the plants lacking Lhcb1 and 2 proteins and unable to perform state transitions, compensatory sustained adjustments of the photosystem I and II antennae have been revealed. Whilst the major part of the photosystem II antenna is built largely of CP26 trimers, possessing less chlorophyll b and more of the red-shifted chlorophyll a, photosystem I in these plants contains more than 20% of extra LHCI antenna enriched in chlorophyll b. Hence, both photosystems in the plants lacking state transitions have less spectrally distinct antennae, which enable to avoid energy imbalance due to the changes in the light quality. These alterations reveal remarkable plasticity of the higher plant photosynthetic antenna design providing the basis for a flexible adaptation to the light environment.

  6. Variation potential in higher plants: Mechanisms of generation and propagation

    PubMed Central

    Vodeneev, Vladimir; Akinchits, Elena; Sukhov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance intercellular electrical signals, including variation potential (VP) in higher plants, are a potential mechanism of coordinate functional responses in different plant cells under action of stressors. VP, which is caused by damaging factors (e.g., heating, crushing), is transient depolarization with an irregular shape. It can include a long-term depolarization and fast impulse depolarization (‘AP-like’ spikes). Mechanisms of VP generation and propagation are still under investigation. It is probable that VP is a local electrical response induced by propagation of hydraulic wave and (or) chemical agent. Both hypotheses are based on numerous experimental results but they predict VP velocities which are not in a good accordance with speed of variation potential propagation. Thus combination of hydraulic and chemical signals is the probable mechanism of VP propagation. VP generation is traditionally connected with transient H+-ATPase inactivation, but AP-like spikes are also connected with passive ions fluxes. Ca2+ influx is a probable mechanism which triggers H+-ATPase inactivation and ions channels activation at VP. PMID:26313506

  7. The genetic control of plastid division in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Pyke, K

    1997-08-01

    The division of plastids is an important part of plastid differentiation and development and in distinct cell types, such as leaf mesophyll cells, results in large populations of chloroplasts. The morphology and population dynamics of plastid division have been well documented, but the molecular controls underlying plastid division are largely unknown. With the isolation of Arabidopsis mutants in which specific aspects of plastid and proplastid division have been disrupted, the potential exists for a detailed knowledge of how plastids divide and what factors control the rate of division in different cell types. It is likely that knowledge of plant homologues of bacterial cell division genes will be essential for understanding this process in full. The processes of plastid division and expansion appear to be mutually independent processes, which are compensatory when either division or expansion are disrupted genetically. The rate of cell expansion appears to be an important factor in initiating plastid division and several systems involving rapid cell expansion show high levels of plastid division activity. In addition, observation of plastids in different cell types in higher plants shows that cell-specific signals are also important in the overall process in determining not only the differentiation pathway of plastids but also the extent of plastid division. It appears likely that with the exploitation of molecular techniques and mutants, a detailed understanding of the molecular basis of plastid division may soon be a reality.

  8. Need for higher fuel burnup at the Hatch Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Beckhman, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Hatch is a BWR 4 and has been in operation for some time. The first unit became commercial about 1975. Obtaining higher burnups, or higher average discharge exposures, is nothing new at Hatch. Since we have started, the discharge exposure of the plant has increased. Now, of course, we are not approaching the numbers currently being discussed but, the average discharge exposure has increased from around 20,000 MWD/MTU in the early to mid-1980s to 34,000 MWD/MTU in 1994, I am talking about batch average values. There are also peak bundle and peak rod values. You will have to make the conversions if you think in one way or the other because I am talking in batch averages. During Hatch`s operating history we have had some problems with fuel failure. Higher burnup fuel raises a concern about how much fuel failure you are going to have. Fuel failure is, of course, an economic issue with us. Back in the early 1980s, we had a problem with crud-induced localized corrosion, known as CILC. We have gotten over that, but we had some times when it was up around 27 fuel failures a year. That is not a pleasant time to live through because it is not what you want from an economic viewpoint or any other. We have gotten that down. We have had some fuel failures recently, but they have not been related to fuel burnup or to corrosion. In fact, the number of failures has decreased from the early 1980s to the 90s even though burnup increased during that time. The fuel failures are more debris-related-type failures. In addition to increasing burnups, utilities are actively evaluating or have already incorporated power uprate and longer fuel cycles (e.g., 2-year cycles). The goal is to balance out the higher power density, longer cycles, higher burnup, and to have no leakers. Why do we as an industry want to have higher burnup fuel? That is what I want to tell you a little bit about.

  9. Manganese Deficiency in Plants: The Impact on Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-07-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability. PMID:27150384

  10. Composition of photosystem II antenna in light-harvesting complex II antisense tobacco plants at varying irradiances.

    PubMed Central

    Flachmann, R

    1997-01-01

    Plants with genes coding for chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) in antisense orientation (Lhcb) that are characterized by severely reduced Lhcb transcript levels (below 10% of wild type) do not show a bleached phenotype due to a specific loss of the polypeptide. To produce such a phenotype, a conceptually different antisense approach was tested with a dual-functional transcript encoding the gene for hygromycin phosphotransferase and the transit sequence of Lhcb1-2 in the antisense orientation. Using increasing concentrations of hygromycin, transformants with Lhcb steady-state levels as low as 9% of wild type were regenerated and grown in a growth chamber. Together with Lhcb antisense plants obtained in an earlier study, these antisense plants were analyzed biochemically for their photosystem II (PSII) antenna composition under varying light conditions. All antisense plants showed a characteristic low-irradiance-induced increase of their PSII antenna size as determined by higher chlorophyll concentrations, an increased content of LHCII, and a constant chlorophyll b-to-lutein ratio in comparison with control plants. One to 5% of the total Lhcb transcript amount was sufficient to allow unrestricted formation of the PSII antenna at low irradiance, suggesting that LHCH biogenesis is not controlled primarily by transcription. PMID:9085572

  11. Nuclearly encoded splicing factors implicated in RNA splicing in higher plant organelles.

    PubMed

    de Longevialle, Andéol Falcon; Small, Ian D; Lurin, Claire

    2010-07-01

    Plant organelles arose from two independent endosymbiosis events. Throughout evolutionary history, tight control of chloroplasts and mitochondria has been gained by the nucleus, which regulates most steps of organelle genome expression and metabolism. In particular, RNA maturation, including RNA splicing, is highly dependent on nuclearly encoded splicing factors. Most introns in organelles are group II introns, whose catalytic mechanism closely resembles that of the nuclear spliceosome. Plant group II introns have lost the ability to self-splice in vivo and require nuclearly encoded proteins as cofactors. Since the first splicing factor was identified in chloroplasts more than 10 years ago, many other proteins have been shown to be involved in splicing of one or more introns in chloroplasts or mitochondria. These new proteins belong to a variety of different families of RNA binding proteins and provide new insights into ribonucleo-protein complexes and RNA splicing machineries in organelles. In this review, we describe how splicing factors, encoded by the nucleus and targeted to the organelles, take part in post-transcriptional steps in higher plant organelle gene expression. We go on to discuss the potential for these factors to regulate organelle gene expression.

  12. Formation of N-acetylglutamate by extracts of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Morris, C J; Thompson, J F

    1977-04-01

    The enzymic synthesis of N-acetylglutamate was studied in extracts of higher plant tissues, especially in sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.). Sugar beet leaves had an enzyme that transferred the acetyl group either from acetyl-CoA or from N(2)-acetylornithine to glutamate. The enzyme was so unstable that special precautions were necessary for its detection and appreciable purification was impossible. The Km values were 2.5 and 0.025 mM for acetyl-CoA and N(2)-acetylornithine, respectively. The Km for glutamate was 23 mM with acetylornithine-glutamate transacetylase and 2.7 mM with acetyl-CoA-glutamate transacetylase. The pH optimum for acetyl-CoA-glutamate transacetylase was about 7.2 whereas that for acetylornithine-glutamate transacetylase was about 8.3. Acetylphosphate, N(2)-acetyl-2,4-diaminobutyrate, propionyl-CoA, and succinyl-CoA were not substrates.Arginine inhibited the acetyl-CoA-glutamate transacetylase and acetylglutamate phosphokinase but had no effect on the acetylornithineglutamate transacetylase. Related compounds had either no effect or much less than arginine. Arginine had no effect on enzyme levels.Acetyl-CoA-glutamate transacetylase was also found in Raphanus sativus L., Glycine max L. Merr., Arachis hypogaea L., Brassica rapa L., and Pisum sativum L. Acetylornithine-glutamate transacetylase was found in all of the above species plus Zea mays L., Avena sativa L., and Triticum aestivum L.

  13. Cellulose microfibril assembly and orientation in higher plant cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, S.C.; Maclachlan, G.A.; Brown, R.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Freeze-fractured plasma membranes of seedlings of Zea mays L., Burpee's Snowcross, and Pisum sativum L., variety Alsaka, contain terminal complex structures and the impressions of microfibrils from the newest cell wall layer.Terminal complex subunits are on the exoplasmic fracture (EF) face, and rosette subunits are on the protoplasmic fracture (PF) face of the membrane. The association of terminal complexes and rosettes with microfibril tips and their association with newly deposited groups of microfibrils is indirect evidence for their role in microfibril assembly. Microtubules may be responsible for certain orientations of microfibrils, particularly the formation of bands of microfibrils in newly deposited wall layers. However, microfibril orienting mechanisms are more complex, involving factors still present during colchicine treatment. Since UDP-glucose is thought to be a precursor of cellulose microfibrils in higher plant cells, EM radioautography was used to determine the site of incorporation of glucose. However, under the conditions used, glucose was only incorporated from UDP-glucose at the surface of cut or damaged pea stem cells, i.e., in vitro. Thus, incorporation of glucose from UDP-glucose was not useful for probing the patterns of cellulose microfibril synthesis in vivo. 18 references, 8 figures.

  14. Metabolism of TNT associated with roots of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.C.; Chou, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Contamination with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is widespread at sites of past munitions manufacture. It is moderately toxic to plants and highly toxic to some animals. Some aquatic plant species have been observed to promote degradation of TNT. The degradative activity is associated with the root systems but products are found in the surrounding medium. The authors have examined a range of sixteen genera of non-aquatic plants grown hydroponically to determine whether the promotion of TNT degradation is a general phenomenon of plant root systems. All tested species showed the ability to reduce TNT extensively. Rates varied several fold when calculated on a wet weight of tissue basis. Isolated roots, disrupted roots, and root extracts generally showed less activity than intact roots attached to the plants. Water in which the plants had been grown did not promote degradation.

  15. Mercury toxicity, molecular response and tolerance in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Yang, Zhi Min

    2012-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in soils has become a great concern as a result of its natural release and anthropogenic activities. This review presents broad aspects of our recent understanding of mercury contamination and toxicology in plants including source of Hg contamination, toxicology, tolerant regulation in plants, and minimization strategy. We first introduced the sources of mercury contamination in soils. Mercury exists in different forms, but ionic mercury (Hg(2+)) is the predominant form in soils and readily absorbed by plants. The second issue to be discussed is the uptake, transport, and localization of Hg(2+) in plants. Mercury accumulated in plants evokes severe phytotoxicity and impairs numerous metabolic processes including nutrient uptake, water status, and photosynthesis. The mechanisms of mercury-induced toxicology, molecular response and gene networks for regulating plant tolerance will be reviewed. In the case of Hg recent much progress has been made in profiling of transcriptome and more importantly, uncovering a group of small RNAs that potentially mediates plant tolerance to Hg. Several newly discovered signaling molecules such as nitric oxide and carbon monoxide have now been described as regulators of plant tolerance to Hg. A recently emerged strategy, namely selection and breeding of plant cultivars to minimize Hg (or other metals) accumulation will be discussed in the last part of the review.

  16. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from higher plant mitochondria and proplastids: regulation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, P; Reid, E E; Lyttle, C R; Dennis, D T

    1977-05-01

    The activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from pea (Pisum sativum L.) mitochondria is inhibited when MgATP is added to the reaction mixture; 50% inhibition occurs at 4 mm ATP. The inhibition does not increase with time and is higher in the more highly purified preparations. Crude preparations of the complex show a time-dependent inactivation when incubated with 7.5 mm MgATP alone but this is not found with the more highly purified complex. This inactivation does not occur at 0 C. The complex could not be reactivated by high concentrations of Mg(2+). It is suggested that a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation mechanism may occur in plants, but the phosphatase and kinase are not tightly bound to the complex and are lost on isolation. The complex does not respond in a significant manner to energy charge. The NAD(+) to NADH ratio is the principal means of regulation of the complex, NADH being competitive with NAD(+) for the dihydrolipoamide component. The CoA to acetyl-CoA ratio is not important in regulation.The castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) proplastid complex is inhibited by the addition of 2 mm MgATP to the assay mixture. The inhibition is immediate, suggesting that phosphorylation of the enzyme is not involved or must be very rapid. Incubation of the complex with 20 mm MgCl(2) causes an activation of the complex. Maximum activity is not expressed in this case for 30 minutes. A similar activation can be achieved by preincubating the complex with 1 mm pyruvate. These data suggest that the complex is not fully activated on isolation.

  17. Cell wall, cytoskeleton, and cell expansion in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Bashline, Logan; Lei, Lei; Li, Shundai; Gu, Ying

    2014-04-01

    To accommodate two seemingly contradictory biological roles in plant physiology, providing both the rigid structural support of plant cells and the adjustable elasticity needed for cell expansion, the composition of the plant cell wall has evolved to become an intricate network of cellulosic, hemicellulosic, and pectic polysaccharides and protein. Due to its complexity, many aspects of the cell wall influence plant cell expansion, and many new and insightful observations and technologies are forthcoming. The biosynthesis of cell wall polymers and the roles of the variety of proteins involved in polysaccharide synthesis continue to be characterized. The interactions within the cell wall polymer network and the modification of these interactions provide insight into how the plant cell wall provides its dual function. The complex cell wall architecture is controlled and organized in part by the dynamic intracellular cytoskeleton and by diverse trafficking pathways of the cell wall polymers and cell wall-related machinery. Meanwhile, the cell wall is continually influenced by hormonal and integrity sensing stimuli that are perceived by the cell. These many processes cooperate to construct, maintain, and manipulate the intricate plant cell wall--an essential structure for the sustaining of the plant stature, growth, and life.

  18. Reconciling functions and evolution of isoprene emission in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Francesco; Fineschi, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Compilation and analysis of existing inventories reveal that isoprene is emitted by c. 20% of the perennial vegetation of tropical and temperate regions of the world. Isoprene emitters are found across different plant families without any clear phylogenetic thread. However, by critically appraising information in inventories, several ecological patterns of isoprene emission can be highlighted, including absence of emission from C4 and annual plants, and widespread emission from perennial and deciduous plants of temperate environments. Based on this analysis, and on available information on biochemistry, ecology and functional roles of isoprene, it is suggested that isoprene may not have evolved to help plants face heavy or prolonged stresses, but rather assists C3 plants to run efficient photosynthesis and to overcome transient and mild stresses, especially during periods of active plant growth in warm seasons. When the stress status persists, or when evergreen leaves cope with multiple and repeated stresses, isoprene biosynthesis is replaced by the synthesis of less volatile secondary compounds, in part produced by the same biochemical pathway, thus indicating causal determinism in the evolution of isoprene-emitting plants in response to the environment.

  19. Metal-based nanotoxicity and detoxification pathways in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuanxin; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-06-16

    The potential risks from metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment have increased with the rapidly rising demand for and use of nanoenabled consumer products. Plant's central roles in ecosystem function and food chain integrity ensure intimate contact with water and soil systems, both of which are considered sinks for NPs accumulation. In this review, we document phytotoxicity caused by metal-based NPs exposure at physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Although the exact mechanisms of plant defense against nanotoxicity are unclear, several relevant studies have been recently published. Possible detoxification pathways that might enable plant resistance to oxidative stress and facilitate NPs detoxification are reviewed herein. Given the importance of understanding the effects and implications of metal-based NPs on plants, future research should focus on the following: (1) addressing key knowledge gaps in understanding molecular and biochemical responses of plants to NPs stress through global transcriptome, proteome, and metablome assays; (2) designing long-term experiments under field conditions at realistic exposure concentrations to investigate the impact of metal-based NPs on edible crops and the resulting implications to the food chain and to human health; and (3) establishing an impact assessment to evaluate the effects of metal-based NPs on plants with regard to ecosystem structure and function.

  20. The biosynthetic pathway of vitamin C in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, G L; Jones, M A; Smirnoff, N

    1998-05-28

    Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) has important antioxidant and metabolic functions in both plants and animals, but humans, and a few other animal species, have lost the capacity to synthesize it. Plant-derived ascorbate is thus the major source of vitamin C in the human diet. Although the biosynthetic pathway of L-ascorbic acid in animals is well understood, the plant pathway has remained unknown-one of the few primary plant metabolic pathways for which this is the case. L-ascorbate is abundant in plants (found at concentrations of 1-5 mM in leaves and 25 mM in chloroplasts) and may have roles in photosynthesis and transmembrane electron transport. We found that D-mannose and L-galactose are efficient precursors for ascorbate synthesis and are interconverted by GDP-D-mannose-3,5-epimerase. We have identified an enzyme in pea and Arabidopsis thaliana, L-galactose dehydrogenase, that catalyses oxidation of L-galactose to L-galactono-1,4-lactone. We propose an ascorbate biosynthesis pathway involving GDP-D-mannose, GDP-L-galactose, L-galactose and L-galactono-1,4-lactone, and have synthesized ascorbate from GDP-D-mannose by way of these intermediates in vitro. The definition of this biosynthetic pathway should allow engineering of plants for increased ascorbate production, thus increasing their nutritional value and stress tolerance.

  1. Biochemical Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation during Lipid Biosynthesis in Higher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahmen, A.; Gamarra, B.; Cormier, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Although hydrogen isotopes (δ2H) of leaf wax lipids are increasingly being applied as (paleo-) hydrological proxies, we still do not understand some of the basic processes that shape the δ2H values of these compounds. In general, it is believed that three variables shape the δ2H values of leaf wax lipids: source water δ2H values, evaporative deuterium (2H) enrichment of leaf water and the biosynthetic fractionation (ɛbio) during the synthesis of organic compounds. While the influences of source water δ2H values and leaf water evaporative 2H enrichment have been well documented, very little is known how ɛbio shapes the δ2H values of plant-derived lipids. I will present the results from recent experiments, where we show that the magnitude of ɛbio, and thus the δ2H value of plant-derived lipids, strongly depends on the carbon (C) metabolism of a plant. Specifically, I will show that plants that rely for their tissue formation on recently assimilated C have δ2H values in their n-alkanes that are up to 60‰ more negative than plants that depend for their tissue formation on stored carbohydrates. Our findings can be explained by the fact that NADPH is the primary source of hydrogen in plant lipids and that the δ2H value of NADPH differs whether NADPH was generated directly in the light reaction of photosynthesis or whether it was generated by processing stored carbohydrates. As such, the δ2H values of plant-derived lipids will directly depend on whether the tissue containing these lipids was synthesized using recent assimilates, e.g. in a C autonomous state or, if it was synthesized from stored or otherwise aquired C sources, e.g. in a not C autonomous state. Given the magnidude of this effect, our results have important implications for interpretation of plant-derived lipid δ2H values when used as (paleo-) hydrological proxies. In addition, our results suggest, that δ2H values of plant-derived lipids could be employed as a new tools to assess the C

  2. Plant inherent control testing in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L.K.; Mohr, D.; Feldman, E.E.; Planchon, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Recent tests in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) have demonstrated that reactor feedbacks can passively reduce power and thus effectively mitigate reactor undercooling caused by equipment failures. A follow-on testing program is being designed to investigate the use of these feedbacks along other liquid metal reactor (LMR) characteristics to routinely control reactor power during plant maneuvers and fuel burnup, compensation, and to limit the possibility and consequences of over-power accidents. In all of the tests described in the present paper, the control rods will not be used as the plant is maneuvered over the power range between 40 and 100%. The plant variables (forcing functions) employed in the power control include the primary flow, the secondary flow, and the turbine admission position. The pretest predictions for the tests are presented and a preliminary analysis on the effects of controller failures is discussed. This paper provides concepts in reactor power control which may lead to fundamental changes in design and safety consideration of metal fueled LMRs.

  3. Oil is on the agenda: Lipid turnover in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amélie A; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-09-01

    Lipases hydrolyze ester bonds within lipids. This process is called lipolysis. They are key players in lipid turnover and involved in numerous metabolic pathways, many of which are shared between organisms like the mobilization of neutral or storage lipids or lipase-mediated membrane lipid homeostasis. Some reactions though are predominantly present in certain organisms, such as the production of signaling molecules (endocannabinoids) by diacylglycerol (DAG) and monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipases in mammals and plants or the jasmonate production in flowering plants. This review aims at giving an overview of the different functional classes of lipases and respective well-known activities, with a focus on the most recent findings in plant biology for selected classes. Here we will put an emphasis on the physiological role and contribution of lipases to the turnover of neutral lipids found in seed oil and other vegetative tissue as candidates for increasing the economical values of crop plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27155216

  4. ATTED-II in 2016: A Plant Coexpression Database Towards Lineage-Specific Coexpression

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Yuichi; Okamura, Yasunobu; Tadaka, Shu; Kinoshita, Kengo; Obayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    ATTED-II (http://atted.jp) is a coexpression database for plant species with parallel views of multiple coexpression data sets and network analysis tools. The user can efficiently find functional gene relationships and design experiments to identify gene functions by reverse genetics and general molecular biology techniques. Here, we report updates to ATTED-II (version 8.0), including new and updated coexpression data and analysis tools. ATTED-II now includes eight microarray- and six RNA sequencing-based coexpression data sets for seven dicot species (Arabidopsis, field mustard, soybean, barrel medick, poplar, tomato and grape) and two monocot species (rice and maize). Stand-alone coexpression analyses tend to have low reliability. Therefore, examining evolutionarily conserved coexpression is a more effective approach from the viewpoints of reliability and evolutionary importance. In contrast, the reliability of species-specific coexpression data remains poor. Our assessment scores for individual coexpression data sets indicated that the quality of the new coexpression data sets in ATTED-II is higher than for any previous coexpression data set. In addition, five species (Arabidopsis, soybean, tomato, rice and maize) in ATTED-II are now supported by both microarray- and RNA sequencing-based coexpression data, which has increased the reliability. Consequently, ATTED-II can now provide lineage-specific coexpression information. As an example of the use of ATTED-II to explore lineage-specific coexpression, we demonstrate monocot- and dicot-specific coexpression of cell wall genes. With the expanded coexpression data for multilevel evaluation, ATTED-II provides new opportunities to investigate lineage-specific evolution in plants. PMID:26546318

  5. Predicting molybdenum toxicity to higher plants: influence of soil properties.

    PubMed

    McGrath, S P; Micó, C; Curdy, R; Zhao, F J

    2010-10-01

    The effect of soil properties on the toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) to four plant species was investigated. Soil organic carbon or ammonium-oxalate extractable Fe oxides were found to be the best predictors of the 50% effective dose (ED50) of Mo in different soils, explaining>65% of the variance in ED50 for four species except for ryegrass (26-38%). Molybdenum concentrations in soil solution and consequently plant uptake were increased when soil pH was artificially raised because sorption of Mo to amorphous oxides is greatly reduced at high pH. The addition of sulphate significantly decreased Mo uptake by oilseed rape. For risk assessment, we suggest that Mo toxicity values for plants should be normalised using soil amorphous iron oxide concentrations.

  6. Symbiosis and the social network of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Volkening, Jeremy D; Sussman, Michael R; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2013-02-01

    In the Internet era, communicating with friends and colleagues via social networks constitutes a significant proportion of our daily activities. Similarly animals and plants also interact with many organisms, some of which are pathogens and do no good for the plant, while others are beneficial symbionts. Almost all plants indulge in developing social networks with microbes, in particular with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and emerging evidence indicates that most employ an ancient and widespread central 'social media' pathway made of signaling molecules within what is called the SYM pathway. Some plants, like legumes, are particularly active recruiters of friends, as they have established very sophisticated and beneficial interactions with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, also via the SYM pathway. Interestingly, many members of the Brassicaceae, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, seem to have removed themselves from this ancestral social network and lost the ability to engage in mutually favorable interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Despite these generalizations, recent studies exploring the root microbiota of A. thaliana have found that in natural conditions, A. thaliana roots are colonized by many different bacterial species and therefore may be using different and probably more recent 'social media' for these interactions. In general, recent advances in the understanding of such molecular machinery required for plant-symbiont associations are being obtained using high throughput genomic profiling strategies including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The crucial mechanistic understanding that such data reveal may provide the infrastructure for future efforts to genetically manipulate crop social networks for our own food and fiber needs. PMID:23246268

  7. Photosynthetic and respiratory activity in germfree higher plant species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Equipment developed for the study of gas exchange in germfree plants is described. The equipment includes a gas exchange chamber to house the plant under study, a gas feed assembly to introduce and remove gas from the chamber, and a clinostat to rotate the apparatus. Fluorescent and incandescent lights are used to illuminate the chamber and a sealed plastic barrier is used to isolate the potting soil from the chamber atmosphere. The gas outflow from the chamber can be diverted to an infrared CO2 analyzer. The performance of the system was evaluated.

  8. Experimental identification of Ca isotopic fractionations in higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobert, Florian; Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Bourgeade, Pascale; Labolle, François; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Chabaux, François; Stille, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Hydroponic experiments have been performed in order to identify the co-occurring geochemical and biological processes affecting the Ca isotopic compositions within plants. To test the influence of the Ca concentration and pH of the nutritive solution on the Ca isotopic composition of the different plant organs, four experimental conditions were chosen combining two different Ca concentrations (5 and 60 ppm) and two pHs (4 and 6). The study was performed on rapid growing bean plants in order to have a complete growth cycle. Several organs (root, stem, leaf, reproductive) were sampled at two different growth stages (10 days and 6 weeks of culture) and prepared for Ca isotopic measurements. The results allow to identify three Ca isotopic fractionation levels. The first one takes place when Ca enters the lateral roots, during Ca adsorption on cation-exchange binding sites in the apoplasm. The second one takes place when Ca is bound to the polygalacturonic acids (pectins) of the middle lamella of the xylem cell wall. Finally, the last fractionation occurs in the reproductive organs, also caused by cation-exchange processes with pectins. However, the cell wall structures of these organs and/or number of available exchange sites seem to be different to those of the xylem wall. These three physico-chemical fractionation mechanisms allow to enrich the organs in the light 40Ca isotope. The amplitude of the Ca isotopic fractionation within plant organs is highly dependent on the composition of the nutritive solution: low pH (4) and Ca concentrations (5 ppm) have no effect on the biomass increase of the plants but induce smaller fractionation amplitudes compared to those obtained from other experimental conditions. Thus, Ca isotopic signatures of bean plants are controlled by the external nutritive medium. This study highlights the potential of Ca isotopes to be applied in plant physiology (to identify Ca uptake, circulation and storage mechanisms within plants) and in

  9. Circadian rhythms and post-transcriptional regulation in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Romanowski, Andrés; Yanovsky, Marcelo J

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock of plants allows them to cope with daily changes in their environment. This is accomplished by the rhythmic regulation of gene expression, in a process that involves many regulatory steps. One of the key steps involved at the RNA level is post-transcriptional regulation, which ensures a correct control on the different amounts and types of mRNA that will ultimately define the current physiological state of the plant cell. Recent advances in the study of the processes of regulation of pre-mRNA processing, RNA turn-over and surveillance, regulation of translation, function of lncRNAs, biogenesis and function of small RNAs, and the development of bioinformatics tools have helped to vastly expand our understanding of how this regulatory step performs its role. In this work we review the current progress in circadian regulation at the post-transcriptional level research in plants. It is the continuous interaction of all the information flow control post-transcriptional processes that allow a plant to precisely time and predict daily environmental changes. PMID:26124767

  10. Deployment of the Topaz-II space nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Standley, V.H.; Wyant, F.J.; Polansky, G.F. )

    1993-01-01

    The Topaz-II is a 5-kW(electric) Russian space nuclear power plant. The power plant resembles a shuttlecock standing 3.9 m high and is 1.4 m in diameter at the base. The reactor is at the top, the radiation shield is in the middle, and the radiator is at the bottom. The whole system weighs 1 tonne. The reactor core is 37.5 cm long and 26 cm in diameter. It contains 37 core-length, single-cell thermionic fuel elements embedded in a ZrH moderator. Each thermionic fuel cell is a cylindrical emitter inside a cylindrical collector. Nuclear fuel inside the emitter raises the emitter's temperature.

  11. Type-II histone deacetylases: elusive plant nuclear signal transducers.

    PubMed

    Grandperret, Vincent; Nicolas-Francès, Valérie; Wendehenne, David; Bourque, Stéphane

    2014-06-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, numerous studies have concluded that the plant cell nucleus is one of the cellular compartments that define the specificity of the cellular response to an external stimulus or to a specific developmental stage. To that purpose, the nucleus contains all the enzymatic machinery required to carry out a wide variety of nuclear protein post-translational modifications (PTMs), which play an important role in signal transduction pathways leading to the modulation of specific sets of genes. PTMs include protein (de)acetylation which is controlled by the antagonistic activities of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Regarding protein deacetylation, plants are of particular interest: in addition to the RPD3-HDA1 and Sir2 HDAC families that they share with other eukaryotic organisms, plants have developed a specific family called type-II HDACs (HD2s). Interestingly, these HD2s are well conserved in plants and control fundamental biological processes such as seed germination, flowering or the response to pathogens. The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge regarding this fascinating, but still poorly understood nuclear protein family. PMID:24236403

  12. An expanding universe of circadian networks in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Pruneda-Paz, Jose L; Kay, Steve A

    2010-05-01

    Extensive circadian clock networks regulate almost every biological process in plants. Clock-controlled physiological responses are coupled with daily oscillations in environmental conditions resulting in enhanced fitness and growth vigor. Identification of core clock components and their associated molecular interactions has established the basic network architecture of plant clocks, which consists of multiple interlocked feedback loops. A hierarchical structure of transcriptional feedback overlaid with regulated protein turnover sets the pace of the clock and ultimately drives all clock-controlled processes. Although originally described as linear entities, increasing evidence suggests that many signaling pathways can act as both inputs and outputs within the overall network. Future studies will determine the molecular mechanisms involved in these complex regulatory loops.

  13. Final Report for Regulation of Embryonic Development in Higher Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, John J.

    2013-10-22

    The overall goal of the project was to define the cellular processes that underlie embryo development in plants at a mechanistic level. Our studies focused on a critical transcriptional regulator, Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1), that is necessary and sufficient to induce processes required for embryo development. Because LEC1 regulates lipid accumulation during the maturation phase of embryo development, information about LEC1 may be useful in designing approaches to enhance biofuel production in plants. During the tenure of this project, we determined the molecular mechanisms by which LEC1 acts as a transcription factor in embryos. We also identified genes directly regulated by LEC1 and showed that many of these genes are involved in maturation processes. This information has been useful in dissecting the gene regulatory networks controlling embryo development. Finally, LEC1 is a novel isoform of a transcription factor that is conserved among eukaryotes, and LEC1 is active primarily in seeds. Therefore, we determined that the LEC1-type transcription factors first appeared in lycophytes during land plant evolution. Together, this study provides basic information that has implications for biofuel production.

  14. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Thomas W.

    2000-02-29

    Research in the latter part of the grant period was divided into two parts: (1) expansion of the macromolecular tool kit for studying plant cell division; (2) experiments in which the roles played by plant cell cycle regulators were to be cast in the light of the emerging yeast and animal cell paradigm for molecular control of the mitotic cycle. The first objectives were accomplished to a very satisfactory degree. With regard to the second part of the project, we were driven to change our objectives for two reasons. First, the families of cell cycle control genes that we cloned encoded such closely related members that the prospects for success at raising distinguishing antisera against each were sufficiently dubious as to be impractical. Epitope tagging is not feasible in Pisum sativum, our experimental system, as this species is not realistically transformable. Therefore, differentiating the roles of diverse cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases was problematic. Secondly, our procedure for generating mitotically synchronized pea root meristems for biochemical studies was far too labor intensive for the proposed experiments. We therefore shifted our objectives to identifying connections between the conserved proteins of the cell cycle engine and factors that interface it with plant physiology and development. In this, we have obtained some very exciting results.

  15. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. I - A role for ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1981-01-01

    Two inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, Co(2+) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), and two inhibitors of ethylene action, Ag(+) and CO2, are shown to delay the gravitropic response of cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) stems. Gentle shaking on a mechanical shaker does not inhibit the gravitropic response, but vigorous hand shaking for 120 seconds delays the response somewhat. AVG and Ag(+) further delay the response of mechanically stimulated plants. AVG retards the storage of bending energy but not of stimulus. In gravitropism, graviperception may first stimulate ethylene evolution, which may then influence bending directly, or responses involving ethylene could be more indirect.

  16. The cell biology of lignification in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Jaime; Serk, Henrik; Granlund, Irene; Pesquet, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Background Lignin is a polyphenolic polymer that strengthens and waterproofs the cell wall of specialized plant cell types. Lignification is part of the normal differentiation programme and functioning of specific cell types, but can also be triggered as a response to various biotic and abiotic stresses in cells that would not otherwise be lignifying. Scope Cell wall lignification exhibits specific characteristics depending on the cell type being considered. These characteristics include the timing of lignification during cell differentiation, the palette of associated enzymes and substrates, the sub-cellular deposition sites, the monomeric composition and the cellular autonomy for lignin monomer production. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of lignin biosynthesis and polymerization at the cell biology level. Conclusions The lignification process ranges from full autonomy to complete co-operation depending on the cell type. The different roles of lignin for the function of each specific plant cell type are clearly illustrated by the multiple phenotypic defects exhibited by knock-out mutants in lignin synthesis, which may explain why no general mechanism for lignification has yet been defined. The range of phenotypic effects observed include altered xylem sap transport, loss of mechanical support, reduced seed protection and dispersion, and/or increased pest and disease susceptibility. PMID:25878140

  17. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. V - Changing sensitivity to auxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, Frank B.; Gillespie, Linda; Rorabaugh, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    The relationship in plants between the sensitivity to auxin and differential growth and bending was investigated experimentally. Decapitated and marked sunflower hypocotyl sections were immersed in buffered auxin solutions of different concentrations (0, 10 to the -8th, or 0.001 molar) and were photographed at 1/2 hr intervals; the negatives were analyzed with a digitizer/computer to evaluate surface-length changes in terms of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. It was found that bending decreased with increasing concentration of auxin. Increasing the auxin concentration inhibits the elongation growth of lower surfaces but promotes upper-surface growth, indicating that the lower surfaces have a greater Km sensitivity to applied auxin than the upper surfaces. At optimum auxin levels (maximum growth), the growth of bottom surfaces exceeded that of top surfaces, indicating that bottom tissues had a greater Vmax sensitivity.

  18. Studies of genetic transformation of higher plants using irradiated pollen

    SciTech Connect

    Chyi, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pandey has reported extensively on an unusual genetic phenomenon he called egg transformation. When compatible pollen was treated wth genetically lethal dosage of ..gamma..-radiation (100,000 rad), and used as mentor pollen to overcome selfincompatibility of several Nicotiana species, some genetic characters were found to be transferred from the radiation killed pollen to nonhybrid progeny. Observed transformants were fertile, cytogenetically normal, and had maternal phenotypes except for those specific traits transferred from the donors. Heavily irradiated pollen was believed to discharge its radiation-fragmented DNA (chromatin) into the embryo sac and bring about the transformation of the egg. The frequency of gene transfer was reported to be over 50%, and happened for all three characters Pandey studied - self incompatible specificities, flower color, and pollen color. Plant species studied were tomato, pea, apple, rapeseed, and Nicotiana species, including various stocks from Dr. Pandey. Treatments included pollinations with soley irradiated donor pollen, with a mixture of irradiated donor and normal self pollen, with a mixture of normal donor and self pollen, and double pollinations with irradiated donor pollen and normal self pollen, using different time intervals to separate the two pollinations. A total of 6210 pollinations were made, and 17,522 seedlings representing 87,750 potential transformational events were screened. In no case was an unambiguous transformant recovered. This research was unable to confirm or expand upon the findings of Dr. Pandey, or elucidate the mechanisms underlying such phenomena. Alternative explanations for Pandey's data were postulated. This approach to gene transfer by using irradiated pollen appears to be of little practical use to plant breeders.

  19. The molecular biology of plastid division in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Cassie; Maple, Jodi; Møller, Simon G

    2005-04-01

    Plastids are essential plant organelles vital for life on earth, responsible not only for photosynthesis but for many fundamental intermediary metabolic reactions. Plastids are not formed de novo but arise by binary fission from pre-existing plastids, and plastid division therefore represents an important process for the maintenance of appropriate plastid populations in plant cells. Plastid division comprises an elaborate pathway of co-ordinated events which include division machinery assembly at the division site, the constriction of envelope membranes, membrane fusion and, ultimately, the separation of the two new organelles. Because of their prokaryotic origin bacterial cell division has been successfully used as a paradigm for plastid division. This has resulted in the identification of the key plastid division components FtsZ, MinD, and MinE, as well as novel proteins with similarities to prokaryotic cell division proteins. Through a combination of approaches involving molecular genetics, cell biology, and biochemistry, it is now becoming clear that these proteins act in concert during plastid division, exhibiting both similarities and differences compared with their bacterial counterparts. Recent efforts in the cloning of the disrupted loci in several of the accumulation and replication of chloroplasts mutants has further revealed that the division of plastids is controlled by a combination of prokaryote-derived and host eukaryote-derived proteins residing not only in the plastid stroma but also in the cytoplasm. Based on the available data to date, a working model is presented showing the protein components involved in plastid division, their subcellular localization, and their protein interaction properties. PMID:15753112

  20. NUCLEAR DNA AND CYTOPLASMIC DNA FROM TISSUES OF HIGHER PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Yasuo; Bassel, Alix; Stern, Herbert

    1965-01-01

    Young wheat roots were labeled with 32P-inorganic phosphate. Following the labeling period, roots were homogenized in a sucrose medium and fractionated into nuclei, cytoplasmic particles (including proplastids and mitochondria), and a soluble fraction containing most of the microsomes. DNA prepared from the particles had a higher buoyant density than that from the nuclei and showed a marked loss in total label if the roots were exposed to non-radioactive medium for 48 hours prior to fractionation of the cells. PMID:5885425

  1. [Immunostimulating action of polysaccharides (heteroglycans) from higher plants].

    PubMed

    Wagner, H; Proksch, A; Riess-Maurer, I; Vollmar, A; Odenthal, S; Stuppner, H; Jurcic, K; Le Turdu, M; Fang, J N

    1985-01-01

    From the water or alcaline-water extracts of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench. and -angustifolia DC., Eupatorium cannabium L. and -perfoliatum L., Chamomilla recutita L. Rauscher, Calendula officinalis L., Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. B., Achyrocline satureioides DC., Arnica montana L., Sabal serrulata Roem. et Schult., and Eleutherococcus (Acanthopanax) senticosus Maxim. polysaccharide fractions with molecular weights in the range of 25 000 to 500 000 and higher have been isolated, which, according to the granulocytes- and carbon clearance tests, showed significant immunostimulating activities. The isolated compounds belong to the group of watersoluble, acidic branched-chain heteroglycans. Their immunostimulating activity is compared and discussed with respect to other polysaccharides of biological activity.

  2. Higher Plants in Space for MELiSSA -Literature Review and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabrodina, Marina; Kittang, Ann-Iren; Coelho, Liz Helena; Karoliussen, Irene; Aase Wolff, Silje; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    The human exploration of space requires the development of closed life support systems to regenerate oxygen, purify water, and produce food. MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a model system for advanced life support based on different microbial species and higher plants. The main objective of the LiRHiPliSMe (Literature Review of Higher Plants in Space for MELiSSA) project was to elaborate the preliminary roadmap for higher plant research activities for the MELiSSA project Phase 2 (Preliminary Space Experiments). The first task was to establish an understanding of the current knowledge concerning how higher plant will adapt to Moon/Mars physical factors different from Earth with focus on reduced gravity, space radiation, variations in magnetic field and combined effects of these factors. The literature related to how Moon/Mars physical factors can affect genetic processes, growth regulators, development, morphology, water and nutrients transport, gas exchange and metabolism of higher plants during one life cycle were collected. The possible effects of the space environment on the plant role as a food and on the mass balance in a Life Support System that includes a Higher Plant Compartment are reviewed. Based on this literature review there was made an assessment of where new or extended scientific knowledge about space factors effects on higher plant growth and development is needed. The requirements for research activities on higher plants in enclosed life support systems were identified. The required higher plant research activities for MELiSSA phase 2 both on ground and in space were placed in a timescale from the present until higher plants can be grown in closed life support systems on Moon and Mars.

  3. Automorphosis of higher plants on a 3-D clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoson, T.; Kamisaka, S.; Yamashita, M.; Masuda, Y.

    On a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat, various plant organs developed statocytes capable of responding to the gravity vector. The graviresponse of primary roots of garden cress and maize grown on the clinostat was the same as the control roots, whereas that of maize coleoptiles was reduced. When maize seedlings were grown in the presence of 10^-4 M gibberellic acid and kinetin, the graviresponse of both roots and shoots was suppressed. The corresponding suppression of amyloplast development was observed in the clinostatted and the hormone-treated seedlings. Maize roots and shoots showed spontaneous curvatures in different portions on the 3-D clinostat. The hormone treatment did not significantly influence such an automorphic curvature. When the root cap was removed, maize roots did not curve gravitropically. However, the removal suppressed the automorphic curvatures only slightly. On the other hand, the removal of coleoptile tip did not influence its graviresponse, whereas the spontaneous curvature of decapitated coleoptiles on the clinostat was strongly suppressed. Also, cytochalasin B differently affected the gravitropic and the automorphic curvatures of maize roots and shoots. From these results it is concluded that the graviperception and the early processes of signal transmission are unnecessary for automorphoses under simulated microgravity conditions. Moreover, the results support the view that the amyloplasts act as statoliths probably via an interaction with microfilaments.

  4. Automorphosis of higher plants on a 3-D clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoson, T; Kamisaka, S; Yamashita, M; Masuda, Y

    1998-01-01

    On a three-dimensional (3-D) clinostat, various plant organs developed statocytes capable of responding to the gravity vector. The graviresponse of primary roots of garden cress and maize grown on the clinostat was the same as the control roots, whereas that of maize coleoptiles was reduced. When maize seedlings were grown in the presence of 10(-4) M gibberellic acid and kinetin, the graviresponse of both roots and shoots was suppressed. The corresponding suppression of amyloplast development was observed in the clinostatted and the hormone-treated seedlings. Maize roots and shoots showed spontaneous curvatures in different portions on the 3-D clinostat. The hormone treatment did not significantly influence such an automorphic curvature. When the root cap was removed, maize roots did not curve gravitropically. However, the removal suppressed the automorphic curvatures only slightly. On the other hand, the removal of coleoptile tip did not influence its graviresponse, whereas the spontaneous curvature of decapitated coleoptiles on the clinostat was strongly suppressed. Also, cytochalasin B differently affected the gravitropic and the automorphic curvatures of maize roots and shoots. From these results it is concluded that the graviperception and the early processes of signal transmission are unnecessary for automorphoses under simulated microgravity conditions. Moreover, the results support the view that the amyloplasts act as statoliths probably via an interaction with microfilaments. PMID:11541377

  5. Molecular insights into Zeaxanthin-dependent quenching in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengqi; Tian, Lijin; Kloz, Miroslav; Croce, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms protect themselves from high-light stress by dissipating excess absorbed energy as heat in a process called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Zeaxanthin is essential for the full development of NPQ, but its role remains debated. The main discussion revolves around two points: where does zeaxanthin bind and does it quench? To answer these questions we have followed the zeaxanthin-dependent quenching from leaves to individual complexes, including supercomplexes. We show that small amounts of zeaxanthin are associated with the complexes, but in contrast to what is generally believed, zeaxanthin binding per se does not cause conformational changes in the complexes and does not induce quenching, not even at low pH. We show that in NPQ conditions zeaxanthin does not exchange for violaxanthin in the internal binding sites of the antennas but is located at the periphery of the complexes. These results together with the observation that the zeaxanthin-dependent quenching is active in isolated membranes, but not in functional supercomplexes, suggests that zeaxanthin is acting in between the complexes, helping to create/participating in a variety of quenching sites. This can explain why none of the antennas appears to be essential for NPQ and the multiple quenching mechanisms that have been observed in plants. PMID:26323786

  6. Molecular biology of Lea genes of higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report contains our progress to date in determining the function of the D-7 Lea proteins in cotton embryos. We have completely sequenced the D-7 gene and established {ital E. coli} transformants which synthesize reasonable amounts of the D-7 protein. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was required to assay fractions for D-7 protein during purification to homogeneity, since D-7 has no known enzymatic activity, contains no Trp, and little Phe or Tyr, and {ital E. coli} has several proteins of similar molecular weight to D-7. Purified D-7 was used to generate monospecific antibodies which are being used for determination of the cellular distribution of D-7, and also for exact quantitation of D-7 in late-stage cotton embryos. Computerized modelling of D-7 has shown similarities to proteins with a coiled-coil structure, but fitting D-7 to this structure resulted in a violation of the handedness rule. If the pitch of the helix is changed from 3.6 to 3.667, however, a three dimensional structure (not a coiled coil) is generated which has overall energetics of formation nearly as favorable as the traditional {alpha} helix. The driving force for the change in pitch is proposed to result from favorable energetics of dimerization. Preliminary evidence indicates that D-7 does indeed dimerize in solution. Future experiments will determine the exact 3D structure of D-7 and the related protein D-29, as well as test the hypothesis that D-7 and D-29 are involved in mitigating dehydration of embryos and plants through sequestering phosphate or other ions in sufficient quantity to prevent ion precipitation or crystallization. 13 refs., 3 figs. (MHB)

  7. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from higher plant mitochondria and proplastids.

    PubMed

    Reid, E E; Thompson, P; Lyttle, C R; Dennis, D T

    1977-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from pea (Pisum sativum L.) mitochondria was purified 23-fold by high speed centrifugation and glycerol gradient fractionation. The complex had a s(20,w) of 47.5S but this is a minimal value since the complex is unstable. The complex is specific for NAD(+) and pyruvate; NADP(+) and other keto acids give no reaction. Mg(2+), thiamine pyrophosphate, and cysteine are also required for maximal activity. The pH optimum for the complex was between 6.5 and 7.5.Continuous sucrose density gradients were used to separate castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) endosperm proplastids from mitochondria. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity was found to be coincident with the proplastid peak on all of the gradients. Some separation of proplastids and mitochondria could be achieved by differential centrifugation and the ratios of the activities of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex to succinic dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase to succinic dehydrogenase were consistent with both the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and acetyl-CoA carboxylase being present in the proplastid. The proplastid fraction has to be treated with a detergent, Triton X-100, before maximal activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity is expressed, indicating that it is bound in the organelle. The complex had a sharp pH optimum of 7.5. The complex required added Mg(2+), cysteine, and thiamine pyrophosphate for maximal activity but thiamine pyrophosphate was inhibitory at higher concentrations.

  8. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Silje A; Coelho, Liz H; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-05-05

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space.

  9. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Silje A.; Coelho, Liz H.; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-01-01

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space. PMID:25370192

  10. Effects of the Extraterrestrial Environment on Plants: Recommendations for Future Space Experiments for the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartment.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Silje A; Coelho, Liz H; Karoliussen, Irene; Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang

    2014-01-01

    Due to logistical challenges, long-term human space exploration missions require a life support system capable of regenerating all the essentials for survival. Higher plants can be utilized to provide a continuous supply of fresh food, atmosphere revitalization, and clean water for humans. Plants can adapt to extreme environments on Earth, and model plants have been shown to grow and develop through a full life cycle in microgravity. However, more knowledge about the long term effects of the extraterrestrial environment on plant growth and development is necessary. The European Space Agency (ESA) has developed the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) program to develop a closed regenerative life support system, based on micro-organisms and higher plant processes, with continuous recycling of resources. In this context, a literature review to analyze the impact of the space environments on higher plants, with focus on gravity levels, magnetic fields and radiation, has been performed. This communication presents a roadmap giving directions for future scientific activities within space plant cultivation. The roadmap aims to identify the research activities required before higher plants can be included in regenerative life support systems in space. PMID:25370192

  11. Sugarcane spacing. II. Effects of spacing on the plant

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.; Benda, G.T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Intrarow spacing with 19 cm between plants on a 183-cm row produced significantly higher yields of biomass, net cane and sugar/ha when compared to intrarow spacings of 38 and 76 cm. Equidistant spacings of 19, 38, 76, and 152 cm produced significant differences in fiber % cane, stalk diameter, and leaf area index, as well as yields of biomass, net cane and sugar/ha. There was no significant effect on the sugar content of cane. Ten equidistant spacings ranging from 26.7 to 179.1 cm produced increases in plant population, biomass, net cane and sugar/ha with decreased spacing. Stalk diameter, shoot number, and plant weight decreased as interplant distance decreased. Varietal differences in yield of cane and sugar/ha were more pronounced with closer than with wider spacings. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.71*) between performance of a variety on closer and wider spacings, indicating selections made on wide rows should perform adequately on closer rows.

  12. Sunflower Plants as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution with Lead (II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Krystofova, Olga; Shestivska, Violetta; Galiova, Michaela; Novotny, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef; Zehnalek, Josef; Babula, Petr; Opatrilova, Radka; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the influence of lead (II) ions on sunflower growth and biochemistry was investigated from various points of view. Sunflower plants were treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 and/or 500 μM Pb-EDTA for eight days. We observed alterations in growth in all experimental groups compared with non-treated control plants. Further we determined total content of proteins by a Bradford protein assay. By the eighth day of the experiment, total protein contents in all treated plants were much lower compared to control. Particularly noticeable was the loss of approx. 8 μg/mL or 15 μg/mL in shoots or roots of plants treated with 100 mM Pb-EDTA. We also focused our attention on the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and urease. Activity of the enzymes increased with increasing length of the treatment and applied concentration of lead (II) ions. This increase corresponds well with a higher metabolic activity of treated plants. Contents of cysteine, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and phytochelatin 2 (PC2) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Cysteine content declined in roots of plants with the increasing time of treatment of plants with Pb-EDTA and the concentration of toxic substance. Moreover, we observed ten times higher content of cysteine in roots in comparison with shoots. The observed reduction of cysteine content probably relates with its utilization for biosynthesis of GSH and phytochelatins, because the content of GSH and PC2 was similar in roots and shoots and increased with increased treatment time and concentration of Pb-EDTA. Moreover, we observed oxidative stress caused by Pb-EDTA in roots where the GSSG/GSH ratio was about 0.66. In shoots, the oxidative stress was less distinctive, with a GSSG/GSH ratio 0.14. We also estimated the rate of phytochelatin biosynthesis from the slope of linear equations plotted with data measured in the particular

  13. Sunflower Plants as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution with Lead (II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Krystofova, Olga; Shestivska, Violetta; Galiova, Michaela; Novotny, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef; Zehnalek, Josef; Babula, Petr; Opatrilova, Radka; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the influence of lead (II) ions on sunflower growth and biochemistry was investigated from various points of view. Sunflower plants were treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 and/or 500 μM Pb-EDTA for eight days. We observed alterations in growth in all experimental groups compared with non-treated control plants. Further we determined total content of proteins by a Bradford protein assay. By the eighth day of the experiment, total protein contents in all treated plants were much lower compared to control. Particularly noticeable was the loss of approx. 8 μg/mL or 15 μg/mL in shoots or roots of plants treated with 100 mM Pb-EDTA. We also focused our attention on the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and urease. Activity of the enzymes increased with increasing length of the treatment and applied concentration of lead (II) ions. This increase corresponds well with a higher metabolic activity of treated plants. Contents of cysteine, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and phytochelatin 2 (PC2) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Cysteine content declined in roots of plants with the increasing time of treatment of plants with Pb-EDTA and the concentration of toxic substance. Moreover, we observed ten times higher content of cysteine in roots in comparison with shoots. The observed reduction of cysteine content probably relates with its utilization for biosynthesis of GSH and phytochelatins, because the content of GSH and PC2 was similar in roots and shoots and increased with increased treatment time and concentration of Pb-EDTA. Moreover, we observed oxidative stress caused by Pb-EDTA in roots where the GSSG/GSH ratio was about 0.66. In shoots, the oxidative stress was less distinctive, with a GSSG/GSH ratio 0.14. We also estimated the rate of phytochelatin biosynthesis from the slope of linear equations plotted with data measured in the particular

  14. The effect of higher plant microflora on the microbial landscape of a closed ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, Lyalya; Gitelson, Josef; Borodina, Elena

    2012-07-01

    Having summarized certain data obtained earlier, we defined the aim of this work as an estimation of the effect of higher plant microflora on the microbial landscape of a closed ecosystem (CES). The microflora of such a component as higher plants can influence other system components not only by way of transfer with air and water flows, but also through the direct contact of the crew with the crops cultivated within CES when harvesting, thrashing, using them for food. Involving the higher plant component into the closed system the microorganism diversity and occurrence of microscopic fungi in other components of the closed ecosystem increased. The presence of microscopic fungi, especially on plants and in the air, is potentially dangerous for the health of the system residents. Since the contribution of the higher plant microflora (especially mycoflora) to the microbial landscape of a CES is significant, it is necessary to reduce the microbial flora of the higher plant component and limit its dispersion to other system components. One of the possible measures to limit the higher plant microflora colonization is air purification between components. Reducing the number of microscopic fungi by decreasing the humidity in the system's atmosphere should also be considered.

  15. Higher order mode damping studies on the PEP-II B-Factory RF cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, R.; Goldberg, D.; Lambertson, G.; Voelker, F. ); Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Pendleton, R.; Schwarz, H. ); Adams, F.; De Jong, M. )

    1992-03-01

    We describe studies of the higher-order-mode (HOM) properties of the prototype 476 MHz RF cavity for the proposed PEP-II B-Factory and a waveguide damping scheme to reduce possible HOM-driven coupled-bunch beam instability growth. Numerical studies include modelling of the HOM spectrum using MAFIA and ARGUS, and calculation of the loaded Q's of the damped modes using data from these codes and the Kroll-Yu method. We discuss briefly the experimental investigations of the modes, which will be made in a full-size low-power test cavity, using probes, wire excitation and bead perturbation methods.

  16. Higher order mode damping studies on the PEP-II B-Factory RF cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Rimmer, R.; Goldberg, D.; Lambertson, G.; Voelker, F.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Pendleton, R.; Schwarz, H.; Adams, F.; De Jong, M.

    1992-03-01

    We describe studies of the higher-order-mode (HOM) properties of the prototype 476 MHz RF cavity for the proposed PEP-II B-Factory and a waveguide damping scheme to reduce possible HOM-driven coupled-bunch beam instability growth. Numerical studies include modelling of the HOM spectrum using MAFIA and ARGUS, and calculation of the loaded Q`s of the damped modes using data from these codes and the Kroll-Yu method. We discuss briefly the experimental investigations of the modes, which will be made in a full-size low-power test cavity, using probes, wire excitation and bead perturbation methods.

  17. Biochemical hydrogen isotope fractionation during biosynthesis in higher plants reflects carbon metabolism of the plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Marc-André; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-04-01

    Compound-specific isotope analyses of plant material are frequently applied to understand the response of plants to the environmental changes. As it is generally assume that the main factors controlling δ2H values in plants are the plant's source water and evaporative deuterium enrichment of leaf water, hydrogen isotope analyses of plant material are mainly applied regarding hydrological conditions at different time scales. However, only few studies have directly addressed the variability of the biochemical hydrogen isotope fractionation occurring during biosynthesis of organic compounds (ɛbio), accounting also for a large part in the δ2H values of plants but generally assumed to be constant. Here we present the results from a climate-controlled growth chambers experiment where tested the sensitivity of ɛbio to different light treatments. The different light treatments were applied to induce different metabolic status (autotrophic vs. heterotrophic) in 9 different plant species that we grew from large storage organs (e.g. tubers or roots). The results show a systematic ɛbio shift (up to 80 ) between the different light treatments for different compounds (i.e. long chain n-alkanes and cellulose). We suggest that this shift is due to the different NADPH pools used by the plants to build up the compounds from stored carbohydrates in heterotrophic or autotrophic conditions. Our results have important implications for the calibration and interpretation of sedimentary and tree rings records in geological studies. In addition, as the δ2H values reflect also strongly the carbon metabolism of the plant, our findings support the idea of δ2H values as an interesting proxy for plant physiological studies.

  18. Multiscale model of light harvesting by photosystem II in plants.

    PubMed

    Amarnath, Kapil; Bennett, Doran I G; Schneider, Anna R; Fleming, Graham R

    2016-02-01

    The first step of photosynthesis in plants is the absorption of sunlight by pigments in the antenna complexes of photosystem II (PSII), followed by transfer of the nascent excitation energy to the reaction centers, where long-term storage as chemical energy is initiated. Quantum mechanical mechanisms must be invoked to explain the transport of excitation within individual antenna. However, it is unclear how these mechanisms influence transfer across assemblies of antenna and thus the photochemical yield at reaction centers in the functional thylakoid membrane. Here, we model light harvesting at the several-hundred-nanometer scale of the PSII membrane, while preserving the dominant quantum effects previously observed in individual complexes. We show that excitation moves diffusively through the antenna with a diffusion length of 50 nm until it reaches a reaction center, where charge separation serves as an energetic trap. The diffusion length is a single parameter that incorporates the enhancing effect of excited state delocalization on individual rates of energy transfer as well as the complex kinetics that arise due to energy transfer and loss by decay to the ground state. The diffusion length determines PSII's high quantum efficiency in ideal conditions, as well as how it is altered by the membrane morphology and the closure of reaction centers. We anticipate that the model will be useful in resolving the nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms that PSII employs in conditions of high light stress.

  19. Multiscale model of light harvesting by photosystem II in plants

    PubMed Central

    Amarnath, Kapil; Bennett, Doran I. G.; Schneider, Anna R.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2016-01-01

    The first step of photosynthesis in plants is the absorption of sunlight by pigments in the antenna complexes of photosystem II (PSII), followed by transfer of the nascent excitation energy to the reaction centers, where long-term storage as chemical energy is initiated. Quantum mechanical mechanisms must be invoked to explain the transport of excitation within individual antenna. However, it is unclear how these mechanisms influence transfer across assemblies of antenna and thus the photochemical yield at reaction centers in the functional thylakoid membrane. Here, we model light harvesting at the several-hundred-nanometer scale of the PSII membrane, while preserving the dominant quantum effects previously observed in individual complexes. We show that excitation moves diffusively through the antenna with a diffusion length of 50 nm until it reaches a reaction center, where charge separation serves as an energetic trap. The diffusion length is a single parameter that incorporates the enhancing effect of excited state delocalization on individual rates of energy transfer as well as the complex kinetics that arise due to energy transfer and loss by decay to the ground state. The diffusion length determines PSII’s high quantum efficiency in ideal conditions, as well as how it is altered by the membrane morphology and the closure of reaction centers. We anticipate that the model will be useful in resolving the nonphotochemical quenching mechanisms that PSII employs in conditions of high light stress. PMID:26787911

  20. A time-saving method for higher plant tests in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Andersohn, Cornelia; Fuchs, Maike; Seyed-Mansouri, Regina; Fleischmann, Susanne; Wilke, Berndt-Michael

    2002-01-01

    For higher plant tests in hydroculture we developed a method to unify the usually separately performed germination and growth testing. This method renders unnecessary the time-consuming and laborious installation of the germinated plants into the growth system. PMID:11931464

  1. Mortality among three refinery/petrochemical plant cohorts. II. Retirees.

    PubMed

    Gamble, J F; Lewis, R J; Jorgensen, G

    2000-07-01

    This study updates mortality data for 6238 retirees from three refinery/petrochemical plants. Almost 90% of the cohort was deceased. Deaths from all causes (standardized mortality ratio, 104; 95% confidence interval, 102 to 107) and all cancers (standardized mortality ratio, 109; 95% confidence interval, 102 to 116) were elevated. Increased deaths due to kidney cancer, mesothelioma, and the category of other lymphohemopoietic cancers also were observed. The rate of leukemia was not increased. There was little internal or external consistency to support an occupational relationship for kidney cancer, but findings for mesothelioma and other lymphohemopoietic cancers are consistent with reports for other petroleum cohorts. Analyses by age indicated significantly higher all-cause mortality rates among persons retiring before age 65. The results suggest that continued surveillance of mesothelioma and lymphohemopoietic cancer malignancies in younger workers with more contemporary exposures may be warranted. Furthermore, age at retirement should be considered when analyzing occupational cohorts.

  2. Eukaryotic class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase structure reveals basis for improved ultraviolet tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Hitomi, Kenichi; Arvai, Andrew S; Yamamoto, Junpei; Hitomi, Chiharu; Teranishi, Mika; Hirouchi, Tokuhisa; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iwai, Shigenori; Tainer, John A; Hidema, Jun; Getzoff, Elizabeth D

    2012-04-01

    Ozone depletion increases terrestrial solar ultraviolet B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation, intensifying the risks plants face from DNA damage, especially covalent cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Without efficient repair, UV-B destroys genetic integrity, but plant breeding creates rice cultivars with more robust photolyase (PHR) DNA repair activity as an environmental adaptation. So improved strains of Oryza sativa (rice), the staple food for Asia, have expanded rice cultivation worldwide. Efficient light-driven PHR enzymes restore normal pyrimidines to UV-damaged DNA by using blue light via flavin adenine dinucleotide to break pyrimidine dimers. Eukaryotes duplicated the photolyase gene, producing PHRs that gained functions and adopted activities that are distinct from those of prokaryotic PHRs yet are incompletely understood. Many multicellular organisms have two types of PHR: (6-4) PHR, which structurally resembles bacterial CPD PHRs but recognizes different substrates, and Class II CPD PHR, which is remarkably dissimilar in sequence from bacterial PHRs despite their common substrate. To understand the enigmatic DNA repair mechanisms of PHRs in eukaryotic cells, we determined the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic Class II CPD PHR from the rice cultivar Sasanishiki. Our 1.7 Å resolution PHR structure reveals structure-activity relationships in Class II PHRs and tuning for enhanced UV tolerance in plants. Structural comparisons with prokaryotic Class I CPD PHRs identified differences in the binding site for UV-damaged DNA substrate. Convergent evolution of both flavin hydrogen bonding and a Trp electron transfer pathway establish these as critical functional features for PHRs. These results provide a paradigm for light-dependent DNA repair in higher organisms. PMID:22170053

  3. The comet assay in higher terrestrial plant model: Review and evolutionary trends.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Caroline; Manier, Nicolas; Cuny, Damien; Deram, Annabelle

    2015-12-01

    The comet assay is a sensitive technique for the measurement of DNA damage in individual cells. Although it has been primarily applied to animal cells, its adaptation to higher plant tissues significantly extends the utility of plants for environmental genotoxicity research. The present review focuses on 101 key publications and discusses protocols and evolutionary trends specific to higher plants. General consensus validates the use of the percentage of DNA found in the tail, the alkaline version of the test and root study. The comet protocol has proved its effectiveness and its adaptability for cultivated plant models. Its transposition in wild plants thus appears as a logical evolution. However, certain aspects of the protocol can be improved, namely through the systematic use of positive controls and increasing the number of nuclei read. These optimizations will permit the increase in the performance of this test, namely when interpreting mechanistic and physiological phenomena.

  4. The ways of controlling microbiota of the higher plant link in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.; Gitelson, I. I.

    The ways of controlling microbiota of the higher plant link have been considered, as the sterile plant growth in closed ecological human life support systems is impossible. One of the ways of controlling the link microbial community - building sterile intrasystem barriers between the system links - is problematic and dangerous. An accidental breach of microorganisms through the barrier can lead to disastrous consequences - either unrestrained reproduction of microbes including pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic species or, on the contrary, elimination of species most valuable for the given microbial community. Another way of control is maintaining suitable conditions for human and plant habitat, creating some constructive system properties directed at microbial exchange weakening. The use of catalytic furnace for oxidizing organic impurities in system atmosphere, UV processing of air and plants in the phytotron before and in the beginning of the experiments promoted decrease of microorganism amount in the link. To restrict the distribution of microorganisms of the higher plant link in other system links the module for yield processing being under constant suction was isolated. To prevent the introduction of microorganisms into the system we applied the UV processing of all objects transferred to the system and continuous atmosphere overpressure inside the system. It is important to detect the ultimate amount of microorganism indicator groups in the higher plant link biocenosis. It would indicate the microbial pollution of the link and be the signal for regulation of its microbial population or processing technologies in the studied objects. There were two 4-month experiments with the "human - higher plants" closed ecosystem carried out. There was no progressive deterioration for plants, decrease of wheat yield to zero and rapid growth of microorganisms in the higher plant link after making all listed arrangements. Microbiological analyses of the studied

  5. Higher Education in Poland Part II: Rules of Admissions, Student Activities, and Curriculums. Bulletin, 1964, No. 22. OE-14099

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Seymour M.; Apanasewicz, Nellie

    1964-01-01

    The previously published "Higher Education in Poland, Part I: Organization and Administration," and the present volume constitute an Office of Education study on the Polish system of higher learning. Part II explains the functioning of Polish institutions under control of the Ministry of Higher Education and other ministries, and enumerates the…

  6. An antibody Fab selected from a recombinant phage display library detects deesterified pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II in plant cells.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, M N; Freshour, G; Darvill, A G; Albersheim, P; Hahn, M G

    1996-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) is a structurally complex, low molecular weight pectic polysaccharide that is released from primary cell walls of higher plants by treatment with endopolygalacturonase and is chromatographically purified after alkaline deesterification. A recombinant monovalent antibody fragment (Fab) that specifically recognizes RG-II has been obtained by selection from a phage display library of mouse immunoglobulin genes. By itself, RG-II is not immunogenic. Therefore, mice were immunized with a neoglycoprotein prepared by covalent attachment of RG-II to modified BSA. A cDNA library of the mouse IgG1/kappa antibody repertoire was constructed in the phage display vector pComb3. Selection of antigen-binding phage particles resulted in the isolation of an antibody Fab, CCRC-R1, that binds alkali-treated RG-II with high specificity. CCRC-R1 binds an epitope found primarily at sites proximal to the plasma membrane of suspension-cultured sycamore maple cells. In cells deesterified by alkali, CCRC-R1 labels the entire wall, suggesting that the RG-II epitope recognized by CCRC-R1 is masked by esterification in most of the wall and tha such RG-II esterification is absent near the plasma membrane. PMID:8624441

  7. Pattern-recognition system application to EBR-II plant-life extension

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.W.; Radtke, W.H.; Mott, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-based pattern-recognition system, the System State Analyzer (SSA), is being used as part of the EBR-II plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. The SSA is used for surveillance of the EBR-II primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps, and plant heat balances. Early results of this surveillance indicate that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals, and can provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed critical sensors. These results are being used in planning for extended-life operation of EBR-II.

  8. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O`Neill, M.A.; Pellerin, P.J.M.; Warrenfeltz, D.; Vidal, S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations. 15 figs.

  9. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O'Neill, Malcolm A.; Pellerin, Patrice J. M.; Warrenfeltz, Dennis; Vidal, Stephane; Darvill, Alan G.; Albersheim, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations.

  10. Advanced life support systems in lunar and Martian environments utilizing a higher plant based engineering paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes a higher-plant-based engineering paradigm for advanced life support in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) on the surface of the moon or Mars, called the CELSS Breadboard Project, designed at John F. Kennedy Space Center. Such a higher-plant-based system would use the plants for a direct food source, gas exchange, water reclamation, and plant residuals in a complex biological resource recovery scheme. The CELSS Breadboard Project utilizes a 'breadboard' approach of developing independent systems that are evaluated autonomously and are later interconnected. Such a scheme will enable evaluation of life support system methodologies tested for their efficiency in a life support system for habitats on the moon or Mars.

  11. Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II): upgrading of plant protection system. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, N. L.; Keeton, J. M.; Sackett, J. I.

    1980-06-01

    This report is the second in a series of compilations of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA`s) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum. Sections 2 and 3 are edited versions of the original FSAA`s prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant-protection system. Section 4 is an edited version of the original FSAA prepared in support of certain modifications to a system classified as an engineered safety feature. These sections describe the pre- and postmodification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis. Section 5 provides an updated description and analysis of the EBR-II emergency power system. Section 6 summarizes all significant modifications to the EBR-II plant-protection system to date.

  12. Two Categories of 13C/12C Ratios for Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Bruce N.; Epstein, Samuel

    1971-01-01

    13C/12C ratios have been determined for plant tissue from 104 species representing 60 families. Higher plants fall into two categories, those with low δPDBI13C values (—24 to —34‰) and those with high δ 13C values (—6 to —19‰). Algae have δ 13C values of —12 to —23‰. Photosynthetic fractionation leading to such values is discussed. PMID:16657626

  13. Growth and development in inert non-aqueous liquids. [of higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    A preview is presented of the survival and growth capabilities of higher plants in non-aqueous, inert liquids. The two media which were used are mineral (white) oil and fluorochemical inert liquid FC-75. Both liquids dissolve oxygen and carbon dioxide readily, but are insoluble in water. Consequently, plants submerged in these liquids are capable of gas exchange with the atmosphere, but possess a water impermeable coating the dimensions of which are determined by the size of the liquid holding container. In a sense, growing plants in a tank of mineral oil imparts on them a cuticle. Plants plus prescribed volumes of water were innoculated into mineral oil. Organisms with minimal water supplied could then be observed. Also, submersed plants covered with an oil slick were shown to be capable of growth in dessicating atmospheres.

  14. Leaf Optical Properties in Higher Plants: Linking Spectral Characteristics with Plant Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Gregory A.; Knapp, Alan K.

    1999-01-01

    A number of studies have addressed responses of leaf spectral reflectance, transmittance, or absorptance to physiological stress. Stressors included dehydration, ozone, herbicides, disease, insufficient mycorrhizae and N fertilization, flooding and insects. Species included conifers, grasses, and broadleaved trees. Increased reflectance with maximum responses near 700 nm wavelength occurred in all cases. Varying the chlorophyll content in leaves or pigment extracts can simulate this effect. Thus, common optical responses to stress result from decreases in leaf chlorophyll contents or the capacity of chloroplasts to absorb light. Leaf optic can be quite sensitive to any stressor that alters soil-plant-atmosphere processes.

  15. Recent developments in primer design for DNA polymorphism and mRNA profiling in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaohan; Scheffler, Brian E; Weston, Leslie A

    2006-01-01

    Primer design is a critical step in the application of PCR-based technologies in gene expression and genetic diversity analysis. As more plant genomes have been sequenced in recent years, the emphasis of primer design strategy has shifted to genome-wide and high-throughput direction. This paper summarizes recent advances in primer design for profiling of DNA polymorphism and mRNA in higher plants, as well as new primer systems developed for animals that can be adapted for plants. PMID:16509990

  16. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants.

    PubMed

    Bluem, V; Paris, F

    2001-01-01

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity. Grant numbers: WS50WB9319-3, IVA1216-00588.

  17. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  18. Deficient Photosystem II in Agranal Bundle Sheath Chloroplasts of C4 Plants

    PubMed Central

    Woo, K. C.; Anderson, Jan M.; Boardman, N. K.; Downton, W. J. S.; Osmond, C. B.; Thorne, S. W.

    1970-01-01

    A method is described for separating mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts from the leaves of C4 plants. The agranal bundle sheath chloroplasts are inactive in the Hill reaction, whereas granal bundle sheath and granal mesophyll chloroplasts exhibit normal photosystem II activity. The agranal bundle sheath chloroplasts are deficient in photosystem II; they lack cytochrome b-559 and the fluorescence bands associated with photosystem II. All the chloroplasts exhibit photosystem I activity. PMID:16591853

  19. HYLIFE-II inertial confinement: Fusion power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1990-12-14

    The HYLIFE-2 inertial fusion power plant design study uses a liquid fall, in the form of jets to protect the first structural wall from neutron damage, x rays, and blast to provide a 30-y lifetime. HYLIFE-1 used liquid lithium. HYLIFE 2 avoids the fire hazard of lithium by using a molten salt composed of fluorine, lithium, and beryllium (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) called Flibe. Access for heavy-ion beams is provided. Calculations for assumed heavy-ion beam performance show a nominal gain of 70 at 5 MJ producing 350 MJ, about 5.2 times less yield than the 1.8 GJ from a driver energy of 4.5 MJ with gain of 400 for HYLIFE-1. The nominal 1 GWe of power can be maintained by increasing the repetition rate by a factor of about 5.2, from 1.5 to 8 Hz. A higher repetition rate requires faster re-establishment of the jets after a shot, which can be accomplished in part by decreasing the jet fall height and increasing the jet flow velocity. Multiple chambers may be required. In addition, although not considered for HYLIFE-1, there is undoubtedly liquid splash that must be forcibly cleared because gravity is too slow, especially at high repetition rates. Splash removal can be accomplished by either pulsed or oscillating jet flows. The cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.09 $/kW{center dot}h in constant 1988 dollars, about twice that of future coal and light water reactor nuclear power. The driver beam cost is about one-half the total cost. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Physiology and toxicology of hormone-disrupting chemicals in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Couée, Ivan; Serra, Anne-Antonella; Ramel, Fanny; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Sulmon, Cécile

    2013-06-01

    Higher plants are exposed to natural environmental organic chemicals, associated with plant-environment interactions, and xenobiotic environmental organic chemicals, associated with anthropogenic activities. The effects of these chemicals result not only from interaction with metabolic targets, but also from interaction with the complex regulatory networks of hormone signaling. Purpose-designed plant hormone analogues thus show extensive signaling effects on gene regulation and are as such important for understanding plant hormone mechanisms and for manipulating plant growth and development. Some natural environmental chemicals also act on plants through interference with the perception and transduction of endogenous hormone signals. In a number of cases, bioactive xenobiotics, including herbicides that have been designed to affect specific metabolic targets, show extensive gene regulation effects, which are more in accordance with signaling effects than with consequences of metabolic effects. Some of these effects could be due to structural analogies with plant hormones or to interference with hormone metabolism, thus resulting in situations of hormone disruption similar to animal cell endocrine disruption by xenobiotics. These hormone-disrupting effects can be superimposed on parallel metabolic effects, thus indicating that toxicological characterisation of xenobiotics must take into consideration the whole range of signaling and metabolic effects. Hormone-disruptive signaling effects probably predominate when xenobiotic concentrations are low, as occurs in situations of residual low-level pollutions. These hormone-disruptive effects in plants may thus be of importance for understanding cryptic effects of low-dosage xenobiotics, as well as the interactive effects of mixtures of xenobiotic pollutants.

  1. Putative polyadenylation signals in nuclear genes of higher plants: a compilation and analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, C P

    1987-01-01

    In animal and viral pre-mRNAS, the process of polyadenylation is mediated through several cis-acting poly (A) signals present upstream and downstream from poly (A) sites. The situation regarding polyadenylation of higher plant pre-mRNAS, however, has remained obscure so far. In this paper, a search for putative poly (A) signals is made by considering the published data from 46 plant genomic DNA sequences. Certain domains in the 3' untranslated regions from nuclear genes of higher plants were compiled and occurrence of sequence motifs such as AATAAA, CAYTG, YGTGTTYY and YAYTG was scored in relation to poly (A) sites. Moreover, consensus sequences for important regions in the 3' untranslated sequences and poly (A) signals were also deduced from the data. It was inferred that sequence motifs similar to poly (A) signals exist around poly (A) sites but some of them are in entirely different spatial relationship than observed in other eukaryotes. This indicates their probable non-involvement in the process of polyadenylation in higher plants necessitating a functional analysis approach to define the plant specific poly (A) signals. PMID:3697078

  2. Comparative Studies on Plastoquinones. III. Distribution of Plastoquinones in Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Rita; Crane, F. L.

    1967-01-01

    The distribution of plastoquinones A 45, B and C was studied in representatives from 34 different plant families beginning with liverworts and mosses to higher plants. All of these species, including many monocots and dicots, contained significant amounts of the 3 quinones. Two species of Aesculus contained plastoquinone A 20 in addition to plastoquinone A 45, B, and C. Many dicots, such as Aesculus, watermelon, tobacco and tomato accumulated increasing quantities of plastoquinones A and C1-C4 during the growing season. The concentrations of plastoquinones B and C5-C6 tended to remain at a constant low level during the season (<0.01 μmole per mg chlorophyll). Preliminary studies with bean plants (Vicia faba and Phaseolus sp.) indicate that the levels of quinones varied little under different growth conditions (day length and temp.) although Vicia faba tended to have higher PQ A values with increased temperature. PMID:16656647

  3. Will an algal CO2-concentrating mechanism work in higher plants?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Moritz T; McCormick, Alistair J; Griffiths, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Many algae use a biophysical carbon concentrating mechanism for active accumulation and retention of inorganic carbon within chloroplasts, with CO2 fixation by RuBisCO within a micro-compartment, the pyrenoid. Engineering such mechanisms into higher plant chloroplasts is a possible route to augment RuBisCO operating efficiency and photosynthetic rates. Significant progress has been made recently in characterising key algal transporters and identifying factors responsible for the aggregation of RuBisCO into the pyrenoid. Several transporters have now also been successfully incorporated into higher plant chloroplasts. Consistent with the predictions from modelling, regulation of higher plant plastidic carbonic anhydrases and some form of RuBisCO aggregation will be needed before the mechanism delivers potential benefits. Key research priorities include a better understanding of the regulation of the algal carbon concentrating mechanism, advancing the fundamental characterisation of known components, evaluating whether higher plant chloroplasts can accommodate a pyrenoid, and, ultimately, testing transgenic lines under realistic growth conditions. PMID:27194106

  4. Design and optimization of an experimental bioregenerative life support system with higher plants and silkworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Professor Hong

    The conceptual scheme of an experimental bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for planetary exploration was designed, which consisted of four elements - human metabolism, higher plants, silkworms and waste treatment. 15 kinds of higher plants, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, mulberry, et al., were selected as regenerative component of BLSS providing the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms, which producing animal nutrition for crews, were fed by mulberry-leaves during the first three instars, and lettuce leaves last two instars. The inedible biomass of higher plants, human wastes and silkworm feces were composted into soil like substrate, which can be reused by higher plants cultivation. Salt, sugar and some household material such as soap, shampoo would be provided from outside. To support the steady state of BLSS the same amount and elementary composition of dehydrated wastes were removed periodically. The balance of matter flows between BLSS components was described by the system of algebraic equations. The mass flows between the components were optimized by EXCEL spreadsheets and using Solver. The numerical method used in this study was Newton's method.

  5. Soybean ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit: Mechanisms and determinants of RNA turnover in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, R.B.

    1990-02-01

    The goals of examining the mechanisms and determinants of RNA turnover in higher plants remain the same. We will continue with two of the major approaches (1) in vivo chemical modification of RNA structure and (2) analysis of Rubisco SSU RNA structure and turnover in transgenic plants. We plan to reduce the amount of molecular physiology (studies of transcription and steady state levels) to a minimum and expand these efforts into the analysis of plant rebonucleases. We have also broadened our examination of light induced turnover of rubisco SSU RNA to include general RNA turnover. We plan to identify specific 3{prime}->5{prime} precessive ribonuclease by complementation of E. coli mutants. The activity of these novel RNases and their potential role in plant RNA turnover and processing will be characterized.

  6. Uptake and metabolism of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Görge, E; Brandt, S; Werner, D

    1994-12-01

    The fate of the explosive 2,4,6-TNT in plants is of major interest. Therefore, a method was developed to analyse TNT and derivatives in plant tissue. The method was utilized to investigate the uptake and metabolism of TNT inMedicago sativa andAllium schoenoprasum grown in hydroponic cultures containing TNT levels of 0.1 to 10 mg/1. Detectable concentrations of nitrotoluenes were significantly higher inAllium schoenoprasum than inMedicago sativa. The uptake of TNT in plants was directly related to the initial TNT level. The principal nitroaromatic components in roots and shoots of both plant species were identified as 4-ADNT and 2-ADNT in equal amounts, with substantially less TNT.

  7. Diurnal adjustment in ultraviolet sunscreen protection is widespread among higher plants.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Tobler, Mark A; Ryel, Ronald J

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) in the epidermis of higher plants reduces the penetration of solar UV radiation to underlying tissues and is a primary mechanism of acclimation to changing UV conditions resulting from ozone depletion and climate change. Previously we reported that several herbaceous plant species were capable of rapid, diurnal adjustments in epidermal UV transmittance (T UV), but how widespread this phenomenon is among plants has been unknown. In the present study, we tested the generality of this response by screening 37 species of various cultivated and wild plants growing in four locations spanning a gradient of ambient solar UV and climate (Hawaii, Utah, Idaho and Louisiana). Non-destructive measurements of adaxial T UV indicated that statistically significant midday decreases in T UV occurred in 49 % of the species tested, including both herbaceous and woody growth forms, and there was substantial interspecific variation in the magnitude of these changes. In general, plants in Louisiana exhibited larger diurnal changes in T UV than those in the other locations. Moreover, across all taxa, the magnitude of these changes was positively correlated with minimum daily air temperatures but not daily UV irradiances. Results indicate that diurnal changes in UV shielding are widespread among higher plants, vary both within and among species and tend to be greatest in herbaceous plants growing in warm environments. These findings suggest that plant species differ in their UV protection "strategies" though the functional and ecological significance of this variation in UV sunscreen protection remains unclear at present. PMID:26809621

  8. Phylogenetic analyses and expression studies reveal two distinct groups of calreticulin isoforms in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Persson, Staffan; Rosenquist, Magnus; Svensson, Karin; Galvão, Rafaelo; Boss, Wendy F; Sommarin, Marianne

    2003-11-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a multifunctional protein mainly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotic cells. Here, we present the first analysis, to our knowledge, of evolutionary diversity and expression profiling among different plant CRT isoforms. Phylogenetic studies and expression analysis show that higher plants contain two distinct groups of CRTs: a CRT1/CRT2 group and a CRT3 group. To corroborate the existence of these isoform groups, we cloned a putative CRT3 ortholog from Brassica rapa. The CRT3 gene appears to be most closely related to the ancestral CRT gene in higher plants. Distinct tissue-dependent expression patterns and stress-related regulation were observed for the isoform groups. Furthermore, analysis of posttranslational modifications revealed differences in the glycosylation status among members within the CRT1/CRT2 isoform group. Based on evolutionary relationship, a new nomenclature for plant CRTs is suggested. The presence of two distinct CRT isoform groups, with distinct expression patterns and posttranslational modifications, supports functional specificity among plant CRTs and could account for the multiple functional roles assigned to CRTs.

  9. Toward higher nuclearity: tetranuclear cobalt(II) metallogrid exhibiting spin crossover.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Qi; Wang, Yi-Tong; Cui, Ai-Li; Kou, Hui-Zhong

    2014-03-01

    Supramolecular strategy was employed to achieve the highest nuclearity Co(II) cluster exhibiting spin-crossover (SCO) behavior. Magnetic susceptibility characterization of the Co4(II) complex shows that two different spin-transition processes occur. The SCO behavior is directed by the partially deprotonated polydentate ligand, which favors the structural distortion required by the spin transition. PMID:24555696

  10. Transcriptomes of Plant Gametophytes Have a Higher Proportion of Rapidly Evolving and Young Genes than Sporophytes

    PubMed Central

    Gossmann, Toni I.; Saleh, Dounia; Schmid, Marc W.; Spence, Michael A.; Schmid, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive traits in plants tend to evolve rapidly due to various causes that include plant-pollinator coevolution and pollen competition, but the genomic basis of reproductive trait evolution is still largely unknown. To characterize evolutionary patterns of genome wide gene expression in reproductive tissues in the gametophyte and to compare them to developmental stages of the sporophyte, we analyzed evolutionary conservation and genetic diversity of protein-coding genes using microarray-based transcriptome data from three plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, rice (Oryza sativa), and soybean (Glycine max). In all three species a significant shift in gene expression occurs during gametogenesis in which genes of younger evolutionary age and higher genetic diversity contribute significantly more to the transcriptome than in other stages. We refer to this phenomenon as “evolutionary bulge” during plant reproductive development because it differentiates the gametophyte from the sporophyte. We show that multiple, not mutually exclusive, causes may explain the bulge pattern, most prominently reduced tissue complexity of the gametophyte, a varying extent of selection on reproductive traits during gametogenesis as well as differences between male and female tissues. This highlights the importance of plant reproduction for understanding evolutionary forces determining the relationship of genomic and phenotypic variation in plants. PMID:26956888

  11. Concentration and distribution of cobalt in higher plants: The use of micro-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkaus, E.; Gouget, B.; Gallien, J.-P.; Khodja, H.; Carrot, F.; Morel, J. L.; Collins, R.

    2005-04-01

    Cobalt is not classified as an essential element for plants, however, it is usually described as "beneficial". This trace element can be a contaminant in soils due to agricultural additives or metal refineries. Certain plants species have the ability to extract metals (such as Co) from soils, thus, cleaning the environment. Therefore, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms of metal absorption is required to improve these phytoremediation technologies. Patterns of cobalt accumulation and storage were determined in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) species. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions, with different Co treatments, using controlled environmental conditions. The spatial distributions of K, Ca, Fe and Co in whole plants, and in leaf and stem sections, were examined by micro-PIXE. In conjunction, total Co concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Micro-PIXE spectroscopy proved to be a convenient technique for indicating Co concentrations and distribution patterns in these plants. This knowledge aids in the identification of vegetal Co sequestration and, thus, helps to unravel how Co is transported in higher plants.

  12. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. IV - Further studies on participation of ethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; White, Rosemary G.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1986-01-01

    Various hypotheses regarding the influence of ethylene on gravitropism in higher plant shoots were experimentally tested. It was found that ethylene at 1.0 and 10.0 cu cm/cu m decreased the rate of gravitropic bending in cocklebur stems, while 0.1 cm/cu m of ethylene had little effect. Treating cocklebur plants with 1.0 mmol aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, an ethylene synthesis inhibitor) delayed stem bending compared with controls, but adding 0.1 cu cm/cu m ethylene in the surrounding atmosphere partially restored the rate of bending of AVG-treated plants. Virtually all newly synthesized ethylene appeared in bottom halves of horizontal stems, where ethylene concentrations were as much as 100 times those in upright stems or in top halves of horizontal stems. Auxin applied to one side of a vertical stem caused extreme bending away from that side; gibberellic acid, kinetin, and abscisic acid were without effect.

  13. Protein tyrosine nitration in higher plants grown under natural and stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Corpas, Francisco J.; Palma, José M.; del Río, Luis A.; Barroso, Juan B.

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine nitration is a post-translational modification (PTM) mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that is linked to nitro-oxidative damages in plant cells. During the last decade, the identification of proteins undergoing this PTM under adverse environmental conditions has increased. However, there is also a basal endogenous nitration which seems to have a regulatory function. The technological advances in proteome analysis have allowed identifying these modified proteins and have shown that the number and identity of the nitrated proteins change among plant species, analysed organs and growing/culture conditions. In this work, the current knowledge of protein tyrosine nitration in higher plants under different situations is reviewed. PMID:23444154

  14. How does plant chemical diversity contribute to biodiversity at higher trophic levels?

    PubMed

    Schuman, Meredith C; van Dam, Nicole M; Beran, Franziska; Harpole, W Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Plants, perhaps Earth's most accomplished chemists, produce thousands of specialized metabolites having no direct role in cell division or growth. These phytochemicals vary by taxon, with many taxa producing characteristic substance classes; and within taxa, with individual variation in structural variety and production patterns. Observations of corresponding variation in herbivore metabolism, behavior, and diet breadth motivated the development of chemical ecology research. We discuss the importance of plant biodiversity in general and phytochemical diversity in particular for biodiversity and ecological interactions at higher trophic levels. We then provide an overview of the descriptive, molecular and analytical tools which allow modern biologists to investigate phytochemical diversity and its effects on higher trophic levels, from physiological mechanisms to ecological communities. PMID:27436646

  15. Preliminary Modelling of Mass Flux at the Surface of Plant Leaves within the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmberg, Madeleine; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    The ESA project Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an ecosystem of micro-organisms and higher plants, constructed with the objective of being operated as a tool to understand artificial ecosystems to be used for a long-term or permanent manned planetary base (e.g. Moon or Mars). The purpose of such a system is to provide for generation of food, water recycling, atmospheric regeneration and waste management within defined standards of quality and reliability. As MELiSSA consists of individual compartments which are connected to each other, the robustness of the system is fully dependent on the control of each compartment, as well as the flow management between them. Quality of consumables and reliability of the ecosystem rely on the knowledge, understanding and control of each of the components. This includes the full understanding of all processes related to the higher plants. To progress in that direction, this paper focuses on the mechanical processes driving the gas and liquid exchanges between the plant leaf and its environment. The process responsible for the mass transfer on the surface of plant leaves is diffusion. The diffusion flux is dependent on the behaviour of the stoma of the leaf and also on the leaf boundary layer (BL). In this paper, the physiology of the leaf is briefly examined in order to relate parameters such as light quality, light quantity, CO2 concentration, temperature, leaf water potential, humidity, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) gradients and pollutants to the opening or closing of stomata. The diffusion process is described theoretically and the description is compared to empirical approaches. The variables of the BL are examined and the effect airflow in the compartment has on the BL is investigated. Also presented is the impact changes in different environmental parameters may have on the fluid exchanges. Finally, some tests, to evaluate the accuracy of the concluded model, are suggested.

  16. Role of Ca[sup ++]/calmodulin in the regulation of microtubules in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cyr, R.

    1992-01-01

    The cytoskeleton including its microtubule (Mt) component participates in processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of Mts into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. The cortical array somehow directs the deposition of cellulose. Little molecular information is available regarding the formation of these arrays or the cellular signals to which they respond. Experimental data described here suggests that plant cells use calcium, in the form of a Ca[sup ++]/calmodulin complex, to affect the dynamics of Mts within the cortical array. Owing to the importance of Ca[sup ++] as a regulatory ion in higher plants we are probing for a putative Ca[sup ++]/Mt transduction pathway which may serve to integrate Mt activities within the growing and developing plant cell. We are using a lysed cell model in conjunction with immunocytochemical and biochemical methodologies to dissect how Ca[sup ++]/calmodulin interacts with Mts to affect their function.

  17. Higher plant modelling for life support applications: first results of a simple mechanistic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezard, Pauline; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Sasidharan L, Swathy

    2012-07-01

    In the case of closed ecological life support systems, the air and water regeneration and food production are performed using microorganisms and higher plants. Wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, tomato or other types of eatable annual plants produce fresh food while recycling CO2 into breathable oxygen. Additionally, they evaporate a large quantity of water, which can be condensed and used as potable water. This shows that recycling functions of air revitalization and food production are completely linked. Consequently, the control of a growth chamber for higher plant production has to be performed with efficient mechanistic models, in order to ensure a realistic prediction of plant behaviour, water and gas recycling whatever the environmental conditions. Purely mechanistic models of plant production in controlled environments are not available yet. This is the reason why new models must be developed and validated. This work concerns the design and test of a simplified version of a mathematical model coupling plant architecture and mass balance purposes in order to compare its results with available data of lettuce grown in closed and controlled chambers. The carbon exchange rate, water absorption and evaporation rate, biomass fresh weight as well as leaf surface are modelled and compared with available data. The model consists of four modules. The first one evaluates plant architecture, like total leaf surface, leaf area index and stem length data. The second one calculates the rate of matter and energy exchange depending on architectural and environmental data: light absorption in the canopy, CO2 uptake or release, water uptake and evapotranspiration. The third module evaluates which of the previous rates is limiting overall biomass growth; and the last one calculates biomass growth rate depending on matter exchange rates, using a global stoichiometric equation. All these rates are a set of differential equations, which are integrated with time in order to provide

  18. Carbon dioxide and the stomatal control of water balance and photosynthesis in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Taiz, L.; Zeiger, E.; Mawson, B. T.; Cornish, K.; Radin, J. W.; Turcotte, E. L.; Hercovitz, S.; Tallman, G.; Karlsson, P. E.; Bogomolni, R. A.; Talbott, L. D.; Srivastava, A.

    1992-01-01

    Research continued into the investigation of the effects of carbon dioxide on stomatal control of water balance and photosynthesis in higher plants. Topics discussed this period include a method of isolating a sufficient number of guard cell chloroplasts for biochemical studies by mechanical isolation of epidermal peels; the measurement of stomatal apertures with a digital image analysis system; development of a high performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of metabolites in guard cells; and genetic control of stomatal movements in Pima cotton. (CBS)

  19. Impact of common cytostatic drugs on pollen fertility in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Mišík, Miroslav; Kundi, Michael; Pichler, Clemens; Filipic, Metka; Rainer, Bernhard; Mišíková, Katarina; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2016-08-01

    Cytostatic drugs are among the most toxic chemicals which are produced. Many of them cause damage of the genetic material which may affect the fertility of higher organisms. To study the impact of the widely used anticancer drugs [cisplatin (CisPt), etoposide (Et), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)] on the reproduction of higher plants, pollen abortion experiments were conducted with species which belong to major plant families, namely with Tradescantia paludosa (Commelinaceae), Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae), Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae), and Alisma plantago-aquatica (Alismataceae). All compounds increased the frequencies of abortive grains. The lowest effective doses were in general in a narrow range (i.e., 1 and 10 mg/kg of dry soil). The effects of the individual drugs were similar in T. paludosa, A. plantago-aquatica, and Ch. majus, while A. thaliana was consistently less sensitive. The highest abortion rate was obtained in most experiments with CisPt, followed by 5-FU and Et. Comparisons of the doses which caused effects in the present experiments in the different species with the predicted environment concentrations and with the levels of the cytostatics which were detected in hospital wastewaters show that the realistic environmental concentrations of the drugs are 4-6 orders of magnitude lower. Therefore, it is unlikely that these drugs affect the fertility of higher plants in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:25779110

  20. Blue Light Activates a Specific Protein Kinase in Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Reymond, Philippe; Short, Timothy W.; Briggs, Winslow R.

    1992-01-01

    Blue light mediates the phosphorylation of a membrane protein in seedlings from several plant species. When crude microsomal membrane proteins from dark-grown pea (Pisum sativum L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), or tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) stem segments, or from maize (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), or sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) coleoptiles are illuminated and incubated in vitro with [γ-32P]ATP, a protein of apparent molecular mass from 114 to 130 kD is rapidly phosphorylated. Hence, this system is probably ubiquitous in higher plants. Solubilized maize membranes exposed to blue light and added to unirradiated solubilized maize membranes show a higher level of phosphorylation of the light-affected protein than irradiated membrane proteins alone, suggesting that an unirradiated substrate is phosphorylated by a light-activated kinase. This finding is further demonstrated with membrane proteins from two different species, where the phosphorylated proteins are of different sizes and, hence, unambiguously distinguishable on gel electrophoresis. When solubilized membrane proteins from one species are irradiated and added to unirradiated membrane proteins from another species, the unirradiated protein becomes phosphorylated. These experiments indicate that the irradiated fraction can store the light signal for subsequent phosphorylation in the dark. They also support the hypothesis that light activates a specific kinase and that the systems share a close functional homology among different higher plants. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:16653043

  1. Boron uptake and accumulation by higher plants: A literature review: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sposito, G.; Calderone, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    This study provides a review of the literature on boron uptake and accumulation by higher plants, particularly trees. It addresses those aspects of the soil chemistry of boron that are most relevant to uptake by trees, then discusses the plant biochemistry of boron, its uptake and accumulation in plant tissue, and its phytotoxicity symptoms in plant species. The literature reviewed suggests that boron uptake is accomplished by a passive, massflow mechanism, as opposed to a metabolic process, with the most likely chemical form taken up being the neutral complex, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. The biochemical role of boron is not well understood, but evidence exists for its involvement with carbohydrate transformations and the control of growth-regulating compounds. Because of the mass-flow uptake mechanism, the distribution of boron in trees is connected intimately with the patterns of transpiration, which are species-dependent. Precise data on the effect of plant genotype on boron uptake, however, were not found in the published literature. The phytotoxicity symptoms of boron in trees also are species-dependent, although a consensus does exist as to the general nature of external symptoms and the basis of boron tolerance.

  2. Comparative analysis of microsatellites in chloroplast genomes of lower and higher plants.

    PubMed

    George, Biju; Bhatt, Bhavin S; Awasthi, Mayur; George, Binu; Singh, Achuit K

    2015-11-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), contain repetitive DNA sequence where tandem repeats of one to six base pairs are present number of times. Chloroplast genome sequences have been  shown to possess extensive variations in the length, number and distribution of SSRs. However, a comparative analysis of chloroplast microsatellites is not available. Considering their potential importance in generating genomic diversity, we have systematically analysed the abundance and distribution of simple and compound microsatellites in 164 sequenced chloroplast genomes from wide range of plants. The key findings of these studies are (1) a large number of mononucleotide repeats as compared to SSR(2-6)(di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexanucleotide repeats) are present in all chloroplast genomes investigated, (2) lower plants such as algae show wide variation in relative abundance, density and distribution of microsatellite repeats as compared to flowering plants, (3) longer SSRs are excluded from coding regions of most chloroplast genomes, (4) GC content has a weak influence on number, relative abundance and relative density of mononucleotide as well as SSR(2-6). However, GC content strongly showed negative correlation with relative density (R (2) = 0.5, P < 0.05) and relative abundance (R (2) = 0.6, P < 0.05) of cSSRs. In summary, our comparative studies of chloroplast genomes illustrate the variable distribution of microsatellites and revealed that chloroplast genome of smaller plants possesses relatively more genomic diversity compared to higher plants.

  3. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    PubMed

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  4. Electrochemistry of copper(II) induced complexes in mycorrhizal maize plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Zitka, Ondrej; Merlos, Miguel-Angel; Adam, Vojtech; Ferrol, Nuria; Pohanka, Miroslav; Hubalek, Jaromir; Zehnalek, Josef; Trnkova, Libuse; Kizek, Rene

    2012-02-15

    Aim of the present paper was to study the electrochemical behavior of copper(II) induced complexes in extracts obtained from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal maize (Zea mays L.) plants grown at two concentrations of copper(II): physiological (31.7 ng/mL) and toxic (317 μg/mL). Protein content was determined in the plant extracts and, after dilution to proper concentration, various concentrations of copper(II) ions (0, 100, 200 and 400 μg/mL) were added and incubated for 1h at 37°C. Further, the extracts were analyzed using flow injection analysis with electrochemical detection. The hydrodynamic voltammogram (HDV), which was obtained for each sample, indicated the complex creation. Steepness of measured dependencies was as follows: control 317 μg/mL of copperII) ions to upper parts of a plant by means of adsorbing of copper(II) in roots. Rapid complex formation was determined under applied potentials 300, 500 and 600 mV during the measuring HDVs. It was also verified that mycorrhizal colonization reduced root to shoot translocation of Cu(II) ions.

  5. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  6. Isolation of Plant Photosystem II Complexes by Fractional Solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Haniewicz, Patrycja; Floris, Davide; Farci, Domenica; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Loi, Maria C.; Büchel, Claudia; Bochtler, Matthias; Piano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) occurs in different forms and supercomplexes in thylakoid membranes. Using a transplastomic strain of Nicotiana tabacum histidine tagged on the subunit PsbE, we have previously shown that a mild extraction protocol with β-dodecylmaltoside enriches PSII characteristic of lamellae and grana margins. Here, we characterize residual granal PSII that is not extracted by this first solubilization step. Using affinity purification, we demonstrate that this PSII fraction consists of PSII-LHCII mega- and supercomplexes, PSII dimers, and PSII monomers, which were separated by gel filtration and functionally characterized. Our findings represent an alternative demonstration of different PSII populations in thylakoid membranes, and they make it possible to prepare PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in high yield. PMID:26697050

  7. Isolation of Plant Photosystem II Complexes by Fractional Solubilization.

    PubMed

    Haniewicz, Patrycja; Floris, Davide; Farci, Domenica; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Loi, Maria C; Büchel, Claudia; Bochtler, Matthias; Piano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) occurs in different forms and supercomplexes in thylakoid membranes. Using a transplastomic strain of Nicotiana tabacum histidine tagged on the subunit PsbE, we have previously shown that a mild extraction protocol with β-dodecylmaltoside enriches PSII characteristic of lamellae and grana margins. Here, we characterize residual granal PSII that is not extracted by this first solubilization step. Using affinity purification, we demonstrate that this PSII fraction consists of PSII-LHCII mega- and supercomplexes, PSII dimers, and PSII monomers, which were separated by gel filtration and functionally characterized. Our findings represent an alternative demonstration of different PSII populations in thylakoid membranes, and they make it possible to prepare PSII-LHCII supercomplexes in high yield.

  8. Operational strategies for dispatchable combined cycle plants, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.P.; Landis, F.P.

    1996-11-01

    The Brush Cogeneration Facility is a dual-unit, combined cycle, cogeneration plant, operating in a dual cycling, automatically-dispatchable mode. Part I of this report described the contract, including automatic generation control (AGC) by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO), and the operation of Unit One. This part of the report covers the operation of Unit Two. Unit two is still in its operating infancy, but is showing that fuel efficiency and low emissions levels are not incompatible with cycling, load-following service. 1 fig.

  9. The main goals of experiments with the higher plants in the project MARS - 500.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Podolsky, Igor; Gushin, Vadim; Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott

    At the present step of development of manned flight to Mars there is a current opinion that including a greenhouse in the composition of Life Support Systems (LSS) of Martian expedition would essentially improve a spacecraft habitat conditions and also would have impact to preventing of a number of possible consequences of continuous presence of human in artificial environment. Development of design objectives of future space greenhouses applicable for conditions of Martian expedition should be based, in our opinion, not only on the results of real space experiments, conducted onboard of orbital stations, but also on the results of ground-based experiments. In connection with above considerations there is a number of technological, biological and psychological experiments is planned to be conducted in the frame of MARS-500 project to resolve questions related to incorporation of higher plants in LSS of inter-planetary flights. The questions include: testing of developed elements of the greenhouse construction and methods for cultivation of vegetables under conditions of imitation of the flight of Martian expedition; selection of breeds and species of vegetables, characterized by high speed of biomass accumulation, attractive taste and appearance; investigation of growth, development and metabolism of plants under long-term continuous cultivation in manned pressurized object; comparison of the productivity of the plants as a function of utilization of different light source; determination of maximum amount of planted biomass of the plants and number of possible vegetation under conditions of long-term utilization of vegetation chamber of the greenhouse without substrate replacement; investigation of crops dietetic preferences of crew members; estimation of quality of plant biomass using seeding of the plants by microorganisms and nitrates and vitamins content as markers; development and approbation of methodical approaches to estimation of psychological factors of

  10. Phytate (Inositol Hexakisphosphate) in Soil and Phosphate Acquisition from Inositol Phosphates by Higher Plants. A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gerke, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate (P) fixation to the soil solid phase is considered to be important for P availability and is often attributed to the strong binding of orthophosphate anion species. However, the fixation and subsequent immobilization of inositolhexa and pentaphosphate isomers (phytate) in soil is often much stronger than that of the orthosphate anion species. The result is that phytate is a main organic P form in soil and the dominating form of identifiable organic P. The reasons for the accumulation are not fully clear. Two hypothesis can be found in the literature in the last 20 years, the low activity of phytase (phosphatases) in soil, which makes phytate P unavailable to the plant roots, and, on the other hand, the strong binding of phytate to the soil solid phase with its consequent stabilization and accumulation in soil. The hypothesis that low phytase activity is responsible for phytate accumulation led to the development of genetically modified plant genotypes with a higher expression of phytase activity at the root surface and research on the effect of a higher phytate activity on P acquisition. Obviously, this hypothesis has a basic assumption, that the phytate mobility in soil is not the limiting step for P acquisition of higher plants from soil phytate. This assumption is, however, not justified considering the results on the sorption, immobilization and fixation of phytate to the soil solid phase reported in the last two decades. Phytate is strongly bound, and the P sorption maximum and probably the sorption strength of phytate P to the soil solid phase is much higher, compared to that of orthophosphate P. Mobilization of phytate seems to be a promising step to make it available to the plant roots. The excretion of organic acid anions, citrate and to a lesser extend oxalate, seems to be an important way to make phytate P available to the plants. Phytase activity at the root surface seems not be the limiting step in P acquisition from phytate. Phytate is not

  11. Freeze shattering: a simple and effective method for permeabilizing higher plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Wasteneys, G O; Willingale-Theune, J; Menzel, D

    1997-10-01

    This article describes a practical technique for permeabilization of higher plant cell walls, which is usually one of the first steps required for immunolocalization of cellular components (and other cytological methods) in plant cell studies. Our strategy involves shattering the walls of cells while the tissues are frozen in liquid nitrogen. It replaces the use of wall degrading enzymes or the need to employ laborious sectioning or other mechanical means for providing access of probes to cells. Freeze-shattering retains the integrity of whole tissues and cells surprisingly well and thus is especially useful when used in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy for recording the three-dimensional arrangement of cytoskeletal elements in relation to cell shape. In this article, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique for anti-tubulin and anti-actin immunofluorescence and for rhodamine phalloidin labelling of the cytoskeleton in various higher plant tissues including onion root tip and bulb scale epidermis, Tradescantia stamen hairs and Arabidopsis leaf epidermis and mesophyll cells. PMID:9369020

  12. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  13. Soil-based phytotoxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to terrestrial higher plants

    PubMed

    Gong; Wilke; Fleischmann

    1999-02-01

    Seed germination and early stage seedling growth tests were conducted to determine the ecotoxicological threshold of 2,4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in two soils of different properties. Soils were amended up to 1,600 mg TNT kg-1 soil and four representative species of higher plants, two dicotyledons (Lepidium sativum L., common name: cress; and Brassica rapa Metzg., turnip) and two monocotyledons (Acena sativa L., oat; and Triticum aestivum L., wheat), were assessed. Cumulative seed germination and fresh shoot biomass were measured as evaluation endpoints. Phytotoxicity of TNT was observed to be affected by soil properties and varied between plant species. Cress and turnip showed higher sensitivity to TNT than did oat and wheat. The lowest observable adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) of TNT derived from this study was 50 mg kg-1 soil. In contrast to high TNT concentrations, low levels of TNT, i.e. , 5-25 mg kg-1 soil for cress and turnip and 25-50 mg kg-1 for oat and wheat, stimulated seedling growth. Oat was capable of tolerating as much as 1,600 mg TNT kg-1 and demonstrated a potential ability of TNT detoxification in one of the soils tested, suggesting that this plant might be useful in the bioremediation of TNT contaminated soils.

  14. Formation of higher plant component microbial community in closed ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    2001-07-01

    Closed ecological systems (CES) place at the disposal of a researcher unique possibilities to study the role of microbial communities in individual components and of the entire system. The microbial community of the higher plant component has been found to form depending on specific conditions of the closed ecosystem: length of time the solution is reused, introduction of intrasystem waste water into the nutrient medium, effect of other component of the system, and system closure in terms of gas exchange. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of wheat. The composition of the components' microflora changed, species diversity decreased, individual species of bacteria and fungi whose numbers were not so great before the closure prevailed. Special attention should be paid to phytopathogenic and conditionally pathogenic species of microorganisms potentially hazardous to man or plants and the least controlled in CES. This situation can endanger creation of CES and make conjectural existence of preplanned components, man, specifically, and consequently, of CES as it is.

  15. Roles of organic acid anion secretion in aluminium tolerance of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium (Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed.

  16. Roles of organic acid anion secretion in aluminium tolerance of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium (Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  17. Physcomitrella HMGA-type proteins display structural differences compared to their higher plant counterparts

    SciTech Connect

    Lyngaard, Carina; Stemmer, Christian; Stensballe, Allan; Graf, Manuela; Gorr, Gilbert; Decker, Eva; Grasser, Klaus D.

    2008-10-03

    High mobility group (HMG) proteins of the HMGA family are chromatin-associated proteins that act as architectural factors in nucleoprotein structures involved in gene transcription. To date, HMGA-type proteins have been studied in various higher plant species, but not in lower plants. We have identified two HMGA-type proteins, HMGA1 and HMGA2, encoded in the genome of the moss model Physcomitrella patens. Compared to higher plant HMGA proteins, the two Physcomitrella proteins display some structural differences. Thus, the moss HMGA proteins have six (rather than four) AT-hook DNA-binding motifs and their N-terminal domain lacks similarity to linker histone H1. HMGA2 is expressed in moss protonema and it localises to the cell nucleus. Typical of HMGA proteins, HMGA2 interacts preferentially with A/T-rich DNA, when compared with G/C-rich DNA. In cotransformation assays in Physcomitrella protoplasts, HMGA2 stimulated reporter gene expression. In summary, our data show that functional HMGA-type proteins occur in Physcomitrella.

  18. Regulation of photosynthesis by ion channels in cyanobacteria and higher plants.

    PubMed

    Checchetto, Vanessa; Teardo, Enrico; Carraretto, Luca; Formentin, Elide; Bergantino, Elisabetta; Giacometti, Giorgio Mario; Szabo, Ildiko

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy, and supplies ATP and NADPH for CO2 fixation into carbohydrates and for the synthesis of several compounds which are essential for autotrophic growth. Oxygenic photosynthesis takes place in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts and photosynthetic prokaryote cyanobacteria. An ancestral photoautotrophic prokaryote related to cyanobacteria has been proposed to give rise to chloroplasts of plants and algae through an endosymbiotic event. Indeed, photosynthetic complexes involved in the electron transport coupled to H(+) translocation and ATP synthesis are similar in higher plants and cyanobacteria. Furthermore, some of the protein and solute/ion conducting machineries also share common structure and function. Electrophysiological and biochemical evidence support the existence of ion channels in the thylakoid membrane in both types of organisms. By allowing specific ion fluxes across thylakoid membranes, ion channels have been hypothesized to either directly or indirectly regulate photosynthesis, by modulating the proton motive force. Recent molecular identification of some of the thylakoid-located channels allowed to obtain genetic proof in favor of such hypothesis. Furthermore, some ion channels of the envelope membrane in chloroplasts have also been shown to impact on this light-driven process. Here we give an overview of thylakoid/chloroplast located ion channels of higher plants and of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We focus on channels shown to be implicated in the regulation of photosynthesis and discuss the possible mechanisms of action.

  19. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-09-01

    The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of Σ(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ΣHCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans. PMID:22789817

  20. Interaction of higher plant (jute), electrofused bacteria and mycorrhiza on anthracene biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K C; Zhang, J Y; Deng, H H; Ou, Y K; Leung, H M; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2008-05-01

    The interaction of bacteria, mycorrhiza and jute (Corchotus capsulari, a higher plant) to reduce anthracene in different concentrations of spiked soils was investigated. Dominant indigenous bacterium (Pseudomonas sp.) isolated in the rhizosphere of jute was electrofused with anthracene degraders (Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) which were able to produce different types of biosurfactants. The highest population (56 x 10(5)CFU/g) was found in the planted soil with the inoculation of mixtures of electrofused anthracene degraders after 7 days. The growth of anthracene degraders in the spiked soil was improved by gene transfer from indigenous bacteria. After 35 days, enhanced anthracene removals were observed in inoculated soils planted with jute (65.5-75.2%) compared with unplanted soil without inoculation (12.5%). The interaction of jute and electrofused S. paucimobilis enabled the greatest reduction of soil anthracene with or without the addition of P. aeruginosa. Mycorrhizal colonization was not significantly inhibited by anthracene in soils up to 150 mg/kg. Inoculation of jute with Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices improved plant growth and enhanced anthracene removal in the presence of electrofused S. paucimobilis.

  1. Risk assessment for selected xenobiotics by bioassay methods with higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Petra; Pestemer, Wilfried

    1990-05-01

    Different bioassays with higher plants were approved for use in a bioassay procedure for testing of xenobiotics according to the German Chemicals Act. Selected environmental pollutants (atrazine, cadmium chloride, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, thiourea), all from a list of reference chemicals, were tested with these methods. Dose-response curves for growth of oats and turnips were evaluated in soil and vermiculite (nonsorptive substrate), and availability to plants was calculated by comparing the EC50 values for one chemical in both substrates. The most active chemical was atrazine, followed by 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, pentachlorophenol, potassium dichromate, cadmium chloride, and thiourea. The least available compound to plants was pentachlorophenol, tested with turnips ( Brassica rapa var. rapa). The strongest inhibition of germination, demonstrated in an in vitro assay with garden cress ( Lepidium sativum), was found with 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile, the lowest with atrazine. The effect of an extended exposure of the plants to the chemicals was evaluated in a long-term bioassay with oats ( Avena sativa) in hydroponic culture. Several dose-response curves during the growing period were derived. It was found that the EC50 values for atrazine and thiourea decreased markedly during the first four weeks; thereafter the changes were much smaller. As an overall conclusion, a bioassay procedure is proposed that can be included in the graduated plan recommended by the German Chemicals Act.

  2. Study on the Relationship between Delayed Fluorescence and Photosynthetic Capability at Elevated Temperature in Higher Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Xu, Wenhai; Wang, Junsheng; Xing, Da

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous elevation of the global temperature, high-temperature stress has been a major environmental factor that affects plant growth and productivity. Effects of short-term heat temperature stress on light-induced delayed fluorescence (DF) decay kinetic curve, intensity and emission spectrum have been investigated in C3 soybean (Jing Huang No.3) and C4 maize (Yun Xi No.5081) species. The temperature responses of DF decay kinetic curve from two different species show that decay rate characteristics are affected by high temperature. The spectroscopy measurements indicate that heat stress influence the shape of DF emission spectra of two species, especially the peak intensities at 685nm and 730nm. Moreover, our results clearly demonstrate that DF intensity of each plant positively correlated with F730/F685 of DF emission spectra at elevated temperatures. In addition, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of samples has the same temperature response with DF intensity and F730/F685. Based on these results, we can conclude that there is an excellent correlation between F730/F685 of DF emission spectra, DF intensity and Pn in both C3 and C4 plants. Therefore, we proposed that the F730/F685 of DF emission spectrum can be used to measure the photosynthetic capability of higher plants to heat stress.

  3. Characterization of thylakoid lipid membranes from cyanobacteria and higher plants by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    van Eerden, Floris J; de Jong, Djurre H; de Vries, Alex H; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; Marrink, Siewert J

    2015-06-01

    The thylakoid membrane is mainly composed of non-common lipids, so called galactolipids. Despite the importance of these lipids for the function of the photosynthetic reaction centers, the molecular organization of these membranes is largely unexplored. Here we use multiscale molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the thylakoid membrane of both cyanobacteria and higher plants. We consider mixtures of up to five different galactolipids plus phosphatidylglycerol to represent these complex membranes. We find that the different lipids generally mix well, although nanoscale heterogeneities are observed especially in case of the plant membrane. The fluidity of the cyanobacterial membrane is markedly reduced compared to the plant membrane, even considering elevated temperatures at which thermophilic cyanobacteria are found. We also find that the plant membrane more readily undergoes a phase transformation to an inverted hexagonal phase. We furthermore characterized the conformation and dynamics of the cofactors plastoquinone and plastoquinol, revealing of the fast flip-flop rates for the non-reduced form. Together, our results provide a molecular view on the dynamical organization of the thylakoid membrane. PMID:25749153

  4. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides residues in higher plants from oil exploration areas of Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojinu, O Samuel; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O; Ekundayo, Olusegun O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-09-01

    The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in some higher plant samples collected from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria were examined. The concentrations of Σ(25)OCP ranged from 82 to 424, 44 to 200 , 34 to 358, 33 to 106 and 16 to 75 ng/g in Olomoro, Oginni, Uzere, Irri and Calabar plants, respectively. The compositional profiles of the analysed OCPs in most of the plants showed no fresh inputs in the area. The OCPs detected in the samples could have resulted from pesticide usage for intense farming activities cum the use of pesticides to control household pests and insects in the area. Drilling fluids and corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum explorations also have chlorinated compounds as additives thereby serving as potential sources of OCPs. Among the studied plants, elephant grass showed high bioaccumulation and phytoremediation potentials of OCPs. The ΣHCH concentrations exceeded the allowable daily intake limit thereby serving as potential threat to humans.

  5. Good Policy, Good Practice II. Improving Outcomes and Productivity in Higher Education: A Guide for Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, Meghan Wilson; Callan, Patrick M.; Ewell, Peter T.; Finney, Joni E.; Jones, Dennis P.; Zis, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    This new edition of "Good Policy, Good Practice II" revises and updates the authors' 2007 publication. Like the earlier edition, it responds to one of the questions that is raised most frequently in the authors' work with public policy and education leaders as they begin to address the national and state imperatives to increase the proportion of…

  6. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailing description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  7. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  8. Early diagenetic transformation of higher-plant triterpenoids in deep-sea sediments from Baffin Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Haven, H.L. Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison ); Peakman, T.M. ); Rullkoetter, J. )

    1992-05-01

    A sediment sequence of early Miocene to Holocene from Ocean Drilling Program Site 645 in central Baffin Bay was found to contain abundant triterpenoids of higher-plant origin including mono-desmethyl derivatives and other oxidative degradation products. 24-nor-triterpenoids of the oleanene, ursene, and lupane series were found in the nonaromatic hydrocarbon and alcohol fractions of the sediment extracts. Other diagenetic transformation products included 24,28-dinor-olean-17-ene and 24-nor-urs-12-en-11-one as well as their tentatively identified des-A counterparts. The identification of these novel degradation products was confirmed by synthesis of a suite of reference compounds. The simple reaction sequence applied to obtain 24-nor-urs-12-ene-from 3{alpha}-acetoxyurs-12-en-24-oic acid is likely to happen in a similar manner during early diagenesis of organic matter in nature. These results have implications for the understanding of the diagenetic reaction sequence leading to the formation of other demethylated triterpenoids of terrigenous origin (e.g., 24,28-dinor-lupanes). 28,30-dinot-17{alpha}-hopane is sometimes the dominant hydrocarbon in the most deeply buried samples. Its co-occurrence with higher plant triterpenoids and the low abundance of other regular hopanoids is not considered an indication, however, that 28,20-dinor-17{alpha}-hopane is derived from a higher plant precursor molecule. It is suggested that two independent sedimentary processes are responsible for the presence of the two types of demethylated triterpenoids observed in Baffin Bay sediments.

  9. Role of Ca[sup ++]/calmodulin in the regulation of microtubules in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cyr, R.

    1991-01-01

    This work is aimed at defining the role of calcium/calmodulin in regulating cortical microtubules (MTS) in higher plants. Recent thrust has been to define the effects of calcium upon microtubules in vivo. Using lysed protoplasts, we noted Mts are destabilized by calcium/calmodulin. This effect could be the result of gross depolymerization induced by Ca[sup ++]/calmodulin, or by an increase in the dynamic flux rate. Intact protoplasts exposed to high (10 mM) levels of calcium (which would be expected to increase intercellular calcium levels) contained microtubules that were hypersensitive to Mt inhibitors, compared to control protoplasts exposed to low calcium environments.

  10. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  11. Studies on the chalcone synthase gene of two higher plants: petroselinum hortense and matthiola incana

    SciTech Connect

    Hemleben, V.; Frey, M.; Rall, S.; Koch, M.; Kittel, M.; Kreuzaler, F.; Ragg, H.; Fautz, E.; Hahlbrock, K.

    1982-01-01

    Two higher plant systems are presented which allow to study coordinated gene expression of the light-induced metabolic pathway of flavonoid biosynthesis: tissue culture cells of Petroselinum hortense (Apiaceae) and different developmental stages of various genotypes of Matthiola incana (Brassicaceae). The gene structure of the chalcone synthase is mainly studied. A cDNA clone (pLF56) of parsley has been constructed and characterized conferring the chalcone synthase gene sequence. Strong cross hybridization between the parsley cDNA and Matthiola DNA allowed to identify a HindIII fragment (6000 bp) identical in size for parsley and different Matthiola wild type lines and a mutant line.

  12. Design and implementation of components for a bioregenerative system for growing higher order plants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakman, B.; Dioso, L.; Parker, D.; Segal, L.; Merriman, C.; Howard, I.; Vu, H.; Anderson, K.; Riley, S.; Amery, D.

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes the efforts of the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program during the 1988-89 scholastic year. The primary goal was to address specific needs in the design of an integrated system to grow higher order plants in space. The initial phase of the design effort concentrated on studying such a system and identifying its needs. Once these needs were defined, emphasis was placed on the design and fabrication of devices to meet them. Specific attention was placed on a hand-held harvester, a nutrient concentration sensor, an air-water separator, and a closed-loop biological system simulation.

  13. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Kassir, M.K.; Pepper, S.E. )

    1990-02-01

    As part of the Component Fragility Program which was initiated in FY 1985, three additional equipment classes have been evaluated. This report contains the fragility results and discussions on these equipment classes which are switchgear, I and C panels and relays. Both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been considered and a separate fragility estimate for each type is provided. Test data on cabinets from the nuclear instrumentation/neutron monitoring system, plant/process protection system, solid state protective system and engineered safeguards test system comprise the BNL data base for I and C panels (NSSS). Fragility levels have been determined for various failure modes of switchgear and I C panels, and the deterministic results are presented in terms of test response spectra. In addition, the test data have been evaluated for estimating the respective probabilistic fragility levels which are expressed in terms of a median value, an uncertainty coefficient, a randomness coefficient and an HCLPF value. Due to a wide variation of relay design and the fragility level, a generic fragility level cannot be established for relays. 7 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. The involvement of dual mechanisms of photoinactivation of photosystem II in Capsicum annuum L. Plants.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Riichi; Terashima, Ichiro; Chow, Wah Soon

    2009-10-01

    For plants, light is an indispensable resource. However, it also causes a loss of photosynthetic activity associated with photoinactivation of photosystem II (PSII). In studies of the mechanism of this photoinactivation, there are two conflicting hypotheses at present. One is that excess energy received by leaves, being neither utilized by photosynthesis nor dissipated safely in non-photochemical quenching, causes the photoinactivation. The other involves a two-step mechanism in which excitation of Mn by photons is the primary cause. In the former hypothesis, photoinactivation of PSII should not occur in low light that provides little excess energy, but in the latter hypothesis it should. Therefore, we tested these two hypotheses in different irradiances. We used a system that can measure the fraction of functional PSII complexes under natural conditions and over a long period in intact leaves, which were attached to a plant treated with lincomycin taken up via the roots. The leaves were photoinactivated in low, medium or high light (30, 60 or 950 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) with white, blue, green or red light-emitting diode arrays. Our results showed that the extent of photoinactivation per photon exposure was higher in high light than in low light, consistent with the abundance of excess energy. However, photoinactivation did occur in low light with little excess energy, and blue light caused the greatest extent of photoinactivation followed by white, green and red light in this order, an order that can be predicted from the Mn absorbance spectrum. These results suggest that both mechanisms occur in the photoinactivation process.

  15. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume II, Country Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard; And Others

    This document, the second of three volumes concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, presents country profiles for Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Viet-Nam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The profile emphasizes background, higher education, educational…

  16. [Development of a ground-based experimental facility for space cultivation of higher plant].

    PubMed

    Guo, S S; Wang, P X; Hou, J D; Ai, W D; Chao, Z G

    2000-02-01

    A ground-based experimental facility was developed for conducting initial ground-based simulation study of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The facility is composed of a main chamber, O2 and CO2 composition control subsystems, plant cultivation subsystem and whole data management subsystem. The growth room, being composed of a inner wall of mirror-face stainless steel, holds a volume of 1.8 m3 and a growing area of 1.2 m2; electronic fluorescent lamps were used as lighting sources and polyvinyl formal was used for root matrixes; the environmental parameters of the growing room such as temperature, relative humidity, O2 concentration, CO2 concentration, lighting period and irradiance intensity and the nutrient parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration, liquid level of nutrient storage tank and flow rate of nutrient were all controlled automatically; all of the above-mentioned parameters can be inspected, collected, stored and printed regularly and dynamically. The results of a combined debugging and preliminary plant cultivation verified that the technical target of the facility had reached its initial design requirements, it can be used to conduct ground-based simulation studies of space cultivation of higher plants.

  17. Osmotin-expressing transgenic tea plants have improved stress tolerance and are of higher quality.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Amita; Saini, Uksha; Joshi, Robin; Kaur, Devinder; Pal, Awadhesh Kumar; Kumar, Nitish; Gulati, Ashu; Mohanpuria, Prashant; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2014-04-01

    Drought is a major stress that affects the yield and quality of tea, a widely consumed beverage crop grown in more than 20 countries of the world. Therefore, osmotin gene-expressing transgenic tea plants produced using earlier optimized conditions were evaluated for their tolerance of drought stress and their quality. Improved tolerance of polyethylene glycol-induced water stress and faster recovery from stress were evident in transgenic lines compared with the normal phenotype. Significant improvements in growth under in-vitro conditions were also observed. Besides enhanced reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity, the transgenic lines contained significantly higher levels of flavan-3-ols and caffeine, key compounds that govern quality and commercial yield of the beverage. The selected transgenic lines have the potential to meet the demands of the tea industry for stress-tolerant plants with higher yield and quality. These traits of the transgenic lines can be effectively maintained for generations because tea is commercially cultivated through vegetative propagation only.

  18. Light-regulated, tissue-specific immunophilins in a higher plant.

    PubMed

    Luan, S; Albers, M W; Schreiber, S L

    1994-02-01

    In addition to their application in organ transplantation, immunosuppressive drugs are valuable tools for studying signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. Using affinity chromatography, we have purified immunosuppressive drug receptors (immunophilins) from fava bean. Proteins belonging to both major classes of the immunophilin family identified from animal sources [FK506- and rapamycin-binding proteins (FKBPs) and cyclophilins] were present in this higher plant. FKBP13, the most abundant FKBP family member in leaf tissues, was not detected in root tissues, whereas other FKBPs were present in both tissues. While the abundance of cyclophilin A in leaves was similar to that in roots, cyclophilin B/C was expressed at a much higher level in leaf tissues than in root tissues. Subcellular localization of immunophilins in mesophyll cells showed that chloroplasts contained FKBP13 and cyclophilin B/C but not other members, which explains the preferential expression of these two proteins in leaves over roots. The abundance of chloroplast-localized immunophilins, FKBP13 and cyclophilin B/C, was regulated by light. Although etiolated leaves produced detectable levels of cyclophilin B/C, they did not express FKBP13. Illumination of etiolated plants dramatically increased the expression of both FKBP13 and cyclophilin B/C. The light-induced expression of FKBP13 is closely correlated with the accumulation of chlorophyll in the leaf tissue. Our findings suggest that FKBP13 and cyclophilin B/C may play a specific role in chloroplasts. PMID:7508125

  19. Microtubule converging centers-implications for microtubule dynamics in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bajer, A.S.; Mole-Bajer, J.

    1993-12-31

    The reorganization of the microtubular cytoskeleton was studied during telophase-interphase transition and interphase in Haemanthus endosperm cells, and in cell fragments (cytoplasts). This report concerns the role of microtubule (MT) converging centers (MTCCs) in the reorganization of the higher plant cytoskeleton. Microtubules (MTs) were visualized with the immunogold and immunogold-silver enhanced methods. Cells were fixed at room temperature (21{degrees}-24{degrees}C) and after high (35{degrees}-37{degrees}C) and low (4{degrees}-7{degrees}C) temperature shocks. The temperature shocks modify behavior of MTCCs. During early prophase and telophase-interphase transition, the formation of MTCCs is greatly enhanced at elevated temperature. These are stages when a pronounced reorganization of the cytoskeleton takes place. MTCCs are polar structures with remarkably different dynamics and properties at the diverging and converging ends. The indirect evidence shows that the converging tip of MTCC is (-) and the diverging end is (+). Our data imply that the reorganization of the higher plant cytoskeleton is basically a competitive sorting of MTs intrinsic polarity, with MTCCs as principal structural components.

  20. Potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors: modulating plant physiology and host resistance.

    PubMed

    Turra, David; Lorito, Matteo

    2011-08-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) are a large and complex group of plant proteins. Members of the potato type I (Pin1) and II (Pin2) proteinase inhibitor families are among the first and most extensively characterized plant PIs. Many insects and phytopathogenic microorganisms use intracellular and extracellular serine proteases playing important roles in pathogenesis. Plants, however, are able to fight these pathogens through the activation of an intricate defence system that leads to the accumulation of various PIs, including Pin1 and Pin2. Several transgenic plants over-expressing members of the Pin1 and Pin2 families have been obtained in the last twenty years and their enhanced defensive capabilities demonstrated against insects, fungi and bacteria. Furthermore, Pin1 and Pin2 genetically engineered plants showed altered regulation of different plant physiological processes (e.g., dehydratation response, programmed cell death, plant growth, trichome density and branching), supporting an endogenous role in various plant species in addition to the well established defensive one. This review summarizes the current knowledge about Pin1 and Pin2 structure, the role of these proteins in plant defence and physiology, and their potential exploitation in biotechnology. PMID:21418020

  1. Higher-level phylogeny of Foraminifera inferred from the RNA polymerase II (RPB1) gene.

    PubMed

    Longet, David; Pawlowski, Jan

    2007-08-01

    Macroevolutionary relations among main lineages of Foraminifera have traditionally been inferred from the small subunit ribosomal genes (SSU rDNA). However, important discrepancies in the rates of SSU rDNA evolution between major lineages led to difficulties in accurate interpretation of SSU-based phylogenetic reconstructions. Recently, actin and beta-tubulin sequences have been used as alternative markers of foraminiferal phylogeny and their analyses globally confirm results obtained with SSU rDNA. In order to test new protein markers, we sequenced a fragment of the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II (RPB1), a nuclear encoded single copy gene, for 8 foraminiferal species representing major orders of Foraminifera. Analyses of our data robustly confirm previous SSU rDNA and actin phylogenies and show (i) the paraphyly and ancestral position of monothalamid Foraminifera; (ii) the independent origin of miliolids; (iii) the monophyly of rotaliids, including buliminids and globigerinids; and (iv) the polyphyly of planktonic families Globigerinidae and Candeinidae. Additionally, the RPB1 phylogeny suggests Allogromiidae as the most ancestral foraminiferal lineage. In the light of our study, RPB1 appears as a valuable phylogenetic marker, particularly useful for groups of protists showing extreme variations of evolutionary rates in ribosomal genes.

  2. The effective action of warped M-theory reductions with higher-derivative terms. Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Thomas W.; Pugh, Tom G.; Weissenbacher, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    We study the three-dimensional effective action obtained by reducing eleven-dimensional supergravity with higher-derivative terms on a background solution including a warp-factor, an eight-dimensional compact manifold, and fluxes. The dynamical fields are Kähler deformations and vectors from the M-theory three-form. We show that the potential is only induced by fluxes and the naive contributions obtained from higher-curvature terms on a Calabi-Yau background vanish once the back-reaction to the full solution is taken into account. For the resulting three-dimensional action we analyse the Kähler potential and complex coordinates and show compatibility with N=2 supersymmetry. We argue that the higher-order result is also compatible with a no-scale condition. We find that the complex coordinates should be formulated as divisor integrals for which a non-trivial interplay between the warp-factor terms and the higher-curvature terms allow a derivation of the moduli space metric. This leads us to discuss higher-derivative corrections to the M5-brane action.

  3. Performance of Higher Order Campbell methods, Part II: calibration and experimental application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elter, Zs.; de Izarra, G.; Filliatre, P.; Jammes, C.; Pázsit, I.

    2016-11-01

    Applying Higher Order Campbelling methods in neutron flux monitoring with fission chambers is advantageous due to their capabilities to suppress the impact of unwanted noises and signal contributions (such as gamma radiation). This work aims to verify through experimental results that the basic assumptions behind the Higher Order Campelling methods are valid in critical reactors. The experiments, reported in this work, were performed at the MINERVE reactor in Cadarache. It is shown that the calibration of a fission chamber and the associated electronic system is possible in higher order mode. With the use of unbiased cumulant estimators and with digital processing, it is shown that over a wide count rate range, accurate count rate estimation can be achieved based on signal samples of a few ms, which is a significant progress compared to similar experimental results in the literature. The difference between the count rate estimated by pulse counting and by the Higher Order Campelling is less than 4%. The work also investigates the possibility of monitoring transient events. For this purpose, a control rod drop event was followed in Higher Order Campbelling mode.

  4. Some effects of high- gradient magnetic field on tropism of roots of higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrachuk, A.; Belyavskaya, N.

    The perception of gravity in living organisms is mostly based on the response of the gravisensing system to displacement of some specific mass caused by gravitational force. According to the starch-statolith hypothesis the amyloplasts play the role of specific mass in gravisensing cells of higher plants. Kuznetsov & Hasenstein (1996) have demonstrated that the high-gradient magnetic field (HGMF) exerts a directional ponderomotive force on diamagnetic substances, in particular, statoliths. This effect of the HGMF causes root response similar to that produced by the change in gravity vector. Their studies supported the starch-statolith hypothesis and showed that ponderomotive force can be used to modify force acting on statoliths by manipulating statolith locations within gravisensing cells. We have designed the HGMF facility that allows for generating the HGMF and analyzing its effects on higher plants' roots. It records by videosystem and measures with the help of image analysis software the parameters of kinetics of root bending under both the HGMF action and gravistimulation. Two species of plants (pea and cress) have been examined. The main results of the work are the following: 1) The magnetotropic effect of HGMF on root growth was found for both species. 2) The critical value of ponderomotive force that caused the magnetotropic effect was estimated by modeling the magnetic field spatial distribution in the region of root apex. 3) The electron-microscopic analysis of statocytes after the HGMF treatment was carried out. The displacement of amyloplasts in root statocytes of two species of plants in HGMF was firstly demonstrated at the ultrastructural level. 4) Spatial distribution of exogenous proton fluxes (pH) along the roots was studied. The changes in pH distribution along curvature zone and apices of roots were revealed in the HGMF. It is known that application of HGMFs or strong uniform magnetic fields may influence ion transport due to Ampere force. It

  5. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage.

    PubMed

    Verma, S K; Ajzenberg, D; Rivera-Sanchez, A; Su, C; Dubey, J P

    2015-06-01

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (MS) markers. By PCR-RFLP typing, 7 isolates from Portugal chickens were identified as type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3), 4 were type III (ToxoDB #2) and the remaining 4 isolates have unique genotype pattern were designated as ToxoDB #254. One mouse virulent isolate from a bovine fetus (Bos taurus) in Portugal was type I (ToxoDB #10) at all loci and designated as TgCowPr1. All 67 isolates from Austria and 7 from Israel were type II (ToxoDB #1 or #3). By MS typing, many additional genetic variations were revealed among the type II and type III isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates from the same geographical locations tend to cluster together, and there is little overlapping of genotypes among different locations. This study demonstrated that the MS markers can provide higher discriminatory power to reveal association of genotypes with geographical locations. Future studies of the type II strains in Europe by these MS markers will be useful to reveal transmission patterns of the parasite.

  6. Cytosine methylation of plastid genome in higher plants. Fact or artefact?

    PubMed

    Fojtová, M; Kovarík, A; Matyásek, R

    2001-03-01

    DNA methylation of chloroplast genome has been studied in a large variety of angiosperm species using restriction enzyme analysis of three genomic loci (totally encompassing about 10% of chloroplast genome) and bisulfite genomic sequencing of tobacco ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (large subunit) gene (rbcL). Except for CCWGG (W=A or T) sites that were partially refractory to the cleavage with methylation sensitive EcoRII in all loci, no cytosine methylation was found at the CCGG (MspI/HpaII) and several other restriction sites tested. However, EcoRII was unable to completely digest an unmethylated CCWGG site in the cloned rbcL gene on plasmid. Further a bisulfite genomic sequencing performed on EcoRII-restricted DNA failed to show any 5-methylcytosine either within or outside inspected EcoRII sites along the 3' end of rbcL coding region. In conclusion our results do not support evidence for methylated cytosine residues in plant chloroplast genomes and we suggest that results obtained with EcoRII should be interpreted with great care especially when small differences in methylation levels are analysed. PMID:11448733

  7. Photoprotection and triplet energy transfer in higher plants: the role of electronic and nuclear fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Cupellini, Lorenzo; Jurinovich, Sandro; Prandi, Ingrid G; Caprasecca, Stefano; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2016-04-28

    Photosynthetic organisms employ several photoprotection strategies to avoid damage due to the excess energy in high light conditions. Among these, quenching of triplet chlorophylls by neighboring carotenoids (Cars) is fundamental in preventing the formation of singlet oxygen. Cars are able to accept the triplets from chlorophylls by triplet energy transfer (TET). We have here studied TET rates in CP29, a minor light-harvesting complex (LHC) of the Photosystem II in plants. A fully atomistic strategy combining classical molecular dynamics of the LHC in its natural environment with a hybrid time-dependent density functional theory/polarizable MM description of the TET is used. We find that the structural fluctuations of the pigment-protein complex can largely enhance the transfer rates with respect to those predicted using the crystal structure, reducing the triplet quenching times in the subnanosecond scale. These findings add a new perspective for the interpretation of the photoprotection function and its relation with structural motions of the LHC.

  8. Isotopic discrimination of zinc during root-uptake and cellular incorporation in higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, T. F.; Weiss, D. J.; Coles, B. J.; Horstwood, M.; Parrish, R. R.; Zhao, F. J.; Kirk, G. J.

    2003-04-01

    Introduction: Isotopic variability of terrestrial zinc offers a unique tool for studying the geochemical and biochemical cycling of zinc through natural ecosystems. However, to realise this potential, the mechanisms controlling the isotopic composition of zinc during geosphere-biosphere interactions must first be understood. The uptake of zinc by plants involves a variety of abiotic and biochemical reactions, and can provide insights into the types of processes that may fractionate zinc isotopes within living systems. We therefore present an experimental study to quantify if and how zinc isotopes are fractionated during uptake in higher plants. Methodology: Two experimental approaches were taken: (1) a hydroponic study in which rice, lettuce, and tomato cultivars were grown in one of two nutrient solutions (a HEDTA + NTA buffered system, and an EDTA buffered system), and (2) a field-based study in which rice plants were grown in experimental paddy fields under both zinc-sufficient and zinc-deficient conditions. Upon harvest, roots, shoots, nutrient solutions and soils were acid digested, and matrix components were removed from the zinc fraction using anion exchange procedures. For soils the 'bioavailble' zinc fraction was abstracted using a 1 N HCl leaching step. Zinc isotopic compositions were determined on a ThermoElemental Axiom MC-ICP-MS, using copper as an internal reference to correct for mass discrimination effects. Combined measurement errors based on repeated analyses of ultra-pure standards and plant reference materials were <0.035 ppm per atomic mass unit (pamu) (2σ) for 66Zn/64Zn measurements. Results: Under hydroponic condisions, all three plant species exhibit a similar pattern of zinc isotopic discrimination, with a small enrichment from nutrient solution to root of +0.04 to +0.09 ppm pamu, followed by an isotopic depletion from root to shoot of -0.13 to -0.26 ppm pamu. While the same trend is observed with the HEDTA + NTA and EDTA nutrient

  9. Emerging Issues II: The Changing Roles and Identities of Teachers and Learners in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Bettie, Ed.; McCarthy, Marian, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a wide selection of issues currently of interest and concern in higher education institutions in Ireland. The chapters are snapshots of the intersection between theory, practice and research in particular settings; they are not meant to be comprehensive. Nevertheless, they present practice approaches, new theoretical…

  10. Recession, Retrenchment, and Recovery: State Higher Education Funding & Student Financial Aid. Volume II: State Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Allison S.; Hines, Edward R.; Hodel, Ross A.; Kelly, Kathleen F.; Mushrush, Christopher E., Pruden, Sheila J.; Vogt, W. Paul

    2006-01-01

    This report is a companion to "Recession, Retrenchment and Recovery: Higher Education Funding and Student Financial Aid" (ED502180). It provides profiles of individual states and their performance on a variety of measures used in the economic and fiscal analysis of the Recession, Retrenchment and Recovery project. The profiles describe the results…

  11. Character Education in Christian Higher Education: A Historical Analysis and Contemporary Challenge (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, David; Jeynes, William H.

    2010-01-01

    In this pair of two articles, the authors summarize the history of the practice of character instruction in Christian higher education. They examine character education beginning with the founding of Harvard in 1636 to contemporary times. They note that virtually every historian, theologian, and social scientist acknowledges that character…

  12. Removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions using native and acid treated Ni-hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum discolor from Turkish serpentine soil.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Adiguzel, Nezaket

    2012-09-01

    Alyssum discolor biomass was collected from serpentine soil and was used for removal of metal ions. The plant species grown on serpentine soils are known to be rich with metals ions and thus have more capability for accumulating heavy metals. Native and acid-treated biomass of A. discolor (A. discolor) were utilized for the removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, initial concentration, and pH on the biosorption of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were investigated. Biosorption equilibrium was established in about 60 min. The surface properties of the biomass preparations were varied with pH, and the maximum amounts of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions on both A. discolor biomass preparations were adsorbed at pH 5.0. The maximum biosorption capacities of the native, and acid-treated biomass preparations for Ni(II) were 13.1 and 34.7 mgg(-1) and for Cu(II) 6.15 and 17.8 mgg(-1) dry biomass, respectively. The biosorption of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from single and binary component systems can be successfully described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. When the heavy metal ions were in competition, the amounts of biosorbed metal ions on the acid treated plant biomass were found to be 0.542 mmolg(-1) for Ni(II) and 0.162 mmolg(-1) for Cu(II), the A. discolor biomass was significantly selective for Ni(II) ions. The information gained from these studies was expected to indicate whether the native, and acid-treated forms can have the potential to be used for the removal and recovery of Ni(II) ions from wastewaters. PMID:22608134

  13. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

    PubMed

    Goudey, J S; Tittle, F L; Spencer, M S

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to beta-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form beta-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced beta-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of beta-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  14. A Role for Ethylene in the Metabolism of Cyanide by Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Goudey, J. Stephen; Tittle, Forrest L.; Spencer, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanide to β-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase (EC 4.4.1.9) catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form β-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced β-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of β-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants. PMID:16666701

  15. Glycerophosphocholine Metabolism in Higher Plant Cells. Evidence of a New Glyceryl-Phosphodiester Phosphodiesterase

    PubMed Central

    van der Rest, Benoît; Boisson, Anne-Marie; Gout, Elisabeth; Bligny, Richard; Douce, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Glycerophosphocholine (GroPCho) is a diester that accumulates in different physiological processes leading to phospholipid remodeling. However, very little is known about its metabolism in higher plant cells. 31P-Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and biochemical analyses performed on carrot (Daucus carota) cells fed with GroPCho revealed the existence of an extracellular GroPCho phosphodiesterase. This enzymatic activity splits GroPCho into sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and free choline. In vivo, sn-glycerol-3-phosphate is further hydrolyzed into glycerol and inorganic phosphate by acid phosphatase. We visualized the incorporation and the compartmentation of choline and observed that the major choline pool was phosphorylated and accumulated in the cytosol, whereas a minor fraction was incorporated in the vacuole as free choline. Isolation of plasma membranes, culture medium, and cell wall proteins enabled us to localize this phosphodiesterase activity on the cell wall. We also report the existence of an intracellular glycerophosphodiesterase. This second activity is localized in the vacuole and hydrolyzes GroPCho in a similar fashion to the cell wall phosphodiesterase. Both extra- and intracellular phosphodiesterases are widespread among different plant species and are often enhanced during phosphate deprivation. Finally, competition experiments on the extracellular phosphodiesterase suggested a specificity for glycerophosphodiesters (apparent Km of 50 μm), which distinguishes it from other phosphodiesterases previously described in the literature. PMID:12226504

  16. Excitation-energy transfer dynamics of higher plant photosystem I light-harvesting complexes.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, Emilie; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; van Amerongen, Herbert; Croce, Roberta

    2011-03-01

    Photosystem I (PSI) plays a major role in the light reactions of photosynthesis. In higher plants, PSI is composed of a core complex and four outer antennas that are assembled as two dimers, Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements on the isolated dimers show very similar kinetics. The intermonomer transfer processes are resolved using target analysis. They occur at rates similar to those observed in transfer to the PSI core, suggesting competition between the two transfer pathways. It appears that each dimer is adopting various conformations that correspond to different lifetimes and emission spectra. A special feature of the Lhca complexes is the presence of an absorption band at low energy, originating from an excitonic state of a chlorophyll dimer, mixed with a charge-transfer state. These low-energy bands have high oscillator strengths and they are superradiant in both Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3. This challenges the view that the low-energy charge-transfer state always functions as a quencher in plant Lhc's and it also challenges previous interpretations of PSI kinetics. The very similar properties of the low-energy states of both dimers indicate that the organization of the involved chlorophylls should also be similar, in disagreement with the available structural data.

  17. Effects of ion pairing with calcium and magnesium on selenate availability to higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.R.; Tice, K.R.; Thomason, D.N.

    1997-03-01

    The effects of solution speciation on the bioavailability of trace metals are well documented, but the role of speciation in the bioavailability of oxyanionic trace elements that may form significant ion pairs with Ca and Mg in saline media has not been investigated. The authors assessed the effects of such ion pairing on the availability of selenate to representative monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous higher plants. Formation constants for the CaSO{sub 4}{sup 0} formation was confirmed, but the value of 10{sup 2.7} for CaSeO{sub 4}{sup 0} was found to be in error; a value of 10{sup 2.0} is proposed here as the correct formation constant. Five solution culture experiments were conducted using alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or tall wheatgrass (Elytrigia pontica [Podp.] Holub) with treatments consisting of NaSeO{sub 4} levels in combination with various levels of MgCl{sub 2} or CaCl{sub 2}. Both shoot Se concentrations and whole-plant Se contents were highly correlated with the free SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} activity but were poorly correlated with the sum of the free ion plus Ca and Mg ion pair species. Thus, the authors have shown, for the first time, that the free ion model of trace metal bioavailability is also valid for oxyanions that form complexes with Ca and Mg in saline media but that this conclusion hinges critically on the accuracy of the pertinent formation constants.

  18. A role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goudey, J.S.; Tittle, F.L.; Spencer, M.S. )

    1989-04-01

    The action of ethylene on the capacity of plant tissues to metabolize cyanice to {beta}-cyanoalanine was examined. Beta-cyanoalanine synthase catalyzes the reaction between cyanide and cysteine to form {beta}-cyanoalanine and hydrogen sulfide. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in tissues of 6 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings were enhanced severalfold by 1 microliter per liter ethylene. The promotive effect of ethylene increased with increasing ethylene concentrations from 0.01 to 100 microliters per liter and with the period of exposure from 3 to 24 hours. Ethylene enhanced {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase activity in all regions of the seedling (shoots and roots, internodal regions, cotyledons). The promotive effect was eliminated by norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action. Levels of {beta}-cyanoalanine synthase in seedlings of four other dicots (Phaseolus aureas, Glycine max, Lactuca sativa, Sinapis arvensis) and two monocots (Hordeum vulgares, Triticum aestivum) were also increased in response to ethylene. Our results suggest an important regulatory role for ethylene in the metabolism of cyanide by higher plants.

  19. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  20. Phragmoplast of the green alga Spirogyra is functionally distinct from the higher plant phragmoplast.

    PubMed

    Sawitzky, H; Grolig, F

    1995-09-01

    Cytokinesis in the green alga Spirogyra (Zygnemataceae) is characterized by centripetal growth of a septum, which impinges on a persistent, centrifugally expanding telophase spindle, leading to a phragmoplast-like structure of potential phylogenetic significance (Fowke, L. C., and J. D. Pickett-Heaps. 1969. J. Phycol. 5:273-281). Combining fluorescent tagging of the cytoskeleton in situ and video-enhanced differential interference contrast microscopy of live cells, the process of cytokinesis was investigated with emphasis on cytoskeletal reorganization and concomitant redistribution of organelles. Based on a sequence of cytoskeletal arrangements and the effects of cytoskeletal inhibitors thereon, cytokinetic progression could be divided into three functional stages with respect to the contribution of microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs): (1) Initiation: in early prophase, a cross wall initial was formed independently of MFs and MTs at the presumptive site of wall growth. (2) Septum ingrowth: numerous organelles accumulated at the cross wall initial concomitant with reorganization of the extensive peripheral interphase MF array into a distinct circumferential MF array. This array guided the ingrowing septum until it contacted the expanding interzonal MT array. (3) Cross wall closure: MFs at the growing edge of the septum coaligned with and extended along the interzonal MTs toward the daughter nuclei. Thus, actin-based transportation of small organelles during this third stage occurred, in part, along a scaffold previously deployed in space by MTs. Displacement of the nuclei-associated interzonal MT array by centrifugation and depolymerization of the phragmoplast-like structure showed that the success of cytokinesis at the third stage depends on the interaction of both MF and MT cytoskeletons. Important features of the phragmoplast-like structure in Spirogyra were different from the higher plant phragmoplast: in particular, MFs were responsible for the

  1. Comparative Studies of Enzymes Related to Serine Metabolism in Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Geoffrey P.; Rosenblum, I. Y.; Sallach, H. J.

    1968-01-01

    The following enzymes related to serine metabolism in higher plants have been investigated: 1) d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, 2) phosphohydroxypyruvate:l-glutamate transaminase, 3) d-glycerate dehydrogenase, and 4) hydroxypyruvate:l-alanine transaminase. Comparative studies on the distribution of the 2 dehydrogenases in seeds and leaves from various plants revealed that d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is widely distributed in seeds in contrast to d-glycerate dehydrogenase, which is either absent or present at low levels, and that the reverse pattern is observed in green leaves. The levels of activity of the 4 enzymes listed above were followed in different tissues of the developing pea (Pisum sativum, var. Alaska). In the leaf, from the tenth to seventeenth day of germination, the specific activity of d-glycerate dehydrogenase increased markedly and was much higher than d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase which remained relatively constant during this time period. Etiolation resulted in a decrease in d-glycerate dehydrogenase and an increase in d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activities. In apical meristem, on the other hand, the level of d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase exceeded that of d-glycerate dehydrogenase at all time periods studied. Low and decreasing levels of both dehydrogenases were found in epicotyl and cotyledon. The specific activities of the 2 transaminases remained relatively constant during development in both leaf and apical meristem. In general, however, the levels of phosphohydroxypyruvate:l-glutamate transaminase were comparable to those of d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase in a given tissue as were those for hydroxypyruvate: l-alanine transaminase and d-glycerate dehydrogenase. PMID:5699148

  2. Plant water relations II: how plants manage water deficit and why it matters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of fresh water is possibly the greatest limitation to our ability to feed the growing human population (9 billion people forecast by 2050 and 11 billion by 2100). This Teaching Tool examines why water is so critical for plant growth and particularly their food production (primarily ...

  3. Class II-restricted T cell receptor engineered in vitro for higher affinity retains peptide specificity and function

    PubMed Central

    Weber, K. Scott; Donermeyer, David L.; Allen, Paul M.; Kranz, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) αβ heterodimer determines the peptide and MHC specificity of a T cell. It has been proposed that in vivo selection processes maintain low TCR affinities because T cells with higher-affinity TCRs would (i) have reduced functional capacity or (ii) cross-react with self-peptides resulting in clonal deletion. We used the class II-restricted T cell clone 3.L2, specific for murine hemoglobin (Hb/I-Ek), to explore these possibilities by engineering higher-affinity TCR mutants. A 3.L2 single-chain TCR (Vβ-linker-Vα) was mutagenized and selected for thermal stability and surface expression in a yeast display system. Stabilized mutants were used to generate a library with CDR3 mutations that were selected with Hb/I-Ek to isolate a panel of affinity mutants with KD values as low as 25 nM. Kinetic analysis of soluble single-chain TCRs showed that increased affinities were the result of both faster on-rates and slower off-rates. T cells transfected with the mutant TCRs and wild-type TCR responded to similar concentrations of peptide, indicating that the increased affinity was not detrimental to T cell activation. T cell transfectants maintained exquisite hemoglobin peptide specificity, but an altered peptide ligand that acted as an antagonist for the wild-type TCR was converted to a strong agonist with higher-affinity TCRs. These results show that T cells with high-affinity class II reactive TCRs are functional, but there is an affinity threshold above which an increase in affinity does not result in significant enhancement of T cell activation. PMID:16365315

  4. Concepts, strategies and potentials using hypo-g and other features of the space environment for commercialization using higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Opportunities for releasing, capturing, constructing and/or fixing the differential expressions or response potentials of the higher plant genome in the hypo-g environment for commercialization are explored. General strategies include improved plant-growing, crop and forestry production systems which conserve soil, water, labor and energy resources, and nutritional partitioning and mobilization of nutrients and synthates. Tissue and cell culture techniques of commercial potential include the growing and manipulation of cultured plant cells in vitro in a bioreactor to produce biologicals and secondary plants of economic value. The facilitation of plant breeding, the cloning of specific pathogen-free materials, the elimination of growing point or apex viruses, and the increase of plant yield are other O-g applications. The space environment may be advantageous in somatic embryogenesis, the culture of alkaloids, and the development of completely new crop plant germ plasm.

  5. Prosopis laevigata a potential chromium (VI) and cadmium (II) hyperaccumulator desert plant.

    PubMed

    Buendía-González, L; Orozco-Villafuerte, J; Cruz-Sosa, F; Barrera-Díaz, C E; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2010-08-01

    The bioaccumulation of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) in Prosopis laevigata and the effect of these heavy metals on plant growth were assessed. P. laevigata seeds were cultured during 50 days on modified Murashige-Skoog medium supplemented with four different concentrations of Cr(VI) (0-3.4mM) and Cd(II) (0-2.2mM), respectively. Heavy metals did not stop germination, but smaller plants with fewer leaves and secondary roots were produced. Seedlings showed an accumulation of 8176 and 21,437 mg Cd kg(-1) and of 5461 and 8090 mg Cr kg(-1) dry weight, in shoot and root, when cultured with 0.65 mM Cd(II) and 3.4mM Cr(VI), respectively. These results indicated that significant translocation from the roots unto aerial parts took place. A bioaccumulation factor greater than 100 for Cd and 24 for Cr was exhibited by the seedlings. P. laevigata can be considered as a potential hyperaccumulator of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) species and considered as a promising candidate for phytoremediation purposes. PMID:20347590

  6. Prosopis laevigata a potential chromium (VI) and cadmium (II) hyperaccumulator desert plant.

    PubMed

    Buendía-González, L; Orozco-Villafuerte, J; Cruz-Sosa, F; Barrera-Díaz, C E; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2010-08-01

    The bioaccumulation of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) in Prosopis laevigata and the effect of these heavy metals on plant growth were assessed. P. laevigata seeds were cultured during 50 days on modified Murashige-Skoog medium supplemented with four different concentrations of Cr(VI) (0-3.4mM) and Cd(II) (0-2.2mM), respectively. Heavy metals did not stop germination, but smaller plants with fewer leaves and secondary roots were produced. Seedlings showed an accumulation of 8176 and 21,437 mg Cd kg(-1) and of 5461 and 8090 mg Cr kg(-1) dry weight, in shoot and root, when cultured with 0.65 mM Cd(II) and 3.4mM Cr(VI), respectively. These results indicated that significant translocation from the roots unto aerial parts took place. A bioaccumulation factor greater than 100 for Cd and 24 for Cr was exhibited by the seedlings. P. laevigata can be considered as a potential hyperaccumulator of Cd(II) and Cr(VI) species and considered as a promising candidate for phytoremediation purposes.

  7. Consequences of variation in plant defense for biodiversity at higher trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Poelman, Erik H; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2008-10-01

    Antagonistic interactions between insect herbivores and plants impose selection on plants to defend themselves against these attackers. Although selection on plant defense traits has typically been studied for pairwise plant-attacker interactions, other community members of plant-based food webs are unavoidably affected by these traits as well. A plant trait might, for example, affect parasitoids and predators feeding on the herbivore. Consequently, defensive plant traits structure the diversity and composition of the complex community associated with the plant, and communities as a whole also feed back to selection on plant traits. Here, we review recent developments in our understanding of how plant defense traits structure insect communities and discuss how molecular mechanisms might drive community-wide effects.

  8. Early herbivore alert matters: plant-mediated effects of egg deposition on higher trophic levels benefit plant fitness.

    PubMed

    Pashalidou, Foteini G; Frago, Enric; Griese, Eddie; Poelman, Erik H; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E

    2015-09-01

    Induction of plant defences, specifically in response to herbivore attack, can save costs that would otherwise be needed to maintain defences even in the absence of herbivores. However, plants may suffer considerable damage during the time required to mount these defences against an attacker. This could be resolved if plants could respond to early cues, such as egg deposition, that reliably indicate future herbivory. We tested this hypothesis in a field experiment and found that egg deposition by the butterfly Pieris brassicae on black mustard (Brassica nigra) induced a plant response that negatively affected feeding caterpillars. The effect cascaded up to the third and fourth trophic levels (larval parasitoids and hyperparasitoids) by affecting the parasitisation rate and parasitoid performance. Overall, the defences induced by egg deposition had a positive effect on plant seed production and may therefore play an important role in the evolution of plant resistance to herbivores. PMID:26147078

  9. PEP-II B-Factory prototype higher order mode load design

    SciTech Connect

    Pendleton, R.; Ko, K.; Ng, N.

    1995-10-01

    To reduce the impedance of the cavity higher order modes, (HOM`s), a compact broad-band, low-reflection, waveguide load is required with a VSWR less than 2:1 in the frequency range 714 MHz to 2500 MHz. The load must also work in the high vacuum of the cavity, and be capable of dissipating up to 10 kW of power which is generated by the interaction of the beam with the cavity HOM`s and which is directed to each load assembly. A prototype load assembly is being fabricated which uses the lossy ceramic Al-N with 7% by weight glassy carbon to absorb the microwave power.

  10. Progress in the study of biological effects of hydrogen on higher plants and its promising application in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jiqing; Ye, Zhouheng; Sun, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    While the medical effects of hydrogen have been broadly analyzed, research into the effects of hydrogen on higher plants has often been of lesser concern. Recent studies on the botanical effects of hydrogen have shown that it is involved in signal transduction pathways of plant hormones and can improve the resistance of plants to stressors, such as drought, salinity, cold and heavy metals. In addition, hydrogen could delay postharvest ripening and senescence of fruits. Observational evidence has also shown that hydrogen can regulate the flowering time of plants. These results indicate that hydrogen may have great potential applications within agricultural production, indicating that there may be a new 'hydrogen agricultural era' to come.

  11. Distribution of drimane sesquiterpenoids and tocopherols in liverworts, ferns and higher plants: Polygonaceae, Canellaceae and Winteraceae species.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Harinantenaina, Liva; Toyota, Masao; Nishiki, Mayumi; Bardon, Alicia; Nii, Kaeko

    2012-06-01

    The liverwort, Porella vernicosa complex produces a very hot tasting polygodial, a drimane-type sesquiterpene dialdehyde. The same compound has been isolated from two ferns, Thelypteris hispidula and Blechnum fluviatile, as well as from the higher plants Polygonum hydropiper, P. hydropiper f. purpurascens (Polygonaceae), Cinnamosma, Caspicodendron, Canella and Warburgia species (Canellaceae), and Pseudowintera colorata, Tasmannia lanceolata, Drimys and Zygogynum species (Winteraceae). In addition, the liverworts and higher plants which elaborate polygodial and its related pungent drimane dials contain a small amount of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol or delta-tocotrienol. The present paper gives the results of a comparative study on the drimane-type sesquiterpenoids in some liverworts, ferns and higher plants, and the role of tocopherols in these plant groups.

  12. Contribution of PsbS Function and Stomatal Conductance to Foliar Temperature in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kulasek, Milena; Bernacki, Maciej Jerzy; Ciszak, Kamil; Witoń, Damian; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Natural capacity has evolved in higher plants to absorb and harness excessive light energy. In basic models, the majority of absorbed photon energy is radiated back as fluorescence and heat. For years the proton sensor protein PsbS was considered to play a critical role in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of light absorbed by PSII antennae and in its dissipation as heat. However, the significance of PsbS in regulating heat emission from a whole leaf has never been verified before by direct measurement of foliar temperature under changing light intensity. To test its validity, we here investigated the foliar temperature changes on increasing and decreasing light intensity conditions (foliar temperature dynamics) using a high resolution thermal camera and a powerful adjustable light-emitting diode (LED) light source. First, we showed that light-dependent foliar temperature dynamics is correlated with Chl content in leaves of various plant species. Secondly, we compared the foliar temperature dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, the PsbS null mutant npq4-1 and a PsbS-overexpressing transgenic line under different transpiration conditions with or without a photosynthesis inhibitor. We found no direct correlations between the NPQ level and the foliar temperature dynamics. Rather, differences in foliar temperature dynamics are primarily affected by stomatal aperture, and rapid foliar temperature increase during irradiation depends on the water status of the leaf. We conclude that PsbS is not directly involved in regulation of foliar temperature dynamics during excessive light energy episodes. PMID:27273581

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ameliorates the optimum quantum yield of photosystem II and reduces non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Porcel, Rosa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Aroca, Ricardo; Garcia, Rosalva; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in the world and is a primary source of food for more than half of the world population. However, salinity is considered the most common abiotic stress reducing its productivity. Soil salinity inhibits photosynthetic processes, which can induce an over-reduction of the reaction centres in photosystem II (PSII), damaging the photosynthetic machinery. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis may improve host plant tolerance to salinity, but it is not clear how the AM symbiosis affects the plant photosynthetic capacity, particularly the efficiency of PSII. This study aimed at determining the influence of the AM symbiosis on the performance of PSII in rice plants subjected to salinity. Photosynthetic activity, plant gas-exchange parameters, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and rubisco activity and gene expression were also measured in order to analyse comprehensively the response of the photosynthetic processes to AM symbiosis and salinity. Results showed that the AM symbiosis enhanced the actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salinity. AM rice plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate than nonAM plants. Thus, we propose that AM rice plants had a higher photochemical efficiency for CO2 fixation and solar energy utilization and this increases plant salt tolerance by preventing the injury to the photosystems reaction centres and by allowing a better utilization of light energy in photochemical processes. All these processes translated into higher photosynthetic and rubisco activities in AM rice plants and improved plant biomass production under salinity.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ameliorates the optimum quantum yield of photosystem II and reduces non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Porcel, Rosa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Aroca, Ricardo; Garcia, Rosalva; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in the world and is a primary source of food for more than half of the world population. However, salinity is considered the most common abiotic stress reducing its productivity. Soil salinity inhibits photosynthetic processes, which can induce an over-reduction of the reaction centres in photosystem II (PSII), damaging the photosynthetic machinery. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis may improve host plant tolerance to salinity, but it is not clear how the AM symbiosis affects the plant photosynthetic capacity, particularly the efficiency of PSII. This study aimed at determining the influence of the AM symbiosis on the performance of PSII in rice plants subjected to salinity. Photosynthetic activity, plant gas-exchange parameters, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and rubisco activity and gene expression were also measured in order to analyse comprehensively the response of the photosynthetic processes to AM symbiosis and salinity. Results showed that the AM symbiosis enhanced the actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salinity. AM rice plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate than nonAM plants. Thus, we propose that AM rice plants had a higher photochemical efficiency for CO2 fixation and solar energy utilization and this increases plant salt tolerance by preventing the injury to the photosystems reaction centres and by allowing a better utilization of light energy in photochemical processes. All these processes translated into higher photosynthetic and rubisco activities in AM rice plants and improved plant biomass production under salinity. PMID:26291919

  15. Photosynthetic complex stoichiometry dynamics in higher plants: environmental acclimation and photosynthetic flux control

    PubMed Central

    Schöttler, Mark A.; Tóth, Szilvia Z.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants is dynamically adjusted to long-term changes in environmental conditions such as growth light intensity and light quality, and to changing metabolic demands for ATP and NADPH imposed by stresses and leaf aging. By changing photosynthetic complex stoichiometry, a long-term imbalance between the photosynthetic production of ATP and NADPH and their metabolic consumption is avoided, and cytotoxic side reactions are minimized. Otherwise, an excess capacity of the light reactions, relative to the demands of primary metabolism, could result in a disturbance of cellular redox homeostasis and an increased production of reactive oxygen species, leading to the destruction of the photosynthetic apparatus and the initiation of cell death programs. In this review, changes of the abundances of the different constituents of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to environmental conditions and during leaf ontogenesis are summarized. The contributions of the different photosynthetic complexes to photosynthetic flux control and the regulation of electron transport are discussed. PMID:24860580

  16. Jordan, an active Volvox transposable element similar to higher plant transposons.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Schmitt, R; Kirk, D L

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated a 1595-bp transposable element from the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri following its insertion into the nitrate reductase (nitA) locus. This element, which we have named Jordan, has short (12-bp) terminal inverted repeats and creates a 3-bp target site duplication, like some higher plant transposons of the classic type. Contained within the first 200 bp of one end of the element are 55-bp inverted repeats, one of which begins with the terminal inverted repeat. Revertants of the transposon insertion into the nitA locus were obtained at a rate of approximately 10(-4) per Volvox embryo per generation. In each revertant examined, all transposon sequences were completely excised, but footprints containing both sets of duplicated bases, in addition to three to nine extra bases, were left behind. Jordan contains no significant open reading frames and so appears to be nonautonomous. DNA gel blot analysis indicates that Jordan is a member of a large family of homologous elements in the Volvox genome. We have isolated and characterized several of these homologs and found that they contain terminal very similar to those of Jordan. Efforts to utilize Jordan and its homologs as tools to tag and clone developmentally interesting genes of Volvox are discussed. PMID:8400878

  17. Vegetation and plant food reconstruction of lowermost Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, using modern analogs.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Sandi R

    2007-08-01

    Vegetation and plant foods for hominins of lowermost Bed II, Olduvai Gorge were modeled by examining vegetation in modern habitats in northern Tanzania (Lake Manyara, Ngorongoro, Serengeti) that are analogous to the paleolandscape in terms of climate, land forms, and soil types, as indicated by previous paleoenvironmental studies of Olduvai. Plant species in the modern habitats were identified in a series of sample plots, and those known to be eaten by modern humans, chimpanzees, or baboons were considered potentially edible for early hominins. Within the 50-80 kyr deposition of lowermost Bed II, periods of drier climate were characterized by low lake stands and a broad eastern lacustrine plain containing a mosaic of springs, marsh, woodland, and edaphic grassland. Based on results of this study, plant food diversity in each of those habitats was relatively low, but the mosaic nature of the area meant that hominins could reach several different habitat types within short distances, with access to potential plant foods including marsh plants, grass grains, roots, shrub fruits, edible parts from palms, leafy herbaceous plants, and Acacia pods, flowers, and gum. Based on Manyara analogs, a greater variety of plant foods, such as tree fruits (e.g., Ficus, Trichilia) and the roots and fruits of shrubs (e.g., Cordia, Salvadora) would be expected further east along the rivers in the lacustrine terrace and alluvial fans. Interfluves of the alluvial fans were probably less wooded and offered relatively fewer varieties of plant foods, but there is sparse paleoenvironmental evidence for the character of Olduvai's alluvial fans, making the choice of appropriate modern analogs difficult. In the western side of the basin, based on modern analogs in the Serengeti, riverine habitats provided the greatest variety of edible plant food species (e.g., Acacia, Grewia, Justicia). If the interfluves were grassland, then a large variety of potentially edible grasses and forbs were present

  18. Vegetation and plant food reconstruction of lowermost Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, using modern analogs.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Sandi R

    2007-08-01

    Vegetation and plant foods for hominins of lowermost Bed II, Olduvai Gorge were modeled by examining vegetation in modern habitats in northern Tanzania (Lake Manyara, Ngorongoro, Serengeti) that are analogous to the paleolandscape in terms of climate, land forms, and soil types, as indicated by previous paleoenvironmental studies of Olduvai. Plant species in the modern habitats were identified in a series of sample plots, and those known to be eaten by modern humans, chimpanzees, or baboons were considered potentially edible for early hominins. Within the 50-80 kyr deposition of lowermost Bed II, periods of drier climate were characterized by low lake stands and a broad eastern lacustrine plain containing a mosaic of springs, marsh, woodland, and edaphic grassland. Based on results of this study, plant food diversity in each of those habitats was relatively low, but the mosaic nature of the area meant that hominins could reach several different habitat types within short distances, with access to potential plant foods including marsh plants, grass grains, roots, shrub fruits, edible parts from palms, leafy herbaceous plants, and Acacia pods, flowers, and gum. Based on Manyara analogs, a greater variety of plant foods, such as tree fruits (e.g., Ficus, Trichilia) and the roots and fruits of shrubs (e.g., Cordia, Salvadora) would be expected further east along the rivers in the lacustrine terrace and alluvial fans. Interfluves of the alluvial fans were probably less wooded and offered relatively fewer varieties of plant foods, but there is sparse paleoenvironmental evidence for the character of Olduvai's alluvial fans, making the choice of appropriate modern analogs difficult. In the western side of the basin, based on modern analogs in the Serengeti, riverine habitats provided the greatest variety of edible plant food species (e.g., Acacia, Grewia, Justicia). If the interfluves were grassland, then a large variety of potentially edible grasses and forbs were present

  19. Elucidation of structure-function relationships in plant major light-harvesting complex (LHC II) by nonlinear spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lokstein, Heiko; Betke, Alexander; Krikunova, Maria; Teuchner, Klaus; Voigt, Bernd

    2012-03-01

    Conventional linear and time-resolved spectroscopic techniques are often not appropriate to elucidate specific pigment-pigment interactions in light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes (LHCs). Nonlinear (laser-) spectroscopic techniques, including nonlinear polarization spectroscopy in the frequency domain (NLPF) as well as step-wise (resonant) and simultaneous (non-resonant) two-photon excitation spectroscopies may be advantageous in this regard. Nonlinear spectroscopies have been used to elucidate substructure(s) of very complex spectra, including analyses of strong excitonic couplings between chlorophylls and of interactions between (bacterio)chlorophylls and "optically dark" states of carotenoids in LHCs, including the major antenna complex of higher plants, LHC II. This article shortly reviews our previous study and outlines perspectives regarding the application of selected nonlinear laser-spectroscopic techniques to disentangle structure-function relationships in LHCs and other pigment-protein complexes.

  20. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part II. Science, research, development, higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  1. Properties of Higher Plant Mitochondria. III. Effects of Respiratory Inhibitors 1

    PubMed Central

    Ikuma, Hiroshi; Bonner, Walter D.

    1967-01-01

    The effects of representative respiratory inhibitors were investigated on the coupled respiration of mung bean mitochondria using succinate and l-malate as substrates. The inhibitors studied were: (I) malonate, (II) amytal and rotenone, (III) antimycin A and 2-n-nonyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (NOQNO), and (IV) cyanide and azide. Malonate inhibition of succinate oxidation follows a classical type of competitive inhibition with an inhibitor dissociation constant of 0.13 mm. There is no inhibition detectable when malate is used as substrate. In contrast to animal mitochondria, amytal is capable of inhibiting 20 to 40% of succinate oxidation and 90 to 100% of malate oxidation, but inhibition due to rotenone amounts to only 0 to 20% of succinate oxidation and 40 to 50% of malate oxidation. The half-maximal inhibition caused by amytal occurs at 2 to 2.5 mm and that by rotenone at 3 mμmoles/mg protein. The maximal inhibition caused by either antimycin A or NOQNO is 70 to 80% of the state 3 respiration. Very little inhibition was observed on the state 4 respiration, and both inhibitors were capable of titrating stoichiometrically with mitochondrial protein with identical titers, 0.22 mμmoles/mg protein for half-maximal inhibition. They differ, however, in that NOQNO does uncouple oxidative phosphorylation in mung bean mitochondria, but antimycin A does not do so. Both cyanide and azide inhibit the state 3 rate 65 to 80%. Inhibition of state 4 respiration can be up to 50% by cyanide, while almost none by azide. Uncoupling action was noted with cyanide, but very little with azide. It is concluded that the second state 3 rate of succinate oxidation includes 80% succinoxidase, the remaining 20% being contributed by the NADH pathway. Malate oxidation apparently does not involve succinoxidase. Malate oxidation is completely sensitive to amytal, but only 50% inhibited by rotenone. A difference between animal and plant mitochondria appears to be in the flavoproteins associated

  2. Recombinant expressions of sweet plant protein mabinlin II in Escherichia coli and food-grade Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenliang; Xia, Qiyu; Yao, Jing; Fu, Shaoping; Guo, Jianchun; Hu, Xinwen

    2015-04-01

    Sweet plant proteins, which are safe, natural, low-calorie sweeteners, may be suitable replacements for sugars in the food and beverage industries. Mabinlin II, a sweet plant protein, shows the most pronounced heat stability and acid resistance of any of the six known types of plant sweet proteins. However, mabinlin II is difficult to extract from the Capparis masaikai plant, which is itself becoming increasingly scarce. This limits the use of naturally acquired mabinlin II. In this study, recombinant mabinlin II proteins were expressed and purified in Escherichia coli and in food-grade Lactococcus lactis. Recombinant mabinlin II proteins MBL-BH (containing the B-chains of mabinlin II downstream fused with His-tag) and MBL-ABH (containing the A- and B-chains of mabinlin II downstream fused with His-tag) were expressed in E. coli in the form of inclusion bodies. They were then purified and renatured. The refolded MBL-BH was found to be 100 times sweeter than sucrose by weight, but it was not heat-stable. Refolded MBL-ABH was neither sweet nor heat-stable. Recombinant mabinlin II proteins were secreted and expressed intracellularly in food-grade L. lactis, in which the concentrated cell samples and culture medium samples were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting analysis with anti-mabinlin II polyclonal antibody. This study demonstrated that the single B chain of mabinlin II has a sweet taste. The recombinant mabinlin II proteins have been successfully expressed in food-grade L. lactis, which is a crucial step in the production of mabinlin II through microorganism expression systems.

  3. Genetically engineered plants and foods: a scientist's analysis of the issues (part II).

    PubMed

    Lemaux, Peggy G

    2009-01-01

    Genetic engineering provides a means to introduce genes into plants via mechanisms that are different in some respects from classical breeding. A number of commercialized, genetically engineered (GE) varieties, most notably canola, cotton, maize and soybean, were created using this technology, and at present the traits introduced are herbicide and/or pest tolerance. In 2007 these GE crops were planted in developed and developing countries on more than 280 million acres (113 million hectares) worldwide, representing nearly 10% of rainfed cropland. Although the United States leads the world in acres planted with GE crops, the majority of this planting is on large acreage farms. In developing countries, adopters are mostly small and resource-poor farmers. For farmers and many consumers worldwide, planting and eating GE crops and products made from them are acceptable and even welcomed; for others GE crops raise food and environmental safety questions, as well as economic and social issues. In Part I of this review, some general and food issues related to GE crops and foods were discussed. In Part II, issues related to certain environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods are addressed, with responses linked to the scientific literature.

  4. Progress in accident analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-10-11

    The present work continues our effort to perform an integrated safety analysis for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. Recently we developed a base case for a severe accident scenario in order to calculate accident doses for HYLIFE-II. It consisted of a total loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in which all the liquid flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) was lost at the beginning of the accident. Results showed that the off-site dose was below the limit given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for public protection in case of accident, and that his dose was dominated by the tritium released during the accident.

  5. The re-assimilation of ammonia produced by photorespiration and the nitrogen economy of C3 higher plants.

    PubMed

    Keys, Alfred J

    2006-02-01

    Photorespiration involves the conversion of glycine to serine with the release of ammonia and CO(2). In C(3) terrestrial higher plants the flux through glycine and serine is so large that it results in the production of ammonia at a rate far exceeding that from reduction of new nitrogen entering the plant. The photorespiratory nitrogen cycle re-assimilates this ammonia using the enzymes glutamine synthetase and glutamine:2-oxoglutarateaminotransferase.

  6. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, C.R.; Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid. 37 figs.

  7. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Christopher R.; Nawrath, Christiane; Poirier, Yves

    1997-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid.

  8. Production characteristics of the "higher plants-soil-like substrate" system as an element of the bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, V. V.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Tikhomirova, N. A.; Shihov, V. N.; Tirranen, L. S.; Gribovskaya, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    The study addresses the possibility of long-duration operation of a higher plant conveyor, using a soil-like substrate (SLS) as the root zone. Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were used as study material. A chufa community consisting of 4 age groups and radish and lettuce communities consisting of 2 age groups were irrigated with a nutrient solution, which contained mineral elements extracted from the SLS. After each harvest, inedible biomass of the harvested plants and inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort were added to the SLS. The amounts of the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort to be added to the SLS were determined based on the nitrogen content of the edible mass of harvested plants. CO2 concentration in the growth chamber was maintained within the range of 1100-1700 ppm. The results of the study show that higher plants can be grown quite successfully using the proposed process of plant waste utilization in the SLS. The addition of chufa inedible biomass to the SLS resulted in species-specific inhibition of growth of both cultivated crops and microorganisms in the "higher plants - SLS" system. There were certain differences between the amounts of some mineral elements removed from the SLS with the harvested edible biomass and those added to it with the inedible biomasses of wheat and saltwort.

  9. Lack of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in a range of higher plants that store starch.

    PubMed

    Entwistle, G; ap Rees, T A

    1990-10-15

    The aim of this work was to discover whether fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is present in higher-plant cells that synthesize storage starch. The following were examined: suspension cultures of soybean (Glycine max), tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum), florets of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), developing endosperm of maize and of sweet corn (Zea mays), roots of pea (Pisum sativum), and the developing embryos of round and wrinkled varieties of pea. Unfractionated extracts of each tissue readily converted fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in assays for both plastidic and cytosolic FBPase. These conversions were not inhibited by 20 microM-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Except in extracts of pea embryos and sweet-corn endosperm, treatment with affinity-purified antibodies to pyrophosphate: fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase reduced the above fructose 6-phosphate production to the rate found with boiled extracts. The antibody-resistant activity from sweet corn was slight. In immunoblot analyses, antibody to plastidic FBPase did not react positively with any protein in extracts of soybean cells, potato tuber, cauliflower florets, maize endosperm and pea roots. Positive reactions were found for extracts of embryos of both round and wrinkled varieties of peas and endosperm of sweet corn. For pea embryos, but not for sweet-corn endosperm, the Mr of the recognized protein corresponded to that of plastidic FBPase. It is argued that soybean cells, potato tuber, cauliflower florets, maize (var. White Horse Tooth) endosperm and pea roots lack significant activity of plastidic FBPase, but that this enzyme is present in developing embryos of pea. The data for sweet corn (var. Golden Bantam) are not decisive. It is also argued that, where FBPase is absent, carbon for starch synthesis does not enter the amyloplast as triose phosphate. PMID:2173563

  10. Lack of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in a range of higher plants that store starch.

    PubMed

    Entwistle, G; ap Rees, T A

    1990-10-15

    The aim of this work was to discover whether fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is present in higher-plant cells that synthesize storage starch. The following were examined: suspension cultures of soybean (Glycine max), tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum), florets of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea), developing endosperm of maize and of sweet corn (Zea mays), roots of pea (Pisum sativum), and the developing embryos of round and wrinkled varieties of pea. Unfractionated extracts of each tissue readily converted fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to fructose 6-phosphate in assays for both plastidic and cytosolic FBPase. These conversions were not inhibited by 20 microM-fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. Except in extracts of pea embryos and sweet-corn endosperm, treatment with affinity-purified antibodies to pyrophosphate: fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase reduced the above fructose 6-phosphate production to the rate found with boiled extracts. The antibody-resistant activity from sweet corn was slight. In immunoblot analyses, antibody to plastidic FBPase did not react positively with any protein in extracts of soybean cells, potato tuber, cauliflower florets, maize endosperm and pea roots. Positive reactions were found for extracts of embryos of both round and wrinkled varieties of peas and endosperm of sweet corn. For pea embryos, but not for sweet-corn endosperm, the Mr of the recognized protein corresponded to that of plastidic FBPase. It is argued that soybean cells, potato tuber, cauliflower florets, maize (var. White Horse Tooth) endosperm and pea roots lack significant activity of plastidic FBPase, but that this enzyme is present in developing embryos of pea. The data for sweet corn (var. Golden Bantam) are not decisive. It is also argued that, where FBPase is absent, carbon for starch synthesis does not enter the amyloplast as triose phosphate.

  11. Hemin inhibits ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in both a higher plant and yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Vierstra, R.D.; Sullivan, M.L.

    1988-05-03

    In eukaryotes, a major route for ATP-dependent protein breakdown proceeds through covalent intermediates of target proteins destined for degradation and the highly conserved, 76 amino acid protein ubiquitin. In rabbit reticulocytes, it has been shown that hemin effectively inhibits this pathway by blocking the catabolism of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. Here the authors demonstrate that hemin is also an effective inhibitor of the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway in both a higher plant, oats (Avena sativa), and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Hemin inhibits all stages of the pathway in vitro, including ATP-dependent formation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates, disassembly of conjugates by ubiquitin-protein lyase(s) (or isopeptidases), and degradation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates by ATP-dependent protease(s). Using ubiquitin-/sup 125/I-lysozyme conjugates synthesized in vitro as substrates, they determined the specific effects of hemin on the rates of disassembly and degradation separately. The concentration of hemin required for half-maximal inhibition of both processes was identical in each species, approx. 60 ..mu..M in oats and approx. 50 ..mu..M in yeast. Similar inhibitory effects were observed when two hemin analogues, mesoheme or protoporphyrin IX, were employed. These results demonstrate that the effect of hemin on ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis is not restricted to erythroid cells and as a result hemin may be a useful tool in studies of this pathway in all eukaryotic cells. These results also question models where hemin serves as a specific negative modulator of proteolysis in erythroid cells.

  12. Arabidopsis carotenoid mutants demonstrate that lutein is not essential for photosynthesis in higher plants.

    PubMed Central

    Pogson, B; McDonald, K A; Truong, M; Britton, G; DellaPenna, D

    1996-01-01

    Lutein, a dihydroxy beta, epsilon-carotenoid, is the predominant carotenoid in photosynthetic plant tissue and plays a critical role in light-harvesting complex assembly and function. To further understand lutein synthesis and function, we isolated four lutein-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis that define two loci, lut1 and lut2 (for lutein deficient). These loci are required for lutein biosynthesis but not for the biosynthesis of beta, beta-carotenoids. The lut1 mutations are recessive, accumulate high levels of zeinoxanthin, which is the immediate precursor of lutein, and define lut1 as a disruption in epsilon ring hydroxylation. The lut2 mutations are semidominant, and their biochemical phenotype is consistent with a disruption of epsilon ring cyclization. The lut2 locus cosegregates with the recently isolated epsilon cyclase gene, thus, providing additional evidence that the lut2 alleles are mutations in the epsilon cyclase gene. It appears likely that the epsilon cyclase is a key step in regulating lutein levels and the ratio of lutein to beta,beta-carotenoids. Surprisingly, despite the absence of lutein, neither the lut1 nor lut2 mutation causes a visible deleterious phenotype or altered chlorophyll content, but both mutants have significantly higher levels of beta, beta-carotenoids. In particular, there is a stable increase in the xanthophyll cycle pigments (violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin) in both lut1 and lut2 mutants as well as an increase in zeinoxanthin in lut1 and beta-carotene in lut2. The accumulation of specific carotenoids is discussed as it pertains to the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis and incorporation into the photosynthetic apparatus. Presumably, particular beta, beta-carotenoids are able to compensate functionally and structurally for lutein in the photosystems of Arabidopsis. PMID:8837513

  13. Research on the effects of altered gravity and other factors on the growth and development of higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    The establishment, maintenance and use of the NASA-UCSC Botanical Centrifuge is discussed. The broad goals of this project were: (1) to establish facilities for conducting experiments under conditions of sustained centrifugation; (2) to pursue research on the gravitational physiology of higher plants; (3) to develop experimental hardware suitable for studies of plant development in the weightless condition; and (4) to accommodate visiting investigators whose researches are of interest to the NASA Biomedical Program and who may require for some limited time, the use of a medium size centrifuge with associated facilities appropriate for plant physiological studies.

  14. Impaired growth and development of Colorado potato beetle larvae on potato plants overexpressing the oryzacystatin II gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant proteinase inhibitors are attractive tools for crop improvement and their heterologous expression can enhance insect resistance in transgenic plants. Oryzacystatins I and II (OCI and OCII) show potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine proteinases for protein digestion. To evaluate ...

  15. The dual targeting ability of type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases arose early in land plant evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Type II NAD(PH) dehydrogenases are located on the inner mitochondrial membrane of plants, fungi, protists and some primitive animals. However, recent observations have been made which identify several Arabidopsis type II dehydrogenases as dual targeted proteins. Targeting either mitochondria and peroxisomes or mitochondria and chloroplasts. Results Members of the ND protein family were identified in various plant species. Phylogenetic analyses and subcellular targeting predictions were carried out for all proteins. All ND proteins from three model plant species Arabidopsis, rice and Physcomitrella were cloned as N- and C-terminal GFP fusions and subcellular localisations were determined. Dual targeting of plant type II dehydrogenases was observed to have evolved early in plant evolution and to be widespread throughout different plant species. In all three species tested dual targeting to both mitochondria and peroxisomes was found for at least one NDA and NDB type protein. In addition two NDB type proteins from Physcomitrella were also found to target chloroplasts. The dual targeting of NDC type proteins was found to have evolved later in plant evolution. Conclusions The functions of type II dehydrogenases within plant cells will have to be re-evaluated in light of this newly identified subcellular targeting information. PMID:23841539

  16. Different hydrogen isotope fractionations during lipid formation in higher plants: Implications for paleohydrology reconstruction at a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinzhao; Liu, Weiguo; An, Zhisheng; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Leaf wax δDn-alkane values have shown to differ significantly among plant life forms (e.g., among grasses, shrubs, and trees) in higher plants. However, the underlying causes for the differences in leaf wax δDn-alkane values among different plant life forms remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that leaf wax δDn-alkane values between major high plant lineages (eudicots versus monocots) differed significantly under the same environmental conditions. Such a difference primarily inherited from different hydrogen biosynthetic fractionations (εwax-lw). Based upon a reanalysis of the available leaf wax δDn-alkane dataset from modern plants in the Northern Hemisphere, we discovered that the apparent hydrogen fractionation factor (εwax-p) between leaf wax δDn-alkane values of major angiosperm lineages and precipitation δD values exhibited distinguishable distribution patterns at a global scale, with an average of ‑140‰ for monocotyledonous species, ‑107‰ for dicotyledonous species. Additionally, variations of leaf wax δDn-alkane values and the εwax-p values in gymnosperms are similar to those of dicotyledonous species. Therefore, the data let us believe that biological factors inherited from plant taxonomies have a significant effect on controlling leaf wax δDn-alkane values in higher plants.

  17. Different hydrogen isotope fractionations during lipid formation in higher plants: Implications for paleohydrology reconstruction at a global scale

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinzhao; Liu, Weiguo; An, Zhisheng; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Leaf wax δDn-alkane values have shown to differ significantly among plant life forms (e.g., among grasses, shrubs, and trees) in higher plants. However, the underlying causes for the differences in leaf wax δDn-alkane values among different plant life forms remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that leaf wax δDn-alkane values between major high plant lineages (eudicots versus monocots) differed significantly under the same environmental conditions. Such a difference primarily inherited from different hydrogen biosynthetic fractionations (εwax-lw). Based upon a reanalysis of the available leaf wax δDn-alkane dataset from modern plants in the Northern Hemisphere, we discovered that the apparent hydrogen fractionation factor (εwax-p) between leaf wax δDn-alkane values of major angiosperm lineages and precipitation δD values exhibited distinguishable distribution patterns at a global scale, with an average of −140‰ for monocotyledonous species, −107‰ for dicotyledonous species. Additionally, variations of leaf wax δDn-alkane values and the εwax-p values in gymnosperms are similar to those of dicotyledonous species. Therefore, the data let us believe that biological factors inherited from plant taxonomies have a significant effect on controlling leaf wax δDn-alkane values in higher plants. PMID:26806719

  18. Functional diversity of 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases in plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Farrow, Scott C.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative enzymes catalyze many different reactions in plant metabolism. Among this suite of enzymes are the 2-oxoglutarate/Fe(II)-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODDs). Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) as often considered the most versatile oxidative enzymes in nature, but the diversity and complexity of reactions catalyzed by 2-ODDs is superior to the CYPs. The list of oxidative reactions catalyzed by 2-ODDs includes hydroxylations, demethylations, desaturations, ring closure, ring cleavage, epimerization, rearrangement, halogenation, and demethylenation. Furthermore, recent work, including the discovery of 2-ODDs involved in epigenetic regulation, and others catalyzing several characteristic steps in specialized metabolic pathways, support the argument that 2-ODDs are among the most versatile and important oxidizing biological catalysts. In this review, we survey and summarize the pertinent literature with a focus on several key reactions catalyzed by 2-ODDs, and discuss the significance and impact of these enzymes in plant metabolism. PMID:25346740

  19. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part II: Alkaloids, Terpenoids and Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Justina N; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stands as second most common cause of disease-related deaths in humans. Resistance of cancer to chemotherapy remains challenging to both scientists and physicians. Medicinal plants are known to contribute significantly to a large population of Africa, which is to a very large extent linked to folkloric claims which is part of their livelihood. In this review paper, the potential of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents from African flora has been explored, with suggested modes of action, where such data is available. Literature search revealed plant-derived compounds from African flora showing anti-cancer and/or cytotoxic activities, which have been tested in vitro and in vivo. This corresponds to 400 compounds (from mildly active to very active) covering various compound classes. However, in this part II, we only discussed the three major compound classes which are: flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids.

  20. Improvements to the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    If the present research program is successful, heavy-ion beams can be used to ignite targets and to produce high gain for yields of about 350 MJ. HYLIFE-II is a power plant design based on surrounding such targets with thick liquid (Flibe, Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) so that the chamber and other apparatus can not only stand up to these 350 MJ bursts of energy but do so without replacing components during the plant`s 30-year life. The capacity factor will be increased and the cost of component replacement will be decreased. Continuous improvements to the design are being made to increase safety, decrease the generation of radioactive material, and reduce the cost of electricity (COE). Improvements discussed in this paper decreased COE for each effect by the amount in parentheses: increased plant size (22%), increased capacity factor and reduced component replacement (20%), reduced remote maintenance equipment (3.2%), use of nonnuclear grade chamber, pumps and piping (2.9%), reduced tritium inventory by a factor of 2.4, reduced excess tritium production with attendant increase energy release in the blanket (1.8%), corrected treatment of Flibe inventory costs (3.4%).

  1. Mitochondrial Phosphatidylserine Decarboxylase from Higher Plants. Functional Complementation in Yeast, Localization in Plants, and Overexpression in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Rontein, Denis; Wu, Wen-I; Voelker, Dennis R.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2003-01-01

    Plants are known to synthesize ethanolamine (Etn) moieties by decarboxylation of free serine (Ser), but there is also some evidence for phosphatidyl-Ser (Ptd-Ser) decarboxylation. Database searches identified diverse plant cDNAs and an Arabidopsis gene encoding 50-kD proteins homologous to yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammalian mitochondrial Ptd-Ser decarboxylases (PSDs). Like the latter, the plant proteins have putative mitochondrial targeting and inner membrane sorting sequences and contain near the C terminus a Glycine-Serine-Threonine motif corresponding to the site of proteolysis and catalytic pyruvoyl residue formation. A truncated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cDNA lacking the targeting sequence and a chimeric construct in which the targeting and sorting sequences were replaced by those from yeast PSD1 both complemented the Etn requirement of a yeast psd1 psd2 mutant, and PSD activity was detected in the mitochondria of the complemented cells. Immunoblot analysis of potato (Solanum tuberosum) mitochondria demonstrated that PSD is located in mitochondrial membranes, and mRNA analysis in Arabidopsis showed that the mitochondrial PSD gene is expressed at low levels throughout the plant. An Arabidopsis knockup mutant grew normally but had 6- to 13-fold more mitochondrial PSD mRNA and 9-fold more mitochondrial PSD activity. Total membrane PSD activity was, however, unchanged in the mutant, showing mitochondrial activity to be a minor part of the total. These results establish that plants can synthesize Etn moieties via a phospholipid pathway and have both mitochondrial and extramitochondrial PSDs. They also indicate that mitochondrial PSD is an important housekeeping enzyme whose expression is strongly regulated at the transcriptional level. PMID:12857846

  2. A Single Residue Switch for Mg2+-dependent Inhibition Characterizes Plant Class II Diterpene Cyclases from Primary and Secondary Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Francis M.; Prisic, Sladjana; Davenport, Emily K.; Determan, Mara K.; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2010-01-01

    Class II diterpene cyclases mediate the acid-initiated cycloisomerization reaction that serves as the committed step in biosynthesis of the large class of labdane-related diterpenoid natural products, which includes the important gibberellin plant hormones. Intriguingly, these enzymes are differentially susceptible to inhibition by their Mg2+ cofactor, with those involved in gibberellin biosynthesis being more sensitive to such inhibition than those devoted to secondary metabolism, which presumably limits flux toward the potent gibberellin phytohormones. Such inhibition has been suggested to arise from intrasteric Mg2+ binding to the DXDD motif that cooperatively acts as the catalytic acid, whose affinity must then be modulated in some fashion. While further investigating class II diterpene cyclase catalysis, we discovered a conserved basic residue that seems to act as a counter ion to the DXDD motif, enhancing the ability of aspartic acid to carry out the requisite energetically difficult protonation of a carbon-carbon double bond and also affecting inhibitory Mg2+ binding. Notably, this residue is conserved as a histidine in enzymes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis and as an arginine in those dedicated to secondary metabolism. Interchanging the identity of these residues is sufficient to switch the sensitivity of the parent enzyme to inhibition by Mg2+. These striking findings indicate that this is a single residue switch for Mg2+ inhibition, which not only supports the importance of this biochemical regulatory mechanism in limiting gibberellin biosynthesis, but the importance of its release, presumably to enable higher flux, into secondary metabolism. PMID:20430888

  3. Linkage disequilibrium and association studies in higher plants: present status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pushpendra K; Rustgi, Sachin; Kulwal, Pawan L

    2005-03-01

    During the last two decades, DNA-based molecular markers have been extensively utilized for a variety of studies in both plant and animal systems. One of the major uses of these markers is the construction of genome-wide molecular maps and the genetic analysis of simple and complex traits. However, these studies are generally based on linkage analysis in mapping populations, thus placing serious limitations in using molecular markers for genetic analysis in a variety of plant systems. Therefore, alternative approaches have been suggested, and one of these approaches makes use of linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association analysis. Although this approach of association analysis has already been used for studies on genetics of complex traits (including different diseases) in humans, its use in plants has just started. In the present review, we first define and distinguish between LD and association mapping, and then briefly describe various measures of LD and the two methods of its depiction. We then give a list of different factors that affect LD without discussing them, and also discuss the current issues of LD research in plants. Later, we also describe the various uses of LD in plant genomics research and summarize the present status of LD research in different plant genomes. In the end, we discuss briefly the future prospects of LD research in plants, and give a list of softwares that are useful in LD research, which is available as electronic supplementary material (ESM).

  4. Interactions of metal-based engineered nanoparticles with aquatic higher plants: A review of the state of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Thwala, Melusi; Klaine, Stephen J; Musee, Ndeke

    2016-07-01

    The rising potential for the release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into aquatic environments requires evaluation of risks to protect ecological health. The present review examines knowledge pertaining to the interactions of metal-based ENPs with aquatic higher plants, identifies information gaps, and raises considerations for future research to advance knowledge on the subject. The discussion focuses on ENPs' bioaccessibility; uptake, adsorption, translocation, and bioaccumulation; and toxicity effects on aquatic higher plants. An information deficit surrounds the uptake of ENPs and associated dynamics, because the influence of ENP characteristics and water quality conditions has not been well documented. Dissolution appears to be a key mechanism driving bioaccumulation of ENPs, whereas nanoparticulates often adsorb to plant surfaces with minimal internalization. However, few reports document the internalization of ENPs by plants; thus, the role of nanoparticulates' internalization in bioaccumulation and toxicity remains unclear, requiring further investigation. The toxicities of metal-based ENPs mainly have been associated with dissolution as a predominant mechanism, although nano toxicity has also been reported. To advance knowledge in this domain, future investigations need to integrate the influence of ENP characteristics and water physicochemical parameters, as their interplay determines ENP bioaccessibility and influences their risk to health of aquatic higher plants. Furthermore, harmonization of test protocols is recommended for fast tracking the generation of comparable data. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1677-1694. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26757140

  5. Gene-enzyme telationships in somatic cells and their organismal derivatives in higher plants. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R. A.

    1980-04-21

    Progress is reported in the following subject areas: (1) chemistry of the arogenate molecule; (2) plant enzymology at the organismal level; (3) isolation of regulatory mutants in tobacco; and (4) stability of the haploid state in Nicotiana sylvestris.

  6. Adaptations of higher plant cell walls to water loss: drought vs desiccation.

    PubMed

    Moore, John P; Vicré-Gibouin, Mäite; Farrant, Jill M; Driouich, Azeddine

    2008-10-01

    Water-deficit stress poses unique challenges to plant cells dependent on a hydrostatic skeleton and a polysaccharide-rich cell wall for growth and development. How the plant cell wall is adapted to loss of water is of interest in developing a general understanding of water stress tolerance in plants and of relevance in strategies related to crop improvement. Drought tolerance involves adaptations to growth under reduced water potential and the concomitant restructuring of the cell wall that allow growth processes to occur at lower water contents. Desiccation tolerance, by contrast, is the evolution of cell walls that are capable of losing the majority of cellular water without suffering permanent and irreversible damage to cell wall structure and polymer organization. This minireview highlights common features and differences between these two water-deficit responses observed in plants, emphasizing the role of the cell wall, while suggesting future research avenues that could benefit fundamental understanding in this area.

  7. Small intestinal hydrolysis of plant glucosides: higher glucohydrolase activities in rodents than passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Lessner, Krista M; Dearing, M Denise; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev; Karasov, William H

    2015-09-01

    Glycosides are a major group of plant secondary compounds characterized by one or more sugars conjugated to a lipophilic, possibly toxic aglycone, which is released upon hydrolysis. We compared small intestinal homogenate hydrolysis activity of three rodent and two avian species against four substrates: amygdalin and sinigrin, two plant-derived glucosides, the sugar lactose, whose hydrolysis models some activity against flavonoid and isoflavonoid glucosides, and the disaccharide sugar maltose (from starch), used as a comparator. Three new findings extend our understanding of physiological processing of plant glucosides: (1) the capacity of passerine birds to hydrolyze plant glucosides seems relatively low, compared with rodents; (2) in this first test of vertebrates' enzymic capacity to hydrolyze glucosinolates, sinigrin hydrolytic capacity seems low; (3) in laboratory mice, hydrolytic activity against lactose resides on the enterocytes' apical membrane facing the intestinal lumen, but activity against amygdalin seems to reside inside enterocytes.

  8. The evolutionary reality of species and higher taxa in plants: a survey of post-modern opinion and evidence.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Timothy G; Humphreys, Aelys M

    2015-07-01

    Species are normally considered to be the fundamental unit for understanding the evolution of biodiversity. Yet, in a survey of botanists in 1940, twice as many felt that plant genera were more natural units than plant species. Revisiting the survey, we found more people now regarded species as a more evolutionarily real unit, but a sizeable number still felt that genera were more evolutionarily real than species. Definitions of 'evolutionarily real' split into those based on shared evolutionary history and those based on shared evolutionary fate via ongoing evolutionary processes. We discuss recent work testing for shared evolutionary fate at the species and higher levels and present preliminary evidence for evolutionarily significant higher taxa in plants.

  9. Effect of low-intensity infrared and millimeter radiation on higher plants' biopotentials.

    PubMed

    Mironova, E A; Romanovskii, Y M

    2001-01-01

    This article studies the effect of local low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on the bioelectric responses of plants. In our investigation, we used thirty-three wavelengths in the visible and infrared spectrurm regions as well as three wavelengths in the millimeter spectrum region. As a result, we obtained the bioelectric responses of plants to electromagnetic radiation not only in the absorption region of cellular pigments (such as chlorophyll, flavin, and phytochrome) but also in the absorption region of water molecules.

  10. Bioremediation of Atmospheric Hydrocarbons via Bacteria Naturally Associated with Leaves of Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Al-Awadhi, H; Dashti, N; Khanafer, M; El-Nemr, I; Sorkhoh, N; Radwan, S S

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria associated with leaves of sixteen cultivated and wild plant species from all over Kuwait were analyzed by a culture-independent approach. This technique depended on partial sequencing of 16S rDNA regions in total genomic DNA from the bacterial consortia and comparing the resulting sequences with those in the GenBank database. To release bacterial cells from leaves, tough methods such as sonication co-released too much leaf chloroplasts whose DNA interfered with the bacterial DNA. A more satisfactory bacterial release with a minimum of chloroplast co-release was done by gently rubbing the leaf surfaces with soft tooth brushes in phosphate buffer. The leaves of all plant species harbored on their surfaces bacterial communities predominated by hydrocarbonoclastic (hydrocarbon-utilizing) bacterial genera. Leaves of 6 representative plants brought about in the laboratory effective removal of volatile hydrocarbons in sealed microcosms. Each individual plant species had a unique bacterial community structure. Collectively, the phyllospheric microflora on the studied plants comprised the genera Flavobacterium, Halomonas, Arthrobacter, Marinobacter, Neisseria, Ralstonia, Ochrobactrum. Exiguobacterium, Planomicrobium, Propionibacterium, Kocuria, Rhodococcus and Stenotrophomonas. This community structure was dramatically different from the structure we determined earlier for the same plants using the culture-dependent approach, although in both cases, hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria were frequent.

  11. Molecular Properties and Functional Divergence of the Dehydroascorbate Reductase Gene Family in Lower and Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Jie; Wang, Wei; Yang, Hai-Ling; Li, Yue; Kang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Yang, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), which reduces oxidized ascorbate, is important for maintaining an appropriate ascorbate redox state in plant cells. To date, genome-wide molecular characterization of DHARs has only been conducted in bryophytes (Physcomitrella patens) and eudicots (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana). In this study, to gain a general understanding of the molecular properties and functional divergence of the DHARs in land plants, we further conducted a comprehensive analysis of DHARs from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, gymnosperm Picea abies and monocot Zea mays. DHARs were present as a small gene family in all of the land plants we examined, with gene numbers ranging from two to four. All the plants contained cytosolic and chloroplastic DHARs, indicating dehydroascorbate (DHA) can be directly reduced in the cytoplasm and chloroplast by DHARs in all the plants. A novel vacuolar DHAR was found in Z. mays, indicating DHA may also be reduced in the vacuole by DHARs in Z. mays. The DHARs within each species showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, subcellular localizations, and enzymatic characteristics. This study provides new insights into the molecular characteristics and functional divergence of DHARs in land plants. PMID:26684301

  12. Progress in the study of biological effects of hydrogen on higher plants and its promising application in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While the medical effects of hydrogen have been broadly analyzed, research into the effects of hydrogen on higher plants has often been of lesser concern. Recent studies on the botanical effects of hydrogen have shown that it is involved in signal transduction pathways of plant hormones and can improve the resistance of plants to stressors, such as drought, salinity, cold and heavy metals. In addition, hydrogen could delay postharvest ripening and senescence of fruits. Observational evidence has also shown that hydrogen can regulate the flowering time of plants. These results indicate that hydrogen may have great potential applications within agricultural production, indicating that there may be a new ‘hydrogen agricultural era’ to come. PMID:25276344

  13. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  14. Rhamnogalacturonan-II cross-linking of plant pectins via boron bridges occurs during polysaccharide synthesis and/or secretion.

    PubMed

    Chormova, Dimitra; Messenger, David J; Fry, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II), a domain of plant cell wall pectins, is able to cross-link with other RG-II domains through borate diester bridges. Although it is known to affect mechanical properties of the cell wall, the biochemical requirements and lifecycle of this cross-linking remain unclear. We developed a PAGE methodology to allow separation of monomeric and dimeric RG-II and used this to study the dynamics of cross-linking in vitro and in vivo. Rosa cells grown in medium with no added boron contained no RG-II dimers, although these re-appeared after addition of boron to the medium. However, other Rosa cultures which were unable to synthesize new polysaccharides did not show dimer formation. We conclude that RG-II normally becomes cross-linked intraprotoplasmically or during secretion, but not post-secretion.

  15. The soil-like substrate: problems and perspective of its use for higher plants cultivation in LSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Velichko, Vladimir; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..; Ushakova, Sofya; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Being the product of biological mineralization of plant wastes, the soil-like substrate (SLS) contains sufficient amount of nutrients required for plant growth and development. The multiple experiments carried out at the IBP SB RAS demonstrated the SLS fitness for cultivation of higher plant of phototrophic unit in biological-technical life support systems (BTLSS). Together with it, some problems demanding further investigations and solutions had revealed. One of the cardinal problems was interlinked with a relatively low allowance of assimilable nitrogen in comparison with other elements contained in the SLS. Different problems arising under a durational plant cultivation on the SLS in a regime of multi-species uneven-aged conveyer is considered. The work attends considerable attention to analysis of questions occurring at plant cultivation on a reusable SLS that resulted in a yield decrease. The ways of more effective exploitation of the SLS both as a bioreactor for plant wastes mineralization and as a substrate for plant cultivation in a long-functioning BTLSS of an increased closure level of mass exchange processes are suggested.

  16. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part II. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.).

    PubMed

    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, a study was undertaken to quantify heavy metal uptake by 4-week old buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.) plants during 18 days of irrigation with 8 different Cu and Zn solutions under two transpiration rates (TR). At 4 weeks, potted buckwheat plants were transferred into one of the two growth chambers, offering either a high or low vapour pressure deficit (VDP) for, respectively, a high or low TR. Triplicate pots received one of the 8 irrigation treatments containing one of two Zn levels (0 and 25 mg/L) combined with one of four Cu levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L). Daily TR were measured by weighing the evapo-transpired water lost from the planted pot, less was the evaporation loss measured from triplicate non-planted pots. After 0, 6, 12 and 18 days of treatment, the stems and leaves of three randomly selected plants were harvested and after 18 days, the roots were harvested to determine Cu and Zn uptake. The treatments did not affect TR in terms of dry plant mass, indicating the absence of toxic effects. Irrigating with Zn, without Cu, increased dry biomass production, whereas the lowest biomass occurred with 15 and 30 mg/L of Cu with and without 25 mg/L of Zn, respectively, because higher applications of heavy metal significantly reduced soil pH. Plant Cu and Zn uptake increased with TR. With higher levels of Cu, Zn uptake by buckwheat was significantly reduced, while Zn had a slight but non-significant impact on Cu uptake. Previously and in a study exposing wheat plants to the same conditions, Cu significantly increased Zn uptake, while Zn had a slight but insignificant negative effect on Cu uptake. The buckwheat roots contained the greatest levels of Cu and Zn, indicating their role in moderating heavy metal uptake. Also, both Cu and Zn had a synergetic effect on each other in terms of root levels, and a similar observation was made in the earlier similar experiment using wheat plants

  17. Functional Analyses of the Plant Photosystem I–Light-Harvesting Complex II Supercomplex Reveal That Light-Harvesting Complex II Loosely Bound to Photosystem II Is a Very Efficient Antenna for Photosystem I in State II[W

    PubMed Central

    Galka, Pierre; Santabarbara, Stefano; Khuong, Thi Thu Huong; Degand, Hervé; Morsomme, Pierre; Jennings, Robert C.; Boekema, Egbert J.; Caffarri, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    State transitions are an important photosynthetic short-term response that allows energy distribution balancing between photosystems I (PSI) and II (PSII). In plants when PSII is preferentially excited compared with PSI (State II), part of the major light-harvesting complex LHCII migrates to PSI to form a PSI-LHCII supercomplex. So far, little is known about this complex, mainly due to purification problems. Here, a stable PSI-LHCII supercomplex is purified from Arabidopsis thaliana and maize (Zea mays) plants. It is demonstrated that LHCIIs loosely bound to PSII in State I are the trimers mainly involved in state transitions and become strongly bound to PSI in State II. Specific Lhcb1-3 isoforms are differently represented in the mobile LHCII compared with S and M trimers. Fluorescence analyses indicate that excitation energy migration from mobile LHCII to PSI is rapid and efficient, and the quantum yield of photochemical conversion of PSI-LHCII is substantially unaffected with respect to PSI, despite a sizable increase of the antenna size. An updated PSI-LHCII structural model suggests that the low-energy chlorophylls 611 and 612 in LHCII interact with the chlorophyll 11145 at the interface of PSI. In contrast with the common opinion, we suggest that the mobile pool of LHCII may be considered an intimate part of the PSI antenna system that is displaced to PSII in State I. PMID:22822202

  18. PsbS-specific zeaxanthin-independent changes in fluorescence emission spectrum as a signature of energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Tovuu, Altanzaya; Dogsom, Bolormaa; Lee, Chung Yeol; Lee, Choon-Hwan

    2010-05-01

    The PsbS protein of photosystem II is necessary for the development of energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence (qE), and PsbS-deficient Arabidopsis plant leaves failed to show qE-specific changes in the steady-state 77 K fluorescence emission spectra observed in wild-type leaves. The difference spectrum between the quenched and un-quenched states showed a negative peak at 682 nm. Although the level of qE development in the zeaxanthin-less npq1-2 mutant plants, which lacked violaxanthin de-epoxidase enzyme, was only half that of wild type, there were no noticeable changes in this qE-dependent difference spectrum. This zeaxanthin-independent DeltaF682 signal was not dependent on state transition, and the signal was not due to photobleaching of pigments either. These results suggest that DeltaF682 signal is formed due to PsbS-specific conformational changes in the quenching site of qE and is a new signature of qE generation in higher plants.

  19. Engineering plastid fatty acid biosynthesis to improve food quality and biofuel production in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Marcelo; Carrer, Helaine

    2011-06-01

    The ability to manipulate plant fatty acid biosynthesis by using new biotechnological approaches has allowed the production of transgenic plants with unusual fatty acid profile and increased oil content. This review focuses on the production of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) and the increase in oil content in plants using molecular biology tools. Evidences suggest that regular consumption of food rich in VLCPUFAs has multiple positive health benefits. Alternative sources of these nutritional fatty acids are found in cold-water fishes. However, fish stocks are in severe decline because of decades of overfishing, and also fish oils can be contaminated by the accumulation of toxic compounds. Recently, there is also an increase in oilseed use for the production of biofuels. This tendency is partly associated with the rapidly rising costs of petroleum, increased concern about the environmental impact of fossil oil and the attractive need to develop renewable sources of fuel. In contrast to this scenario, oil derived from crop plants is normally contaminant free and less environmentally aggressive. Genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages, including high-level foreign protein expression, marker-gene excision and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Here, we describe the possibility to improve fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids, production of new fatty acids and increase their content in plants by genetic engineering of plastid fatty acid biosynthesis via plastid transformation.

  20. Plant growth during the Greenhouse II experiment on the Mir orbital station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bingham, G. E.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Ivanova, I.; Chernova, L.; Podolsky, I.

    2003-01-01

    We carried out three experiments with Super Dwarf wheat in the Bulgarian/Russian growth chamber Svet (0.1 m2 growing area) on the Space Station Mir. This paper mostly describes the first of these NASA-supported trials, began on Aug. 13, 1995. Plants were sampled five times and harvested on Nov. 9 after 90 days. Equipment failures led to low irradiance (3, then 4 of 6 lamp sets failed), instances of high temperatures (ca. 37 degrees C), and sometimes excessive substrate moisture. Although plants grew for the 90 d, no wheat heads were produced. Considering the low light levels, plants were surprisingly green, but of course biomass production was low. Plants were highly disoriented (low light, mirror walls?). Fixed and dried samples and the root module were returned on the U.S. Shuttle Atlantis on Nov. 20, 1995. Samples of the substrate, a nutrient-charged zeolite called Balkanine, were taken from the root module, carefully examined for roots, weighed, dried, and reweighed. The Svet control unit and the light bank were shipped to Moscow. An experiment validation test (EVT) of plant growth and experimental procedures, carried out in Moscow, was highly successful. Equipment built in Utah to measure CO2, H2O vapor, irradiance, air and leaf (IR) temperature, O2, pressure, and substrate moisture worked well in the EVT and in space. After this manuscript was first prepared, plants were grown in Mir with a new light bank and controller for 123 d in late 1996 and 39 days in 1996/1997. Plants grew exceptionally well with higher biomass production than in any previous space experiment, but the ca. 280 wheat heads that were produced in 1996 contained no seeds. Ethylene in the cabin atmosphere was responsible. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  1. Plant growth during the greenhouse II experiment on the Mir orbital station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bingham, G. E.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Ivanova, I.; Chernova, L.; Podolsky, I.

    We carried out three experiments with Super Dwarf wheat in the Bulgarian/Russian growth chamber Svet (0.1 m2 growing area) on the Space Station Mir. This paper mostly describes the first of these NASA-supported trials, began on Aug. 13, 1995. Plants were sampled five times and harvested on Nov. 9 after 90 days. Equipment failures led to low irradiance (3, then 4 of 6 lamp sets failed), instances of high temperatures (ca. 37 °C), and sometimes excessive substrate moisture. Although plants grew for the 90 d, no wheat heads were produced. Considering the low light levels, plants were surprisingly green, but of course biomass production was low. Plants were highly disoriented (low light, mirror walls?). Fixed and dried samples and the root module were returned on the U.S. Shuttle Atlantis on Nov. 20, 1995. Samples of the substrate, a nutrient-charged zeolite called Balkanine, were taken from the root module, carefully examined for roots, weighed, dried, and reweighed. The Svet control unit and the light bank were shipped to Moscow. An experiment validation test (EVT) of plant growth and experimental procedures, carried out in Moscow, was highly successful. Equipment built in Utah to measure CO2, H2O vapor, irradiance, air and leaf (IR) temperature, O2, pressure, and substrate moisture worked well in the EVT and in space. After this manuscript was first prepared, plants were grown in Mir with a new light bank and controller for 123 d in late 1996 and 39 days in 1996/1997. Plants grew exceptionally well with higher biomass production than in any previous space experiment, but the ca. 280 wheat heads that were produced in 1996 contained no seeds. Ethylene in the cabin atmosphere was responsible.

  2. Plant Growth During the Greenhouse II Experiment on the MIR Orbital Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bingham, G. E.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Ivanova, I.; Chernova, L.; Podolsky, I.

    2002-01-01

    We carried out three experiments with Super Dwarf wheat in the Bulgarian/Russian growth chamber Svet (0.1 sq m growing area) on the Space Station Mir. This paper mostly describes the first of these NASA-supported trials, began on Aug. 13, 1995. Plants were sampled five times and harvested on Nov. 9 after 90 days. Equipment failures led to low irradiance (three, then four of six lamp sets failed), instances of high temperatures (ca. 37 C), and sometimes excessive-substrate moisture. Although plants grew for the 90 days, no wheat heads were produced. Considering the low light levels, plants were surprisingly green, but of course biomass production was low. Plants were highly disoriented (low light, mirror walls?). Fixed and dried samples and the root module were returned on the US Shuttle Atlantis on Nov. 20, 1995. Samples of the substrate, a nutrient-charged zeolite called Balkanine, were taken from the root module, carefully examined for roots, weighed, dried, and reweighed. The Svet control unit and the light bank were shipped to Moscow. An experiment validation test (EVT) of plant growth and experiment procedures, carried out in Moscow, was highly successful. Equipment built in Utah to measure CO2, H2O vapor, irradiance, air and leaf (IR) temperature, O2, pressure, and substrate moisture worked well in the EVT and in space. After this manuscript was first prepared, plants were grown in Mir with a new light bank and controller for 123 days in late 1996 and 39 days in 1996/1997. Plants grew exceptionally well with higher biomass production than in any previous space experiment, but the ca. 280 wheat heads that were produced in 1996 contained no seeds. Ethylene in the cabin atmosphere was responsible.

  3. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T.; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L.; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A.; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-06-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  4. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences.

  5. Testing Crew Responses to Varied Higher Plant Presentations in the MARS-500 Day Mission Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquit, J. D.; Bates, S. C.; Gushin, V. I.; Synchev, V. N.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Podolsky, I. G.; Marchant, C. C.; Bingham, G. E.

    2008-06-01

    Maintaining psychological and behavioral health of humans during long-duration space missions is of great importance for the future success of space exploration as the hostile space environment adversely impacts the psychological, social, and physiological well-being of humans in space. Growing and tending plants has been proposed as a countermeasures for the negative impacts of long-duration space missions[3] as interactions with plant life on earth have been found to be beneficial to humans in other settings. Preliminary results from a pilot 14-day chamber study appear to support the notion that interactions with plant life may act as a countermeasure for the negative impacts of life in space. Additional data will be collected during the Mars 500-day Chamber Study at Institute of Biomedical Problems (IMBP).

  6. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-06-26

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle.

  7. Differentiating moss from higher plants is critical in studying the carbon cycle of the boreal biome.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Liang, Shunlin; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jingming; Xu, Wenfang; Li, Xianglan; Barr, Alan; Andrew Black, T; Yan, Wende; Goulden, Mike L; Kulmala, Liisa; Lindroth, Anders; Margolis, Hank A; Matsuura, Yojiro; Moors, Eddy; van der Molen, Michiel; Ohta, Takeshi; Pilegaard, Kim; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is used for estimating gross primary production (GPP), often includes contributions from both mosses and vascular plants in boreal ecosystems. For the same NDVI, moss can generate only about one-third of the GPP that vascular plants can because of its much lower photosynthetic capacity. Here, based on eddy covariance measurements, we show that the difference in photosynthetic capacity between these two plant functional types has never been explicitly included when estimating regional GPP in the boreal region, resulting in a substantial overestimation. The magnitude of this overestimation could have important implications regarding a change from a current carbon sink to a carbon source in the boreal region. Moss abundance, associated with ecosystem disturbances, needs to be mapped and incorporated into GPP estimates in order to adequately assess the role of the boreal region in the global carbon cycle. PMID:24967601

  8. Congruence and Diversity of Butterfly-Host Plant Associations at Higher Taxonomic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L.; Donaldson, John

    2013-01-01

    We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages. PMID:23717448

  9. Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Paris, José R; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L; Donaldson, John

    2013-01-01

    We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.

  10. Mercury in mercury(II)-spiked soils is highly susceptible to plant bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Hlodák, Michal; Urík, Martin; Matúš, Peter; Kořenková, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal phytotoxicity assessments usually use soluble metal compounds in spiked soils to evaluate metal bioaccumulation, growth inhibition and adverse effects on physiological parameters. However, exampling mercury phytotoxicity for barley (Hordeum vulgare) this paper highlights unsuitability of this experimental approach. Mercury(II) in spiked soils is extremely bioavailable, and there experimentally determined bioaccumulation is significantly higher compared to reported mercury bioaccumulation efficiency from soils collected from mercury-polluted areas. Our results indicate this is not affected by soil sorption capacity, thus soil ageing and formation of more stable mercuric complexes with soil fractions is necessary for reasonable metal phytotoxicity assessments.

  11. 3D map of the plant photosystem II supercomplex obtained by cryoelectron microscopy and single particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Nield, J; Orlova, E V; Morris, E P; Gowen, B; van Heel, M; Barber, J

    2000-01-01

    Here we describe the first 3D structure of the photosystem II (PSII) supercomplex of higher plants, constructed by single particle analysis of images obtained by cryoelectron microscopy. This large multisubunit membrane protein complex functions to absorb light energy and catalyze the oxidation of water and reduction of plastoquinone. The resolution of the 3D structure is 24 A and emphasizes the dimeric nature of the supercomplex. The extrinsic proteins of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) are readily observed as a tetrameric cluster bound to the lumenal surface. By considering higher resolution data, obtained from electron crystallography, it has been possible to relate the binding sites of the OEC proteins with the underlying intrinsic membrane subunits of the photochemical reaction center core. The model suggests that the 33 kDa OEC protein is located towards the CP47/D2 side of the reaction center but is also positioned over the C-terminal helices of the D1 protein including its CD lumenal loop. In contrast, the model predicts that the 23/17 kDa OEC proteins are positioned at the N-terminus of the D1 protein incorporating the AB lumenal loop of this protein and two other unidentified transmembrane helices. Overall the 3D model represents a significant step forward in revealing the structure of the photosynthetic OEC whose activity is required to sustain the aerobic atmosphere on our planet.

  12. How endogenous plant cell-wall degradation mechanisms can help achieve higher efficiency in saccharification of biomass.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Eveline Q P; De Souza, Amanda P; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-07-01

    Cell-wall recalcitrance to hydrolysis still represents one of the major bottlenecks for second-generation bioethanol production. This occurs despite the development of pre-treatments, the prospect of new enzymes, and the production of transgenic plants with less-recalcitrant cell walls. Recalcitrance, which is the intrinsic resistance to breakdown imposed by polymer assembly, is the result of inherent limitations in its three domains. These consist of: (i) porosity, associated with a pectin matrix impairing trafficking through the wall; (ii) the glycomic code, which refers to the fine-structural emergent complexity of cell-wall polymers that are unique to cells, tissues, and species; and (iii) cellulose crystallinity, which refers to the organization in micro- and/or macrofibrils. One way to circumvent recalcitrance could be by following cell-wall hydrolysis strategies underlying plant endogenous mechanisms that are optimized to precisely modify cell walls in planta. Thus, the cell-wall degradation that occurs during fruit ripening, abscission, storage cell-wall mobilization, and aerenchyma formation are reviewed in order to highlight how plants deal with recalcitrance and which are the routes to couple prospective enzymes and cocktail designs with cell-wall features. The manipulation of key enzyme levels in planta can help achieving biologically pre-treated walls (i.e. less recalcitrant) before plants are harvested for bioethanol production. This may be helpful in decreasing the costs associated with producing bioethanol from biomass.

  13. Phosphoinositide kinases and the synthesis of polyphosphoinositides in higher plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drobak, B. K.; Dewey, R. E.; Boss, W. F.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are a family of inositol-containing phospholipids which are present in all eukaryotic cells. Although in most cells these lipids, with the exception of phosphatidylinositol, constitute only a very minor proportion of total cellular lipids, they have received immense attention by researchers in the past 15-20 years. This is due to the discovery that these lipids, rather than just having structural functions, play key roles in a wide range of important cellular processes. Much less is known about the plant phosphoinositides than about their mammalian counterparts. However, it has been established that a functional phosphoinositide system exists in plant cells and it is becoming increasingly clear that inositol-containing lipids are likely to play many important roles throughout the life of a plant. It is not our intention to give an exhaustive overview of all aspects of the field, but rather we focus on the phosphoinositide kinases responsible for the synthesis of all phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol. Also, we mention some of the aspects of current phosphoinositide research which, in our opinion, are most likely to provide a suitable starting point for further research into the role of phosphoinositides in plants.

  14. Phosphoinositide kinases and the synthesis of polyphosphoinositides in higher plant cells.

    PubMed

    Drøbak, B K; Dewey, R E; Boss, W F

    1999-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are a family of inositol-containing phospholipids which are present in all eukaryotic cells. Although in most cells these lipids, with the exception of phosphatidylinositol, constitute only a very minor proportion of total cellular lipids, they have received immense attention by researchers in the past 15-20 years. This is due to the discovery that these lipids, rather than just having structural functions, play key roles in a wide range of important cellular processes. Much less is known about the plant phosphoinositides than about their mammalian counterparts. However, it has been established that a functional phosphoinositide system exists in plant cells and it is becoming increasingly clear that inositol-containing lipids are likely to play many important roles throughout the life of a plant. It is not our intention to give an exhaustive overview of all aspects of the field, but rather we focus on the phosphoinositide kinases responsible for the synthesis of all phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol. Also, we mention some of the aspects of current phosphoinositide research which, in our opinion, are most likely to provide a suitable starting point for further research into the role of phosphoinositides in plants.

  15. Solar Ethanol Demonstration Plant: report of Phase I, technology assessment and Phase II, concept selection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The solar ethanol demonstration plant is a most versatile facility for demonstrating the feasibility of on-farm, small scale ethanol production using solar energy as the primary heat source. This facility will be capable of processing the full range of feed stocks - not only the sugar and starch crops but also the cellulose feedstocks on which little data have been collected. This plant is unique in that it will be designed to permit the addition of modules (needed for the processing of cellulose and/or the demonstration of the continuous cycle) and the interchange of components such as fermenters, distillation columns, and molecular sieves which will enable comparative performance data among specific components. The feasibility of solar energy in ethanol production and the utilization of cascaded waste heat for other on-farm uses are also major design features. Engineering and cost analysis was performed to formulate a preliminary design for a unique solar ethanol demonstration plant for on-farm use. Energy requirements were calculated for a variety of starches, simple sugars, and cellulose. These requirements, in increasing order of Btu's required per gallon of ethanol produced, were simple sugars (low), grains (moderate), and cellulose (high). A complete listing of all feedstocks examined is presented. Chapter II provides the design requirements and the detailed process plant design information with flow, layout and performance information. Chapter III provides the results of the ethanol feedstock energy requirements study and chapter IV contains supporting details of the solar collector selection process. The three appendixes which follow address the ethanol fermentation process, the range of cellulose-ethanol production processes, and a detailed description of the Solar Collector performance model.

  16. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-02-23

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work a set of computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) has been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here the authors consider a severe lost of coolant accident (LOCA) producing simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the containment) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and containment building it self). Even though containment failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product release and transport. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 6 mSv (0.6 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  17. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  18. Isolation and characterization of ice-binding proteins from higher plants.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Adam J; Vanderbeld, Barbara; Bredow, Melissa; Tomalty, Heather; Davies, Peter L; Walker, Virginia K

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of ice-binding proteins from plants can involve many techniques, only a few of which are presented here. Chief among these methods are tests for ice recrystallization inhibition activity. Two distinct procedures are described; neither is normally used for precise quantitative assays. Thermal hysteresis assays are used for quantitative studies but are also useful for ice crystal morphologies, which are important for the understanding of ice-plane binding. Once the sequence of interest is cloned, recombinant expression, necessary to verify ice-binding protein identity can present challenges, and a strategy for recovery of soluble, active protein is described. Lastly, verification of function in planta borrows from standard protocols, but with an additional screen applicable to ice-binding proteins. Here we have attempted to assist researchers wishing to isolate and characterize ice-binding proteins from plants with a few methods critical to success.

  19. Isolation and characterization of ice-binding proteins from higher plants.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Adam J; Vanderbeld, Barbara; Bredow, Melissa; Tomalty, Heather; Davies, Peter L; Walker, Virginia K

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of ice-binding proteins from plants can involve many techniques, only a few of which are presented here. Chief among these methods are tests for ice recrystallization inhibition activity. Two distinct procedures are described; neither is normally used for precise quantitative assays. Thermal hysteresis assays are used for quantitative studies but are also useful for ice crystal morphologies, which are important for the understanding of ice-plane binding. Once the sequence of interest is cloned, recombinant expression, necessary to verify ice-binding protein identity can present challenges, and a strategy for recovery of soluble, active protein is described. Lastly, verification of function in planta borrows from standard protocols, but with an additional screen applicable to ice-binding proteins. Here we have attempted to assist researchers wishing to isolate and characterize ice-binding proteins from plants with a few methods critical to success. PMID:24852641

  20. Active tectonics and Holocene versus modern catchment erosion rates at 300 MW Baspa II hydroelectric power plant (NW Himalaya, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganits, Erich; Grasemann, Bernhard; Gier, Susanne; Hofmann, Christa-Charlotte; Janda, Christoph; Bookhagen, Bodo; Preh, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The Baspa River is one of the most important tributaries to the Sutlej River in the NW Himalaya (India). Its catchment is 1116 km2 in size, ranges from c. 6400 m asl to 1770 m asl and contains India's largest private hydroelectric facility, the 300 MW Baspa II. Geologically, the hydroelectric installation is located in the Higher Himalayan Crystalline, just above the active Karcham Normal Fault, which is reactivating the Early Miocene Main Central Thrust, one of the principal Himalayan faults. The area is seismically active and mass-movements are common. Around 8200 yrs BP the Baspa was dammed by a rock-avalanche dam, leading to the formation of the originally c. 260 m deep palaeo-lake Sangla palaeo-lake. Detailed sedimentological investigations and radiocarbon dating indicate that the palaeo-lake was completely filled with sediments until c. 5100 yrs BP. This makes the Sangla palaeo-lake to a very rare example of a mass-movement dam with very long duration and its lacustrine sediments represent a valuable archive for geological processes and environmental proxies within the Baspa catchment during the c. 3100 years of its existence - which are the aim of our study. At least 5 levels of soft-sediment deformation have been recorded in the exposed part of the lacustrine sediments of Sangla palaeo-lake, including brecciated laminae, overturned laminae, folds, faults and deformation bands, separated by undeformed deposits. They are interpreted as seismites, indicating at least 5 earthquakes within 2500 years strong enough to cause liquefaction. The 300 MW Baspa II hydro-electric power plant has been built exactly on top of this palaeo-lake. This special location represents a very rare possibility to evaluate the short-term, river load and hydrological parameters measured during the planning and operational stages of Baspa II with the long-term parameters gained from the palaeo-lake sediments from the catchment. This data show that the Mid-Holocene erosion rates of the

  1. DNA repair and recombination in higher plants: insights from comparative genomics of arabidopsis and rice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The DNA repair and recombination (DRR) proteins protect organisms against genetic damage, caused by environmental agents and other genotoxic agents, by removal of DNA lesions or helping to abide them. Results We identified genes potentially involved in DRR mechanisms in Arabidopsis and rice using similarity searches and conserved domain analysis against proteins known to be involved in DRR in human, yeast and E. coli. As expected, many of DRR genes are very similar to those found in other eukaryotes. Beside these eukaryotes specific genes, several prokaryotes specific genes were also found to be well conserved in plants. In Arabidopsis, several functionally important DRR gene duplications are present, which do not occur in rice. Among DRR proteins, we found that proteins belonging to the nucleotide excision repair pathway were relatively more conserved than proteins needed for the other DRR pathways. Sub-cellular localization studies of DRR gene suggests that these proteins are mostly reside in nucleus while gene drain in between nucleus and cell organelles were also found in some cases. Conclusions The similarities and dissimilarities in between plants and other organisms' DRR pathways are discussed. The observed differences broaden our knowledge about DRR in the plants world, and raises the potential question of whether differentiated functions have evolved in some cases. These results, altogether, provide a useful framework for further experimental studies in these organisms. PMID:20646326

  2. Nucleases in higher plants and their possible involvement in DNA degradation during leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Wataru; Takami, Tsuneaki

    2014-07-01

    During leaf senescence, macromolecules such as proteins and lipids are known to be degraded for redistribution into upper tissues. Similarly, nucleic acids appear to undergo fragmentation or degradation during senescence, but the physiological role of nucleic acid degradation, particularly of genomic DNA degradation, remains unclear. To date, more than a dozen of plant deoxyribonucleases have been reported, whereas it remains to be verified whether any of them degrade DNA during leaf senescence. This review summarizes current knowledge related to the plant nucleases that are induced developmentally or in a tissue-specific manner and are known to degrade DNA biochemically. Of these, several endonucleases (BFN1, CAN1, and CAN2) and an exonuclease (DPD1) in Arabidopsis seem to act in leaf senescence because they were shown to be inducible at the transcript level. This review specifically examines DPD1, which is dual-targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria. Results show that, among the exonuclease family to which DPD1 belongs, DPD1 expression is extraordinary when estimated using a microarray database. DPD1 is the only example among the nucleases in which DNA degradation has been confirmed in vivo in pollen by mutant analysis. These data imply a significant role of organelle DNA degradation during leaf senescence and implicate DPD1 as a potential target for deciphering nucleotide salvage in plants.

  3. Tomato receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING 3 binds flgII-28 and activates the plant immune system.

    PubMed

    Hind, Sarah R; Strickler, Susan R; Boyle, Patrick C; Dunham, Diane M; Bao, Zhilong; O'Doherty, Inish M; Baccile, Joshua A; Hoki, Jason S; Viox, Elise G; Clarke, Christopher R; Vinatzer, Boris A; Schroeder, Frank C; Martin, Gregory B

    2016-01-01

    Plants and animals detect the presence of potential pathogens through the perception of conserved microbial patterns by cell surface receptors. Certain solanaceous plants, including tomato, potato and pepper, detect flgII-28, a region of bacterial flagellin that is distinct from that perceived by the well-characterized FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 receptor. Here we identify and characterize the receptor responsible for this recognition in tomato, called FLAGELLIN-SENSING 3. This receptor binds flgII-28 and enhances immune responses leading to a reduction in bacterial colonization of leaf tissues. Further characterization of FLS3 and its signalling pathway could provide new insights into the plant immune system and transfer of the receptor to other crop plants offers the potential of enhancing resistance to bacterial pathogens that have evolved to evade FLS2-mediated immunity. PMID:27548463

  4. Enhancement of transformation rates in higher plants by low-dose irradiation: Are DNA repair systems involved in the incorporation of exogenous DNA into the plant genome?

    PubMed

    Köhler, F; Cardon, G; Pöhlman, M; Gill, R; Schieder, O

    1989-02-01

    Irradiation (X-ray; 5-15 Gy) of protoplasts treated with plasmid-DNA and PEG yielded higher transformation rates in comparison to non-irradiated protoplasts transformed by the same method. This could be demonstrated for four plant species. The irradiation doses used did not affect the total number of colonies regenerated without selection pressure, but resulted in 3-6-fold enhancement of hygromycin- or kanamycin-resistant colonies. Plant regeneration frequencies of transformed colonies derived from irradiated and non-irradiated protoplasts were similar in tobacco as well as in Petunia. Higher integration rates of foreign DNA as a consequence of an increased recombination machinery in irradiated cells may be responsible for the enhancement of the number of stably transformed colonies.

  5. Integration of a Higher Plant Chamber into the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant: The Canadian Role in Advanced Life Support Test-Bed Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Geoffrey; Lawson, Jamie; Gidzinski, Danuta; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Godia, Francesc; Paille, Christel; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lasseur, Christophe

    The European Space Agency's Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project has been conceived as a tool for developing the technology of future biological life support systems required for long-term human space exploration missions to the Moon or Mars. The main life support functions of MELiSSA are the recycling of waste (inedible plant biomass, human excrement), carbon dioxide and minerals and the production of food, fresh water and air revitalization. Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem, MELiSSA is comprised of four microbial compartments and a higher plant compartment integrated in a closed loop. Each compartment is studied, designed and demonstrated at laboratory scale before being scaled-up for subsequent integration into the MELISSA Pilot Plant (MPP) at the Universitat Aut`noma de Barcelona. Work related to higher plant cultivation systems, o which have been historically focussed at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF), has included design of the HPC for the MPP, the metabolic characterization of MELiSSA candidate crops and the validation of theoretical gas exchange and nutrient dynamic models, The presented paper will review some of the recent data and HPC design work of CESRF conducted as part of Canada's involvement in the MELiSSA program and its partnership in the development of the MPP terrestrial demonstration test-bed.

  6. Role of Ca{sup ++}/calmodulin in the regulation of microtubules in higher plants. Progress report, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cyr, R.

    1992-12-31

    The cytoskeleton including its microtubule (Mt) component participates in processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of Mts into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. The cortical array somehow directs the deposition of cellulose. Little molecular information is available regarding the formation of these arrays or the cellular signals to which they respond. Experimental data described here suggests that plant cells use calcium, in the form of a Ca{sup ++}/calmodulin complex, to affect the dynamics of Mts within the cortical array. Owing to the importance of Ca{sup ++} as a regulatory ion in higher plants we are probing for a putative Ca{sup ++}/Mt transduction pathway which may serve to integrate Mt activities within the growing and developing plant cell. We are using a lysed cell model in conjunction with immunocytochemical and biochemical methodologies to dissect how Ca{sup ++}/calmodulin interacts with Mts to affect their function.

  7. Chloroplast division in higher plants requires members of two functionally divergent gene families with homology to bacterial ftsZ.

    PubMed Central

    Osteryoung, K W; Stokes, K D; Rutherford, S M; Percival, A L; Lee, W Y

    1998-01-01

    The division of plastids is critical for viability in photosynthetic eukaryotes, but the mechanisms associated with this process are still poorly understood. We previously identified a nuclear gene from Arabidopsis encoding a chloroplast-localized homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an essential cytoskeletal component of the prokaryotic cell division apparatus. Here, we report the identification of a second nuclear-encoded FtsZ-type protein from Arabidopsis that does not contain a chloroplast targeting sequence or other obvious sorting signals and is not imported into isolated chloroplasts, which strongly suggests that it is localized in the cytosol. We further demonstrate using antisense technology that inhibiting expression of either Arabidopsis FtsZ gene (AtFtsZ1-1 or AtFtsZ2-1) in transgenic plants reduces the number of chloroplasts in mature leaf cells from 100 to one, indicating that both genes are essential for division of higher plant chloroplasts but that each plays a distinct role in the process. Analysis of currently available plant FtsZ sequences further suggests that two functionally divergent FtsZ gene families encoding differentially localized products participate in chloroplast division. Our results provide evidence that both chloroplastic and cytosolic forms of FtsZ are involved in chloroplast division in higher plants and imply that important differences exist between chloroplasts and prokaryotes with regard to the roles played by FtsZ proteins in the division process. PMID:9836740

  8. Engineering sciences design. Design and implementation of components for a bioregenerative system for growing higher order plants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal was to address specific needs in the design of an integrated system to grow higher plants in space. With the needs defined, the emphasis was placed on the design and fabrication of devices to meet these needs. Specific attention was placed on a hand-held harvester, a nutrient concentration sensor, an air-water separator, and a closed-loop biological system simulation.

  9. Plant genetic transformation efficiency of selected Malaysian rice based on selectable marker gene (hptII).

    PubMed

    Htwe, Nwe Nwe; Ling, Ho Chai; Zaman, Faridah Qamaruz; Maziah, Mahmood

    2014-04-01

    Rice is one of the most important cereal crops with great potential for biotechnology progress. In transformation method, antibiotic resistance genes are routinely used as powerful markers for selecting transformed cells from surrounding non-transformed cells. In this study, the toxicity level of hygromycin was optimized for two selected mutant rice lines, MR219 line 4 and line 9. The mature embryos were isolated and cultured on an MS medium with different hygromycin concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L(-1)). Evidently, above 60 mg L(-1) was effective for callus formation and observed completely dead. Further there were tested for specific concentration (0-60). Although, 21.28% calli survived on the medium containing 45 mg L(-1) hygromycin, it seemed suitable for the identification of putative transformants. These findings indicated that a system for rice transformation in a relatively high frequency and the transgenes are stably expressed in the transgenic plants. Green shoots were regenerated from the explant under hygromycin stress. RT-PCR using hptII and gus sequence specific primer and Southern blot analysis were used to confirm the presence of the transgene and to determine the transformation efficiency for their stable integration in regenerated plants. This study demonstrated that the hygromycin resistance can be used as an effective marker for rice transformation.

  10. Evolutionary Trails of Plant Group II Pyridoxal Phosphate-Dependent Decarboxylase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Type II pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylase (PLP_deC) enzymes play important metabolic roles during nitrogen metabolism. Recent evolutionary profiling of these genes revealed a sharp expansion of histidine decarboxylase genes in the members of Solanaceae family. In spite of the high sequence homology shared by PLP_deC orthologs, these enzymes display remarkable differences in their substrate specificities. Currently, limited information is available on the gene repertoires and substrate specificities of PLP_deCs which renders their precise annotation challenging and offers technical challenges in the immediate identification and biochemical characterization of their full gene complements in plants. Herein, we explored their evolutionary trails in a comprehensive manner by taking advantage of high-throughput data accessibility and computational approaches. We discussed the premise that has enabled an improved reconstruction of their evolutionary lineage and evaluated the factors offering constraints in their rapid functional characterization, till date. We envisage that the synthesized information herein would act as a catalyst for the rapid exploration of their biochemical specificity and physiological roles in more plant species.

  11. Evolutionary Trails of Plant Group II Pyridoxal Phosphate-Dependent Decarboxylase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Type II pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylase (PLP_deC) enzymes play important metabolic roles during nitrogen metabolism. Recent evolutionary profiling of these genes revealed a sharp expansion of histidine decarboxylase genes in the members of Solanaceae family. In spite of the high sequence homology shared by PLP_deC orthologs, these enzymes display remarkable differences in their substrate specificities. Currently, limited information is available on the gene repertoires and substrate specificities of PLP_deCs which renders their precise annotation challenging and offers technical challenges in the immediate identification and biochemical characterization of their full gene complements in plants. Herein, we explored their evolutionary trails in a comprehensive manner by taking advantage of high-throughput data accessibility and computational approaches. We discussed the premise that has enabled an improved reconstruction of their evolutionary lineage and evaluated the factors offering constraints in their rapid functional characterization, till date. We envisage that the synthesized information herein would act as a catalyst for the rapid exploration of their biochemical specificity and physiological roles in more plant species. PMID:27602045

  12. Chloroplast Movement in the Shade Plant Tradescantia albiflora Helps Protect Photosystem II against Light Stress.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Y. I.; Chow, W. S.; Anderson, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    The role of high-light-induced chloroplast movement in the photoprotection of the facultative shade plant Tradescantia albiflora was investigated by comparison with pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaves, both grown in 50 [mu]mol photons m-2 s-1. Photoinactivation of photosystem II (PSII) in vivo was induced in 1.1% CO2 by varying either duration (0-2 h) of illumination (fixed at 1800 [mu]mol m-2 s-1) or irradiance (0-3000 [mu]mol m-2 s-1) at a fixed duration (1 h) after infiltration of leaves with water or lincomycin (an inhibitor of chloroplast-encoded protein synthesis). At all photon exposures, PSII of T. albiflora leaves showed a greater resistance to light stress than pea leaves, although both utilization of absorbed light by photosynthesis and psbA gene product synthesis were smaller than for pea leaves. This greater tolerance was not due to differences in PSII antenna size or the index of susceptibility of PSII to light stress, because these two parameters were comparable in both plants. However, the transmittance increase mediated by chloroplast movement was greater in T. albiflora than pea, resulting in a 10% decrease of absorbed light at high light. We suggest that the greater tolerance of PSII against light stress in T. albiflora may be partly ascribed to its light-induced chloroplast rearrangement. PMID:12226333

  13. Evolutionary Trails of Plant Group II Pyridoxal Phosphate-Dependent Decarboxylase Genes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Type II pyridoxal phosphate-dependent decarboxylase (PLP_deC) enzymes play important metabolic roles during nitrogen metabolism. Recent evolutionary profiling of these genes revealed a sharp expansion of histidine decarboxylase genes in the members of Solanaceae family. In spite of the high sequence homology shared by PLP_deC orthologs, these enzymes display remarkable differences in their substrate specificities. Currently, limited information is available on the gene repertoires and substrate specificities of PLP_deCs which renders their precise annotation challenging and offers technical challenges in the immediate identification and biochemical characterization of their full gene complements in plants. Herein, we explored their evolutionary trails in a comprehensive manner by taking advantage of high-throughput data accessibility and computational approaches. We discussed the premise that has enabled an improved reconstruction of their evolutionary lineage and evaluated the factors offering constraints in their rapid functional characterization, till date. We envisage that the synthesized information herein would act as a catalyst for the rapid exploration of their biochemical specificity and physiological roles in more plant species. PMID:27602045

  14. [Effects of ozone stress on photosynthesis and dry matter production of rice II -you 084 under different Planting densities].

    PubMed

    Peng, Bin; Lai, Shang-kun; Li, Pan-lin; Wang, Yun-xia; Zhu, Jian-guo; Yang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yu-long

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of ozone stress on photosynthesis, dry matter production, non-structural carbohydrate and yield formation of rice, a free air ozone concentration enrichment (FACE) experiment was conducted. A super hybrid rice cultivar II-you 084 with 3 spacing levels, low plant density (LD, 16 hills per m2), medium (MD, 24 hills per m2) and high plant density (HD, 32 hills per m2), was grown in the field at current and elevated ozone concentrations (current × 1.5). The results were as follows: Elevated ozone significantly reduced leaf SPAD value of UI-you 084 by 6%, 11% and 13%, at 63, 77, and 86 days after transplanting, respectively. The declines in leaf net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate at filling stage increased significantly on ozone stress over time. Ozone stress decreased dry matter production of rice by 46% from heading stage to plant maturity, thus reduced biomass yield by 25%. Elevated ozone decreased the concentration and accumulation of soluble carbohydrate and starch in stem of II-you 084 at jointing, heading and plant maturity, but significantly increased the dry matter transportation rate. No significant interaction was observed between ozone and planting density for photosynthesis, dry matter production and non-structural carbohydrate of rice. The above results indicated that elevated ozone reduced photosynthesis and growth of rice II-you 084 at late growth stage, which had no relationship with planting density.

  15. Herbivore-Triggered Electrophysiological Reactions: Candidates for Systemic Signals in Higher Plants and the Challenge of Their Identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Mithöfer, Axel; Will, Torsten; Felle, Hubert H; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2016-04-01

    In stressed plants, electrophysiological reactions (elRs) are presumed to contribute to long-distance intercellular communication between distant plant parts. Because of the focus on abiotic stress-induced elRs in recent decades, biotic stress-triggered elRs have been widely ignored. It is likely that the challenge to identify the particular elR types (action potential [AP], variation potential, and system potential [SP]) was responsible for this course of action. Thus, this survey focused on insect larva feeding (Spodoptera littoralis and Manduca sexta) that triggers distant APs, variation potentials, and SPs in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species (Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba, and Nicotiana tabacum). APs were detected only after feeding on the stem/culm, whereas SPs were observed systemically following damage to both stem/culm and leaves. This was attributed to the unequal vascular innervation of the plant and a selective electrophysiological connectivity of the plant tissue. However, striking variations in voltage patterns were detected for each elR type. Further analyses (also in Brassica napus and Cucurbita maxima) employing complementary electrophysiological approaches in response to different stimuli revealed various reasons for these voltage pattern variations: an intrinsic plasticity of elRs, a plant-specific signature of elRs, a specific influence of the applied (a)biotic trigger, the impact of the technical approach, and/or the experimental setup. As a consequence, voltage pattern variations, which are not irregular but rather common, need to be included in electrophysiological signaling analysis. Due to their widespread occurrence, systemic propagation, and respective triggers, elRs should be considered as candidates for long-distance communication in higher plants. PMID:26872949

  16. Herbivore-Triggered Electrophysiological Reactions: Candidates for Systemic Signals in Higher Plants and the Challenge of Their Identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Mithöfer, Axel; Will, Torsten; Felle, Hubert H; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2016-04-01

    In stressed plants, electrophysiological reactions (elRs) are presumed to contribute to long-distance intercellular communication between distant plant parts. Because of the focus on abiotic stress-induced elRs in recent decades, biotic stress-triggered elRs have been widely ignored. It is likely that the challenge to identify the particular elR types (action potential [AP], variation potential, and system potential [SP]) was responsible for this course of action. Thus, this survey focused on insect larva feeding (Spodoptera littoralis and Manduca sexta) that triggers distant APs, variation potentials, and SPs in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species (Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba, and Nicotiana tabacum). APs were detected only after feeding on the stem/culm, whereas SPs were observed systemically following damage to both stem/culm and leaves. This was attributed to the unequal vascular innervation of the plant and a selective electrophysiological connectivity of the plant tissue. However, striking variations in voltage patterns were detected for each elR type. Further analyses (also in Brassica napus and Cucurbita maxima) employing complementary electrophysiological approaches in response to different stimuli revealed various reasons for these voltage pattern variations: an intrinsic plasticity of elRs, a plant-specific signature of elRs, a specific influence of the applied (a)biotic trigger, the impact of the technical approach, and/or the experimental setup. As a consequence, voltage pattern variations, which are not irregular but rather common, need to be included in electrophysiological signaling analysis. Due to their widespread occurrence, systemic propagation, and respective triggers, elRs should be considered as candidates for long-distance communication in higher plants.

  17. Quantification and Localization of S-Nitrosothiols (SNOs) in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Juan B; Valderrama, Raquel; Carreras, Alfonso; Chaki, Mounira; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Corpas, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) are a family of molecules produced by the reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with -SH thiol groups present in the cysteine residues of proteins and peptides caused by a posttranslational modification (PTM) known as S-nitrosylation (strictly speaking S-nitrosation) that can affect the cellular function of proteins. These molecules are a relatively more stable form of NO and consequently can act as a major intracellular NO reservoir and, in some cases, as a long-distance NO signal. Additionally, SNOs can be transferred between small peptides and protein thiol groups through S-transnitrosylation mechanisms. Thus, detection and cellular localization of SNOs in plant cells can be useful tools to determine how these molecules are modulated under physiological and adverse conditions and to determine their importance as a mechanism for regulating different biochemical pathways. Using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence ozone technique and a specific fluorescence probe (Alexa Fluor 488 Hg-link phenylmercury), the methods described in this chapter enable us to determine SNOs in an nM range as well as their cellular distribution in the tissues of different plant species. PMID:27094417

  18. Energetic metabolism response in algae and higher plant species from simulation experiments with the clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilenko, A.; Popova, A. F.

    Adenylate state is acknowledged to be among the most convenient approaches in the study of physiological changes in plant cells under simulation of altered gravity condition with the clinostat. Adenylate levels and the ATP/ADP ratio in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial extracts of cultivated cells of Haplopappus gracilis and algae cells of Chlorella vulgaris under initial stages of the fast-rotating and slow-rotating clinorotation, as well as the long-term clinorotation, have been investigated. For analysis of ATP and ADP levels in the plant cells under the clinorotation, we applied a high-sensitive bioluminescence method using the luciferase and piruvate kinase enzyme systems. It has been shown that the adenylate ratio is already increased during at the start of clinorotation with the different speed of rotation in the biological material tested. The considerable changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure of Chlorella cells, as well as the rising ATP level and dropping of the ATP/ADP ratio appear after long-duration clinorotation if compared to control material. It is probably connected with the distinctions in ATP-synthetase functioning in mitochondria of the cells under the clinorotation conditions.

  19. Size, Shape, and Arrangement of Cellulose Microfibril in Higher Plant Cell Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, S. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell walls from maize (Zea mays L.) are imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the sub-nanometer resolution. We found that the size and shape of fundamental cellulose elementary fibril (CEF) is essentially identical in different cell wall types, i.e., primary wall (PW), parenchyma secondary wall (pSW), and sclerenchyma secondary wall (sSW), which is consistent with previously proposed 36-chain model (Ding et al., 2006, J. Agric. Food Chem.). The arrangement of individual CEFs in these wall types exhibits two orientations. In PW, CEFs are horizontally associated through their hydrophilic faces, and the planar faces are exposed, forming ribbon-like macrofibrils. In pSW and sSW, CEFs are vertically oriented, forming layers, in which hemicelluloses are interacted with the hydrophobic faces of the CEF and serve as spacers between CEFs. Lignification occurs between CEF-hemicelluloses layers in secondary walls. Furthermore, we demonstrated quantitative analysis of plant cell wall accessibility to and digestibility by different cellulase systems at real-time using chemical imaging (e.g., stimulated Raman scattering) and fluorescence microscopy of labeled cellulases (Ding et al., 2012, Science, in press).

  20. Attempts to detect cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in higher plants by three assay methods.

    PubMed

    Bressan, R A; Ross, C W

    1976-01-01

    Endogenous levels of cyclic adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate in coleoptile first leaf segments of oat (Avena sativa L.), potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) callus, and germinating seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were measured with a modified Gilman binding assay and a protein kinase activation assay. The incorporation of adenosine-8-(14)C into compounds with properties similar to those of cyclic AMP was also measured in studies with germinating lettuce seeds. The binding assay proved reliable for mouse and rat liver analyses, but was nonspecific for plant tissues. It responded to various components from lettuce and potato tissues chromatographically similar to but not identical with cyclic AMP. The protein kinase activation assay was much more specific, but it also exhibited positive responses in the presence of compounds not chromatographically identical to cyclic AMP. The concentrations of cyclic AMP in the plant tissues tested were at the lower limits of detection and characterization obtainable with these assays. The estimates of maximal levels were much lower than reported in many previous studies. PMID:16659419

  1. Electron flow to oxygen in higher plants and algae: rates and control of direct photoreduction (Mehler reaction) and rubisco oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Badger, M R; von Caemmerer, S; Ruuska, S; Nakano, H

    2000-10-29

    Linear electron transport in chloroplasts produces a number of reduced components associated with photosystem I (PS I) that may subsequently participate in reactions that reduce O2. The two primary reactions that have been extensively studied are: first, the direct reduction of O2 to superoxide by reduced donors associated with PS I (the Mehler reaction), and second, the rubisco oxygenase (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase EC 4.1.1.39) reaction and associated peroxisomal and mitochondrial reactions of the photorespiratory pathway. This paper reviews a number of recent and past studies with higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria that have attempted to quantify O2 fluxes under various conditions and their contributions to a number of roles, including photon energy dissipation. In C3 and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, a Mehler O2 uptake reaction is unlikely to support a significant flow of electron transport (probably less than 10%). In addition, if it were present it would appear to scale with photosynthetic carbon oxidation cycle (PCO) and photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (PCR) activity This is supported by studies with antisense tobacco plants with reduced rubisco at low and high temperatures and high light, as well as studies with potatoes, grapes and madrone during water stress. The lack of significant Mehler in these plants directly argues for a strong control of Mehler reaction in the absence of ATP consumption by the PCR and PCO cycles. The difference between C3 and C4 plants is primarily that the level of light-dependent O2 uptake is generally much lower in C4 plants and is relatively insensitive to the external CO2 concentration. Such a major difference is readily attributed to the operation of the C4 CO2 concentrating mechanism. Algae show a range of light-dependent O2 uptake rates, similar to C4 plants. As in C4 plants, the O2 uptake appears to be largely insensitive to CO2, even in species that lack a CO2 concentrating

  2. Can Stress-Induced Biochemical Differences drive Variation in the Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Leaf Wax n-Alkanes from Terrestrial Higher Plants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, Y.; Pedentchouk, N.; Dawson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research has identified that interspecies variation in leaf wax n-alkane 2H/1H from plants growing at the same geographical location can exceed 100‰. These differences cannot easily be explained by mechanisms that influence the isotopic composition of leaf water. Biochemical processes are therefore likely to drive some of this variability. Currently, however, little is known about the relative importance of different biochemical processes in shaping n-alkane hydrogen isotope composition. To explore this issue, we combined n-alkane δ2H analysis with measurements of: (i) the percentage content of leaf C and N; and (ii) foliar δ15N, from seven plants growing at Stiffkey salt marsh, Norfolk, UK. These species differ biochemically in respect of the protective compounds they produce under salt or water stressed conditions, with monocots generally producing more carbohydrates, and dicots producing more nitrogenous compounds. We found that monocots had higher %C, while dicots had higher %N and 15N-enriched leaf tissue. We identified a systematic relationship between the nature of the dominant protective compound produced (carbohydrate vs. nitrogenous) and n-alkane 2H/1H: species with a greater proportion of carbohydrates have more negative δ2H values. These findings might imply that shifts in the relative contribution of H to pyruvate from NADPH (2H-depleted) and recycled carbohydrates (2H-enriched) can influence n-alkane δ2H. The 2H-depletion of monocot n-alkanes relative to dicots may therefore be due to a greater proportion of NADPH-derived H incorporated into pyruvate because of their enhanced demand for carbohydrates. The production of protective compounds in plant species is a common response to a range of abiotic stresses (e.g. high UV irradiation, drought, salinity, high/low temperature). Species-specific biochemical responses to stress could therefore influence n-alkane 2H/1H across a range of habitats. This study highlights the importance of detailed

  3. The Higher Response of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Angiotensin-II to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Junwei; Che, Yena; Xu, Pei; Xia, Yanjie; Wu, Xiaoke; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background This research investigated the response of vascular active factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiotensin-II (AT-II) to ovarian stimulation during 24 hours in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials and Methods In this clinical trial study, 52 patients with PCOS and 8 control cases were stimulated with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) on the 4th to 7th day of the patients’ natural or induced menstrual cycles. We measured VEGF and AT-II by radioimmunoassay before the injection (0 hour) and 3, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours after the stimulation. Results After ovarian stimulation, there was substantially higher level of VEGF in typical PCOS patients than the other three groups at the 3 hour time point (p<0.05), while there were no significant differences in VEGF at all the other time points among the four groups. As for AT-II, before and at all time points after the ovarian stimulation, it seemed that the AT-II levels in patients’ sera with different phenotypes of PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria were all higher than in the control group although the differences were not statistically significant. The level of AT-II in typical PCOS patients was also significantly higher than the other three groups at the 3 hour time point (p<0.05), while no significant differences at all the other time points among the four groups were observed. Conclusion The response to the stimulation varied among patients with different phenotypes of PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. Serum VEGF and AT-II were possible contributors to an increased risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in patients with typical PCOS during the early follicular phase (3 hours) after ovarian stimulation (Registration Number: NCT02265861). PMID:25780518

  4. The Role of Silicon in Higher Plants under Salinity and Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Huynh, Wayne Q.; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2016-01-01

    Although deemed a “non-essential” mineral nutrient, silicon (Si) is clearly beneficial to plant growth and development, particularly under stress conditions, including salinity and drought. Here, we review recent research on the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms underlying Si-induced alleviation of osmotic and ionic stresses associated with salinity and drought. We distinguish between changes observed in the apoplast (i.e., suberization, lignification, and silicification of the extracellular matrix; transpirational bypass flow of solutes and water), and those of the symplast (i.e., transmembrane transport of solutes and water; gene expression; oxidative stress; metabolism), and discuss these features in the context of Si biogeochemistry and bioavailability in agricultural soils, evaluating the prospect of using Si fertilization to increase crop yield and stress tolerance under salinity and drought conditions. PMID:27486474

  5. The Role of Silicon in Higher Plants under Salinity and Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T; Huynh, Wayne Q; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2016-01-01

    Although deemed a "non-essential" mineral nutrient, silicon (Si) is clearly beneficial to plant growth and development, particularly under stress conditions, including salinity and drought. Here, we review recent research on the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms underlying Si-induced alleviation of osmotic and ionic stresses associated with salinity and drought. We distinguish between changes observed in the apoplast (i.e., suberization, lignification, and silicification of the extracellular matrix; transpirational bypass flow of solutes and water), and those of the symplast (i.e., transmembrane transport of solutes and water; gene expression; oxidative stress; metabolism), and discuss these features in the context of Si biogeochemistry and bioavailability in agricultural soils, evaluating the prospect of using Si fertilization to increase crop yield and stress tolerance under salinity and drought conditions. PMID:27486474

  6. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  7. Thermal stability of higher plant biomarkers evaluated through pyrolysis; geologic implications in thermally-mature sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbottom, T. L.; Hockaday, W. C.; Von Bargen, J.

    2013-12-01

    The organic molecules known as n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, and sterols are widely used biomarkers in paleoecological and organic matter source-apportionment studies, and are complementary to traditional bulk organic matter proxies (organic carbon stable isotopes and C/N ratios). These organic matter parameters are hindered by early and late diagenesis, through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors, which can lead to uncertainty in sediments on geologic timescales. This study seeks to use modern central Texas plants and soils as tools for our understanding and interpretation of biomarker patterns deep time, specifically in thermally mature sediment and paleosols. Bulk leaf and soil samples were heat treated to a range of temperatures in a muffle furnace in the absence of oxygen in order to clarify the role of abiotic degradation (thermal cracking) on bulk SOM and biomarker distributions. Preliminary results for unaltered n-alkane distributions of Southern Cattail (Typha domingensis) biomass shows a strong odd-over-even predominance, where the most abundant n-alkanes are nC23, nC25, nC27, and nC29. The biomass exposed to slow pyrolysis temperature of 300°C had n-alkanes ranging from nC11-nC29, with no odd-over-even predominance. The high abundance of lower molecular weight n-alkanes (plant material is severely disrupted by modest heating, an observation that must be taken into account when interpreting these biomarkers in deeply-buried geological samples.

  8. An empirical review: Characteristics of plant microsatellite markers that confer higher levels of genetic variation1

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Benjamin J.; Culley, Theresa M.; Avanesyan, Alina; Stokes, Richard; Brzyski, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    During microsatellite marker development, researchers must choose from a pool of possible primer pairs to further test in their species of interest. In many cases, the goal is maximizing detectable levels of genetic variation. To guide researchers and determine which markers are associated with higher levels of genetic variation, we conducted a literature review based on 6782 genomic microsatellite markers published from 1997–2012. We examined relationships between heterozygosity (He or Ho) or allele number (A) with the following marker characteristics: repeat type, motif length, motif region, repeat frequency, and microsatellite size. Variation across taxonomic groups was also analyzed. There were significant differences between imperfect and perfect repeat types in A and He. Dinucleotide motifs exhibited significantly higher A, He, and Ho than most other motifs. Repeat frequency and motif region were positively correlated with A, He, and Ho, but correlations with microsatellite size were minimal. Higher taxonomic groups were disproportionately represented in the literature and showed little consistency. In conclusion, researchers should carefully consider marker characteristics so they can be tailored to the desired application. If researchers aim to target high genetic variation, dinucleotide motif lengths with large repeat frequencies may be best. PMID:26312192

  9. Reduced toxicity and broad spectrum resistance to viral and fungal infection in transgenic plants expressing pokeweed antiviral protein II.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Zoubenko, O; Tumer, N E

    1998-12-01

    Pokeweed antiviral protein II (PAPII), a 30 kDa protein isolated from leaves of Phytolacca americana, inhibits translation by catalytically removing a specific adenine residue from the large rRNA of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. The protein sequence of PAPII shows only 41% identity to PAP and PAP-S, two other antiviral proteins isolated from pokeweed. We isolated a cDNA corresponding to PAPII and introduced it into tobacco plants. PAPII expressed in transgenic tobacco was correctly processed to the mature form as in pokeweed and accumulated to at least 10-fold higher levels than wild-type PAP. We had previously observed a significant decrease in transformation frequency with PAP and recovered only two transgenic lines expressing 1-2 ng per mg protein. In contrast, eight different transgenic lines expressing up to 250 ng/mg PAPII were recovered, indicating that PAPII is less toxic than PAP. Two symptomless transgenic lines expressing PAPII were resistant to tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X and the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The level of viral and fungal resistance observed correlated well with the amount of PAPII protein accumulated. Pathogenesis-related protein PR1 was constitutively expressed in transgenic lines expressing PAPII. Although PR1 was constitutively expressed, no increase in salicylic acid levels was detected, indicating that PAPII may elicit a salicylic acid-independent signal transduction pathway.

  10. International Student Access to U.S. Higher Education since World War II: How NAFSA (Association of International Educators) Has Influenced Federal Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyokawa, Norifumi

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the policy process behind the legislation and regulation governing international student access to U.S. higher education since the immediate aftermath of World War II. The particular research focus of this dissertation is on NAFSA: Association of International Educators (originally established as the National…

  11. Tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) plants, representing the higher plant compartment in bioregenerative life support systems, to super-optimal air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shklavtsova, E. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Shikhov, V. N.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2013-01-01

    Plants intended to be included in the photosynthesizing compartment of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) need to be studied in terms of both their production parameters under optimal conditions and their tolerance to stress factors that might be caused by emergency situations. The purpose of this study was to investigate tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) plants to the super-optimal air temperature of 45 ± 1 °C as dependent upon PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) intensity and the duration of the exposure to the stress factor. Chufa plants were grown hydroponically, on expanded clay, under artificial light. The nutrient solution was Knop's mineral medium. Until the plants were 30 days old, they had been grown at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR and air temperature 25 °C. Thirty-day-old plants were exposed to the temperature 45 °C for 6 h, 20 h, and 44 h at PAR intensities 690 μmol m-2 s-1 and 1150 μmol m-2 s-1. The exposure to the damaging air temperature for 44 h at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR caused irreversible damage to PSA, resulting in leaf mortality. In chufa plants exposed to heat shock treatment at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR for 6 h and 20 h, respiration exceeded photosynthesis, and CO2 release in the light was recorded. Functional activity of photosynthetic apparatus, estimated from parameters of pulse-modulated chlorophyll fluorescence in Photosystem 2 (PS 2), decreased 40% to 50%. After the exposure to the stress factor was finished, functional activity of PSA recovered its initial values, and apparent photosynthesis (Papparent) rate after a 20-h exposure to the stress factor was 2.6 times lower than before the elevation of the temperature. During the first hours of plant exposure to the temperature 45 °C at 1150 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR, respiration rate was higher than photosynthesis rate, but after 3-4 h of the exposure, photosynthetic processes exceeded oxidative ones and CO2 absorption in the light was recorded. At the end of the 6-h exposure

  12. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion.

    PubMed

    Livezey, Bradley C; Zusi, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    Piciformes. Unresolved portions of the Neornithes (nodes having more than one most-parsimonious solution) comprised three parts of the tree: (a) several interfamilial nodes within the Charadriiformes; (b) a trichotomy comprising the (i) Psittaciformes, (ii) Columbiformes and (iii) Trogonomorphae (Trogoniformes, Coliiformes) + Passerimorphae (Coraciiformes, Piciformes, Passeriformes); and (c) a trichotomy comprising the Coraciiformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes. The remaining polytomies were among outgroups, although several of the highest-order nodes were only marginally supported; however, the majority of nodes were resolved and met or surpassed conventional standards of support. Quantitative comparisons with alternative hypotheses, examination of highly supportive and diagnostic characters for higher taxa, correspondences with prior studies, complementarity and philosophical differences with palaeontological phylogenetics, promises and challenges of palaeogeography and calibration of evolutionary rates of birds, and classes of promising evidence and future directions of study are reviewed. Homology, as applied to avian examples of apparent homologues, is considered in terms of recent theory, and a revised annotated classification of higher-order taxa of Neornithes and other closely related Theropoda is proposed. (c) 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 149, 1-95. PMID:18784798

  13. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion

    PubMed Central

    LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C; ZUSI, RICHARD L

    2007-01-01

    Piciformes. Unresolved portions of the Neornithes (nodes having more than one most-parsimonious solution) comprised three parts of the tree: (a) several interfamilial nodes within the Charadriiformes; (b) a trichotomy comprising the (i) Psittaciformes, (ii) Columbiformes and (iii) Trogonomorphae (Trogoniformes, Coliiformes) + Passerimorphae (Coraciiformes, Piciformes, Passeriformes); and (c) a trichotomy comprising the Coraciiformes, Piciformes and Passeriformes. The remaining polytomies were among outgroups, although several of the highest-order nodes were only marginally supported; however, the majority of nodes were resolved and met or surpassed conventional standards of support. Quantitative comparisons with alternative hypotheses, examination of highly supportive and diagnostic characters for higher taxa, correspondences with prior studies, complementarity and philosophical differences with palaeontological phylogenetics, promises and challenges of palaeogeography and calibration of evolutionary rates of birds, and classes of promising evidence and future directions of study are reviewed. Homology, as applied to avian examples of apparent homologues, is considered in terms of recent theory, and a revised annotated classification of higher-order taxa of Neornithes and other closely related Theropoda is proposed. © 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 149, 1–95. PMID:18784798

  14. Genetic engineering of corn and other higher plants: Progress report for the period August 1, 1984--July 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a number of potential vectors for maize transformation. All vectors have used the bacterial CAT gene connected between a maize promoter and a maize polyadenylation site. The product of this gene is readily assayed in maize tissue and may provide a fast screen for young seedlings. We have found that chloramphenicol reduces the growth of young seedlings and causes bleaching of the first leaves, but does not kill the plant. A mosaic with a transforming DNA may allow better growth. We remove a portion of the root to assay for CAT activity. CAT activity should be detected even if only a small number of cells contain DNA. If activity is detected in these young plants, the plant will be potted, and F1 and F2 plants will be generated. These will then be screened for stable inheritance of the transforming DNA. The higher the expression of the CAT gene in these few cells, the more reliable will be the assay. Accordingly, we have connected the CAT gene to one of the strongest maize promoters active in the young seedling. This promoter was identified in a large scale screening operation that identified the single copy gene that expressed the most abundant polyA RNA. The promoter and coding regions have been sequenced. The product of this gene has not yet been determined.

  15. Inclusion of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes as a source of higher plant mineral nutrition in BTLSS mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Anischenko, Olesya; Trifonov, Sergey V.

    Human exometabolites inclusion into an intrasystem mass exchange will allow increasing of a closure level of a biological-technical life support system (BTLSS). Previously at the IBP SB RAS it was shown that human mineralized exometabolites could be incorporated in the BTLSS mass exchange as a mineral nutrition source for higher plants. However, it is not known how that combined use of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes in the capacity of nutrient medium, being a part of the BTLSS consumer wastes, will affect the plant productivity. Several wheat vegetations were grown in an uneven-aged conveyor on a neutral substrate. A mixture of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes was used as a nutrient solution in the experiment treatment and human mineralized exometabolites were used in the control. Consequently, a high wheat yield in the experiment treatment practically equal to the control yield was obtained. Thus, mineralized fish wastes can be an additional source of macro-and micronutrients for plants, and use of such wastes for the plant mineral nutrition allows increasing of BTLSS closure level.

  16. Biological effects of weightlessness and clinostatic conditions registered in cells of root meristem and cap of higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sytnik, K. M.; Kordyum, E. L.; Belyavskaya, N. A.; Nedukha, E. M.; Tarasenko, V. A.

    Research in cellular reproduction, differentiation and vital activity, i.e. processes underlying the development and functioning of organisms, plants included, is essential for solving fundamental and applied problems of space biology. Detailed anatomical analysis of roots of higher plants grown on board the Salyut 6 orbital research station show that under conditions of weightlessness for defined duration mitosis, cytokinesis and tissue differentiation in plant vegetative organs occur essentially normally. At the same time, certain rearrangements in the structural organization of cellular organelles - mainly the plastid apparatus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and nucleus - are established in the root meristem and cap of the experimental plants. This is evidence for considerable changes in cellular metabolism. The structural changes in the subcellular level arising under spaceflight conditions are partially absent in clinostat experiments designed to simulate weightlessness. Various clinostatic conditions have different influences on the cell structural and functional organization than does space flight. It is suggested that alterations of cellular metabolism under weightlessness and clinostatic conditions occur within existing genetic programs.

  17. Temperature Dependence of the Linkage of Quantum Yield of Photosystem II to CO2 Fixation in C4 and C3 Plants.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, W.; Edwards, G. E.

    1993-02-01

    The temperature dependence of quantum yields of electron transport from photosystem II (PSII) ([phi]II, determined from chlorophyll a fluorescence) and CO2 assimilation ([phi]CO2, apparent quantum yield for CO2 assimilation) were determined simultaneously in vivo. With C4 species representing NADP-malic enzyme, NAD-malic enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase subgroups, the ratio of [phi]II/[phi]CO2 was constant over the temperature range from 15 to 40[deg]C at high light intensity (1100 [mu]mol quanta m-2 s-1). A similar response was obtained at low light intensity (300 [mu]mol quanta m-2 s-1), except the ratio of [phi]II/[phi]CO2 increased at high temperature. When the true quantum yield for CO2 fixation ([phi]CO2*) was calculated by correcting for respiration in the light (estimated from temperature dependence of dark respiration), the ratio of [phi]II/[phi]C02* remained constant with varying temperature and under both light intensities in all C4 species examined. Because the [phi]II/[phi]CO2* ratio was the same in C4 monocots representing the three subgroups, the ratio was not affected by differences in the bio-chemical mechanism of concentrating CO2 in the bundle sheath cells. The results suggest that PSII activity is closely linked to the true rate of CO2 fixation in C4 plants. The close relationship between [phi]II and [phi]CO2* in C4 species under varying temperature and light intensity conditions is apparently due to a common low level of photorespiration and a primary requirement for reductive power in the C3 pathway. In contrast, in a C3 plant the [phi] II/[phi]CO2* ratio is higher under normal atmospheric conditions than under nonphotorespiratory conditions and it increases with rising temperature. This decrease in efficiency in utilizing energy derived from PSII for CO2 fixation is due to an increase in photorespiration. In both the C3 and C4 species, photochemistry is limited under low temperature, and thus excess energy must be dissipated by

  18. Transport of phosphocholine in higher plant cells: sup 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gout, E.; Bligny, R.; Roby, C.; Douce, R. )

    1990-06-01

    Phosphocholine (PC) is an abundant primary form of organic phosphate that is transported in plant xylem sap. Addition of PC to the perfusate of compressed P{sub i}-starved sycamore cells monitored by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy resulted in an accumulation of PC and all the other phosphate esters in the cytoplasmic compartment. Addition of hemicholinium-3, an inhibitor of choline uptake, to the perfusate inhibited PC accumulation but not inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}). When the P{sub i}-starved cells were perfused with a medium containing either P{sub i} or PC, the resulting P{sub i} distribution in the cell was the same. Addition of choline instead of PC to the perfusate of compressed cells resulted in an accumulation of PC in the cytoplasmic compartment from choline kinase activity. In addition, PC phosphatase activity has been discovered associated with the cell wall. These results indicate that PC was rapidly hydrolyzed outside the cell and that choline and P{sub i} entered the cytosolic compartment where choline kinase re-forms PC.

  19. Herbicides do not ensure for higher wheat yield, but eliminate rare plant species.

    PubMed

    Gaba, Sabrina; Gabriel, Edith; Chadœuf, Joël; Bonneu, Florent; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2016-07-25

    Weed control is generally considered to be essential for crop production and herbicides have become the main method used for weed control in developed countries. However, concerns about harmful environmental consequences have led to strong pressure on farmers to reduce the use of herbicides. As food demand is forecast to increase by 50% over the next century, an in-depth quantitative analysis of crop yields, weeds and herbicides is required to balance economic and environmental issues. This study analysed the relationship between weeds, herbicides and winter wheat yields using data from 150 winter wheat fields in western France. A Bayesian hierarchical model was built to take account of farmers' behaviour, including implicitly their perception of weeds and weed control practices, on the effectiveness of treatment. No relationship was detected between crop yields and herbicide use. Herbicides were found to be more effective at controlling rare plant species than abundant weed species. These results suggest that reducing the use of herbicides by up to 50% could maintain crop production, a result confirmed by previous studies, while encouraging weed biodiversity. Food security and biodiversity conservation may, therefore, be achieved simultaneously in intensive agriculture simply by reducing the use of herbicides.

  20. Herbicides do not ensure for higher wheat yield, but eliminate rare plant species.

    PubMed

    Gaba, Sabrina; Gabriel, Edith; Chadœuf, Joël; Bonneu, Florent; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Weed control is generally considered to be essential for crop production and herbicides have become the main method used for weed control in developed countries. However, concerns about harmful environmental consequences have led to strong pressure on farmers to reduce the use of herbicides. As food demand is forecast to increase by 50% over the next century, an in-depth quantitative analysis of crop yields, weeds and herbicides is required to balance economic and environmental issues. This study analysed the relationship between weeds, herbicides and winter wheat yields using data from 150 winter wheat fields in western France. A Bayesian hierarchical model was built to take account of farmers' behaviour, including implicitly their perception of weeds and weed control practices, on the effectiveness of treatment. No relationship was detected between crop yields and herbicide use. Herbicides were found to be more effective at controlling rare plant species than abundant weed species. These results suggest that reducing the use of herbicides by up to 50% could maintain crop production, a result confirmed by previous studies, while encouraging weed biodiversity. Food security and biodiversity conservation may, therefore, be achieved simultaneously in intensive agriculture simply by reducing the use of herbicides. PMID:27453451

  1. Gene-Enzyme Relationships of Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Higher Plants

    SciTech Connect

    2002-08-12

    Inhibition studies of amino acids in Nicotiana silvestris suspension cells gave clues to the difficulties for obtaining mutants deficient in post prephenate pathway proteins of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis (prephenate aminotransferase, arogenate dehydrogenase and arogenate dehydratase). Such mutants, if successfully obtained, would allow gene-enzyme relationships of aromatic amino acid proteins to be studied. We found that amino acids were inhibitory toward plant cell growth, and thus were unable to rescue analog resistant mutants. Toxicity of all amino acids toward exponentially dividing Nicotiana silvestris suspension cultured cells was monitored by following growth rates. Except for L-glutamine, all 19 protein amino acids inhibited cell growth. Inhibition of growth progressed to cell deterioration. Electron microscopy showed that amino acids triggered a state of cell shrinkage that eventually degenerated to total cellular disorganization. L-glutamine was not only an effective agent for prevention of amino acid toxicity, but enhanced the final growth yield. L-glutamine also was able to completely reverse inhibition effects in cells that had been in the slowed exponential phase. Two types of inhibition occurred and we have proposed that any amino acid inhibition that can be completely antagonized by L-glutamine be called ''general amino acid inhibition''. ''Specific amino acid inhibition'' resulting from particular pathway imbalances caused by certain exogenous amino acids, can be recognized and studied in the presence of L-glutamine which can abolishes the complication effects of general amino acid inhibition.

  2. Herbicides do not ensure for higher wheat yield, but eliminate rare plant species

    PubMed Central

    Gaba, Sabrina; Gabriel, Edith; Chadœuf, Joël; Bonneu, Florent; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Weed control is generally considered to be essential for crop production and herbicides have become the main method used for weed control in developed countries. However, concerns about harmful environmental consequences have led to strong pressure on farmers to reduce the use of herbicides. As food demand is forecast to increase by 50% over the next century, an in-depth quantitative analysis of crop yields, weeds and herbicides is required to balance economic and environmental issues. This study analysed the relationship between weeds, herbicides and winter wheat yields using data from 150 winter wheat fields in western France. A Bayesian hierarchical model was built to take account of farmers’ behaviour, including implicitly their perception of weeds and weed control practices, on the effectiveness of treatment. No relationship was detected between crop yields and herbicide use. Herbicides were found to be more effective at controlling rare plant species than abundant weed species. These results suggest that reducing the use of herbicides by up to 50% could maintain crop production, a result confirmed by previous studies, while encouraging weed biodiversity. Food security and biodiversity conservation may, therefore, be achieved simultaneously in intensive agriculture simply by reducing the use of herbicides. PMID:27453451

  3. Automated pressure probe for measurement of water transport properties of higher plant cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.; Durachko, Daniel M.

    1986-10-01

    A computer-assisted instrument was constructed to measure the fundamental physical properties that regulate water transport at the cell level in plants. With this automated pressure probe, we measure a cell's hydrostatic pressure by inserting an oil-filled glass capillary into the cell. The capillary is connected to a pressure sensor and to a plunger controlled by a stepper motor. At the capillary tip an interface forms between the cell sap and oil. The image of this interface is directed through a microscope to a video camera. The interface position is detected by a video processor sampling at 60 Hz and is regulated by a microcomputer which advances or retracts the plunger at rates up to 280 steps per second. To determine the hydraulic conductance of cell membranes, the computer carries out pressure-relaxation and pressure-clamp experiments. Pressure is recorded with a resolution of 0.02 bar and is regulated in pressure-clamp experiments at ±0.02 bar. The instrument measures the cell volumetric elastic modulus by injecting or removing small volumes from the cell while simultaneously measuring cell turgor pressure. This system was tested on the cells of pea seedlings and proved superior to the previous techniques, especially for pressure-clamp experiments and volumetric elastic modulus determinations.

  4. Occurrence of the Primary Cell Wall Polysaccharide Rhamnogalacturonan II in Pteridophytes, Lycophytes, and Bryophytes. Implications for the Evolution of Vascular Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Toshiro; Ishii, Tadashi; Matsumoto, Sadamu; Higuchi, Masanobu; Darvill, Alan; Albersheim, Peter; O'Neill, Malcolm A.

    2004-01-01

    Borate ester cross-linking of the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) is required for the growth and development of angiosperms and gymnosperms. Here, we report that the amounts of borate cross-linked RG-II present in the sporophyte primary walls of members of the most primitive extant vascular plant groups (Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Equisetopsida, and Psilopsida) are comparable with the amounts of RG-II in the primary walls of angiosperms. By contrast, the gametophyte generation of members of the avascular bryophytes (Bryopsida, Hepaticopsida, and Anthocerotopsida) have primary walls that contain small amounts (approximately 1% of the amounts of RG-II present in angiosperm walls) of an RG-II-like polysaccharide. The glycosyl sequence of RG-II is conserved in vascular plants, but these RG-IIs are not identical because the non-reducing l-rhamnosyl residue present on the aceric acid-containing side chain of RG-II of all previously studied plants is replaced by a 3-O-methyl rhamnosyl residue in the RG-IIs isolated from Lycopodium tristachyum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Platycerium bifurcatum, and Psilotum nudum. Our data indicate that the amount of RG-II incorporated into the walls of plants increased during the evolution of vascular plants from their bryophyte-like ancestors. Thus, the acquisition of a boron-dependent growth habit may be correlated with the ability of vascular plants to maintain upright growth and to form lignified secondary walls. The conserved structures of pteridophyte, lycophyte, and angiosperm RG-IIs suggests that the genes and proteins responsible for the biosynthesis of this polysaccharide appeared early in land plant evolution and that RG-II has a fundamental role in wall structure. PMID:14671014

  5. The major low-molecular-weight heat shock protein in chloroplasts shows antigenic conservation among diverse higher plant species.

    PubMed

    Vierling, E; Harris, L M; Chen, Q

    1989-02-01

    Several plant species are known to synthesize low-molecular-weight nucleus-encoded heat shock proteins (HSPs) which localize to chloroplasts. DNA sequence analysis of chloroplast HSP cDNAs from pea (Pisum sativum) and soybean (Glycine max) has shown that the carboxyl-terminal halves of these proteins are homologous to low-molecular-weight HSPs from a wide range of eucaryotes (E. Vierling, R. T. Nagao, A. E. DeRocher, and L. M. Harris, EMBO J. 7:575-581, 1988). We used a pea cDNA to construct fusion proteins containing either the carboxyl-terminal heat shock domain or the amino-terminal domain of the chloroplast HSP. The fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and used to produce choloroplast HSP-specific polyclonal antibodies. The carboxyl-terminal antibodies recognized chloroplast HSP precursor proteins from pea and from three divergent plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, petunia (Petunia hybrida), and maize (Zea mays). The amino-terminal antibodies recognized effectively only the pea precursor. When intact plants of each species were subjected to a heat stress regime mimicking field growth conditions, significant levels of the mature forms of the chloroplast HSPs accumulated in pea, A. thaliana, and maize. The levels of accumulated HSPs remained unchanged for 12 h following the stress treatment. We conclude that the synthesis of chloroplast-localized HSPs is an important component of the stree response in all higher plants and that chloroplast HSPs from dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants have a conserved carboxyl-terminal domain.

  6. Role of Ca{sup ++}/calmodulin in the regulation of microtubules in higher plants. Progress report, FY91

    SciTech Connect

    Cyr, R.

    1991-12-31

    This work is aimed at defining the role of calcium/calmodulin in regulating cortical microtubules (MTS) in higher plants. Recent thrust has been to define the effects of calcium upon microtubules in vivo. Using lysed protoplasts, we noted Mts are destabilized by calcium/calmodulin. This effect could be the result of gross depolymerization induced by Ca{sup ++}/calmodulin, or by an increase in the dynamic flux rate. Intact protoplasts exposed to high (10 mM) levels of calcium (which would be expected to increase intercellular calcium levels) contained microtubules that were hypersensitive to Mt inhibitors, compared to control protoplasts exposed to low calcium environments.

  7. A continual model of soil organic matter transformations for predicting soil forming dynamics inside higher plant CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsev, S. I.; Pochekutov, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    A continual model of humification and mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) formed under the conditions of a Lunar base from biological waste materials is proposed. The model parameters corresponding to the conditions of several Earths climatic regions are estimated. The time necessary for the formation of organic matter in the soil based on regolith and higher plant residues has been evaluated. Soil formation under tropical conditions are shown to be the most appropriate for Lunar base CELSS due to high matter turnover rate, relatively short formation time, minimum deposited mass, and satisfactory predictability of expected soil parameters.

  8. Photochemistry of Acetabularia rhodopsin II from a marine plant, Acetabularia acetabulum.

    PubMed

    Kikukawa, Takashi; Shimono, Kazumi; Tamogami, Jun; Miyauchi, Seiji; Kim, So Young; Kimura-Someya, Tomomi; Shirouzu, Mikako; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kamo, Naoki

    2011-10-18

    Acetabularia rhodopsins are the first microbial rhodopsins discovered in a marine plant organism, Acetabularia acetabulum. Previously, we expressed Acetabularia rhodopsin II (ARII) by a cell-free system from one of two opsin genes in A. acetabulum cDNA and showed that ARII is a light-driven proton pump [Wada, T., et al. (2011) J. Mol. Biol. 411, 986-998]. In this study, the photochemistry of ARII was examined using the flash-photolysis technique, and data were analyzed using a sequential irreversible model. Five photochemically defined intermediates (P(i)) were sufficient to simulate the data. Noticeably, both P(3) and P(4) contain an equilibrium mixture of M, N, and O. Using a transparent indium tin oxide electrode, the photoinduced proton transfer was measured over a wide pH range. Analysis of the pH-dependent proton transfer allowed estimation of the pK(a) values of some amino acid residues. The estimated values were 2.6, 5.9 (or 6.3), 8.4, 9.3, 10.5, and 11.3. These values were assigned as the pK(a) of Asp81 (Asp85(BR)) in the dark, Asp92 (Asp96(BR)) at N, Glu199 (Glu204(BR)) at M, Glu199 in the dark, an undetermined proton-releasing residue at the release, and the pH to start denaturation, respectively. Following this analysis, the proton transfer of ARII is discussed.

  9. A Comparison Between Plant Photosystem I and Photosystem II Architecture and Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Caffarri, Stefano; Tibiletti, Tania; Jennings, Robert C.; Santabarbara, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is indispensable both for the development and maintenance of life on earth by converting light energy into chemical energy and by producing molecular oxygen and consuming carbon dioxide. This latter process has been responsible for reducing the CO2 from its very high levels in the primitive atmosphere to the present low levels and thus reducing global temperatures to levels conducive to the development of life. Photosystem I and photosystem II are the two multi-protein complexes that contain the pigments necessary to harvest photons and use light energy to catalyse the primary photosynthetic endergonic reactions producing high energy compounds. Both photosystems are highly organised membrane supercomplexes composed of a core complex, containing the reaction centre where electron transport is initiated, and of a peripheral antenna system, which is important for light harvesting and photosynthetic activity regulation. If on the one hand both the chemical reactions catalysed by the two photosystems and their detailed structure are different, on the other hand they share many similarities. In this review we discuss and compare various aspects of the organisation, functioning and regulation of plant photosystems by comparing them for similarities and differences as obtained by structural, biochemical and spectroscopic investigations. PMID:24678674

  10. Structural investigation of PsbO from plant and cyanobacterial photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Daria; Rossmann, Maxim; Konarev, Petr V; Irrgang, Klaus-D; Saenger, Wolfram

    2011-03-18

    The manganese-stabilizing protein PsbO is associated with the luminal side of thylakoids close to the redox-active Mn(4)Ca cluster at the catalytically active site of photosystem II (PSII). PsbO is believed to increase the efficiency of oxygen evolution and to stabilize the Mn(4)Ca cluster against photoinhibition. Using small-angle X-ray scattering, we investigated the low-resolution structure of wild-type spinach PsbO and that of chimeric spinach PsbO fused with maltose-binding protein. Small-angle X-ray scattering data revealed that both proteins are monomeric in solution, and that plant and cyanobacterial PsbO have similar structures. We show a highly efficient expression system that allows recombinant production of the active wild type and the chimeric PsbO from spinach and cyanobacteria, with yields compatible with biophysical and structural studies. The binding of spinach PsbO fused with maltose-binding protein to PSII depleted of extrinsic subunits (PSII-ΔpsbO,P,Q) was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The reconstituted PSII was shown to have similar oxygen evolution rates as obtained with wild-type spinach PsbO.

  11. Amino acids implicated in plant defense are higher in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus-tolerant citrus varieties.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil; Hijaz, Faraj

    2016-01-01

    Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, has been threatening the citrus industry since the early 1900's and up to this date there are no effective cures for this disease. Field observations and greenhouse controlled studies demonstrated that some citrus genotypes are more tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) pathogen than others. However, the mechanisms underpinning tolerance has not been determined yet. The phloem sap composition of CLas-tolerant and sensitive citrus varieties was studied to identify metabolites that could be responsible for their tolerance to CLas. The citrus phloem sap was collected by centrifugation and was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after methyl chloroformate derivatization. Thirty-three metabolites were detected in the phloem sap of the studied varieties: twenty 20 amino acids, eight 8 organic acids, and five 5 fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of most amino acids, especially those implicated in plantdefense to pathogens such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, lysine, and asparagine were higher in tolerant varieties. Although the level of organic acids varied between cultivars, this variation was not correlated with citrus resistance to CLas and could be cultivar specific. The fatty acids were found in trace amounts and in most cases their levels were not significantly different among varieties. Better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning citrus tolerance to CLas will help in developing economically tolerant varieties.

  12. Zeaxanthin Radical Cation Formation in Minor Light-Harvesting Complexes of Higher Plant Antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Avenson, Thomas H.; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Zigmantas, Donatas; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Li, Zhirong; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-01-31

    Previous work on intact thylakoid membranes showed that transient formation of a zeaxanthin radical cation was correlated with regulation of photosynthetic light-harvesting via energy-dependent quenching. A molecular mechanism for such quenching was proposed to involve charge transfer within a chlorophyll-zeaxanthin heterodimer. Using near infrared (880-1100 nm) transient absorption spectroscopy, we demonstrate that carotenoid (mainly zeaxanthin) radical cation generation occurs solely in isolated minor light-harvesting complexes that bind zeaxanthin, consistent with the engagement of charge transfer quenching therein. We estimated that less than 0.5percent of the isolated minor complexes undergo charge transfer quenching in vitro, whereas the fraction of minor complexes estimated to be engaged in charge transfer quenching in isolated thylakoids was more than 80 times higher. We conclude that minor complexes which bind zeaxanthin are sites of charge transfer quenching in vivo and that they can assume Non-quenching and Quenching conformations, the equilibrium LHC(N)<--> LHC(Q) of which is modulated by the transthylakoid pH gradient, the PsbS protein, and protein-protein interactions.

  13. Transport and phosphorylation of choline in higher plant cells. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bligny, R.; Foray, M.F.; Roby, C.; Douce, R.

    1989-03-25

    When sycamore cells were suspended in basal medium containing choline, the latter was taken up by the cells very rapidly. A facilitated diffusion system appertained at low concentrations of choline and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At higher choline concentrations simple diffusion appeared to be the principal mode of uptake. Addition of choline to the perfusate of compressed sycamore cells monitored by /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy resulted in a dramatic accumulation of P-choline in the cytoplasmic compartment containing choline kinase and not in the vacuole. The total accumulation of P-choline over a 10-h period exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. During this period, in the absence of Pi in the perfusion medium there was a marked depletion of glucose-6-P, and the cytoplasmic Pi resonance disappeared almost completely. When a threshold of cytoplasmic Pi was attained, the phosphorylation of choline was sustained by the continuous release of Pi from the vacuole although at a much lower rate. However, when 100 microM inorganic phosphate was present in the perfusion medium, externally added Pi was preferentially used to sustain P-choline synthesis. It is clear, therefore, that cytosolic choline kinase associated with a carrier-mediated transport system for choline uptake appeared as effective systems for continuously trapping cytoplasmic Pi including vacuolar Pi entering the cytoplasm.

  14. Higher-Order Factor Structure of the Differential Ability Scales-II: Consistency across Ages 4 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Low, Justin A.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Patel, Puja G.; Ridley, Kristen P.

    2010-01-01

    The recently published second edition of the Differential Abilities Scale (DAS-II) is designed to measure multiple broad and general abilities from Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory. Although the technical manual presents information supporting the test's structure, additional research is needed to determine the constructs measured by the test and…

  15. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion

    PubMed Central

    LIVEZEY, BRADLEY C; ZUSI, RICHARD L

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, avian systematics has been characterized by a diminished reliance on morphological cladistics of modern taxa, intensive palaeornithogical research stimulated by new discoveries and an inundation by analyses based on DNA sequences. Unfortunately, in contrast to significant insights into basal origins, the broad picture of neornithine phylogeny remains largely unresolved. Morphological studies have emphasized characters of use in palaeontological contexts. Molecular studies, following disillusionment with the pioneering, but non-cladistic, work of Sibley and Ahlquist, have differed markedly from each other and from morphological works in both methods and findings. Consequently, at the turn of the millennium, points of robust agreement among schools concerning higher-order neornithine phylogeny have been limited to the two basalmost and several mid-level, primary groups. This paper describes a phylogenetic (cladistic) analysis of 150 taxa of Neornithes, including exemplars from all non-passeriform families, and subordinal representatives of Passeriformes. Thirty-five outgroup taxa encompassing Crocodylia, predominately theropod Dinosauria, and selected Mesozoic birds were used to root the trees. Based on study of specimens and the literature, 2954 morphological characters were defined; these characters have been described in a companion work, approximately one-third of which were multistate (i.e. comprised at least three states), and states within more than one-half of these multistate characters were ordered for analysis. Complete heuristic searches using 10 000 random-addition replicates recovered a total solution set of 97 well-resolved, most-parsimonious trees (MPTs). The set of MPTs was confirmed by an expanded heuristic search based on 10 000 random-addition replicates and a full ratchet-augmented exploration to ascertain global optima. A strict consensus tree of MPTs included only six trichotomies, i.e. nodes differing topologically among MPTs

  16. Organic Acids: The Pools of Fixed Carbon Involved in Redox Regulation and Energy Balance in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Igamberdiev, Abir U.; Eprintsev, Alexander T.

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are synthesized in plants as a result of the incomplete oxidation of photosynthetic products and represent the stored pools of fixed carbon accumulated due to different transient times of conversion of carbon compounds in metabolic pathways. When redox level in the cell increases, e.g., in conditions of active photosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in mitochondria is transformed to a partial cycle supplying citrate for the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate (citrate valve), while malate is accumulated and participates in the redox balance in different cell compartments (via malate valve). This results in malate and citrate frequently being the most accumulated acids in plants. However, the intensity of reactions linked to the conversion of these compounds can cause preferential accumulation of other organic acids, e.g., fumarate or isocitrate, in higher concentrations than malate and citrate. The secondary reactions, associated with the central metabolic pathways, in particularly with the TCA cycle, result in accumulation of other organic acids that are derived from the intermediates of the cycle. They form the additional pools of fixed carbon and stabilize the TCA cycle. Trans-aconitate is formed from citrate or cis-aconitate, accumulation of hydroxycitrate can be linked to metabolism of 2-oxoglutarate, while 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate can be formed from pyruvate and glyoxylate. Glyoxylate, a product of either glycolate oxidase or isocitrate lyase, can be converted to oxalate. Malonate is accumulated at high concentrations in legume plants. Organic acids play a role in plants in providing redox equilibrium, supporting ionic gradients on membranes, and acidification of the extracellular medium. PMID:27471516

  17. Organic Acids: The Pools of Fixed Carbon Involved in Redox Regulation and Energy Balance in Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Igamberdiev, Abir U; Eprintsev, Alexander T

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are synthesized in plants as a result of the incomplete oxidation of photosynthetic products and represent the stored pools of fixed carbon accumulated due to different transient times of conversion of carbon compounds in metabolic pathways. When redox level in the cell increases, e.g., in conditions of active photosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in mitochondria is transformed to a partial cycle supplying citrate for the synthesis of 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate (citrate valve), while malate is accumulated and participates in the redox balance in different cell compartments (via malate valve). This results in malate and citrate frequently being the most accumulated acids in plants. However, the intensity of reactions linked to the conversion of these compounds can cause preferential accumulation of other organic acids, e.g., fumarate or isocitrate, in higher concentrations than malate and citrate. The secondary reactions, associated with the central metabolic pathways, in particularly with the TCA cycle, result in accumulation of other organic acids that are derived from the intermediates of the cycle. They form the additional pools of fixed carbon and stabilize the TCA cycle. Trans-aconitate is formed from citrate or cis-aconitate, accumulation of hydroxycitrate can be linked to metabolism of 2-oxoglutarate, while 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate can be formed from pyruvate and glyoxylate. Glyoxylate, a product of either glycolate oxidase or isocitrate lyase, can be converted to oxalate. Malonate is accumulated at high concentrations in legume plants. Organic acids play a role in plants in providing redox equilibrium, supporting ionic gradients on membranes, and acidification of the extracellular medium. PMID:27471516

  18. Computational analysis of the MCoTI-II plant defence knottin reveals a novel intermediate conformation that facilitates trypsin binding.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter M; George, Anthony M

    2016-01-01

    MCoTI-I and II are plant defence proteins, potent trypsin inhibitors from the bitter gourd Momordica cochinchinensis. They are members of the Knottin Family, which display exceptional stability due to unique topology comprising three interlocked disulfide bridges. Knottins show promise as scaffolds for new drug development. A crystal structure of trypsin-bound MCoTI-II suggested that loop 1, which engages the trypsin active site, would show decreased dynamics in the bound state, an inference at odds with an NMR analysis of MCoTI-I, which revealed increased dynamics of loop 1 in the presence of trypsin. To investigate this question, we performed unrestrained MD simulations of trypsin-bound and free MCoTI-II. This analysis found that loop 1 of MCoTI-II is not more dynamic in the trypsin-bound state than in the free state. However, it revealed an intermediate conformation, transitional between the free and bound MCoTI-II states. The data suggest that MCoTI-II binding involves a process in which initial interaction with trypsin induces transitions between the free and intermediate conformations, and fluctuations between these states account for the increase in dynamics of loop 1 observed for trypsin-bound MCoTI-I. The MD analysis thus revealed new aspects of the inhibitors' dynamics that may be of utility in drug design. PMID:26975976

  19. Computational analysis of the MCoTI-II plant defence knottin reveals a novel intermediate conformation that facilitates trypsin binding.

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter M; George, Anthony M

    2016-03-15

    MCoTI-I and II are plant defence proteins, potent trypsin inhibitors from the bitter gourd Momordica cochinchinensis. They are members of the Knottin Family, which display exceptional stability due to unique topology comprising three interlocked disulfide bridges. Knottins show promise as scaffolds for new drug development. A crystal structure of trypsin-bound MCoTI-II suggested that loop 1, which engages the trypsin active site, would show decreased dynamics in the bound state, an inference at odds with an NMR analysis of MCoTI-I, which revealed increased dynamics of loop 1 in the presence of trypsin. To investigate this question, we performed unrestrained MD simulations of trypsin-bound and free MCoTI-II. This analysis found that loop 1 of MCoTI-II is not more dynamic in the trypsin-bound state than in the free state. However, it revealed an intermediate conformation, transitional between the free and bound MCoTI-II states. The data suggest that MCoTI-II binding involves a process in which initial interaction with trypsin induces transitions between the free and intermediate conformations, and fluctuations between these states account for the increase in dynamics of loop 1 observed for trypsin-bound MCoTI-I. The MD analysis thus revealed new aspects of the inhibitors' dynamics that may be of utility in drug design.

  20. Computational analysis of the MCoTI-II plant defence knottin reveals a novel intermediate conformation that facilitates trypsin binding

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter M.; George, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    MCoTI-I and II are plant defence proteins, potent trypsin inhibitors from the bitter gourd Momordica cochinchinensis. They are members of the Knottin Family, which display exceptional stability due to unique topology comprising three interlocked disulfide bridges. Knottins show promise as scaffolds for new drug development. A crystal structure of trypsin-bound MCoTI-II suggested that loop 1, which engages the trypsin active site, would show decreased dynamics in the bound state, an inference at odds with an NMR analysis of MCoTI-I, which revealed increased dynamics of loop 1 in the presence of trypsin. To investigate this question, we performed unrestrained MD simulations of trypsin-bound and free MCoTI-II. This analysis found that loop 1 of MCoTI-II is not more dynamic in the trypsin-bound state than in the free state. However, it revealed an intermediate conformation, transitional between the free and bound MCoTI-II states. The data suggest that MCoTI-II binding involves a process in which initial interaction with trypsin induces transitions between the free and intermediate conformations, and fluctuations between these states account for the increase in dynamics of loop 1 observed for trypsin-bound MCoTI-I. The MD analysis thus revealed new aspects of the inhibitors’ dynamics that may be of utility in drug design. PMID:26975976

  1. Photosystem I shows a higher tolerance to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress than photosystem II in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Zheng, Zhenbing; Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Huan, Li; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2014-10-01

    The photosynthetic performance of the desiccation-tolerant, intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera was significantly affected by sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity decreased significantly with increases in sorbitol concentration. Although the partial activity of both photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) was able to recover after 30 min of rehydration, the activity of PS II decreased more rapidly than PS I. At 4 M sorbitol concentration, the activity of PS II was almost 0 while that of PS I was still at about one third of normal levels. Following prolonged treatment with 1 and 2 M sorbitol, the activity of PS I and PS II decreased slowly, suggesting that the effects of moderate concentrations of sorbitol on PS I and PS II were gradual. Interestingly, an increase in non-photochemical quenching occurred under these conditions in response to moderate osmotic stress, whereas it declined significantly under severe osmotic stress. These results suggest that photoprotection in U. prolifera could also be induced by moderate osmotic stress. In addition, the oxidation of PS I was significantly affected by osmotic stress. P700(+) in the thalli treated with high concentrations of sorbitol could still be reduced, as PS II was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), but it could not be fully oxidized. This observation may be caused by the higher quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation in PS I due to acceptor-side limitation (Y(NA)) during rehydration in seawater containing DCMU.

  2. Flibe Coolant Cleanup and Processing in the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W

    2001-03-23

    In the HYLIFE-II chamber design, a thick flowing blanket of molten-salt (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) called flibe is used to protect structures from radiation damage. Since it is directly exposed to the fusion target, the flibe will absorb the target debris. Removing the materials left over from target explosions at the rate of {approx}6/s and then recycling some of these materials poses a challenge for the inertial fusion energy power plant. The choice of target materials derives from multi-disciplinary criteria such as target performance, fabricability, safety and environment, corrosion, and cost of recycle. Indirect-drive targets require high-2 materials for the hohlraum. Gold and gadolinium are favorite target materials for laboratory experiments but cost considerations may preclude their use in power plants or at least requires cost effective recycle because a year's supply of gold and gadolinium is estimated at 520 M$ and 40 M$. Environmental and waste considerations alone require recycle of this material. Separation by volatility appears to be the most attractive (e.g., Hg and Xe); centrifugation (e.g., Pb) is acceptable with some problems (e.g., materials compatibility) and chemical separation is the least attractive (e.g. Gd and Hf). Mercury, hafnium and xenon might be substituted with equal target performance and have advantages in removal and recycle due to their high volatility, except for hafnium. Alternatively, lead, tungsten and xenon might be used due to the ability to use centrifugation and gaseous separation. Hafnium or tantalum form fluorides, which will complicate materials compatibility, corrosion and require sufficient volatility of the fluoride for separation. Further complicating the coolant cleanup and processing is the formation of free fluorine due to nuclear transformation of lithium and beryllium in the flibe, which requires chemical control of the fluoride level to minimize corrosion. The study of the choice of target materials and the

  3. Towards systems biology of the gravity response of higher plants -multiscale analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana root growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palme, Klaus; Aubry, D.; Bensch, M.; Schmidt, T.; Ronneberger, O.; Neu, C.; Li, X.; Wang, H.; Santos, F.; Wang, B.; Paponov, I.; Ditengou, F. A.; Teale, W. T.; Volkmann, D.; Baluska, F.; Nonis, A.; Trevisan, S.; Ruperti, B.; Dovzhenko, A.

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development. Up to now, little is known about the molecular organisation of the signal transduction cascades and networks which co-ordinate gravity perception and response. By using an integrated systems biological approach, a systems analysis of gravity perception and the subsequent tightly-regulated growth response is planned in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This approach will address questions such as: (i) what are the components of gravity signal transduction pathways? (ii) what are the dynamics of these components? (iii) what is their spatio-temporal regulation in different tis-sues? Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model-we use root growth to obtain insights in the gravity response. New techniques enable identification of the individual genes affected by grav-ity and further integration of transcriptomics and proteomics data into interaction networks and cell communication events that operate during gravitropic curvature. Using systematic multiscale analysis we have identified regulatory networks consisting of transcription factors, the protein degradation machinery, vesicle trafficking and cellular signalling during the gravire-sponse. We developed approach allowing to incorporate key features of the root system across all relevant spatial and temporal scales to describe gene-expression patterns and correlate them with individual gene and protein functions. Combination of high-resolution microscopy and novel computational tools resulted in development of the root 3D model in which quantitative descriptions of cellular network properties and of multicellular interactions important in root growth and gravitropism can be integrated for the first time.

  4. Synthetic antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to transiently suppress different nucleus- and chloroplast-encoded proteins of higher plant chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Emine; Tóth, Szilvia Z; Schansker, Gert; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Kovács, László; Dudits, Dénes; Garab, Gyozo; Bottka, Sándor

    2011-12-01

    Selective inhibition of gene expression by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) is widely applied in gene function analyses; however, experiments with ODNs in plants are scarce. In this work, we extend the use of ODNs in different plant species, optimizing the uptake, stability, and efficiency of ODNs with a combination of molecular biological and biophysical techniques to transiently inhibit the gene expression of different chloroplast proteins. We targeted the nucleus-encoded phytoene desaturase (pds) gene, encoding a key enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, the chlorophyll a/b-binding (cab) protein genes, and the chloroplast-encoded psbA gene, encoding the D1 protein. For pds and psbA, the in vivo stability of ODNs was increased by phosphorothioate modifications. After infiltration of ODNs into juvenile tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves, we detected a 25% to 35% reduction in mRNA level and an approximately 5% decrease in both carotenoid content and the variable fluorescence of photosystem II. In detached etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves, after 8 h of greening, the mRNA level, carotenoid content, and variable fluorescence were inhibited up to 75%, 25%, and 20%, respectively. Regarding cab, ODN treatments of etiolated wheat leaves resulted in an up to 59% decrease in the amount of chlorophyll b, a 41% decrease of the maximum chlorophyll fluorescence intensity, the cab mRNA level was reduced to 66%, and the protein level was suppressed up to 85% compared with the control. The psbA mRNA and protein levels in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves were inhibited by up to 85% and 72%, respectively. To exploit the potential of ODNs for photosynthetic genes, we propose molecular design combined with fast, noninvasive techniques to test their functional effects.

  5. Effects of lime and applied Mn on plant Mn, growth and chlorophyll concentration of Tifway II bermudagrass

    SciTech Connect

    McCray, J.M.; Sartain, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    A glasshouse study was conducted to determine effects of lime and Mn applied to three Florida soils on plant Mn, growth, and chlorophyll concentration of Tifway II bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis). Four replications of three lime rates (0, 1000, and 2000 mg CaCO/sub 3//kg as dolomite and Ca(OH)/sub 2/ for Astatula fine sand and Pompano; 0, 2000, and 4000 mg CaCO/sub 3//kg as dolomite and Ca(OH)/sub 2/ for Myakka fine sand and three Mn applications (none, 10 mg Mn/kg as MnSO/sub 4/, and 5 mg Mn/kg as MnEDTA) were used in a randomized, complete block, factorial design. A wide range of plant Mn concentrations existed across treatments for each soil. Differences in plant Mn concentration did not cause significant differences in growth of chlorophyll concentration. The critical plant Mn concentration was not reached, but it appeared to be below 20 mg Mn kg for bermudagrass. Models for prediction of plant Mn concentration using soil pH and extractable soil Mn were obtained. The applications of MnSO/sub 4/ and MnEDTA each resulted in increased plant Mn under acidic soil conditions. Neither Mn application resulted in increased plant Mn concentration in grass grown on Pompano fine sand with soil pH values of 7.0 or above.

  6. Volatile metabolites of higher plants cenoses as photosynthesizing LSS component under optimum conditions and temperature stress at different light intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, J.; Tikhomirov, A.; Parshina, O.; Ushakova, S.; Kalacheva, G.

    One of major yet still poorly known functions of the photosynthesizing component in life support system (LSS) is to improve the quality of air through volatile emissions (VE) of plants capable of accumulating in closed volumes, interacting between themselves and having favorable or adverse impact on humans. In all likelihood, the effect of stress changing the functional condition of plants is to be accompanied with alteration in composition and quantity of VE. There are practically no works dealing with effect of such environmental factors as light intensity and elevated air temperature on qualitative and quantitative composition of VE by higher plants' cenoses. Meanwhile experimental modeling and investigation of stability of man-made human life support systems make this problem of very important. The aim of this work is to experimentally evaluate relationship between qualitative and quantitative composition of VE and the functional condition of wheat cenoses as the basic culture of LSS photosynthesizing component under normal conditions and under temperature stress against light of different intensity. Effect of elevated temperature 35 and 45°C (with the light intensity of 70, 150 or 240 W/m2 PAR) on photosynthesis, respiration, qualitative and quantitative composition of VE of wheat (Triticum aestuvi L., variety 232) cenoses was studied in the atmosphere of growth chambers. More than 20 volatile compounds (terpenoids - a pinene, +3 carene, limonene, benzene, a - and trans-caryophylene, a - and ?-terpinene, their derivatives, aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.) were qualitatively and quantitatively estimated by chromatomassspectroscopy (GC-MS). The light intensity of 240 W/m2 PAR at 35° increase, and at 45° - decrease of thermal stability of photosynthesis and respiration. Elevated temperatures resulted in non- uniform variation of the rate and direction of VE synthesis. VE was highest at irradiance 70 W/m 2 and lowest at 240 W/m2 and 35° . During the reparation

  7. Isolation and characterization of soluble boron complexes in higher plants. The mechanism of phloem mobility of boron.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, H; Penn, S G; Lebrilla, C B; Brown, P H

    1997-01-01

    Boron (B) polyol complexes have been isolated and characterized from the phloem sap of celery (Apium graveolens L.) and the extrafloral nectar of peach (Prunus persica L.). In celery the direct analysis of untreated phloem sap by matrix-assisted laser desorption-Fourier transform mass spectrometry, with verification by high-performance liquid chromagraphy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, revealed that B is present in the phloem as the mannitol-B-mannitol complex. Molecular modeling further predicted that this complex is present in the 3,4 3',4' bis-mannitol configuration. In the extrafloral nectar of peach, B was present as a mixture of sorbitol-B-sorbitol, fructose-B-fructose, or sorbitol-B-fructose. To our knowledge, these findings represent the first successful isolation and characterization of soluble B complexes from higher plants and provide a mechanistic explanation for the observed phloem B mobility in these species. PMID:9046600

  8. A Neogene Higher Plant N-Alkane Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Record From the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Pagani, M.

    2006-12-01

    Water availability and a plant's capacity to cope with water stress are expressed in carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions of leaf waxes. Therefore, coupled sedimentary n-alkane δ13C and δD isotope records provide unique continental-scale information about the paleo-hydrological cycle and its influence on biology over long time scales. In this study, we assess the relationship between Neogene North American climate and floral change, particularly C4 grass expansion, by establishing δ13C and δD records of higher-plant leaf wax n-alkanes from Gulf of Mexico sediments (DSDP site 94). Changes in the hydrogen isotope composition of leaf water can be driven by changes in evaporation/evapotranspiration or changes in the evaporative source from which precipitation derives. However, for this study changes in moisture source are unlikely because these sediments located in Gulf of Mexico likely received the majority of precipitation from the Gulf of Mexico itself over the time interval studied. In general, δ13C and δD values shift in concert, with the most positive δ13C and δD values occurring near the Epoch boundaries. N-alkane δ13C values reflect factors other than water stress alone, including the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2, plant community, and atmospheric pCO2. Notably, 13C enrichment occurring near the Oligocene/Miocene boundary potentially reflects the rapid decrease in pCO2 at this time. In addition, between 4.5 and 5.5 Ma, n-alkane δ13C values trend more negative as δD becomes increasingly D-enriched, indicative of increased evaporation. Given that contemporaneous North American terrestrial isotope (Passey et al., 2002) and equatorial Atlantic marine (Wagner, 2002) records show similar trends, it appears that major changes in the hydrological cycle took place at this time.

  9. Over-expression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lipids extracted from seeds of Camelina sativa have been successfully used as a reliable source of aviation biofuels. This biofuel is environmentally friendly because the drought resistance, frost tolerance and low fertilizer requirement of Camelina sativa allow it to grow on marginal lands. Improving the species growth and seed yield by genetic engineering is therefore a target for the biofuels industry. In Arabidopsis, overexpression of purple acid phosphatase 2 encoded by Arabidopsis (AtPAP2) promotes plant growth by modulating carbon metabolism. Overexpression lines bolt earlier and produce 50% more seeds per plant than wild type. In this study, we explored the effects of overexpressing AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa. Results Under controlled environmental conditions, overexpression of AtPAP2 in Camelina sativa resulted in longer hypocotyls, earlier flowering, faster growth rate, higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, increased seed yield and seed size in comparison with the wild-type line and null-lines. Similar to transgenic Arabidopsis, activity of sucrose phosphate synthase in leaves of transgenic Camelina was also significantly up-regulated. Sucrose produced in photosynthetic tissues supplies the building blocks for cellulose, starch and lipids for growth and fuel for anabolic metabolism. Changes in carbon flow and sink/source activities in transgenic lines may affect floral, architectural, and reproductive traits of plants. Conclusions Lipids extracted from the seeds of Camelina sativa have been used as a major constituent of aviation biofuels. The improved growth rate and seed yield of transgenic Camelina under controlled environmental conditions have the potential to boost oil yield on an area basis in field conditions and thus make Camelina-based biofuels more environmentally friendly and economically attractive. PMID:22472516

  10. Interaction of amatoxins with plant cells and RNA polymerases II: selection of amanitin-resistant cell lines and synthesis of amanitin-based affinity ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Little, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments directed toward deriving basic information regarding plant RNA polymerase II is presented. The experiments described relate to the potential of isolating RNA polymerase II mutants in plants, using carrot cell cultures as models. Additionally, the synthesis of amanitin-based affinity ligands to immobilize isolated plant RNA polymerase II and associated transcriptional complexes is described. RNA polymerase II activities have been isolated from suspension cultures of carrot and compared to other plant RNA polymerases II with respect to subunit analysis and inhibition with ..cap alpha..-amanitin. RNA polymerase II purified by polymin P absorption, DE52, phosphocellulose, and RNA-agarose chromatography is shown to copurify with proteins of 175 (and 200), 135, 70, 43, 28, 22, and 17 kdaltons apparent molecular weights. Conditions for accurate determination of amanitin inhibition of the enzyme are established using /sup 3/H-amanitin and are presented for the first time for plant RNA polymerase II; RNA polymerase II from these cultures is shown to be inhibited by 50% at 3-5 nM by ..cap alpha..-amanitin, a value 10-50 times lower than previously reported.

  11. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a main feedwater turbopump trip transient in the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, C.; Casals, A.; Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1993-12-01

    The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) and the Asociacion Nuclear Vandellos (ANV) have developed a model of Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant. The ANV collaboration consisted in the supply of design and actual data, the cooperation in the simulation of the control systems and other model components, as well as in the results analysis. The obtained model has been assessed against the following transients occurred in plant: A trip from the 100% power level (CSN); a load rejection from 100% to 50% (CSN); a load rejection from 75% to 65% (ANV); and, a feedwater turbopump trip (ANV). This copy is a report of the feedwater turbopump trip transient simulation. This transient actually occurred in the plant on June 19, 1989.

  12. Acute toxic and genotoxic activities of widely used cytostatic drugs in higher plants: Possible impact on the environment.

    PubMed

    Mišík, Miroslav; Pichler, Clemens; Rainer, Bernhard; Filipic, Metka; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2014-11-01

    Cytostatic drugs are highly toxic pharmaceuticals and it was repeatedly postulated that they may cause adverse effects in ecosystems. The acute toxic and genotoxic properties of these drugs have not been adequately investigated in higher plants so far; therefore, we studied the most widely used drugs (5-flurouracil, 5FU; etoposide, Et; cisplatin, CisPt; carboplatin, CaPt; vincristine sulfate, VinS and cyclophosphamide monohydrate, CP) in micronucleus (MN) assays with meiotic pollen tetrad cells of Tradescantia and with root cells from Allium cepa. MNi are formed as a consequence of chromosome breaks and aneuploidy. We monitored also the acute toxic properties of the drugs, i.e. inhibition of cell division (mitotic indices and retardation of root growth) in the latter species. All compounds caused in both indicator plants genotoxic effects. The order of genotoxic potencies expressed as NOELs in µM was CisPt (0.1)≥ Et (0.5)>CP (1.0)>CaPt (10)>5FU (30)>VinS (100) in Tradescantia. A similar order was seen in Allium MN but Et was less active (5.0µM). Four compounds caused alterations of the mitotic indices under the present conditions namely CisPt (0.5), Et (10.0), 5FU (10.0) and VinS (100). Inhibition of root growth decreased in the order CisPt (0.5)>Et (1.0)≥VinS (1.0)>5FU (5.0)>CaPt (33.0)>CP (>1000). Comparisons of the NOELs with the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) show that the latter values are at least 5 orders of magnitude lower and indicate that it is unlikely that their release in the environment may cause adverse effects in higher plants. However, it is notable that the levels of both platinum compounds and of 5FU in hospital effluents may reach levels which may induce damage of the genetic material.

  13. Loss of DNase II function in the gonad is associated with a higher expression of antimicrobial genes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsiang; Lai, Huey-Jen; Lin, Tai-Wei; Chen, Chang-Shi; Lo, Szecheng J

    2015-08-15

    Three waves of apoptosis shape the development of Caenorhabditis elegans. Although the exact roles of the three DNase II genes (nuc-1, crn-6 and crn-7), which are known to mediate degradation of apoptotic DNA, in the embryonic and larval phases of apoptosis have been characterized, the DNase II acting in the third wave of germ cell apoptosis remains undetermined. In the present study, we performed in vitro and in vivo assays on various mutant nematodes to demonstrate that NUC-1 and CRN-7, but not CRN-6, function in germ cell apoptosis. In addition, in situ DNA-break detection and anti-phosphorylated ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) staining illustrated the sequential and spatially regulated actions of NUC-1 and CRN-7, at the pachytene zone of the gonad and at the loop respectively. In line with the notion that UV-induced DNA fragment accumulation in the gonad activates innate immunity responses, we also found that loss of NUC-1 and CRN-7 lead to up-regulation of antimicrobial genes (abf-2, spp-1, nlp-29, cnc-2, and lys-7). Our observations suggest that an incomplete digestion of DNA fragments resulting from the absence of NUC-1 or CRN-7 in the gonad could induce the ERK signalling, consequently activating antimicrobial gene expression. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that nuc-1 and crn-7 play a role in degrading apoptotic DNA in distinct sites of the gonad, and act as negative regulators of innate immunity in C. elegans.

  14. Developmental Education in Higher Education. Advanced Institutional Development Program (AIDP) Two-year College Consortium, Vol. II, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Johnnie Ruth; And Others

    This monograph, consisting of four sections, focuses on developmental education in the higher education setting. The first section, by Johnnie Ruth Clarke, provides an overall perspective on learning through developmental programs. Included are discussions of the developmental approach, developmental students and instructional activities, and…

  15. Coexpression of potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors gives cotton plants protection against insect damage in the field

    PubMed Central

    Dunse, K. M.; Stevens, J. A.; Lay, F. T.; Gaspar, Y. M.; Heath, R. L.; Anderson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Potato type I and II serine protease inhibitors are produced by solanaceous plants as a defense mechanism against insects and microbes. Nicotiana alata proteinase inhibitor (NaPI) is a multidomain potato type II inhibitor (pin II) that is produced at high levels in the female reproductive tissues of the ornamental tobacco, Nicotiana alata. The individual inhibitory domains of NaPI target the major classes of digestive enzymes, trypsin and chymotrypsin, in the gut of lepidopteran larval pests. Although consumption of NaPI dramatically reduced the growth and development of a major insect pest, Helicoverpa punctigera, we discovered that surviving larvae had high levels of chymotrypsin activity resistant to inhibition by NaPI. We found a potato type I inhibitor, Solanum tuberosum potato type I inhibitor (StPin1A), was a strong inhibitor of the NaPI-resistant chymotrypsin activity. The combined inhibitory effect of NaPI and StPin1A on H. armigera larval growth in the laboratory was reflected in the increased yield of cotton bolls in field trials of transgenic plants expressing both inhibitors. Better crop protection thus is achieved using combinations of inhibitors in which one class of proteinase inhibitor is used to match the genetic capacity of an insect to adapt to a second class of proteinase inhibitor. PMID:20696895

  16. Molecular characterization of a novel heavy metal uptake transporter from higher plants and its potential for use in phytoremediation. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.I.

    1997-01-01

    'In the following the author reports on progress on the Department of Energy Grant from the Office of Energy Research and Office of Environmental Management on the topic of Molecular characterization of a novel heavy metal uptake transporter from higher plants and its potential use in phytoremediation. In this research the authors are investigating the following hypotheses: (1) A novel metal transporter cDNA isolated in my lab functions as a plasma membrane heavy metal and uptake transporter in plants roots. (2.) Over-expression of this cDNA in plants can be used to enhance plasma membrane metal uptake into plant tissues.'

  17. Slow molecular evolution in 18S rDNA, rbcL and nad5 genes of mosses compared with higher plants.

    PubMed

    Stenøien, H K

    2008-03-01

    The evolutionary potential of bryophytes (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) has been debated for decades. Fossil record and biogeographical distribution patterns suggest very slow morphological evolution and the retainment of several ancient traits since the split with vascular plants some 450 million years ago. Many have argued that bryophytes may evolve as rapidly as higher plants on the molecular level, but this hypothesis has not been tested so far. Here, it is shown that mosses have experienced significantly lower rates of molecular evolution than higher plants within 18S rDNA (nuclear), rbcL (chloroplast) and nad5 (mitochondrial) genes. Mosses are on an average evolving 2-3 times slower than ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms; and also green algae seem to be evolving faster than nonvascular plants. These results support the observation of a general correlation between morphological and molecular evolutionary rates in plants and also show that mosses are 'evolutionary sphinxes' regarding both morphological and molecular evolutionary potential.

  18. Multi-unit inertial fusion plants based on HYLIFE-II, with shared heavy-ion RIA driver and target factory, producing electricity and hydrogen fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, G.; Moir, R.; Hoffman, M.

    1994-05-05

    Following is a modification of the IFEFUEL systems code, called IFEFUEL2, to treat specifically the HYLIFE-II target chamber concept. The same improved Recirculating Induction Accelerator (RIA) energy scaling model developed recently by Bieri is used in this survey of the economics of multi-unit IFE plants producing both electricity and hydrogen fuel. Reference cases will assume conventional HI-indirect target gains for a 2 mm spot, and improved HYLIFE-II BoP models as per Hoffman. Credits for improved plant availability and lower operating costs due to HYLIFE-II`s 30-yr target chamber lifetime are included, as well as unit cost reductions suggested by Delene to credit greater {open_quotes}learning curve{close_quotes} benefits for the duplicated portions of a multi-unit plant. To illustrate the potential impact of more advanced assumptions, additional {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} cases will consider the possible benefits of an MHD + Steam BoP, where direct MHD conversion of plasma from baseball-size LiH target blanket shells is assumed to be possible in a new (as yet undesigned) liquid Flibe-walled target chamber, together and separately, with advanced, higher-gain heavy-ion targets with Fast Ignitors. These runs may help decide the course of a possible future {open_quotes}HYLIFE-III{close_quotes} IFE study. Beam switchyard and final focusing system costs per target chamber are assumed to be consistent with single-sided illumination, for either {open_quotes}conventional{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} indirect target gain assumptions. Target costs are scaled according to the model by Woodworth. In all cases, the driver energy and rep rate for each chosen number of target chambers and total plant output will be optimized to minimize the cost of electricity (CoE) and the associated cost of hydrogen (CoH), using a relationship between CoE and CoH to be presented in the next section.

  19. 75 FR 68821 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit; Construction and Operation of Kaheawa II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Operation of Kaheawa II Wind Energy Generation Facility, Maui, HI; Draft Habitat Conservation Plan and Draft... Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 300 Ala Moana Boulevard, Room 3-122, Honolulu, HI 96850. You...

  20. TCMGIS-II based prediction of medicinal plant distribution for conservation planning: a case study of Rheum tanguticum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many medicinal plants are increasingly endangered due to overexploitation and habitat destruction. To provide reliable references for conservation planning and regional management, this study focuses on large-scale distribution prediction of Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf (Dahuang). Methods Native habitats were determined by specimen examination. An improved version of GIS-based program for the distribution prediction of traditional Chinese medicine (TCMGIS-II) was employed to integrate national geographic, climate and soil type databases of China. Grid-based distance analysis of climate factors was based on the Mikowski distance and the analysis of soil types was based on grade division. The database of resource survey was employed to assess the reliability of prediction result. Results A total of 660 counties of 17 provinces in China, covering a land area of 3.63 × 106 km2, shared similar ecological factors with those of native habitats appropriate for R. tanguticum growth. Conclusion TCMGIS-II modeling found the potential habitats of target medicinal plants for their conservation planning. This technology is useful in conservation planning and regional management of medicinal plant resources. PMID:20735861

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers at a solid waste incineration plant II: atmospheric deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Schure, Arnout F. H.; Agrell, Cecilia; Bokenstrand, Alma; Sveder, Jeanette; Larsson, Per; Zegers, Bart N.

    2004-09-01

    In the second of two papers, the atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) deposition (wet and dry) at a municipal solid waste incineration (MSW) plant with electronics recycling is compared with that at an industrial urban reference site (URS) producing asphalt and concrete. Results of BDE209 and ΣPBDE excluding BDE209 as representatives of "new" vs. "old" PBDEs are presented. Volume weighted mean ΣPBDE and BDE209 concentrations at the MSW were 6.2 and 14.4 ng l-1, and at the URS were 2.5 and 14.1 ng l-1. Median ΣPBDE and BDE209 deposition fluxes were 21.3, 63.8 and 7.0, 14.7 ng m-2 day-1 at the MSW and URS, respectively. The concentrations in precipitation and the deposition fluxes were significantly higher at the MSW compared to the URS. Measured total washout- ratios (WT) were dependent on particle scavenging and the median WT for all congeners was 5.4×105. Median dry particle deposition velocities ranged from 0.4 to 49 cm s-1, depending on congener, showing that PBDEs are effectively removed from the atmosphere by particle deposition. PBDE fluxes increased at the reference site when winds were blowing from west-south-west, i.e. from the direction of the MSW. PBDE deposition and washout ratios were not influenced by temperature or rain volume, suggesting a constant emission from the MSW regardless of weather conditions. Together with the results of paper I (Agrell et al., 2004, Atmospheric Environment, this issue) we therefore suggest that treatment of waste, e.g. electronics recycling, is more a source of "old" PBDEs to the environment, whereas the rather similar BDE209 concentrations at the two urban sites are more a result of proximity to potential diffuse sources.

  2. Analysis of TOPAZ II and SPACE-R space nuclear power plants using a modified thermionic model

    SciTech Connect

    Habedank, O.D.

    1993-03-01

    Models based on the TDS thermionic diode model were developed for the TOPAZ II and SPACE-R nuclear power systems. Due to computer code limitations inherent in the TDS model, only the TOPAZ II system model ran successfully. Several parameter studies were conducted on the TOPAZ II model. These studies determined system performance and efficiency while varying the following: (1) the coolant flow inlet temperatures; (2) the rate of coolant temperature change; (3) the power profile of the core; and (4) the cesium reservoir temperature. Analysis of the results indicate that the model accurately represented the TOPAZ II system, underestimating published data by 10%. Coolant flow parameter studies indicate that raising coolant flow temperatures up to 100 K higher increases system power by put to 5%. Additional increases in temperature result in gradual performance degradation. Varying the axial power profile of the core from the actual peaked profile to a flat profile results in a negligible 0.3% change in total system performance. The peaked profile used in TOPAZ II produces the highest system efficiency of all the profiles modeled. The cesium pressure study indicates that the system is operating above optimum cesium pressure and that system performance is strongly dependent on cesium pressure. Increasing cesium reservoir temperature above design temperature by 30 K decreases system efficiency by 30%.

  3. [Impacts of human disturbance on the species composition of higher plants in the wetlands around Dianchi Lake, Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xi-Xi; Wu, Zhao-Lu; Luo, Kang; Ding, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-09-01

    Introducing higher plants to build semi-natural wetland ecosystem is one of the key approaches to restore the wetlands and lakes that suffered from serious pollution and destruction. Based on the investigation data from 128 quadrats at 26 sampling sites in the wetlands around Dianchi Lake in December 2011-October 2012, and in combining with the references published in the 1960s, this paper discussed the impacts of human activities on the species composition of higher plants in the wetlands around the Lake. In 2012, there were 299 species of 88 families in the wetlands, of which, 181 species were native species, and 118 species were alien ones (including 32 invasive species). Of the 42 species of hydrophytes in the total species, 13 species were alien ones (including 2 invasive species). In comparing with the species data recorded in the 1960s, 232 plants were newly recorded and 43 species disappeared in 2012. Aquatic plants changed obviously. The decreased species were 2 submerged plants, 2 floating plants, and 5 floating leaved plants, and the increased species were 8 emergent plants. Fourteen community types were identified by cluster analysis, of which, the main communities were those dominated by alien species including Pistia stratiotes and Alternanthera philoxeroides. As compared with the data in the 1960s, the plant communities dominated by native species such as Ottelia acuminate and Vallisneria natans were not found presently. Therefore, in the practice of introducing higher plants to restore the degraded wetlands and lakes, it would be necessary to scientifically and appropriately select and blend plant species to avoid the wetland degradation by human activities.

  4. Naturally occurring insect growth regulators. II. Screening of insect and plant extracts as insect juvenile hormone mimics.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Mills, G D

    1975-01-01

    Ethereal extracts prepared from the larvae, pupae, or eggs of 10 species of insects and from various parts of 343 species of higher plants were screened for juvenilizing effects against Tenebrio molitor and Oncopeltus fasciatus. Activity in both species was shown by an extract of the larvae of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, whereas an extract of the pupae was active in O. fasiatus only. Extracts of two plant species (Echinacea angustifolia roots and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana seeds) showed high juvenilizing activity in T. MOLITOR, AND EXtracts of five plant species (Clethra alnifolia stems, leaves, and fruits, Sassafras albidum roots and root bark, Eucalyptus camaldulensis stems and bark, Pinus rigida twigs and leaves, and Iris douglasiana roots, stems, and fruits) were highly active in O. fasciatus an extract of Tsuga canadensis leaves showed lower activity in this insect. Extracts of 16 species of plants showed high insecticidal activity (mortality) in O. fasciatus but lacked juvenilizing properties in both species of test insects.

  5. Results of the first stage (2002-2009) of investigation of higher plants onboard RS ISS, as an element of future closed Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Novikova, Nataliya; Sugimoto, Manabu

    A key task for biomedical human support in long-term manned space expeditions is the develop-ment of the Life Support System (LSS). It is expected that in the first continuous interplanetary expeditions LSS of only a few biological elements of the LSS, such as higher plants will be in-cluded. Therefore, investigations of growth and development of higher plants for consideration in the LSS are of high importance. In a period from October, 2002 to December 2009, 15 ex-periments on cultivation of different plants, including two genetically marked species of dwarf peas, a leaf vegetable strain of Mizuna, radish, barley and wheat were conducted in space greenhouse "LADA" onboard Russian Segment (RS) of International Space Station (ISS). The experiments resulted in the conclusion that the properties of growth and development of plants grown in space greenhouse "LADA" were unaffected by spaceflight conditions. In experiments conducted in a period from 2003 to 2005, it was shown for the first time that pea plants pre-serve reproductive functions, forming viable seeds during at least four continuous full cycles of ontogenesis ("seed to seed") under spaceflight conditions. No changes were found in the genetic apparatus of the pea plants in the four "space" generations. Since 2005, there have been routine collections of microbiological samples from the surfaces of the plants grown on-board in "LADA" greenhouse. Analysis has shown that the properties of contamination of the plants grown aboard by microorganism contain no abnormal patterns. Since 2008, the plants cultivated in "LADA" greenhouse have been frozen onboard RS ISS in the MELFI refrigerator and transferred to the Earth for further investigations. Investigations of Mizuna plants grown and frozen onboard of ISS, showed no differences between "ground control" and "space" plants in chemical and biochemical properties. There also no stress-response was found in kashinriki strain barley planted and frozen onboard ISS.

  6. Impacts of UV radiation and photomodification on the toxicity of PAHs to the higher plant Lemna gibba (duckweed)

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaodong Huang; Dixon, D.G.; Greenberg, B.M. . Dept. of Biology)

    1993-06-01

    The toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be enhanced by both biotic and abiotic processes. This is exemplified by light, which, by virtue of the extensive [pi]-orbital systems of PAHs, can be a major factor in PAH toxicity. Light activation of PAHs is known to occur via photosensitization reactions and potentially by photomodification of the chemicals to more toxic species. To examine the modes of PAH action in the light and determine if the photomodified compounds are hazardous, the authors investigated the photoinduced toxicity of anthracene, phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene to the aquatic higher plant Lemna gibba (a duckweed). Toxicity end points were inhibition of growth and extent of chlorosis. Light did indeed activated the phytotoxicity of PAHs, with UV radiation more effective than visible light. Dose-response curves based on chemical concentration and light intensity revealed the order of phytotoxic strength to be anthracene > phenanthrene > benzo[a]pyrene. To explore whether photomodified PAHs were contributing to toxicity, the chemicals were irradiated before toxicity testing. The rates of photomodification of the three PAHs were rapid, and the relative velocities were coincident with the order of toxic strength. Furthermore, the photomodified PAHs were more hazardous to Lemna than the intact compounds. Because interpretations of the potential impacts of PAHs in the environment are based mostly on measurements of the structurally intact chemicals, the severity of PAH hazards is possibly underestimated.

  7. Evidence for a universal pathway of abscisic acid biosynthesis in higher plants from sup 18 O incorporation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Zeevaart, J.A.D.; Heath, T.G.; Gage, D.A. )

    1989-12-01

    Previous labeling studies of abscisic acid (ABA) with {sup 18}O{sub 2} have been mainly conducted with water-stressed leaves. In this study, {sup 18}O incorporation into ABA of stressed leaves of various species was compared with {sup 18}O labeling of ABA of turgid leaves and of fruit tissue in different stages of ripening. In stressed leaves of all six species investigated, avocado (Persea americana), barley (Hordeum vulgare), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), {sup 18}O was most abundant in the carboxyl group, whereas incorporation of a second and third {sup 18}O in the oxygen atoms on the ring of ABA was much less prominent after 24 h in {sup 18}O{sub 2}. ABA from turgid bean leaves showed significant {sup 18}O incorporation, again with highest {sup 18}O enrichment in the carboxyl group. On the basis of {sup 18}O-labeling patterns observed in ABA from different tissues it is concluded that, despite variations in precusor pool sizes and intermediate turnover rates, there is a universal pathway of ABA biosynthesis in higher plants which involves cleavage of a larger precursor molecule, presumably an oxygenated carotenoid.

  8. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a turbine trip from 100% power in the Vandellos II nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, C.; Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 cycle 36.04 against a turbine trip from 100% power in the Vandellos II NPP (Spain) is presented. The work is inscribed in the framework of the Spanish contribution to ICAP Project. The model used in the simulation consists of a single loop, a steam generator and a steam line up to the steam header all of them enlarged on a scale of 3:1; and full-scaled reactor vessel and pressurizer. The results of calculations have been in reasonable agreement with plant measurements. An additional study has been performed to check the ability of a model in which all the plant components are full-scaled to reproduce the transient. A second study has been performed using the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model in the pressurizer, trying to elucidate the influence of the velocity slip in the primary depressurization rate.

  9. Comprehensive compositional analysis of plant cell walls (lignocellulosic biomass) part II: carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Foster, Cliff E; Martin, Tina M; Pauly, Markus

    2010-03-12

    The need for renewable, carbon neutral, and sustainable raw materials for industry and society has become one of the most pressing issues for the 21st century. This has rekindled interest in the use of plant products as industrial raw materials for the production of liquid fuels for transportation(2) and other products such as biocomposite materials(6). Plant biomass remains one of the greatest untapped reserves on the planet(4). It is mostly comprised of cell walls that are composed of energy rich polymers including cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and the polyphenol lignin(5) and thus sometimes termed lignocellulosics. However, plant cell walls have evolved to be recalcitrant to degradation as walls contribute extensively to the strength and structural integrity of the entire plant. Despite its necessary rigidity, the cell wall is a highly dynamic entity that is metabolically active and plays crucial roles in numerous cell activities such as plant growth and differentiation(5). Due to the various functions of walls, there is an immense structural diversity within the walls of different plant species and cell types within a single plant(4). Hence, depending of what crop species, crop variety, or plant tissue is used for a biorefinery, the processing steps for depolymerisation by chemical/enzymatic processes and subsequent fermentation of the various sugars to liquid biofuels need to be adjusted and optimized. This fact underpins the need for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we describe a comprehensive analytical methodology that enables the determination of the composition of lignocellulosics and is amenable to a medium to high-throughput analysis (Figure 1). The method starts of with preparing destarched cell wall material. The resulting lignocellulosics are then split up to determine its monosaccharide composition of the hemicelluloses and other matrix polysaccharides1, and its content of crystalline cellulose(7). The protocol for

  10. Partner orbits and action differences on compact factors of the hyperbolic plane. II: Higher-order encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Minh Hien

    2016-01-01

    Physicists have argued that periodic orbit bunching leads to universal spectral fluctuations for chaotic quantum systems. To establish a more detailed mathematical understanding of this fact, it is first necessary to look more closely at the classical side of the problem and determine orbit pairs consisting of orbits which have similar actions. We specialize to the geodesic flow on compact factors of the hyperbolic plane as a classical chaotic system. The companion paper (Huynh and Kunze, 2015) proved the existence of a unique periodic partner orbit for a given periodic orbit with a small-angle self-crossing in configuration space that is a 2-encounter and derived an estimate for the action difference of the orbit pair. In this paper, we provide an inductive argument to deal with higher-order encounters: we prove that a given periodic orbit including an L-parallel encounter has (L - 1) ! - 1 partner orbits; we construct partner orbits and give estimates for the action differences between orbit pairs.

  11. MPH1 is a thylakoid membrane protein involved in protecting photosystem II from photodamage in land plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Last, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is highly susceptible to photoinhibition caused by environmental stimuli such as high light; therefore plants have evolved multifaceted mechanisms to efficiently protect PSII from photodamage. We previously published data suggesting that Maintenance of PSII under High light 1 (MPH1, encoded by AT5G07020), a PSII-associated proline-rich protein found in land plants, participates in the maintenance of normal PSII activity under photoinhibitory stress. Here we provide additional evidence for the role of MPH1 in protecting PSII against photooxidative damage. Two Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking a functional MPH1 gene suffer from severe photoinhibition relative to the wild-type plants under high irradiance light. The mph1 mutants exhibit significantly decreased PSII quantum yield and electron transport rate after exposure to photoinhibitory light. The mutants also display drastically elevated photodamage to PSII reaction center proteins after high-light treatment. These data add further evidence that MPH1 is involved in PSII photoprotection in Arabidopsis. MPH1 homologs are found across phylogenetically diverse land plants but are not detected in algae or prokaryotes. Taken together, these results suggest that MPH1 protein began to play a role in protecting PSII against excess light following the transition from aquatic to terrestrial conditions. PMID:26337456

  12. Photosystem II Repair and Plant Immunity: Lessons Learned from Arabidopsis Mutant Lacking the THYLAKOID LUMEN PROTEIN 18.3.

    PubMed

    Järvi, Sari; Isojärvi, Janne; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Mamedov, Fikret; Suorsa, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts play an important role in the cellular sensing of abiotic and biotic stress. Signals originating from photosynthetic light reactions, in the form of redox and pH changes, accumulation of reactive oxygen and electrophile species or stromal metabolites are of key importance in chloroplast retrograde signaling. These signals initiate plant acclimation responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses. To reveal the molecular responses activated by rapid fluctuations in growth light intensity, gene expression analysis was performed with Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and the tlp18.3 mutant plants, the latter showing a stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light conditions (Biochem. J, 406, 415-425). Expression pattern of genes encoding components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain did not differ between fluctuating and constant light conditions, neither in wild type nor in tlp18.3 plants, and the composition of the thylakoid membrane protein complexes likewise remained unchanged. Nevertheless, the fluctuating light conditions repressed in wild-type plants a broad spectrum of genes involved in immune responses, which likely resulted from shade-avoidance responses and their intermixing with hormonal signaling. On the contrary, in the tlp18.3 mutant plants there was an imperfect repression of defense-related transcripts upon growth under fluctuating light, possibly by signals originating from minor malfunction of the photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle, which directly or indirectly modulated the transcript abundances of genes related to light perception via phytochromes. Consequently, a strong allocation of resources to defense reactions in the tlp18.3 mutant plants presumably results in the stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light.

  13. Photosystem II Repair and Plant Immunity: Lessons Learned from Arabidopsis Mutant Lacking the THYLAKOID LUMEN PROTEIN 18.3

    PubMed Central

    Järvi, Sari; Isojärvi, Janne; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Mamedov, Fikret; Suorsa, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts play an important role in the cellular sensing of abiotic and biotic stress. Signals originating from photosynthetic light reactions, in the form of redox and pH changes, accumulation of reactive oxygen and electrophile species or stromal metabolites are of key importance in chloroplast retrograde signaling. These signals initiate plant acclimation responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses. To reveal the molecular responses activated by rapid fluctuations in growth light intensity, gene expression analysis was performed with Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and the tlp18.3 mutant plants, the latter showing a stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light conditions (Biochem. J, 406, 415–425). Expression pattern of genes encoding components of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain did not differ between fluctuating and constant light conditions, neither in wild type nor in tlp18.3 plants, and the composition of the thylakoid membrane protein complexes likewise remained unchanged. Nevertheless, the fluctuating light conditions repressed in wild-type plants a broad spectrum of genes involved in immune responses, which likely resulted from shade-avoidance responses and their intermixing with hormonal signaling. On the contrary, in the tlp18.3 mutant plants there was an imperfect repression of defense-related transcripts upon growth under fluctuating light, possibly by signals originating from minor malfunction of the photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle, which directly or indirectly modulated the transcript abundances of genes related to light perception via phytochromes. Consequently, a strong allocation of resources to defense reactions in the tlp18.3 mutant plants presumably results in the stunted growth phenotype under fluctuating light. PMID:27064270

  14. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  15. A continuous spectrophotometric assay for the activation of plant NAD kinase by calmodulin, calcium(II), and europium(III) ions.

    PubMed

    Amann, B T; Mulqueen, P; Horrocks, W D

    1992-12-01

    A continuous spectrophotometric assay has been developed to quantify the calmodulin, calcium(II) ion, and europium(III) ion dependence of the activation of NAD kinase from pea seedlings. Experimental enzyme activation data are compared with the theoretical curves for the binding of calcium(II) ions to the individual calcium binding sites of calmodulin. These results indicate that the binding of three calcium(II) ions is necessary for activation of plant NAD kinase. Further studies demonstrate that europium(III) ions can replace calcium(II) ions in calmodulin with retention of its ability to activate NAD kinase.

  16. H-coal pilot plant. Phase II. Construction. Phase III. Operation. Annual report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-04

    At the request of DOE Oak Ridge, ASFI agreed to assume responsibility for completion of Plant construction in December, 1979, at which time Badger Plants' on-site work was ended. This construction effort consisted of electric heat tracing and insulation of piping and instrumentation. At the close of the reporting period the work was completed, or was projected to be completed, within the ASFI budgeted amounts and by dates that will not impact Plant operations. Engineering design solutions were completed for problems encountered with such equipment as the High Pressure Letdown Valves; Slurry Block Valves; Slurry Pumps; the Bowl Mill System; the Dowtherm System; and the Ebullating Pump. A Corrosion Monitoring Program was established. With the exception of Area 500, the Antisolvent Deashing Unit, all operating units were commissioned and operated during the reporting period. Coal was first introduced into the Plant on May 29, 1980, with coal operations continuing periodically through September 30, 1980. The longest continuous coal run was 119 hours. A total of 677 tons of Kentucky No. 11 Coal were processed during the reporting period. The problems encountered were mechanical, not process, in nature. Various Environmental and Health programs were implemented to assure worker safety and protection and to obtain data from Plant operations for scientific analysis. These comprehensive programs will contribute greatly in determining the acceptability of long term H-Coal Plant operations.

  17. 76 FR 6811 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit; Construction and Operation of Kaheawa II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ...: Public Comments Solicited On November 9, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 68821) a... Register Notice (75 FR 68821), which was published on November 9, 2010. Authority This notice is provided... Operation of Kaheawa II Wind Energy Generation Facility, Maui, HI; Draft Habitat Conservation Plan and...

  18. Investigation of high velocity separator for particle removal in coal gasification plants. Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    Linhardt, H.D.

    1980-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of Phase II of the High Velocity Particle Separator Program performed under Contract EF-77-C-01-2709. This high velocity wedge separator has the potential to reduce equipment size and cost of high temperature and pressurized particulate removal equipment for coal derived gases. Phase II has been directed toward testing and detailed conceptual design of an element suitable for a commercial scale high temperature, high pressure particle separator (HTPS). Concurrently, Phase IA has been conducted, which utilized the ambient analog method (AAM) for aerodynamic and collection performance investigation of each HTPS configuration prior and during hot testing. This report summarizes the results of Phase IA and II. The AAM effort established correlation of theoretical analysis and experiment for HTPS pressure drop, purge flow ratio and collection efficiency potential. Task I defined the initial test conditions to be the contract design point of 1800/sup 0/F and 350 psia. The 1800/sup 0/F, 350 psia testing represents the main high temperature testing with coal-derived particulates in the 2 to 10 micron range. Phase IA and Phase II have demonstrated efficient particle collection with acceptable pressure drop. In view of these encouraging results, it is reasonable to apply the developed technology toward future hot gas particulate cleanup requirements.

  19. Analysis of TOPAZ II and SPACE-R space nuclear power plants using a modified thermionic model. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Habedank, O.D.

    1993-03-01

    Models based on the TDS thermionic diode model were developed for TOPAZ II and SPACER nuclear power systems. Several parameter studies were conducted with the TOPAZ II model. These determined system performance and efficiency while varying the following: (1) Coolant flow inlet temperatures. (2) Rate of coolant temperature change. (3) Power profile of the core. (4) Cesium reservoir temperature. Analysis of results indicate the model accurately represented the TOPAZ II system, underestimating published data by 10%. Coolant flow studies indicate that raising coolant temperatures up to 100 K higher increases system power by up to 5%. Additional increases in temperature result in gradual performance degradation. Varying the axial power profile of the core from the actual peaked profile to a flat profile results in a negligible 0.3% change in system performance. The peaked profile used in TOPAZ II produces the highest system efficiency of all the profiles modeled. The cesium pressure study indicates the system is operating above optimum cesium pressure and system performance is strongly dependent on cesium pressure. Increasing cesium reservoir temperature above design temperature by 30 K decreases system efficiency by 30%.

  20. Polyamine formation by arginine decarboxylase as a transducer of hormonal, environmental and stress stimuli in higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galston, A. W.; Flores, H. E.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.

    1982-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates polyamines including putrescine in the regulation of such diverse plant processes as cell division, embryogenesis and senescence. We find that the enzyme arginine decarboxylase, which controls the rate of putrescine formation in some plant systems, is activated by light acting through P(r) phytochrome as a receptor, by the plant hormone gibberellic acid, by osmotic shock and by other stress stimuli. We therefore propose arginine decarboxylase as a possible transducer of the various initially received tropistic stimuli in plants. The putrescine formed could act by affecting cytoskeletal components.

  1. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Adebajo, A. C.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  2. Use of Clearance Indexes to Assess Waste Disposal Issues for the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2002-01-17

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the Waste Disposal Rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of Clearance Index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the WDR as an index for waste considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate Clearance Indexes using the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design.

  3. Final Report: Phase II Geothermal Exploration and Geothermal Power Plant Update for Ascension Island, South Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, D.L.; Sibbett, B.S.; Shane, M.K.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1984-07-01

    The Phase I study of the geothermal potential of Ascension Island concluded that the possibility of a geothermal resource existing under the island was excellent. This conclusion was based on the presence of young volcanic rocks (a heat source close to the surface), an ample supply of water from the sea, and high permeability of many of the rocks which make up the island. The assumption was made that the resource would be similar to geothermal systems in the Azores or Japan, and a conceptual design of a power plant to utilize the resource was prepared upon which cost estimates and an economic analysis were subsequently performed. The results of the economic analysis were very favorable, and the Air Force decided to proceed into Phase II of the project. Under Phase II, an exploration program was designed and carried out. The purpose of the program was to ascertain whether or not a geothermal resource existed beneath Ascension island and, to the extent possible, to evaluate the quality of that resource. The exploration involved a detailed aeromagnetic survey of the island, reconnaissance and detailed electrical resistivity surveys, and drilling of holes for the measurement of temperatures. These methods have confirmed the existence of geothermal activity beneath Ascension. Measured temperature gradients and bottom hole temperatures as well as chemical geothermometers indicate temperatures sufficient for the generation of electricity within reasonable drilling depths. This report documents those conclusions and the supporting data. This report also documents the results of the power plant update with new data supplied from the Phase II exploration activities on the island. The power plant scenario has been changed to reflect the fact that the resource temperature may not be as high as that originally assumed in the Phase I study, the location of the production wells will in all likelihood be farther from the existing Air Force facilities--either north of Grazing

  4. Fe uptake from meso and D,L-racemic Fe(o,o-EDDHA) isomers by strategy I and II plants.

    PubMed

    Cerdán, Mar; Alcañiz, Sara; Juárez, Margarita; Jordá, Juana D; Bermúdez, Dolores

    2006-02-22

    One of the most efficient fertilizers to correct Fe deficiency in calcareous soils and waters with high bicarbonate content is based on ferric ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid [Fe(o,o-EDDHA)]. Fe(o,o-EDDHA) forms two groups of geometric isomers known as meso and D,L-racemic. To determine the Fe uptake from meso and D,L-racemic Fe(o,o-EDDHA), four iron-efficient plants, two plants representative of strategy I (tomato and pepper) and two plants representative of strategy II (wheat and oats), were grown in hydroponic culture. Results indicated that strategy II plants took up iron from both Fe(o,o-EDDHA) isomers equally. However, strategy I plants took mainly the iron associated with the meso form (the lowest stability isomer). PMID:16478264

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME II. APPENDICES F-J

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consumed by the chlor-alkali industry each year. Very little quantitative information is currently available however, on the actual Hg losses f...

  6. Salinity and Alkaline pH in Irrigation Water Affect Marigold Plants: II. Mineral Ion Relations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scarcity of water of good quality for landscape irrigation is of outmost importance in arid and semiarid regions due to the competition with urban population. This is forcing the use of degraded waters with high levels of salinity and high pH, which may affect plant establishment and growth. The o...

  7. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume emphasizes material needed by intermediate-level operators and stresses the operation and maintenance of conventional treatment plants. This volume…

  8. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  9. Growth and development of Colorado potato beetle larvae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on potato plants expressing the oryzacystatin II proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cingel, Aleksandar; Savić, Jelena; Vinterhalter, Branka; Vinterhalter, Dragan; Kostić, Miroslav; Jovanović, Darka Šešlija; Smigocki, Ann; Ninković, Slavica

    2015-08-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are attractive tools for crop improvement and their heterologous expression can enhance insect resistance in transgenic plants. PI oryzacystatin II (OCII), isolated from rice, showed potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine proteinases for protein digestion. To evaluate the applicability of the OCII gene in enhancing plant defence, OCII-transformed potatoes were bioassayed for resistance to Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Feeding on transformed leaves of potato cultivars Desiree and Jelica significantly affected larval growth and development, but did not change mortality rates. During the L2 and L3 developmental stages larvae consumed the OCII-transformed foliage faster as compared to the nontransformed control. Also these larvae reached the prepupal stage (end of L4 stage) 2 days earlier than those fed on control leaves. However, the total amounts of consumed OCII-transformed leaves were up to 23% lower than of control, and the maximal weights of prepupal larvae were reduced by up to 18% as compared to larvae fed on nontransformed leaves. The reduction in insect fitness reported in this study in combination with other control measures, could lead to improved CPB resistance management in potato. PMID:25820664

  10. Growth and development of Colorado potato beetle larvae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on potato plants expressing the oryzacystatin II proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cingel, Aleksandar; Savić, Jelena; Vinterhalter, Branka; Vinterhalter, Dragan; Kostić, Miroslav; Jovanović, Darka Šešlija; Smigocki, Ann; Ninković, Slavica

    2015-08-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are attractive tools for crop improvement and their heterologous expression can enhance insect resistance in transgenic plants. PI oryzacystatin II (OCII), isolated from rice, showed potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine proteinases for protein digestion. To evaluate the applicability of the OCII gene in enhancing plant defence, OCII-transformed potatoes were bioassayed for resistance to Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Feeding on transformed leaves of potato cultivars Desiree and Jelica significantly affected larval growth and development, but did not change mortality rates. During the L2 and L3 developmental stages larvae consumed the OCII-transformed foliage faster as compared to the nontransformed control. Also these larvae reached the prepupal stage (end of L4 stage) 2 days earlier than those fed on control leaves. However, the total amounts of consumed OCII-transformed leaves were up to 23% lower than of control, and the maximal weights of prepupal larvae were reduced by up to 18% as compared to larvae fed on nontransformed leaves. The reduction in insect fitness reported in this study in combination with other control measures, could lead to improved CPB resistance management in potato.

  11. Modelling ¹⁸O₂ and ¹⁶O₂ unidirectional fluxes in plants: II. analysis of rubisco evolution.

    PubMed

    André, Marcel J

    2011-02-01

    The studies of Rubisco characteristics observed during plant evolution show that the variation of the Rubisco specificity factor only improved by two times from cyanobacteria to modern C3 plants. However we note important variations of the ratio between the maximum rates of oxygenation and carboxylation (V(O)/V(C)). Modelling in vivo ¹⁸O₂ data in plant gas exchange shows that the oxygenation reaction of Rubisco plays a regulating role when the photochemical energy exceeds the carboxylation capacity. A protective index 'oxygenation capacity' is postulated, related to the ratio V(O)/V(C) of Rubisco, and hence to the sink energy effect of photorespiration. Analysing the trends of Rubisco parameters along the evolutionary scale, we show: (1) the increase of both V(C) and V(O); (2) the enhancement of CO₂ affinity; and (3) the rise in oxygenation capacity at the expense of the CO₂ specificity. Hence, the factors of evolutionary pressure have not only directed the enzyme towards a more efficient utilisation of CO₂, but mainly to positively use the unavoidable great loss of energy and assimilated carbon in the process of photorespiration. These observations reinforce the hypothesis of plant-atmosphere co-evolution and of the complex role of Rubisco, which seems to be selected to develop both better CO₂ affinity and oxygenation capacity. The latter increases the capacity of sink of photorespiration, in particular, during water stress or under high irradiance, the two conditions experienced by plants in terrestrial environments. These observations help to explain some handicaps of C4 plants, and the supremacy of CAM and C3 perennial higher plants in arid environments.

  12. Higher Lipoprotein (a) Levels Are Associated with Better Pulmonary Function in Community-Dwelling Older People – Data from the Berlin Aging Study II

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Nikolaus; Kassner, Ursula; Norman, Kristina; Goldeck, David; Eckardt, Rahel; Pawelec, Graham; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Reduced pulmonary function and elevated serum cholesterol levels are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is some controversy concerning relationships between cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides and lung function. However, most previous studies compared patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with healthy controls, and only a small number examined this relationship in population-based cohorts. Moreover, lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], another lipid parameter independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, appears not to have been addressed at all in studies of lung function at the population level. Here, we determined relationships between lung function and several lipid parameters including Lp(a) in 606 older community-dwelling participants (55.1% women, 68±4 years old) from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). We found a significantly lower forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1) in men with low Lp(a) concentrations (t-test). This finding was further substantiated by linear regression models adjusting for known covariates, showing that these associations are statistically significant in both men and women. According to the highest adjusted model, men and women with Lp(a) levels below the 20th percentile had 217.3ml and 124.2ml less FEV1 and 239.0ml and 135.2ml less FVC, respectively, compared to participants with higher Lp(a) levels. The adjusted models also suggest that the known strong correlation between pro-inflammatory parameters and lung function has only a marginal impact on the Lp(a)-pulmonary function association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher Lp(a) levels are responsible for the increased CVD risk in people with reduced lung function, at least not in the group of community-dwelling older people studied here. PMID:26421427

  13. Mechanisms of fusicoccin action: evidence for concerted modulations of secondary K(+) transport in a higher plant cell.

    PubMed

    Clint, G M; Blatt, M R

    1989-12-01

    Fusicoccin (FC) has long been known to promote K(+) uptake in higher plant cells, including stomatal guard cells, yet the precise mechanism behind this enhancement remains uncertain. Membrane hyperpolarization, thought to arise from primary H(+) pumping stimulated in FC, could help drive K(+) uptake, but the extent to which FC stimulates influx and uptake frequently exceeds any reasonable estimates from Constant Field Theory based on changes in the free-running membrane potential (V m) alone; furthermore, unidirectional flux analyses have shown that in the toxin K(+) ((86)Rb(+)) exchange plummets to 10% of the control (G.M. Clint and E.A.C. MacRobbie 1984, J. Exp. Bot.35 180-192). Thus, the activities of specific pathways for K(+) movement across the membrane could be modified in FC. We have explored a role for K(+) channels in mediating these fluxes in guard cells ofVicia faba L. The correspondence between FC-induced changes in chemical ((86)Rb(+)) flux and in electrical current under voltage clamp was followed, using the K(+) channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) to probe tracer and charge movement through K(+)-selective channels. Parallel flux and electrical measurements were carried out when cells showed little evidence of primary pump activity, thus simplifying analyses. Under these conditions, outward-directed K(+) channel current contributed appreciably to charge balance maintainingV m, and adding 10 mM TEA to block the current depolarized (positive-going)V m; TEA also reduced(86)Rb(+) efflux by 68-80%. Following treatments with 10 μM FC, both K(+) channel current and(86)Rb(+) efflux decayed, irreversbly and without apparent lag, to 10%-15% of the controls and with equivalent half-times (approx. 4 min). Fusicoccin also enhanced(86)Rb(+) influx by 13.9-fold, but the influx proved largely insensitive to TEA. Overall, FC promotednet cation uptake in 0.1 mM K(+) (Rb(+)), despite membrane potentials which were 30-60 mVpositive of the K(+) equilibrium

  14. Proteomic characterization and three-dimensional electron microscopy study of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes from higher plants.

    PubMed

    Pagliano, Cristina; Nield, Jon; Marsano, Francesco; Pape, Tillmann; Barera, Simone; Saracco, Guido; Barber, James

    2014-09-01

    In higher plants a variable number of peripheral LHCII trimers can strongly (S), moderately (M) or loosely (L) associate with the dimeric PSII core (C2) complex via monomeric Lhcb proteins to form PSII-LHCII supercomplexes with different structural organizations. By solubilizing isolated stacked pea thylakoid membranes either with the α or β isomeric forms of the detergent n-dodecyl-D-maltoside, followed by sucrose density ultracentrifugation, we previously showed that PSII-LHCII supercomplexes of types C2S2M2 and C2S2, respectively, can be isolated [S. Barera et al., Phil. Trans. R Soc. B 67 (2012) 3389-3399]. Here we analysed their protein composition by applying extensive bottom-up and top-down mass spectrometry on the two forms of the isolated supercomplexes. In this way, we revealed the presence of the antenna proteins Lhcb3 and Lhcb6 and of the extrinsic polypeptides PsbP, PsbQ and PsbR exclusively in the C2S2M2 supercomplex. Other proteins of the PSII core complex, common to the C2S2M2 and C2S2 supercomplexes, including the low molecular mass subunits, were also detected and characterized. To complement the proteomic study with structural information, we performed negative stain transmission electron microscopy and single particle analysis on the PSII-LHCII supercomplexes isolated from pea thylakoid membranes solubilized with n-dodecyl-α-D-maltoside. We observed the C2S2M2 supercomplex in its intact form as the largest PSII complex in our preparations. Its dataset was further analysed in silico, together with that of the second largest identified sub-population, corresponding to its C2S2 subcomplex. In this way, we calculated 3D electron density maps for the C2S2M2 and C2S2 supercomplexes, approaching respectively 30 and 28Å resolution, extended by molecular modelling towards the atomic level. This article is part of a special issue entitled: photosynthesis research for sustainability: keys to produce clean energy.

  15. The roles of c-type cytochromes in algal photosynthesis. Extraction from algae of a cytochrome similar to higher plant cytochrome f.

    PubMed

    Wood, P M

    1977-02-01

    A membrane-bound cytochrome resembling higher plant cytochrome f in many respects has been extracted from the algae Chlamydomonas. Euglena and Anacystis, and partially purified. The spectra of the cytochromes from Chlamydomonas and Euglena are virtually identical to that of parsley cytochrome f, with alpha-band maxima near 554 nm, very asymmetrical beta-bands, and gamma-band maxima at 421 nm. The cytochrome from Anacystis had alpha and gamma-bands both shifted to slightly longer wavelengths. The redox potential of the cytochrome from Chlamydomonas was determined as +350 mV, and its minimum molecular weight in sodium dodecyl sulphate as 31 000. The cytochrome from Euglena showed a rate of reaction with higher plant plastocyanin at least 100 times that of the soluble Euglena cytochrome c-552, and was unaffected by Euglena cytochrome c-552 antiserum. A very fast rate of electron transfer occurred between this cytochrome purified from Euglena and cytochrome c-552. The roles of the membrane-bound and soluble c-type cytochromes in algal photosynthesis are discussed, and it is recommended that the name cytochrome f should be reserved for the membrane-bound cytochrome (to emphasize its affinity with higher plant cytochrome f), while the soluble one should be named by its alpha-band (c-552, c-553, etc.) to make clear its distinctness from higher plant cytochrome f and homology with mitochondrial cytochrome c.

  16. Forensic botany II, DNA barcode for land plants: Which markers after the international agreement?

    PubMed

    Ferri, G; Corradini, B; Ferrari, F; Santunione, A L; Palazzoli, F; Alu', M

    2015-03-01

    The ambitious idea of using a short piece of DNA for large-scale species identification (DNA barcoding) is already a powerful tool for scientists and the application of this standard technique seems promising in a range of fields including forensic genetics. While DNA barcoding enjoyed a remarkable success for animal identification through cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) analysis, the attempts to identify a single barcode for plants remained a vain hope for a longtime. From the beginning, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) showed a lack of agreement on a core plant barcode, reflecting the diversity of viewpoints. Different research groups advocated various markers with divergent set of criteria until the recent publication by the CBOL-Plant Working Group. After a four-year effort, in 2009 the International Team concluded to agree on standard markers promoting a multilocus solution (rbcL and matK), with 70-75% of discrimination to the species level. In 2009 our group firstly proposed the broad application of DNA barcoding principles as a tool for identification of trace botanical evidence through the analysis of two chloroplast loci (trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) in plant species belonging to local flora. Difficulties and drawbacks that were encountered included a poor coverage of species in specific databases and the lack of authenticated reference sequences for the selected markers. Successful preliminary results were obtained providing an approach to progressively identify unknown plant specimens to a given taxonomic rank, usable by any non-specialist botanist or in case of a shortage of taxonomic expertise. Now we considered mandatory to update and to compare our previous findings with the new selected plastid markers (matK+rbcL), taking into account forensic requirements. Features of all the four loci (the two previously analyzed trnH-psbA+trnL-trnF and matK+rbcL) were compared singly and in multilocus solutions to assess the most suitable combination for

  17. Parametric study of potential early commercial MHD power plants. Task 3: Parameter variation of plant size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    Plants with a nominal output of 200 and 500 MWe and conforming to the same design configuration as the Task II plant were investigated. This information is intended to permit an assessment of the competitiveness of first generation MHD/steam plants with conventional steam plants over the range of 200 to 1000 MWe. The results show that net plant efficiency of the MHD plant is significantly higher than a conventional steam plant of corresponding size. The cost of electricity is also less for the MHD plant over the entire plant size range. As expected, the cost differential is higher for the larger plant and decreases with plant size. Even at the 200 MWe capacity, however, the differential in COE between the MHD plant and the conventional plant is sufficient attractive to warrant serious consideration. Escalating fuel costs will enhance the competitive position of MHD plants because they can utilize the fuel more efficiently than conventional steam plants.

  18. Evaluating the Effects of Illumination Quality on Higher Plant Value in the MARS 500-Day Mission Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, C. C.; Karetkin, I. G.; Podolsky, I. G.; Bingham, G. E.

    2008-06-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LED) have a number of advantages over other light sources for space horticulture, including greater output efficiency, increased safety, and small size and mass. Much of the previous work with LEDs has ignored their effect on the plants' visible appearances. Part of the MARS 500 experiment at the IBMP in Moscow will be evaluating the plants' psychological value. In that experiment, white LEDs will be compared against fluorescent lighting to determine yield and perception effectiveness. For this study, the suitability of white LEDs for spaceflight is evaluated with respect to both biomass yield as well as plant appearance. In these studies, a variety of plant types have been used, including radish, leaf mustard, dwarf peas, and super-dwarf wheat. An LED bank with white elements is compared against a conventional fluorescent source and an LED bank with 90% red and 10% blue elements. Results showed biomass yield to be comparable for all three sources, but with species-specific reactions to LED lighting. White LEDs can significantly improve illumination efficiency relative to fluorescent lighting, while retaining the psychological value of the plants.

  19. An ESEEM study of the oxidized electron donor of plant photosystem II: Evidence that D ? is a neutral tyrosine radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evelo, R. G.; Hoff, A. J.; Dikanov, S. A.; Tyryshkin, A. M.

    1989-09-01

    Electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) has been performed on the tyrosyl radical D ? in photosystem II of plants and algae. This radical was investigated in PS II-enriched subchloroplast particles, and in perdeuterated and 15N-substituted Chlorella vulgaris algae. From the ESEEM analysis in the time and frequency domain, two proton hyperfine interactions were determined. One of these protons has hyperfine parameters aiso=27.2 MHz, T11=-3.1 MHz and T22/ T11=0.5. The second proton, which is easily exchangeable by deuterium, has parameters aiso=±1.6 MHz, T11=∓8.4 MHz and T22/ T11=1. The hyperfine parameters of the first proton are characteristic of a β-methylene proton, whereas those of the second indicate that it is a proton hydrogen bonded to the tyrosyl oxygen. We conclude that the oxidized tyrosyl donor is a neutral hydrogen-bonded radical.

  20. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase isozymes I and II with natural products extracted from plants, mushrooms and honey.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Huseyin; Can, Zehra; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi; Innocenti, Alessio; Scozzafava, Gabriele; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-06-01

    Different natural products and secondary metabolites from mushrooms, teas, honeys, mosses, plants and seaweeds were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory effects on human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, E.C.4.2.1.1) isoforms I and II. Inhibition data were correlated with the total phenol content in the extract and investigated with the pure compounds believed to be responsible for this activity. Methanolic extracts were prepared for 17 such pure chemicals present in the natural products and for 41 diverse natural products. The IC(50) values were in the range of 0.11-66.50 μg/mL against hCA I and of 0.09-54.54 μg/mL against hCA II, respectively. The total phenol content was in the range of 0.02-1318.96 (as milligrams of gallic acid equivalents) per gram of sample. These data offer new insights on possible novel classes of CA inhibitors based on natural products, possessing a range of chemical structures not present in the classical inhibitors with pharmacological applications, such as the sulfonamides and sulfamates. PMID:21740099

  1. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex-Plant part II: Staging

    SciTech Connect

    Knief, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly describes criticality investigations for nuclear weapon dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. The investigations performed were for pit staging, and build on previous criticality calculations for single pits. The KENO and MCNP computer models were used for pit and container combinations. Scenarios were based on administrative limits and actual or potential physical conditions in the facilities. Essentially all of the pit configurations modeled were subcritical by a substantial amount. It was concluded that a critical configuration involving pit/container combinations is not credible.

  2. Effects on Photosystem II Function, Photoinhibition, and Plant Performance of the Spontaneous Mutation of Serine-264 in the Photosystem II Reaction Center D1 Protein in Triazine-Resistant Brassica napus L.

    PubMed Central

    Sundby, C.; Chow, W. S.; Anderson, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Wild-type and an atrazine-resistant biotype of Brassica napus, in which a glycine is substituted for the serine-264 of the D1protein, were grown over a wide range of constant irradiances in a growth cabinet. In the absence of serine-264, the function of photosystem II (PSII) was changed as reflected by changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and in photosynthetic oxygen-evolving activity. The photochemical quenching coefficient was lower, showing that a larger proportion of the primary quinone acceptor is reduced at all irradiances. At low actinic irradiances, the nonphotochemical quenching coefficient was higher, showing a greater tendency for heat emission. Decreased rates of light-limited photosynthesis (quantum yield) and lower oxygen yields per single-turnover flash were also observed. These changes were observed even when the plants had been grown under low irradiances, indicating that the changes in PSII function are direct and not consequences of photoinhibition. In spite of the lowered PSII efficiency under light-limiting conditions, the light-saturated photosynthesis rate of the atrazine-resistant mutant was similar to that of the wild type. An enhanced susceptibility to photoinhibition was observed for the atrazine-resistant biotype compared to the wild type when plants were grown under high and intermediate, but not low, irradiance. We conclude that the replacement of serine by glycine in the D1 protein has a direct effect on PSII function, which in turn causes increased photoinhibitory damage and increased rates of turnover of the D1 protein. Both the intrinsic lowering of light-limited photosynthetic efficiency and the increased sensitivity to photoinhibition probably contribute to reduced crop yields in the field, to different extents, depending on growth conditions. PMID:12231917

  3. Evaluation of the biotic potential of microorganisms and higher plants to enhance the quality of constructed wetlands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, D.A.; Floyd, M.; Taylor, R.W.; Sistani, K.

    1998-09-30

    A project was carried out from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1998 to evaluate the growth of several species of wetland plants in constructed cells using mine spoil as a growth medium, to evaluate microbial diversity and finally, to demonstrate the concept on an actual strip-mined site. In order to gain background information for evaluation of constructed wetlands, several wetlands on both undisturbed and strip-mined areas were evaluated to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the substrates as well as the vegetation characteristics. The research phase of this projects consisted of 10 wetland cells each 7x16 m in size with the water depth varying from 0 to 40 cm. The substrates were allowed to stabilize over winter and each cell was planted in the spring of 1993 with 18 plants each of cattail, maidencance, soft stem bulrush and pickerel weed. All cells were thickly vegetated by the end of the first growing season.

  4. Golgi-Mediated Synthesis and Secretion of Matrix Polysaccharides of the Primary Cell Wall of Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Driouich, Azeddine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Bernard, Sophie; Kousar, Sumaira; Chevalier, Laurence; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Lerouxel, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus of eukaryotic cells is known for its central role in the processing, sorting, and transport of proteins to intra- and extra-cellular compartments. In plants, it has the additional task of assembling and exporting the non-cellulosic polysaccharides of the cell wall matrix including pectin and hemicelluloses, which are important for plant development and protection. In this review, we focus on the biosynthesis of complex polysaccharides of the primary cell wall of eudicotyledonous plants. We present and discuss the compartmental organization of the Golgi stacks with regards to complex polysaccharide assembly and secretion using immuno-electron microscopy and specific antibodies recognizing various sugar epitopes. We also discuss the significance of the recently identified Golgi-localized glycosyltransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of xyloglucan (XyG) and pectin. PMID:22639665

  5. The phosphoproteome in regenerating protoplasts from Physcomitrella patens protonemata shows changes paralleling postembryonic development in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Qi, Meiyan; Li, Jingyun; Ji, Zhongzhong; Hu, Yong; Bao, Fang; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy; He, Yikun

    2014-05-01

    The moss Physcomitrella patens is an ideal model plant to study plant developmental processes. To better understand the mechanism of protoplast regeneration, a phosphoproteome analysis was performed. Protoplasts were prepared from protonemata. By 4 d of protoplast regeneration, the first cell divisions had ensued. Through a highly selective titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based phosphopeptide enrichment method and mass spectrometric technology, more than 300 phosphoproteins were identified as protoplast regeneration responsive. Of these, 108 phosphoproteins were present on day 4 but not in fresh protoplasts or those cultured for 2 d. These proteins are catalogued here. They were involved in cell-wall metabolism, transcription, signal transduction, cell growth/division, and cell structure. These protein functions are related to cell morphogenesis, organogenesis, and development adjustment. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of phosphoproteome involved in protoplast regeneration and indicates that the mechanism of plant protoplast regeneration is similar to that of postembryonic development.

  6. Linking precipitation and C3-C4 plant production to resource dynamics in higher-trophic-level consumers.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; Pershall, Alaina D; Wolf, Blair O

    2010-06-01

    In many ecosystems, seasonal shifts in temperature and precipitation induce pulses of primary productivity that vary in phenology, abundance, and nutritional quality. Variation in these resource pulses could strongly influence community composition and ecosystem function, because these pervasive bottom-up forces play a primary role in determining the biomass, life cycles, and interactions of organisms across trophic levels. The focus of this research is to understand how consumers across trophic levels alter resource use and assimilation over seasonal and interannual timescales in response to climatically driven changes in pulses of primary productivity. We measured the carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) of plant, arthropod, and lizard tissues in the northern Chihuahuan Desert to quantify the relative importance of primary production from plants using C3 and C4 photosynthesis for consumers. Summer monsoonal rains on the Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in New Mexico support a pulse of C4 plant production that has tissue delta(13)C values distinct from C3 plants. During a year when precipitation patterns were relatively normal, delta(13)C measurements showed that consumers used and assimilated significantly more C4-derived carbon over the course of a summer, tracking the seasonal increase in abundance of C4 plants. In the following spring, after a failure in winter precipitation and the associated failure of spring C3 plant growth, consumers showed elevated assimilation of C4-derived carbon relative to a normal rainfall regime. These findings provide insight into how climate, pulsed resources, and temporal trophic dynamics may interact to shape semiarid grasslands such as the Chihuahuan Desert in the present and future.

  7. Microgravity effects on different stages of higher plant life cycle and completion of the seed-to-seed cycle.

    PubMed

    De Micco, V; De Pascale, S; Paradiso, R; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    Human inhabitation of Space requires the efficient realisation of crop cultivation in bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). It is well known that plants can grow under Space conditions; however, perturbations of many biological phenomena have been highlighted due to the effect of altered gravity and its possible interactions with other factors. The mechanisms priming plant responses to Space factors, as well as the consequences of such alterations on crop productivity, have not been completely elucidated. These perturbations can occur at different stages of plant life and are potentially responsible for failure of the completion of the seed-to-seed cycle. After brief consideration of the main constraints found in the most recent experiments aiming to produce seeds in Space, we focus on two developmental phases in which the plant life cycle can be interrupted more easily than in others also on Earth. The first regards seedling development and establishment; we discuss reasons for slow development at the seedling stage that often occurs under microgravity conditions and can reduce successful establishment. The second stage comprises gametogenesis and pollination; we focus on male gamete formation, also identifying potential constraints to subsequent fertilisation. We finally highlight how similar alterations at cytological level can not only be common to different processes occurring at different life stages, but can be primed by different stress factors; such alterations can be interpreted within the model of 'stress-induced morphogenic response' (SIMR). We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of all growth and reproductive phases during the plant life cycle is needed to optimise resource use in plant-based BLSS. PMID:24015754

  8. Microgravity effects on different stages of higher plant life cycle and completion of the seed-to-seed cycle.

    PubMed

    De Micco, V; De Pascale, S; Paradiso, R; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    Human inhabitation of Space requires the efficient realisation of crop cultivation in bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). It is well known that plants can grow under Space conditions; however, perturbations of many biological phenomena have been highlighted due to the effect of altered gravity and its possible interactions with other factors. The mechanisms priming plant responses to Space factors, as well as the consequences of such alterations on crop productivity, have not been completely elucidated. These perturbations can occur at different stages of plant life and are potentially responsible for failure of the completion of the seed-to-seed cycle. After brief consideration of the main constraints found in the most recent experiments aiming to produce seeds in Space, we focus on two developmental phases in which the plant life cycle can be interrupted more easily than in others also on Earth. The first regards seedling development and establishment; we discuss reasons for slow development at the seedling stage that often occurs under microgravity conditions and can reduce successful establishment. The second stage comprises gametogenesis and pollination; we focus on male gamete formation, also identifying potential constraints to subsequent fertilisation. We finally highlight how similar alterations at cytological level can not only be common to different processes occurring at different life stages, but can be primed by different stress factors; such alterations can be interpreted within the model of 'stress-induced morphogenic response' (SIMR). We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of all growth and reproductive phases during the plant life cycle is needed to optimise resource use in plant-based BLSS.

  9. Ultraviolet irradiation of maize (Zea Mays L.) pollen grains : II. Pollen genotype effects on plant characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pfahler, P L; Linskens, H F

    1977-01-01

    Mature pollen grains from two single cross (F1) hybrids, Wf9 X H55 and K64 X K55, were exposed to eleven levels (0 to 6.80 erg/cm(2) × 10(5) at 0.68 intervals) of ultraviolet irradiation and then were used to pollinate their source. Height and kernel characteristics (kernel weight, weight/100 kernels, kernel number) of individual F2 plants produced by the normal F2 kernels obtained from these pollinations were measured within each level and population. Highly significant exposure X population interactions were found for all characters, indicating that the effect of irradiation depended on the genetic source of the pollen grains. Increasing exposure increased or did not change the mean of Wf9 X H55 and decreased the mean in K64 X K55 for all characters. For coefficient of variation values, the interaction, exposure X population, was not significant for any character measured, indicating that irradiation-induced variability was unrelated to pollen source. The results indicate that pollen source strongly influenced the effect of ultraviolet irradiation on plant means but had no influence on variability. PMID:24407493

  10. Neutron measurements in the Vandellòs II nuclear power plant with a Bonner sphere system.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Bakali, M; Tomás, M; Muller, H; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In some Spanish nuclear power plants of pressurised water reactor (PWR) type, albedo thermoluminescence dosemeters are used for personal dosimetry while survey meters, based on a thermal-neutron detector inside a cylindrical or spherical moderator, are used for dose rate assessment in routine monitoring. The response of both systems is highly dependent on the energy of the existing neutron fields. They are usually calibrated by means of ISO neutron sources with energy distributions quite different from those encountered at these installations. Spectrometric measurements with a Bonner sphere system (BSS) allow us to determine the reference dosimetric values. The UAB group, under request from the National Coordinated Research Action, was in charge of characterising the neutron fields and evaluating the response of personal dosemeters at several measurement points inside the containment building of the Catalan Nuclear Power Plant Vandellòs II. The neutron fields were characterised at five places using the UAB-BSS and a home made unfolding code called MITOM. The results obtained confirm the presence of low-energy components in the neutron field in most of the selected points. Moreover, we have found no influence of the nuclear fuel burning on the shape of the spectrum.

  11. Neutron measurements in the Vandellòs II nuclear power plant with a Bonner sphere system.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Bakali, M; Tomás, M; Muller, H; Pochat, J L

    2004-01-01

    In some Spanish nuclear power plants of pressurised water reactor (PWR) type, albedo thermoluminescence dosemeters are used for personal dosimetry while survey meters, based on a thermal-neutron detector inside a cylindrical or spherical moderator, are used for dose rate assessment in routine monitoring. The response of both systems is highly dependent on the energy of the existing neutron fields. They are usually calibrated by means of ISO neutron sources with energy distributions quite different from those encountered at these installations. Spectrometric measurements with a Bonner sphere system (BSS) allow us to determine the reference dosimetric values. The UAB group, under request from the National Coordinated Research Action, was in charge of characterising the neutron fields and evaluating the response of personal dosemeters at several measurement points inside the containment building of the Catalan Nuclear Power Plant Vandellòs II. The neutron fields were characterised at five places using the UAB-BSS and a home made unfolding code called MITOM. The results obtained confirm the presence of low-energy components in the neutron field in most of the selected points. Moreover, we have found no influence of the nuclear fuel burning on the shape of the spectrum. PMID:15353701

  12. Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology for targeted mutagenesis, gene replacement and stacking of genes in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Gilbert, Brian; Ayliffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Mutagenesis continues to play an essential role for understanding plant gene function and, in some instances, provides an opportunity for plant improvement. The development of gene editing technologies such as TALENs and zinc fingers has revolutionised the targeted mutation specificity that can now be achieved. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is the most recent addition to gene editing technologies and arguably the simplest requiring only two components; a small guide RNA molecule (sgRNA) and Cas9 endonuclease protein which complex to recognise and cleave a specific 20 bp target site present in a genome. Target specificity is determined by complementary base pairing between the sgRNA and target site sequence enabling highly specific, targeted mutation to be readily engineered. Upon target site cleavage, error-prone endogenous repair mechanisms produce small insertion/deletions at the target site usually resulting in loss of gene function. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing has been rapidly adopted in plants and successfully undertaken in numerous species including major crop species. Its applications are not restricted to mutagenesis and target site cleavage can be exploited to promote sequence insertion or replacement by recombination. The multiple applications of this technology in plants are described. PMID:27146973

  13. Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology for targeted mutagenesis, gene replacement and stacking of genes in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Gilbert, Brian; Ayliffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Mutagenesis continues to play an essential role for understanding plant gene function and, in some instances, provides an opportunity for plant improvement. The development of gene editing technologies such as TALENs and zinc fingers has revolutionised the targeted mutation specificity that can now be achieved. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is the most recent addition to gene editing technologies and arguably the simplest requiring only two components; a small guide RNA molecule (sgRNA) and Cas9 endonuclease protein which complex to recognise and cleave a specific 20 bp target site present in a genome. Target specificity is determined by complementary base pairing between the sgRNA and target site sequence enabling highly specific, targeted mutation to be readily engineered. Upon target site cleavage, error-prone endogenous repair mechanisms produce small insertion/deletions at the target site usually resulting in loss of gene function. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing has been rapidly adopted in plants and successfully undertaken in numerous species including major crop species. Its applications are not restricted to mutagenesis and target site cleavage can be exploited to promote sequence insertion or replacement by recombination. The multiple applications of this technology in plants are described.

  14. A controlled aquatic ecological life support system (CAELSS) for combined production of fish and higher plant biomass suitable for integration into a lunar or planetary base.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Andriske, M; Eichhorn, H; Kreuzberg, K; Schreibman, M P

    1995-10-01

    Based on the construction principle of the already operative Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) the concept of an aquaculture system for combined production of animal and plant biomass was developed. It consists of a tank for intensive fish culture which is equipped with a feeding lock representing also a trap for biomass removal followed by a water recycling system. This is an optimized version of the original C.E.B.A.S. filters adapted to higher water pollutions. It operates in a fully biological mode and is able to convert the high ammonia ion concentrations excreted by the fish gills into nitrite ions. The second biomass production site is a higher plant cultivator with an internal fiber optics light distributor which may utilize of solar energy. The selected water plant is a tropical rootless duckweed of the genus Wolffia which possesses a high capacity in nitrate elimination and is terrestrially cultured as a vegetable for human nutrition in Southeast Asia. It is produced in an improved suspension culture which allows the removal of excess biomass by tangential centrifugation. The plant cultivator is able to supply the whole system with oxygen for respiration and eliminates vice versa the carbon dioxide exhaled by the fish via photosynthesis. A gas exchanger may be used for emergency purposes or to deliver excess oxygen into the environment and may be implemented into the air regeneration system of a closed environment of higher order. The plant biomass is fed into a biomass processor which delivers condensed fresh and dried biomass as pellets. The recovered water is fed back into the aquaculture loop. The fresh plants can be used for human nutrition immediately or can be stored after sterilization in an adequate packing. The dried Wolffia pellets are collected and brought into the fish tank by an automated feeder. In parallel the water from the plant cultivator is driven back to the animal tank by a pump. The special feature of the

  15. A controlled aquatic ecological life support system (CAELSS) for combined production of fish and higher plant biomass suitable for integration into a lunar or planetary base.

    PubMed

    Blum, V; Andriske, M; Eichhorn, H; Kreuzberg, K; Schreibman, M P

    1995-10-01

    Based on the construction principle of the already operative Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) the concept of an aquaculture system for combined production of animal and plant biomass was developed. It consists of a tank for intensive fish culture which is equipped with a feeding lock representing also a trap for biomass removal followed by a water recycling system. This is an optimized version of the original C.E.B.A.S. filters adapted to higher water pollutions. It operates in a fully biological mode and is able to convert the high ammonia ion concentrations excreted by the fish gills into nitrite ions. The second biomass production site is a higher plant cultivator with an internal fiber optics light distributor which may utilize of solar energy. The selected water plant is a tropical rootless duckweed of the genus Wolffia which possesses a high capacity in nitrate elimination and is terrestrially cultured as a vegetable for human nutrition in Southeast Asia. It is produced in an improved suspension culture which allows the removal of excess biomass by tangential centrifugation. The plant cultivator is able to supply the whole system with oxygen for respiration and eliminates vice versa the carbon dioxide exhaled by the fish via photosynthesis. A gas exchanger may be used for emergency purposes or to deliver excess oxygen into the environment and may be implemented into the air regeneration system of a closed environment of higher order. The plant biomass is fed into a biomass processor which delivers condensed fresh and dried biomass as pellets. The recovered water is fed back into the aquaculture loop. The fresh plants can be used for human nutrition immediately or can be stored after sterilization in an adequate packing. The dried Wolffia pellets are collected and brought into the fish tank by an automated feeder. In parallel the water from the plant cultivator is driven back to the animal tank by a pump. The special feature of the

  16. Survival of plant seeds, their UV screens, and nptII DNA for 18 months outside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, David; Zalar, Andreja; Leach, Sydney

    2012-05-01

    The plausibility that life was imported to Earth from elsewhere can be tested by subjecting life-forms to space travel. Ultraviolet light is the major liability in short-term exposures (Horneck et al., 2001 ), and plant seeds, tardigrades, and lichens-but not microorganisms and their spores-are candidates for long-term survival (Anikeeva et al., 1990 ; Sancho et al., 2007 ; Jönsson et al., 2008 ; de la Torre et al., 2010 ). In the present study, plant seeds germinated after 1.5 years of exposure to solar UV, solar and galactic cosmic radiation, temperature fluctuations, and space vacuum outside the International Space Station. Of the 2100 exposed wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) seeds, 23% produced viable plants after return to Earth. Survival was lower in the Arabidopsis Wassilewskija ecotype and in mutants (tt4-8 and fah1-2) lacking UV screens. The highest survival occurred in tobacco (44%). Germination was delayed in seeds shielded from solar light, yet full survival was attained, which indicates that longer space travel would be possible for seeds embedded in an opaque matrix. We conclude that a naked, seed-like entity could have survived exposure to solar UV radiation during a hypothetical transfer from Mars to Earth. Chemical samples of seed flavonoid UV screens were degraded by UV, but their overall capacity to absorb UV was retained. Naked DNA encoding the nptII gene (kanamycin resistance) was also degraded by UV. A fragment, however, was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and the gene survived in space when protected from UV. Even if seeds do not survive, components (e.g., their DNA) might survive transfer over cosmic distances.

  17. Survival of plant seeds, their UV screens, and nptII DNA for 18 months outside the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, David; Zalar, Andreja; Leach, Sydney

    2012-05-01

    The plausibility that life was imported to Earth from elsewhere can be tested by subjecting life-forms to space travel. Ultraviolet light is the major liability in short-term exposures (Horneck et al., 2001 ), and plant seeds, tardigrades, and lichens-but not microorganisms and their spores-are candidates for long-term survival (Anikeeva et al., 1990 ; Sancho et al., 2007 ; Jönsson et al., 2008 ; de la Torre et al., 2010 ). In the present study, plant seeds germinated after 1.5 years of exposure to solar UV, solar and galactic cosmic radiation, temperature fluctuations, and space vacuum outside the International Space Station. Of the 2100 exposed wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) seeds, 23% produced viable plants after return to Earth. Survival was lower in the Arabidopsis Wassilewskija ecotype and in mutants (tt4-8 and fah1-2) lacking UV screens. The highest survival occurred in tobacco (44%). Germination was delayed in seeds shielded from solar light, yet full survival was attained, which indicates that longer space travel would be possible for seeds embedded in an opaque matrix. We conclude that a naked, seed-like entity could have survived exposure to solar UV radiation during a hypothetical transfer from Mars to Earth. Chemical samples of seed flavonoid UV screens were degraded by UV, but their overall capacity to absorb UV was retained. Naked DNA encoding the nptII gene (kanamycin resistance) was also degraded by UV. A fragment, however, was detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and the gene survived in space when protected from UV. Even if seeds do not survive, components (e.g., their DNA) might survive transfer over cosmic distances. PMID:22680697

  18. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (II) Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures and results of intensity- and time-based seismic risk assessments of a sample nuclear power plant (NPP) to demonstrate the risk-assessment methodology proposed in its companion paper. The intensity-based assessments include three sets of sensitivity studies to identify the impact of the following factors on the seismic vulnerability of the sample NPP, namely: (1) the description of fragility curves for primary and secondary components of NPPs, (2) the number of simulations of NPP response required for risk assessment, and (3) the correlation in responses between NPP components. The time-based assessment is performed as a series of intensity-based assessments. The studies illustrate the utility of the response-based fragility curves and the inclusion of the correlation in the responses of NPP components directly in the risk computation. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  20. Two cytochrome P-450 isoforms catalysing O-de-ethylation of ethoxycoumarin and ethoxyresorufin in higher plants.

    PubMed Central

    Werck-Reichhart, D; Gabriac, B; Teutsch, H; Durst, F

    1990-01-01

    The O-dealkylating activities of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-de-ethylase (ECOD) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase (EROD) have been fluorimetrically detected in microsomes prepared from manganese-induced Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Cytochrome P-450 dependence of the reactions was demonstrated by light-reversed CO inhibition, NADPH-dependence, NADH-NADPH synergism and by use of specific inhibitors: antibodies to NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, mechanism-based inactivators and tetcyclasis. Apparent Km values of 161 microM for 7-ethoxycoumarin and 0.4 microM for 7-ethoxyresorufin were determined. O-De-ethylase activity was also detected in microsomes prepared from several other plant species, including wheat, maize, tulip, avocado and Vicia. ECOD and EROD were low or undetectable in uninduced plant tissues, and both activities were stimulated by wounding or by chemical inducers. Two distinct cytochrome P-450 isoforms are involved in ECOD and EROD activities since (1) they showed different distributions among plant species; (2) they showed contrasting inhibition and induction patterns; and (3) ECOD but not EROD activity was supported by cumene hydroperoxide. PMID:2241905

  1. Identification of sequences involved in the polyadenylation of higher plant nuclear transcripts using Agrobacterium T-DNA genes as models.

    PubMed Central

    Dhaese, P; De Greve, H; Gielen, J; Seurinck, L; Van Montagu, M; Schell, J

    1983-01-01

    Sequences in the 3'-untranslated region of two different octopine T-DNA genes were analyzed with regard to their significance in polyadenylation. Poly(A) addition sites were localized precisely by S1 nuclease mapping with T-DNA-derived mRNAs isolated from tobacco. The gene encoding transcript 7' contains two AATAAA hexanucleotides, respectively 119 bp and 170 bp downstream of the TAA stop codon. A single poly(A) site was mapped 24-25 bp downstream of the first AATAAA. Further, we show that a mutant octopine synthase gene, which has lost part of its 3'-untranslated region by deletion, is still active. This mutant gene terminates 19 bp upstream from the major wild-type polyadenylation site. The deletion also removes the AATAAT signal preceding this site. The mutant octopine synthase gene contains a minimum of four different poly(A) sites. The most prominent of these sites is identical to the minor poly(A) site of the wild-type gene, and is preceded by a sequence AATGAATATA. Three other sites are located within the adjacent plant DNA, giving rise to hybrid T-DNA/plant DNA transcripts. The two most distal sites are probably dependent on a motif AATAAATAAA, found 29 bp away from the T-DNA/plant DNA junction. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 6. PMID:11894958

  2. Distinct patterns of expression but similar biochemical properties of protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Thapar, N; Kim, A K; Clarke, S

    2001-02-01

    Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase is a widely distributed repair enzyme that initiates the conversion of abnormal L-isoaspartyl residues to their normal L-aspartyl forms. Here we show that this activity is expressed in developing corn (Zea mays) and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers Half Long) plants in patterns distinct from those previously seen in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Augusta) and thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas the pattern of expression observed in rice (Oryza sativa) is similar to that of winter wheat. Although high levels of activity are found in the seeds of all of these plants, relatively high levels of activity in vegetative tissues are only found in corn and carrot. The activity in leaves was found to decrease with aging, an unexpected finding given the postulated role of this enzyme in repairing age-damaged proteins. In contrast with the situation in wheat and Arabidopsis, we found that osmotic or salt stress could increase the methyltransferase activity in newly germinated seeds (but not in seeds or seedlings), whereas abscisic acid had no effect. We found that the corn, rice, and carrot enzymes have comparable affinity for methyl-accepting substrates and similar optimal temperatures for activity of 45 degrees C to 55 degrees C as the wheat and Arabidopsis enzymes. These experiments suggest that this enzyme may have specific roles in different plant tissues despite a common catalytic function.

  3. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

  4. Plant cell wall imaging by metabolic click-mediated labelling of rhamnogalacturonan II using azido 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Marie; Lehner, Arnaud; Vauzeilles, Boris; Malassis, Julien; Marchant, Alan; Smyth, Kevin; Linclau, Bruno; Baron, Aurélie; Mas Pons, Jordi; Anderson, Charles T; Schapman, Damien; Galas, Ludovic; Mollet, Jean-Claude; Lerouge, Patrice

    2016-02-01

    In plants, 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) is a monosaccharide that is only found in the cell wall pectin, rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II). Incubation of 4-day-old light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings or tobacco BY-2 cells with 8-azido 8-deoxy Kdo (Kdo-N3 ) followed by coupling to an alkyne-containing fluorescent probe resulted in the specific in muro labelling of RG-II through a copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. CMP-Kdo synthetase inhibition and competition assays showing that Kdo and D-Ara, a precursor of Kdo, but not L-Ara, inhibit incorporation of Kdo-N3 demonstrated that incorporation of Kdo-N3 occurs in RG-II through the endogenous biosynthetic machinery of the cell. Co-localisation of Kdo-N3 labelling with the cellulose-binding dye calcofluor white demonstrated that RG-II exists throughout the primary cell wall. Additionally, after incubating plants with Kdo-N3 and an alkynated derivative of L-fucose that incorporates into rhamnogalacturonan I, co-localised fluorescence was observed in the cell wall in the elongation zone of the root. Finally, pulse labelling experiments demonstrated that metabolic click-mediated labelling with Kdo-N3 provides an efficient method to study the synthesis and redistribution of RG-II during root growth. PMID:26676799

  5. Requirements of blue, UV-A, and UV-B light for normal growth of higher plants, as assessed by action spectra for growth and related phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    Artificial lighting is very important for experimental purposes, as well as for the practical use of plants when not enough sunlight is available. To grow green higher plants in their normal forms under artificial lighting constructing efficient and economically reasonable lighting systems is not an easy task. One possible approach would be to simulate sunlight in intensity and the radiation spectrum, but its high construction and running costs are not likely to allow its use in practice. Sunlight may be excessive in irradiance in some or all portions of the spectrum. Reducing irradiance and removing unnecessary wavebands might lead to an economically feasible light source. However, removing or reducing a particular waveband from sunlight for testing is not easy. Another approach might be to find the wavebands required for respective aspects of plant growth and to combine them in a proper ratio and intensity. The latter approach seems more practical and economical, and the aim of this Workshop lies in advancing this approach. I summarize our present knowledge on the waveband requirements of higher plants for the regions of blue, UV-A and UV-B.

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Cindy; Mueller, Uwe; Panjikar, Santosh; Sun, Lianli; Ruppert, Martin; Zhao, Yu; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-12-01

    Perakine reductase, a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily of higher plants, is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpentina. The enzyme has been crystallized in C-centered orthorhombic space group and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution. Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C222{sub 1} and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å.

  7. Carbon dioxide and the stomatal control of water balance and photosynthesis in higher plants. Progress report, July 1, 1990--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    Research continued into the investigation of the effects of carbon dioxide on stomatal control of water balance and photosynthesis in higher plants. Topics discussed this period include a method of isolating a sufficient number of guard cell chloroplasts for biochemical studies by mechanical isolation of epidermal peels; the measurement of stomatal apertures with a digital image analysis system; development of a high performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of metabolites in guard cells; and genetic control of stomatal movements in Pima cotton. (CBS)

  8. Sequence homology to the Drosophila per locus in higher plant nuclear DNA and in Acetabularia chloroplast DNA.

    PubMed

    Li-Weber, M; de Groot, E J; Schweiger, H G

    1987-08-01

    In plant cells a DNA sequence was found which is homologous to the Drosophila per locus. In rape and spinach the homologous sequence occurs in the nuclear but not in the chloroplast genome while in Acetabularia it is found in the chloroplast but not in the nuclear genome. A 1.175 kb EcoRi-SalI fragment of the chloroplast genome of Acetabularia containing the homologous sequence was subcloned into pUC12 and sequenced. The core of the 1.175 kb fragment is a repetitive tandemly arranged sequence of 43 units of the hexamer GGA ACT coding for glycine and threonine.

  9. A higher plant mitochondrial homologue of the yeast m-AAA protease. Molecular cloning, localization, and putative function.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczak, Marta; Kolaczkowska, Anna; Szczesny, Bartosz; Urantowka, Adam; Knorpp, Carina; Kieleczawa, Jan; Janska, Hanna

    2002-11-15

    Mitochondrial AAA metalloproteases play a fundamental role in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. They have been identified in yeast and animals but not yet in plants. This work describes the isolation and sequence analysis of the full-length cDNA from the pea (Pisum sativum) with significant homology to the yeast matrix AAA (m-AAA) protease. The product of this clone was imported into isolated pea mitochondria where it was processed to its mature form (PsFtsH). We have shown that the central region of PsFtsH containing the chaperone domain is exposed to the matrix space. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the pea protease can complement respiration deficiency in the yta10 and/or yta12 null yeast mutants, indicating that the plant protein can compensate for the loss of at least some of the important m-AAA functions in yeast. Based on biochemical experiments using isolated pea mitochondria, we propose that PsFtsH-like m-AAA is involved in the accumulation of the subunit 9 of the ATP synthase in the mitochondrial membrane.

  10. A Rice Virescent-Yellow Leaf Mutant Reveals New Insights into the Role and Assembly of Plastid Caseinolytic Protease in Higher Plants1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hui; Fei, Gui-Lin; Wu, Chuan-Yin; Wu, Fu-Qing; Sun, Yu-Ying; Chen, Ming-Jiang; Ren, Yu-Long; Zhou, Kun-Neng; Cheng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Jiu-Lin; Jiang, Ling; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiu-Ping; Lei, Cai-Lin; Su, Ning; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    The plastidic caseinolytic protease (Clp) of higher plants is an evolutionarily conserved protein degradation apparatus composed of a proteolytic core complex (the P and R rings) and a set of accessory proteins (ClpT, ClpC, and ClpS). The role and molecular composition of Clps in higher plants has just begun to be unraveled, mostly from studies with the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). In this work, we isolated a virescent yellow leaf (vyl) mutant in rice (Oryza sativa), which produces chlorotic leaves throughout the entire growth period. The young chlorotic leaves turn green in later developmental stages, accompanied by alterations in chlorophyll accumulation, chloroplast ultrastructure, and the expression of chloroplast development- and photosynthesis-related genes. Positional cloning revealed that the VYL gene encodes a protein homologous to the Arabidopsis ClpP6 subunit and that it is targeted to the chloroplast. VYL expression is constitutive in most tissues examined but most abundant in leaf sections containing chloroplasts in early stages of development. The mutation in vyl causes premature termination of the predicted gene product and loss of the conserved catalytic triad (serine-histidine-aspartate) and the polypeptide-binding site of VYL. Using a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified OsClpP4 as a VYL-associated protein in vivo. In addition, yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that VYL directly interacts with OsClpP3 and OsClpP4. Furthermore, we found that OsClpP3 directly interacts with OsClpT, that OsClpP4 directly interacts with OsClpP5 and OsClpT, and that both OsClpP4 and OsClpT can homodimerize. Together, our data provide new insights into the function, assembly, and regulation of Clps in higher plants. PMID:23803583

  11. Torrefaction of invasive alien plants: Influence of heating rate and other conversion parameters on mass yield and higher heating value.

    PubMed

    Mundike, Jhonnah; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-06-01

    With the aim of controlling their proliferation, two invasive alien plants, Lantana camara (LC) and Mimosa pigra (MP), both widespread in Africa, were considered for torrefaction for renewable energy applications. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the influence of heating rate (HR: 2.18-19.82°Cmin(-1)) together with variable temperature and hold time on char yield and HHV (in a bomb calorimeter) were determined. Statistically significant effects of HR on HHV with optima at 10.5°Cmin(-1) for LC and 20°Cmin(-1) for MP were obtained. Increases of HHV up to 0.8MJkg(-1) or energy yield greater than 10%, together with a 3-fold reduction in torrefaction conversion time could be achieved by optimisation of HR. Analysis of the torrefaction volatiles by TG-MS showed that not only hemicelluloses, but also lignin conversion, could influence the optimum HR value. PMID:26954309

  12. Three-band model for noninvasive estimation of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanin contents in higher plant leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, Anatoly A.; Keydan, Galina P.; Merzlyak, Mark N.

    2006-06-01

    Leaf pigment content and composition provide important information about plant physiological status. Reflectance measurements offer a rapid, nondestructive technique to estimate pigment content. This paper describes a recently developed three-band conceptual model capable of remotely estimating total of chlorophylls, carotenoids and anthocyanins contents in leaves from many tree and crop species. We tuned the spectral regions used in the model in accord with pigment of interest and the optical characteristics of the leaves studied, and showed that the developed technique allowed accurate estimation of total chlorophylls, carotenoids and anthocyanins, explaining more than 91%, 70% and 93% of pigment variation, respectively. This new technique shows a great potential for noninvasive tracking of the physiological status of vegetation and the impact of environmental changes.

  13. Torrefaction of invasive alien plants: Influence of heating rate and other conversion parameters on mass yield and higher heating value.

    PubMed

    Mundike, Jhonnah; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-06-01

    With the aim of controlling their proliferation, two invasive alien plants, Lantana camara (LC) and Mimosa pigra (MP), both widespread in Africa, were considered for torrefaction for renewable energy applications. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the influence of heating rate (HR: 2.18-19.82°Cmin(-1)) together with variable temperature and hold time on char yield and HHV (in a bomb calorimeter) were determined. Statistically significant effects of HR on HHV with optima at 10.5°Cmin(-1) for LC and 20°Cmin(-1) for MP were obtained. Increases of HHV up to 0.8MJkg(-1) or energy yield greater than 10%, together with a 3-fold reduction in torrefaction conversion time could be achieved by optimisation of HR. Analysis of the torrefaction volatiles by TG-MS showed that not only hemicelluloses, but also lignin conversion, could influence the optimum HR value.

  14. A symbiosis-dedicated SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II isoform controls the formation of a stable host-microbe interface in symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Rik; Hontelez, Jan; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Wen, Jiangqi; Bisseling, Ton; Limpens, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobium bacteria are accommodated in specialized membrane compartments that form a host-microbe interface. To better understand how these interfaces are made, we studied the regulation of exocytosis during interface formation. We used a phylogenetic approach to identify target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (t-SNAREs) that are dedicated to symbiosis and used cell-specific expression analysis together with protein localization to identify t-SNAREs that are present on the host-microbe interface in Medicago truncatula. We investigated the role of these t-SNAREs during the formation of a host-microbe interface. We showed that multiple syntaxins are present on the peri-arbuscular membrane. From these, we identified SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II (SYP13II) as a t-SNARE that is essential for the formation of a stable symbiotic interface in both AM and rhizobium symbiosis. In most dicot plants, the SYP13II transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in two isoforms, SYP13IIα and SYP13IIβ. These splice-forms differentially mark functional and degrading arbuscule branches. Our results show that vesicle traffic to the symbiotic interface is specialized and required for its maintenance. Alternative splicing of SYP13II allows plants to replace a t-SNARE involved in traffic to the plasma membrane with a t-SNARE that is more stringent in its localization to functional arbuscules. PMID:27110912

  15. A symbiosis-dedicated SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II isoform controls the formation of a stable host-microbe interface in symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Rik; Hontelez, Jan; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Wen, Jiangqi; Bisseling, Ton; Limpens, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobium bacteria are accommodated in specialized membrane compartments that form a host-microbe interface. To better understand how these interfaces are made, we studied the regulation of exocytosis during interface formation. We used a phylogenetic approach to identify target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (t-SNAREs) that are dedicated to symbiosis and used cell-specific expression analysis together with protein localization to identify t-SNAREs that are present on the host-microbe interface in Medicago truncatula. We investigated the role of these t-SNAREs during the formation of a host-microbe interface. We showed that multiple syntaxins are present on the peri-arbuscular membrane. From these, we identified SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II (SYP13II) as a t-SNARE that is essential for the formation of a stable symbiotic interface in both AM and rhizobium symbiosis. In most dicot plants, the SYP13II transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in two isoforms, SYP13IIα and SYP13IIβ. These splice-forms differentially mark functional and degrading arbuscule branches. Our results show that vesicle traffic to the symbiotic interface is specialized and required for its maintenance. Alternative splicing of SYP13II allows plants to replace a t-SNARE involved in traffic to the plasma membrane with a t-SNARE that is more stringent in its localization to functional arbuscules.

  16. Generation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate from acetate in higher plants: Detection of acetoacetyl CoA reductase- and PHB synthase- activities in rice.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Hirohisa; Shiraki, Mari; Inoue, Eri; Saito, Terumi

    2016-08-20

    It has been reported that Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is generated from acetate in the rice root. However, no information is available about the biosynthetic pathway of PHB from acetate in plant cells. In the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 (R. eutropha), PHB is synthesized from acetyl CoA by the consecutive reaction of three enzymes: β-ketothiolase (EC: 2.3.1.9), acetoacetyl CoA reductase (EC: 1.1.1.36) and PHB synthase (EC: 2.3.1.-). Thus, in this study, we examined whether the above three enzymatic activities were also detected in rice seedlings. The results clearly showed that the activities of the above three enzymes were all detected in rice. In particular, the PHB synthase activity was detected specifically in the sonicated particulate fractions (2000g 10min precipitate (ppt) and the 8000g 30min ppt) of rice roots and leaves. In addition to these enzyme activities, several new experimental results were obtained on PHB synthesis in higher plants: (a) (14)C-PHB generated from 2-(14)C-acetate was mainly localized in the 2000g 10min ppt and the 8000g 30min ppt of rice root. (b) Addition of acetate (0.1-10mM) to culture medium of rice seedlings did not increase the content of PHB in the rice root or leaf. (c) In addition to C3 plants, PHB was generated from acetate in a C4 plant (corn) and in a CAM plant (Bryophyllum pinnatum). d) Washing with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) strongly suggested that the PHB synthesized from acetate was of plant origin and was not bacterial contamination. PMID:27372278

  17. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    PubMed

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  18. Foreign DNA sequences are received by a wild-type strain of Aspergillus niger after co-culture with transgenic higher plants.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, T; Golz, C; Schieder, O

    1994-12-01

    Different transgenic plants of Brassica napus, Brassica nigra, Datura innoxia and Vicia narbonensis expressing the hph gene under the control of the 35s promoter were co-cultivated with mycelial material of Aspergillus niger in microcosms under sterile conditions. A significantly higher number of hygromycin B-resistant colonies of re-isolated fungi was obtained if compared with co-cultures with non-transgenic plants. The hph gene and other foreign sequences could be detected in some of the resistant strains only for a short time after selection, indicating a rapid loss of foreign DNA. A more stable transgenic strain was obtained after co-culture with transgenic plants of D. innoxia including a high number of hph copies in their genome. DNA with detected pUC sequences was prepared to transform E. coli DH5 alpha. One of the recovered plasmids is shown to include pieces of the plant-transforming vector and a foreign sequence. The 35s-regulated expression of genes is studied in A. niger.

  19. The Rf and Rf-like PPR in higher plants, a fast-evolving subclass of PPR genes.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Jennifer; Mireau, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    In the last years, a number of nuclear genes restoring cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) have been cloned in various crop species. The majority of these genes have been shown to encode pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPR) that act by specifically suppressing the expression of sterility-causing mitochondrial transcripts. Functional analysis of these proteins has indicated that the inhibitory effects of restoring PPR (Rf-PPR) proteins involve various mechanisms, including RNA cleavage, RNA destabilization, or translation inhibition. Cross-species sequence comparison of PPR protein complements revealed that most plant genomes encode 10-30 Rf-like (RFL) proteins sharing high-sequence similarity with the identified Rf-PPRs from crops. Evolutionary analyses further showed that they constitute a monophyletic group apart in the PPR family, with peculiar evolution dynamic and constraints. Here we review recent data on RF-PPRs and present the latest discoveries on the RFL family, with prospects on the functionality and evolution of this peculiar subclass of PPR.

  20. DNA injury induced by 5-aminouracil and caffeine in G2 checkpoints path of higher plant cells.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, A; Bracho, M; Marcano, L; Guíñez, J; De la Torre, C

    2005-08-01

    This work evaluated the qualitative and quantitative cellular changes induced by treatment with 5-aminouracil (5-AU) and a combination of 5-AU and caffeine in plant cells in relation to DNA damage, repaired damage, and residual damage. As biological material, Allium cepa L. root tips were used, grown in filtered water, in darkness, with aeration at constant temperature of 25 degrees C +/- 0.5. Cell populations were synchronized using 5 mM caffeine in order to study the effects of 5-AU and caffeine/5-AU combined treatment on the DNA content and their incidence in the entrance to mitosis. The results showed a delay in the G2 period due to induced DNA damage by the 5-AU and caffeine/5-AU combined treatment, shown by aberrant metaphases, anaphases and telophases. The effect of caffeine in the combined treatment was heightened in spite of lengthening the checkpoints route that retains the cells in G2. The existence of G2 checkpoints was shown in the cell population studied, inducing lesions in the DNA, chromosomic aberrations and cellular instability.

  1. The Pore Size of Non-Graminaceous Plant Cell Walls Is Rapidly Decreased by Borate Ester Cross-Linking of the Pectic Polysaccharide Rhamnogalacturonan II1

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, Axel; O'Neill, Malcolm A.; Ehwald, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan II (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells resulted in B binding to the wall, the formation of dRG-II-B from mRG-II, and a reduction in wall pore size within 10 min. The wall pore size of denatured B-grown cells was increased by treatment at pH ≤ 2.0 or by treatment with Ca2+-chelating agents. The acid-mediated increase in wall pore size was prevented by boric acid alone at pH 2.0 and by boric acid together with Ca2+, but not by Na+ or Mg2+ ions at pH 1.5. The Ca2+-chelator-mediated increase in pore size was partially reduced by boric acid. Our results suggest that B-mediated cross-linking of RG-II in the walls of living plant cells generates a pectin network with a decreased size exclusion limit for polymers. The formation, stability, and possible functions of a borate ester cross-linked pectic network in the primary walls of nongraminaceous plant cells are discussed. PMID:10557231

  2. Isotopic niche variation in a higher trophic level ectotherm: highlighting the role of succulent plants in desert food webs.

    PubMed

    Delibes, Miguel; Blazquez, Ma Carmen; Fedriani, Jose Maria; Granados, Arsenio; Soriano, Laura; Delgado, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of animal tissues allows description of isotopic niches, whose axes in an n-dimensional space are the isotopic ratios, compared to a standard, of different isotope systems (e.g. δ(13)C, δ(15)N). Isotopic niches are informative about where an animal, population or species lives and about what it consumes. Here we describe inter- and intrapopulation isotopic niche (bidimensional δ(13)C-δ(15)N space) of the Orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), an arthropodivorous small lizard, in ten localities of Baja California Sur (Mexico). These localities range from extreme arid to subtropical conditions. Between 13 and 20 individuals were sampled at each locality and 1 cm of tail-tip was collected for isotope analysis. As expected, interpopulation niche width variation was much larger than intrapopulation one. Besides, isotopic variation was not related to age, sex or individual size of lizards. This suggests geographic variation of the isotopic niche was related to changes in the basal resources that fuel the trophic web at each locality. The position of Bayesian isotope ellipses in the δ-space indicated that whiptails in more arid localities were enriched in 13C, suggesting most of the carbon they ingested came from CAM succulent plants (cacti, agaves) and in minor degree in C4 grasses. Contrarily, whiptails in subtropical areas were depleted in 13C, as they received more carbon from C3 scrubs and trees. Localities closer to sea-level tended to be enriched in 15N, but a clear influence of marine subsidies was detected only at individual level. The study contributes to identify the origin and pathways through which energy flows across the trophic webs of North American deserts.

  3. Isotopic Niche Variation in a Higher Trophic Level Ectotherm: Highlighting the Role of Succulent Plants in Desert Food Webs

    PubMed Central

    Delibes, Miguel; Blazquez, Ma Carmen; Fedriani, Jose Maria; Granados, Arsenio; Soriano, Laura; Delgado, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis of animal tissues allows description of isotopic niches, whose axes in an n-dimensional space are the isotopic ratios, compared to a standard, of different isotope systems (e.g. δ13C, δ15N). Isotopic niches are informative about where an animal, population or species lives and about what it consumes. Here we describe inter- and intrapopulation isotopic niche (bidimensional δ13C-δ15N space) of the Orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra), an arthropodivorous small lizard, in ten localities of Baja California Sur (Mexico). These localities range from extreme arid to subtropical conditions. Between 13 and 20 individuals were sampled at each locality and 1 cm of tail-tip was collected for isotope analysis. As expected, interpopulation niche width variation was much larger than intrapopulation one. Besides, isotopic variation was not related to age, sex or individual size of lizards. This suggests geographic variation of the isotopic niche was related to changes in the basal resources that fuel the trophic web at each locality. The position of Bayesian isotope ellipses in the δ-space indicated that whiptails in more arid localities were enriched in 13C, suggesting most of the carbon they ingested came from CAM succulent plants (cacti, agaves) and in minor degree in C4 grasses. Contrarily, whiptails in subtropical areas were depleted in 13C, as they received more carbon from C3 scrubs and trees. Localities closer to sea-level tended to be enriched in 15N, but a clear influence of marine subsidies was detected only at individual level. The study contributes to identify the origin and pathways through which energy flows across the trophic webs of North American deserts. PMID:25973609

  4. Volatile metabolites of higher plant crops as a photosynthesizing life support system component under temperature stress at different light intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, I. I.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Parshina, O. V.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kalacheva, G. S.

    The effect of elevated temperatures of 35 and 45°C (at the intensities of photosynthetically active radiation 322, 690 and 1104 μmol·m -2·s -1) on the photosynthesis, respiration, and qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatiles emitted by wheat ( Triticum aestuvi L., cultivar 232) crops was investigated in growth chambers. Identification and quantification of more than 20 volatile compounds (terpenoids-α-pinene, Δ3 carene, limonene, benzene, α-and trans-caryophyllene, α- and γ-terpinene, their derivatives, aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.) were conducted by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. Under light intensity of 1104 μmol·m -2·s -1 heat resistance of photosynthesis and respiration increased at 35°C and decreased at 45°C. The action of elevated temperatures brought about variations in the rate and direction of the synthesis of volatile metabolites. The emission of volatile compounds was the greatest under a reduced irradiation of 322 μmol·m -2·s -1 and the smallest under 1104 μmol·m -2·s -1, at 35°C. During the repair period, the contents and proportions of volatile compounds were different from their initial values, too. The degree of disruption and the following recovery of the functional state depended on the light intensity during the exposure to elevated temperatures. The investigation of the atmosphere of the growth chamber without plants has revaled the substances that were definitely technogenic in origin: tetramethylurea, dimethylsulfide, dibutylsulfide, dibutylphthalate, and a number of components of furan and silane nature.

  5. Translocation of the precursor of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase into chloroplasts of higher plants in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Della-Cioppa, Guy; Bauer, S. Christopher; Klein, Barbara K.; Shah, Dilip M.; Fraley, Robert T.; Kishore, Ganesh M.

    1986-01-01

    5-enolPyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSP synthase; 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyl-transferase; EC 2.5.1.19) is a chloroplast-localized enzyme of the shikimate pathway in plants. This enzyme is the target for the nonselective herbicide glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine). We have previously isolated a full-length cDNA clone of EPSP synthase from Petunia hybrida. DNA sequence analysis suggested that the enzyme is synthesized as a cytosolic precursor (pre-EPSP synthase) with an amino-terminal transit peptide. Based on the known amino terminus of the mature enzyme, and the 5′ open reading frame of the cDNA, the transit peptide of pre-EPSP synthase would be maximally 72 amino acids long. To confirm this prediction and to assay directly for translocation of pre-EPSP synthase into chloroplasts in vitro, we cloned the full-length cDNA into an SP6 transcription system to produce large amounts of mRNA for in vitro translation. The translation products, when analyzed by NaDodSO4/PAGE autoradiography, indicate a relative molecular mass for pre-EPSP synthase of ≈55 kDa. Uptake studies with intact chloroplasts, in vitro, indicate that pre-EPSP synthase was rapidly taken up into chloroplasts and proteolytically cleaved to the mature ≈48-kDa enzyme. The transit peptide was shown to be essential for import of the precursor enzyme into the chloroplast. To our knowledge, post-translational import into chloroplasts of a precursor enzyme involved in amino acid biosynthesis has not been reported previously. Furthermore, enzymatic analysis of translation products indicates that pre-EPSP synthase is catalytically active and has a similar sensitivity to the herbicide glyphosate as the mature enzyme. To our knowledge, pre-EPSP synthase represents the only example of a catalytically competent chloroplast-precursor enzyme. Images PMID:16593759

  6. Toxicity of combined chromium(VI) and phenanthrene pollution on the seed germination, stem lengths, and fresh weights of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuangqing; Gu, Hairong; Cui, Chunyan; Ji, Rong

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the interaction and toxicity of pollutant combinations such as heavy metals and PAHs are of practical importance in the remediation and monitoring of the industrial soil environment. This study investigated the single and combined toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on three important higher plants: mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), pakchoi cabbage (Brassica chinensis), and rice (Oryza sativa). In experiments using artificial soil matrix, the EC10 and EC20 of the two pollutants, alone and in combination, were analyzed with respect to seed germination, stem length, and above-ground fresh weight of these higher plants. The additive index method was used to evaluate the combined biological toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene. The results showed that the EC20 of chromium(VI) on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 289, 248, and 550 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 334, 307, and 551 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 528, 426, and 628 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 696, 585, and 768 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of a combination of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 192, 173, and 279 mg kg(-1), respectively, and 200, 205, and 271 mg kg(-1) for the fresh weights of the three plants. The single and combined exposure of soil to chromium(VI) and phenanthrene had deleterious effects on plants in the early stage of growth. Overall, pakchoi cabbage was more sensitive than mung beans and rice. The two pollutants exerted synergistic effects on the stem lengths and above-ground fresh weights of both mung beans and rice but antagonistic effects on pakchoi cabbage. The results of this study also suggested pakchoi cabbage as a sensitive indicator of soil pollution.

  7. Toxicity of combined chromium(VI) and phenanthrene pollution on the seed germination, stem lengths, and fresh weights of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuangqing; Gu, Hairong; Cui, Chunyan; Ji, Rong

    2016-08-01

    Studies of the interaction and toxicity of pollutant combinations such as heavy metals and PAHs are of practical importance in the remediation and monitoring of the industrial soil environment. This study investigated the single and combined toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on three important higher plants: mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), pakchoi cabbage (Brassica chinensis), and rice (Oryza sativa). In experiments using artificial soil matrix, the EC10 and EC20 of the two pollutants, alone and in combination, were analyzed with respect to seed germination, stem length, and above-ground fresh weight of these higher plants. The additive index method was used to evaluate the combined biological toxicity of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene. The results showed that the EC20 of chromium(VI) on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 289, 248, and 550 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 334, 307, and 551 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 528, 426, and 628 mg kg(-1), respectively. The corresponding EC20 values for the fresh weights of the three plants were 696, 585, and 768 mg kg(-1). The EC20 of a combination of chromium(VI) and phenanthrene on the stem lengths of mung beans, pakchoi cabbage, and rice was 192, 173, and 279 mg kg(-1), respectively, and 200, 205, and 271 mg kg(-1) for the fresh weights of the three plants. The single and combined exposure of soil to chromium(VI) and phenanthrene had deleterious effects on plants in the early stage of growth. Overall, pakchoi cabbage was more sensitive than mung beans and rice. The two pollutants exerted synergistic effects on the stem lengths and above-ground fresh weights of both mung beans and rice but antagonistic effects on pakchoi cabbage. The results of this study also suggested pakchoi cabbage as a sensitive indicator of soil pollution. PMID

  8. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 against a 10% load rejection transient from 75% steady state in the Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, C.; Casals, A.; Perez, J.; Mendizabal, R.

    1993-05-01

    The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) and the Asociacion Nuclear Vandellos have developed a model of Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plant. The ANV collaboration consisted in the supply of design and actual data, the cooperation in the simulation of the control systems and other model components, as well as in the results analysis. The obtained model has been assessed against the following transients occurred in plant: A trip from the 100% power level (CSN); A load rejection from 100% to 50% (CSN); A load rejection from 75% to 65% (ANV); A feedwater turbopump trip (ANV). This copy is a report of the load rejection from 75% to 65% transient simulation. This transient was one of the tests carried out in Vandellos II NPP during the startup tests.

  9. Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs

    SciTech Connect

    Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C. )

    1991-03-15

    Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase was purified to homogeneity from avocado mesocarp, and monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against the protein were used to isolate full-length cDNA clones from Ricinus communis (castor) seed and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). The nucleotide sequence of the castor clone pRCD1 revealed an open reading frame of 1.2 kilobases encoding a 396-amino acid protein of 45 kDa. The cucumber clone pCSD1 encoded a homologous 396-amino acid protein with 88% amino acid identity to the castor clone. Expression of pRCD1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of a functional stearoyl-ACP desaturase, demonstrating that the introduction of this single gene product was sufficient to confer soluble desaturase activity to yeast. There was a 48-residue region of 29% amino acid sequence identity between residues 53 and 101 of the castor desaturase and the proximal border of the dehydratase region of the fatty acid synthase from yeast. Stearoyl-ACP mRNA was present at substantially higher levels in developing seeds than in leaf and root tissue, suggesting that expression of the {Delta}{sup 9} desaturase is developmentally regulated.

  10. Effects of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on the Potential Efficiency of Photosystem II in Leaves of Tropical Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Krause, G. Heinrich; Schmude, Claudia; Garden, Hermann; Koroleva, Olga Y.; Winter, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    The effects of solar ultraviolet (UV)-B and UV-A radiation on the potential efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in leaves of tropical plants were investigated in Panama (9°N). Shade-grown tree seedlings or detached sun leaves from the outer crown of mature trees were exposed for short periods (up to 75 min) to direct sunlight filtered through plastic or glass filters that absorbed either UV-B or UV-A+B radiation, or transmitted the complete solar spectrum. Persistent changes in potential PSII efficiency were monitored by means of the dark-adapted ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll a fluorescence. In leaves of shade-grown tree seedlings, exposure to the complete solar spectrum resulted in a strong decrease in potential PSII efficiency, probably involving protein damage. A substantially smaller decline in the dark-adapted ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll a fluorescence was observed when UV-B irradiation was excluded. The loss in PSII efficiency was further reduced by excluding both UV-B and UV-A light. The photoinactivation of PSII was reversible under shade conditions, but restoration of nearly full activity required at least 10 d. Repeated exposure to direct sunlight induced an increase in the pool size of xanthophyll cycle pigments and in the content of UV-absorbing vacuolar compounds. In sun leaves of mature trees, which contained high levels of UV-absorbing compounds, effects of UV-B on PSII efficiency were observed in several cases and varied with developmental age and acclimation state of the leaves. The results show that natural UV-B and UV-A radiation in the tropics may significantly contribute to photoinhibition of PSII during sun exposure in situ, particularly in shade leaves exposed to full sunlight. PMID:10594122

  11. Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on the potential efficiency of photosystem II in leaves of tropical plants

    PubMed

    Krause; Schmude; Garden; Koroleva; Winter

    1999-12-01

    The effects of solar ultraviolet (UV)-B and UV-A radiation on the potential efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) in leaves of tropical plants were investigated in Panama (9 degrees N). Shade-grown tree seedlings or detached sun leaves from the outer crown of mature trees were exposed for short periods (up to 75 min) to direct sunlight filtered through plastic or glass filters that absorbed either UV-B or UV-A+B radiation, or transmitted the complete solar spectrum. Persistent changes in potential PSII efficiency were monitored by means of the dark-adapted ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll a fluorescence. In leaves of shade-grown tree seedlings, exposure to the complete solar spectrum resulted in a strong decrease in potential PSII efficiency, probably involving protein damage. A substantially smaller decline in the dark-adapted ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll a fluorescence was observed when UV-B irradiation was excluded. The loss in PSII efficiency was further reduced by excluding both UV-B and UV-A light. The photoinactivation of PSII was reversible under shade conditions, but restoration of nearly full activity required at least 10 d. Repeated exposure to direct sunlight induced an increase in the pool size of xanthophyll cycle pigments and in the content of UV-absorbing vacuolar compounds. In sun leaves of mature trees, which contained high levels of UV-absorbing compounds, effects of UV-B on PSII efficiency were observed in several cases and varied with developmental age and acclimation state of the leaves. The results show that natural UV-B and UV-A radiation in the tropics may significantly contribute to photoinhibition of PSII during sun exposure in situ, particularly in shade leaves exposed to full sunlight.

  12. Comparative Effects of Pollen and Seed Migration on the Cytonuclear Structure of Plant Populations. II. Paternal Cytoplasmic Inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, A.; Asmussen, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    We continue our study of the effects of pollen and seed migration on the cytonuclear structure of mixed-mating plant populations by analyzing two deterministic continent-island models under the critical assumption of paternal cytoplasmic inheritance. The major results of this study that contrast with our previous conclusions based on maternal cytoplasmic inheritance are (i) pollen gene flow can significantly affect the cytonuclear structure of the island population, and in particular can help to generate cytonuclear disequilibria that greatly exceed the magnitude of those that would be produced by seed migration or mixed mating alone; (ii) with simultaneous pollen and seed migration, nonzero cytonuclear disequilibria will be maintained not only when there is disequilibrium in the immigrant pollen or seeds, but also through a variety of intermigrant admixture effects when the two pools of immigrants differ appropriately in their cytonuclear compositions; (iii) either immigrant pollen or immigrant seeds can generate disequilibria de novo in populations with initially random cytonuclear associations, but pollen migration alone generally produces lower levels of disequilibrium than does comparable seed migration, especially at high levels of self-fertilization when the overall fraction of immigrant pollen is low; (iv) the equilibrium state of the island population will be influenced by the rate of pollen gene flow whenever there is either allelic disequilibrium in the immigrant pollen or simultaneous seed migration coupled with different cytoplasmic or nuclear allele frequencies in immigrant pollen and seeds or nonzero allelic disequilibrium in either immigrant pool. The estimation of pollen migration should therefore be facilitated with paternal cytoplasmic inheritance relative to the case of maternal cytoplasmic inheritance. These basic conclusions hold whether the population is censused as seeds or as adults, but with simultaneous pollen and seed migration, the

  13. Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs.

    PubMed

    Shanklin, J; Somerville, C

    1991-03-15

    Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase (EC 1.14.99.6) was purified to homogeneity from avocado mesocarp, and monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against the protein were used to isolate full-length cDNA clones from Ricinus communis (castor) seed and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). The nucleotide sequence of the castor clone pRCD1 revealed an open reading frame of 1.2 kilobases encoding a 396-amino acid protein of 45 kDa. The cucumber clone pCSD1 encoded a homologous 396-amino acid protein with 88% amino acid identity to the castor clone. Expression of pRCD1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of a functional stearoyl-ACP desaturase, demonstrating that the introduction of this single gene product was sufficient to confer soluble desaturase activity to yeast. There was no detectable identity between the deduced amino acid sequences of the castor delta 9-stearoyl-ACP desaturase and either the delta 9-stearoyl-CoA desaturase from rat or yeast or the delta 12 desaturase from Synechocystis, suggesting that these enzymes may have evolved independently. However, there was a 48-residue region of 29% amino acid sequence identity between residues 53 and 101 of the castor desaturase and the proximal border of the dehydratase region of the fatty acid synthase from yeast. Stearoyl-ACP mRNA was present at substantially higher levels in developing seeds than in leaf and root tissue, suggesting that expression of the delta 9 desaturase is developmentally regulated.

  14. Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase from higher plants is structurally unrelated to the animal and fungal homologs.

    PubMed Central

    Shanklin, J; Somerville, C

    1991-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein (ACP) desaturase (EC 1.14.99.6) was purified to homogeneity from avocado mesocarp, and monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against the protein were used to isolate full-length cDNA clones from Ricinus communis (castor) seed and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). The nucleotide sequence of the castor clone pRCD1 revealed an open reading frame of 1.2 kilobases encoding a 396-amino acid protein of 45 kDa. The cucumber clone pCSD1 encoded a homologous 396-amino acid protein with 88% amino acid identity to the castor clone. Expression of pRCD1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of a functional stearoyl-ACP desaturase, demonstrating that the introduction of this single gene product was sufficient to confer soluble desaturase activity to yeast. There was no detectable identity between the deduced amino acid sequences of the castor delta 9-stearoyl-ACP desaturase and either the delta 9-stearoyl-CoA desaturase from rat or yeast or the delta 12 desaturase from Synechocystis, suggesting that these enzymes may have evolved independently. However, there was a 48-residue region of 29% amino acid sequence identity between residues 53 and 101 of the castor desaturase and the proximal border of the dehydratase region of the fatty acid synthase from yeast. Stearoyl-ACP mRNA was present at substantially higher levels in developing seeds than in leaf and root tissue, suggesting that expression of the delta 9 desaturase is developmentally regulated. Images PMID:2006187

  15. The pore size of non-graminaceous plant cell walls is rapidly decreased by borate ester cross-linking of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, A.; O'Neill, M.A.; Ehwald, R.

    1999-11-01

    The walls of suspension-cultured Chenopodium album L. cells grown continually for more than 1 year on B-deficient medium contained monomeric rhamnogalacturonan (mRG-II) but not the borate ester cross-linked RG II dimer (dRG-II-B). The walls of these cells had an increased size limit for dextran permeation, which is a measure of wall pore size. Adding boric acid to growing B-deficient cells resulted in B binding to the wall, the formation of dRG-II-B from mRG-II, and a reduction in wall pore size within 10 min. The wall pore size of denatured B-grown cells was increased by treatment at pH {le} 2.0 or by treatment with Ca{sup 2+}-chelating agents. The acid-mediated increase in wall pore size was prevented by boric acid alone at pH 2.0 and by boric acid together with Ca{sup 2+}, but not by Na{sup +} or Mg{sup 2+} ions at pH 1.5. The Ca{sup 2+}-chelator-mediated increase in pore size was partially reduced by boric acid. Their results suggest that B-mediated cross-linking of RG-II in the walls of living plant cells generates a pectin network with a decreased size exclusion limit for polymers. The formation, stability, and possible functions of a borate ester cross-linked pectic network in the primary walls of nongraminaceous plant cells are discussed.