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Sample records for higher polyamines spermidine

  1. Polyamines and cellular metabolism in plants: transgenic approaches reveal different responses to diamine putrescine versus higher polyamines spermidine and spermine

    Treesearch

    Autar K. Mattoo; Subhash C. Minocha; Rakesh Minocha; Avtar K. Handa

    2010-01-01

    Distribution of biogenic amines--the diamine putrescine (Put), triamine spermidine (Spd), and tetraamine spermine (Spm)--differs between species with Put and Spd being particularly abundant and Spm the least abundant in plant cells. These amines are important for cell viability and their intracellular levels are tightly regulated, which have made it difficult to...

  2. Polyamines and cellular metabolism in plants: Transgenic approaches reveal different responses to diamine putrescine versus higher polyamines spermidine and spermine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Distribution of biogenic amines – the diamine putrescine (Put), triamine spermidine (Spd), and tetraamine spermine (Spm) - differs between species with Put and Spd being particularly abundant and Spm the least abundant in plant cells. These amines are important for cell viability and their intracel...

  3. Molecular mechanism underlying promiscuous polyamine recognition by spermidine acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Sae; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Niiyama, Mayumi; Hirose, Mika; Miyazaki, Yuma; Higashi, Kyohei; Murata, Michio; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Spermidine acetyltransferase (SAT) from Escherichia coli, which catalyses the transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl-CoA to spermidine, is a key enzyme in controlling polyamine levels in prokaryotic cells. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of SAT in complex with spermidine (SPD) and CoA at 2.5Å resolution. SAT is a dodecamer organized as a hexamer of dimers. The secondary structural element and folding topology of the SAT dimer resemble those of spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), suggesting an evolutionary link between SAT and SSAT. However, the polyamine specificity of SAT is distinct from that of SSAT and is promiscuous. The SPD molecule is also located at the inter-dimer interface. The distance between SPD and CoA molecules is 13Å. A deep, highly acidic, water-filled cavity encompasses the SPD and CoA binding sites. Structure-based mutagenesis and in-vitro assays identified SPD-bound residues, and the acidic residues lining the walls of the cavity are mostly essential for enzymatic activities. Based on mutagenesis and structural data, we propose an acetylation mechanism underlying promiscuous polyamine recognition for SAT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EEG and behavioural effects of polyamines (spermine and spermidine) on rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bo, P; Giorgetti, A; Camana, C; Savoldi, F

    1990-01-01

    The EEG and behavioural changes induced by the administration of polyamines (spermine and spermidine) were studied in rabbit. Spermine and spermidine were administered at different doses (200 and 400 micrograms) into the mesencephalic ventricle (i.c.v.) both as a bolus and in constant perfusion (60 min duration). We also studied the effects of methamphetamine (MA) in a group of rabbits pretreated with spermine and spermidine 200 and 400 micrograms i.c.v. as bolus. Spermine caused a dose-related cortical synchronization associated with a partial sedation; spermidine induced cortical synchronization at a low dose without any behavioural changes while at higher dose (after perfusion) cortical desychronization with an arousal behavioural pattern occurred. The possible interaction of these substances with the mesolimbic dopaminergic system is discussed on the basis of their potential neuroleptic action.

  5. Effect of Spermidine Analogues on Cell Growth of Escherichia coli Polyamine Requiring Mutant MA261

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Taketo; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Terui, Yusuke; Takao, Koichi; Sugita, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira; Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of spermidine analogues [norspermidine (NSPD, 33), spermidine (SPD, 34), homospermidine (HSPD, 44) and aminopropylcadaverine (APCAD, 35)] on cell growth were studied using Escherichia coli polyamine-requiring mutant MA261. Cell growth was compared at 32°C, 37°C, and 42°C. All four analogues were taken up mainly by the PotABCD spermidine-preferential uptake system. The degree of stimulation of cell growth at 32°C and 37°C was NSPD ≥ SPD ≥ HSPD > APCAD, and SPD ≥ HSPD ≥ NSPD > APCAD, respectively. However, at 42°C, it was HSPD » SPD > NSPD > APCAD. One reason for this is HSPD was taken up effectively compared with other triamines. In addition, since natural polyamines (triamines and teteraamines) interact mainly with RNA, and the structure of RNA is more flexible at higher temperatures, HSPD probably stabilized RNA more tightly at 42°C. We have thus far found that 20 kinds of protein syntheses are stimulated by polyamines at the translational level. Among them, synthesis of OppA, RpoE and StpA was more strongly stimulated by HSPD at 42°C than at 37°C. Stabilization of the initiation region of oppA and rpoE mRNA was tighter by HSPD at 42°C than 37°C determined by circular dichroism (CD). The degree of polyamine stimulation of OppA, RpoE and StpA synthesis by NSPD, SPD and APCAD was smaller than that by HSPD at 42°C. Thus, the degree of stimulation of cell growth by spermidine analogues at the different temperatures is dependent on the stimulation of protein synthesis by some components of the polyamine modulon. PMID:27434546

  6. Altered expression of polyamine transporters reveals a role for spermidine in the timing of flowering and other developmental response pathways.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sheaza; Ariyaratne, Menaka; Patel, Jigar; Howard, Alexander E; Kalinoski, Andrea; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Morris, Paul F

    2017-05-01

    Changes in the levels of polyamines are correlated with the activation or repression of developmental response pathways, but the role of polyamine transporters in the regulation of polyamine homeostasis and thus indirectly gene expression, has not been previously addressed. Here we show that the A. thaliana and rice transporters AtPUT5 and OsPUT1 were localized to the ER, while the AtPUT2, AtPUT3, and OsPUT3 were localized to the chloroplast by transient expression in N. benthamiana. A. thaliana plants that were transformed with OsPUT1 under the control the PUT5 promoter were delayed in flowering by 16days. In contrast, put5 mutants flowered four days earlier than WT plants. The delay of flowering was associated with significantly higher levels of spermidine and spermidine conjugates in the leaves prior to flowering. A similar delay in flowering was also noted in transgenic lines with constitutive expression of either OsPUT1 or OsPUT3. All three transgenic lines had larger rosette leaves, thicker flowering stems, and produced more siliques than wild type plants. In contrast, put5 plants had smaller leaves, thinner flowering stems, and produced fewer siliques. Constitutive expression of PUTs was also associated with an extreme delay in both plant senescence and maturation rate of siliques. These experiments provide the first genetic evidence of polyamine transport in the timing of flowering, and indicate the importance of polyamine transporters in the regulation of flowering and senescence pathways.

  7. Molecular basis of the 'anti-aging' effect of spermidine and other natural polyamines - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Minois, Nadège

    2014-01-01

    Spermidine, a naturally occurring polyamine, has recently emerged as exhibiting anti-aging properties. Its supplementation increases lifespan and resistance to stress, and decreases the occurrence of age-related pathology and loss of locomotor ability. Its mechanisms of action are just beginning to be understood. An up-to-date overview of the so far identified mechanisms of action of spermidine and other polyamines on aging is presented. Studies of aging and of the molecular effects of polyamines in general and spermidine in particular are used to synthesize our knowledge on what molecular mechanisms spermidine and other polyamines trigger to positively affect aging. Autophagy is the main mechanism of action of spermidine at the molecular level. However, recent research shows that spermidine can act via other mechanisms, namely inflammation reduction, lipid metabolism and regulation of cell growth, proliferation and death. It is suggested that the main pathway used by spermidine to trigger its effects is the MAPK pathway. Given that polyamines can interact with many molecules, it is not surprising that they affect aging via several mechanisms. Many of these mechanisms discovered so far have already been linked with aging and by acting on all of these mechanisms, polyamines may be strong regulators of aging. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. EFFECT OF POLYAMINE STRUCTURE ON GROWTH STIMULATION AND SPERMINE AND SPERMIDINE CONTENT OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Guirard, Beverly M.; Snell, Esmond E.

    1964-01-01

    Guirard, Beverly M. (University of California, Berkeley), and Esmond E. Snell. Effect of polyamine structure on growth and spermine and spermidine content of lactic acid bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 88:72–80. 1964.—Growth from small inocula of six species of lactobacilli was stimulated by addition of spermine or spermidine to a defined medium; none of four streptococcal species showed this effect. Lactobacillus casei was stimulated to the greatest extent. Several homologues and analogues partially duplicated the growth-promoting effects of spermidine; one inactive homologue, N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,6-hexanediamine, competitively inhibited the growth response to spermidine and spermine, and reduced or eliminated the response to several weakly active compounds. A procedure for separation of spermine and spermidine, and their estimation by bioassay with L. casei, was developed and applied to the estimation of these compounds in bacterial cells. Both compounds are present in lactic acid bacteria in amounts much smaller (1 to 5%) than those found in Escherichia coli. Addition of spermine or spermidine to the growth medium results in large accumulations in the cells, and the two amines show limited interconvertibility. Putrescine does not increase the cell content of either spermine or spermidine. Presence of the inhibitor prevents accumulation of the growth-stimulating amines. The polyamines appear to fill at least two valuable roles in the cell, one relatively nonspecific in its structural requirements, and one filled only by spermine and spermidine or their nearest homologues. N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,6-hexanediamine appears to prevent the latter function by competition for an appropriate cellular receptor. PMID:14197908

  9. Depletion of the polyamines spermidine and spermine by overexpression of spermidine/spermine N¹-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1) leads to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Swati; Mandal, Ajeet; Park, Myung Hee

    2015-06-15

    The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are intimately involved in the regulation of cellular growth and viability. Transduction of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells with an adenovirus encoding a key polyamine catabolic enzyme, spermidine N¹-acetyltransferase 1 (SSAT1)/SAT1 (AdSAT1), leads to a rapid depletion of spermidine and spermine, arrest in cell growth and a decline in cell viability. Annexin V/propidium iodide FACS analyses, terminal uridine nucleotide end-labelling (TUNEL) and caspase 3 assays showed a clear indication of apoptosis in AdSAT1-transduced cells (at 24-72 h), but not in cells transduced with GFP-encoding adenovirus (AdGFP). Apoptosis in the polyamine-depleted cells occurs by the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway, as evidenced by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in pro-apoptotic Bax, decrease in anti-apoptotic Bcl-xl, Bcl2 and Mcl-1 and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, upon transduction with AdSAT1. Moreover, TEM images of AdSAT1-transduced cells revealed morphological changes commonly associated with apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation, mitochondrial alteration, vacuolization and membrane blebbing. The apoptosis appears to result largely from depletion of the polyamines spermidine and spermine, as the polyamine analogues α-methylspermidine (α-MeSpd) and N¹,N¹²-dimethylspermine (Me₂Spm) that are not substrates for SAT1 could partially restore growth and prevent apoptosis of AdSAT1-transduced cells. Inhibition of polyamine oxidases did not restore the growth of AdSAT1-transduced cells or block apoptosis, suggesting that the growth arrest and apoptosis were not induced by oxidative stress resulting from accelerated polyamine catabolism. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that the depletion of the polyamines spermidine and spermine leads to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2015 Biochemical Society.

  10. A Novel Polyamine Acyltransferase Responsible for the Accumulation of Spermidine Conjugates in Arabidopsis Seed[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Fuell, Christine; Parr, Adrian; Hill, Lionel; Bailey, Paul; Elliott, Katherine; Fairhurst, Shirley A.; Martin, Cathie; Michael, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid amides are a class of secondary metabolites distributed widely in plants. We have identified two sinapoyl spermidine derivatives, N-((4′-O-glycosyl)-sinapoyl),N′-sinapoylspermidine and N,N′-disinapoylspermidine, which comprise the two major polyamine conjugates that accumulate in Arabidopsis thaliana seed. Using metabolic profiling of knockout mutants to elucidate the functions of members of the BAHD acyltransferase family in Arabidopsis, we have also identified two genes encoding spermidine disinapoyl transferase (SDT) and spermidine dicoumaroyl transferase (SCT) activities. At2g23510, which is expressed mainly in seeds, encodes a spermidine sinapoyl CoA acyltransferase (SDT) that is required for the production of disinapoyl spermidine and its glucoside in Arabidopsis seed. The structurally related BAHD enzyme encoded by At2g25150 is expressed specifically in roots and has spermidine coumaroyl CoA acyltransferase (SCT) activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19168716

  11. Polyamine-Regulated Translation of Spermidine/Spermine-N1-Acetyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Leal, Oscar; Barrero, Carlos A.; Clarkson, Allen B.; Casero, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid synthesis of the polyamine catabolic enzyme spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) in response to increased polyamines is an important polyamine homeostatic mechanism. Indirect evidence has suggested that there is an important control mechanism involving the release of a translational repressor protein that allows the immediate initiation of SSAT protein synthesis without RNA transcription, maturation, or translocation. To identify a repressor protein, we used a mass spectroscopy-based RNA-protein interaction system and found six proteins that bind to the coding region of SSAT mRNA. Individual small interfering RNA (siRNA) experiments showed that nucleolin knockdown enhances SSAT translation. Nucleolin exists in several isoforms, and we report that the isoform that binds to SSAT mRNA undergoes autocatalysis in the presence of polyamines, a result suggesting that there is a negative feedback system that helps control the cellular content of polyamines. Preliminary molecular interaction data show that a nucleolin isoform binds to a 5′ stem-loop of the coding region of SSAT mRNA. The glycine/arginine-rich C terminus of nucleolin is required for binding, and the four RNA recognition motif domains are included in the isoform that blocks SSAT translation. Understanding SSAT translational control mechanisms has the potential for the development of therapeutic strategies against cancer and obesity. PMID:22354986

  12. Spermidine, a sensor for antizyme 1 expression regulates intracellular polyamine homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ramesh M.; Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Bavaria, Mitul N.; Viar, Mary Jane; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2014-01-01

    Although, intracellular polyamine levels are highly regulated, it is unclear whether intracellular putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), or spermine (SPM) levels act as a sensor to regulate their synthesis or uptake. Polyamines have been shown to induce AZ1 expression through a unique +1 frameshifting mechanism. However, under physiological conditions which particular polyamine induces AZ1, and thereby ODC activity, is unknown due to their inter-conversion. In this study we demonstrate that SPD regulates AZ1 expression under physiological conditions in IEC-6 cells. PUT and SPD showed potent induction of AZ1 within 4h in serum starved confluent cells grown in DMEM (control) medium. Unlike control cells, PUT failed to induce AZ1 in cells grown in DFMO containing medium, however, SPD caused a robust AZ1 induction in these cells. SPM showed very little effect on AZ1 expression in both the control and polyamine depleted cells. Only SPD induced AZ1 when S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and/or ODC were inhibited. Surprisingly, addition of DENSpm along with DFMO restored AZ1 induction by putrescine in polyamine-depleted cells suggesting that the increased SSAT activity in response to DENSpm converted SPM to SPD leading to the expression of AZ1. This study shows that intracellular SPD levels controls AZ1 synthesis. PMID:24824458

  13. Enhanced polyamine accumulation alters carotenoid metabolism at the transcriptional level in tomato fruit over-expressing spermidine synthase.

    PubMed

    Neily, Mohamed Hichem; Matsukura, Chiaki; Maucourt, Mickaël; Bernillon, Stéphane; Deborde, Catherine; Moing, Annick; Yin, Yong-Gen; Saito, Takeshi; Mori, Kentaro; Asamizu, Erika; Rolin, Dominique; Moriguchi, Takaya; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-02-15

    Polyamines are involved in crucial plant physiological events, but their roles in fruit development remain unclear. We generated transgenic tomato plants that show a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in polyamine content by over-expressing the spermidine synthase gene, which encodes a key enzyme for polyamine biosynthesis. Pericarp-columella and placental tissue from transgenic tomato fruits were subjected to (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for untargeted metabolic profiling and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection for carotenoid profiling to determine the effects of high levels of polyamine accumulation on tomato fruit metabolism. A principal component analysis of the quantitative (1)H NMR data from immature green to red ripe fruit showed a clear discrimination between developmental stages, especially during ripening. Quantification of 37 metabolites in pericarp-columella and 41 metabolites in placenta tissues revealed distinct metabolic profiles between the wild type and transgenic lines, particularly at the late ripening stages. Notably, the transgenic tomato fruits also showed an increase in carotenoid accumulation, especially in lycopene (1.3- to 2.2-fold), and increased ethylene production (1.2- to 1.6-fold) compared to wild-type fruits. Genes responsible for lycopene biosynthesis, including phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, and deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, were significantly up-regulated in ripe transgenic fruits, whereas genes involved in lycopene degradation, including lycopene-epsilon cyclase and lycopene beta cyclase, were down-regulated in the transgenic fruits compared to the wild type. These results suggest that a high level of accumulation of polyamines in the tomato regulates the steady-state level of transcription of genes responsible for the lycopene metabolic pathway, which results in a higher accumulation of lycopene in the fruit.

  14. Different polyamine pathways from bacteria have replaced eukaryotic spermidine biosynthesis in ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetaurelia.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Kim, Sok Ho; Zhang, Yang; Hanfrey, Colin C; Elliott, Katherine A; Ealick, Steven E; Michael, Anthony J

    2015-09-01

    The polyamine spermidine is absolutely required for growth and cell proliferation in eukaryotes, due to its role in post-translational modification of essential translation elongation factor eIF5A, mediated by deoxyhypusine synthase. We have found that free-living ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium lost the eukaryotic genes encoding spermidine biosynthesis: S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) and spermidine synthase (SpdSyn). In Tetrahymena, they were replaced by a gene encoding a fusion protein of bacterial AdoMetDC and SpdSyn, present as three copies. In Paramecium, a bacterial homospermidine synthase replaced the eukaryotic genes. Individual AdoMetDC-SpdSyn fusion protein paralogues from Tetrahymena exhibit undetectable AdoMetDC activity; however, when two paralogous fusion proteins are mixed, AdoMetDC activity is restored and spermidine is synthesized. Structural modelling indicates a functional active site is reconstituted by sharing critical residues from two defective protomers across the heteromer interface. Paramecium was found to accumulate homospermidine, suggesting it replaces spermidine for growth. To test this concept, a budding yeast spermidine auxotrophic strain was found to grow almost normally with homospermidine instead of spermidine. Biosynthesis of spermidine analogue aminopropylcadaverine, but not exogenously provided norspermidine, correlated with some growth. Finally, we found that diverse single-celled eukaryotic parasites and multicellular metazoan Schistosoma worms have lost the spermidine biosynthetic pathway but retain deoxyhypusine synthase. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Characterization of spermidine synthase and spermine synthase--The polyamine-synthetic enzymes that induce early flowering in Gentiana triflora.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Tomohiro; Fujita, Kohei; Tasaki, Keisuke; Higuchi, Atsumi; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2015-08-07

    Polyamines are essential for several living processes in plants. However, regulatory mechanisms of polyamines in herbaceous perennial are almost unknown. Here, we identified homologs of two Arabidopsis polyamine-synthetic enzymes, spermidine synthase (SPDS) and spermine synthase (SPMS) denoted as GtSPDS and GtSPMS, from the gentian plant, Gentiana triflora. Our results showed that recombinant proteins of GtSPDS and GtSPMS possessed SPDS and SPMS activities, respectively. The expression levels of GtSPDS and GtSPMS increased transiently during vegetative to reproductive growth phase and overexpression of the genes hastened flowering, suggesting that these genes are involved in flowering induction in gentian plants.

  16. Over-expression of the apple spermidine synthase gene in pear confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance by altering polyamine titers.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Peng; Pang, Xiao-Ming; Matsuda, Narumi; Kita, Masayuki; Inoue, Hiromichi; Hao, Yu-Jin; Honda, Chikako; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2008-04-01

    An apple spermidine synthase (SPDS) gene (MdSPDS1) was verified to encode a functional protein by the complementation of the spe3 yeast mutant, which lacks the SPDS gene. To justify our hypothesis that apple SPDS is involved in abiotic stress responses and to obtain transgenic fruit trees tolerant to abiotic stresses as well, MdSPDS1-over-expressing transgenic European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Ballad') plants were created by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 21 transgenic lines showing various spermidine (Spd) titers and MdSPDS1 expression levels were obtained. Selected lines were exposed to salt (150 mM NaCl), osmosis (300 mM mannitol), and heavy metal (500 microM CuSO4) stresses for evaluating their stress tolerances. Transgenic line no. 32, which was revealed to have the highest Spd accumulation and expression level of MdSPDS1, showed the strongest tolerance to these stresses. When growth increments, electrolyte leakage (EL), and values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were monitored, line no. 32 showed the lowest growth inhibition and the least increase in EL or TBARS under stress conditions. Spd titers in wild-type and transgenic lines showed diverse changes upon stresses, and these changes were not consistent with the changes in MdSPDS1 expressions. Moreover, there were no differences in the sodium concentration in the shoots between the wild type and line no. 32, whereas the copper concentration was higher in the wild type than in line no. 32. Although the mechanism(s) underlying the involvement of polyamines in stress responses is not known, these results suggest that the over-expression of the SPDS gene substantially increased the tolerance to multiple stresses by altering the polyamine titers in pear. Thus, MdSPDS1-over-expressing transgenic pear plants could be used to improve desert land and/or to repair polluted environments.

  17. Polyamine regulation of heat-shock-induced spermidine N1-acetyltransferase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, D J; Carper, S W; Clay, L; Chen, J R; Gerner, E W

    1990-01-01

    The enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (N1-SAT) is rapidly induced by heat shock in CHO and A549 cells, with activity declining by 24 h. Depletion of intracellular polyamines by alpha-difluoromethylornithine, an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, blocks this induction. Re-addition of putrescine to these cultures restores the response to heat shock, with a concomitant increase in intracellular N1-acetylspermidine. Diaminopropane is more than twice as effective as the naturally occurring diamine putrescine, suggesting that the propylamine moiety of spermidine is involved in the regulation of N1-SAT induction. Inhibitor studies indicate transcriptional activation and that the enzyme has an apparent half-life of 30-60 min. A second heat shock rapidly inhibits induced N1-SAT activity, which decays with a half-life of 2-3 min. Despite its induction by heat, N1-SAT is not a stable enzyme, suggesting that the activity observed is not due to a modification of an existing peptide, but is due to a transcriptional event, which may justify the inclusion of this enzyme in the family of heat-shock proteins. Images Fig. 2. PMID:2111132

  18. The natural polyamines spermidine and spermine prevent bone loss through preferential disruption of osteoclastic activation in ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tomomi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Iezaki, Takashi; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Takamori, Misa; Yoneda, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although naturally occurring polyamines are indispensable for a variety of cellular events in eukaryotic cells, little attention has been paid to their physiological and pathological significance in bone remodelling to date. In this study, we evaluated the pharmacological properties of several natural polyamines on the functionality and integrity of bone in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mice were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) and subsequent oral supplementation with either spermidine or spermine for determination of the bone volume together with different parameters regarding bone formation and resorption by histomorphometric analyses in vivo. Pre-osteoclasts were cultured with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), with or without spermidine and spermine to determine cellular maturation by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and cellular viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide reduction in vitro. KEY RESULTS Spermidine or spermine, given in drinking water for 28 days, significantly prevented the increased osteoclast surface/bone surface ratio and the reduced bone volume following OVX in mice. Either spermidine or spermine significantly inhibited the increased number of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells in osteoclasts cultured with RANKL in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting cell survival. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The natural polyamines spermidine and spermine prevented OVX-induced bone loss through the disruption of differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts, rather than affecting osteoblasts. The supplementation with these natural polyamines could be beneficial for the prophylaxis as well as therapy of metabolic bone diseases such as post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:22250848

  19. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. I. Identification of metabolites of putrescine and spermidine. [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J. )

    1990-11-01

    The metabolism of (1,4-{sup 14}C)putrescine and (terminal methylene-{sup 3}H)spermidine was studied in the fruit pericarp (breaker stage) discs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv Rutgers, and the metabolites identified by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolism of both putrescine and spermidine was relatively slow; in 24 hours about 15% of each amine was metabolized. The {sup 14}C label from putrescine was incorporated into spermidine, {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid, and a polar fraction eluting with sugars and organic acids. In the presence of gabaculine, a specific inhibitor of GABA:pyruvate transminase, the label going into glutamic acid, sugars and organic acids decreased by 80% while that in GABA increased about twofold, indicating that the transamination reaction is probably a major fate of GABA produced from putrescine in vivo. ({sup 3}H)Spermidine was catabolized into putrescine and {beta}-alanine. The conversion of putrescine into GABA, and that of spermidine into putrescine, suggests the presence of polyamine oxidizing enzymes in tomato pericarp tissues. The possible pathways of putrescine and spermidine metabolism are discussed.

  20. Effects of spermine and spermidine on the inorganic pyrophosphatase of Streptococcus faecalis. Interactions between polyamines and inorganic pyrophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, R; Hannukainen, R; Lönnberg, H

    1989-01-01

    We have shown a dual role for Mg2+ in the hydrolysis of PPi catalysed by inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase; EC 3.6.1.1) of Streptococcus faecalis; Mg2+ is necessary for the formation of the substrates, Mg1PPi2- and Mg2PPi0, and it also acts as an allosteric activator [Lahti + Jokinen (1985) Biochemistry 24, 3526-3530]. No activity can be observed with S. faecalis PPase in the absence of bivalent cations, which indicates that free PPi cannot serve as a substrate for this enzyme. However, significant activities were observed in the presence of spermine and spermidine, even though no bivalent cations were present. It was shown by particle-induced gamma-ray emission and particle-induced X-ray-emission analysis that the polyamines used were not contaminated with Mg2+ or any other bivalent cations that could support PPase activity. Hence it is obvious that polyamines are able to form a complex with PPi that serves as a substrate for PPase. The apparent stability constants for the 1:1 adducts of spermine and spermidine were estimated by a resin competition method. The values obtained at pH 7.5 were 2.7 X 10(3) M-1 and 6.4 X 10(2) M-1 respectively. Kinetic results further suggested that polyamines can also substitute for Mg2+ as an activator in vitro. The physiological significance of these polyamine effects were discussed. PMID:2541687

  1. Regulation by the exogenous polyamine spermidine of Na,K-ATPase activity from the gills of the euryhaline swimming crab Callinectes danae (Brachyura, Portunidae).

    PubMed

    Silva, E C C; Masui, D C; Furriel, R P M; Mantelatto, F L M; McNamara, J C; Barrabin, H; Leone, F A; Scofano, H M; Fontes, C F L

    2008-04-01

    Euryhaline crustaceans rarely hyporegulates and employ the driving force of the Na,K-ATPase, located at the basal surface of the gill epithelium, to maintain their hemolymph osmolality within a range compatible with cell function during hyper-regulation. Since polyamine levels increase during the adaptation of crustaceans to hyperosmotic media, we investigate the effect of exogenous polyamines on Na,K-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of Callinectes danae, a euryhaline swimming crab. Polyamine inhibition was dependent on cation concentration, charge and size in the following order: spermine>spermidine>putrescine. Spermidine affected K(0.5) values for Na(+) with minor alterations in K(0.5) values for K(+) and NH(4)(+), causing a decrease in maximal velocities under saturating Na(+), K(+) and NH(4)(+) concentrations. Phosphorylation measurements in the presence of 20 microM ATP revealed that the Na,K-ATPase possesses a high affinity site for this substrate. In the presence of 10 mM Na(+), both spermidine and spermine inhibited formation of the phosphoenzyme; however, in the presence of 100 mM Na(+), the addition of these polyamines allowed accumulation of the phosphoenzyme. The polyamines inhibited pumping activity, both by competing with Na(+) at the Na(+)-binding site, and by inhibiting enzyme dephosphorylation. These findings suggest that polyamine-induced inhibition of Na,K-ATPase activity may be physiologically relevant during migration to fully marine environments.

  2. Polyamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Laurence J.

    The polyamines spermidine [NH2(CH2)3NH(CH2)4NH2] and spermine [NH2(CH2)3NH(CH2)4NH(CH2)3NH2] and their diamine precursor, putrescine [NH2(CH2)4NH2], have been the subject of intense study relative to their potential as tumor markers during the past decade (1). These compounds have been implicated in numerous biochemical reactions and have been clearly associated with cellular growth processes. A number of publications have reviewed our present knowledge regarding these compounds, including their relationship to human disease (2-6).

  3. Role of the FAD-dependent polyamine oxidase in the selective formation of N(1),N(8)-bis(gamma-glutamyl)spermidine protein cross-links(1).

    PubMed

    Lentini, A; Mattioli, P; Provenzano, B; Abbruzzese, A; Caraglia, M; Beninati, S

    2007-04-01

    Protein-bound gamma-glutamylpolyamines have highlighted a new pathway in polyamine metabolism. Human foreskin keratinocytes offer a suitable model for this study. Indeed, they develop polymerized envelopes, as they differentiate, rich in epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine and N(1),N(8)-bis(gamma-glutamyl)spermidine cross-links. We have found that the selective oxidation of N(1)-(gamma-glutamyl)spermidine and N-(gamma-glutamyl)spermine by FAD-dependent polyamine oxidase (PAO) may be one of the cellular mechanisms regulating the preferential formation of a sterically defined bis(gamma-glutamyl)spermidine cross-link. The significance of this finding is unknown, but it suggests that the target of this PAO-modulation is to achieve the biochemical prerequisite for production of a normal epidermal stratum corneum.

  4. Effect of exogenous spermidine on polyamine content and metabolism in tomato exposed to salinity-alkalinity mixed stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yi; Shi, Yu; Zhang, Zhi; Zou, Zhirong; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Jiuzhou

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the effects of seeds pretreatment with exogenous spermidine (Spd) on the polyamine content and metabolism in the roots of two cultivars of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Jinpengchaoguan and Zhongza No. 9 grown under conditions of mixed salinity-alkalinity stress. These cultivars differ in their tolerance to salinity stress, with the former more tolerant than the latter. PA content, whether in its free forms, soluble conjugated forms, or insoluble bound forms, increased significantly during salinity-alkalinity stress. The activities of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and diamine oxidase (DAO), concentrations of free Spd, soluble conjugated forms of Spd and spermine (Spm), and insoluble bound form of Spd in the roots were enhanced to a greater extent in cv. Jinpengchaoguan roots than in cv. Zhongza No.9 in response to salinity-alkalinity stress. Interestingly, Spd application to seeds markedly suppressed the accumulation of free Put, but promoted an increase in free Spd and Spm concentrations, as well as soluble conjugated forms of Spd and insoluble bound forms of Put in both cultivars. From these data, we deduced that exogenous Spd promotes the conversion of free Put into free Spd and Spm, and soluble conjugated forms and insoluble bound forms of PAs under salinity-alkalinity stress. Furthermore, under salinity-alkalinity stress conditions, exogenous Spd enhanced the activities of ODC, SAMDC and DAO, and reduced the activities of ADC and polyamine oxidase (PAO) in cv. Zhongza No.9 roots. In addition, exogenous Spd reduced the activities of ADC and ODC, and increased the activities of DAO and SAMDC in cv. Jinpengchaoguan roots under salinity-alkalinity stress conditions. These results suggest that exogenous Spd treatment can regulate the metabolic status of polyamines caused by salinity-alkalinity stress, and eventually enhance tolerance of tomato plants to salinity-alkalinity stress. Additionally, Spd treatments have varying effects on

  5. Polyamine synthesis in mammalian tissues. Isolation and characterization of spermidine synthase from bovine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Raina, A; Hyvönen, T; Eloranta, T; Voutilainen, M; Samejima, K; Yamanoha, B

    1984-01-01

    Spermidine synthase (EC 2.5.1.16) was purified to apparent homogeneity (about 11 000-fold) from bovine brain by affinity chromatography, with S-adenosyl-(5')-3-thiopropylamine linked to Sepharose as the adsorbent. The enzyme preparation was free from S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50) and spermine synthase (EC 2.5.1.22) activities. The native enzyme had an apparent Mr of 70 000, was composed of two subunits of equal size, and had an isoelectric point at pH 5.22. The apparent Km values for putrescine and decarboxylated adenosylmethionine [S-adenosyl-(5')-3-methylthiopropylamine] were 40 microM and 0.3 microM respectively. Cadaverine and 1,6-diaminohexane could replace putrescine as the aminopropyl acceptor, although the reaction rates were only 6% and 1% respectively of that obtained with putrescine. Ethyl, propyl and carboxymethyl analogues of decarboxy-S-adenosylmethionine could act as propylamine donors. Both the reaction products, spermidine and 5'-methylthioadenosine, were mixed-type inhibitors of the enzyme. On the basis of initial-velocity and product-inhibition studies, a ping-pong reaction mechanism for the spermidine synthase reaction was ruled out. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6743257

  6. The Effect of Exogenous Spermidine Concentration on Polyamine Metabolism and Salt Tolerance in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud) Subjected to Short-Term Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shucheng; Jin, Han; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress, particularly short-term salt stress, is among the most serious abiotic factors limiting plant survival and growth in China. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd) stimulates plant tolerance to salt stress. The present study utilized two zoysiagrass cultivars commonly grown in China that exhibit either sensitive (cv. Z081) or tolerant (cv. Z057) adaptation capacity to salt stress. The two cultivars were subjected to 200 mM salt stress and treated with different exogenous Spd concentrations for 8 days. Polyamine [diamine putrescine (Put), tetraamine spermine (Spm), and Spd], H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and polyamine metabolic (ADC, ODC, SAMDC, PAO, and DAO) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) enzyme activities were measured. The results showed that salt stress induced increases in Spd and Spm contents and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), and diamine oxidase (DAO) activities in both cultivars. Exogenous Spd application did not alter polyamine contents via regulation of polyamine-degrading enzymes, and an increase in polyamine biosynthetic enzyme levels was observed during the experiment. Increasing the concentration of exogenous Spd resulted in a tendency of the Spd and Spm contents and ODC, SAMDC, DAO, and antioxidant enzyme activities to first increase and then decrease in both cultivars. H2O2 and MDA levels significantly decreased in both cultivars treated with Spd. Additionally, in both cultivars, positive correlations between polyamine biosynthetic enzymes (ADC, SAMDC), DAO, and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT), but negative correlations with H2O2 and MDA levels, and the Spd + Spm content were observed with an increase in the concentration of exogenous Spd. PMID:27582752

  7. Polyamines in tea processing.

    PubMed

    Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Arisan, Elif Damla; Terzioglu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    The distribution of dietary polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was determined during processing of Camellia sinensis. Black tea manufacture is carried by a series of processes on fresh tea leaves involving withering, rolling, fermentation, drying and sieving. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea processing on the polyamine content in relation with antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. Before processing, the spermine content was much higher than the putrescine and spermidine content in green tea leaves. Spermine was significantly decreased during processing while the putrescine and spermine contents increased during withered and rolling and decreased in the following stages. The superoxide dismutase activity increased at the withering stage and declined during processing. The transcript level of the polyamine biosynthesis-responsible enzyme ornithine decarboxylase was reduced during each processing step. This study reveals the importance of protection of nutritional compounds that are essential for health during the manufacturing process.

  8. Polyamine spermidine is an upstream negator of ethylene-regulated pathogenesis of botrytis cinerea in tomato leaf

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyamines are biogenic polycationic compounds implicated in a number of processes including plant cell division, cell elongation, flowering, fruit set and development, fruit ripening, senescence and responses to abiotic stresses. Comparatively, little is known about their role in plant-microbe int...

  9. Polyamine homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Persson, Lo

    2009-11-04

    The polyamines are essential for a variety of functions in the mammalian cell. Although their specific effects have not been fully elucidated, it is clear that the cellular polyamines have to be kept within certain levels for normal cell function. Polyamine homoeostasis in mammalian cells is achieved by a complex network of regulatory mechanisms affecting synthesis and degradation, as well as membrane transport of polyamines. The two key enzymes in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) and AdoMetDC (S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase), are strongly regulated by feedback mechanisms at several levels, including transcriptional, translational and post-translational. Some of these mechanisms have been shown to be truly unique and include upstream reading frames and ribosomal frameshifting, as well as ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation. SSAT (spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase), which is a crucial enzyme for degradation and efflux of polyamines, is also highly regulated by polyamines. A cellular excess of polyamines rapidly induces SSAT, resulting in increased degradation/efflux of the polyamines. The polyamines appear to induce both transcription and translation of the SSAT mRNA. However, the major part of the polyamine-induced increase in SSAT is caused by a marked stabilization of the enzyme against degradation by the 26S proteasome. In addition, active transport of extracellular polyamines into the cell contributes to cellular polyamine homoeostasis. Depletion of cellular polyamines rapidly induces an increased uptake of exogenous polyamines, whereas an excess of polyamines down-regulates the polyamine transporter(s). However, the protein(s) involved in polyamine transport and the exact mechanisms by which the polyamines regulate the transporter(s) are not yet known.

  10. Polyamines attenuate ethylene-mediated defense responses to abrogate resistance to Botrytis cinerea in tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines over-expressing yeast spermidine synthase (ySpdSyn), an enzyme involved in polyamine (PA) biosynthesis, were developed. These transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of spermidine (Spd) than the wild type plants and were examined for responses to the...

  11. Polyamines in foods: development of a food database

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Strömberg, Roger; Yngve, Agneta

    2011-01-01

    Background Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods is of interest due to the association of these bioactive nutrients to health and diseases. There is a lack of relevant information on their contents in foods. Objective To develop a food polyamine database from published data by which polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake can be estimated, and to determine the levels of polyamines in Swedish dairy products. Design Extensive literature search and laboratory analysis of selected Swedish dairy products. Polyamine contents in foods were collected using an extensive literature search of databases. Polyamines in different types of Swedish dairy products (milk with different fat percentages, yogurt, cheeses, and sour milk) were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector. Results Fruits and cheese were the highest sources of putrescine, while vegetables and meat products were found to be rich in spermidine and spermine, respectively. The content of polyamines in cheese varied considerably between studies. In analyzed Swedish dairy products, matured cheese had the highest total polyamine contents with values of 52.3, 1.2, and 2.6 mg/kg for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively. Low fat milk had higher putrescine and spermidine, 1.2 and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively, than the other types of milk. Conclusions The database aids other researchers in their quest for information regarding polyamine intake from foods. Connecting the polyamine contents in food with the Swedish Food Database allows for estimation of polyamine contents per portion. PMID:21249159

  12. Polyamine Metabolism Changes in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Broshtilova, Valentina; Lozanov, Valentina; Miteva, Ljubka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Polyamines – putrescine, spermidine and spermine are polycationic compounds ubiquitous for all living organisms. They are essential for the cell growth and differentiation, the control of cell cycle progress, apoptosis, and cancerogenesis. Accumulated scientific evidence suggests the central role of polyamines in the process of keratinocytic proliferation, differentiation, and regulation. Objective: To elucidate the polyamine metabolic changes that occur in benign keratinocytic proliferation. Fifty eight patients were enrolled in the study, 31 with plaque-form of psoriasis vulgaris, which had been referred to as a model of benign keratinocytic proliferation, and 27-healthy controls. Materials and Methods: An original, innovative chromatographic method was used to detect the levels of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in all skin samples. Results: Were significantly proven (P < 0.05). No difference was found between the polyamines levels of non-lesional psoriatic skin and healthy controls. Psoriatic lesions showed a two-time higher concentration of all polyamines in lesional, compared to non-lesional skin. Spermine had the highest concentration and highest proliferation trend, which demonstrated the importance of propylamine synthesis in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Spermine highest concentrations suggested the leading role of adenosine methionine decarboxylase (AMDC) in the pathogenesis of benign keratinocytic proliferations. Conclusions: Non-lesional skin in psoriatic patients did not show latent changes in polyamine metabolism. Psoriatic lesions demontrated two-time higher levels of the most essential biogenic polyamines compared to healthy controls. The highest level of spermine proved the crucial role of AMDC in the polyamine metabolism changes in psoriasis. Future therapeutic approaches should be focused on reduction of exogenic spermine intake, utilizing new spermine blockers, and synthesis of AMDC inhibitors. PMID:23919004

  13. Molecular phylogenomic study and the role of exogenous spermidine in the metabolic adjustment of endogenous polyamine in two rice cultivars under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Saha, Jayita; Giri, Kalyan

    2017-04-20

    Compelling evidences anticipated the well acclamation of involvement of exogenous and endogenous polyamines (PAs) in conferring salt tolerance in plants. Intracellular PA's anabolism and catabolism should have contributed to maintain endogenous PAs homeostasis to induce stress signal networks. In this report, the evolutionary study has been conducted to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of genes encoding enzymes of the anabolic and catabolic pathway of PAs among the five plant lineages including green algae, moss, lycophyte, dicot and monocot along with their respective exon-intron structural patterns. Our results indicated that natural selection pressure had considerable influence on the ancestral PA metabolic pathway coding genes of land plants. PA metabolic genes have undergone gradual evolution by duplication and diversification process leading to subsequent structural modification through exon-intron gain and loss events to acquire specific function under environmental stress conditions. We have illuminated on the potential regulation of both the pathways by investigating the real-time expression analyses of PA metabolic pathway related enzyme coding genes at the transcriptional level in root and shoot tissues of two indica rice varieties, namely IR 36 (salt sensitive) and Nonabokra (salt-tolerant) in response to salinity in presence or absence of exogenous spermidine (Spd) treatment. Additionally, we have performed tissue specific quantification of the intracellular PAs and tried to draw probable connection between the PA metabolic pathway activation and endogenous PAs accumulation. Our results successfully enlighten the fact that how exogenous Spd in presence or absence of salt stress adjust the intracellular PA pathways to equilibrate the cellular PAs that would have been attributed to plant salt tolerance.

  14. Incorporation of radiolabeled polyamines and methionine into turnip yellow mosaic virus in protoplasts from infected plants

    SciTech Connect

    Balint, R.; Cohen, S.S.

    1985-07-15

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus contains large amounts of nonexchangeable spermidine and induces an accumulation of spermidine in infected Chinese cabbage. By 7 days after inoculation, a majority of protoplasts isolated from newly emerging leaves stain with fluorescent antibody to the virus. (/sup 14/C)Spermidine (10 microM) was taken up by these cells in amounts comparable to the original endogenous pool within 24 hr. However, after an initial rise, the spermidine content of the cell returned to its original level, implying considerable regulation of the endogenous pool(s). Putrescine and spermine were major products of the metabolism of exogenous spermidine. Radioactivity from exogenous (/sup 14/C)spermidine was also readily incorporated into the ribonucleoprotein component(s) of the virus, where it appeared as both spermidine and spermine. The specific radioactivities of the viral polyamines were approximately twice those of spermidine and spermine extracted from the whole cell. Radioactivity from (2-/sup 14/C)methionine was readily incorporated into the protein, spermidine, and spermine of the virus. Again, the specific activities of these amines were substantially higher in the virus than in the whole cell. Thus, newly formed virus contained predominantly newly synthesized spermidine and spermine. However, inhibition of spermidine synthesis by dicyclohexylamine led to incorporation of preexisting spermidine and increased amounts of spermine into newly formed virus.

  15. Polyamine metabolism in a member of the phylum Microspora (Encephalitozoon cuniculi): effects of polyamine analogues

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Cyrus J.; Rattendi, Donna; Faciane, Evangeline; Yarlett, Nigel; Weiss, Louis M.; Frydman, Benjamin; Woster, Patrick; Wei, Benjamin; Marton, Laurence J.; Wittner, Murray

    2011-01-01

    The uptake, biosynthesis and catabolism of polyamines in the microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi are detailed with reference to the effects of oligoamine and arylamine analogues of polyamines. Enc. cuniculi, an intracellular parasite of mammalian cells, has both biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes of polyamine metabolism, as demonstrated in cell-free extracts of mature spores. The uptake of polyamines was measured in immature, pre-emergent spores isolated from host cells by Percoll gradient. Spermine was rapidly taken up and metabolized to spermidine and an unknown, possibly acetamidopropanal, by spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and polyamine oxidase (PAO). Most of the spermidine and the unknown product were found in the cell incubation medium, indicating they were released from the cell. bis(Ethyl) oligoamine analogues of polyamines, such as SL-11144 and SL-11158, as well as arylamine analogues [BW-1, a bis(phenylbenzyl) 3-7-3 analogue] blocked uptake and interconversion of spermine at micromolar levels and, in the case of BW-1, acted as substrate for PAO. The Enc. cuniculi PAO activity differed from that found in mammalian cells with respect to pH optimum, substrate specificity and sensitivity to known PAO inhibitors. SL-11158 inhibited SSAT activity with a mixed type of inhibition in which the analogue had a 70-fold higher affinity for the enzyme than the natural substrate, spermine. The interest in Enc. cuniculi polyamine metabolism and the biochemical effects of these polyamine analogues is warranted since they cure model infections of Enc. cuniculi in mice and are potential candidates for human clinical trials. PMID:15133083

  16. Soft TCPTP Agonism—Novel Target to Rescue Airway Epithelial Integrity by Exogenous Spermidine

    PubMed Central

    Ghisalberti, Carlo A.; Borzì, Rosa M.; Cetrullo, Silvia; Flamigni, Flavio; Cairo, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    A reparative approach of disrupted epithelium in obstructive airway diseases, namely asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), may afford protection and long-lasting results compared to conventional therapies, e.g., corticosteroids or immunosuppressant drugs. Here, we propose the polyamine spermidine as a novel therapeutic agent in airways diseases, based on a recently identified mode of action: T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP) agonism. It may include and surpass single-inhibitors of stress and secondary growth factor pathway signaling, i.e., the new medicinal chemistry in lung diseases. Enhanced polyamine biosynthesis has been charged with aggravating prognosis by competing for L-arginine at detriment of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis with bronchoconstrictive effects. Although excess spermine, a higher polyamine, is harmful to airways physiology, spermidine can pivot the cell homeostasis during stress conditions by the activation of TCPTP. In fact, the dephosphorylating activity of TCPTP inhibits the signaling cascade that leads to the expression of genes involved in detachment and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and increases the expression of adhesion and tight junction proteins, thereby enhancing the barrier functionality in inflammation-prone tissues. Moreover, a further beneficial effect of spermidine may derive from its ability to promote autophagy, possibly in a TCPTP-dependent way. Since doses of spermidine in the micromolar range are sufficient to activate TCPTP, low amounts of spermidine administered in sustained release modality may provide an optimal pharmacologic profile for the treatment of obstructive airway diseases. PMID:27375482

  17. Spermidine Uptake by Mitochondria of Helianthus tuberosus.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, R; Antognoni, F; Bagni, N; Zannoni, D

    1990-03-01

    In the present work evidence is provided that spermidine, a polyamine largely present in plant tissues, may be transported, at physiological concentrations, into the matrix space of mitochondria isolated from tubers of Helianthus tuberosus L. cv OB1 (Jerusalem artichoke). It is concluded that the movement of spermidine strictly depends on membrane potential, since it is drastically blocked by valinomycin and only slightly sensitive to nigericin. Mg(2+) and K(+) inhibit the transport of spermidine in line with the general concept that these cations compete for the same binding sites on the mitochondrial membrane. In contrast to previous data on mammalian mitochondria, spermidine uptake by plant mitochondria does not depend on the presence of inorganic phosphate. This latter result, along with evidence that Ca(2+) does not affect accumulation of spermidine, indicates that the control of the polyamine uptake mechanism in plant mitochondria is distinct from that of mammalian systems.

  18. Polyamine-rich food decreases age-associated pathology and mortality in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Soda, Kuniyasu; Dobashi, Yoh; Kano, Yoshihiko; Tsujinaka, Shingo; Konishi, Fumio

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether oral intake of foods rich in polyamines (spermine and spermidine) suppresses age-associated pathology in aged mice. Synthetic polyamines were mixed into experimental chows, and 24-week-old Jc1:ICR male mice were fed one of three chows containing differing polyamine concentrations. The spermine and spermidine concentrations in the low, normal, and high polyamine chows were 143 and 224 nmol/g, 160 and 434 nmol/g, and 374 and 1540 nmol/g, respectively. An increase in concentration of polyamine in the blood was found only in mice fed the high polyamine chow at 50 weeks of age. While the body weights of mice in all three groups were similar, the survival rate of mice fed high polyamine chow was significantly higher than those in the other two groups (p=0.011). Mice fed the high polyamine chow analyzed at 88 weeks of age, corresponding to the end of the study, demonstrated lower incidence of glomerulosclerosis and increased expression of senescence marker protein-30 in both kidney and liver compared to those fed the low polyamine chow. As these pathological changes are associated with senescence, oral polyamine appears to inhibit the progression of age-associated pathologies.

  19. Polyamine and intestinal properties in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Deloyer, P; Dandrifosse, G; Bartholomeus, C; Romain, N; Klimek, M; Salmon, J; Gérard, P; Goessens, G

    1996-10-01

    We questioned whether polyamines coming from the diet or produced by intestinal microflora or by intracellular metabolism influence intestinal functions. Therefore, we compared pathogen-free rats and germ-free rats receiving a diet with low polyamine content and either treated or not treated with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and/or methylglyoxal bis (guanylhydrazone) (MGBG). Wet weight, protein content, DNA content, sucrase (EC 3.2.1.48), maltase (EC 3.2.1.20) and lactase (EC 3.2.1.23) specific activities, amounts of putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured in the mucosa of the proximal and distal intestine. Body weight was also determined. Rats without microflora had a higher specific activity of maltase and higher amounts of spermidine and spermine but lower lactase specific activity than pathogen-free animals; the low-polyamine diet given to germ-free rats had little effect on the functional variables measured (decrease of maltase and lactase specific activities) and did not modify the amounts of polyamines. DFMO and/or MGBG administered to germ-free rats receiving a low-polyamine diet induced modifications of most of the variables studied. Body weight and wet weight of proximal and distal intestine decreased, disaccharidase specific activities decreased, and amounts of polyamines changed according to the inhibitor used. Thus, our results showed that the deprivation of polyamine supply from microflora or from the diet failed, under our experimental conditions, to affect the intestinal properties analysed but exogenous and endogenous polyamine restriction altered general properties of the organism as well as intestinal functions.

  20. HIGHER POLYAMINES RESTORE AND INVIGORATE METABOLIC MEMORY IN RIPENING FRUIT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous, biogenic amines that have been implicated in diverse cellular functions in most living organisms. Ever since spermine (Spm) phosphate crystals were isolated over three centuries ago, scientists have kept busy in unraveling the mystery behind biological roles of Spm a...

  1. Arcaine uncovers dual interactions of polyamines with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, I.J. )

    1990-12-01

    This study investigated the interaction between the polyamines spermine and spermidine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by using (+)-(3H)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclohepten-5,10-im ine maleate ((3H)MK801) binding to well washed rat brain membranes. The actions of arcaine, agmatine, diethylenetriamine and 1,8-octanediamine as polyamine antagonists were compared to use as tools in this study. Arcaine was found to be the antagonist of choice due to its greater potency. Several divalent cations, including Ba++, Ca++ and Sr++, but not Zn++, decreased the apparent potency of arcaine. These cations enhance (3H)MK801 binding in a similar fashion to spermidine and spermine suggesting that they may share a common site and mechanism of action. Moreover, arcaine competitively reduced the enhancement of (3H)MK801 binding produced by Sr++ did not alter the inhibition produced by higher concentrations of this cation, a phenomenon that also occurs with spermidine. The distinct arcaine sensitivity of the two separate phases of the concentration-response curves of both spermidine and Sr++ suggests two separate mechanisms underlying the action of spermidine-like drugs on the NMDA receptor. Further investigation of the increase in (3H)MK801 binding produced by spermidine revealed that spermidine increased the equilibrium affinity of this ligand by 2-fold without significantly altering the density of binding sites. In contrast, polyamine induced increases in the dissociation of (3H)MK801 required higher polyamine concentrations than necessary to increase ligand binding and were relatively insensitive to arcaine. These findings suggest that polyamines do not activate or promote the activation of the NMDA receptor, but instead enhance (3H)MK801 binding by allosterically increasing ligand affinity.

  2. Dependence of swarming in Escherichia coli K-12 on spermidine and the spermidine importer.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Shin; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Tsuboi, Yuichi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2009-05-01

    In a previous work, it was observed that the swarming of polyamine-deficient Proteus mirabilis (speB::sm) was severely inhibited on Luria-Bertani (LB) swarming plates (LBSw) (LB, 0.5% glucose, 0.5% agar), and it was clarified that extracellular putrescine was important as a signaling molecule for the induction of swarming in P. mirabilis. However, a polyamine-deficient strain (delta-speAB delta-speC) of Escherichia coli swarmed as well as the parental strain on LBSw plates. We report that the swarming phenotype of a polyamine-deficient E. coli strain is dependent on spermidine and PotABCD, a spermidine importer.

  3. Induction of autophagy by spermidine promotes longevity.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Tobias; Knauer, Heide; Schauer, Alexandra; Büttner, Sabrina; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Ring, Julia; Schroeder, Sabrina; Magnes, Christoph; Antonacci, Lucia; Fussi, Heike; Deszcz, Luiza; Hartl, Regina; Schraml, Elisabeth; Criollo, Alfredo; Megalou, Evgenia; Weiskopf, Daniela; Laun, Peter; Heeren, Gino; Breitenbach, Michael; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Herker, Eva; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Fröhlich, Kai-Uwe; Sinner, Frank; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Minois, Nadege; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank

    2009-11-01

    Ageing results from complex genetically and epigenetically programmed processes that are elicited in part by noxious or stressful events that cause programmed cell death. Here, we report that administration of spermidine, a natural polyamine whose intracellular concentration declines during human ageing, markedly extended the lifespan of yeast, flies and worms, and human immune cells. In addition, spermidine administration potently inhibited oxidative stress in ageing mice. In ageing yeast, spermidine treatment triggered epigenetic deacetylation of histone H3 through inhibition of histone acetyltransferases (HAT), suppressing oxidative stress and necrosis. Conversely, depletion of endogenous polyamines led to hyperacetylation, generation of reactive oxygen species, early necrotic death and decreased lifespan. The altered acetylation status of the chromatin led to significant upregulation of various autophagy-related transcripts, triggering autophagy in yeast, flies, worms and human cells. Finally, we found that enhanced autophagy is crucial for polyamine-induced suppression of necrosis and enhanced longevity.

  4. Polyamines are essential for the synthesis of 2-ricinoleoyl phosphatidic acid in developing seeds of castor.

    PubMed

    Tomosugi, Mitsuhiro; Ichihara, Ken'ichi; Saito, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    The major fatty acid component of castor (Ricinus communis L.) oil is ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid), and unsaturated hydroxy acid accounts for >85% of the total fatty acids in triacylglycerol (TAG). TAG had a higher ricinoleate content at position 2 than at positions 1 and 3. Although lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.51), which catalyzes acylation of LPA at position 2, was expected to utilize ricinoleoyl-CoA preferentially over other fatty acyl-CoAs, no activity was found for ricinoleoyl-CoA in vitro at concentrations at which other unsaturated acyl-CoAs were incorporated rapidly. However, activity for ricinoleoyl-CoA appeared with addition of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine), while polyamines decreased the rates of incorporation of other acyl-CoAs into position 2. The order of effect of polyamines on LPA acyltransferase activity was spermine > spermidine > putrescine. At concentrations of spermine and spermidine of >0.1 mM, ricinoleoyl-CoA served as an effective substrate for LPA acyltransferase reaction. The concentrations of spermine and spermidine in the developing seeds were estimated at approximately 0.09 and approximately 0.63 mM, respectively. These stimulatory effects for incorporation of ricinoleate were specific to polyamines, but basic amino acids were ineffective as cations. In contrast, in microsomes from safflower seeds that do not contain ricinoleic acid, spermine and spermidine stimulated the LPA acyltransferase reaction for all acyl-CoAs tested, including ricinoleoyl-CoA. Although the fatty acid composition of TAG depends on both acyl-CoA composition in the cell and substrate specificity of acyltransferases, castor bean polyamines are crucial for incorporation of ricinoleate into position 2 of LPA. Polyamines are essential for synthesis of 2-ricinoleoyl phosphatidic acid in developing castor seeds.

  5. Fate of orally administered 15N-labeled polyamines in rats bearing solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Xu, Yong Ji; Samejima, Keijiro; Goda, Hitomi; Niitsu, Masaru; Takahashi, Masakazu; Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki

    2003-03-01

    We studied absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in the gastrointestinal tract using (15)N-labeled polyamines as tracers and ionspray ionization mass spectrometry (IS-MS). The relatively simple protocol using rats bearing solid tumors provided useful information. Three (15)N-labeled polyamines that were simultaneously administered were absorbed equally from gastrointestinal tract, and distributed within tissues at various concentrations. The uptake of (15)N-spermidine seemed preferential to that of (15)N-spermine since the concentrations of (15)N-spermidine in the liver and tumors were higher, whereas those of (15)N-spermine were higher in the kidney, probably due to the excretion of excess extracellular spermine. Most of the absorbed (15)N-putrescine seemed to be lost, suggesting blood and tissue diamine oxidase degradation. Concentrations of (15)N-spermidine and (15)N-spermine in the tumor were low. We also describe the findings from two rats that were administered with (15)N-spermine. The tissue concentrations of (15)N-spermine were unusually high, and significant levels of (15)N-spermidine were derived from (15)N-spermine in these animals.

  6. Polyamines of primitive apterygotan insects: springtails, silverfish and a bristletail.

    PubMed

    Hamana, Koei; Uemiya, Hideyuki; Niitsu, Masaru

    2004-01-01

    Polyamines extracted from whole bodies of four springtails, Tomocerus ishibashii, Hypogastrura communis, Sinella cruviseta and Folsomia candida, a bristletail, Pedetontus nipponicus, and two silverfish, Lepisma saccharina and Thermobia domestica, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. All seven apterous insect species contained putrescine, cadaverine and spermidine as the common major polyamines, detected at the level of micromol/g wet mass. T. ishibashii also contained spermine, S. cruviseta contained norspermidine and norspermine and H. communis, F. candida and P. nipponicus contained diaminopropane, norspermidine and norspermine, as minor polyamines above the detection limit (0.01 micromol/g wet mass). The occurrence of diaminopropane, norspermidine, norspermine, spermine and thermospermine was confirmed in L. saccharina and T. domestica. The novel polyamines norspermidine, norspermine and thermospermine, widespread in higher insects, were also distributed within the primitive apterygotan insects.

  7. Polyamines regulate phosphorylation-dephosphorylation kinetics in a crustacean gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Malson Neilson; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Fontes, Carlos Frederico Leite; McNamara, John Campbell; Leone, Francisco Assis

    2017-05-01

    Aiming to clarify the mechanism of inhibition of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity by polyamines, we examined the effects of exogenous putrescine, spermidine, and spermine on the kinetic behavior of phosphoenzyme-linked partial reactions using a microsomal gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase from juvenile and adult M. amazonicum, a freshwater palaemonid shrimp. The time course of phosphointermediate formation is greater (0.089 ± 0.006 s(-1)) in adults than in juveniles (0.053 ± 0.003 s(-1)) for spermidine, but similar to juveniles (0.059 ± 0.004 s(-1)) for putrescine. Maximum phosphointermediate formation for the (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase from juveniles decreased by 46% and 32% with spermidine and putrescine, respectively. In adults, maximum phosphointermediate levels decreased by 50% and 8%, respectively. For both spermidine and putrescine, dephosphorylation rates were higher for adults than for juveniles, and were higher than in controls without polyamines. Spermine had a negligible effect (<10%) on phosphorylation/dephosphorylation rates of both juvenile and adult enzymes. This is the first report on the effects of polyamines on phosphoenzyme-linked partial reactions in juvenile and adult M. amazonicum gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPases. Our findings suggest that the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation steps of this gill enzyme may be regulated by polyamines during ontogenetic development.

  8. Polyamines in aging and disease

    PubMed Central

    Minois, Nadège; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Madeo, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Polyamines are polycations that interact with negatively charged molecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins. They play multiple roles in cell growth, survival and proliferation. Changes in polyamine levels have been associated with aging and diseases. Their levels decline continuously with age and polyamine (spermidine or high-polyamine diet) supplementation increases life span in model organisms. Polyamines have also been involved in stress resistance. On the other hand, polyamines are increased in cancer cells and are a target for potential chemotherapeutic agents. In this review, we bring together these various results and draw a picture of the state of our knowledge on the roles of polyamines in aging, stress and diseases. PMID:21869457

  9. Involvement of polyamine biosynthesis in somatic embryogenesis of Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) induced by glycerol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Ba; Wang, Jing; Liu, Ji-Hong; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2009-01-01

    Culture of Citrus sinensis embryogenic callus on the embryo-inducing medium (EIM) containing glycerol gave rise to a large number of embryos, whereas very few embryos were observed on the callus growth medium (CGM). In the current paper, attempts were made to investigate whether polyamine biosynthesis was involved in glycerol-mediated somatic embryogenesis. Quantification of free polyamines by high-performance liquid chromatography showed that the cultures on EIM had less putrescine than those on CGM. However, increase in spermidine and spermine was detected in cultures on EIM during the first 20d of culture, coincident with abundant somatic embryogenesis. The globular embryos contained more polyamines than embryos at other stages. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay showed that expression levels of all of the five key genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis, with the exception of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, were induced in cultures on EIM, and that their transcriptional levels were increased with maturation of the embryos. Addition of alpha-difluoromethylornithine, a polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor, to EIM resulted in remarkable inhibition of somatic embryogenesis, concurrent with notable reduction of endogenous putrescine and spermidine, particularly at higher concentrations. Exogenous application of 1mM putrescine to EIM together with 5mM alpha-difluoromethylornithine led to dramatic enhancement of endogenous polyamines, which successfully restored somatic embryogenesis. All of these, collectively, demonstrated that free polyamines, at least spermidine and spermine herein, were involved in glycerol-mediated promotion of somatic embryogenesis, which will open a new avenue for establishing a sophisticated system for somatic embryogenesis based on the modulation of endogenous polyamines.

  10. Sphingomonas spermidinifaciens sp. nov., a novel bacterium containing spermidine as the major polyamine, isolated from an abandoned lead-zinc mine and emended descriptions of the genus Sphingomonas and the species Sphingomonas yantingensis and Sphingomonas japonica.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guang-Da; Yang, Song-Zhen; Xiong, Xiong; Li, Hua-Ping; Zhu, Hong-Hui

    2017-07-01

    A yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, designated 9NM-10T, was isolated from an abandoned lead-zinc mine in Meizhou, Guangdong Province, China. Cells were strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative and motile with a polar monotrichous flagellum. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain 9NM-10T belongs to the genus Sphingomonas and was most closely related to Sphingomonas yantingensis JCM 19201T and Sphingomonas japonica JCM 15438T. DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain 9NM-10T and these two type strains were 43.6±1.3 and 35.4±0.9 %, respectively. It contained Q-10 as the predominant respiratory quinone and the major cellular fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω6c and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain 9NM-10T was 68.7±0.2 mol%. The polar lipids were sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified phospholipid and three unidentified lipids. Strain 9NM-10T contained spermidine as the major polyamine. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic analyses, strain 9NM-10T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas spermidinifaciens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 9NM-10T (=GDMCC 1.657T=DSM 27571T). Descriptions of the genus of Sphingomonas and the species Sphingomonas yantingensis and Sphingomonas japonica were also emended in this study.

  11. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO)

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Strömberg, Roger; Yngve, Agneta

    2011-01-01

    Background Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO]) list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP) including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results The adolescents' mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe. PMID:21249160

  12. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO).

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Strömberg, Roger; Yngve, Agneta

    2011-01-14

    Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an 'ideal diet' (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO]) list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP) including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. The adolescents' mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an 'ideal' diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  13. Polyamine catabolism and disease

    PubMed Central

    CASERO, Robert A.; PEGG, Anthony E.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to polyamine homeostasis, it has become increasingly clear that polyamine catabolism can play a dominant role in drug response, apoptosis, response to stressful stimuli, and contribute to the etiology of several pathological states, including cancer. The highly inducible enzymes spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and spermine oxidase (SMO), and, the generally constitutively expressed N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), appear to play critical roles in many normal and disease processes. The dysregulation of polyamine catabolism frequently accompanies several disease states and suggests that such dysregulation may both provide useful insight into disease mechanism and provide unique drugable targets that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Each of these enzymes has the potential to alter polyamine homeostasis in response to multiple cell signals and the two oxidases produce the reactive oxygen species H2O2 and aldehydes, each with the potential to produce pathologies. The activity of SSAT has the potential to provide substrates for APAO or substrates for the polyamine exporter, thus reducing the intracellular polyamine concentration, the net effect of which depends on the magnitude and rate of any increase in SSAT. SSAT may also influence cellular metabolism via interaction with other proteins and by perturbing the content of acetyl CoA and ATP. The goal of this review is to cover those aspects of polyamine catabolism that have potential to impact disease etiology or treatment and to provide a solid background in this ever more exciting aspect of polyamine biology. PMID:19589128

  14. Polyamine catabolism and disease.

    PubMed

    Casero, Robert A; Pegg, Anthony E

    2009-07-15

    In addition to polyamine homoeostasis, it has become increasingly clear that polyamine catabolism can play a dominant role in drug response, apoptosis and the response to stressful stimuli, and contribute to the aetiology of several pathological states, including cancer. The highly inducible enzymes SSAT (spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase) and SMO (spermine oxidase) and the generally constitutively expressed APAO (N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase) appear to play critical roles in many normal and disease processes. The dysregulation of polyamine catabolism frequently accompanies several disease states and suggests that such dysregulation may both provide useful insight into disease mechanism and provide unique druggable targets that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Each of these enzymes has the potential to alter polyamine homoeostasis in response to multiple cell signals and the two oxidases produce the reactive oxygen species H2O2 and aldehydes, each with the potential to produce pathological states. The activity of SSAT provides substrates for APAO or substrates for the polyamine exporter, thus reducing the intracellular polyamine concentration, the net effect of which depends on the magnitude and rate of any increase in SSAT. SSAT may also influence cellular metabolism via interaction with other proteins and by perturbing the content of acetyl-CoA and ATP. The goal of the present review is to cover those aspects of polyamine catabolism that have an impact on disease aetiology or treatment and to provide a solid background in this ever more exciting aspect of polyamine biology.

  15. Effects of dietary polyamines and clofibrate on metabolism of polyamines in the rat.

    PubMed

    Brodal, B P; Eliassen, K A; Rönning, H; Osmundsen, H

    1999-12-01

    The activities of catalase, polyamine oxidase, diamine oxidase, ornithine decarboxylase, and peroxisomal beta-oxidation were assayed in homogenates from liver and small intestinal mucosa of rats which had been fed either a diet very low in polyamines or a diet containing five times the levels of dietary polyamines (putrescine, spermine, and spermidine) found in a standard rat diet. In rats fed the high polyamine diet, hepatic activities of catalase and polyamine oxidase were significantly decreased. Levels of the other activities were unchanged, except that intestinal ornithine decarboxylase was decreased. In rats treated simultaneously with clofibrate, the high polyamine diet restored activities of catalase, ornithine decarboxylase, and polyamine oxidase back to levels found in rats fed the low polyamine diet. The expected increase in activity of peroxisomal beta-oxidation was observed, although this was somewhat diminished in rats fed the high polyamine diet. Intestinal diamine oxidase activity was stimulated by clofibrate, particularly in rats fed the high polyamine diet. For the duration of the experiment (20 days), levels of putrescine, spermine, and spermidine in blood remained remarkably constant irrespective of treatment, suggesting that polyamine homeostasis is essentially independent of dietary supply of polyamines. It is suggested that intestinal absorption/metabolism of polyamines is of significance in this respect. Treatment with clofibrate appeared to alter polyamine homeostasis.

  16. Role of Spermidine in Overwintering of Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiangzhi; Li, Qiong; Yin, Chuntao; Fang, Xiantao

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polyamines are found in all groups of cyanobacteria, but their role in environmental adaptation has been barely investigated. In Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803, inactivation of spermidine synthesis genes significantly reduced the survivability under chill (5°C)-light stress, and the survivability could be restored by addition of spermidine. To analyze the effects of spermidine on gene expression at 5°C, lacZ was expressed from the promoter of carboxy(nor)spermidine decarboxylase gene (CASDC) in Synechocystis. Synechocystis 6803::PCASDC-lacZ pretreated at 15°C showed a high level of LacZ activity for a long period of time at 5°C; without the pretreatment or with protein synthesis inhibited at 5°C, the enzyme activity gradually decreased. In a spermidine-minus mutant harboring PCASDC-lacZ, lacZ showed an expression pattern as if protein synthesis were inhibited at 5°C, even though the stability of its mRNA increased. Four other genes, including rpoA that encodes the α subunit of RNA polymerase, showed similar expression patterns. The chill-light stress led to a rapid increase of protein carbonylation in Synechocystis. The protein carbonylation then quickly returned to the background level in the wild type but continued to slowly increase in the spermidine-minus mutant. Our results indicate that spermidine promotes gene expression and replacement of damaged proteins in cyanobacteria under the chill-light stress in winter. IMPORTANCE Outbreak of cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater lakes is a worldwide environmental problem. In the annual cycle of bloom-forming cyanobacteria, overwintering is the least understood stage. Survival of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 under long-term chill (5°C)-light stress has been established as a model for molecular studies on overwintering of cyanobacteria. Here, we show that spermidine, the most common polyamine in cyanobacteria, promotes the survivability of Synechocystis under long-term chill-light stress and

  17. Lower polyamine levels in breast milk of obese mothers compared to mothers with normal body weight.

    PubMed

    Ali, M Atiya; Strandvik, B; Palme-Kilander, C; Yngve, A

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is associated with risks for mother and infant, and the mothers' dietary habits influence breast milk composition. Polyamines are secreted in breast milk and are essential for the regulation of intestinal and immune function in newborns and infants. The present study aimed to investigate the level of polyamines in human milk obtained from obese and normal weight mothers at different times of lactation. Breast milk from 50 mothers was obtained at day 3, and at 1 and 2 months after delivery. The mothers had normal body weight [body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg m(-2) ] or were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2) ). A subgroup of obese mothers participated in a weight reduction programme during pregnancy. Polyamines were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total polyamine content was significantly lower at all times in breast milk from obese mothers compared to milk from controls. Spermine levels did not differ between groups at any time in contrast to the levels of putrescine and spermidine. Putrescine concentrations were highest on day 3 and spermidine and spermine were highest at 1 month of lactation. The obese mothers, who received dietary advice during pregnancy based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, had higher concentrations of putrescine and spermidine in their milk than the obese mothers without any intervention. Polyamine concentrations were lower in breast milk from obese mothers compared to mothers with a normal weight. General dietary intervention in obese mothers increased the polyamine levels, suggesting that the low levels in obesity were at least partly associated with food habits. However, the consistency of spermine suggests a special metabolic function of this polyamine. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. I. Relation to protoplast viability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Masdeu, M. A.; Dumortier, F. M.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    Cereal leaves subjected to the osmotica routinely used for protoplast isolation show a rapid increase in arginine decarboxylase activity, a massive accumulation of putrescine, and slow conversion of putrescine to the higher polyamines, spermidine and spermine (HE Flores, AW Galston 1984 Plant Physiol 75: 102). Mesophyll protoplasts from these leaves, which have a high putrescine:polyamine ratio, do not undergo sustained division. By contrast, in Nicotiana, Capsicum, Datura, Trigonella, and Vigna, dicot genera that readily regenerate plants from mesophyll protoplasts, the response of leaves to osmotic stress is opposite to that in cereals. Putrescine titer as well as arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities decline in these osmotically stressed dicot leaves, while spermidine and spermine titers increase. Thus, the putrescine:polyamine ratio in Vigna protoplasts, which divide readily, is 4-fold lower than in oat protoplasts, which divide poorly. We suggest that this differing response of polyamine metabolism to osmotic stress may account in part for the failure of cereal mesophyll protoplasts to develop readily in vitro.

  19. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. I. Relation to protoplast viability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Masdeu, M. A.; Dumortier, F. M.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    Cereal leaves subjected to the osmotica routinely used for protoplast isolation show a rapid increase in arginine decarboxylase activity, a massive accumulation of putrescine, and slow conversion of putrescine to the higher polyamines, spermidine and spermine (HE Flores, AW Galston 1984 Plant Physiol 75: 102). Mesophyll protoplasts from these leaves, which have a high putrescine:polyamine ratio, do not undergo sustained division. By contrast, in Nicotiana, Capsicum, Datura, Trigonella, and Vigna, dicot genera that readily regenerate plants from mesophyll protoplasts, the response of leaves to osmotic stress is opposite to that in cereals. Putrescine titer as well as arginine and ornithine decarboxylase activities decline in these osmotically stressed dicot leaves, while spermidine and spermine titers increase. Thus, the putrescine:polyamine ratio in Vigna protoplasts, which divide readily, is 4-fold lower than in oat protoplasts, which divide poorly. We suggest that this differing response of polyamine metabolism to osmotic stress may account in part for the failure of cereal mesophyll protoplasts to develop readily in vitro.

  20. Dietary spermidine for lowering high blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Andreas; Schroeder, Sabrina; Pendl, Tobias; Harger, Alexandra; Stekovic, Slaven; Schipke, Julia; Magnes, Christoph; Schmidt, Albrecht; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Dammbrueck, Christopher; Gross, Angelina S; Herbst, Viktoria; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Pietrocola, Federico; Pieber, Thomas R; Sigrist, Stephan J; Linke, Wolfgang A; Mühlfeld, Christian; Sadoshima, Junichi; Dengjel, Joern; Kiechl, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Sedej, Simon; Madeo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Loss of cardiac macroautophagy/autophagy impairs heart function, and evidence accumulates that an increased autophagic flux may protect against cardiovascular disease. We therefore tested the protective capacity of the natural autophagy inducer spermidine in animal models of aging and hypertension, which both represent major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary spermidine elicits cardioprotective effects in aged mice through enhancing cardiac autophagy and mitophagy. In salt-sensitive rats, spermidine supplementation also delays the development of hypertensive heart disease, coinciding with reduced arterial blood pressure. The high blood pressure-lowering effect likely results from improved global arginine bioavailability and protection from hypertension-associated renal damage. The polyamine spermidine is naturally present in human diets, though to a varying amount depending on food type and preparation. In humans, high dietary spermidine intake correlates with reduced blood pressure and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and related death. Altogether, spermidine represents a cardio- and vascular-protective autophagy inducer that can be readily integrated in common diets. PMID:28118075

  1. Hydroxylamine derivatives for regulation of spermine and spermidine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Khomutov, M A; Weisell, J; Hyvönen, M; Keinänen, T A; Vepsäläinen, J; Alhonen, L; Khomutov, A R; Kochetkov, S N

    2013-12-01

    The biogenic polyamines spermine, spermidine, and their precursor putrescine are present in micro-to-millimolar concentrations in all cell types and are vitally important for their normal growth. High intracellular content of spermine and spermidine determines the multiplicity of the cellular functions of the polyamines. Many of these functions are not well characterized at the molecular level, ensuring the ongoing development of this field of biochemistry. Tumor cells have elevated polyamine level if compared with normal cells, and this greatly stimulates the search for new opportunities to deplete the intracellular pool of spermine and spermidine resulting in decrease in cell growth and even cell death. O-Substituted hydroxylamines occupy their own place among chemical regulators of the activity of the enzymes of polyamine metabolism. Varying the structure of the alkyl substituent made it possible to obtain within one class of chemical compounds highly effective inhibitors and regulators of the activity of all the enzymes of putrescine, spermine and spermidine metabolism (with the exception of FAD-dependent spermine oxidase and acetylpolyamine oxidase), effectors of the polyamine transport system, and even actively transported in cells "proinhibitor" of ornithine decarboxylase. Some principles for the design of specific inhibitors of these enzymes as well as the peculiarities of cellular effects of corresponding O-substituted hydroxylamines are discussed.

  2. Increased Polyamine Intake Inhibits Age-Associated Alteration in Global DNA Methylation and 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Soda, Kuniyasu; Kano, Yoshihiko; Chiba, Fumihiro; Koizumi, Kei; Miyaki, Yuichiro

    2013-01-01

    Polyamines (spermine and spermidine) play many important roles in cellular function and are supplied from the intestinal lumen. We have shown that continuous high polyamine intake inhibits age-associated pathologies in mice. The mechanism by which polyamines elicit these effects was examined. Twenty-four week old Jc1:ICR male mice were fed one of three experimental chows containing different polyamine concentrations. Lifetime intake of high polyamine chow, which had a polyamine content approximately three times higher than regular chow, elevated polyamine concentrations in whole blood, suppressed age-associated increases in pro-inflammatory status, decreased age-associated pathological changes, inhibited age-associated global alteration in DNA methylation status and reduced the mortality in aged mice. Exogenous spermine augmented DNA methyltransferase activity in Jurkat and HT-29 cells and inhibited polyamine deficiency-induced global alteration in DNA methylation status in vitro. In addition, increased polyamine intake was associated with a decreased incidence of colon tumors in BALB/c mice after 1,2-demethylhydrazine administration; 12 mice (60%) in the low polyamine group developed tumors, compared with only 5 mice (25%) in the high polyamine group (Fisher's exact probability = 0.027, p = 0.025). However, increased polyamine intake accelerated the growth of established tumors; maximal tumor diameter in the Low and High groups was 3.85±0.90 mm and 5.50±1.93 mm, respectively (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.039). Spermine seems to play important roles in inhibiting age-associated and polyamine-deficient induced abnormal gene methylation as well as pathological changes including tumorigenesis. PMID:23696883

  3. Engineered polyamine accumulation in tomato enhances phytonutrient content, juice quality, and vine life.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Roshni A; Cassol, Tatiana; Li, Ning; Ali, Nasreen; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2002-06-01

    Polyamines, ubiquitous organic aliphatic cations, have been implicated in a myriad of physiological and developmental processes in many organisms, but their in vivo functions remain to be determined. We expressed a yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene (ySAMdc; Spe2) fused with a ripening-inducible E8 promoter to specifically increase levels of the polyamines spermidine and spermine in tomato fruit during ripening. Independent transgenic plants and their segregating lines were evaluated after cultivation in the greenhouse and in the field for five successive generations. The enhanced expression of the ySAMdc gene resulted in increased conversion of putrescine into higher polyamines and thus to ripening-specific accumulation of spermidine and spermine. This led to an increase in lycopene, prolonged vine life, and enhanced fruit juice quality. Lycopene levels in cultivated tomatoes are generally low, and increasing them in the fruit enhances its nutrient value. Furthermore, the rates of ethylene production in the transgenic tomato fruit were consistently higher than those in the nontransgenic control fruit. These data show that polyamine and ethylene biosynthesis pathways can act simultaneously in ripening tomato fruit. Taken together, these results provide the first direct evidence for a physiological role of polyamines and demonstrate an approach to improving nutritional quality, juice quality, and vine life of tomato fruit.

  4. Polyamines are Inhibitors of Gastric Acid Secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Tushar K.; Nandi, Jyotirmoy; Pidhorodeckyj, Nykolai; Meng-Ai, Zhou

    1982-03-01

    The naturally occurring organic polycations such as spermine and spermidine inhibit histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion by bullfrog gastric mucosa in vitro; spermine is much more potent than spermidine. Unlike the H2 receptor antagonists, the polyamines are completely ineffective from the nutrient side and are effective only from the secretory side of the chambered mucosa. The polyamine effects could be reversed by increasing K+ concentration in the secretory solution. Studies with isolated gastric microsomal vesicles demonstrate that the polyamines do not inhibit the gastric H+,K+-ATPase but greatly decrease the ATPase-mediated uptake of H+ under appropriate conditions. For the latter effects the presence of polyamine within the vesicle interior was found to be essential. Our data strongly suggest an uncoupling of the gastric H+,K+-ATPase system by the polyamines. The therapeutic potential of these and similar compounds in the treatment of hyperacidity and peptic ulcer is discussed.

  5. Molecular and functional profiling of the polyamine content in enteroinvasive E. coli : looking into the gap between commensal E. coli and harmful Shigella.

    PubMed

    Campilongo, Rosaria; Di Martino, Maria Letizia; Marcocci, Lucia; Pietrangeli, Paola; Leuzzi, Adriano; Grossi, Milena; Casalino, Mariassunta; Nicoletti, Mauro; Micheli, Gioacchino; Colonna, Bianca; Prosseda, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are small molecules associated with a wide variety of physiological functions. Bacterial pathogens have developed subtle strategies to exploit polyamines or manipulate polyamine-related processes to optimize fitness within the host. During the transition from its innocuous E. coli ancestor, Shigella, the aetiological agent of bacillary dysentery, has undergone drastic genomic rearrangements affecting the polyamine profile. A pathoadaptation process involving the speG gene and the cad operon has led to spermidine accumulation and loss of cadaverine. While a higher spermidine content promotes the survival of Shigella within infected macrophages, the lack of cadaverine boosts the pathogenic potential of the bacterium in host tissues. Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) display the same pathogenicity process as Shigella, but have a higher infectious dose and a higher metabolic activity. Pathoadaption events affecting the cad locus have occurred also in EIEC, silencing cadaverine production. Since EIEC are commonly regarded as evolutionary intermediates between E. coli and Shigella, we investigated on their polyamine profile in order to better understand which changes have occurred along the path to pathogenicity. By functional and molecular analyses carried out in EIEC strains belonging to different serotypes, we show that speG has been silenced in one strain only, favouring resistance to oxidative stress conditions and survival within macrophages. At the same time, we observe that the content of spermidine and putrescine, a relevant intermediate in the synthesis of spermidine, is higher in all strains as compared to E. coli. This may represent an evolutionary response to the lack of cadaverine. Indeed, restoring cadaverine synthesis decreases the expression of the speC gene, whose product affects putrescine production. In the light of these results, we discuss the possible impact of pathoadaptation events on the evolutionary emergence of a polyamine profile

  6. Spermidine protects against α-synuclein neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Büttner, Sabrina; Broeskamp, Filomena; Sommer, Cornelia; Markaki, Maria; Habernig, Lukas; Alavian-Ghavanini, Ali; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Eisenberg, Tobias; Michael, Eva; Kroemer, Guido; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Sigrist, Stephan J; Madeo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    As our society ages, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson`s disease (PD) are increasing in pandemic proportions. While mechanistic understanding of PD is advancing, a treatment with well tolerable drugs is still elusive. Here, we show that administration of the naturally occurring polyamine spermidine, which declines continuously during aging in various species, alleviates a series of PD-related degenerative processes in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, two established model systems for PD pathology. In the fruit fly, simple feeding with spermidine inhibited loss of climbing activity and early organismal death upon heterologous expression of human α-synuclein, which is thought to be the principal toxic trigger of PD. In this line, administration of spermidine rescued α-synuclein-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons, a hallmark of PD, in nematodes. Alleviation of PD-related neurodegeneration by spermidine was accompanied by induction of autophagy, suggesting that this cytoprotective process may be responsible for the beneficial effects of spermidine administration. PMID:25483063

  7. Nanoparticle strategies for cancer therapeutics: Nucleic acids, polyamines, bovine serum amine oxidase and iron oxide nanoparticles (Review).

    PubMed

    Agostinelli, Enzo; Vianello, Fabio; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Thomas, Thresia; Thomas, T J

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology for cancer gene therapy is an emerging field. Nucleic acids, polyamine analogues and cytotoxic products of polyamine oxidation, generated in situ by an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, can be developed for nanotechnology-based cancer therapeutics with reduced systemic toxicity and improved therapeutic efficacy. Nucleic acid-based gene therapy approaches depend on the compaction of DNA/RNA to nanoparticles and polyamine analogues are excellent agents for the condensation of nucleic acids to nanoparticles. Polyamines and amine oxidases are found in higher levels in tumours compared to that of normal tissues. Therefore, the metabolism of polyamines spermidine and spermine, and their diamine precursor, putrescine, can be targets for antineoplastic therapy since these naturally occurring alkylamines are essential for normal mammalian cell growth. Intracellular polyamine concentrations are maintained at a cell type-specific set point through the coordinated and highly regulated interplay between biosynthesis, transport, and catabolism. In particular, polyamine catabolism involves copper-containing amine oxidases. Several studies showed an important role of these enzymes in developmental and disease-related processes in animals through the control of polyamine homeostasis in response to normal cellular signals, drug treatment, and environmental and/or cellular stress. The production of toxic aldehydes and reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 in particular, by these oxidases suggests a mechanism by which amine oxidases can be exploited as antineoplastic drug targets. The combination of bovine serum amine oxidase (BSAO) and polyamines prevents tumour growth, particularly well if the enzyme has been conjugated with a biocompatible hydrogel polymer. The findings described herein suggest that enzymatically formed cytotoxic agents activate stress signal transduction pathways, leading to apoptotic cell death. Consequently, superparamagnetic nanoparticles or other

  8. Polyamines directly promote antizyme-mediated degradation of ornithine decarboxylase by the proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Beenukumar, R. R.; Gödderz, Daniela; Palanimurugan, R.; Dohmen, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a ubiquitin-independent substrate of the proteasome, is a homodimeric protein with a rate-limiting function in polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines regulate ODC levels by a feedback mechanism mediated by ODC antizyme (OAZ). Higher cellular polyamine levels trigger the synthesis of OAZ and also inhibit its ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. OAZ binds ODC monomers and targets them to the proteasome. Here, we report that polyamines, aside from their role in the control of OAZ synthesis and stability, directly enhance OAZ-mediated ODC degradation by the proteasome. Using a stable mutant of OAZ, we show that polyamines promote ODC degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells even when OAZ levels are not changed. Furthermore, polyamines stimulated the in vitro degradation of ODC by the proteasome in a reconstituted system using purified components. In these assays, spermine shows a greater effect than spermidine. By contrast, polyamines do not have any stimulatory effect on the degradation of ubiquitin-dependent substrates. PMID:28357293

  9. Arabidopsis spermidine synthase is targeted by an effector protein of the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii.

    PubMed

    Hewezi, Tarek; Howe, Peter J; Maier, Tom R; Hussey, Richard S; Mitchum, Melissa G; Davis, Eric L; Baum, Thomas J

    2010-02-01

    Cyst nematodes are sedentary plant parasites that cause dramatic cellular changes in the plant root to form feeding cells, so-called syncytia. 10A06 is a cyst nematode secretory protein that is most likely secreted as an effector into the developing syncytia during early plant parasitism. A homolog of the uncharacterized soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines), 10A06 gene was cloned from the sugar beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), which is able to infect Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Constitutive expression of 10A06 in Arabidopsis affected plant morphology and increased susceptibility to H. schachtii as well as to other plant pathogens. Using yeast two-hybrid assays, we identified Spermidine Synthase2 (SPDS2), a key enzyme involved in polyamine biosynthesis, as a specific 10A06 interactor. In support of this protein-protein interaction, transgenic plants expressing 10A06 exhibited elevated SPDS2 mRNA abundance, significantly higher spermidine content, and increased polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity. Furthermore, the SPDS2 promoter was strongly activated in the nematode-induced syncytia, and transgenic plants overexpressing SPDS2 showed enhanced plant susceptibility to H. schachtii. In addition, in planta expression of 10A06 or SPDS2 increased mRNA abundance of a set of antioxidant genes upon nematode infection. These data lend strong support to a model in which the cyst nematode effector 10A06 exerts its function through the interaction with SPDS2, thereby increasing spermidine content and subsequently PAO activity. Increasing PAO activity results in stimulating the induction of the cellular antioxidant machinery in syncytia. Furthermore, we observed an apparent disruption of salicylic acid defense signaling as a function of 10A06. Most likely, increased antioxidant protection and interruption of salicylic acid signaling are key aspects of 10A06 function in addition to other physiological and morphological changes caused by altered polyamines

  10. Transgenic Manipulation of the Metabolism of Polyamines in Poplar Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Pratiksha; Glasheen, Bernadette M.; Bains, Suneet K.; Long, Stephanie L.; Minocha, Rakesh; Walter, Christian; Minocha, Subhash C.

    2001-01-01

    The metabolism of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) has become the target of genetic manipulation because of their significance in plant development and possibly stress tolerance. We studied the polyamine metabolism in non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic cells of poplar (Populus nigra × maximowiczii) expressing a mouse Orn decarboxylase (odc) cDNA. The transgenic cells showed elevated levels of mouse ODC enzyme activity, severalfold higher amounts of putrescine, a small increase in spermidine, and a small reduction in spermine as compared with NT cells. The conversion of labeled ornithine (Orn) into putrescine was significantly higher in the transgenic than the NT cells. Whereas exogenously supplied Orn caused an increase in cellular putrescine in both cell lines, arginine at high concentrations was inhibitory to putrescine accumulation. The addition of urea and glutamine had no effect on polyamines in either of the cell lines. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase by methionine sulfoximine led to a substantial reduction in putrescine and spermidine in both cell lines. The results show that: (a) Transgenic expression of a heterologous odc gene can be used to modulate putrescine metabolism in plant cells, (b) accumulation of putrescine in high amounts does not affect the native arginine decarboxylase activity, (c) Orn biosynthesis occurs primarily from glutamine/glutamate and not from catabolic breakdown of arginine, (d) Orn biosynthesis may become a limiting factor for putrescine production in the odc transgenic cells, and (e) assimilation of nitrogen into glutamine keeps pace with an increased demand for its use for putrescine production. PMID:11299393

  11. Inhibition of X-ray-induced DNA strand break repair in polyamine-depleted HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Snyder, R D

    1989-05-01

    Treatment of HeLa cells with the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), results in, depending on the conditions, partial or complete depletion of the cellular polyamines: putrescine, spermidine and spermine. In this compromised state cells exhibited a distinct deficiency in repair of X-ray-induced DNA strand breaks. The half-time for return of normal DNA sedimentation following 1.6 Gy was 9.5 min for untreated control cells and 22, 32 and 50 min for cells treated with MGBG, DFMO + MGBG and DFMO, respectively. Normal repair kinetics were restored to these cells upon a short incubation in media containing all three polyamines. The rapid early phase of repair following higher X-ray doses (16 Gy) was also delayed in polyamine-depleted cells but later repair occurring 1-4 h post-irradiation, representing chromatin reconstitution, was apparently normal.

  12. Spermidine, but not spermine, is essential for pigment pattern formation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Frohnhöfer, Hans Georg; Geiger-Rudolph, Silke; Pattky, Martin; Meixner, Martin; Huhn, Carolin; Maischein, Hans-Martin; Geisler, Robert; Gehring, Ines; Maderspacher, Florian; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Irion, Uwe

    2016-06-15

    Polyamines are small poly-cations essential for all cellular life. The main polyamines present in metazoans are putrescine, spermidine and spermine. Their exact functions are still largely unclear; however, they are involved in a wide variety of processes affecting cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and aging. Here we identify idefix, a mutation in the zebrafish gene encoding the enzyme spermidine synthase, leading to a severe reduction in spermidine levels as shown by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. We show that spermidine, but not spermine, is essential for early development, organogenesis and colour pattern formation. Whereas in other vertebrates spermidine deficiency leads to very early embryonic lethality, maternally provided spermidine synthase in zebrafish is sufficient to rescue the early developmental defects. This allows us to uncouple them from events occurring later during colour patterning. Factors involved in the cellular interactions essential for colour patterning, likely targets for spermidine, are the gap junction components Cx41.8, Cx39.4, and Kir7.1, an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, all known to be regulated by polyamines. Thus, zebrafish provide a vertebrate model to study the in vivo effects of polyamines.

  13. Spermidine, but not spermine, is essential for pigment pattern formation in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Frohnhöfer, Hans Georg; Geiger-Rudolph, Silke; Pattky, Martin; Meixner, Martin; Huhn, Carolin; Maischein, Hans-Martin; Geisler, Robert; Gehring, Ines; Maderspacher, Florian; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polyamines are small poly-cations essential for all cellular life. The main polyamines present in metazoans are putrescine, spermidine and spermine. Their exact functions are still largely unclear; however, they are involved in a wide variety of processes affecting cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and aging. Here we identify idefix, a mutation in the zebrafish gene encoding the enzyme spermidine synthase, leading to a severe reduction in spermidine levels as shown by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. We show that spermidine, but not spermine, is essential for early development, organogenesis and colour pattern formation. Whereas in other vertebrates spermidine deficiency leads to very early embryonic lethality, maternally provided spermidine synthase in zebrafish is sufficient to rescue the early developmental defects. This allows us to uncouple them from events occurring later during colour patterning. Factors involved in the cellular interactions essential for colour patterning, likely targets for spermidine, are the gap junction components Cx41.8, Cx39.4, and Kir7.1, an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, all known to be regulated by polyamines. Thus, zebrafish provide a vertebrate model to study the in vivo effects of polyamines. PMID:27215328

  14. Polyamine metabolism in Menkes kinky hair disease.

    PubMed

    Rennert, O M; Chan, W Y; Hidalgo, H; Cushing, W; Griesmann, G

    1980-05-09

    Clinical investigations of the urinary excretion of putrescine and the polyamines spermidine and spermine in a patient with Menkes kinky hair disease are reported. This disorder, characterized by intra- and extracellular copper deficiency, is associated with significant depression of diamine oxidase and monoamine oxidase activity. Urinary excretion of diamine and polyamines, monitored over a 2-month interval in a 4-month old patient with Menkes kinky hair disease, documented a 3- to 10-fold increase in the excretion of free putrescine, spermidine and spermine as well as the conjugated derivatives of putrescine and spermidine. These observations suggest that abnormalities in diamine and polyamine concentration occur in disease states in which the metabolic transformation of these compounds is impaired.

  15. Effect of MeJA treatment on polyamine, energy status and anthracnose rot of loquat fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Cai, Yuting; Yang, Zhenfeng; Joyce, Daryl C; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-02-15

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on changes in polyamines content and energy status and their relation to disease resistance was investigated. Freshly harvested loquat fruit were treated with 10 μmol l(-1) MeJA and wound inoculated with Colletotrichum acutatum spore suspension (1.0 × 10(5) spores ml(-1)) after 24h, and then stored at 20 °C for 6 days. MeJA treatment significantly reduced decay incidence. MeJA treated fruit manifested higher contents of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) compared with the control fruit, during storage. MeJA treatment also maintained higher levels of adenosine triphosphate, and suppressed an increase in adenosine monophosphate content in loquat fruit. These results suggest that MeJA treatment may inhibit anthracnose rot by increasing polyamine content and maintaining the energy status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Polyamines in plant physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  17. Polyamines in plant physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  18. Polyamines and Gut Mucosal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Jennifer; Chang, Elizabeth T.; Wang, Jian-Ying; Rao, Jaladanki N.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelium of gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa has the most rapid turnover rate of any tissue in the body and its integrity is preserved through the dynamic balance between cell migration, proliferation, growth arrest and apoptosis. To maintain tissue homeostasis of the GI mucosa, the rates of epithelial cell division and apoptosis must be highly regulated by various extracellular and intracellular factors including cellular polyamines. Natural polyamines spermidine, spermine and their precursor putrescine, are organic cations in eukaryotic cells and are implicated in the control of multiple signaling pathways and distinct cellular functions. Normal intestinal epithelial growth depends on the available supply of polyamines to the dividing cells in the crypts, and polyamines also regulate intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis. Although the specific molecular processes controlled by polyamines remains to be fully defined, increasing evidence indicates that polyamines regulate intestinal epithelial integrity by modulating the expression of various growth-related genes. In this review, we will extrapolate the current state of scientific knowledge regarding the roles of polyamines in gut mucosal homeostasis and highlight progress in cellular and molecular mechanisms of polyamines and their potential clinical applications. PMID:25237589

  19. Transgenic manipulation of the metabolism of polyamines in poplar cells

    Treesearch

    Pratiksha Bhatnagar; Bernadette M. Glasheen; Suneet K. Bains; Stephanie L. Long; Rakesh Minocha; Christian Walter; Subhash C. Minocha

    2001-01-01

    The metabolism of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) has become the target of genetic manipulation because of their significance in plant development and possibly stress tolerance. We studied the polyamine metabolism in non-transgenic (NT) and transgenic cells of poplar (Populus nigra 3 maximowiczii) expressing a...

  20. Modulation of protein synthesis by polyamines.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2015-03-01

    Polyamines are ubiquitous small basic molecules that play important roles in cell growth and viability. Since polyamines mainly exist as a polyamine-RNA complex, we looked for proteins whose synthesis is preferentially stimulated by polyamines at the level of translation, and thus far identified 17 proteins in Escherichia coli and 6 proteins in eukaryotes. The mechanisms of polyamine stimulation of synthesis of these proteins were investigated. In addition, the role of eIF5A, containing hypusine formed from spermidine, on protein synthesis is described. These results clearly indicate that polyamines and eIF5A contribute to cell growth and viability through modulation of protein synthesis. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Changes in polyamine levels and protein synthesis rate during rat liver carcinogenesis induced by 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene.

    PubMed

    Perin, A; Sessa, A

    1978-01-01

    The concentrations of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in liver of rats fed on 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene and in the resultant hepatomas were found to be significantly higher than were those observed in normal liver from rats of the same strain, sex, and age. These modifications were due to the carcinogen and not to the special low-riboflavin diet used to obtain the carcinogenic effect of 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene. The first change observed during liver carcinogenesis was the early increase in the putrescine level, followed by an increase of spermidine and spermine, which reached maximum levels in growing hepatomas. A significant increase of urinary polyamines was also observed in tumor-bearing rats. Experiments on leucine incorporation into proteins of tissue slices, which were obtained from the same tissues on which polyamine determinations were carried out, showed that in rat liver carcinogenesis the rate of protein synthesis was well correlated with the polyamine levels. These results suggest that polyamines may play a role in the process of carcinogenesis and in tumor protein synthesis in vivo.

  2. Spermidine Oxidation-Mediated Degeneration of Retinal Pigment Epithelium in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Masaaki; Shinomiya, Katsuhiko; Fujita-Koyama, Yukie; Hirai, Shin-ichiro; Katsuta, Osamu; Nakamura, Masatsugu

    2017-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration is a crucial event in dry age-related macular degeneration and gyrate atrophy. The polyamine spermidine has been shown to induce RPE cell death in vitro. The present study aimed to establish a novel in vivo model of spermidine-induced RPE degeneration and to determine whether spermidine-induced RPE cell death involves oxidative mechanisms. In this study, spermidine caused ARPE-19 cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was prevented by removal of serum from the culture medium or treatment with amine oxidase inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Intravitreal injection of spermidine into rats significantly increased the permeability of the blood-retinal barrier and decreased the amplitudes of scotopic electroretinogram a- and b-waves. Histological analysis revealed that spermidine induced vacuolation, atrophy, and dropout of RPE cells, leading to the disruption of photoreceptor outer segments. Simultaneous intravitreal administration of NAC and ALDH with spermidine prominently inhibited the functional and morphological changes induced by spermidine. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the intravitreal administration of spermidine induced RPE cell dysfunction and death followed by photoreceptor degeneration in rats. These effects of spermidine are thought to be mediated by oxidative stress and a toxic aldehyde generated during spermidine oxidation. PMID:28367269

  3. Genomic identification and biochemical characterization of the mammalian polyamine oxidase involved in polyamine back-conversion.

    PubMed Central

    Vujcic, Slavoljub; Liang, Ping; Diegelman, Paula; Kramer, Debora L; Porter, Carl W

    2003-01-01

    In the polyamine back-conversion pathway, spermine and spermidine are first acetylated by spermidine/spermine N1 -acetyltransferase (SSAT) and then oxidized by polyamine oxidase (PAO) to produce spermidine and putrescine respectively. Although PAO was first purified more than two decades ago, the protein has not yet been linked to genomic sequences. In the present study, we apply a BLAST search strategy to identify novel oxidase sequences located on human chromosome 10 and mouse chromosome 7. Homologous mammalian cDNAs derived from human brain and mouse mammary tumour were deduced to encode proteins of approx. 55 kDa having 82% sequence identity. When either cDNA was transiently transfected into HEK-293 cells, intracellular spermine pools decreased by approx. 30%, whereas spermidine increased 2-4-fold. Lysates of human PAO cDNA-transfected HEK-293 cells, but not vector-transfected cells, rapidly oxidized N1-acetylspermine to spermidine. Substrate specificity determinations with the lysate assay revealed a preference ranking of N1-acetylspermine= N1-acetylspermidine> N1,N12-diacetylspermine>>spermine; spermidine was not acted upon. This ranking is identical to that reported for purified PAO and distinctly different from the recently identified spermine oxidase (SMO), which prefers spermine over N1-acetylspermine. Monoethyl- and diethylspermine analogues also served as substrates for PAO, and were internally cleaved adjacent to a secondary amine. We deduce that the present oxidase sequences are those of the FAD-dependent PAO involved in the polyamine back-conversion pathway. In Northern blot analysis, PAO mRNA was much less abundant in HEK-293 cells than SMO or SSAT mRNA, and all three were differentially induced in a similar manner by selected polyamine analogues. The identification of PAO sequences, together with the recently identified SMO sequences, provides new opportunities for understanding the dynamics of polyamine homoeostasis and for interpreting metabolic

  4. Polyamines and Flower Development in the Male Sterile Stamenless-2 Mutant of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajeev; Sawhney, Vipen K.

    1990-01-01

    The floral organs of the male sterile stamenless-2 (sl-2/sl-2) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) contain significantly higher level of polyamines than those of the normal (R Rastogi, VK Sawhney [1990] Plant Physiol 93: 439-445). The effects of putrescine, spermidine and spermine, and three different inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis on the in vitro development of floral buds of the normal and sl-2/sl-2 mutant were studied. The polyamines were inhibitory to the in vitro growth and development of both the normal and mutant floral buds and they induced abnormal stamen development in normal flowers. The inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis also inhibited the growth and development of floral organs of the two genotypes, but the normal flowers showed greater sensitivity than the mutant. The inhibitors also promoted the formation of normal-looking pollen in stamens of some mutant flowers. The effect of the inhibitors on polyamine levels was not determined. The polyamine-induced abnormal stamen development in the normal, and the inhibitor-induced production of normal-looking pollen in mutant flowers support the suggestion that the elevated polyamine levels contribute to abnormal stamen development in the sl-2/sl-2 mutant of tomato. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:16667486

  5. Separation of polyamines, conjugated to DNA, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mateos, J L; Reyes, A; Vicente, C; Legaz, M E

    2000-02-18

    Genomic DNA was isolated from the lichen Evernia prunastri in order to analyze by high-performance liquid chromatography the occurrence of polyamines conjugated to the macromolecule. The acid-insoluble (PH) fraction of this DNA contained mainly conjugated spermidine, although small amounts of free putrescine and spermidine were also present. The PH fraction of DNA also contained conjugated evernic acid, the main phenol produced by this lichen species. Conjugation of polyamines to calf thymus DNA was carried out under in vitro conditions. Conjugation was to spermidine and mainly to spermine and produced DNA compactation. Evernic acid enhanced the action of polyamines in order to produce DNA aggregation.

  6. Cellular content and biosynthesis of polyamines during rooster spermatogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, R; Vidal, S; Mezquita, C

    1982-01-01

    The natural polyamines spermine and spermidine, and the diamine putrescine, were extracted from rooster testis cells separated by sedimentation at unit gravity, and from vas-deferens spermatozoa. The ratios spermine/DNA and spermidine/DNA were kept relatively constant throughout spermatogenesis, whereas the ratio putrescine/DNA rose in elongated spermatids. The cellular content of spermine, spermidine and putrescine decreased markedly in mature spermatozoa. Two rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of polyamines, ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase, showed their highest activities at the end of spermiogenesis and were not detectable in vas-deferens spermatozoa. A marked reduction in cell volume during spermiogenesis without a parallel decrease in the cellular content of polyamines suggests the possibility that the marked changes in chromatin composition and structure occurring in rooster late spermatids could take place in an ambience of high polyamine concentration. Images PLATE 1 PMID:7159401

  7. Improvement of plant abiotic stress tolerance through modulation of the polyamine pathway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haitao; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-02-01

    Polyamines (mainly putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm)) have been widely found in a range of physiological processes and in almost all diverse environmental stresses. In various plant species, abiotic stresses modulated the accumulation of polyamines and related gene expression. Studies using loss-of-function mutants and transgenic overexpression plants modulating polyamine metabolic pathways confirmed protective roles of polyamines during plant abiotic stress responses, and indicated the possibility to improve plant tolerance through genetic manipulation of the polyamine pathway. Additionally, putative mechanisms of polyamines involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance were thoroughly discussed and crosstalks among polyamine, abscisic acid, and nitric oxide in plant responses to abiotic stress were emphasized. Special attention was paid to the interaction between polyamine and reactive oxygen species, ion channels, amino acid and carbon metabolism, and other adaptive responses. Further studies are needed to elucidate the polyamine signaling pathway, especially polyamine-regulated downstream targets and the connections between polyamines and other stress responsive molecules.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of biogenic and synthetic polyamines conjugation with PAMAM-G4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-02-01

    We report the thermodynamic analysis of the bindings of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM-G4) nanoparticles with biogenic polyamines spermine (spm), spermidine (spmd) and synthetic polyamines 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane·4HCl (BE-333) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions. Multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic parameters and molecular modelling were used to analyse polyamine bindings to PAMAM dendrimers. Thermodynamic parameters ΔS, ΔH and ΔG parameters showed that polyamines bind polymer through H-bonding and van der Waals contacts with biogenic polyamines form more stable conjugates than synthetic polyamines. Modelling showed that polyamines are located at the surface of PAMAM with the free binding energy of -3.56 (spermine), -3.88 (spermidine) and -3.13 kcal/mol (BE-333), indicating spontaneous polyamine-polymer interaction at room temperature.

  9. Development of a Polyamine Database for Assessing Dietary Intake

    PubMed Central

    ZOUMAS-MORSE, CHRISTINE; ROCK, CHERYL L.; QUINTANA, ELIZABETH L.; NEUHOUSER, MARIAN L.; GERNER, EUGENE W.; MEYSKENS, FRANK L.

    2010-01-01

    Reducing the concentration of polyamines (spermine, spermidine, and putrescine) in the body pool may slow the cancer process. Because dietary spermine, spermidine, and putrescine contribute to the body pool of polyamines, quantifying them in the diet is important. Limited information about polyamine content of food is available, especially for diets in the United States. This brief report describes the development of a polyamine database linked to the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Values for spermine, spermidine, and putrescine were calculated and reported per serving size (nmol/serving). Of the foods from the database that were evaluated, fresh and frozen corn contain the highest levels of putrescine (560,000 nmol/serving and 902,880 nmol/serving) and spermidine (137,682 nmol/serving and 221,111 nmol/serving), and green pea soup contains the highest concentration of spermine (36,988 nmol/serving). The polyamine database and FFQ were tested with a convenience sample (n=165). Average daily polyamine intakes from the sample were: 159,133 nmol/day putrescine, 54,697 nmol/day spermidine, and 35,698 nmol/day spermine. Orange and grapefruit juices contributed the greatest amount of putrescine (44,441 nmol/day) to the diet. Green peas contributed the greatest amount of spermidine (3,283 nmol/day) and ground meat contributed the greatest amount of spermine (2,186 nmol/day). Development of this database linked to an FFQ provides a means of estimating polyamine intake and contributes to investigations relating polyamines to cancer. PMID:17524725

  10. Polyamines and hair: a couple in search of perfection.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Yuval; Pietilä, Marko; Giuliani, Giammaria; Rinaldi, Fabio; Alhonen, Leena; Paus, Ralf

    2010-09-01

    Polyamines (spermidine, putrescine and spermine) are multifunctional cationic amines that are indispensable for cellular proliferation; of key significance in the growth of rapidly regenerating tissues and tumors. Given that the hair follicle (HF) is one of the most highly proliferative organs in mammalian biology, it is not surprising that polyamines are crucial to HF growth. Indeed, growing (anagen) HFs show the highest activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, while inhibition of ODC, using eflornithine, results in a decreased rate of excessive facial hair growth in vivo and inhibits human scalp hair growth in organ culture. In sheep, manipulation of dietary intake of polyamines also results in altered wool growth. Polyamine-containing nutraceuticals have therefore been proposed as promoters of human hair growth. Recent progress in polyamine research, coupled with renewed interest in the role of polyamines in skin biology, encourages one to revisit their potential roles in HF biology and highlights the need for a systematic evaluation of their mechanisms of action and clinical applications in the treatment of hair disorders. The present viewpoint essay outlines the key frontiers in polyamine-related hair research and defines the major open questions. Moreover, it argues that a renaissance in polyamine research in hair biology, well beyond the inhibition of ODC activity in hirsutism therapy, is important for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the manipulation of human hair growth. Such targets could include the manipulation of polyamine biosynthesis and the topical administration of selected polyamines, such as spermidine.

  11. Increased uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages from type 2 diabetics is inhibited by polyamines.

    PubMed

    Balderas, Francisco L; Quezada-Larios, Marina; García Latorre, Ethel Awilda; Méndez, José D

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine on human LDL oxidation and to assess the ability of macrophages derived from type 2 diabetic patients to uptake oxLDL. Polyamine effect was compared with α-tocopherol. Four healthy subjects and eight type 2 diabetic patients were included in this study. To characterize type 2 diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects, laboratory test were carried out. Glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C), triglycerides, low (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) and serum lipid peroxidation were measured in blood. The study was performed in three stages. For each stage, ten experimental conditions comparing the effect of polyamines with α-tocopherol (10μM solutions) on LDL oxidation and the uptake of oxLDL by macrophages were analyzed. MDA concentration was found to be significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients compared to healthy subjects (5.6±0.58 vs. 2.66±0.31μM MDA, respectively, (P<0.05)). Percent of macrophages containing oxLDL was determined by means of red oil staining. The uptake of oxLDL by macrophages derived from diabetic patients was clear. The uptake of oxLDL was inhibited when the oxidation was prevented by polyamines or α-tocopherol. Spermine showed high antioxidant capacity (96.67±1.53% vs. 25.67±2.30%) compared to α-tocopherol (96.67±1.53% vs. 47.00±7.20%) at the concentration tested. In conclusion, polyamines especially spermine, has a potent antioxidant effect compared to α-tocopherol on human LDL oxidation, followed by spermidine and putrescine. The results have clinical relevance in the diabetic complications and add knowledge on the role of polyamines as natural antioxidants. This research is not a clinical evaluation rather a functional analysis utilizing clinical samples.

  12. Role of polyamines in somatic embryogenesis

    Treesearch

    S.C. Minocha; R. Minocha

    1995-01-01

    The aliphatic amines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are present in all living organisms. Since the demonstration of "an essential nutritional function" for putrescine in the bacterium Hemophilus parainfluenzae (Herbst and Snell 1948), polyamines have attracted a great deal of attention from workers in diverse fields of the life...

  13. Modulation of the NMDA receptor by polyamines

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.; Romano, C.; Dichter, M.A.; Molinoff, P.B. )

    1991-01-01

    Results of recent biochemical and electrophysiological studies have suggested that a recognition site for polyamines exists as part of the NMDA receptor complex. The endogenous polyamines spermine and spermidine increase the binding of open-channel blockers and increase NMDA-elicited currents in cultured neutrons. These polyamines have been termed agonists at the polyamine recognition site. Studies of the effects of natural and synthetic polyamines on the binding of ({sup 3}H)MK-801 and on NMDA-elicited currents in cultured neurons have led to the identification of compounds classified as partial agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists at the polyamine recognition site. Polyamines have also been found to affect the binding of ligands to the recognition sites for glutamate and glycine. However, these effects may be mediated at a site distinct from that at which polyamines act to modulate the binding of open-channel blockers. Endogenous polyamines may modulate excitatory synaptic transmission by acting at the polyamine recognition site of the NMDA receptor. This site could represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemia-induced neurotoxicity, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Molecular aspects of the interaction of spermidine and α-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Farhadian, Sadegh; Shareghi, Behzad; Saboury, Ali A; Babaheydari, Ali Kazemi; Raisi, Fatame; Heidari, Ehsan

    2016-11-01

    Polyamines such as spermidine are essential for survival. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how spermidine could influence the conformation, thermal stability and the activity of α-chymotrypsin. The influence of spermidine on the structure and stability of α-Chymotrypsin (α-Chy) explored using different spectroscopy method and molecular docking simulations. The stability and activity of α-Chy were increased in the presence of spermidine. Increasing of the α-Chy absorption in the presence of spermidine was as a result of the formation of a spermidine - α-Chy complex. The results of fluorescence spectroscopic measurements suggested that spermidine has a vigorous ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of α-Chy through the dynamic quenching procedure. Near and Far-UV CD studies also confirmed the transfer of aromatic residues to a more flexible environment. The absorption increasing of α-Chy in the presence of spermidine was as a result of the formation of spermidine - α-Chy complex. Molecular docking results also revealed the presence of one binding site with a negative value for the Gibbs free energy of the binding of spermidine to α-Chy. Further, the docking study revealed that van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds play a main role in stabilizing the complex.

  15. Stabilization of Erythrocyte Membranes by Polyamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballas, Samir K.; Mohandas, Narla; Marton, Laurence J.; Shohet, Stephen B.

    1983-04-01

    Using a laser diffraction technique, we have studied the effects of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, the three physiologic polyamines, on the deformability and mechanical stability of human erythrocyte membranes. Ghosts resealed with polyamines were subjected to high fluid shear stress in an ektacytometer. All polyamines increased the membrane shear modulus (decreased deformability) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The order of effectiveness was spermine > spermidine > putrescine. At 10 μ M, spermine appreciably decreased membrane deformability. For the measurement of membrane mechanical stability, resealed ghosts were subjected to constant high shear stress in the ektacytometer and deformability was continuously recorded as the deformable ghosts fragmented into rigid spherical vesicles. Polyamines, especially spermine, caused a noticeable increase in the t1/2 for fragmentation. These effects could not be ascribed to proteolysis or Ca2+-induced transglutamination. That the effects of polyamines were specific and not simply due to their positive charge was demonstrated by the finding that Ca2+ and Mg2+ destabilized the erythrocyte membrane as evidenced by decreasing the t1/2 for fragmentation. Extracellular polyamines were not effective except under conditions that caused significant accumulation inside the cell. The data indicate that intracellular physiologic polyamines, especially spermine, decrease erythrocyte membrane deformability and stabilize the membrane skeleton, making it more resistant to fragmentation.

  16. STABILIZATION OF PROTOPLASTS AND SPHEROPLASTS BY SPERMINE AND OTHER POLYAMINES

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Celia W.

    1962-01-01

    Tabor, Celia W. (National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, Bethesda, Md.). Stabilization of protoplasts and spheroplasts by spermine and other polyamines. J. Bacteriol. 83:1101–1111. 1962.—Spermine (10−3m) or spermidine prevents lysis of lysozyme-produced protoplasts of Escherichia coli W, E. coli B, and Micrococcus lysodeikticus in hypotonic media. Spheroplasts prepared by the action of penicillin are also stabilized by these concentrations of spermine and spermidine, but the protection is not as complete. Streptomycin, polylysine, and Ca++ are also effective or partially effective stabilizers, but 1,4-diaminobutane, 1,5-diaminopentane, ornithine, Mg++, and monovalent cations have no protective action at 10−3m concentration, and only a slight effect at higher concentrations. The osmotic stability conferred on protoplasts by spermine is irreversible. However, the protective effect of polyamines against lysis is not accompanied by restoration of viability to lysozyme protoplasts. There is a marked reduction in the loss of ultra-violet-absorbing material from the protoplasts to the medium when 10−3m spermine is present. PMID:16561942

  17. Posttranslational protein modification by polyamines in intact and regenerating nerves.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, G; Leach, T; Zanakis, M F; Sturman, J A; Ingoglia, N A

    1987-03-01

    A 150,000-g supernatant from axoplasm of the giant axon of the stellate nerve of the squid and from rat sciatic and goldfish optic nerves was found to be able to incorporate covalently [3H]putrescine and [3H]spermidine into an exogenous protein (N,N'-dimethylcasein). Incorporation of radioactivity was inhibited by CuSO4, a specific inhibitor of transglutaminases, the enzymes mediating these reactions in other tissues. Analysis of pH and temperature range and enzyme kinetics displayed characteristics predicted for transglutaminase-mediated reactions. Transglutaminase activity increased during regeneration of both vertebrate nerves, but greater activity was found in segments of nerve containing no intact axons than in either intact segments or in segments containing regenerating axons. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of endogenous modified proteins (in the absence of N,N'-dimethylcasein) showed labeling of 18-, 46- and 200-kilodalton proteins by both [3H]putrescine and [3H]spermidine. Analysis of the protein-bound radioactivity from intact and regenerating rat sciatic nerves demonstrated it to be predominantly in the form of the parent radioactive polyamine. These experiments demonstrate the covalent modification of proteins by polyamines at low levels in squid axoplasm and at relatively higher levels in rat sciatic and goldfish optic nerves. In the latter two cases, the activity of these modification reactions may be due in part to the modification of axonal proteins, but the majority of the activity occurs in nonneuronal cells of the nerve.

  18. Spermidine cures yeast of prions

    PubMed Central

    Speldewinde, Shaun H.; Grant, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Prions are self-perpetuating amyloid protein aggregates which underlie various neurodegenerative diseases in mammals. The molecular basis underlying their conversion from a normally soluble protein into the prion form remains largely unknown. Studies aimed at uncovering these mechanism(s) are therefore essential if we are to develop effective therapeutic strategies to counteract these disease-causing entities. Autophagy is a cellular degradation system which has predominantly been considered as a non-selective bulk degradation process which recycles macromolecules in response to starvation conditions. We now know that autophagy also serves as a protein quality control mechanism which selectively degrades protein aggregates and damaged organelles. These are commonly accumulated in various neurodegenerative disorders including prion diseases. In our recent study [Speldewinde et al. Mol. Biol. Cell. (2015)] we used the well-established yeast [PSI+]/Sup35 and [PIN¬+]/Rnq1 prion models to show that autophagy prevents sporadic prion formation. Importantly, we found that spermidine, a polyamine that has been used to increase autophagic flux, acts as a protective agent which prevents spontaneous prion formation.

  19. Polyamine catabolism in carcinogenesis: potential targets for chemotherapy and chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Valentina; Shields, Christina DeStefano; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Casero, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Polyamines, including spermine, spermidine, and the precursor diamine, putrescine, are naturally occurring polycationic alkylamines that are required for eukaryotic cell growth, differentiation, and survival. This absolute requirement for polyamines and the need to maintain intracellular levels within specific ranges requires a highly regulated metabolic pathway primed for rapid changes in response to cellular growth signals, environmental changes, and stress. Although the polyamine metabolic pathway is strictly regulated in normal cells, dysregulation of polyamine metabolism is a frequent event in cancer. Recent studies suggest that the polyamine catabolic pathway may be involved in the etiology of some epithelial cancers. The catabolism of spermine to spermidine utilizes either the one-step enzymatic reaction of spermine oxidase (SMO) or the two-step process of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) coupled with the peroxisomal enzyme N1-acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO). Both catabolic pathways produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and a reactive aldehyde that are capable of damaging DNA and other critical cellular components. The catabolic pathway also depletes the intracellular concentrations of spermidine and spermine, which are free radical scavengers. Consequently, the polyamine catabolic pathway in general and specifically SMO and SSAT provide exciting new targets for chemoprevention and/or chemotherapy. PMID:23771789

  20. Polyamine catabolism in carcinogenesis: potential targets for chemotherapy and chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Valentina; DeStefano Shields, Christina; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Casero, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    Polyamines, including spermine, spermidine, and the precursor diamine, putrescine, are naturally occurring polycationic alkylamines that are required for eukaryotic cell growth, differentiation, and survival. This absolute requirement for polyamines and the need to maintain intracellular levels within specific ranges require a highly regulated metabolic pathway primed for rapid changes in response to cellular growth signals, environmental changes, and stress. Although the polyamine metabolic pathway is strictly regulated in normal cells, dysregulation of polyamine metabolism is a frequent event in cancer. Recent studies suggest that the polyamine catabolic pathway may be involved in the etiology of some epithelial cancers. The catabolism of spermine to spermidine utilizes either the one-step enzymatic reaction of spermine oxidase (SMO) or the two-step process of spermidine/spermine N (1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) coupled with the peroxisomal enzyme N (1)-acetylpolyamine oxidase. Both catabolic pathways produce hydrogen peroxide and a reactive aldehyde that are capable of damaging DNA and other critical cellular components. The catabolic pathway also depletes the intracellular concentrations of spermidine and spermine, which are free radical scavengers. Consequently, the polyamine catabolic pathway in general and specifically SMO and SSAT provide exciting new targets for chemoprevention and/or chemotherapy.

  1. Spermidine Inversely Influences Surface Interactions and Planktonic Growth in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Kim, Sok Ho; Natarajan, Ramya; Bruger, Eric L.; Waters, Christopher M.; Michael, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacteria, the functions of polyamines, small linear polycations, are poorly defined, but these metabolites can influence biofilm formation in several systems. Transposon insertions in an ornithine decarboxylase (odc) gene in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, predicted to direct synthesis of the polyamine putrescine from ornithine, resulted in elevated cellulose. Null mutants for odc grew somewhat slowly in a polyamine-free medium but exhibited increased biofilm formation that was dependent on cellulose production. Spermidine is an essential metabolite in A. tumefaciens and is synthesized from putrescine in A. tumefaciens via the stepwise actions of carboxyspermidine dehydrogenase (CASDH) and carboxyspermidine decarboxylase (CASDC). Exogenous addition of either putrescine or spermidine to the odc mutant returned biofilm formation to wild-type levels. Low levels of exogenous spermidine restored growth to CASDH and CASDC mutants, facilitating weak biofilm formation, but this was dampened with increasing concentrations. Norspermidine rescued growth for the odc, CASDH, and CASDC mutants but did not significantly affect their biofilm phenotypes, whereas in the wild type, it stimulated biofilm formation and depressed spermidine levels. The odc mutant produced elevated levels of cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), exogenous polyamines modulated these levels, and expression of a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase reversed the enhanced biofilm formation. Prior work revealed accumulation of the precursors putrescine and carboxyspermidine in the CASDH and CASDC mutants, respectively, but unexpectedly, both mutants accumulated homospermidine; here, we show that this requires a homospermidine synthase (hss) homologue. IMPORTANCE Polyamines are small, positively charged metabolites that are nearly ubiquitous in cellular life. They are often essential in eukaryotes and more variably in bacteria. Polyamines have been reported to influence the surface-attached biofilm

  2. Polyamine Metabolism and Osmotic Stress 1

    PubMed Central

    Tiburcio, Antonio Fernández; Kaur-Sawhney, Ravindar; Galston, Arthur W.

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted to improve the viability of cereal mesophyll protoplasts by pretreatment of leaves with dl-α-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific `suicide' inhibitor of the enzyme (arginine decarboxylase) responsible for their osmotically induced putrescine accumulation. Leaf pretreatment with DFMA before a 6 hour osmotic shock caused a 45% decrease of putrescine and a 2-fold increase of spermine titer. After 136 hours of osmotic stress, putrescine titer in DFMA-pretreated leaves increased by only 50%, but spermidine and spermine titers increased dramatically by 3.2- and 6-fold, respectively. These increases in higher polyamines could account for the reduced chlorophyll loss and enhanced ability of pretreated leaves to incorporate tritiated thymidine, uridine, and leucine into macromolecules. Pretreatment with DFMA significantly improved the overall viability of the protoplasts isolated from these leaves. The results support the view that the osmotically induced rise in putrescine and blockage of its conversion to higher polyamines may contribute to the lack of sustained cell division in cereal mesophyll protoplasts, although other undefined factors must also play a major role. PMID:11539087

  3. Spermidine-triggered autophagy ameliorates memory during aging.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, Stephan J; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Gupta, Varun K; Bhukel, Anuradha; Mertel, Sara; Eisenberg, Tobias; Madeo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The aging process drives the progressive deterioration of an organism and is thus subject to a complex interplay of regulatory and executing mechanisms. Our understanding of this process eventually aims at the delay and/or prevention of age-related pathologies, among them the age-dependent decrease in cognitive performance (e.g., learning and memory). Using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which combines a generally high mechanistic conservation with an efficient experimental access regarding aging and memory studies, we have recently unveiled a protective function of polyamines (including spermidine) against age-induced memory impairment (AMI). The flies' age-dependent decline of aversive olfactory memory, an established model for AMI, can be rescued by both pharmacological treatment with spermidine and genetic modulation that increases endogenous polyamine levels. Notably, we find that this effect strictly depends on autophagy, which is remarkable in light of the fact that autophagy is considered a key regulator of aging in other contexts. Given that polyamines in general and spermidine in particular are endogenous metabolites, our findings place them as candidate target substances for AMI treatment.

  4. Effects of polyamines on cellular innate immune response and the expression of immune-relevant genes in gilthead seabream leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Tovar-Ramírez, Dariel; Meseguer, José; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the polyamines spermidine and spermine, along with the diamine putrescine, are involved in many cellular processes and they are known to play an important role in the control of the innate immune response in higher vertebrates. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have focused on their immunological implications in other vertebrates, such as fish. For this reason, the effects of polyamines on the cellular innate immune response and immune-related gene expression were evaluated in vitro, using seabream head-kidney leucocytes (HKL). For this study, head-kidney leucocytes were incubated with the polyamines putrescine, spermine or spermidine (0.005 and 0.0025%) for 0.50, 1, 2 or 4 h. No significant effect was observed on either leucocyte viability or the innate cellular immune responses (peroxidase content and phagocytic and respiratory burst activities). The polyamines produced an increase in respiratory burst and phagocytic ability when leucocytes were incubated principally with putrescine (0.005 and 0.0025%) after 2 and 4 h of the experiment. Finally, the expression levels of immune-associated genes (IgM, MHCIα, MHCIIα, C3, IL-1β, CD8, Hep, NCCRP-1, CSF-1 and TLR) were quantified by real-time PCR and some of them (C3, MHCI, CD8, IgM and Hep) were up-regulated by the higher polyamine concentration. Further studies are needed to ascertain how polyamines control the immune system of seabream as well as which mechanisms are involved.

  5. Spermidine is bound to a unique protein in early sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Canellakis, Z.N.; Bondy, P.K.; Infante, A.A.

    1985-11-01

    Spermidine is rapidly taken up and becomes bound to protein during the very early hours of sea urchin embryogenesis. During the first 6 hr after fertilization of freshly obtained sea urchin eggs (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), which are incubated in the presence of exogenous (/sup 3/H)-spermidine, up to 7% of the total cell-associated spermidine appears uniquely as spermidine bound in macromolecular form. This unique protein containing spermidine migrates as a single radioactive band in gel electrophoresis. It has a Mr of approximately equal to 30,000 and is readily distinguishable from the protein initiation factor eIF-4D, which has a Mr of 18,000, the only other identifiable protein known to date to be posttranslationally modified by polyamines.

  6. Genotype differences in the metabolism of proline and polyamines under moderate drought in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Montesinos-Pereira, D; Barrameda-Medina, Y; Romero, L; Ruiz, J M; Sánchez-Rodríguez, E

    2014-11-01

    Water stress is one of the most important factors limiting the growth and productivity of crops. The implication of compatible osmolytes such as proline and polyamines in osmotic adjustment has been widely described in numerous plants species under stress conditions. In the present study, we investigated the response of five cherry tomato cultivars (Solanum lycopersicum L.) subjected to moderate water stress in order to shed light on the involvement of proline and polyamine metabolism in the mechanisms of tolerance to moderate water stress. Our results indicate that the most water stress-resistant cultivar (Zarina) had increased degradation of proline associated with increased polyamine synthesis, with a higher concentration of spermidine and spermine under stress conditions. In contrast, Josefina, the cultivar most sensitive to water stress, showed a proline accumulation associated with increased synthesis after being subjected to stress. In turn, in this cultivar, no rise in polyamine synthesis was detected. Therefore, all the data appear to indicate that polyamine metabolism is more involved in the tolerance response to moderate water stress.

  7. Polyamine levels during the development of zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata

    Treesearch

    Rakesh Minocha; Dale R. Smith; Cathie Reeves; Kevin D. Steele; Subhash C. Minocha

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the cellular content of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were compared at different stages of development in zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata D. Don. During embryo development, both the zygotic and the somatic embryos showed a steady increase in spermidine content, with either a small decrease or no...

  8. Significance of targeting polyamine metabolism as an antineoplastic strategy: unique targets for polyamine analogues.

    PubMed

    Casero, Robert A; Frydman, Benjamin; Stewart, Tracy Murray; Woster, Patrick M

    2005-01-01

    The polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are naturally occurring polycationic alkylamines that are absolutely required for eukaryotic cell growth. Importantly, the polyamine metabolic pathway, as well as the requirement of polyamines for cell growth, is frequently dysregulated in cancer cells, thus providing a unique set of targets for therapeutic intervention. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is frequently up-regulated in preneoplastic cells, and has been implicated as an oncogene in multiple tumor types. Several model systems have demonstrated that inhibition of ODC's enzymatic activity and down-regulation of its expression are rational strategies for both chemotherapy and chemoprevention. Specific inhibitors of ODC, most notably 2-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), have been used experimentally to validate polyamine metabolism as an antineoplastic strategy. However, multiple biochemical and clinical limitations to these ODC-targeting strategies minimize their value as therapeutic tools. Included among these limitations are poor bioavailability of the inhibitor, and the compensatory up-regulation of polyamine metabolism and transport that allow tumor cells to escape the growth inhibitory effects of blockers specifically targeting ODC. As a strategy to overcome the limitations of direct enzyme inhibition, several groups have pursued the design of polyamine analogues that specifically target the dysregulated polyamine metabolism found in tumors. These analogues have been developed specifically to target the specific polyamine transporter, thus competing with circulating natural polyamines. Additionally, most of the analogues examined thus far maintain the regulatory function of the natural polyamines, but are unable to functionally substitute for them in promoting growth. Specifically, individual analogues have demonstrated the ability to down-regulate each of the biosynthetic enzymes without causing

  9. Inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Y; Kar, S; Wiest, L; Pegg, A E; Carr, B I

    1997-01-01

    We screened genes responsive to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta 1) protein in a human hepatoma cell line (Hep3B) using a PCR-mediated differential display technique, in order to investigate the mechanisms involved in TGF-beta-induced growth suppression. We found a gene that was down-regulated by TGF-beta 1 to be completely identical in an approx. 620 bp segment to the gene for the enzyme spermidine synthase, which mediates the conversion of putrescine into spermidine. Both spermidine synthase mRNA expression and its enzyme activity were decreased after TGF-beta 1 treatment of Hep3B cells. The inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by TGF-beta 1 protein was also observed in other hepatoma cell lines. The expression of genes for other biosynthetic enzymes in polyamine metabolism (ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase) was also inhibited to the same extent as for spermidine synthase, while the gene expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, a catabolic enzyme, was relatively resistant to TGF-beta 1. Spermine levels in Hep3B cells were decreased by TGF-beta 1 treatment, although the levels of spermidine and putrescine were unchanged, probably due to compensation by remaining spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity. Exogenously added spermidine or spermine, but not putrescine, partially antagonized the growth-inhibitor effects of TGF-beta 1 on Hep3B cells. Our data suggest that down-regulation of gene expression of the enzymes involved in polyamine metabolism, including spermidine synthase, may be associated with the mechanism of TGF-beta-induced growth suppression. PMID:9020892

  10. Age dependency of the metabolic conversion of polyamines into amino acids in IMR-90 human embryonic lung diploid fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.Y.; Chang, Z.

    1986-07-01

    When radioactive polyamines (putrescine or spermidine) were incubated with mammalian cells in tissue culture, the radioactivity was incorporated into cellular proteins via two different metabolic pathways; one is metabolic labeling of an 18,000-dalton protein via hypusine formation, and the other is general protein synthesis employing radioactive amino acids derived from biodegradation of polyamines via GABA shunt and Krebs cycle. Aminoguanidine, a potent inhibitor of diamine oxidase, blocked the metabolic conversion of polyamines to amino acids but had no effect on the metabolic labeling of the 18,000-dalton protein. The authors have investigated these two polyamine-associated biochemical events in IMR-90 human diploid fibroblasts as a function of their population doubling level (PDL). They found that (1) the metabolic labeling of the 18,000-dalton protein was about two-fold greater in young cells (PDL = 22) than that in old cells (PDL = 48), and (2) the metabolic labeling of other cellular proteins, employing amino acids derived from putrescine via polyamine catabolic pathway, was more than six-fold greater in the old cells (PDL = 48) than in the young cells (PDL = 22). Since the rate of protein synthesis was about 1.4-fold higher in the young cells as compared to the old cells, their data indicated that the activity of catabolic conversion of putrescine (or spermidine) to amino acids in old IMR-90 cells was about eight-fold greater than that in young cells. This remarkable increase of polyamine catabolism and the slight decrease of metabolic labeling of the 18,000-dalton protein were also observed in cell strains derived from patients with premature aging disease.

  11. Carboxyspermidine decarboxylase of the prominent intestinal microbiota species Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is required for spermidine biosynthesis and contributes to normal growth.

    PubMed

    Sakanaka, Mikiyasu; Sugiyama, Yuta; Kitakata, Aya; Katayama, Takane; Kurihara, Shin

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have indicated that polyamines produced by gut microbes significantly influence host health; however, little is known about the microbial polyamine biosynthetic pathway except for that in Escherichia coli, a minor component of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Here, we investigated the polyamine biosynthetic ability of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a predominant gastrointestinal bacterial species in humans. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that B. thetaiotaomicron cultured in polyamine-free minimal medium accumulated spermidine intracellularly at least during the mid-log and stationary phases. Deletion of the gene encoding a putative carboxyspermidine decarboxylase (casdc), which converts carboxyspermidine to spermidine, resulted in the depletion of spermidine and loss of decarboxylase activity in B. thetaiotaomicron. The Δcasdc strain also showed growth defects in polyamine-free growth medium. The complemented Δcasdc strain restored the spermidine biosynthetic ability, decarboxylase activity, and growth. These results indicate that carboxyspermidine decarboxylase is essential for synthesizing spermidine in B. thetaiotaomicron and contributes to the growth of this species.

  12. Spermidine: a novel autophagy inducer and longevity elixir.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Frank; Eisenberg, Tobias; Büttner, Sabrina; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Kroemer, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Spermidine is a ubiquitous polycation that is synthesized from putrescine and serves as a precursor of spermine. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine all are polyamines that participate in multiple known and unknown biological processes. Exogenous supply of spermidine prolongs the life span of several model organisms including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans) and flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and significantly reduces age-related oxidative protein damage in mice, indicating that this agent may act as a universal anti-aging drug. Spermidine induces autophagy in cultured yeast and mammalian cells, as well as in nematodes and flies. Genetic inactivation of genes essential for autophagy abolishes the life span-prolonging effect of spermidine in yeast, nematodes and flies. These findings complement expanding evidence that autophagy mediates cytoprotection against a variety of noxious agents and can confer longevity when induced at the whole-organism level. We hypothesize that increased autophagic turnover of cytoplasmic organelles or long-lived proteins is involved in most if not all life span-prolonging therapies.

  13. Induction of phase 2 enzymes by serum oxidized polyamines through activation of Nrf2: effect of the polyamine metabolite acrolein.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Kensler, Thomas W; Casero, Robert A

    2003-06-06

    The naturally occurring polycationic polyamines including putrescine, spermidine, and spermine play an important role in cell growth, differentiation, and gene expression. However, circulating polyamines are potential substrates for several oxidizing enzymes including copper-containing serum amine oxidase. These enzymes are capable of oxidizing serum polyamines to several toxic metabolites including aldehydes and H(2)O(2). In this study, we investigated the effects of polyamines as inducers of phase 2 enzymes and other genes that promote cell survival in a cell culture system in the presence of bovine serum. Spermidine and spermine (50 microM) increased NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) activity up to 3-fold in murine keratinocyte PE cells. Transcript levels for glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1, GST M1, NQO1, gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase regulatory subunit, and UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1A6 were significantly increased by spermidine and this effect was mediated through the antioxidant response element (ARE). The ARE from the mouse GST A1 promoter was activated about 9-fold by spermine and 5-fold by spermidine treatment, but could be inhibited by the amine oxidase inhibitor, aminoguanidine, suggesting that acrolein or hydrogen peroxide generated from polyamines by serum amine oxidase may be mediators for phase 2 enzyme induction. Elevations of ARE-luciferase expression and NQO1 enzyme activity by spermidine were not affected by catalase, while both were completely repressed by aldehyde dehydrogenase treatment. Direct addition of acrolein to PE cells induced multiple phase 2 genes and elevated nuclear levels of Nrf2, a transcription factor that binds to the ARE. Expression of mutant Nrf2 repressed the activation of the ARE-luciferase reporter by polyamines and acrolein. These results indicate that spermidine and spermine increase the expression of phase 2 genes in cells grown in culture through activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway by generating the sulfhydryl

  14. Spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase: a key metabolic regulator.

    PubMed

    Pegg, Anthony E

    2008-06-01

    Spermidine/spermine-N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) regulates cellular polyamine content. Its acetylated products are either excreted from the cell or oxidized by acetylpolyamine oxidase. Since polyamines play critical roles in normal and neoplastic growth and in ion channel regulation, SSAT is a key enzyme in these processes. SSAT is very highly regulated. Its content is adjusted in response to alterations in polyamine content to maintain polyamine homeostasis. Certain polyamine analogs can mimic the induction of SSAT and cause a loss of normal polyamines. This may have utility in cancer chemotherapy. SSAT activity is also induced via a variety of other stimuli, including toxins, hormones, cytokines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, natural products, and stress pathways, and by ischemia-reperfusion injury. These increases are initiated by alterations in Sat1 gene transcription reinforced by alterations at the other regulatory steps, including protein turnover, mRNA processing, and translation. Transgenic manipulation of SSAT activity has revealed that SSAT activity links polyamine metabolism to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by means of alterations in the content of acetyl-CoA and ATP. A high level of SSAT stimulates flux through the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, since biosynthetic enzymes are induced in response to the fall in polyamines. This sets up a futile cycle in which ATP is used to generate S-adenosylmethionine for polyamine biosynthesis and acetyl-CoA is consumed in the acetylation reaction. A variety of other effects of increased SSAT activity include death of pancreatic cells, blockage of regenerative tissue growth, behavioral changes, keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, and hair loss. These are very likely due to changes in polyamine and putrescine levels, although increased oxidative stress via the oxidation of acetylated polyamines may also contribute. Recently, it was found that the SSAT protein and/or a related protein, thialysine

  15. Polyamine Metabolism in Ripening Tomato Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajeev; Davies, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele a/c) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (A/c) at the ripe stage (ARG Dibble, PJ Davies, MA Mutschler [1988] Plant Physiol 86: 338-340). Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-a/c—a near isogenic line possessing the allele a/c, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in a/c pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and a/c fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of [1,4-14C]putrescine and [terminal labeled-3H]spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-a/c fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in a/c fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in a/c fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase. PMID:16667978

  16. A novel inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase: a twist in the tail.

    PubMed

    Burger, Pieter B; Williams, Marni; Sprenger, Janina; Reeksting, Shaun B; Botha, Mariëtte; Müller, Ingrid B; Joubert, Fourie; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Louw, Abraham I

    2015-02-05

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most pathogenic of the human malaria parasite species and a major cause of death in Africa. It's resistance to most of the current drugs accentuates the pressing need for new chemotherapies. Polyamine metabolism of the parasite is distinct from the human pathway making it an attractive target for chemotherapeutic development. Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase (PfSpdS) catalyzes the synthesis of spermidine and spermine. It is a major polyamine flux-determining enzyme and spermidine is a prerequisite for the post-translational activation of P. falciparum eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (elF5A). The most potent inhibitors of eukaryotic SpdS's are not specific for PfSpdS. 'Dynamic' receptor-based pharmacophore models were generated from published crystal structures of SpdS with different ligands. This approach takes into account the inherent flexibility of the active site, which reduces the entropic penalties associated with ligand binding. Four dynamic pharmacophore models were developed and two inhibitors, (1R,4R)-(N1-(3-aminopropyl)-trans-cyclohexane-1,4-diamine (compound 8) and an analogue, N-(3-aminopropyl)-cyclohexylamine (compound 9), were identified. A crystal structure containing compound 8 was solved and confirmed the in silico prediction that its aminopropyl chain traverses the catalytic centre in the presence of the byproduct of catalysis, 5'-methylthioadenosine. The IC50 value of compound 9 is in the same range as that of the most potent inhibitors of PfSpdS, S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thio-octane (AdoDATO) and 4MCHA and 100-fold lower than that of compound 8. Compound 9 was originally identified as a mammalian spermine synthase inhibitor and does not inhibit mammalian SpdS. This implied that these two compounds bind in an orientation where their aminopropyl chains face the putrescine binding site in the presence of the substrate, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine. The higher binding affinity and lower

  17. Multivalent ion-DNA interaction: Neutron scattering estimates of polyamine distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, S. S.; Egelhaaf, S. U.; Bhuiyan, L. B.; Outhwaite, C. W.; Bratko, D.; van der Maarel, J. R. C.

    1999-12-01

    The partial structure factors pertaining to DNA-DNA, DNA-polyamine, and polyamine-polyamine density correlations in DNA fragment (contour length 54 nm) solutions have been measured with small angle neutron scattering and contrast matching in water. The effect of the polyamines putrescine and spermidine on the DNA molecular structure is gauged from the limiting behavior of the DNA-DNA partial structure factor at high values of momentum transfer. The double layer structure and the extent to which the polyamines can approach the DNA are derived from the DNA-polyamine and polyamine-polyamine partial structure factors. For this purpose, the structure factors are interpreted with the correlation functions derived from the classical Poisson-Boltzmann and the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equations and/or Monte Carlo simulation. For simple salt free DNA with tetramethylammonium or putrescine counterions, spatial fluctuations in the charge density are discussed in terms of the charge structure factor. The structural arrangement of putrescine and spermidine can be fully rationalized in terms of their valence. In the case of spermidine, it is necessary to include ionic correlation effects, but this could be accomplished by modeling the ligands as hard spheres. The polyamines have no detectable effect on the DNA molecular structure and are too large to penetrate the grooves to any significant extent. These results imply that DNA condensation in the presence of polyamines is largely governed by electrostatic interactions, rather than by the binding of the multivalent cation per se.

  18. Stress and polyamine metabolism in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Santiago, Laura; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2013-01-01

    Fungi, as well as the rest of living organisms must deal with environmental challenges such as stressful stimuli. Fungi are excellent models to study the general mechanisms of the response to stress, because of their simple, but conserved, signal-transduction and metabolic pathways that are often equivalent to those present in other eukaryotic systems. A factor that has been demonstrated to be involved in these responses is polyamine metabolism, essentially of the three most common polyamines: putrescine, spermidine and spermine. The gathered evidences on this subject suggest that polyamines are able to control cellular signal transduction, as well as to modulate protein-protein interactions. In the present review, we will address the recent advances on the study of fungal metabolism of polyamines, ranging from mutant characterization to potential mechanism of action during different kinds of stress in selected fungal models. PMID:24790970

  19. Stress and Polyamine Metabolism in Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-Santiago, Laura; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2013-12-01

    Fungi, as well as the rest of living organisms must deal with environmental challenges such as stressful stimuli. Fungi are excellent models to study the general mechanisms of the response to stress, because of their simple, but conserved, signal-transduction and metabolic pathways that are often equivalent to those present in other eukaryotic systems. A factor that has been demonstrated to be involved in these responses is polyamine metabolism, essentially of the three most common polyamines: putrescine, spermidine and spermine. The gathered evidences on this subject suggest that polyamines are able to control cellular signal transduction, as well as to modulate protein-protein interactions. In the present review, we will address the recent advances on the study of fungal metabolism of polyamines, ranging from mutant characterization to potential mechanism of action during different kinds of stress in selected fungal models.

  20. Exogenous polyamines promote osteogenic differentiation by reciprocally regulating osteogenic and adipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mon-Juan; Chen, Yuhsin; Huang, Yuan-Pin; Hsu, Yi-Chiang; Chiang, Lan-Hsin; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Wang, Gwo-Jaw

    2013-12-01

    Polyamines are naturally occurring organic polycations that are ubiquitous in all organisms, and are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation. Although polyamines are involved in various cellular processes, their roles in stem cell differentiation are relatively unexplored. In this study, we found that exogenous polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, promoted osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) without inducing cell death or apoptosis. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the mRNA level of osteogenic genes, including Runx2, ALP, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, were up-regulated by exogenous polyamines. When hBMSCs were cultured at high cell density favoring adipocyte formation, exogenous polyamines resulted in down-regulation of adipogenic genes such as PPARγ, aP2, and adipsin. Extracellular matrix mineralization, a marker for osteoblast maturation, was enhanced in the presence of exogenous polyamines, while lipid accumulation, an indication of adipogenic differentiation, was attenuated. Exogenous polyamines increased the mRNA expression of polyamine-modulated factor 1 (PMF-1) and its downstream effector, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), while that of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, was suppressed. These results lead to possible connections between polyamine metabolism and osteogenic differentiation pathways. To summarize, this study provides evidence for the involvement of polyamines in osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs, and is the first to demonstrate that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation are reciprocally regulated by exogenous polyamines.

  1. Targeting polyamine metabolism and function in cancer and other hyperproliferative diseases.

    PubMed

    Casero, Robert A; Marton, Laurence J

    2007-05-01

    The polyamines spermidine and spermine and their diamine precursor putrescine are naturally occurring, polycationic alkylamines that are essential for eukaryotic cell growth. The requirement for and the metabolism of polyamines are frequently dysregulated in cancer and other hyperproliferative diseases, thus making polyamine function and metabolism attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Recent advances in our understanding of polyamine function, metabolic regulation, and differences between normal cells and tumour cells with respect to polyamine biology, have reinforced the interest in this target-rich pathway for drug development.

  2. Biogenic and Synthetic Polyamines Bind Cationic Dendrimers

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Jean-Sebastian; Bourassa, Phillipe; Thomas, Thekkumkattil John; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic polyamines are essential for cell growth and differentiation, while polyamine analogues exert antitumor activity in multiple experimental model systems, including breast and lung cancer. Dendrimers are widely used for drug delivery in vitro and in vivo. We report the bindings of biogenic polyamines, spermine (spm), and spermidine (spmd), and their synthetic analogues, 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane.4HCl (BE-333) and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane.5HCl (BE-3333) to dendrimers of different compositions, mPEG-PAMAM (G3), mPEG-PAMAM (G4) and PAMAM (G4). FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to analyze polyamine binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of polyamine complexation on dendrimer stability and conformation. Structural analysis showed that polyamines bound dendrimers through both hydrophobic and hydrophilic contacts with overall binding constants of Kspm-mPEG-G3 = 7.6×104 M−1, Kspm-mPEG-PAMAM-G4 = 4.6×104 M−1, Kspm-PAMAM-G4 = 6.6×104 M−1, Kspmd-mPEG-G3 = 1.0×105 M−1, Kspmd-mPEG-PAMAM-G4 = 5.5×104 M−1, Kspmd-PAMAM-G4 = 9.2×104 M−1, KBE-333-mPEG-G3 = 4.2×104 M−1, KBe-333-mPEG-PAMAM-G4 = 3.2×104 M−1, KBE-333-PAMAM-G4 = 3.6×104 M−1, KBE-3333-mPEG-G3 = 2.2×104 M−1, KBe-3333-mPEG-PAMAM-G4 = 2.4×104 M−1, KBE-3333-PAMAM-G4 = 2.3×104 M−1. Biogenic polyamines showed stronger affinity toward dendrimers than those of synthetic polyamines, while weaker interaction was observed as polyamine cationic charges increased. The free binding energies calculated from docking studies were: −3.2 (spermine), −3.5 (spermidine) and −3.03 (BE-3333) kcal/mol, with the following order of binding affinity: spermidine-PAMAM-G-4>spermine-PAMMAM-G4>BE-3333-PAMAM-G4 consistent with spectroscopic data. Our results suggest that dendrimers can act as carrier vehicles for delivering antitumor polyamine analogues to target tissues. PMID:22558341

  3. Biogenic and synthetic polyamines bind cationic dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, Jean-Sebastian; Bourassa, Phillipe; Thomas, Thekkumkattil John; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic polyamines are essential for cell growth and differentiation, while polyamine analogues exert antitumor activity in multiple experimental model systems, including breast and lung cancer. Dendrimers are widely used for drug delivery in vitro and in vivo. We report the bindings of biogenic polyamines, spermine (spm), and spermidine (spmd), and their synthetic analogues, 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane.4HCl (BE-333) and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane.5HCl (BE-3333) to dendrimers of different compositions, mPEG-PAMAM (G3), mPEG-PAMAM (G4) and PAMAM (G4). FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to analyze polyamine binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of polyamine complexation on dendrimer stability and conformation. Structural analysis showed that polyamines bound dendrimers through both hydrophobic and hydrophilic contacts with overall binding constants of K(spm-mPEG-G3) = 7.6 × 10(4) M(-1), K(spm-mPEG-PAMAM-G4) = 4.6 × 10(4) M(-1), K(spm-PAMAM-G4) = 6.6 × 10(4) M(-1), K(spmd-mPEG-G3) = 1.0 × 10(5) M(-1), K(spmd-mPEG-PAMAM-G4) = 5.5 × 10(4) M(-1), K(spmd-PAMAM-G4) = 9.2 × 10(4) M(-1), K(BE-333-mPEG-G3) = 4.2 × 10(4) M(-1), K(Be-333-mPEG-PAMAM-G4) = 3.2 × 10(4) M(-1), K(BE-333-PAMAM-G4) = 3.6 × 10(4) M(-1), K(BE-3333-mPEG-G3) = 2.2 × 10(4) M(-1), K(Be-3333-mPEG-PAMAM-G4) = 2.4 × 10(4) M(-1), K(BE-3333-PAMAM-G4) = 2.3 × 10(4) M(-1). Biogenic polyamines showed stronger affinity toward dendrimers than those of synthetic polyamines, while weaker interaction was observed as polyamine cationic charges increased. The free binding energies calculated from docking studies were: -3.2 (spermine), -3.5 (spermidine) and -3.03 (BE-3333) kcal/mol, with the following order of binding affinity: spermidine-PAMAM-G-4>spermine-PAMMAM-G4>BE-3333-PAMAM-G4 consistent with spectroscopic data. Our results suggest that dendrimers can act as carrier vehicles for delivering antitumor polyamine analogues to target tissues.

  4. Purification and characterization of polyamine oxidase from Ascaris suum.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, S; Walter, R D

    1992-01-01

    The interconversion of polyamines in the parasite nematode Ascaris suum by a novel type of polyamine oxidase was demonstrated. The nematode enzyme was clearly distinguishable from monoamine and diamine oxidases as well as from the mammalian polyamine oxidase, as shown by the use of the specific inhibitors pargyline, aminoguanidine and MDL 72527 respectively. All three inhibitors had no effect on the parasite polyamine oxidase, and the enzyme did not accept diamines such as putrescine, cadaverine or histamine as substrates. The parasite polyamine oxidase selectively oxidizes spermine and spermidine but not N-acetylated polyamines, whereas the mammalian tissue-type polyamine oxidase shows preference for the N-acetylated polyamines. These results suggest a regulatory function of the nematode polyamine oxidase in the degradation and interconversion of polyamines in parasite nematodes. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by gel filtration, preparative isoelectric focusing and subsequent affinity chromatography on spermine- and berenil-Sepharose 4B. With respect to reaction type, the prosthetic group FAD, the molecular mass (66 kDa) and the contents of thiol and carbonyl groups, the polyamine oxidase from A. suum is similar to the isofunctional enzyme of mammalian tissue. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1567380

  5. The covalent attachment of polyamines to proteins in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Votyakova, T V; Wallace, H M; Dunbar, B; Wilson, S B

    1999-02-01

    Plant mitochondria from both potato and mung bean incorporated radioactivity into acid insoluble material when incubated with labelled polyamines (spermine, spermidine and putrescine). Extensive washing of mitochondrial precipitates with trichloroacetic acid and the excess of cold polyamine failed to remove bound radioactivity. Addition of nonradioactive polyamine stopped further incorporation of radioactivity but did not release radioactivity already bound. The radioactivity is incorporated into the membrane fraction. The labelling process has all the features of an enzymatic reaction: it is long lasting with distinctive kinetics peculiar to each polyamine, it is temperature dependent and is affected by N-ethylmaleimide. The latter inhibits the incorporation of putrescine but stimulates the incorporation of spermine and spermidine. Treatment of prelabelled mitochondria with pepsin releases bound radioactivity thus indicating protein to be the ligand for the attachment of polyamines. HPLC of mitochondrial hydrolysates revealed that the radioactivity bound to mitochondria is polyamines; traces of acetyl polyamines were also found in some samples. On autoradiograms of SDS/PAGE gels several radioactive bands of proteins were detected. Protein sequencing of labelled spots from a 2D gel gave a sequence which was 60% identical to catalase. We suggest that the attachment of polyamines to mitochondrial proteins occurs cotranslationally possibly via transglutaminases.

  6. Role of polyamines in peach fruit development and storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jihong; Nada, Kazuyoshi; Pang, Xiaoming; Honda, Chikako; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the role of polyamines in pre- and post-harvest fruit development of 'Akatsuki' peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.) we measured polyamine concentrations, activities of polyamine biosynthetic enzymes and expression of genes encoding these enzymes. Concentrations of the free polyamines, putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) in pre-harvest fruit peaked 16 days after full bloom (DAF) and then progressively decreased until harvest with the exception of Put, which showed a second peak at 94 DAF, just before the onset of ethylene production. In post-harvest fruit, minor changes in concentrations of Spd and Spm were observed, whereas Put concentration peaked on the harvest day, followed by an abrupt decrease and a subsequent 2-fold increase, which was opposite to the fluctuating pattern of ethylene production. Activities of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) peaked during the first stage of fruit development and then decreased until 80 DAF, after which the activities were below detection limits, suggesting that Put is synthesized during the early stage of fruit development. Activity of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) decreased progressively until the end of S2. Expression levels of five putative polyamine biosynthetic genes, ADC, ODC, SAMDC, spermidine synthase (SPDS) and spermine synthase (SPMS), in pre-harvest and post-harvest fruit did not coincide precisely with the observed changes in enzymatic activities and polyamine concentrations. The possible role of polyamines during peach fruit development and the relationship between polyamines and ethylene biosynthesis are discussed.

  7. Characterization of spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative Solanum richardii Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Whitaker, Bruce D; Trouth, Frances; Shangguan, Lingfei; Dong, Wen; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant produces a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) that have an important role in plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, we identified and characterized a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT) from eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its wild relative S. richardii, designated as SmSHT and SrSHT, respectively. SmSHT was abundant in flowers and fruits, whereas the level of SrSHT was remarkably low in all tissues. Heat-shock/drought treatment stimulated the expression of SmSHT in both leaves and fruits, indicating its involvement in plant stress response. Both SHT polypeptides had extremely high identity with just five amino-acid substitutions. Recombinant SmSHT catalyzed the synthesis of mono-, bi- and tri- acylated polyamines. Using caffeoyl-CoA as the acyl donor, SmSHT preferred spermidine as the acyl acceptor. When spermidine was the acyl acceptor, the donor preference order for SmSHT was caffeoyl-CoA>feruloyl-CoA>ρ-coumaroyl-CoA. SrSHT exhibited the same substrate specificity as SmSHT, yet exhibited significantly higher catalytic activity than SmSHT. For example, under caffeoyl-CoA and spermidine, Kcat of SrSHT was 37.3% higher than SmSHT. Molecular modeling suggests that five amino-acid substitutions in SrSHT result in four alterations in their predicted 3D structures. In particular, the conserved Lys402 adjacent to the DFGWG motif, and Cys200 in the crossover loop in SmSHT were replaced by Glu and Ser in SrSHT. These substitutions may contribute to the enhanced activity in SrSHT. Our study provides a platform to generate HCAA rich fruits for eggplant and other solanaceous crops. PMID:28018606

  8. Characterization of spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferases from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and its wild relative Solanum richardii Dunal.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Yang, Tianbao; Whitaker, Bruce D; Trouth, Frances; Shangguan, Lingfei; Dong, Wen; Jurick, Wayne M

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant produces a variety of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) that have an important role in plant development and adaptation to environmental changes. In this study, we identified and characterized a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT) from eggplant (Solanum melongena) and its wild relative S. richardii, designated as SmSHT and SrSHT, respectively. SmSHT was abundant in flowers and fruits, whereas the level of SrSHT was remarkably low in all tissues. Heat-shock/drought treatment stimulated the expression of SmSHT in both leaves and fruits, indicating its involvement in plant stress response. Both SHT polypeptides had extremely high identity with just five amino-acid substitutions. Recombinant SmSHT catalyzed the synthesis of mono-, bi- and tri- acylated polyamines. Using caffeoyl-CoA as the acyl donor, SmSHT preferred spermidine as the acyl acceptor. When spermidine was the acyl acceptor, the donor preference order for SmSHT was caffeoyl-CoA>feruloyl-CoA>ρ-coumaroyl-CoA. SrSHT exhibited the same substrate specificity as SmSHT, yet exhibited significantly higher catalytic activity than SmSHT. For example, under caffeoyl-CoA and spermidine, Kcat of SrSHT was 37.3% higher than SmSHT. Molecular modeling suggests that five amino-acid substitutions in SrSHT result in four alterations in their predicted 3D structures. In particular, the conserved Lys402 adjacent to the DFGWG motif, and Cys200 in the crossover loop in SmSHT were replaced by Glu and Ser in SrSHT. These substitutions may contribute to the enhanced activity in SrSHT. Our study provides a platform to generate HCAA rich fruits for eggplant and other solanaceous crops.

  9. Abscisic acid, H2O2 and nitric oxide interactions mediated cold-induced S-adenosylmethionine synthetase in Medicago sativa subsp. falcata that confers cold tolerance through up-regulating polyamine oxidation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenfei; Tan, Jiali; Zhuo, Chunliu; Wang, Congying; Xiang, Bin; Wang, Zengyu

    2014-06-01

    S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) is the key enzyme catalysing the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor of polyamines and ethylene. To investigate the potential role of SAMS in cold tolerance, we isolated MfSAMS1 from the cold-tolerant germplasm Medicago sativa subsp. falcata and analysed the association of SAM-derived polyamines with cold tolerance. The expression of MfSAMS1 in leaves was greatly induced by cold, abscisic acid (ABA), H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO). Our data revealed that ABA, H2O2 and NO interactions mediated the cold-induced MfSAMS1 expression and cold acclimation in falcata. SAM, putrescine, spermidine and spermine levels, ethylene production and polyamine oxidation were sequentially altered in response to cold, indicating that SAMS-derived SAM is preferentially used in polyamine synthesis and homeostasis during cold acclimation. Antioxidant enzyme activities were also induced in response to cold and showed correlation with polyamine oxidation. Overexpression of MfSAMS1 in tobacco resulted in elevated SAM levels, but polyamine levels and ethylene production in the transgenic plants were not significantly changed. Compared to the wild type, transgenic plants had increased levels of apoplastic H2O2, higher transcript levels of genes involved in polyamine synthesis and oxidation, and higher activities of polyamine oxidation and antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that overexpression of MfSAMS1 promoted polyamine synthesis and oxidation, which in turn improved H2 O2 -induced antioxidant protection, as a result enhanced tolerance to freezing and chilling stress in transgenic plants. This is the first report demonstrating that SAMS plays an important role in plant tolerance to cold via up-regulating polyamine oxidation. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Polyamines and polyamine biosynthesis in cells exposed to hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Gerner, E.W.; Stickney, D.G.; Herman, T.S.; Fuller, D.J.

    1983-02-01

    The issue of how polyamines act to sensitize cultured cells to the lethal effects of hyperthermia was investigated using Chinese hamster cells which were induced to express thermotolerance. Intracellular levels of these naturally occurring polycations were manipulated in certain situations by treating whole cells with methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone), an inhibitor of the S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylases. Exogenous spermine as low as 100 ..mu..M in the culture media dramatically sensitized cells expressing thermotolerance to the lethal effects of subsequent 42/sup 0/C exposures. When thermotolerance was differentially induced in cultures exposed to 42.4/sup 0/C by varying the rate of heating from 37 to 42.4/sup 0/C, the most resistant cells and the highest levels of intracellular spermidine and spermine. This finding was explainable in part by the observation that the putrescine-dependent S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase activity was minimally affected in cells expressng the greatest degree of thermotolerance. When this enzyme activity was inhibited by drug, lowered intracellular polyamine levels did not correspond with subsequent survival responses to heat. Interestingly, cultures treated with methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) 24 hr previous to heat exposure showed a reduced capacity to express rate of heating-induced thermotolerance. Together, these results demonstrate that the polyamines, especially spermidine and spermine, enhance hyperthermia-induced cell killing by some mechanism involving the plasma membrane. Further, our data suggest that methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) can act to affect thermal responses by a mechanism(s) other than modification of intracellular polyamine levels.

  11. Uptake of exogenous spermidine by rat lungs perfused in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Rannels, D.E.; Addison, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Uptake of the polyamine spermidine (SPD) from the pulmonary circulation was characterized by using ventilated rat lungs perfused in situ with Krebs-Henseleit-bicarbonate buffer containing 4.5% bovine serum albumin, 5.6 mM glucose, and 20 amino acids at plasma levels. (/sup 14/C)SPD was accumulated by the lungs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The pathway of SPD uptake exhibited saturation kinetics with an apparent K/sub m/ in the range of 1 ..mu..M and a V/sub max/ of 450-540 pmol/g lung min. SPD uptake was inhibited by the naturally occurring polyamines putrescine and spermine (SPM) and by the inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, methyglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG). Inhibition of SPD uptake by SPM followed competitive kinetics; although MGBG was also a competitive inhibitor of SPD uptake, MGBG was less effective than SPM. These observations indicate that SPD is taken up from the pulmonary circulation by a carrier-mediated pathway that is inhibited by other natural polyamines and by MGBG and exhibits by other natural polyamines and by MGBG and exhibits substrate affinity in the range of plasma SPD concentrations.

  12. Free polyamine content during algal bloom succession in the East China Sea in spring 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Weihong; Li, Caiyan; Miao, Hui

    2017-01-01

    We measured the concentrations and distribution of major polyamines (spermine, putrescine and spermidine) in seawater during successive spring algal blooms in an area of frequent harmful blooms in the East China Sea. Spermine, putrescine, and spermidine concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and ranged from 1-64, 7-81, and 0-19 nmol/L. Spermine was present at the highest concentrations, followed by putrescine and spermidine. In late April, when a diatom bloom dominated by Skeletonema costatum dispersed, polyamine concentrations increased, presumably as a result of diatom decomposition. In early May, when a dinoflagellate bloom dominated by Prorocentrum donghaiense occurred, the polyamine concentration decreased from the level seen in late April. The abundant polyamines that decomposed and were released during the diatom bloom in late April may have promoted the growth of P. donghaiense, resulting in its dominance.

  13. Polyamines and abiotic stress tolerance in plants

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh

    2010-01-01

    Environmental stresses including climate change, especially global warming, are severely affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. It has been estimated that two-thirds of the yield potential of major crops are routinely lost due to the unfavorable environmental factors. On the other hand, the world population is estimated to reach about 10 billion by 2050, which will witness serious food shortages. Therefore, crops with enhanced vigour and high tolerance to various environmental factors should be developed to feed the increasing world population. Maintaining crop yields under adverse environmental stresses is probably the major challenge facing modern agriculture where polyamines can play important role. Polyamines (PAs)(putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are group of phytohormone-like aliphatic amine natural compounds with aliphatic nitrogen structure and present in almost all living organisms including plants. Evidences showed that polyamines are involved in many physiological processes, such as cell growth and development and respond to stress tolerance to various environmental factors. In many cases the relationship of plant stress tolerance was noted with the production of conjugated and bound polyamines as well as stimulation of polyamine oxidation. Therefore, genetic manipulation of crop plants with genes encoding enzymes of polyamine biosynthetic pathways may provide better stress tolerance to crop plants. Furthermore, the exogenous application of PAs is also another option for increasing the stress tolerance potential in plants. Here, we have described the synthesis and role of various polyamines in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. PMID:20592804

  14. Activity of peroxisomal enzymes, and levels of polyamines in LPA-transgenic mice on two different diets

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, Knut A; Brodal, Bjørn P; Svindland, Aud; Osmundsen, Harald; Rønning, Helle; Djurovic, Srdjan; Berg, Kåre

    2005-01-01

    Background In man, elevated levels of plasma lipoprotein (a)(Lp(a)) is a cardiovascular risk factor, and oxidized phospholipids are believed to play a role as modulators of inflammatory processes such as atherosclerosis. Polyamines are potent antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents. It was therefore of interest to examine polyamines and their metabolism in LPA transgenic mice. Concentration of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine as well as the activity of peroxisomal polyamine oxidase and two other peroxisomal enzymes, acyl-CoA oxidase and catalase were measured. The mice were fed either a standard diet or a diet high in fat and cholesterol (HFHC). Some of the mice in each feeding group were in addition given aminoguanidine (AG), a specific inhibitor of diamine oxidase, which catalyses degradation of putrescine, and also inhibits non-enzymatic glycosylation of protein which is implicated in the aetiology of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. Non-transgenic mice were used as controls. Results Intestinal peroxisomal polyamine oxidase activity was significantly higher in LPA transgenic mice than in the non-transgenic mice, while intestinal peroxisomal catalase activity was significantly lower. Hepatic β-oxidation increased in Lp(a) transgenic mice fed the HFHC diet, but not in those on standard diet. Hepatic spermidine concentration was increased in all mice fed the HFHC diet compared to those fed a standard diet, while spermine concentration was decreased. With exception of the group fed only standard diet, transgenic mice showed a lower degree of hepatic steatosis than non-transgenic mice. AG had no significant effect on hepatic steatosis. Conclusion The present results indicate a connection between peroxisomal enzyme activity and the presence of the human LPA gene in the murine genome. The effect may be a result of changes in oxidative processes in lipid metabolism rather than resulting from a direct effect of the LPA construct on the peroximal

  15. Polyamine accumulation in transgenic tomato enhances the tolerance to high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Zou, Yijing; Ding, Shuli; Zhang, Jiajing; Yu, Xiaolin; Cao, Jiashu; Lu, Gang

    2009-05-01

    Polyamines play an important role in plant response to abiotic stress. S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) is one of the key regulatory enzymes in the biosynthesis of polyamines. In order to better understand the effect of regulation of polyamine biosynthesis on the tolerance of high-temperature stress in tomato, SAMDC cDNA isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was introduced into tomato genome by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens through leaf disc transformation. Transgene and expression was confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analyses, respectively. Transgenic plants expressing yeast SAMDC produced 1.7- to 2.4-fold higher levels of spermidine and spermine than wild-type plants under high temperature stress, and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity and the protection of membrane lipid peroxidation was also observed. This subsequently improved the efficiency of CO(2) assimilation and protected the plants from high temperature stress, which indicated that the transgenic tomato presented an enhanced tolerance to high temperature stress (38 degrees C) compared with wild-type plants. Our results demonstrated clearly that increasing polyamine biosynthesis in plants may be a means of creating high temperature-tolerant germplasm.

  16. Influence of vitamin E on polyamine metabolism in ozone-exposed rat lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, N.M.

    1987-06-01

    The influence of vitamin E (E) on lung polyamine metabolism of rats exposed to ozone (O/sub 3/) was examined. Rats fed diets either E-deficient or supplemented with 1000 IU E/kg were exposed to 0.5 +/- 0.05 ppm O/sub 3/ or filtered room air continuously for 5 days. They were then sacrificed and their lungs were analyzed for biochemical changes. Lung E content was strongly associated with the dietary level, and increased (36%, P less than 0.05) after O/sub 3/ exposure only in E-supplemented rats. Lung polyamine metabolism was not affected in the air-control rats by E level, but increased after O/sub 3/ exposure in both dietary groups. The activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase were elevated above air controls. However, the increases were significant only for E-deficient rats when compared to E-supplemented rats. After O/sub 3/ exposure, putrescine increased significantly in both dietary groups; spermidine increased but was significantly higher only in the E-deficient group; and spermine remained unchanged in both dietary groups. Elevated E content of supplemented rat lungs after O/sub 3/ exposure may represent its mobilization under oxidant stress. Increased polyamine metabolism of E-deficient rats suggests either a greater sensitivity to injury by O/sub 3/ or a possible antioxidant function for polyamines compensating for E deficiency.

  17. Polyamine transport in bacteria and yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, K; Kashiwagi, K

    1999-01-01

    The polyamine content of cells is regulated by biosynthesis, degradation and transport. In Escherichia coli, the genes for three different polyamine transport systems have been cloned and characterized. Two uptake systems (putrescine-specific and spermidine-preferential) were ABC transporters, each consisting of a periplasmic substrate-binding protein, two transmembrane proteins and a membrane-associated ATPase. The crystal structures of the substrate-binding proteins (PotD and PotF) have been solved. They consist of two domains with an alternating beta-alpha-beta topology, similar to other periplasmic binding proteins. The polyamine-binding site is in a cleft between the two domains, as determined by crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis. Polyamines are mainly recognized by aspartic acid and glutamic acid residues, which interact with the NH(2)- (or NH-) groups, and by tryptophan and tyrosine residues that have hydrophobic interactions with the methylene groups of polyamines. The precursor of one of the substrate binding proteins, PotD, negatively regulates transcription of the operon for the spermidine-preferential uptake system, thus providing another level of regulation of cellular polyamines. The third transport system, catalysed by PotE, mediates both uptake and excretion of putrescine. Uptake of putrescine is dependent on membrane potential, whereas excretion involves an exchange reaction between putrescine and ornithine. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the gene for a polyamine transport protein (TPO1) was identified. The properties of this protein are similar to those of PotE, and TPO1 is located on the vacuolar membrane. PMID:10585849

  18. Autophagy mediates pharmacological lifespan extension by spermidine and resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Eugenia; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Criollo, Alfredo; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2009-12-23

    Although autophagy has widely been conceived as a self-destructive mechanism that causes cell death, accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy usually mediates cytoprotection, thereby avoiding the apoptotic or necrotic demise of stressed cells. Recent evidence produced by our groups demonstrates that autophagy is also involved in pharmacological manipulations that increase longevity. Exogenous supply of the polyamine spermidine can prolong the lifespan of (while inducing autophagy in) yeast, nematodes and flies. Similarly, resveratrol can trigger autophagy in cells from different organisms, extend lifespan in nematodes, and ameliorate the fitness of human cells undergoing metabolic stress. These beneficial effects are lost when essential autophagy modulators are genetically or pharmacologically inactivated, indicating that autophagy is required for the cytoprotective and/or anti-aging effects of spermidine and resveratrol. Genetic and functional studies indicate that spermidine inhibits histone acetylases, while resveratrol activates the histone deacetylase Sirtuin 1 to confer cytoprotection/longevity. Although it remains elusive whether the same histones (or perhaps other nuclear or cytoplasmic proteins) act as the downstream targets of spermidine and resveratrol, these results point to an essential role of protein hypoacetylation in autophagy control and in the regulation of longevity.

  19. Autophagy mediates pharmacological lifespan extension by spermidine and resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Morselli, Eugenia; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Criollo, Alfredo; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Although autophagy has widely been conceived as a self-destructive mechanism that causes cell death, accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy usually mediates cytoprotection, thereby avoiding the apoptotic or necrotic demise of stressed cells. Recent evidence produced by our groups demonstrates that autophagy is also involved in pharmacological manipulations that increase longevity. Exogenous supply of the polyamine spermidine can prolong the lifespan of (while inducing autophagy in) yeast, nematodes and flies. Similarly, resveratrol can trigger autophagy in cells from different organisms, extend lifespan in nematodes, and ameliorate the fitness of human cells undergoing metabolic stress. These beneficial effects are lost when essential autophagy modulators are genetically or pharmacologically inactivated, indicating that autophagy is required for the cytoprotective and/or anti-aging effects of spermidine and resveratrol. Genetic and functional studies indicate that spermidine inhibits histone acetylases, while resveratrol activates the histone deacetylase Sirtuin 1 to confer cytoprotection/longevity. Although it remains elusive whether the same histones (or perhaps other nuclear or cytoplasmic proteins) act as the downstream targets of spermidine and resveratrol, these results point to an essential role of protein hypoacetylation in autophagy control and in the regulation of longevity. PMID:20157579

  20. Binding of biogenic and synthetic polyamines to β-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Essemine, J; Hasni, I; Carpentier, R; Thomas, T J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2011-08-01

    The bindings of biogenic polyamines spermine (spm), spermidine (spmd) and synthetic polyamines 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane·4HCl (BE-333) and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane·5HCl (BE-3333) with β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) were determined in aqueous solution. FTIR, UV-vis, CD and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to determine the polyamine binding sites and the effect of polyamine complexation on protein stability and secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that polyamines bind β-LG via both hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts. Stronger polyamine-protein complexes formed with synthetic polyamines than biogenic polyamines, with overall binding constants of K(spm-β-LG)=3.2(±0.6)×10(4) M(-1), K(spmd-β-LG)=1.8(±0.5)×10(4) M(-1), K(BE-333-β-LG)=5.8(±0.3)×10(4) M(-1) and K(BE-3333-β-LG)=6.2(±0.05)×10(4) M(-1). Molecular modeling showed the participation of several amino acids in the polyamine complexes with the following order of polyamine-protein binding affinity: BE-3333>BE-333>spermine>spermidine, which correlates with their positively charged amino group content. Alteration of protein conformation was observed with a reduction of β-sheet from 57% (free protein) to 55-51%, and a major increase of turn structure from 13% (free protein) to ∼21% in the polyamine-β-LG complexes, indicating a partial protein unfolding.

  1. Helicobacter pylori does not use spermidine synthase to produce spermidine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Au, Shannon Wing Ngor

    2017-08-26

    Helicobacter pylori is the primary pathogen associated to gastritis and gastric cancer. Growth of H. pylori depends on the availability of spermidine in vivo. Interestingly, the genome of H. pylori contains an incomplete set of genes for the classical pathway of spermidine biosynthesis. It is thus not clear whether some other genes remained in the pathway would have any functions in spermidine biosynthesis. Here, we study spermidine synthase, which is responsible for the final catalytic process in the classical route. Protein sequence alignment reveals that H. pylori SpeE (HpSpeE) lacks key residues for substrate binding. By using isothermal titration calorimetry, we show that purified recombinant HpSpeE does not interact with the putative substrates putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine, and the product spermidine. High performance liquid chromatography analysis further demonstrates that HpSpeE has no detectable in vitro enzymatic activity. Additionally, intracellular spermidine level in speE-null mutant strain is comparable to that in the wild type strain. Collectively, our results suggest that HpSpeE is functionally distinct from spermidine production. H. pylori may instead employ the alternative pathway for spermidine synthesis which is dominantly exploited by other human gut microbes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spermidine mediates degradation of ornithine decarboxylase by a non-lysosomal, ubiquitin-independent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, J.R.; Gerner, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of spermidine-induced ornithine decarboxylase (OCD, E.C. 4.1.1.17) inactivation was investigated using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, maintained in serum-free medium, which display a stabilization of ODC owing to the lack of accumulation of putrescine and spermidine. Treatment of cells with 10 ..mu..M exogenous spermidine leads to rapid decay of ODC activity accompanied by a parallel decrease in enzyme protein. Analysis of the decay of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled ODC and separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed no detectable modification in ODC structure during enhanced degradation. Spermidine-mediated inactivation of ODC occurred in a temperature-dependent manner exhibiting pseudo-first-order kinetics over a temperature range of 22-37/sup 0/C. In cultures treated continuously, an initial lag was observed after treatment with spermidine, followed by a rapid decline in activity as an apparent critical concentration of intracellular spermidine was achieved. Treating cells at 22/sup 0/C for 3 hours with 10 ..mu.. M spermidine, followed by removal of exogenous polyamine, and then shifting to varying temperatures, resulted in rates of ODC inactivation identical with that determined with a continuous treatment. Arrhenius analysis showed that polyamine mediated inactivation of ODC occurred with an activation energy of approximately 16 kcal/mol. Treatment of cells with lysosomotrophic agents had no effect of ODC degradation. ODC turnover was not dependent on ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. These data support the hypothesis that spermidine regulates ODC degradation via a mechanism requiring new protein synthesis, and that this occurs via a non-lysosomal, ubiquitin-independent pathway.

  3. Polyamines Inhibit Porin-Mediated Fluoroquinolone Uptake in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sarathy, Jansy Passiflora; Lee, Edmund; Dartois, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    Polyamines decrease the permeability of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli to fluoroquinolones and β-lactams. In this study, we tested the effect of four polyamines (spermidine, spermine, cadaverine and putrescine) on fluoroquinolone uptake in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Our results show that polyamines are also capable of reducing the permeability of the mycobacterial outer membrane to fluoroquinolones. Spermidine was most effective and demonstrated reversible dose- and pH-dependent inhibition of ciprofloxacin accumulation. The extent of this inhibition was demonstrated across the fluoroquinolone compound class to varying degrees. Furthermore, we have shown that the addition of spermidine increases the survival of M. bovis BCG after a 5-day exposure to ciprofloxacin by up to 25 times. The treatment of actively-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis with spermidine reduced ciprofloxacin accumulation by half while non-replicating nutrient-starved M. tuberculosis cultures lacked similar sensitivity to polyamines. Gene expression studies showed that several outer membrane proteins are significantly down–regulated during the shift to non–replication. Collectively, these characteristics of fluoroquinolone uptake in M. bovis BCG are consistent with facilitated transport by porin-like proteins and suggest that a reduction in intracellular uptake contributes to the phenotypic drug resistance demonstrated by M. tuberculosis in the non-replicating state. PMID:23755283

  4. Polyamines and cell proliferation in the sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides.

    PubMed

    Asotra, S; Mladenov, P V; Burke, R D

    1988-01-01

    1. Diamines (putrescine and cadaverine) and polyamines (spermidine and spermine) were extracted from tissues of the sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides, separated and quantitated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Simultaneous measurements of levels of protein and DNA and rates of incorporation of 14C-thymidine were carried out. 2. The most abundant polyamine in tissues was spermidine (0.3873-2.5282 nmol/mg tissue) followed by spermine (0.103-1.5517 nmol/mg tissue), putrescine (0.2096-0.5322 nmol/mg tissue) and cadaverine (0.022-0.6064 nmol/mg tissue). 3. An unknown molecule with derivatization and elution behaviour similar to that of polyamine standards was detected in all tissues. 4. Protein levels ranged from 20.47 mg/g tissue in the body wall to 48.44 mg/g tissue in the pyloric caecum. 5. DNA levels were lowest in the ovary (0.25 mg/g tissue) and highest in the testis (5.62 mg/g tissue). 6. Incorporation of 14C-thymidine was highest in the testis. Testicular tissue had the highest spermidine/spermine ratio (5.4). A significant correlation between the spermidine/spermine ratio and 14C-thymidine incorporation (expressed either as DPM/g tissue or DPM/mg protein) suggests that polyamines are implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation in the sea star P. helianthoides.

  5. Polyamine content of ordinary foodstuffs and various fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, A; Sugi, E; Koizumi, Y; Yanagida, F; Udaka, S

    1997-09-01

    Soybeans, tea leaves, and mushrooms were conspicuously rich in spermidine, while oranges contained a large amount of putrescine. Among the fermented foods, soy sauces were rich in putrescine and histamine, while Japanese sake contained plenty of agmatine. These polyamines are thought to be produced from amino acids during fermentation with amino acid decarboxylases formed by the micro-organisms.

  6. Polyamines function in stress tolerance: from synthesis to regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ji-Hong; Wang, Wei; Wu, Hao; Gong, Xiaoqing; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-01-01

    Plants are challenged by a variety of biotic or abiotic stresses, which can affect their growth and development, productivity, and geographic distribution. In order to survive adverse environmental conditions, plants have evolved various adaptive strategies, among which is the accumulation of metabolites that play protective roles. A well-established example of the metabolites that are involved in stress responses, or stress tolerance, is the low-molecular-weight aliphatic polyamines, including putrescine, spermidine, and spermine. The critical role of polyamines in stress tolerance is suggested by several lines of evidence: firstly, the transcript levels of polyamine biosynthetic genes, as well as the activities of the corresponding enzymes, are induced by stresses; secondly, elevation of endogenous polyamine levels by exogenous supply of polyamines, or overexpression of polyamine biosynthetic genes, results in enhanced stress tolerance; and thirdly, a reduction of endogenous polyamines is accompanied by compromised stress tolerance. A number of studies have demonstrated that polyamines function in stress tolerance largely by modulating the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to their direct, or indirect, roles in regulating antioxidant systems or suppressing ROS production. The transcriptional regulation of polyamine synthesis by transcription factors is also reviewed here. Meanwhile, future perspectives on polyamine research are also suggested. PMID:26528300

  7. Stress induction of the spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase by a post-transcriptional mechanism in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gerner, E W; Kurtts, T A; Fuller, D J; Casero, R A

    1993-01-01

    Heat shock and diethyldithiocarbamate stimulate polyamine catabolism in animal cells by a mechanism involving the induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (N1-SSAT) activity. Steady-state levels of RNA encoding this enzyme remain essentially unchanged during periods after these stresses when N1-SSAT activity is increased by 3.5-10-fold or more in three different cell lines of hamster and human origin. Depletion of intracellular spermidine pools by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) inhibits stress induction of N1-SSAT activity. Exogenous spermidine can restore stress inducibility of N1-SSAT to DFMO-treated cells, and induce this enzyme activity in non-heat-shocked but polyamine-depleted cells. Acetylation at N1 suppresses the ability of spermidine to induce N1-SSAT activity, relative to this same modification at N8. Fluorinated spermidine analogues, which decrease the pKa values of the amine groups at positions 4 and 8, neither induce nor inhibit N1-SSAT activity in DFMO-treated cells. These data demonstrate that certain stresses induce N1-SSAT by a spermidine-dependent post-transcriptional mechanism. The mode of induction is affected by both the propyl and butyl moieties of spermidine. Images Figure 2 PMID:8396915

  8. A polyamine analogue prevents acute pancreatitis and restores early liver regeneration in transgenic rats with activated polyamine catabolism.

    PubMed

    Rasanen, Tiina-Liisa; Alhonen, Leena; Sinervirta, Riitta; Keinanen, Tuomo; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Suppola, Suvikki; Khomutov, Alex R; Vepsalainen, Jouko; Janne, Juhani

    2002-10-18

    We recently generated a transgenic rat model for acute pancreatitis, which was apparently caused by a massive depletion of pancreatic polyamines spermidine and spermine due to inducible activation of their catabolism (Alhonen, L., Parkkinen, J. J., Keinänen, T., Sinervirta, R., Herzig, K. H., and Jänne, J. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 8290-8295). When subjected to partial hepatectomy, these animals showed striking activation of polyamine catabolism at 24 h postoperatively with a profound decrease in hepatic spermidine and spermine pools and failure to initiate liver regeneration. Here we show that pancreatitis in this model could be totally prevented, as judged by histopathology and plasma alpha-amylase activity, by administration of 1-methylspermidine, a metabolically stable analogue of spermidine. Similarly, the analogue, given prior to partial hepatectomy, restored early liver regeneration in the transgenic rats, as indicated by a dramatic increase in the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive hepatocytes from about 1% to more than 40% in response to the drug. The present results suggest that the extremely high concentration of spermidine in the pancreas, in fact the highest in the mammalian body, may have a critical role in maintaining organ integrity. The failure to initiate liver regeneration in the absence of sufficient hepatic polyamine pools similarly indicates that polyamines are required for proper commencement of the regenerative process.

  9. Characterization of a novel spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase, BltD, from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Woolridge, D P; Martinez, J D; Stringer, D E; Gerner, E W

    1999-01-01

    Overexpression of the BltD gene in Bacillus subtilis causes acetylation of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. BltD is co-regulated with another gene, Blt, which encodes a multidrug export protein whose overexpression facilitates spermidine export [Woolridge, Vazquez-Laslop, Markham, Chevalier, Gerner and Neyfakh (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8864-8866]. Here we show that BltD acetylates both spermidine and spermine at primary propyl amine moieties, with spermine being the preferred substrate. In the presence of saturating concentrations of acetyl CoA, BltD rapidly acetylates spermine at both the N1 and N12 positions. The Km (app) values for spermine, spermidine and N1-acetylspermine are spermidine acetylation by BltD, with Ki values of 0.25 and 5.76 mM, respectively. CoA competitively inhibited both spermidine and acetyl-CoA interactions with BltD. These data and other results indicate that the mechanism of spermidine and spermine acetylation by BltD is a random-order mechanism of bi-molecular kinetics. PMID:10359661

  10. Polyamine degradation in foetal and adult bovine serum.

    PubMed Central

    Gahl, W A; Pitot, H C

    1982-01-01

    1. Using protein-separative chromatographic procedures and assays specific for putrescine oxidase and spermidine oxidase, adult bovine serum was found to contain a single polyamine-degrading enzyme with substrate preferences for spermidine and spermine. Apparent Km values for these substrates were approx. 40 microM. The apparent Km for putrescine was 2 mM. With spermidine as substrate, the Ki values for aminoguanidine (AM) and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) were 70 microM and 20 microM respectively. 2. Bovine serum spermidine oxidase degraded spermine to spermidine to putrescine and N8-acetylspermidine to N-acetylputrescine. Acrolein was produced in all these reactions and recovered in quantities equivalent to H2O2 recovery. 3. Spermidine oxidase activity was present in foetal bovine serum, but increased markedly after birth to levels in adult serum that were almost 100 times the activity in foetal bovine serum. 4. Putrescine oxidase, shown to be a separate enzyme from bovine serum spermidine oxidase, was present in foetal bovine serum but absent from bovine serum after birth. This enzyme displayed an apparent Km for putrescine of 2.6 microM. The enzyme was inhibited by AM and MGBG with Ki values of 20 nM. Putrescine, cadaverine and 1,3-diaminopropane proved excellent substrates for the enzyme compared with spermidine and spermine, and N-acetylputrescine was a superior substrate to N1- or N8-acetylspermidine. PMID:7092834

  11. Growth status significantly affects the response of human lung cancer cells to antitumor polyamine-analogue exposure.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Diane L; Devereux, Wendy L; Hacker, Amy; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2002-08-01

    Human solid tumors frequently have a relatively small growth fraction,which interferes with the action of many chemotherapeutic agents that target actively cycling cells. Several polyamine analogues are currently being developed for clinical application against human solid tumors including N1,N11-bis(ethyl)norspermine. Therefore, an effort was made to examine the effects of growth rate on polyamine-analogue efficacy. Low growth fraction (LGF) cell cultures of the human non-small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H157 were generated to partially mimic solid tumors with low mitotic indices. Log-phase cells were compared with LGF cells with respect to cell survival and biochemical effects after exposure to polyamine analogues. The results demonstrate generally that LGF NCI-H157 cells were sensitive to analogue treatment. However, the dose necessary to elicit a response in LGF cells was an order of magnitude higher than the dose needed in log-phase cells. Additionally, the biochemical effects of analogues were similar between log phase and LGF cells with regard to a down-regulation of polyamine biosynthesis as measured by ornithine decarboxylase activity and an increase in polyamine catabolism as indicated by an increase in spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity. However, biochemical effects were less dramatic in the LGF cells than those observed in the log-phase cells. The overall results of these studies suggest that the growth status of solid tumors can significantly affect the response to antitumor polyamine analogues, and growth fraction must be considered in the continued development and use of the polyamine analogues.

  12. Binding and inhibition of human spermidine synthase by decarboxylated S-adenosylhomocysteine

    SciTech Connect

    Še; #269; kut; #279; , Jolita; McCloskey, Diane E.; Thomas, H. Jeanette; Secrist III, John A.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2011-11-17

    Aminopropyltransferases are essential enzymes that form polyamines in eukaryotic and most prokaryotic cells. Spermidine synthase (SpdS) is one of the most well-studied enzymes in this biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme uses decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine and a short-chain polyamine (putrescine) to make a medium-chain polyamine (spermidine) and 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine as a byproduct. Here, we report a new spermidine synthase inhibitor, decarboxylated S-adenosylhomocysteine (dcSAH). The inhibitor was synthesized, and dose-dependent inhibition of human, Thermatoga maritima, and Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthases, as well as functionally homologous human spermine synthase, was determined. The human SpdS/dcSAH complex structure was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution and showed consistent active site positioning and coordination with previously known structures. Isothermal calorimetry binding assays confirmed inhibitor binding to human SpdS with K{sub d} of 1.1 {+-} 0.3 {mu}M in the absence of putrescine and 3.2 {+-} 0.1 {mu}M in the presence of putrescine. These results indicate a potential for further inhibitor development based on the dcSAH scaffold.

  13. Effect of hindlimb suspension and clenbuterol treatment on polyamine levels in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Wineski, Lawrence E.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Abera, Saare A.; Sahlu, Sinafikish W.; Potter, David E.; Thierry-Palmer, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are unbiquitous, naturally occurring small aliphatic, polycationic, endogenous compounds. They are involved in many cellular processes and may serve as secondary or tertiary messengers to hormonal regulation. The relationship of polyamines and skeletal muscle mass of adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius under unloading (hindlimb suspension) conditions was investigated. Unloading significantly affected skeletal muscle polyamine levels in a fiber-type-specific fashion. Under loading conditions, clenbuterol treatment increased all polyamine levels, whereas under unloading conditions, only the spermidine levels were consistently increased. Unloading attenuated the anabolic effects of clenbuterol in predominately slow-twitch muscles (adductor longus), but had little impact on clenbuterol's action as a countermeasure in fast- twitch muscles such as the extensor digitorum longus. Spermidine appeared to be the primary polyamine involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Effect of hindlimb suspension and clenbuterol treatment on polyamine levels in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Wineski, Lawrence E.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Abera, Saare A.; Sahlu, Sinafikish W.; Potter, David E.; Thierry-Palmer, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Polyamines are unbiquitous, naturally occurring small aliphatic, polycationic, endogenous compounds. They are involved in many cellular processes and may serve as secondary or tertiary messengers to hormonal regulation. The relationship of polyamines and skeletal muscle mass of adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, and gastrocnemius under unloading (hindlimb suspension) conditions was investigated. Unloading significantly affected skeletal muscle polyamine levels in a fiber-type-specific fashion. Under loading conditions, clenbuterol treatment increased all polyamine levels, whereas under unloading conditions, only the spermidine levels were consistently increased. Unloading attenuated the anabolic effects of clenbuterol in predominately slow-twitch muscles (adductor longus), but had little impact on clenbuterol's action as a countermeasure in fast- twitch muscles such as the extensor digitorum longus. Spermidine appeared to be the primary polyamine involved in skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Spermidine enhances the silk production by mulberry silkworm.

    PubMed

    Lattala, Gayatri Manogna; Kandukuru, Kasturaiah; Gangupantula, Shamitha; Mamillapalli, Anitha

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are ubiquitous low molecular weight polycationic aliphatic amines involved in diverse cellular processes. Spermidine (Spd), a polyamine, has been proved to be crucial for cell survival in various organisms. Our study reports the effect of Spd on the growth of Bombyx mori. Silkworms showed improved silk gland weight and economic parameters in the fifth instar larval stage when treated with different concentrations of Spd, in the range of 25-75 µM. The worms treated with Spd produced 31% more silk when compared with the control worms. Altogether, this study establishes that Spd-treated leaves can be fed into the larvae for better silk production. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. Surface-Localized Spermidine Protects the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Outer Membrane from Antibiotic Treatment and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lori; Mulcahy, Heidi; Kanevets, Uliana; Shi, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular DNA acts as a cation chelator and induces the expression of antibiotic resistance genes regulated by Mg2+ levels. Here we report the characterization of novel DNA-induced genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that are annotated as homologs of the spermidine synthesis genes speD (PA4773) and speE (PA4774). The addition of sublethal concentrations of DNA and membrane-damaging antibiotics induced expression of the genes PA4773 to PA4775, as shown using transcriptional lux fusions and quantitative RT-PCR. Exogenous polyamine addition prevented DNA- and peptide-mediated gene induction. Mutation of PA4774 resulted in an increased outer membrane (OM) susceptibility phenotype upon polymyxin B, CP10A, and gentamicin treatment. When the membrane-localized fluorescent probe C11-BODIPY581/591 was used as an indicator of peroxidation of membrane lipids, the PA4774::lux mutant demonstrated an increased susceptibility to oxidative membrane damage from H2O2 treatment. Addition of exogenous polyamines protected the membranes of the PA4774::lux mutant from polymyxin B and H2O2 treatment. Polyamines from the outer surface were isolated and shown to contain putrescine and spermidine by using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The PA4774::lux mutant did not produce spermidine on the cell surface, but genetic complementation restored surface spermidine production as well as the antibiotic and oxidative stress resistance phenotypes of the membrane. We have identified new functions for spermidine on the cell surface and propose that polyamines are produced under Mg2+-limiting conditions as an organic polycation to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to stabilize and protect the outer membrane against antibiotic and oxidative damage. PMID:22155771

  17. [Effect of polysaccharides from Radix Glycyrrhizae on migration and polyamines contents of IEC-6 cell].

    PubMed

    Wen, Peng; Sui, Jing-Jing; Li, Ru-Liu; Zhao, Shi-Qing; Lu, Wen-Biao; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2012-07-01

    To study the effect of polysaccharides from Radix Glycyrrhizae on migration and polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) contents of IEC-6 cell. Cell migration model was induced by scratch method in each well,and the polyamines in IEC-6 cell was determined by pre-column derivation high performance liquid chromatography. The polysaccharides inhibited effect on migration and polyamines contents of IEC-6 cells, and on IEC-6 cell migration by DFMO (a polyamines synthesis inhibitor) and the polyamines contents in the cells were observed. The polysaccharides (50 mg/L or 100 mg/L) was able to promote the cell migration, reverse the cell migration inhibition by DFMO, enhance the IEC-6 cell polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) contents in the process of cell migration and reverse the reduction of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) induced by DFMO. The effect of Radix Glycyrrhizae on the gastrointestinal mucosal damage repairing may be related to increasing polyamine content in cells and promoting cell migration.

  18. Polyamine synthesis and interconversion by the Microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, C J; Lane, S; Weiss, L M; Yarlett, N; Takvorian, P; Cali, A; Wittner, M

    2001-01-01

    Polyamines are small cationic molecules necessary for growth and differentiation in all cells. Although mammalian cells have been studied extensively, particularly as targets of polyamine antagonists, i.e. antitumor agents, polyamine metabolism has also been studied as a potential drug target in microorganisms. Since little is known concerning polyamine metabolism in the microsporidia, we investigated it in Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a microspordian associated with disseminated infections in humans. Organisms were grown in RK-13 cells and harvested using Percoll gradients. Electron microscopy indicated that the fractions banding at 1.051-1.059/g/ml in a microgradient procedure, and 1.102-1.119/g/ml in a scaled-up procedure were nearly homogenous, consisting of pre-emergent (immature) spores which showed large arrays of ribosomes near polar filament coils. Intact purified pre-emergent spores incubated with [1H] ornithine and methionine synthesized putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, while [14C]spermine was converted to spermidine and putrescine. Polyamine production from ornithine was inhibitable by DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) but not by DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA). Cell-free extracts from mature spores released into the growth media had ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetdc), and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) activities. ODC activity was inhibited by DFMO, but not by DFMA. AdoMetdc was putrescine-stimulated and inhibited by methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone); arginine decarboxylase activity could not be detected. It is apparent from these studies that Encephalitozoon cuniculi pre-emergent spores have a eukaryotic-type polyamine biosynthetic pathway and can interconvert exogenous polyamines. Pre-emergent spores were metabolically active with respect to polyamine synthesis and interconversion, while intact mature spores harvested from culture supernatants had little metabolic activity.

  19. Polyamines Are Required for Virulence in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Jelsbak, Lotte; Thomsen, Line Elnif; Wallrodt, Inke; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2012-01-01

    Sensing and responding to environmental cues is a fundamental characteristic of bacterial physiology and virulence. Here we identify polyamines as novel environmental signals essential for virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a major intracellular pathogen and a model organism for studying typhoid fever. Central to its virulence are two major virulence loci Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI1 and SPI2). SPI1 promotes invasion of epithelial cells, whereas SPI2 enables S. Typhimurium to survive and proliferate within specialized compartments inside host cells. In this study, we show that an S. Typhimurium polyamine mutant is defective for invasion, intracellular survival, killing of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and systemic infection of the mouse model of typhoid fever. Virulence of the mutant could be restored by genetic complementation, and invasion and intracellular survival could, as well, be complemented by the addition of exogenous putrescine and spermidine to the bacterial cultures prior to infection. Interestingly, intracellular survival of the polyamine mutant was significantly enhanced above the wild type level by the addition of exogenous putrescine and spermidine to the bacterial cultures prior to infection, indicating that these polyamines function as an environmental signal that primes S. Typhimurium for intracellular survival. Accordingly, experiments addressed at elucidating the roles of these polyamines in infection revealed that expression of genes from both of the major virulence loci SPI1 and SPI2 responded to exogenous polyamines and was reduced in the polyamine mutant. Together our data demonstrate that putrescine and spermidine play a critical role in controlling virulence in S. Typhimurium most likely through stimulation of expression of essential virulence loci. Moreover, our data implicate these polyamines as key signals in S. Typhimurium virulence. PMID:22558361

  20. Plant growth promotion by spermidine-producing Bacillus subtilis OKB105.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shan-Shan; Wu, Hui-Jun; Zang, Hao-Yu; Wu, Li-Ming; Zhu, Qing-Qing; Gao, Xue-Wen

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between plants and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is a complex, reciprocal process. On the one hand, plant compounds such as carbohydrates and amino acids serve as energy sources for PGPR. On the other hand, PGPR promote plant growth by synthesizing plant hormones and increasing mineral availability in the soil. Here, we evaluated the growth-promoting activity of Bacillus subtilis OKB105 and identified genes associated with this activity. The genes yecA (encoding a putative amino acid/polyamine permease) and speB (encoding agmatinase) are involved in the secretion or synthesis of polyamine in B. subtilis OKB105. Disruption of either gene abolished the growth-promoting activity of the bacterium, which was restored when polyamine synthesis was complemented. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of culture filtrates of OKB105 and its derivatives demonstrated that spermidine, a common polyamine, is the pivotal plant-growth-promoting compound. In addition, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that treatment with B. subtilis OKB105 induced expansin gene (Nt-EXPA1 and Nt-EXPA2) expression and inhibited the expression of the ethylene biosynthesis gene ACO1. Furthermore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed that the ethylene content in plant root cells decreased in response to spermidine produced by OKB105. Therefore, during plant interactions, OKB105 may produce and secrete spermidine, which induces expansin production and lowers ethylene levels.

  1. Polyamine content of long-keeping alcobaca tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Dibble, A R; Davies, P J; Mutschler, M A

    1988-02-01

    Fruit of tomato landrace Alcobaca, containing the recessive allele alc, ripen more slowly, with a reduced level of ethylene production, and have prolonged keeping qualities. The levels of polyamines in pericarp tissues of alc and ;wild type' Alc (cv Rutgers and Alcobaca-red) fruit were measured by HPLC in relation to ripening. Putrescine was the predominant polyamine with a lower content of spermidine, while spermine was just detectable. The level of putrescine was high at the immature green stage and declined in the mature green stage. In Alc fruit the decline persisted but in alc fruit the putrescine level increased during ripening to a level similar to that present at the immature green stage. There was no pronounced change or difference in spermidine levels. The enhanced polyamine level in alc fruit may account for their ripening and storage characteristics.

  2. Androgenic control of polyamine concentrations in rat epididymis.

    PubMed

    de las Heras, M A; Gonzalez, S I; Calandra, R S

    1992-09-01

    Unilateral orchidectomy resulted in a significant decrease in tissue content of putrescine and polyamines. However, no differences were detected when the results were expressed in terms of ng g-1 tissue. At 48 h after bilateral orchidectomy, a significant decrease in putrescine content was observed, but spermidine and spermine content were unaffected. The observed decrease in putrescine was prevented by treatment with testosterone propionate, but neither spermidine nor spermine were affected. Bilateral orchidectomy resulted in a significant decrease in the tissue content of putrescine, spermidine and spermine after 7 days. Treatment with testosterone propionate increased the content of putrescine, spermidine and spermine in the epididymis by about 200%, 92% and 34%, respectively. When results were expressed as nmol g-1, a significant decrease after castration in putrescine and spermidine, but not in spermine, was observed. Treatment with testosterone propionate restored putrescine concentration, but had no effect on spermidine and spermine concentrations. In castrated rats treated with testosterone propionate, the anti-androgen flutamide abolished the effect of the androgen on putrescine and spermidine content, but there was no effect on spermine. Acetylputrescine was not detected in the epididymis, while acetylpolyamines were detected at much lower concentrations than polyamines. After bilateral orchidectomy there was a decrease in the tissue content of all acetylpolyamines and an increase in their tissue concentration. The effect of castration on acetylpolyamine content was reversed by testosterone propionate treatment. We conclude that an active synthesis of polyamines occurs in the rat epididymis, and that this process depends upon the androgen environment. Regulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity appears to be the main step that is controlled by androgens.

  3. Are milk polyamines preventive agents against food allergy?

    PubMed

    Dandrifosse, G; Peulen, O; El Khefif, N; Deloyer, P; Dandrifosse, A C; Grandfils, C

    2000-02-01

    Insufficient polyamine intake could play a role in the induction of sensitization to dietary allergens. This proposal is based essentially on investigations made in sucking rats and in children. In sucking rats it has been established that oral administration of spermine can induce all the modifications occurring in the digestive tract at weaning. In the intestine events occur in two phases. The early event consists of desquamation of the epithelium resulting from an activation of apoptosis. The late event appears to involve an hormonal cascade in which adrenocorticotropic hormone, cytokines, bombesin and corticosterone are included. Observations in human subjects show that: (1) the spermine and spermidine concentrations are generally lower in infant formulas than in human breast milk. Mothers seem consistently to have relatively high or relatively low concentrations of spermine and spermidine in their milk. These individual variations may be due to diet, lifestyle or genetic background; (2) the probability of developing allergy can reach 80 % if the mean spermine concentration in the milk is lower than 2 nmol/ml milk. It is approximately 0 % if the mean spermine concentration is higher than 13 nmol/ml milk; (3) preliminary results show that the intestinal permeability to macromolecules differs in premature babies when they are fed on breast milk compared with infant formulas (J Senterre, J Rigo, G Forget, G Dandrifosse and N Romain, unpublished results). This difference does not seem to be present when powdered milk is supplemented with polyamines at the concentration found in breast milk; (4) spermine increases proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes isolated from the tonsils of children.

  4. [Effect of aminoguanidine sulfate on the hepatic level of polyamines after partial hepatectomy in rats].

    PubMed

    Moulinoux, J P; Quemener, V; Chambon, Y

    1981-01-01

    The injection of amino-guanidine sulfate, which is a diamine-oxydase inhibitor to Wistar rats partially hepatectomized modifies the putrescine, spermidine and spermine liver concentrations, estimated by thin layer chromatography after dansylation. The three polyamines reach a peak three hours after the beginning of the treatment, then decrease six hours later, especially for putrescine and spermine. Forty eight hours later, the spermidine rate increase again to reach a level superior to that of animals which were only hepatectomized, whereas putrescine and spermine levels remain until about the fourth day inferior to those of control animals. Contrary to shamoperated rats, those injected with amino-guanidine sulfate show higher polyamine concentrations. These observations probably show a reduction of the activity of the diamine oxidase under the influence of amino-guanidine sulfate. According to those results, the action of amino-guanidine sulfate previously observed on the hyperplasic component of liver regeneration, doesn't seem to have an effect upon diamine oxidase.

  5. Polyamines and Flower Development in the Male Sterile Stamenless-2 Mutant of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajeev; Sawhney, Vipen K.

    1990-01-01

    The levels of free putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, and the activities of ornithine decarboxylase and s-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase were determined in the floral organs of the normal and a male sterile stamenless-2 (sl-2/sl-2) mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Under the intermediate temperature regime, all mutant floral organs possessed significantly higher levels of polyamines and enzyme activities than their normal counterparts. In the low temperature-reverted mutant stamens, the polyamine levels and the activity of PA biosynthetic enzymes were not significantly different from the normal. It is suggested that the abnormal stamen development in the sl-2/sl-2 mutant is, in part, related to elevated levels of endogenous PAs. PMID:16667485

  6. Effects of polyamines and polyamine biosynthetic inhibitors on mitotic activity of Allium cepa root tips.

    PubMed

    Unal, Meral; Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Tufekci, M A

    2008-03-01

    The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of exogenous polyamines (PAs), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm) and PA biosynthetic inhibitors, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), cyclohexilamine (CHA), methylglioxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) were investigated in the root meristems of Allium cepa L. The reduction of mitotic index and the induction of chromosomal aberrations such as bridges, stickiness, c-mitotic anaphases, micronuclei, endoredupliction by PAs and PA biosynthetic inhibitors were observed and these were used as evidence of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity.

  7. DNA interaction with antitumor polyamine analogues: a comparison with biogenic polyamines.

    PubMed

    N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Ouameur, A Ahmed; Thomas, T; Shirahata, A; Thomas, T J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2008-10-01

    Biogenic polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are ubiquitous cellular cations and exert multiple biological functions. Polyamine analogues mimic biogenic polyamines at macromolecular level but are unable to substitute for natural polyamines and maintain cell proliferation, indicating biomedical applications. The mechanistic differences in DNA binding mode between natural and synthetic polyamines have not been explored. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of calf thymus DNA with three polyamine analogues, 1,11-diamino-4,8-diazaundecane (333), 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane x 4 HCl (BE-333), and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane x 5 HCl (BE-3333), using FTIR, UV-visible, and CD spectroscopy. Polyamine analogues bind with guanine and backbone PO2 group as major targets in DNA, whereas biogenic polyamines bind to major and minor grooves as well as to phosphate groups. Weaker interaction with DNA was observed for analogues with respect to biogenic polyamines, with K(333) = 1.90 (+/-0.5) x 10(4) M(-1), K(BE-333) = 6.4 (+/-1.7) x 10(4) M(-1), K(BE-3333) = 4.7 (+/-1.4) x 10(4) M(-1) compared to K(Spm) = 2.3 (+/-1.1) x 10(5) M(-1), K(Spd) = 1.4 (+/-0.6) x 10(5) M(-1), and K(Put) = 1.02 (+/-0.5) x 10(5) M(-1). A partial B- to A-DNA transition was also provoked by analogues. These data suggest distinct differences in the binding of natural and synthetic polyamines with DNA.

  8. Polyamine metabolic canalization in response to drought stress in Arabidopsis and the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Dorothea; Koncz, Csaba; Altabella, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the transcriptional profiles of polyamine biosynthetic genes and analyzed polyamine metabolic fluxes during a gradual drought acclimation response in Arabidopsis thaliana and the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. The analysis of free putrescine, spermidine and spermine titers in Arabidopsis arginine decarboxylase (adc1–3, adc2–3), spermidine synthase (spds1–2, spds2–3) and spermine synthase (spms-2) mutants during drought stress, combined with the quantitative expression of the entire polyamine biosynthetic pathway in the wild-type, has revealed a strong metabolic canalization of putrescine to spermine induced by drought. Such canalization requires spermidine synthase 1 (SPDS1) and spermine synthase (SPMS) activities and, intriguingly, does not lead to spermine accumulation but to a progressive reduction in spermidine and spermine pools in the wild-type. Our results suggest the participation of the polyamine back-conversion pathway during the drought stress response rather than the terminal catabolism of spermine. The putrescine to spermine canalization coupled to the spermine to putrescine back-conversion confers an effective polyamine recycling-loop during drought acclimation. Putrescine to spermine canalization has also been revealed in the desiccation tolerant plant C. plantagineum, which conversely to Arabidopsis, accumulates high spermine levels which associate with drought tolerance. Our results provide a new insight to the polyamine homeostasis mechanisms during drought stress acclimation in Arabidopsis and resurrection plants. PMID:21330782

  9. Polyamine metabolic canalization in response to drought stress in Arabidopsis and the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Rubén; Bitrián, Marta; Bartels, Dorothea; Koncz, Csaba; Altabella, Teresa; Tiburcio, Antonio F

    2011-02-01

    In this work, we have studied the transcriptional profiles of polyamine biosynthetic genes and analyzed polyamine metabolic fluxes during a gradual drought acclimation response in Arabidopsis thaliana and the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum. The analysis of free putrescine, spermidine and spermine titers in Arabidopsis arginine decarboxylase (adc1-3, adc2-3), spermidine synthase (spds1-2, spds2-3) and spermine synthase (spms-2) mutants during drought stress, combined with the quantitative expression of the entire polyamine biosynthetic pathway in the wild-type, has revealed a strong metabolic canalization of putrescine to spermine induced by drought. Such canalization requires spermidine synthase 1 (SPDS1) and spermine synthase (SPMS) activities and, intriguingly, does not lead to spermine accumulation but to a progressive reduction in spermidine and spermine pools in the wild-type. Our results suggest the participation of the polyamine back-conversion pathway during the drought stress response rather than the terminal catabolism of spermine. The putrescine to spermine canalization coupled to the spermine to putrescine back-conversion confers an effective polyamine recycling-loop during drought acclimation. Putrescine to spermine canalization has also been revealed in the desiccation tolerant plant C. plantagineum, which conversely to Arabidopsis, accumulates high spermine levels which associate with drought tolerance. Our results provide a new insight to the polyamine homeostasis mechanisms during drought stress acclimation in Arabidopsis and resurrection plants.

  10. Determination of substrate specificity of polyamine transporters in roseobacter species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhuri, S.; Mou, X.

    2012-12-01

    Polyamines, such as cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine and norspermine are a class of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) that is ubiquitously found in marine environments. Intracellular polyamines are important in a variety of biological reactions, such as nucleic acid synthesis and protein synthesis. Free polyamines in seawater can be transported into bacterial cells by ABC transporter systems, each of which consists of four components including one substrate binding protein, one ATPase and two permeases. In silico analysis of marine bacterial genomes has revealed that roseobacter, a numerically and ecologically important taxa of marine bacteria, have at least two sets of polyamine transporter genes. This study was to examine the potential preference of roseobacter to different polyamine compounds and the substrate specificity of different polyamine transporters. Eleven roseobacter species, which genomes have been sequenced, were grown in defined media supplied with single polyamine compound as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. Growth assay showed a small number of roseobacter isolates to be generalist showing no preference among the tested polyamines (Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, Roseovarius sp. TM1035, Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM, Jannaschia sp. CCS1 and Sagittula stellata E-37), whereas other isolates were specilists and were specific on polyamine compounds (Roseobacter sp. CCS2 and Roseobacter denitrificans OCh 114). Primers that probe poly-1 and pot-D genes, the two genes that encode common polyamine-binding genes of polyamine transporter systems were designed using net primer and primer design program. The specificity of the primers was validated by PCR followed by amplicon sequencing. Single step reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR) was performed to investigate substrate specificity of poly-1 and pot-D genes. Key-words Roseobacter, polyamine, polyamine transporter, dissolved organic nitrogen

  11. Deletion of potD, encoding a putative spermidine-binding protein, results in a complex phenotype in Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Abdelhady, Hany; Tompkins, Nicholas P; Carson, Kaitlyn R; Garduño, Rafael A

    2014-07-01

    L. pneumophila is an intracellular pathogen that replicates in a membrane-bound compartment known as the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). We previously observed that the polyamine spermidine, produced by host cells or added exogenously, enhances the intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. To study this enhancing effect and determine whether polyamines are used as nutrients, we deleted potD from L. pneumophila strain JR32. The gene potD encodes a spermidine-binding protein that in other bacteria is essential for the function of the PotABCD polyamine transporter. Deletion of potD did not affect L. pneumophila growth in vitro in the presence or absence of spermidine and putrescine, suggesting that PotD plays a redundant or no role in polyamine uptake. However, deletion of potD resulted in a puzzlingly complex phenotype that included defects in L. pneumophila's ability to form filaments, tolerate Na(+), associate with macrophages and amoeba, recruit host vesicles to the LCV, and initiate intracellular growth. Moreover, the ΔpotD mutant was completely unable to grow in L929 cells treated with a pharmacological inhibitor of spermidine synthesis. These complex and disparate effects suggest that the L. pneumophila potD encodes either: (i) a multifunctional protein, (ii) a protein that interacts with, or regulates a, multifunctional protein, or (iii) a protein that contributes (directly or indirectly) to a regulatory network. Protein function studies with the L. pneumophila PotD protein are thus warranted.

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase gene expressions are significantly correlated in human colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Linsalata, Michele; Giannini, Romina; Notarnicola, Maria; Cavallini, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    Background The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that regulates adipogenic differentiation and glucose homeostasis. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) are key enzymes involved in the metabolism of polyamines, compounds that play an important role in cell proliferation. While the PPARγ role in tumour growth has not been clearly defined, the involvement of the altered polyamine metabolism in colorectal carcinogenesis has been established. In this direction, we have evaluated the PPARγ expression and its relationship with polyamine metabolism in tissue samples from 40 patients operated because of colorectal carcinoma. Since it is known that the functional role of K-ras mutation in colorectal tumorigenesis is associated with cell growth and differentiation, polyamine metabolism and the PPARγ expression were also investigated in terms of K-ras mutation. Methods PPARγ, ODC and SSAT mRNA levels were evaluated by reverse transcriptase and real-time PCR. Polyamines were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ODC and SSAT activity were measured by a radiometric technique. Results PPARγ expression, as well as SSAT and ODC mRNA levels were significantly higher in cancer as compared to normal mucosa. Tumour samples also showed significantly higher polyamine levels and ODC and SSAT activities in comparison to normal samples. A significant and positive correlation between PPARγ and the SSAT gene expression was observed in both normal and neoplastic tissue (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001; r = 0.65, p < 0.0001, respectively). Moreover, gene expression, polyamine levels and enzymatic activities were increased in colorectal carcinoma samples expressing K-ras mutation as compared to non mutated K-ras samples. Conclusion In conclusion, our data demonstrated a close relationship between PPARγ and SSAT in human colorectal cancer and this could represent an attempt to decrease

  13. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of polyamines in milk as their 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl derivatives using a column-switching technique.

    PubMed

    Bellagamba, F; Moretti, V M; Mentasti, T; Albertini, A; Luzzana, U; Valfrè, F

    1997-12-12

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of polyamines in milk is milk is described. Polyamines were extracted in perchloric acid and derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC-Cl). The excess of reagent was reacted with aspartic acid before the analysis on a column-switching system. Linearity of derivatization was calculated for each amine and the coefficient of regression ranged from 0.994 to 0.999. Chromatographic separation of FMOC-polyamines was achieved with a gradient elution programme of water-acetonitrile. The correlation coefficients of the standard curves in the concentration range from 0.5 to 5 nmol ml-1 were higher than 0.991. The repeatability of the method, expressed as R.S.D. for each polyamines ranged from 3.0 to 8.6%. The percent mean recoveries at 1 nmol ml-1 spiking level were 49 +/- 3, 58 +/- 5, 61 +/- 5 and 48 +/- 4 for putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine, respectively. The limit of detection, calculated on the basis of three times signal-to-noise ratio, was 50 pmol ml-1 for each polyamine.

  14. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. II. Polyamine metabolism and synthesis in relation to enhanced putrescine content and storage life of alc tomato fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele alc) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (Alc) at the ripe stage. Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-alc-a near isogenic line possessing the allele alc, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in alc pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and alc fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of (1,4-{sup 14}C)putrescine and (terminal labeled-{sup 3}H)spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-alc fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in alc fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in alc fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase.

  15. Intracellular polyamines enhance astrocytic coupling.

    PubMed

    Benedikt, Jan; Inyushin, Mikhail; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V; Rivera, Yomarie; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y; Nichols, Colin G; Eaton, Misty J; Skatchkov, Serguei N

    2012-12-05

    Spermine (SPM) and spermidine, endogenous polyamines with the ability to modulate various ion channels and receptors in the brain, exert neuroprotective, antidepressant, antioxidant, and other effects in vivo such as increasing longevity. These polyamines are preferably accumulated in astrocytes, and we hypothesized that SPM increases glial intercellular communication by interacting with glial gap junctions. The results obtained in situ, using Lucifer yellow propagation in the astrocytic syncitium of 21-25-day-old rat CA1 hippocampal slices, showed reduced coupling when astrocytes were dialyzed with standard intracellular solutions without SPM. However, there was a robust increase in the spreading of Lucifer yellow through gap junctions to neighboring astrocytes when the cells were patched with intracellular solutions containing 1 mM SPM, a physiological concentration in glia. Lucifer yellow propagation was inhibited by gap junction blockers. Our findings show that the glial syncitium propagates SPM through gap junctions and further indicate a new role of polyamines in the regulation of the astroglial network under both normal and pathological conditions.

  16. Kinetic and phylogenetic analysis of plant polyamine uptake transporters.

    PubMed

    Mulangi, Vaishali; Chibucos, Marcus C; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Morris, Paul F

    2012-10-01

    The rice gene Polyamine Uptake Transporter1 (PUT1) was originally identified based on its homology to the polyamine uptake transporters LmPOT1 and TcPAT12 in Leishmania major and Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively. Here we show that five additional transporters from rice and Arabidopsis that cluster in the same clade as PUT1 all function as high affinity spermidine uptake transporters. Yeast expression assays of these genes confirmed that uptake of spermidine was minimally affected by 166 fold or greater concentrations of amino acids. Characterized polyamine transporters from both Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa along with the two polyamine transporters from L. major and T. cruzi were aligned and used to generate a hidden Markov model. This model was used to identify significant matches to proteins in other angiosperms, bryophytes, chlorophyta, discicristates, excavates, stramenopiles and amoebozoa. No significant matches were identified in fungal or metazoan genomes. Phylogenic analysis showed that some sequences from the haptophyte, Emiliania huxleyi, as well as sequences from oomycetes and diatoms clustered closer to sequences from plant genomes than from a homologous sequence in the red algal genome Galdieria sulphuraria, consistent with the hypothesis that these polyamine transporters were acquired by horizontal transfer from green algae. Leishmania and Trypansosoma formed a separate cluster with genes from other Discicristates and two Entamoeba species. We surmise that the genes in Entamoeba species were acquired by phagotrophy of Discicristates. In summary, phylogenetic and functional analysis has identified two clades of genes that are predictive of polyamine transport activity.

  17. Polyamines and Root Formation in Mung Bean Hypocotyl Cuttings 1

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Ra'Anan; Altman, Arie; Bachrach, Uriel

    1982-01-01

    The effect of several polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine), their precursors (l-arginine and l-ornithine), and some analogs and metabolic inhibitors (l-canavanine, l-canaline, and methylglyoxal-bis [guanylhydrazone]) on root formation have been studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek) hypocotyl cuttings. Exogenously applied polyamines did not promote adventitious root formation. Rooting was inhibited by l-canavanine and l-canaline, and this inhibition was reversed by the corresponding amino acids l-arginine and l-ornithine. Methylglyoxal-bis (guanylhydrazone), an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and polyamine biosynthesis, was also found to inhibit root formation. All compounds at concentrations of >10−4 molarity completely inhibited natural root formation, whereas at <10−5 molarity only the indole-butyric acid-induced root formation was inhibited. Indole-butyric acid-induced root formation was accompanied by a considerable increase in polyamine levels, more than 2-fold of the control. Whereas senescing (unrooted) cuttings evinced a rapid decline in polyamine content during 48 hours, indole-butyric acid treatment resulted in elevated levels of putrescine and increased putrescine to spermidine ratio. The changes in polyamines were dependent on indole-butyric acid concentration and were organ specific. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16662586

  18. Polyamine Metabolism Is Altered in Unpollinated Parthenocarpic pat-2 Tomato Ovaries1

    PubMed Central

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L.

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of α-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or α-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. α-Difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA3, whereas that of α-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA3 but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries. PMID:12529543

  19. Polyamine metabolism is altered in unpollinated parthenocarpic pat-2 tomato ovaries.

    PubMed

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of alpha-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. Alpha-difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA(3), whereas that of alpha-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA(3) but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries.

  20. Incomplete ion dissociation underlies the weakened attraction between DNA helices at high spermidine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Rau, Donald C

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the salt sensitivity of the hexagonal-to-cholesteric phase transition of spermidine-condensed DNA. This transition precedes the resolubilization of precipitated DNA that occurs at high spermidine concentration. The sensitivity of the critical spermidine concentration at the transition point to the anion species and the NaCl concentration indicates that ion pairing of this trivalent ion underlies this unusual transition. Osmotic pressure measurements of spermidine salt solutions are consistent with this interpretation. Spermidine salts are not fully dissociated at higher concentrations. The competition for DNA binding among the fully charged trivalent ion and the lesser charged complex species at higher concentrations significantly weakens attraction between DNA helices in the condensed state. This is contrary to the suggestion that the binding of spermidine at higher concentrations causes DNA overcharging and consequent electrostatic repulsion.

  1. Polyamines and Their Metabolites as Diagnostic Markers of Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myung Hee; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2013-01-01

    Polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, are ubiquitous in living cells and are essential for eukaryotic cell growth. These polycations interact with negatively charged molecules such as DNA, RNA, acidic proteins and phospholipids and modulate various cellular functions including macromolecular synthesis. Dysregulation of the polyamine pathway leads to pathological conditions including cancer, inflammation, stroke, renal failure and diabetes. Increase in polyamines and polyamine synthesis enzymes is often associated with tumor growth, and urinary and plasma contents of polyamines and their metabolites have been investigated as diagnostic markers for cancers. Of these, diacetylated derivatives of spermidine and spermine are elevated in the urine of cancer patients and present potential markers for early detection. Enhanced catabolism of cellular polyamines by polyamine oxidases (PAO), spermine oxidase (SMO) or acetylpolyamine oxidase (AcPAO), increases cellular oxidative stress and generates hydrogen peroxide and a reactive toxic metabolite, acrolein, which covalently incorporates into lysine residues of cellular proteins. Levels of protein-conjuagated acrolein (PC-Acro) and polyamine oxidizing enzymes were increased in the locus of brain infarction and in plasma in a mouse model of stroke and also in the plasma of stroke patients. When the combined measurements of PC-Acro, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated, even silent brain infarction (SBI) was detected with high sensitivity and specificity. Considering that there are no reliable biochemical markers for early stage of stroke, PC-Acro and PAOs present promising markers. Thus the polyamine metabolites in plasma or urine provide useful tools in early diagnosis of cancer and stroke. PMID:24009852

  2. Comparison of soybean cultivars for enhancement of the polyamine contents in the fermented soybean natto using Bacillus subtilis (natto).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Horii, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kubo, Yuji; Koguchi, Kumiko; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Soda, Kuniyasu

    2017-03-01

    Polyamines have beneficial properties to prevent aging-associated diseases. Raw soybean has relatively high polyamine contents; and the fermented soybean natto is a good source of polyamines. However, detailed information of diversity of polyamine content in raw soybean is lacking. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of polyamines among raw soybeans and select the high polyamine-containing cultivar for natto production. Polyamine contents were measured chromatographically in 16 samples of soybean, which showed high variation among soybeans as follows: 93-861 nmol/g putrescine, 1055-2306 nmol/g spermidine, and 177-578 nmol/g spermine. We then confirmed the high correlations of polyamine contents between raw soybean and natto (r = 0.96, 0.95, and 0.94 for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively). Furthermore, comparison of the polyamine contents among 9 Japanese cultivars showed that 'Nakasen-nari' has the highest polyamine contents, suggesting its suitability for enhancement of polyamine contents of natto.

  3. Sensitization to heat by the polyamines and their analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.J.; Gerner, E.W.

    1983-07-01

    The polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine have been shown to sensitize Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to the cytotoxic effects of elevated temperatures. This sensitization occurs in the order spermine greater than spermidine greater than putrescine. A series of homologs of the diamine putrescine demonstrated little variance in the degree of potentiation until a chain length equivalent to that of spermidine was employed (1,8-diaminooctane). Two compounds bearing structural similarities to spermidine gave rather different results when combined with heat. Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), an antiproliferative drug, sensitized cells to heat, while S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethyl phosphoric acid (WR-2721), a radioprotector, had no measureable effect on 43 degrees C-induced cytotoxicity. Together, these results point out the primary importance of two terminal amino groups separated by either carbon, or carbon and nitrogen, atoms in an aliphatic chain in the observed sensitization of heat-induced cytotoxicity by polyamines. These data suggest specific dimensional characteristics of the presumed negatively charged structure(s) with which the polyamines are interacting to elicit this effect.

  4. CsPAO4 of Citrus sinensis functions in polyamine terminal catabolism and inhibits plant growth under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Polyamine oxidase (PAO) is a key enzyme catalyzing polyamine catabolism leading to H2O2 production. We previously demonstrated that Citrus sinensis contains six putative PAO genes, but their functions are not well understood. In this work, we reported functional elucidation of CsPAO4 in polyamine catabolism and salt stress response. CsPAO4 was localized to the apoplast and used both spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) as substrates for terminal catabolism. Transgenic plants overexpressing CsPAO4 displayed prominent increase in PAO activity, concurrent with marked decrease of Spm and Spd and elevation of H2O2. Seeds of transgenic lines displayed better germination when compared with wild type (WT) under salt stress. However, both vegetative growth and root elongation of the transgenic lines were prominently inhibited under salt stress, accompanied by higher level of H2O2 and more conspicuous programmed cell death (PCD). Exogenous supply of catalase (CAT), a H2O2 scavenger, partially recovered the vegetative growth and root elongation. In addition, spermine inhibited root growth of transgenic plants. Taken together, these data demonstrated that CsPAO4 accounts for production of H2O2 causing oxidative damages under salt stress and that down-regulation of a PAO gene involved in polyamine terminal catabolism may be an alternative approach for improving salt stress tolerance. PMID:27535697

  5. Biogenic and synthetic polyamines bind bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Dubeau, S; Bourassa, P; Thomas, T J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2010-06-14

    Biogenic polyamines are found to modulate protein synthesis at different levels, while polyamine analogues have shown major antitumor activity in multiple experimental models, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with biogenic polyamines, spermine and spermidine, and polyamine analogues 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane x 4 HCl (BE-333) and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane x 5 HCl (BE-3333) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions. FTIR, UV-visible, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyamine binding mode and the effects of polyamine complexation on protein stability and secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that polyamines bind BSA via both hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. Stronger polyamine-protein complexes formed with biogenic than synthetic polyamines with overall binding constants of K(spm) = 3.56 (+/-0.5) x 10(5) M(-1), K(spmd) = 1.77 (+/-0.4) x 10(5) M(-1), K(BE-333) = 1.11 (+/-0.3) x 10(4) M(-1) and K(BE-3333) = 3.90 (+/-0.7) x 10(4) M(-1) that correlate with their positively charged amino group contents. Major alterations of protein conformation were observed with reduction of alpha-helix from 63% (free protein) to 55-33% and increase of turn 12% (free protein) to 28-16% and random coil from 6% (free protein) to 24-17% in the polyamine-BSA complexes, indicating a partial protein unfolding. These data suggest that serum albumins might act as polyamine carrier proteins in delivering polyamine analogues to target tissues.

  6. Spatial and temporal distribution of genes involved in polyamine metabolism during tomato fruit development.

    PubMed

    Tsaniklidis, Georgios; Kotsiras, Anastasios; Tsafouros, Athanasios; Roussos, Peter A; Aivalakis, Georgios; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Delis, Costas

    2016-03-01

    Polyamines are organic compounds involved in various biological roles in plants, including cell growth and organ development. In the present study, the expression profile, the accumulation of free polyamines and the transcript localisation of the genes involved in Put metabolism, such as Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and copper containing Amine oxidase (CuAO), were examined during Solanum lycopersicum cv. Chiou fruit development and maturation. Moreover, the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in higher polyamine metabolism, including Spermidine synthase (SPDS), Spermine synthase (SPMS), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and Polyamine oxidase (PAO), were studied. Most genes participating in PAs biosynthesis and metabolism exhibited an increased accumulation of transcripts at the early stages of fruit development. In contrast, CuAO and SPMS were mostly expressed later, during the development stages of the fruits where a massive increase in fruit volume occurs, while the SPDS1 gene exhibited a rather constant expression with a peak at the red ripe stage. Although Put, Spd and Spm were all exhibited decreasing levels in developing immature fruits, Put levels maxed late during fruit ripening. In contrast to Put both Spd and Spm levels continue to decrease gradually until full ripening. It is worth noticing that in situ RNA-RNA hybridisation is reported for the first time in tomato fruits. The localisation of ADC2, ODC1 and CuAO gene transcripts at tissues such as the locular parenchyma and the vascular bundles fruits, supports the theory that all genes involved in Put biosynthesis and catabolism are mostly expressed in fast growing tissues. The relatively high expression levels of CuAO at the ImG4 stage of fruit development (fruits with a diameter of 3 cm), mature green and breaker stages could possibly be attributed to the implication of polyamines in physiological processes taking place during fruit ripening

  7. Dietary polyamines promote the growth of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, J E; Reistad, R; Eliassen, K A; Sjaastad, O V; Alexander, J

    1997-10-01

    We have examined whether dietary polyamines influence the formation and initial growth of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon. Effects of a combination of dietary polyamines at three dose levels (putrescine: 50, 280, 740 nmol/g; spermidine: 10, 261, 763 nmol/g; spermine: 1, 31, 91 nmol/g) in the polyamine-poor AIN-76A diet were studied in animals in two different experimental situations: animals treated with AOM alone and animals treated with AOM + difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific inhibitor of endogenous polyamine synthesis. In both experimental situations, dietary polyamines enhanced the growth of ACF, expressed as the number of large ACF (foci with three or more aberrant crypts, ACF > or = 3), whereas the formation of ACF, expressed as the number of ACF, was apparently not altered. In animals treated with AOM alone, maximal growth enhancing effect on ACF was nearly obtained with the median level of dietary polyamine. In rats fed a low polyamine diet, basic AIN-76A, DFMO reduced the growth of AOM-induced ACF by 83%. This inhibitory effect of DFMO was counteracted by dietary polyamines in a dose-dependent manner, and it was abolished at the highest level of polyamines. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that dietary polyamines are able to enhance the growth of AOM-induced ACF. Further, dietary polyamines reversed the DFMO-caused inhibition of ACF growth, probably by compensating for the DFMO-reduced endogenous polyamine synthesis.

  8. Polyamine levels and tomato fruit development: possible interaction with ethylene.

    PubMed

    Saftner, R A; Baldi, B G

    1990-02-01

    Fruits of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Liberty, ripen slowly and have a prolonged keeping quality. Ethylene production and the levels of polyamines in pericarp of cv Liberty, Pik Red, and Rutgers were measured in relation to fruit development. Depending on the stage of fruit development, Liberty produced between 16 and 38% of the ethylene produced by Pik Red and Rutgers. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were present in all cultivars. Cadaverine was detected only in Rutgers. Levels of putrescine and spermidine declined between the immature and mature green stages of development and prior to the onset of climacteric ethylene production. In Pik Red and Rutgers, the decline persisted, whereas in Liberty, the putrescine level increased during ripening. Ripe pericarp of Liberty contained about three and six times more free (unconjugated) polyamines than Pik Red and Rutgers, respectively. No pronounced changes in spermidine or cadaverine occurred during ripening. The increase in the free polyamine level in ripe pericarp of Liberty may account for the reduction of climacteric ethylene production, and prolonged storage life.

  9. Spermine and Spermidine Alter Gene Expression and Antigenic Profile of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Han; Romo, Jesus A.; Smith, Trever C.; Reyes, Ann N.; Karna, S. L. Rajasekhar; Miller, Christine L.; Van Laar, Tricia A.; Yendapally, Raghunandan; Chambers, James P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, responds to numerous host-derived signals to alter adaptive capabilities during its enzootic cycle in an arthropod vector and mammalian host. Molecular mechanisms that enable B. burgdorferi to detect, channel, and respond to these signals have become an intense area of study for developing strategies to limit transmission/infection. Bioinformatic analysis of the borrelial genome revealed the presence of polyamine transport components (PotA, PotB, PotC, and PotD), while homologs for polyamine biosynthesis were conspicuously absent. Although potABCD is cotranscribed, the level of PotA was elevated under in vitro growth conditions mimicking unfed ticks compared to the level in fed ticks, while the levels of PotD were similar under the aforementioned conditions in B. burgdorferi. Among several polyamines and polyamine precursors, supplementation of spermine or spermidine in the borrelial growth medium induced synthesis of major regulators of gene expression in B. burgdorferi, such as RpoS and BosR, with a concomitant increase in proteins that contribute to colonization and survival of B. burgdorferi in the mammalian host. Short transcripts of rpoS were elevated in response to spermidine, which was correlated with increased protein levels of RpoS. Transcriptional analysis of rpoZ and B. burgdorferi rel (relBbu; bb0198) in the presence of spermidine revealed the interplay of multiple regulatory factors in B. burgdorferi gene expression. The effect of spermidine on the levels of select borrelial proteins was also influenced by serum factors. These studies suggest that multiple host-derived signals/nutrients and their transport systems contribute to B. burgdorferi adaptation during the vector and vertebrate host phases of infection. PMID:28052993

  10. Spermine and Spermidine Alter Gene Expression and Antigenic Profile of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Han; Romo, Jesus A; Smith, Trever C; Reyes, Ann N; Karna, S L Rajasekhar; Miller, Christine L; Van Laar, Tricia A; Yendapally, Raghunandan; Chambers, James P; Seshu, J

    2017-03-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, responds to numerous host-derived signals to alter adaptive capabilities during its enzootic cycle in an arthropod vector and mammalian host. Molecular mechanisms that enable B. burgdorferi to detect, channel, and respond to these signals have become an intense area of study for developing strategies to limit transmission/infection. Bioinformatic analysis of the borrelial genome revealed the presence of polyamine transport components (PotA, PotB, PotC, and PotD), while homologs for polyamine biosynthesis were conspicuously absent. Although potABCD is cotranscribed, the level of PotA was elevated under in vitro growth conditions mimicking unfed ticks compared to the level in fed ticks, while the levels of PotD were similar under the aforementioned conditions in B. burgdorferi Among several polyamines and polyamine precursors, supplementation of spermine or spermidine in the borrelial growth medium induced synthesis of major regulators of gene expression in B. burgdorferi, such as RpoS and BosR, with a concomitant increase in proteins that contribute to colonization and survival of B. burgdorferi in the mammalian host. Short transcripts of rpoS were elevated in response to spermidine, which was correlated with increased protein levels of RpoS. Transcriptional analysis of rpoZ and B. burgdorferirel (relBbu ; bb0198) in the presence of spermidine revealed the interplay of multiple regulatory factors in B. burgdorferi gene expression. The effect of spermidine on the levels of select borrelial proteins was also influenced by serum factors. These studies suggest that multiple host-derived signals/nutrients and their transport systems contribute to B. burgdorferi adaptation during the vector and vertebrate host phases of infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Design, synthesis and in vitro antikinetoplastid evaluation of N-acylated putrescine, spermidine and spermine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jagu, Elodie; Djilali, Rachid; Pomel, Sébastien; Ramiandrasoa, Florence; Pethe, Stéphanie; Labruère, Raphaël; Loiseau, Philippe M; Blonski, Casimir

    2015-01-15

    A structure-activity relationship study on polyamine derivatives led to the synthesis and the determination of antikinetoplastid activity of 17 compounds. Among them, a spermidine derivative (compound 13) was specifically active in vitro against Leishmania donovani axenic amastigotes (IC50 at 5.4μM; Selectivity Index >18.5) and a spermine derivative (compound 28) specifically active against Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (IC50 at 1.9μM; Selectivity Index >52).

  12. Super-Cationic Carbon Quantum Dots Synthesized from Spermidine as an Eye Drop Formulation for Topical Treatment of Bacterial Keratitis.

    PubMed

    Jian, Hong-Jyuan; Wu, Ren-Siang; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Li, Yu-Jia; Lin, Han-Jia; Harroun, Scott G; Lai, Jui-Yang; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2017-07-25

    We have developed a one-step method to synthesize carbon quantum dots (CQDPAs) from biogenic polyamines (PAs) as an antibacterial agent for topical treatment of bacterial keratitis (BK). CQDs synthesized by direct pyrolysis of spermidine (Spd) powder through a simple dry heating treatment exhibit a solubility and yield much higher than those from putrescine and spermine. We demonstrate that CQDs obtained from Spds (CQDSpds) possess effective antibacterial activities against non-multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis bacteria and also against the multidrug-resistant bacteria, methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CQDSpds is ∼2500-fold lower than that of spermidine alone, demonstrating their strong antibacterial capabilities. Investigation of the possible mechanisms behind the antibacterial activities of the as-synthesized CQDSpds indicates that the super-cationic CQDSpds with small size (diameter ca. 6 nm) and highly positive charge (ζ-potential ca. +45 mV) cause severe disruption of the bacterial membrane. In vitro cytotoxicity, hemolysis, hemagglutination, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress and in vivo morphologic and physiologic cornea change evaluations show the good biocompatibility of CQDSpds. Furthermore, topical ocular administration of CQDSpds can induce the opening of the tight junction of corneal epithelial cells, thereby leading to great antibacterial treatment of S. aureus-induced BK in rabbits. Our results suggest that CQDSpds are a promising antibacterial candidate for clinical applications in treating eye-related bacterial infections and even persistent bacteria-induced infections.

  13. Polyamine Catabolism Is Enhanced after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Kamyar; Huttinger, Francis; Morrison, Ryan; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Casero, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Polyamines spermine and spermidine are highly regulated, ubiquitous aliphatic cations that maintain DNA structure and function as immunomodulators and as antioxidants. Polyamine homeostasis is disrupted after brain injuries, with concomitant generation of toxic metabolites that may contribute to secondary injuries. To test the hypothesis of increased brain polyamine catabolism after traumatic brain injury (TBI), we determined changes in catabolic enzymes and polyamine levels in the rat brain after lateral controlled cortical impact TBI. Spermine oxidase (SMO) catalyzes the degradation of spermine to spermidine, generating H2O2 and aminoaldehydes. Spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) catalyzes acetylation of these polyamines, and both are further oxidized in a reaction that generates putrescine, H2O2, and aminoaldehydes. In a rat cortical impact model of TBI, SSAT mRNA increased subacutely (6–24 h) after TBI in ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus. SMO mRNA levels were elevated late, from 3 to 7 days post-injury. Polyamine catabolism increased as well. Spermine levels were normal at 6 h and decreased slightly at 24 h, but were normal again by 72 h post-injury. Spermidine levels also decreased slightly (6–24 h), then increased by ∼50% at 72 h post-injury. By contrast, normally low putrescine levels increased up to sixfold (6–72 h) after TBI. Moreover, N-acetylspermidine (but not N-acetylspermine) was detectable (24–72 h) near the site of injury, consistent with increased SSAT activity. None of these changes were seen in the contralateral hemisphere. Immunohistochemical confirmation indicated that SSAT and SMO were expressed throughout the brain. SSAT-immunoreactivity (SSAT-ir) increased in both neuronal and nonneuronal (likely glial) populations ipsilateral to injury. Interestingly, bilateral increases in cortical SSAT-ir neurons occurred at 72 h post-injury, whereas hippocampal changes occurred only ipsilaterally

  14. The effect of polyamine biosynthesis inhibition on growth and differentiation of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Pieckenstain, F L; Gárriz, A; Chornomaz, E M; Sánchez, D H; Ruiz, O A

    2001-12-01

    We studied the effects of several polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors on growth, differentiation, free polyamine levels and in vivo and in vitro activity of polyamine biosynthesis enzymes in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) were potent inhibitors of mycelial growth. The effect of DFMO was due to inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). No evidence for the existence of an arginine decarboxylase (ADC) pathway was found. The effect of DFMA was partly due to inhibition of ODC, presumably after its conversion into DFMO by mycelial arginase, as suggested by the high activity of this enzyme detected both in intact mycelium and mycelial extracts. In addition, toxic effects of DFMA on cellular processes other than polyamine metabolism might have occurred. Cyclohexylamine (CHA) slightly inhibited mycelial growth and caused an important decrease of free spermidine associated with a drastic increase of free putrescine concentration. Methylglyoxal bis-[guanyl hydrazone] (MGBG) had no effect on mycelial growth. Excepting MGBG, all the inhibitors strongly decreased sclerotial formation. Results demonstrate that sclerotial development is much more sensitive to polyamine biosynthesis inhibition than mycelial growth. Our results suggest that mycelial growth can be supported either by spermidine or putrescine, while spermidine (or the putrescine/spermidine ratio) is important for sclerotial formation to occur. Ascospore germination was completely insensitive to the inhibitors.

  15. Intrahippocampal infusion of spermidine improves memory persistence: Involvement of protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Signor, Cristiane; Temp, Fernanda R; Mello, Carlos F; Oliveira, Mauro S; Girardi, Bruna A; Gais, Mayara A; Funck, Vinicius R; Rubin, Maribel A

    2016-05-01

    Spermidine (SPD) is an endogenous aliphatic amine that modulates GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and improves memory. Recent evidence suggests that systemic SPD improves the persistence of the long term memory of fear. However, the role of hippocampal polyamines and its binding sites in the persistence of fear memory is to be determined, as well as its putative underlying mechanisms. This study investigated whether the intrahippocampal (i.h.) infusion of spermidine or arcaine, modulators of polyamine binding site at GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, alters the persistence of the memory of contextual fear conditioning task in rats. We also investigated whether protein synthesis and cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) play a role in SPD-induced improvement of the fear memory persistence. While 12h post-training infusion of spermidine facilitated, arcaine and the inhibitor of protein synthesis (anisomycin) impaired the memory of fear assessed 7days after training. The infusion of arcaine, anisomycin or a selective PKA inhibitor (H-89), at doses that have no effect on memory per se, prevented the SPD-induced improvement of memory persistence. H-89 prevented the stimulatory effect of SPD on phospho-PKA/total-PKA ratio. These results suggests that the improvement of fear memory persistence induced by spermidine involves GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, PKA pathway and protein synthesis in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Partial alleviation of oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in Vigna radiata by polyamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mandar; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2017-08-01

    Environmental changes generate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in abiotic stress in plants. This causes alterations in germination, morphology, growth and development ultimately leading to yield loss. Gamma irradiation was used to experimentally induce oxidative damage in an important pulse crop Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek or mung bean. Our research was aimed towards augmentation of oxidative stress tolerance through treatment with a group of aliphatic amines known as polyamines. We used sub-lethal doses of gamma irradiation to generate oxidative damage which was evaluated using Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining, total antioxidant activity, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, proline content and lipid peroxidation. Changes in internal free polyamines and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of key rate-limiting S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) enzyme in polyamine biosynthetic pathway was studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed increased oxidative damage with higher irradiation dose which was partially alleviated by putrescine treatment. Internal levels of putrescine and spermidine increased with 1 mM (50 and 100 Gy) and 2 mM putrescine treatment. Expression of SAMDC also increased with putrescine treatment. This study shows that treatment with putrescine can partially alleviate oxidative damage caused by gamma rays.

  17. Histone deacetylase 10 structure and molecular function as a polyamine deacetylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Yang; Shinsky, Stephen A.; Porter, Nicholas J.; Christianson, David W.

    2017-05-01

    Cationic polyamines such as spermidine and spermine are critical in all forms of life, as they regulate the function of biological macromolecules. Intracellular polyamine metabolism is regulated by reversible acetylation and dysregulated polyamine metabolism is associated with neoplastic diseases such as colon cancer, prostate cancer and neuroblastoma. Here we report that histone deacetylase 10 (HDAC10) is a robust polyamine deacetylase, using recombinant enzymes from Homo sapiens (human) and Danio rerio (zebrafish). The 2.85 Å-resolution crystal structure of zebrafish HDAC10 complexed with a transition-state analogue inhibitor reveals that a glutamate gatekeeper and a sterically constricted active site confer specificity for N8-acetylspermidine hydrolysis and disfavour acetyllysine hydrolysis. Both HDAC10 and spermidine are known to promote cellular survival through autophagy. Accordingly, this work sets a foundation for studying the chemical biology of autophagy through the structure-based design of inhibitors that may also serve as new leads for cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Targeting polyamine metabolism for cancer therapy and prevention.

    PubMed

    Murray-Stewart, Tracy R; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    The chemically simple, biologically complex eukaryotic polyamines, spermidine and spermine, are positively charged alkylamines involved in many crucial cellular processes. Along with their diamine precursor putrescine, their normally high intracellular concentrations require fine attenuation by multiple regulatory mechanisms to keep these essential molecules within strict physiologic ranges. Since the metabolism of and requirement for polyamines are frequently dysregulated in neoplastic disease, the metabolic pathway and functions of polyamines provide rational drug targets; however, these targets have been difficult to exploit for chemotherapy. It is the goal of this article to review the latest findings in the field that demonstrate the potential utility of targeting the metabolism and function of polyamines as strategies for both chemotherapy and, possibly more importantly, chemoprevention.

  19. Properties of purified recombinant human polyamine oxidase, PAOh1/SMO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlin; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Devereux, Wendy; Hacker, Amy; Frydman, Benjamin; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2003-05-16

    The discovery of an inducible oxidase whose apparent substrate preference is spermine indicates that polyamine catabolism is more complex than that originally proposed. To facilitate the study of this enzyme, the purification and characterization of the recombinant human PAOh1/SMO polyamine oxidase are reported. Purified PAOh1/SMO oxidizes both spermine (K(m)=1.6 microM) and N(1)-acetylspermine (K(m)=51 microM), but does not oxidize spermidine. The purified human enzyme also does not oxidize eight representative antitumor polyamine analogues; however, specific oligamine analogues were found to be potent inhibitors of the oxidation of spermine by PAOh1/SMO. The results of these studies are consistent with the hypothesis that PAOh1/SMO represents a new addition to the polyamine metabolic pathway that may represent a new target for antineoplastic drug development.

  20. Foliar free polyamine and inorganic ion content in relation to soil and soil solution chemistry in two fertilized forest stands at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts

    Treesearch

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Alison H. Magill; John Aber; William H. McDowell

    2000-01-01

    Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are low molecular weight, open-chained, organic polycations which are found in all organisms and have been linked with stress responses in plants. The objectives of our study were to investigate the effects of chronic N additions to pine and hardwood stands at Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA on foliar polyamine and...

  1. Effects of dicyclohexylamine on polyamine biosynthesis and incorporation into turnip yellow mosaic virus in Chinese cabbage protoplasts infected in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Balint, R.; Cohen, S.S.

    1985-07-15

    The authors have reported that protoplasts from plants infected with turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) continue to produce virus in culture and that newly formed virus particles contained predominantly newly synthesized spermidine and spermine. They now report similar results with healthy protoplasts infected in vitro, in which essentially all of the virus is newly formed. Again, newly synthesized spermidine and spermine were preferentially incorporated into virus. DCHA inhibited spermidine synthesis by 85%, leading in 20 hr to a 60% depletion of the cellular spermidine and a 30% reduction in the amount of spermidine per virion. Spermine synthesis increased, however, producing a 40% increase in cellular spermine and 50-100% increase in the amount of spermine per virion. Thus, in spite of spermidine depletion, the total positive charge contributed by polyamines to the virus was essentially conserved.

  2. Absence of parallelism between polyamine and nucleic acid contents during induced growth of cucumber cotyledons.

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, M R; Adiga, P R

    1978-01-01

    The cytokinins (benzyladenine or benzyladenosine) decreased spermidine and spermine contents despite increasing putrescine content, when administered to isolated cotyledons of Cucumis sativus L. var. Guntur in organ culture. KCl decreased putrescine contents, although marginally increasing polyamine contents. The cytokinins and/or KCl augmented nucleic acid biosynthesis and accumulation, resulting in enhanced growth and differentiation of the isolated cotyledons. These observations show that polyamine accumulation and growth are not always coupled. PMID:656071

  3. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  4. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  5. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa.

    PubMed

    Kaur Sawhney, R; Shekhawat, N S; Galston, A W

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  6. Life without putrescine: disruption of the gene-encoding polyamine oxidase in Ustilago maydis odc mutants.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Santiago, Laura; Guzmán-de-Peña, Doralinda; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2010-11-01

    In previous communications the essential role of spermidine in Ustilago maydis was demonstrated by means of the disruption of the genes encoding ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine synthase (SPE). However, the assignation of specific roles to each polyamine in different cellular functions was not possible because the spermidine added to satisfy the auxotrophic requirement of odc/spe double mutants is partly back converted into putrescine. In this study, we have approached this problem through the disruption of the gene-encoding polyamine oxidase (PAO), required for the conversion of spermidine into putrescine, and the construction of odc/pao double mutants that were unable to synthesize putrescine by either ornithine decarboxylation or retroconversion from spermidine. Phenotypic analysis of the mutants provided evidence that putrescine is only an intermediary in spermidine biosynthesis, and has no direct role in cell growth, dimorphic transition, or any other vital function of U. maydis. Nevertheless, our results show that putrescine may play a role in the protection of U. maydis against salt and osmotic stress, and possibly virulence. Evidence was also obtained that the retroconversion of spermidine into putrescine is not essential for U. maydis growth but may be important for its survival under natural conditions.

  7. Acquisition of polyamines by the obligate intracytoplasmic bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii.

    PubMed Central

    Speed, R R; Winkler, H H

    1990-01-01

    Both the polyamine content and the route of acquisition of polyamines by Rickettsia prowazekii, an obligate intracellular parasitic bacterium, were determined. The rickettsiae grew normally in an ornithine decarboxylase mutant of the Chinese hamster ovary (C55.7) cell line whether or not putrescine, which this host cell required in order to grow, was present. The rickettsiae contained approximately 6 mM putrescine, 5 mM spermidine, and 3 mM spermine when cultured in the presence or absence of putrescine. Neither the transport of putrescine and spermidine by the rickettsiae nor a measurable rickettsial ornithine decarboxylase activity could be demonstrated. However, we demonstrated the de novo synthesis of polyamines from arginine by the rickettsiae. Arginine decarboxylase activity (29 pmol of 14CO2 released per h per 10(8) rickettsiae) was measured in the rickettsiae growing within their host cell. A markedly lower level of this enzymatic activity was observed in cell extracts of R. prowazekii and could be completely inhibited with 1 mM difluoromethylarginine, an irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme. R. prowazekii failed to grow in C55.7 cells that had been cultured in the presence of 1 mM difluoromethylarginine. After rickettsiae were grown in C55.7 in the presence of labeled arginine, the specific activities of arginine in the host cell cytoplasm and polyamines in the rickettsiae were measured; these measurements indicated that 100% of the total polyamine content of R. prowazekii was derived from arginine. PMID:2120188

  8. Polyamine transport inEscherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, K; Kashiwagi, K

    1996-03-01

    The polyamine content in cells is regulated by both polyamine biosynthesis and its transport. We recently obtained and characterized three clones of polyamine transport genes (pPT104, pPT79 and pPT71) inEscherichia coli. The system encoded by pPT104 was the spermidine-preferential uptake system and that encoded by pPT79 the putrescine-specific uptake system. Furthermore, these two systems were periplasmic transport systems consisting of four kinds of proteins: pPT104 clone encoded potA, -B,-C, and -D proteins and pPT79 clone encoded potF, -G, -H, and -I proteins, judging from the deduced amino acid sequences of the nucleotide sequences of these clones. PotD and -F proteins were periplasmic substrate binding proteins and potA and -G proteins membrane associated proteins having the nucleotide binding site. PotB and -C proteins, and potH and -I proteins were transmembrane proteins probably forming channels for spermidine and putrescine, respectively. Their amino acid sequences in the corresponding proteins were similar to each other. The functions of potA and -D proteins in the spermidine-preferential uptake system encoded by pPT104 clone were studied in detail through a combined biochemical and genetic approach. In contrast, the putrescine transport system encoded by pPT71 consisted of one membrane protein (potE protein) haveing twelve transmembrane segments, and was active in both the uptake and excretion of putrescine. The uptake was dependent on membrane potential, and the excretion was due to the exchange reaction between putrescine and ornithine.

  9. Structural and Functional Evidence for Bacillus subtilis PaiA as a Novel N1-spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Forouhar,F.; Lee, I.; Vujcic, J.; Vujcic, S.; Shen, J.; Vorobiev, S.; Xiao, R.; Acton, T.; Montelione, G.; et al.

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis PaiA has been implicated in the negative control of sporulation as well as production of degradative enzymes. PaiA shares recognizable sequence homology with N-acetyltransferases, including those that can acetylate spermidine/spermine substrates (SSATs). We have determined the crystal structure of PaiA in complex with CoA at 1.9 Angstrom resolution and found that PaiA is a member of the N-acetyltransferase superfamily of enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observed the binding of an oxidized CoA dimer in the active site of PaiA, and the structural information suggests the substrates of the enzyme could be linear, positively charged compounds. Our biochemical characterization is also consistent with this possibility since purified PaiA possesses N1-acetyltransferase activity towards polyamine substrates including spermidine and spermine. Further, conditional over-expression of PaiA in bacteria results in increased acetylation of endogenous spermidine pools. Thus, our structural and biochemical analyses indicate that PaiA is a novel N-acetyltransferase capable of acetylating both spermidine and spermine. In this way, the pai operon may function in regulating intracellular polyamine concentrations and/or binding capabilities. In addition to preventing toxicity due to polyamine excess, this function may also serve to regulate expression of certain bacterial gene products such as those involved in sporulation.

  10. Polyamine Metabolism in Embryogenic Cells of Daucus carota

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Michael J.; Koppenbrink, Joan W.; Jaworski, Ernest G.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the metabolism of polyamines, which seem to be involved in transcription and translation in animal systems, have been studied in cultured cells of Daucus carota (carrot) undergoing embryogenesis. Putrescine levels were elevated by as much as 2-fold over the control within 24 hours after transfer of the cells to embryogenic medium. Spermidine levels were elevated also but spermine levels appeared to be lower in embryogenic cells. Embryogenic cells incorporated [14C]arginine into putrescine at two times the rate of control cells. These changes suggest that polyamines may be involved in cellular differentiation during embryogenesis. PMID:16660531

  11. Effects of dietary polyamine deficiency on Trypanosoma gambiense infection in rats.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, K; Araki, N; Ohnishi, Y; Kozaki, S

    2001-02-01

    Nishimura, K., Araki, N., Ohnishi, Y., and Kozaki, S. 2001. Effects of dietary polyamine deficiency on Trypanosoma gambiense infection in rats. Experimental Parasitology 97, 95-101. A diet deficient in polyamines decreases the availability of dietary polyamines. We used rats infected with the Wellcome strain of Trypanosoma gambiense to examine the effects of polyamine-deficient chow (PDC) on trypanosome proliferation and symptoms of infection. Rats fed PDC showed limited increase of trypanosome and symptoms of infection and limited loss of body weight and anemia. Survival in these rats was prolonged. Before infection, the heparinized plasma concentration of spermidine in the PDC-fed rats was lower than that in control rats fed with standard chow. After infection, the content of spermidine in red blood cells increased in the control rats, but was only slightly increased in PDC-fed rats. The content of spermidine in the trypanosomes after infection was low in the PDC-fed rats. Decreases in the polyamine content of trypanosomes limited their increase. These observations suggest that a reduction in dietary polyamines may help in the regulation of trypanosome infection. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity in the posterior gills of the blue crab, Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda, Brachyura): modulation of ATP hydrolysis by the biogenic amines spermidine and spermine.

    PubMed

    Garçon, Daniela P; Lucena, Malson N; França, Juliana L; McNamara, John C; Fontes, Carlos F L; Leone, Francisco A

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the effect of the exogenous polyamines spermine, spermidine and putrescine on modulation by ATP, K⁺, Na⁺, NH₄⁺ and Mg²⁺ and on inhibition by ouabain of posterior gill microsomal Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity in the blue crab, Callinectes ornatus, acclimated to a dilute medium (21‰ salinity). This is the first kinetic demonstration of competition between spermine and spermidine for the cation sites of a crustacean Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase. Polyamine inhibition is enhanced at low cation concentrations: spermidine almost completely inhibited total ATPase activity, while spermine inhibition attained 58%; putrescine had a negligible effect on Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity. Spermine and spermidine affected both V and K for ATP hydrolysis but did not affect ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity. ATP hydrolysis in the absence of spermine and spermidine obeyed Michaelis-Menten behavior, in contrast to the cooperative kinetics seen for both polyamines. Modulation of V and K by K⁺, Na⁺, NH₄⁺ and Mg²⁺ varied considerably in the presence of spermine and spermidine. These findings suggest that polyamine inhibition of Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity may be of physiological relevance to crustaceans that occupy habitats of variable salinity.

  13. Selective structural change of bulged-out region of double-stranded RNA containing bulged nucleotides by spermidine

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, Kyohei; Terui, Yusuke; Inomata, Emire; Katagiri, Daisuke; Nomura, Yusuke; Someya, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Kawai, Gota; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2008-06-13

    Polyamines are essential for cell growth due to effects mainly at the level of translation. These effects likely involve a structural change, induced by polyamines, of the bulged-out region of double-stranded RNA that is different from changes induced by Mg{sup 2+}. Structural changes were studied using U6-34, a model RNA of U6 small nuclear RNA containing bulged nucleotides. Binding of NS1-2 peptide derived from the RNA binding site of NS1 protein, to U6-34 was inhibited by spermidine but not by Mg{sup 2+}. A selective conformational change of the bases in the bulged-out region of U6-34 induced by spermidine was observed by NMR. The selective effect of spermidine was lost when the bulged-out region of U6-34 was removed in U6-34({delta}5). The binding of NS1-2 peptide to U6-34({delta}5) was inhibited both by spermidine and Mg{sup 2+}. The selective structural change of U6-34 by spermidine was confirmed by circular dichroism.

  14. Polyamine formation by arginine decarboxylase as a transducer of hormonal, environmental and stress stimuli in higher plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galston, A. W.; Flores, H. E.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.

    1982-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates polyamines including putrescine in the regulation of such diverse plant processes as cell division, embryogenesis and senescence. We find that the enzyme arginine decarboxylase, which controls the rate of putrescine formation in some plant systems, is activated by light acting through P(r) phytochrome as a receptor, by the plant hormone gibberellic acid, by osmotic shock and by other stress stimuli. We therefore propose arginine decarboxylase as a possible transducer of the various initially received tropistic stimuli in plants. The putrescine formed could act by affecting cytoskeletal components.

  15. 3D-Membrane Stacks on Supported Membranes Composed of Diatom Lipids Induced by Long-Chain Polyamines.

    PubMed

    Gräb, Oliver; Abacilar, Maryna; Daus, Fabian; Geyer, Armin; Steinem, Claudia

    2016-10-04

    Long-chain polyamines (LCPAs) are intimately involved in the biomineralization process of diatoms taking place in silica deposition vesicles being acidic compartments surrounded by a lipid bilayer. Here, we addressed the question whether and how LCPAs interact with lipid membranes composed of glycerophospholipids and glyceroglycolipids mimicking the membranes of diatoms and higher plants. Solid supported lipid bilayers and monolayers containing the three major components that are unique in diatoms and higher plants, i.e., monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), were prepared by spreading small unilamellar vesicles. The integrity of the membranes was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy showing continuous flat bilayers and monolayers with small protrusions on top of the membrane. The addition of a synthetic polyamine composed of 13 amine groups separated by a propyl spacer (C3N13) results in flat but three-dimensional membrane stacks within minutes. The membrane stacks are connected with the underlying membrane as verified by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments. Membrane stack formation was found to be independent of the lipid composition; i.e., neither glyceroglycolipids nor negatively charged lipids were required. However, the formation process was strongly dependent on the chain length of the polyamine. Whereas short polyamines such as the naturally occurring spermidine, spermine, and the synthetic polyamines C3N4 and C3N5 do not induce stack formation, those containing seven and more amine groups (C3N7, C3N13, and C3N18) do form membrane stacks. The observed stack formation might have implications for the stability and expansion of the silica deposition vesicle during valve and girdle band formation in diatoms.

  16. [Importance of the polyamines: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Farriol, M; Segovia, T; Venereo, Y; Orta, X

    1999-01-01

    The polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, are low-molecular weight substances, synthesized in eucariot cells from their immediate precursor, ornithine. These nitrogen compounds are essential for growth. The organism's endogenous supply is obtained through the diet or by synthesis in the intestinal flora. The polyamines are found in fruits and vegetables, foods of animal origin (milk, eggs, fish, and meat) and fermented food products (cheese, beer, and sauerkraut). Being nitrogenated compounds, they are considered as "minor" components of the diet. Ornithine decarboxylase, a short-half life enzyme, is the key to polyamine biosynthesis. Cellular polyamines are found in free or conjugated forms, the latter made possible, above all, by the presence of positive charges in their molecules. Their particular structure facilitates interaction with anions and binding to nuclear and membrane structures, particularly phospholipids, proteins and DNA. The organism's requirements for these substances are elevated during phases of intense growth or increased demand; thus, the nutritional supply can be crucial during the evolution of processes that involve a high degree of loss combined with deficits in endogenous biosynthesis. Increased tissue and organ polyamine concentrations correlate with diseases of neoplastic origin. It has been hypothesized that polyamine inhibition could be a therapeutic mechanism for such conditions. The supply of polyamines in artificial nutrition has not been measured and there are few data on the effects of artificial nutrition on circulating levels or the usual sites of storage in the body.

  17. The photoprotective role of spermidine in tomato seedlings under salinity-alkalinity stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lipan; Xiang, Lixia; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xiaoting; Zou, Zhirong; Hu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are small, ubiquitous, nitrogenous compounds that scavenge reactive oxygen species and stabilize the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to abiotic stresses. Molecular details underlying polyamine-mediated photoprotective mechanisms are not completely resolved. This study investigated the role of spermidine (Spd) in the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. Tomato seedlings were subjected to salinity-alkalinity stress with and without foliar application of Spd, and photosynthetic and morphological parameters were analyzed. Leaf dry weight and net photosynthetic rate were reduced by salinity-alkalinity stress. Salinity-alkalinity stress reduced photochemical quenching parameters, including maximum photochemistry efficiency of photosystem II, quantum yield of linear electron flux, and coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP). Salinity-alkalinity stress elevated nonphotochemical quenching parameters, including the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Microscopic analysis revealed that salinity-alkalinity stress disrupted the internal lamellar system of granal and stromal thylakoids. Exogenous Spd alleviated the stress-induced reduction of leaf dry weight, net photosynthetic rate, and qP parameters. The NPQ parameters increased by salinity-alkalinity stress were also alleviated by Spd. Seedlings treated with exogenous Spd had higher zeaxanthin (Z) contents than those without Spd under salinity-alkalinity stress. The chloroplast ultrastructure had a more ordered arrangement in seedlings treated with exogenous Spd than in those without Spd under salinity-alkalinity stress. These results indicate that exogenous Spd can alleviate the growth inhibition and thylakoid membrane photodamage caused by salinity-alkalinity stress. The Spd-induced accumulation of Z also may have an important role in stabilizing the photosynthetic apparatus.

  18. The Photoprotective Role of Spermidine in Tomato Seedlings under Salinity-Alkalinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xiaoting; Zou, Zhirong; Hu, Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are small, ubiquitous, nitrogenous compounds that scavenge reactive oxygen species and stabilize the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to abiotic stresses. Molecular details underlying polyamine-mediated photoprotective mechanisms are not completely resolved. This study investigated the role of spermidine (Spd) in the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. Tomato seedlings were subjected to salinity-alkalinity stress with and without foliar application of Spd, and photosynthetic and morphological parameters were analyzed. Leaf dry weight and net photosynthetic rate were reduced by salinity-alkalinity stress. Salinity-alkalinity stress reduced photochemical quenching parameters, including maximum photochemistry efficiency of photosystem II, quantum yield of linear electron flux, and coefficient of photochemical quenching (qP). Salinity-alkalinity stress elevated nonphotochemical quenching parameters, including the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle and nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Microscopic analysis revealed that salinity-alkalinity stress disrupted the internal lamellar system of granal and stromal thylakoids. Exogenous Spd alleviated the stress-induced reduction of leaf dry weight, net photosynthetic rate, and qP parameters. The NPQ parameters increased by salinity-alkalinity stress were also alleviated by Spd. Seedlings treated with exogenous Spd had higher zeaxanthin (Z) contents than those without Spd under salinity-alkalinity stress. The chloroplast ultrastructure had a more ordered arrangement in seedlings treated with exogenous Spd than in those without Spd under salinity-alkalinity stress. These results indicate that exogenous Spd can alleviate the growth inhibition and thylakoid membrane photodamage caused by salinity-alkalinity stress. The Spd-induced accumulation of Z also may have an important role in stabilizing the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:25340351

  19. Intracellular Polyamines Enhance Astrocytic Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Benedikt, Jan; Inyushin, Mikhail; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V.; Rivera, Yomarie; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y.; Nichols, Colin G.; Eaton, Misty J.; Skatchkov, Serguei N.

    2013-01-01

    Spermine (SPM) and spermidine (SPD), endogenous polyamines (PA) with the ability to modulate various ion channels and receptors in the brain, exert neuroprotective, antidepressant, antioxidant and other effects in vivo such as increasing longevity. These PA are preferably accumulated in astrocytes, and we hypothesized that SPM increases glial intercellular communication by interacting with glial gap junctions. Results obtained in situ, using Lucifer yellow propagation in the astrocytic syncitium of 21–25 day old rat CA1 hippocampal slices, showed reduced coupling when astrocytes were dialyzed with standard intracellular solutions (ICS) without SPM. However, there was a robust increase in the spreading of Lucifer yellow via gap junctions to neighboring astrocytes when the cells were patched with ICS containing 1 mM SPM; a physiological concentration in glia. Lucifer yellow propagation was inhibited by gap junction blockers. Our findings show that the glial syncitium propagates SPM via gap junctions and further suggest a new role of polyamines in the regulation of the astroglial network in both normal and pathological conditions. PMID:23076119

  20. Spermidine metabolism in parasitic protozoa--a comparison to the situation in prokaryotes, viruses, plants and fungi.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Annette E; Gottwald, Andrea M; Wiersch, Carolin S; Maier, Walter A; Seitz, Hanns M

    2003-03-01

    Targeting polyamines of parasitic protozoa in chemotherapy has attracted attention because polyamines might reveal novel drug targets for antiparasite therapies (Müller et al. 2001). The biological function of the triamine spermidine in parasitic protozoa has not been studied in great detail although the results obtained mainly imply three different functions, i.e., cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and biosynthesis of macromolecules. Sequence information from the malaria genome project databases and inhibitor studies provide evidence that the current status of spermidine research has to be extended since enzymes of spermidine metabolism are present in the parasite (Kaiser et al. 2001). Isolation and characterisation of these enzymes, i.e., deoxyhypusine synthase (EC 1.1.1.249) (DHS) and homospermidine synthase (EC 2.5.1.44) (HSS) might lead to valuable new targets in drug therapy. Currently research on spermidine metabolism is based on the deposition of the deoxyhypusine synthase nucleic acid sequence in GenBank while the activity of homospermidine synthase was deduced from inhibitor studies. Spermidine biosynthesis is catalyzed by spermidine synthase (EC 2.5.1.16) which transfers an aminopropyl moiety from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine. Spermidine is also an important precursor in the biosynthesis of the unusual amino acid hypusine (Wolff et al. 1995) and the uncommon triamine homospermidine in eukaryotes, in particular in pyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plants (Ober and Hartmann 2000). Hypusine is formed by a two-step enzymatic mechanism starting with the transfer of an aminobutyl moiety from spermidine to the epsilon-amino group of one of the lysine residues in the precursor protein of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5A by DHS (Lee and Park 2000). The second step of hypusinylation is completed by deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.9929) (Abbruzzese et al. 1985). Homospermidine formation in eukaryotes parallels deoxyhypusine

  1. Characterization of antilipolytic action of polyamines in isolated rat adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Richelsen, B; Pedersen, S B; Hougaard, D M

    1989-01-01

    The interactions of polyamines with the lipolytic system were studied in isolated rat adipocytes. Spermine, spermidine and putrescine significantly inhibited adenosine deaminase-stimulated lipolysis. An antilipolytic effect of spermine was detectable at a concentration of 0.25 mM (P less than 0.05). At a concentration of 10 mM all three polyamines inhibited the stimulated lipolysis by 50-60% (P less than 0.001). In addition, spermine enhanced the antilipolytic sensitivity of insulin. Spermine (1 mM) decreased the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of insulin from 320 +/- 70 pM to 56 +/- 20 pM (P less than 0.01). The antilipolytic effects and the cyclic-AMP-lowering effects of the polyamines were almost completely prevented in the presence of different phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and RO 20-1724) and, in addition, polyamines had no effect on lipolysis stimulated by dibutyryl cyclic AMP, indicating that polyamines may inhibit lipolysis by activating the PDE enzyme. This latter suggestion was confirmed by demonstrating that spermine (5 mM) significantly enhanced the low-Km PDE enzyme activity (P less than 0.01). Finally, the amounts of polyamines present in isolated adipocytes were measured, and the estimated cytoplasmic concentrations were 0.02 mM (putrescine), 0.86 mM (spermidine), and 1.0 mM (spermine). It is concluded that polyamines may possibly be involved in the physiological regulation of triacylglycerol mobilization in adipocytes. PMID:2476118

  2. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of plant polyamine oxidase activity by polyamine analogues.

    PubMed

    Maiale, Santiago J; Marina, María; Sánchez, Diego H; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Ruiz, Oscar A

    2008-10-01

    Polyamine oxidase from Avena sativa L. cv. Cristal seedlings was purified to homogeneity using a simple four-step purification protocol including an infiltration washing technique. The enzyme had a high affinity for spermidine and spermine (K(m) approximately 5.5 and 1.2 microM, respectively), and also oxidized norspermidine (K(m) approximately 64.0 microM). Natural and synthetic diamines, cyclohexylamine, the putrescine analogue 1-aminooxy-3-aminopropane, and several polyamine analogues had inhibitory effects on polyamine oxidase activity and none were substrates. No inhibitory effect was observed on spermidine oxidation when the reaction product 1,3-diaminopropane was added. By contrast, 1-aminooxy-3-aminopropane showed mixed inhibition kinetics and a K(i) value of 0.113 mM. In addition, in vitro enzymatic activity assays showed that the oligoamine [3,8,13,18,23,28,33,38,43,48-deca-aza-(trans-25)-pentacontene], the tetramine 1,14-bis-[ethylamino]-5,10-diazatetradecane, and the pentamine 1,19-bis-[ethylamino]-5,10,15-triazanonadecane, displayed potent competitive inhibitory activities against polyamine oxidase with K(i) values of 5.8, 110.0 and 7.6 nM, respectively, where cyclohexylamine was a weak competitive inhibitor with a K(i) value of 0.5 mM. These analogues did not inhibit mycelial growth of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary and the bacterium Pseudomonas viridiflava (Burkholder) Dowson in vitro. On the contrary, with concentrations similar to those used for polyamine analogues, guazatine (a well-known fungicide and at the same time, a polyamine oxidase inhibitor) inhibited ( approximately 85%) S. sclerotiorum mycelial growth on Czapek-Dox medium. Finally, the analogue 1,19-bis-ethylamino-5,10,15-triazanonadecane inhibited polyamine oxidase activity observed in segments of maize leaves in vivo. The results obtained provide insights into research on the influence of polyamine oxidase activity on plant biotic and abiotic stresses.

  3. Arginine supplementation and exposure time affects polyamine and glucose metabolism in primary liver cells isolated from Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Synne Marte; Taylor, Richard; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Espe, Marit

    2014-05-01

    Arginine has been demonstrated to enhance glucose and lipid oxidation in mammals through activation of polyamine turnover. We aimed to investigate how arginine affects energy utilization through polyamine metabolism and whether this effect is time dependent. Primary liver cells were isolated from Atlantic salmon (2.2 kg body weight) fed diets containing 25.5 (low arginine, LA) or 36.1 (high arginine, HA) g arginine/kg dry matter for 12 weeks, to investigate the effect of long-term arginine supplementation. The cells were cultured for 24 h in L-15 medium to which either alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) or N (1),N (11)-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) was added. Analysis of the medium by nuclear magnetic resonance revealed significant differences between the two dietary groups as well as between cells exposed to DFMO and DENSPM, with decreased glucose, fumarate and lactate concentrations in media of the HA cells. Liver cells from fish fed the HA diet had higher spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase protein abundance and lower adenosine triphosphate concentration as compared to the LA-fed fish, while gene expression was not affected by either diet or treatment. Primary liver cells isolated from salmon fed a commercial diet and cultured in L-15 media with or without arginine supplementation (1.82 or 3.63 mM) for 48 h, representing short-term effect of arginine supplementation, showed differential expression of genes for apoptosis and polyamine synthesis due to arginine supplementation or inhibition by DFMO. Overall, arginine concentration and exposure time affected energy metabolism and gene regulation more than inhibition or activation of key enzymes of polyamine metabolism, suggesting a polyamine-independent influence of arginine on cellular energy metabolism and survival.

  4. Translational recoding as a feedback controller: systems approaches reveal polyamine-specific effects on the antizyme ribosomal frameshift

    PubMed Central

    Rato, Claudia; Amirova, Svetlana R.; Bates, Declan G.; Stansfield, Ian; Wallace, Heather M.

    2011-01-01

    The antizyme protein, Oaz1, regulates synthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine by controlling stability of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase. Antizyme mRNA translation depends upon a polyamine-stimulated +1 ribosomal frameshift, forming a complex negative feedback system in which the translational frameshifting event may be viewed in engineering terms as a feedback controller for intracellular polyamine concentrations. In this article, we present the first systems level study of the characteristics of this feedback controller, using an integrated experimental and modeling approach. Quantitative analysis of mutant yeast strains in which polyamine synthesis and interconversion were blocked revealed marked variations in frameshift responses to the different polyamines. Putrescine and spermine, but not spermidine, showed evidence of co-operative stimulation of frameshifting and the existence of multiple ribosome binding sites. Combinatorial polyamine treatments showed polyamines compete for binding to common ribosome sites. Using concepts from enzyme kinetics and control engineering, a mathematical model of the translational controller was developed to describe these complex ribosomal responses to combinatorial polyamine effects. Each one of a range of model predictions was successfully validated against experimental frameshift frequencies measured in S-adenosylmethionine-decarboxylase and antizyme mutants, as well as in the wild-type genetic background. PMID:21303766

  5. Polyamine transport is mediated by both endocytic and solute carrier transport mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Takeshi; Stringer, David E; Blohm-Mangone, Karen A; Gerner, Eugene W

    2010-08-01

    The polyamines spermidine and spermine, and their precursor putrescine, are required for cell growth and cellular functions. The high levels of tissue polyamines are implicated in carcinogenesis. The major sources of exogenous polyamines are diet and intestinal luminal bacteria in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues. Both endocytic and solute carrier-dependent mechanisms have been described for polyamine uptake. Knocking down of caveolin-1 protein increased polyamine uptake in colon cancer-derived HCT116 cells. Dietary supplied putrescine was accumulated in GI tissues and liver in caveolin-1 knockout mice more than wild-type mice. Knocking out of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), which has been implicated in the release of exogenous polyamines from internalized vesicles, abolished the accumulation of dietary putrescine in GI tissues. Under conditions of reduced endogenous tissue putrescine contents, caused by treatment with the polyamine synthesis inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), small intestinal and colonic mucosal polyamine contents increased with dietary putrescine levels, even in mice lacking NOS2. Knocking down the solute carrier transporter SLC3A2 in HCT116-derived Hkh2 cells reduced the accumulation of exogenous putrescine and total polyamine contents in DFMO treated cells, relative to non-DFMO-treated cells. These data demonstrate that exogenous putrescine is transported into GI tissues by caveolin-1- and NOS2-dependent mechanisms, but that the solute carrier transporter SLC3A2 can function bidirectionally to import putrescine under conditions of low tissue polyamines.

  6. High and low toxicity of cadmium on polyamine metabolism of bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants

    SciTech Connect

    Barcelo, J.; Creus, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.5 ppm) of Cadmium were supplied to the nutrient solution of liquid hidroponic culture of Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Contender. After 21 days of plant growth the levels of Putrescine (Put), Spermidine (Spd) and Spermine (Spm) were determined in roots, stem, primary leaves and trifoliate leaves. Stem and trifoliate leaves of Cadmium treated plants show a senescence state indicated by a lower values of Put and Spd than nontreated plants. A stress situation is present in roots of all treated plants indicated by a higher values of Put and Spd than nontreated plants, with a good inverse correlation between polyamine levels and Cadmium concentrations. In primary leaves 0.1 ppm and 0.2 ppm of Cadmium produce a stress situation, but 0.5 ppm of Cadmium produces a senescence state.

  7. Identification of a Novel Aminopropyltransferase Involved in the Synthesis of Branched-Chain Polyamines in Hyperthermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kazuma; Hidese, Ryota; Fukuda, Wakao; Niitsu, Masaru; Takao, Koichi; Horai, Yuhei; Umezawa, Naoki; Higuchi, Tsunehiko; Oshima, Tairo; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2014-01-01

    Longer- and/or branched-chain polyamines are unique polycations found in thermophiles. N4-aminopropylspermine is considered a major polyamine in Thermococcus kodakarensis. To determine whether a quaternary branched penta-amine, N4-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine, an isomer of N4-aminopropylspermine, was also present, acid-extracted cytoplasmic polyamines were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography, gas chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. N4-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine was an abundant cytoplasmic polyamine in this species. To identify the enzyme that catalyzes N4-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine synthesis, the active fraction was concentrated from the cytoplasm and analyzed by linear ion trap–time of flight mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization instrument after analysis by the MASCOT database. TK0545, TK0548, TK0967, and TK1691 were identified as candidate enzymes, and the corresponding genes were individually cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant forms were purified, and their N4-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine synthesis activity was measured. Of the four candidates, TK1691 (BpsA) was found to synthesize N4-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine from spermidine via N4-aminopropylspermidine. Compared to the wild type, the bpsA-disrupted strain DBP1 grew at 85°C with a slightly longer lag phase but was unable to grow at 93°C. HPLC analysis showed that both N4-aminopropylspermidine and N4-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine were absent from the DBP1 strain grown at 85°C, demonstrating that the branched-chain polyamine synthesized by BpsA is important for cell growth at 93°C. Sequence comparison to orthologs from various microorganisms indicated that BpsA differed from other known aminopropyltransferases that produce spermidine and spermine. BpsA orthologs were found only in thermophiles, both in archaea and bacteria, but were absent from mesophiles. These findings indicate that BpsA is a novel aminopropyltransferase essential for the

  8. Substrate-induced allosteric change in the quaternary structure of the spermidine N-acetyltransferase SpeG

    DOE PAGES

    Filippova, Ekaterina V.; Weigand, Steven J.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; ...

    2015-09-26

    The spermidine N-acetyltransferase SpeG is a dodecameric enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to polyamines such as spermidine and spermine. SpeG has an allosteric polyamine-binding site and acetylating polyamines regulate their intracellular concentrations. The structures of SpeG from Vibrio cholerae in complexes with polyamines and cofactor have been characterized earlier. Here, we present the dodecameric structure of SpeG from V. cholerae in a ligand-free form in three different conformational states: open, intermediate and closed. All structures were crystallized in C2 space group symmetry and contain six monomers in the asymmetric unit cell. Twomore » hexamers related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry form the SpeG dodecamer. The open and intermediate states have a unique open dodecameric ring. This SpeG dodecamer is asymmetric except for the one 2-fold axis and is unlike any known dodecameric structure. Using a fluorescence thermal shift assay, size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering analysis, negative-stain electron microscopy and structural analysis, we demonstrate that this unique open dodecameric state exists in solution. As a result, our combined results indicate that polyamines trigger conformational changes and induce the symmetric closed dodecameric state of the protein when they bind to their allosteric sites.« less

  9. Substrate-induced allosteric change in the quaternary structure of the spermidine N-acetyltransferase SpeG

    DOE PAGES

    Filippova, Ekaterina V.; Weigand, Steven J.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; ...

    2015-09-26

    The spermidine N-acetyltransferase SpeG is a dodecameric enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to polyamines such as spermidine and spermine. SpeG has an allosteric polyamine-binding site and acetylating polyamines regulate their intracellular concentrations. The structures of SpeG from Vibrio cholerae in complexes with polyamines and cofactor have been characterized earlier. Here, we present the dodecameric structure of SpeG from V. cholerae in a ligand-free form in three different conformational states: open, intermediate and closed. All structures were crystallized in C2 space group symmetry and contain six monomers in the asymmetric unit cell. Twomore » hexamers related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry form the SpeG dodecamer. The open and intermediate states have a unique open dodecameric ring. This SpeG dodecamer is asymmetric except for the one 2-fold axis and is unlike any known dodecameric structure. Using a fluorescence thermal shift assay, size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering analysis, negative-stain electron microscopy and structural analysis, we demonstrate that this unique open dodecameric state exists in solution. As a result, our combined results indicate that polyamines trigger conformational changes and induce the symmetric closed dodecameric state of the protein when they bind to their allosteric sites.« less

  10. Substrate-induced allosteric change in the quaternary structure of the spermidine N-acetyltransferase SpeG

    SciTech Connect

    Filippova, Ekaterina V.; Weigand, Steven J.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Kiryukhina, Olga; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Anderson, Wayne F.

    2015-09-26

    The spermidine N-acetyltransferase SpeG is a dodecameric enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to polyamines such as spermidine and spermine. SpeG has an allosteric polyamine-binding site and acetylating polyamines regulate their intracellular concentrations. The structures of SpeG from Vibrio cholerae in complexes with polyamines and cofactor have been characterized earlier. Here, we present the dodecameric structure of SpeG from V. cholerae in a ligand-free form in three different conformational states: open, intermediate and closed. All structures were crystallized in C2 space group symmetry and contain six monomers in the asymmetric unit cell. Two hexamers related by crystallographic 2-fold symmetry form the SpeG dodecamer. The open and intermediate states have a unique open dodecameric ring. This SpeG dodecamer is asymmetric except for the one 2-fold axis and is unlike any known dodecameric structure. Using a fluorescence thermal shift assay, size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering analysis, negative-stain electron microscopy and structural analysis, we demonstrate that this unique open dodecameric state exists in solution. As a result, our combined results indicate that polyamines trigger conformational changes and induce the symmetric closed dodecameric state of the protein when they bind to their allosteric sites.

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and lung branching morphogenesis. Role of polyamines and transforming growth factor beta1.

    PubMed

    Stabellini, G; Locci, P; Calvitti, M; Evangelisti, R; Marinucci, L; Bodo, M; Caruso, A; Canaider, S; Carinci, P

    2001-01-01

    Lung branching morphogenesis is a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are in turn dependent on extracellular matrix composition and cytokine regulation. Polyamines have recently been demonstrated as able to modify chick embryo skin differentiation. In this work we have examined the effects of putrescine and spermidine during chick embryo lung morphogenesis in organotypic cultures by morphological, histochemical and biochemical examination. To verify the role of polyamines, we used specific inhibitors, such as bis-cyclohexylammonium sulphate and alfa-difluoromethylornithine, and transforming growth factor beta1, an ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine stimulator. Our data show that lung morphogenesis is significantly altered following the induced mesenchymal glycosaminoglycan changes. The increase of mesenchymal glycosaminoglycans is correlated with a stimulation of lung development in the presence of polyamines, and with its inhibition when transforming growth factor beta1 is added to the culture medium. The morphometric data show a uniform increase of both the mesenchyme and epithelial branching with spermidine and putrescine stimulus, whereas the mesenchymal substance alone is significantly increased in apical-median lung sections with transforming growth factor beta1 and transforming growth factor beta1 + spermidine lung cultures. Transforming growth factor beta1 and transforming growth factor beta1 + spermidine confirm the blocking of epithelial branching formations and fibroblast activation, and show that polyamines are unable to prevent the blocking of epithelial cells due to the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor beta1.

  12. Changes of polyamine pattern in digestive glands of mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis under exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Kournoutou, Georgia G; Pytharopoulou, Sofia; Leotsinidis, Michel; Kalpaxis, Dimitrios L

    2014-09-01

    Polyamines, in particular spermidine and spermine, have been identified as important antioxidants, highly induced by oxidative stress in a variety of organisms. However, little is known about changes in polyamine content of metal-stressed marine organisms. In the present study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were experimentally exposed to 25 μg/L Cd(2+) or 100 μg/L Cd(2+) for up to 15 days. Cd(2+) was progressively accumulated in mussel tissues, leading to a characteristic oxidative-stress status. Free putrescine (PUT) production was noticeably induced in response to Cd(2+) at day 5 and then declined. In contrast, free spermidine (SPD) content was gradually reduced, whereas the concentration of free spermine (SPM) increased. In combination, these changes led to a 69% or 88% reduction in the ratio of (SPD+SPM)/PUT at day 5, dependent on the Cd(2+) concentration used, which subsequently followed an upward trend in values, albeit not reaching those of controls. Conjugated polyamines constantly increased, in particular conjugated spermidine and spermine, tagging along with metallothionein production. Acetylated polyamines showed a diverse profile of changes, but their content was generally kept at low levels throughout the exposure period. Collectively, our results suggest that certain polyamine compounds could play a significant role in the tolerance of mussels against Cd(2+)-mediated stress, and that the ratio (SPD+SPM)/PUT could be a good indicator of the metal-stress status.

  13. Characterization of five polyamine oxidase isoforms in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Cong, Runzi; Sagor, G H M; Niitsu, Masaru; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2010-09-01

    The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains five genes (AtPAO1 to AtPAO5) encoding polyamine oxidase (PAO) which is an enzyme responsible for polyamine catabolism. To understand the individual roles of the five AtPAOs, here we characterized their tissue-specific and space-temporal expression. AtPAO1 seems to have a specific function in flower organ. AtPAO2 was expressed in shoot meristem and root tip of seedlings, and to a higher extent in the later growth stage within restricted parts of the organs, such as shoot meristem, leaf petiole and also in anther. The expression of AtPAO3 was constitutive, but highest in flower organ. AtPAO3 promoter activity was detected in cotyledon, distal portion of root, boundary region of mature rosette leaf and in filaments of flower. AtPAO4 was expressed at higher level all over young seedlings including roots, and in the mature stage its expression was ubiquitous with rather lower level in stem. AtPAO5 expression was observed in the whole plant body throughout various growth stages. Its highest expression was in flowers, particularly in sepals, but not in petals. Furthermore, we determined the substrate specificity of AtPAO1 to AtPAO4. None of the AtPAO enzymes recognized putrescine (Put). AtPAO2 and AtPAO3 showed almost similar substrate recognition patterns in which the most preferable substrate is spermidine (Spd) followed by less specificity to other tetraamines tested. AtPAO4 seemed to be spermine (Spm)-specific. More interestingly, AtPAO1 preferred thermospermine (T-Spm) and norspermine (NorSpm) to Spm, but did not recognize Spd. Based on the results, the individual function of AtPAOs is discussed.

  14. Mammalian polyamine catabolism: a therapeutic target, a pathological problem, or both?

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlin; Casero, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    With the recent discovery of the polyamine catabolic enzyme spermine oxidase (SMO/PAOh1), the apparent complexity of the polyamine metabolic pathway has increased considerably. Alone or in combination with the two other known members of human polyamine catabolism, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase, and N(1)-acetylpolyamine oxidase (PAO), SMO/PAOh1 expression has the potential to alter polyamine homeostasis in response to normal cellular signals, drug treatment and environmental and/or cellular stressors. The activity of the oxidases producing toxic aldehydes and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) H(2)O(2), suggest a mechanism by which these oxidases can be exploited as an antineoplastic drug target. However, inappropriate activation of the pathways may also lead to pathological outcomes, including DNA damage that can lead to cellular transformation. The most recent data suggest that the two polyamine catabolic pathways exhibit distinct properties and understanding these properties should aid in their exploitation for therapeutic and/or chemopreventive strategies.

  15. Dependence of mammalian putrescine and spermidine transport on plasma-membrane potential: identification of an amiloride binding site on the putrescine carrier.

    PubMed

    Poulin, R; Zhao, C; Verma, S; Charest-Gaudreault, R; Audette, M

    1998-03-15

    The mechanism of mammalian polyamine transport is poorly understood. We have investigated the role of plasma-membrane potential (DeltaPsipm) in putrescine and spermidine uptake in ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells. The rate of [3H]putrescine and [3H]spermidine uptake was inversely correlated to extracellular [K+] ([K+]o) and to DeltaPsipm, as determined by the accumulation of [3H]tetraphenylphosphonium bromide (TPP). Inward transport was unaffected by a selective decrease in mitochondrial potential (DeltaPsimit) induced by valinomycin at low [K+]o, but was reduced by approximately 60% by the rheogenic protonophore carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), which rapidly (<=15 min) collapsed both DeltaPsipm and DeltaPsimit. Plasma-membrane depolarization by high [K+]o or CCCP did not enhance putrescine efflux in cells pre-loaded with [3H]putrescine, suggesting that decreased uptake caused by these agents did not result from a higher excretion rate. On the other hand, the electroneutral K+/H+ exchanger nigericin (10 microM) co-operatively depressed -3H-TPP, [3H]putrescine and [3H]spermidine uptake in the presence of ouabain. Suppression of putrescine uptake by nigericin+ouabain was Na+-dependent, suggesting that plasma-membrane repolarization by the electrogenic Na+ pump was required upon acidification induced by nigericin, due to the activation of the Na+/H+ antiporter. The sole addition of 5-N, N-hexamethylene amiloride, a potent inhibitor of the Na+/H+ antiporter, strongly inhibited putrescine uptake in a competitive fashion -Ki 4.0+/-0.9 (S.D.) microM-, while being a weaker antagonist of spermidine uptake. The potency of a series of amiloride analogues to inhibit putrescine uptake was clearly different from that of the Na+/H+ antiporter, and resembled that noted for Na+ co-transport proteins. These data demonstrate that putrescine and spermidine influx is mainly unidirectional and strictly depends on DeltaPsipm, but not DeltaPsimit. This report also provides

  16. Characterization of polyamine-induced aggregates of oligodeoxyribonucleotides by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Chica, A. J.; Medina, M. A.; Sánchez-Jiménez, F.; Ramírez, F. J.

    2001-05-01

    We have studied by Raman spectroscopy the interaction of a 15-mer double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide with repetitive guanine-cytosine pairs and biogenic polyamines spermine, spermidine and putrescine. Room temperature Raman spectra of solutions containing 60 mM (phosphate) oligonucleotide and different polyamine concentrations, between 10 and 75 mM, were recorded at physiological pH and ionic conditions. The spectra showed a noticeable hypochromism for both base and phosphate bands, which have been related with the formation of highly ordered aggregated structures in solution. Aggregates would be stabilized by electrostatic attractions between oligonucleotide phosphate groups and polyamine amino protonated groups in addition to interactions with base residues. Evidences of a partial B→Z transition have also obtained for spermine and spermidine but not for putrescine.

  17. Polyamines attenuate ethylene-mediated defense responses to abrogate resistance to Botrytis cinerea in tomato.

    PubMed

    Nambeesan, Savithri; AbuQamar, Synan; Laluk, Kristin; Mattoo, Autar K; Mickelbart, Michael V; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Handa, Avtar K

    2012-02-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines overexpressing yeast spermidine synthase (ySpdSyn), an enzyme involved in polyamine (PA) biosynthesis, were developed. These transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of spermidine (Spd) than the wild-type plants and were examined for responses to the fungal necrotrophs Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria solani, bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000, and larvae of the chewing insect tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). The Spd-accumulating transgenic tomato lines were more susceptible to B. cinerea than the wild-type plants; however, responses to A. solani, P. syringae, or M. sexta were similar to the wild-type plants. Exogenous application of ethylene precursors, S-adenosyl-Met and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, or PA biosynthesis inhibitors reversed the response of the transgenic plants to B. cinerea. The increased susceptibility of the ySpdSyn transgenic tomato to B. cinerea was associated with down-regulation of gene transcripts involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling. These data suggest that PA-mediated susceptibility to B. cinerea is linked to interference with the functions of ethylene in plant defense.

  18. Pharmacological aspects of cytotoxic polyamine analogs and derivatives for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Nikolaus

    2005-07-01

    During the past 20 years, numerous derivatives and analogues of spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) were synthesized with the aim to generate a new type of anticancer drug. The common denominator of most cytotoxic polyamine analogues is their lipophilicity, which is superior to that of the parent amines. The natural polyamines bind to polyanions and to proteins with anionic binding sites. Their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity is balanced, allowing them to perform physiological functions by interacting with some of these anionic structures, without impairing the functionality of others. Because the attachment of lipophilic substituents to the polyamine backbone increases the binding energy, lipophilic polyamine derivatives affect secondary and tertiary structures of a larger number of macromolecules than do their natural counterparts. In addition, lipophilicity improves the blood-brain barrier transport and thus enhances CNS toxicity. Close structural analogues of spermidine and spermine mimic the natural polyamines in regulatory functions. The cytotoxic mechanisms of analogues with a less close structural resemblance to spermidine or spermine have not been completely clarified. The displacement of spermidine from functional binding sites and the consequent prevention of its physiological roles is a likely mechanism, but many others may play a role as well. Up to now, polyamine analogues were conceived without specific growth-related targets in mind. To develop therapeutically useful drugs, it will be imperative to identify specific targets and to design compounds that interact selectively with the target molecules. It will also be necessary to include, at an early state of the work, pharmacological and toxicological considerations, to avoid unproductive directions.

  19. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. II. Improvement of oat protoplasts by an inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted to improve the viability of cereal mesophyll protoplasts by pretreatment of leaves with DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific 'suicide' inhibitor of the enzyme (arginine decarboxylase) responsible for their osmotically induced putrescine accumulation. Leaf pretreatment with DFMA before a 6 hour osmotic shock caused a 45% decrease of putrescine and a 2-fold increase of spermine titer. After 136 hours of osmotic stress, putrescine titer in DFMA-pretreated leaves increased by only 50%, but spermidine and spermine titers increased dramatically by 3.2- and 6-fold, respectively. These increases in higher polyamines could account for the reduced chlorophyll loss and enhanced ability of pretreated leaves to incorporate tritiated thymidine, uridine, and leucine into macromolecules. Pretreatment with DFMA significantly improved the overall viability of the protoplasts isolated from these leaves. The results support the view that the osmotically induced rise in putrescine and blockage of its conversion to higher polyamines may contribute to the lack of sustained cell division in cereal mesophyll protoplasts, although other undefined factors must also play a major role.

  20. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. II. Improvement of oat protoplasts by an inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiburcio, A. F.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.; Galston, A. W.

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted to improve the viability of cereal mesophyll protoplasts by pretreatment of leaves with DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific 'suicide' inhibitor of the enzyme (arginine decarboxylase) responsible for their osmotically induced putrescine accumulation. Leaf pretreatment with DFMA before a 6 hour osmotic shock caused a 45% decrease of putrescine and a 2-fold increase of spermine titer. After 136 hours of osmotic stress, putrescine titer in DFMA-pretreated leaves increased by only 50%, but spermidine and spermine titers increased dramatically by 3.2- and 6-fold, respectively. These increases in higher polyamines could account for the reduced chlorophyll loss and enhanced ability of pretreated leaves to incorporate tritiated thymidine, uridine, and leucine into macromolecules. Pretreatment with DFMA significantly improved the overall viability of the protoplasts isolated from these leaves. The results support the view that the osmotically induced rise in putrescine and blockage of its conversion to higher polyamines may contribute to the lack of sustained cell division in cereal mesophyll protoplasts, although other undefined factors must also play a major role.

  1. Polyamine metabolism and osmotic stress. II. Improvement of oat protoplasts by an inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio, A F; Kaur-Sawhney, R; Galston, A W

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted to improve the viability of cereal mesophyll protoplasts by pretreatment of leaves with DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA), a specific 'suicide' inhibitor of the enzyme (arginine decarboxylase) responsible for their osmotically induced putrescine accumulation. Leaf pretreatment with DFMA before a 6 hour osmotic shock caused a 45% decrease of putrescine and a 2-fold increase of spermine titer. After 136 hours of osmotic stress, putrescine titer in DFMA-pretreated leaves increased by only 50%, but spermidine and spermine titers increased dramatically by 3.2- and 6-fold, respectively. These increases in higher polyamines could account for the reduced chlorophyll loss and enhanced ability of pretreated leaves to incorporate tritiated thymidine, uridine, and leucine into macromolecules. Pretreatment with DFMA significantly improved the overall viability of the protoplasts isolated from these leaves. The results support the view that the osmotically induced rise in putrescine and blockage of its conversion to higher polyamines may contribute to the lack of sustained cell division in cereal mesophyll protoplasts, although other undefined factors must also play a major role.

  2. Conjugation of biogenic and synthetic polyamines with serum proteins: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Chanphai, P; Thomas, T J; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-11-01

    We have reviewed the conjugation of biogenic polyamines spermine (spm), spermidine (spmd) and synthetic polyamines 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane.4HCl (BE-333) and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane.5HCl (BE-3333) with human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and milk beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. The results of multiple spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling were analysed here and correlations between polyamine binding mode and protein structural changes were estabilished. Polyamine-protein bindings are mainly via hydrophilic and H-bonding contacts. BSA forms more stable conjugates than HSA and b-LG. Biogenic polyamines form more stable complexes than synthetic polyamines except in the case of b-LG, where the protein shows more hydrophobic character than HSA and BSA. The loading efficacies were 40-52%. Modeling showed the presence of several H-bonding systems, which stabilized polyamine-protein conjugates. Polyamine conjugation induced major alterations of serum protein conformations. The potential application of serum proteins in delivery of polyamines is evaluated here.

  3. Alterations in repair of alkylating agent-induced DNA damage in polyamine-depleted human cells.

    PubMed

    Snyder, R D; Bhatt, S

    1993-08-16

    Treatment of HeLa cells with the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and/or methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) results in marked depression in levels of the cellular polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine. Cells in this polyamine-depleted state exhibited increased sensitivity to monofunctional alkylating agents, manifested as decreased cloning ability and retardation of the DNA excision repair process. DFMO treatment did not alter the initial level of interaction of radiolabeled alkylating agent with cellular DNA, but combined treatment with DFMO and MGBG reduced covalent binding, probably through effects on cell cycling. Polyamine supplementation had no effects on initial yield of DNA single-strand breaks in drug-treated cells. The repair defect appeared similar to that observed previously in polyamine-depleted cells following X-irradiation and UV irradiation, namely retarded sealing of DNA strand breaks. It was not possible to reverse the effects of these inhibitors by short periods of polyamine loading, despite the fact that all three polyamines could be restored to near-normal levels. These findings provide the first demonstration of altered response of polyamine-depleted cells to monofunctional alkylating agents and contribute to our understanding of altered responses of polyamine-depleted cancer cells to a variety of DNA-reactive chemotherapeutic drugs.

  4. Polyamine Accumulation and Near Loss of Morphogenesis in Long-Term Callus Cultures of Rice (Restoration of Plant Regeneration by Manipulation of Cellular Polyamine Levels).

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, S.; Rajam, M. V.

    1996-01-01

    We have shown (S. Bajaj and M.V. Rajam [1995] Plant Cell Rep 14: 717-720) that a significant reduction in morphogenetic potential occurs in callus cultures of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv TN-1) (up to 1 year old), and that plant regeneration could be improved in such cultures with spermidine treatment. We now show a near loss in plant regeneration capacity, concomitant with massive polyamine accumulation (primarily the diamine putrescine), due to the increase in arginine decarboxylase activity and an altered putrescine-to-spermidine ratio in 20- and 36-month-old rice callus cultures. The blockage of polyamine accumulation due to the reduction in arginine decarboxylase activity by a putrescine synthesis inhibitor, [alpha]-difluoromethylarginine, completely restored plant regeneration capacity in these long-term cultures. Additionally, spermidine treatment of long-term cultures caused an increase in cellular spermidine content and a reduction in putrescine content and arginine decarboxylase activity, leading to an adjustment in putrescine-to-spermidine ratio and the restoration of plant regeneration ability. PMID:12226449

  5. Phase I/II clinical trial of 2-difluoromethyl-ornithine (DFMO) and a novel polyamine transport inhibitor (MQT 1426) for feline oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Skorupski, K A; O'Brien, T G; Guerrero, T; Rodriguez, C O; Burns, M R

    2011-12-01

    Polyamines are essential for cell proliferation. Their production is dysregulated in many cancers and polyamine depletion leads to tumour regression in mouse models of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The purpose of this study was to determine the maximally tolerated dose of the polyamine transport inhibitor, MQT 1426, when combined with the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor, DFMO, and to determine whether this therapy results in reduction in tumour polyamine levels. Thirteen cats with oral SCC received both drugs orally and serial tumour biopsies were obtained for polyamine measurement. Cats were monitored for response to therapy and toxicity. A maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of MQT 1426 when combined with DFMO was determined. Dose-limiting toxicity was vestibular in nature, but was fully reversible. Spermidine and total polyamine levels decreased significantly in tissues, two cats experienced objective tumour regression and six cats had stable disease. These results suggest that further study of polyamine depletion therapies is warranted.

  6. Polyamines in brown rice vinegar function as potent attractants for the spotted wing drosophila.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Naoki; Higashikubo, Haruka; Ishii, Yuri; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    Vinegar produced by acetic acid bacteria is used as an attractant for fruit flies. Apple cider vinegar (ACV) and brown rice vinegar (BRV) are used as lures to detect Drosophila suzukii (also known as the spotted wing drosophila [SWD], a newly emerging invasive pest of soft-skinned fruits) and to capture Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the attractiveness of BRV and ACV to SWD in laboratory trapping experiments using an upturned microcentrifuge tube with a pipette tip as a trap. We transferred SWD (approximately 20, 7-10 days old) to a glass vial containing a trap baited with BRV or ACV and counted the captured flies. BRV attracted more flies (52.88 ± 9.75%) than ACV (35.78 ± 7.47%) in 6 h. Based on high-performance liquid chromatography, we found that BRV contained greater amounts of putrescine (12.36 ± 0.44 μM) and spermidine (35.08 ± 4.34 μM) than ACV (putrescine, 0.31 ± 0.067 μM; spermidine, not detected). The attractiveness of ACV supplemented with putrescine (12 μM) and spermidine (35 μM) (68.56 ± 4.69%) was significantly higher than that of ACV, indicating that the enhanced attractiveness of BRV to SWD was accomplished by the additive effects of polyamines and other known attractive volatiles, such as acetic acid and acetoin. BRV is expected to be a powerful tool for the efficient management of SWD.

  7. Evaluation of Polyamine and Proline Levels during Low Temperature Acclimation of Citrus 1

    PubMed Central

    Kushad, Mosbah M.; Yelenosky, George

    1987-01-01

    The polyamines (PA) putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) were measured during 3 weeks exposure to cold hardening (15.6°C day and 4.4°C night) and nonhardening (32.2°C day and 21.1°C night) temperature regimes in three citrus cultivars: sour orange (SO) (Citrus aurantium L.), `valencia' (VAL) (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck), and rough lemon (RL) (Citrus jambhiri Lush). The changes in PA were compared to the amount of free proline, percent wood kill and percent leaf kill. A 2- to 3-fold increase in Spd concentrations were observed in hardened RL, SO, and VAL leaves compared to nonhardened leaves. Spermidine reached its highest level of approximately 200 nanomoles per gram fresh weight after 1 week of acclimation in both SO and VAL leaves, while RL spermidine content continued to increase up to the third week of acclimation. Spm levels in acclimated VAL and RL leaves increased 1- to 4-fold. However, SO leaves Spm content decreased with acclimation. Putrescine levels in SO and VAL increased 20 to 60% during the first 2 weeks of acclimation then declined after 3 weeks. RL putrescine content was not affected by cold acclimation. The data presented here provided direct relationship between increased Spd concentration and citrus cold hardiness. Free proline was 3- to 6-fold higher in acclimated than in nonacclimated trees. Results also demonstrate that in acclimated versus nonacclimated citrus trees the absolute amount rather than the ratio of increase in free proline is more important in predicting their ability to survive freezing stress. PMID:16665504

  8. Spermine and spermidine protection of plasmid DNA against single-strand breaks induced by singlet oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A U; Di Mascio, P; Medeiros, M H; Wilson, T

    1992-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA induced by singlet molecular oxygen (1O2*) includes single-strand breaks, which the biologically occurring 1O2* quenchers spermine and spermidine are shown to prevent. These polyamines at a physiological concentration (10 mM) reduce the percentage of the open circular form of pBR322 plasmid DNA, which is generated at the expense of the native supercoiled form when the plasmids are incubated with a chemical source of 1O2*, the water-soluble endoperoxide of 3,3'-(1,4-naphthylidene)dipropionate. Spermine and spermidine can be expected to protect DNA against other damaging effects of 1O2*. Images PMID:1454831

  9. Evolutionary diversification in polyamine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Minguet, Eugenio G; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Marina, Alberto; Carbonell, Juan; Blázquez, Miguel A

    2008-10-01

    Polyamine biosynthesis is an ancient metabolic pathway present in all organisms. Aminopropyltransferases are key enzymes that mediate the synthesis of spermidine, spermine, and thermospermine. The relatively high sequence similarity between aminopropyltransferases and their similarity with putrescine N-methyltransferases (PMT) raises the question of whether they share a common ancestor or have evolved by convergence. Here we show that aminopropyltransferases and PMT are phylogenetically interconnected, and the different activities have been generated by unusually frequent events of diversification of existing functions. Although all spermidine synthases (SPDSs) derive from a common ancestor preceding the separation between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, they have been the origin of a variety of new activities. Among those, spermine synthases (SPMSs) represent a novelty independently arisen at least 3 times, in animals, fungi, and plants. The most parsimonious mechanism would involve the duplication and change of function of preexisting SPDS genes in each phylum. Although spermine is not essential for life, the repeated invention of SPMS and its conservation strongly argues for an evolutionary advantage derived from its presence. Moreover, the appearance of thermospermine synthase (tSPMS) in several genera of Archaea and Bacteria was accompanied by a loss of SPDS, suggesting that the new activity originated as a change of function of this enzyme. Surprisingly, tSPMS was later acquired by plants at an early stage of evolution by horizontal gene transfer and has proven to be essential for vascular development in tracheophytes. Finally, the synthesis of nicotine and tropane alkaloids in Solanales was favored by the origination of a new activity, PMT, as a duplication and change of function from SPDS.

  10. [Polyamine transport in Escherichia coli and eukaryotic cells].

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, K

    1996-03-01

    The polyamine content in cells is regulated by both polyamine biosynthesis and its transport. We recently obtained and characterized three clones of polyamine transport genes (pPT104, pPT79 and pPT71) in Escherichia coli. The system encoded by pPT104 was the spermidine-preferential uptake system and that encoded by pPT79 the putrescine-specific uptake system. Furthermore, these two systems were ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporters consisting of four kinds of proteins: pPT104 clone encoded PotA, -B, -C, and -D proteins and pPT79 clone encoded PotF, -G, -H, and I proteins. PotD and -F proteins were periplasmic substrate binding proteins and PotA and -G proteins membrane associated proteins having the nucleotide binding site. PotB and -C proteins, and PotH and -I proteins were transmembrane proteins probably forming channels for spermidine and putrescine, respectively. Their amino acid sequences in the corresponding proteins were similar to each other. The functions of PotA and -D proteins in the spermidine-preferential uptake system encoded by pPT104 clone were studied in detail through a combined biochemical and genetic approach. In contrast, the putrescine transport system encoded by pPT71 consisted of one membrane protein (PotE protein) having twelve transmembrane segments, and was active in both the uptake and excretion of putrescine. The uptake was dependent on the membrane potential, and the excretion was due to the exchange reaction between putrescine and ornithine. In mouse mammary carcinoma FM3A cells, it was shown that the antizyme, which negatively regulates the amount of ornithine decarboxylase, also negatively regulates the activity of polyamine transport.

  11. Dietary polyamine intake and risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps123

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Ashley J; Wertheim, Betsy C; Gerner, Eugene W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Rock, Cheryl L; Thompson, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are the polyamines required for human cell growth. The inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which is the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, decreases tumor growth and the development of colorectal adenomas. A database was developed to estimate dietary polyamine exposure and relate exposure to health outcomes. Objective: We hypothesized that high polyamine intake would increase risk of colorectal adenoma and that the allelic variation at ODC G>A +316 would modify the association. Design: Polyamine exposure was estimated in subjects pooled (n = 1164) from the control arms of 2 randomized trials for colorectal adenoma prevention [Wheat Bran Fiber low-fiber diet arm (n = 585) and Ursodeoxycholic Acid placebo arm (n = 579)] by using baseline food-frequency questionnaire data. All subjects had to have a diagnosis of colorectal adenoma to be eligible for the trial. Results: A dietary intake of polyamines above the median amount in the study population was associated with 39% increased risk of colorectal adenoma at follow-up (adjusted OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.83) in the pooled sample. In addition, younger participants (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.08), women (OR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.48, 4.00), and ODC GG genotype carriers (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.53) had significantly increased odds of colorectal adenoma if they consumed above-median polyamine amounts. Conclusions: This study showed a role for dietary polyamines in colorectal adenoma risk. Corroboration of these findings would confirm a previously unrecognized, modifiable dietary risk factor for colorectal adenoma. PMID:22648715

  12. Dietary polyamine intake and risk of colorectal adenomatous polyps.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Ashley J; Wertheim, Betsy C; Gerner, Eugene W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Rock, Cheryl L; Thompson, Patricia A

    2012-07-01

    Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are the polyamines required for human cell growth. The inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), which is the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, decreases tumor growth and the development of colorectal adenomas. A database was developed to estimate dietary polyamine exposure and relate exposure to health outcomes. We hypothesized that high polyamine intake would increase risk of colorectal adenoma and that the allelic variation at ODC G>A +316 would modify the association. Polyamine exposure was estimated in subjects pooled (n = 1164) from the control arms of 2 randomized trials for colorectal adenoma prevention [Wheat Bran Fiber low-fiber diet arm (n = 585) and Ursodeoxycholic Acid placebo arm (n = 579)] by using baseline food-frequency questionnaire data. All subjects had to have a diagnosis of colorectal adenoma to be eligible for the trial. A dietary intake of polyamines above the median amount in the study population was associated with 39% increased risk of colorectal adenoma at follow-up (adjusted OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.83) in the pooled sample. In addition, younger participants (OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.08), women (OR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.48, 4.00), and ODC GG genotype carriers (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.53) had significantly increased odds of colorectal adenoma if they consumed above-median polyamine amounts. This study showed a role for dietary polyamines in colorectal adenoma risk. Corroboration of these findings would confirm a previously unrecognized, modifiable dietary risk factor for colorectal adenoma.

  13. Probing tRNA interaction with biogenic polyamines.

    PubMed

    Ouameur, Amin Ahmed; Bourassa, Philippe; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2010-10-01

    Biogenic polyamines are found to modulate protein synthesis at different levels. This effect may be explained by the ability of polyamines to bind and influence the secondary structure of tRNA, mRNA, and rRNA. We report the interaction between tRNA and the three biogenic polyamines putrescine, spermidine, spermine, and cobalt(III)hexamine at physiological conditions, using FTIR spectroscopy, capillary electrophoresis, and molecular modeling. The results indicated that tRNA was stabilized at low biogenic polyamine concentration, as a consequence of polyamine interaction with the backbone phosphate group. The main tRNA reactive sites for biogenic polyamine at low concentration were guanine-N7/O6, uracil-O2/O4, adenine-N3, and 2'OH of the ribose. At high polyamine concentration, the interaction involves guanine-N7/O6, adenine-N7, uracil-O2 reactive sites, and the backbone phosphate group. The participation of the polycation primary amino group, in the interaction and the presence of the hydrophobic contact, are also shown. The binding affinity of biogenic polyamine to tRNA molecule was in the order of spermine > spermidine > putrescine with K(Spm) = 8.7 × 10(5) M(-1), K(Spd) = 6.1 × 10(5) M(-1), and K(Put) = 1.0 × 10(5) M(-1), which correlates with their positively charged amino group content. Hill analysis showed positive cooperativity for the biogenic polyamines and negative cooperativity for cobalt-hexamine. Cobalt(III)hexamine contains high- and low-affinity sites in tRNA with K(1) = 3.2 × 10(5) M(-1) and K(2) = 1.7 × 10(5) M(-1), that have been attributed to the interactions with guanine-N7 sites and the backbone PO(2) group, respectively. This mechanism of tRNA binding could explain the condensation phenomenon observed at high Co(III) content, as previously shown in the Co(III)-DNA complexes.

  14. Polyamines are essential for virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum despite evolutionary decay of polyamine biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Schroll, Casper; Christensen, Jens P; Christensen, Henrik; Pors, Susanne E; Thorndahl, Lotte; Jensen, Peter R; Olsen, John E; Jelsbak, Lotte

    2014-05-14

    Serovars of Salmonella enterica exhibit different host-specificities where some have broad host-ranges and others, like S. Gallinarum and S. Typhi, are host-specific for poultry and humans, respectively. With the recent availability of whole genome sequences it has been reported that host-specificity coincides with accumulation of pseudogenes, indicating adaptation of host-restricted serovars to their narrow niches. Polyamines are small cationic amines and in Salmonella they can be synthesized through two alternative pathways directly from l-ornithine to putrescine and from l-arginine via agmatine to putrescine. The first pathway is not active in S. Gallinarum and S. Typhi, and this prompted us to investigate the importance of polyamines for virulence in S. Gallinarum. Bioinformatic analysis of all sequenced genomes of Salmonella revealed that pseudogene formation of the speC gene was exclusive for S. Typhi and S. Gallinarum and happened through independent events. The remaining polyamine biosynthesis pathway was found to be essential for oral infection with S. Gallinarum since single and double mutants in speB and speE, encoding the pathways from agmatine to putrescine and from putrescine to spermidine, were attenuated. In contrast, speB was dispensable after intraperitoneal challenge, suggesting that putrescine was less important for the systemic phase of the disease. In support of this hypothesis, a ΔspeE;ΔpotCD mutant, unable to synthesize and import spermidine, but with retained ability to import and synthesize putrescine, was attenuated after intraperitoneal infection. We therefore conclude that polyamines are essential for virulence of S. Gallinarum. Furthermore, our results point to distinct roles for putrescine and spermidine during systemic infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineered polyamine catabolism preinduces tolerance of tobacco to bacteria and oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Moschou, Panagiotis N; Sarris, Panagiotis F; Skandalis, Nicholas; Andriopoulou, Athina H; Paschalidis, Konstantinos A; Panopoulos, Nickolas J; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A

    2009-04-01

    Polyamine oxidase (PAO) catalyzes the oxidative catabolism of spermidine and spermine, generating hydrogen peroxide. In wild-type tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'Xanthi') plants, infection by the compatible pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci resulted in increased PAO gene and corresponding PAO enzyme activities; polyamine homeostasis was maintained by induction of the arginine decarboxylase pathway and spermine was excreted into the apoplast, where it was oxidized by the enhanced apoplastic PAO, resulting in higher hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Moreover, plants overexpressing PAO showed preinduced disease tolerance against the biotrophic bacterium P. syringae pv tabaci and the hemibiotrophic oomycete Phytophthora parasitica var nicotianae but not against the Cucumber mosaic virus. Furthermore, in transgenic PAO-overexpressing plants, systemic acquired resistance marker genes as well as a pronounced increase in the cell wall-based defense were found before inoculation. These results reveal that PAO is a nodal point in a specific apoplast-localized plant-pathogen interaction, which also signals parallel defense responses, thus preventing pathogen colonization. This strategy presents a novel approach for producing transgenic plants resistant to a broad spectrum of plant pathogens.

  16. Interaction of polyamines with proteins of photosystem II: Cation binding and photosynthetic oxygen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchemin, R.; Harnois, J.; Rouillon, R.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.; Carpentier, R.

    2007-05-01

    Polyamines are organic cations that function in diverse physiological processes that share as a common thread a close relationship to cell proliferation and growth. Polyamines also affect photosynthetic oxygen evolution and therefore, this study was designed to investigate the interaction of 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine), and 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) cations with proteins of photosystem II (PSII) using PSII-enriched submembrane fractions with diamine concentrations between 0.01 and 20 mM. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy with its self-deconvolution and second derivative resolution enhancement, as well as curve-fitting procedures were applied in order to determine the diamine binding mode, the protein conformational changes, and the structural properties of diamine-protein complexes. Spectroscopic evidence showed that diamines interact with proteins (H-bonding) through polypeptide C dbnd O groups with no major perturbations of protein secondary structure. At very low diamine concentration (0.01 mM), no inhibition of oxygen-evolution occurred, while at higher diamine content (5-10 mM), 100% inhibition was observed. Chorophyll fluorescence measurements demonstrated that the inhibition mainly affects the oxygen evolving complex of PSII. Comparisons of the effects of these dipositive organic cations with divalent metal cations on one hand and with polyvalent spermine and spermidine on the other hand, show major alterations of the protein secondary structure as positive charge increases.

  17. Free and Cell Wall-Bound Polyamines under Long-Term Water Stress Applied at Different Growth Stages of ×Triticosecale Wittm

    PubMed Central

    Hura, Tomasz; Dziurka, Michał; Hura, Katarzyna; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Dziurka, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-stemmed and semi-dwarf cultivars of triticale were exposed to water stress at tillering, heading and anthesis stage. Quantitative determination of free and cell wall-bound polyamines, i.e. agmatine, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was supplemented with an analysis of quantitative relationships between free and cell wall-bound polyamines. Results The content of free and cell wall-bound polyamines varied depending on the development stage, both under optimal and water stress conditions. Drought-induced increase in free agmatine content was observed at all developmental stages in long-stemmed cultivar. A depletion of spermidine and putrescine was also reported in this cultivar, and spermidine was less abundant in semi-dwarf cultivar exposed to drought stress at the three analyzed developmental stages. Changes in the content of the other free polyamines did not follow a steady pattern reflecting the developmental stages. On the contrary, the content of cell wall-bound polyamines gradually increased from tillering, through heading and until anthesis period. Conclusion Water stress seemed to induce a progressive decrease in the content of free polyamines and an accumulation of cell wall-bound polyamines. PMID:26247474

  18. Functional Analysis and Regulation of the Divergent spuABCDEFGH-spuI Operons for Polyamine Uptake and Utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chung-Dar; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Nakada, Yuji; Jiang, Ying

    2002-01-01

    A multiple-gene locus for polyamine uptake and utilization was discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. This locus contained nine genes designated spuABCDEFGHI (spu for spermidine and putrescine utilization). The physiological functions of the spu genes in utilization of two polyamines (putrescine and spermidine) were analyzed by using Tn5 transposon-mediated spu knockout mutants. Growth and uptake experiments support that the spuDEFGH genes specify components of a major ABC-type transport system for spermidine uptake, and enzymatic measurements indicated that spuC encodes putrescine aminotransferase with pyruvate as the amino group receptor. Although spuA and spuB mutants showed an apparent defect in spermidine utilization, the biochemical functions of the gene products have yet to be elucidated. Assays of lacZ fusions demonstrated the presence of agmatine-, putrescine-, and spermidine-inducible promoters for the spuABCDEFGH operon and the divergently transcribed spuI gene of unknown function. Since the observed induction effect of agmatine was abolished in an aguA mutant where conversion of agmatine into putrescine was blocked, putrescine or spermidine, but not agmatine, serves as the inducer molecule of the spuA-spuI divergent promoters. S1 nuclease mappings confirmed further the induction effects of the polyamines on transcription of the divergent promoters and localized the transcription initiation sites. Gel retardation assays with extracts from the cells grown on putrescine or spermidine demonstrated the presence of a polyamine-responsive regulatory protein interacting with the divergent promoter region. Finally, the absence of the putrescine-inducible spuA expression and putrescine aminotransferase (spuC) formation in the cbrB mutant indicated that the spu operons are regulated by the global CbrAB two-component system perhaps via the putative polyamine-responsive transcriptional activator. PMID:12081945

  19. Functional analysis and regulation of the divergent spuABCDEFGH-spuI operons for polyamine uptake and utilization in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Dar; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Nakada, Yuji; Jiang, Ying

    2002-07-01

    A multiple-gene locus for polyamine uptake and utilization was discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. This locus contained nine genes designated spuABCDEFGHI (spu for spermidine and putrescine utilization). The physiological functions of the spu genes in utilization of two polyamines (putrescine and spermidine) were analyzed by using Tn5 transposon-mediated spu knockout mutants. Growth and uptake experiments support that the spuDEFGH genes specify components of a major ABC-type transport system for spermidine uptake, and enzymatic measurements indicated that spuC encodes putrescine aminotransferase with pyruvate as the amino group receptor. Although spuA and spuB mutants showed an apparent defect in spermidine utilization, the biochemical functions of the gene products have yet to be elucidated. Assays of lacZ fusions demonstrated the presence of agmatine-, putrescine-, and spermidine-inducible promoters for the spuABCDEFGH operon and the divergently transcribed spuI gene of unknown function. Since the observed induction effect of agmatine was abolished in an aguA mutant where conversion of agmatine into putrescine was blocked, putrescine or spermidine, but not agmatine, serves as the inducer molecule of the spuA-spuI divergent promoters. S1 nuclease mappings confirmed further the induction effects of the polyamines on transcription of the divergent promoters and localized the transcription initiation sites. Gel retardation assays with extracts from the cells grown on putrescine or spermidine demonstrated the presence of a polyamine-responsive regulatory protein interacting with the divergent promoter region. Finally, the absence of the putrescine-inducible spuA expression and putrescine aminotransferase (spuC) formation in the cbrB mutant indicated that the spu operons are regulated by the global CbrAB two-component system perhaps via the putative polyamine-responsive transcriptional activator.

  20. Comparison of polyamine metabolism in tomato plants exposed to different concentrations of salicylic acid under light or dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Takács, Zoltán; Poór, Péter; Tari, Irma

    2016-11-01

    In this study the effect of exogenous 0.1 mM and 1 mM salicylic acid (SA) treatments were investigated on polyamine (PA) metabolism in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Ailsa Craig) leaves in illuminated or dark environments. The former proved to be sublethal and the latter lethal concentration for tomato leaf tissues. While PA biosynthetic genes, arginine- and ornitine decarboxylases or spermidine- and spermine synthases were highly up-regulated by 1 mM SA, the enzymes participating in PA catabolism, diamine- (DAOs, EC 1.4.3.6) and polyamine oxidases (PAOs, EC 1.5.3.3) displayed higher transcript abundance and enzyme activity at 0.1 mM SA. As a result, putrescine and spermine content but not that of spermidine increased after 1 mM SA application, which proved to be higher in the dark than in the light. H2O2 content produced on the effect of 1 mM SA was significantly higher than at 0.1 mM SA in the light. Since there was no coincidence between H2O2 accumulation and terminal PA catabolism, reactive oxygen species produced by photosynthesis and by other sources had more pronounced effect on H2O2 generation at tissue level than DAOs and PAOs. Accordingly, H2O2 in the absence of NO accumulation contributed to the initiation of defence reactions after 0.1 mM SA treatment, while high SA concentration generated simultaneous increase in H2O2 and NO production in the light, which induced cell death within 24 h in illuminated leaves. However, the appearance of necrotic lesions was delayed in the absence of NO if these plants were kept in darkness.

  1. A Polyamine Metabolon Involving Aminopropyl Transferase Complexes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Panicot, Mireia; Minguet, Eugenio G.; Ferrando, Alejandro; Alcázar, Rubén; Blázquez, Miguel A.; Carbonell, Juan; Altabella, Teresa; Koncz, Csaba; Tiburcio, Antonio F.

    2002-01-01

    The conversion of putrescine to spermidine in the biosynthetic pathway of plant polyamines is catalyzed by two closely related spermidine synthases, SPDS1 and SPDS2, in Arabidopsis. In the yeast two-hybrid system, SPDS2 was found to interact with SPDS1 and a novel protein, SPMS (spermine synthase), which is homologous with SPDS2 and SPDS1. SPMS interacts with both SPDS1 and SPDS2 in yeast and in vitro. Unlike SPDS1 and SPDS2, SPMS failed to suppress the speΔ3 deficiency of spermidine synthase in yeast. However, SPMS was able to complement the speΔ4 spermine deficiency in yeast, indicating that SPMS is a novel spermine synthase. The SPDS and SPMS proteins showed no homodimerization but formed heterodimers in vitro. Pairwise coexpression of hemagglutinin- and c-Myc epitope–labeled proteins in Arabidopsis cells confirmed the existence of coimmunoprecipitating SPDS1-SPDS2 and SDPS2-SPMS heterodimers in vivo. The epitope-labeled SPDS and SPMS proteins copurified with protein complexes ranging in size from 650 to 750 kD. Our data demonstrate the existence of a metabolon involving at least the last two steps of polyamine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:12368503

  2. Polyamine profile in ovine and caprine colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Galitsopoulou, Augustina; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria; Menexes, George; Alichanidis, Efstathios

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study was to monitor the post-partum variation of polyamine content, in ovine and caprine milk, from indigenous Greek breeds. Twenty samples of ewe and 20 samples of goat colostrum and milk were collected at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 15th day post-partum. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured as dansylated derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography. Putrescine was the least concentrated of these substances in both milk types. Spermidine was the prevailing polyamine in caprine samples, reaching levels up to 4.41 μmol/l on the 3rd day post-partum. In ovine milk, the profile of the mean concentrations showed greater levels of spermine than spermidine, except for the 5th day post-partum. These data suggest that goat colostrum and ewe milk (15th day) could be considered as good natural sources for these bioactive growth factors, and may become useful raw materials for designing tailored dairy products for specific population groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Functional Amino Acid Residues Involved in Polyamine and Agmatine Transport by Human Organic Cation Transporter 2

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Kyohei; Imamura, Masataka; Fudo, Satoshi; Uemura, Takeshi; Saiki, Ryotaro; Hoshino, Tyuji; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2014-01-01

    Polyamine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) and agmatine uptake by the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) was studied using HEK293 cells transfected with pCMV6-XL4/hOCT2. The Km values for putrescine and spermidine were 7.50 and 6.76 mM, and the Vmax values were 4.71 and 2.34 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Spermine uptake by hOCT2 was not observed at pH 7.4, although it inhibited both putrescine and spermidine uptake. Agmatine was also taken up by hOCT2, with Km value: 3.27 mM and a Vmax value of 3.14 nmol/min/mg protein. Amino acid residues involved in putrescine, agmatine and spermidine uptake by hOCT2 were Asp427, Glu448, Glu456, Asp475, and Glu516. In addition, Glu524 and Glu530 were involved in putrescine and spermidine uptake activity, and Glu528 and Glu540 were weakly involved in putrescine uptake activity. Furthermore, Asp551 was also involved in the recognition of spermidine. These results indicate that the recognition sites for putrescine, agmatine and spermidine on hOCT2 strongly overlap, consistent with the observation that the three amines are transported with similar affinity and velocity. A model of spermidine binding to hOCT2 was constructed based on the functional amino acid residues. PMID:25019617

  4. Role of a Hydrophobic Pocket in Polyamine Interactions with the Polyspecific Organic Cation Transporter OCT3*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan C.; Nichols, Colin G.; Sala-Rabanal, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3, SLC22A3) is a polyspecific, facilitative transporter expressed in astrocytes and in placental, intestinal, and blood-brain barrier epithelia, and thus elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying OCT3 substrate recognition is critical for the rational design of drugs targeting these tissues. The pharmacology of OCT3 is distinct from that of other OCTs, and here we investigated the role of a hydrophobic cavity tucked within the translocation pathway in OCT3 transport properties. Replacement of an absolutely conserved Asp by charge reversal (D478E), neutralization (D478N), or even exchange (D478E) abolished MPP+ uptake, demonstrating this residue to be obligatory for OCT3-mediated transport. Mutations at non-conserved residues lining the putative binding pocket of OCT3 to the corresponding residue in OCT1 (L166F, F450L, and E451Q) reduced the rate of MPP+ transport, but recapitulated the higher sensitivity pharmacological profile of OCT1. Thus, interactions of natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine) and polyamine-like potent OCT1 blockers (1,10-diaminodecane, decamethonium, bistriethylaminodecane, and 1,10-bisquinuclidinedecane) with wild-type OCT3 were weak, but were significantly potentiated in the mutant OCT3s. Conversely, a reciprocal mutation in OCT1 (F161L) shifted the polyamine-sensitivity phenotype toward that of OCT3. Further analysis indicated that OCT1 and OCT3 can recognize essentially the same substrates, but the strength of substrate-transporter interactions is weaker in OCT3, as informed by the distinct makeup of the hydrophobic cleft. The residues identified here are key contributors to both the observed differences between OCT3 and OCT1 and to the mechanisms of substrate recognition by OCTs in general. PMID:26405039

  5. Role of Plastid Transglutaminase in LHCII Polyamination and Thylakoid Electron and Proton Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E.; Lopera, Oriol

    2012-01-01

    Transglutaminases function as biological glues in animal cells, plant cells and microbes. In energy producing organelles such as chloroplasts the presence of transglutaminases was recently confirmed. Furthermore, a plastidial transglutaminase has been cloned from maize and the first plants overexpressing tgz are available (Nicotiana tabacum TGZ OE). Our hypothesis is that the overexpression of plastidal transglutaminase will alter photosynthesis via increased polyamination of the antenna of photosystem II. We have used standard analytical tools to separate the antenna from photosystem II in wild type and modified plants, 6 specific antibodies against LHCbs to confirm their presence and sensitive HPLC method to quantify the polyamination level of these proteins. We report that bound spermidine and spermine were significantly increased (∼80%) in overexpressors. Moreover, we used recent advances in in vivo probing to study simultaneously the proton and electron circuit of thylakoids. Under physiological conditions overexpressors show a 3-fold higher sensitivity of the antenna down regulation loop (qE) to the elicitor (luminal protons) which is estimated as the ΔpH component of thylakoidal proton motive force. In addition, photosystem (hyper-PSIIα) with an exceptionally high antenna (large absorption cross section), accumulate in transglutaminase over expressers doubling the rate constant of light energy utilization (Kα) and promoting thylakoid membrane stacking. Polyamination of antenna proteins is a previously unrecognized mechanism for the modulation of the size (antenna absorption cross section) and sensitivity of photosystem II to down regulation. Future research will reveal which peptides and which residues of the antenna are responsible for such effects. PMID:22870182

  6. Role of a Hydrophobic Pocket in Polyamine Interactions with the Polyspecific Organic Cation Transporter OCT3.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan C; Nichols, Colin G; Sala-Rabanal, Monica

    2015-11-13

    Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3, SLC22A3) is a polyspecific, facilitative transporter expressed in astrocytes and in placental, intestinal, and blood-brain barrier epithelia, and thus elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying OCT3 substrate recognition is critical for the rational design of drugs targeting these tissues. The pharmacology of OCT3 is distinct from that of other OCTs, and here we investigated the role of a hydrophobic cavity tucked within the translocation pathway in OCT3 transport properties. Replacement of an absolutely conserved Asp by charge reversal (D478E), neutralization (D478N), or even exchange (D478E) abolished MPP(+) uptake, demonstrating this residue to be obligatory for OCT3-mediated transport. Mutations at non-conserved residues lining the putative binding pocket of OCT3 to the corresponding residue in OCT1 (L166F, F450L, and E451Q) reduced the rate of MPP(+) transport, but recapitulated the higher sensitivity pharmacological profile of OCT1. Thus, interactions of natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine) and polyamine-like potent OCT1 blockers (1,10-diaminodecane, decamethonium, bistriethylaminodecane, and 1,10-bisquinuclidinedecane) with wild-type OCT3 were weak, but were significantly potentiated in the mutant OCT3s. Conversely, a reciprocal mutation in OCT1 (F161L) shifted the polyamine-sensitivity phenotype toward that of OCT3. Further analysis indicated that OCT1 and OCT3 can recognize essentially the same substrates, but the strength of substrate-transporter interactions is weaker in OCT3, as informed by the distinct makeup of the hydrophobic cleft. The residues identified here are key contributors to both the observed differences between OCT3 and OCT1 and to the mechanisms of substrate recognition by OCTs in general.

  7. Concentrations of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in duodenum and pancreas as affected by the ratio of arginine to lysine and source of methionine in broilers under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Esquerra, R; Leeson, S

    2006-08-01

    An experiment was designed to investigate the effect of Arg, Lys, Met, and environmental temperature on broiler performance and associated changes in duodenal and pancreatic polyamines. Two groups of 26-d-old Ross male broilers raised under thermoneutral (TN) conditions were reallocated to 4 rooms kept at heat stress (HS) or TN. Birds were fed equimolar amounts of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMB) or DL-Met (DLM) at requirement levels with Arg:Lys at 0.95 or 1.40. Twelve replicates of 4 birds were offered each diet ad libitum. Body weight gain, efficiency of dietary CP accretion (CPE), feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were ascertained from 26 to 33 d and from 34 to 47 d of age. One bird per cage was killed at 33 and 47 d, and samples of duodenum and pancreas were assayed for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine (Spm), together with estimates of duodenal villus height. From 26 to 33 d, birds fed HMB performed better than those fed DLM, but only at TN conditions. From 34 to 47 d, feeding HMB tended to optimize CPE when added to diets high in Arg. However, lower CPE was obtained when HMB was added to low-Arg diets, whereas birds fed DLM were unaffected by these treatments (P < 0.10). Methionine source, Arg:Lys, or both affected the concentrations of duodenal and pancreatic polyamines, with some changes correlating with performance variables during HS (P > 0.05). It was found that HS caused lower tissue spermidine (P < 0.001) and higher pancreatic Spm (P = 0.08) from 34 to 47 d. Putrescine concentrations were affected by diet and HS, depending on tissue and experimental period. Pancreatic Spm correlated negatively with changes in CPE influenced by Arg:Lys by Met source interaction in chronically heat-stressed birds. The possible association between polyamine metabolism and some of the effects of the Arg:Lys by Met source interaction observed in chronically stressed birds deserves further investigation.

  8. Cu(I)-catalyzed N,N’-diarylation of natural diamines and polyamines with aryl iodides

    PubMed Central

    Panchenko, Svetlana Petrovna; Averin, Alexei Dmitrievich; Anokhin, Maksim Viktorovich; Maloshitskaya, Olga Aleksandrovna

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Cu(I)-catalyzed N,N’-diarylation of natural diamines and polyamines such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine and their homologues is described. Aryl iodides bearing electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups have been employed in the study. The CuI/2-(isobutyryl)cyclohexanone/DMF catalytic system has found to be more efficient in the diarylation of diamines and spermine while the CuI/L-proline/EtCN system proved to be preferable for the diarylation of other tri- and tetraamines like spermidine, norspermidine and norspermine. PMID:26734078

  9. Cu(I)-catalyzed N,N'-diarylation of natural diamines and polyamines with aryl iodides.

    PubMed

    Panchenko, Svetlana Petrovna; Averin, Alexei Dmitrievich; Anokhin, Maksim Viktorovich; Maloshitskaya, Olga Aleksandrovna; Beletskaya, Irina Petrovna

    2015-01-01

    The Cu(I)-catalyzed N,N'-diarylation of natural diamines and polyamines such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, spermidine and their homologues is described. Aryl iodides bearing electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups have been employed in the study. The CuI/2-(isobutyryl)cyclohexanone/DMF catalytic system has found to be more efficient in the diarylation of diamines and spermine while the CuI/L-proline/EtCN system proved to be preferable for the diarylation of other tri- and tetraamines like spermidine, norspermidine and norspermine.

  10. Biochemical effects and growth inhibition in MCF-7 cells caused by novel sulphonamido oxa-polyamine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, V; Lin, P Kong Thoo; Rodilla, V

    2002-04-01

    The novel polyamine derivatives sulphonamido oxa-spermine (oxa-Spm) and sulphonamido oxa-spermidine (oxa-Spd) exhibited rapid cytotoxic action towards MCF-7 human breast cancer cells with IC50 values of 4.35 and 6.47 pM, respectively, after 24-h drug exposure. Neither compound is a substrate of serum amine oxidase. Both oxa-Spm and oxa-Spd caused cell shrinkage, as determined by phase-contrast microscopy. After incubation with 10 microM of either compound for 8 h, the cells underwent chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. However, no clear DNA ladder was obtained by electrophoresis. The sulphonamido oxa-polyamine derivatives and especially oxa-Spd enhanced the activity of polyamine oxidase (PAO), an enzyme capable of oxidising N1-acetylated spermine and spermidine to spermidine and putrescine, respectively, generating cytotoxic H2O2 and 3-acetamidopropanal as by-products. The intracellular polyamine content was only marginally reduced in response to drug treatment. In conclusion, our data show that these novel sulphonamido oxa-polyamine derivatives possess high cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells and indicate that induction of PAO may mediate their cytotoxicity via apoptosis.

  11. In vivo investigation of homocysteine metabolism to polyamines by high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry and stable isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Ruseva, Silviya; Lozanov, Valentin; Markova, Petia; Girchev, Radoslav; Mitev, Vanio

    2014-07-15

    Polyamines are essential polycations, playing important roles in mammalian physiology. Theoretically, the involvement of homocysteine in polyamine synthesis via S-adenosylmethionine is possible; however, to our knowledge, it has not been established experimentally. Here, we propose an original approach for investigation of homocysteine metabolites in an animal model. The method is based on the combination of isotope-labeled homocysteine supplementation and high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry analysis. Structural identity of the isotope-labeled metabolites was confirmed by accurate mass measurements of molecular and fragment ions and comparison of the retention times and tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns. Isotope-labeled methionine, spermidine, and spermine were detected in all investigated plasma and tissue samples. The induction of moderate hyperhomocysteinemia leads to an alteration in polyamine levels in a different manner. The involvement of homocysteine in polyamine synthesis and modulation of polyamine levels could contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms connected with homocysteine toxicity.

  12. Polyamines in the lateral vestibular nuclei of the squirrel monkey and their potential role in vestibular compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, C.; Igarashi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Polyamine synthesis increases in response to injurious stimuli including axotomy and denervation. Reduced eye nystagmus and head-deviation have been observed in unilateral labyrinthectomized (UL) guinea pigs treated with an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). We quantified polyamines in the lateral vestibular nuclei (LVN) of control and UL squirrel monkeys during the phase of vestibular compensation (VC) and performed an experiment to determine if DFMO reduces nystagmus previously observed in the guinea pig. Polyamines were detected in the LVN of control and UL squirrel monkeys. Putrescine and spermidine increased in the ipsilateral LVN 3 days after UL with no change in the contralateral LVN. No left-right differences were noted in the 5-day post-UL monkey. DFMO reduced nystagmus in a UL squirrel monkey. These findings suggest that polyamines are important in vestibular function and may contribute to nystagmus observed in VC.

  13. Polyamines in the lateral vestibular nuclei of the squirrel monkey and their potential role in vestibular compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, C.; Igarashi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Polyamine synthesis increases in response to injurious stimuli including axotomy and denervation. Reduced eye nystagmus and head-deviation have been observed in unilateral labyrinthectomized (UL) guinea pigs treated with an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). We quantified polyamines in the lateral vestibular nuclei (LVN) of control and UL squirrel monkeys during the phase of vestibular compensation (VC) and performed an experiment to determine if DFMO reduces nystagmus previously observed in the guinea pig. Polyamines were detected in the LVN of control and UL squirrel monkeys. Putrescine and spermidine increased in the ipsilateral LVN 3 days after UL with no change in the contralateral LVN. No left-right differences were noted in the 5-day post-UL monkey. DFMO reduced nystagmus in a UL squirrel monkey. These findings suggest that polyamines are important in vestibular function and may contribute to nystagmus observed in VC.

  14. Polyamines and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Wallace, H M; Caslake, R

    2001-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major health problem in the western world and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Diet makes a significant contribution to the disease, with high fat, low fibre diets correlating positively with a high incidence of colorectal cancer. Intracellular polyamine concentrations and ornithine decarboxylase activity are both increased in colorectal cancer tissue and in premalignant polyps. Measurement of the polyamine content of serum and urine of individuals has been proposed as a diagnostic marker of malignancy but a number of false positives make this idea untenable. There may, however, still be a role for the measurement of urinary polyamine content as a means of monitoring the efficacy of therapy. Inhibition of polyamine metabolism by polyamine analogues or by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be useful in the chemotherapy and/or chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. Preliminary results suggest that a low polyamine diet might be helpful as part of a health care plan for cancer patients.

  15. Ornithine and arginine decarboxylase activities and effect of some polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors on Gigaspora rosea germinating spores.

    PubMed

    Sannazzaro, Analía I; Alvarez, Cora L; Menéndez, Ana B; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Albertó, Edgardo O; Ruiz, Oscar A

    2004-01-15

    The pathways for putrescine biosynthesis and the effects of polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors on the germination and hyphal development of Gigaspora rosea spores were investigated. Incubation of spores with different radioactive substrates demonstrated that both arginine and ornithine decarboxylase pathways participate in putrescine biosynthesis in G. rosea. Spermidine and spermine were the most abundant polyamines in this fungus. The putrescine biosynthesis inhibitors alpha-difluoromethylarginine and alpha-difluoromethylornithine, as well as the spermidine synthase inhibitor cyclohexylamine, slightly decreased polyamine levels. However, only the latter interfered with spore germination. The consequences of the use of putrescine biosynthesis inhibitors for the control of plant pathogenic fungi on the viability of G. rosea spores in soil are discussed.

  16. Inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase of HeLa cells by diamines and polyamines. Effect on cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Branca, Andrew A.; Herbst, Edward J.

    1980-01-01

    1. Ornithine decarboxylase activity is stimulated in high-density HeLa-cell cultures by dilution of or replacement of spent culture medium with fresh medium containing 10% (v/v) horse serum. 2. After stimulation, ornithine decarboxylase activity reaches a peak at 4–6h, then rapidly declines to the low enzyme activity characteristic of quiescent cultures, where it remains during the remainder of the cell cycle. 3. The stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase is eliminated by the addition of 0.5μm-spermine or -spermidine or 10μm-putrescine to the HeLa-cell cultures at the time of re-feeding with fresh medium. Much higher concentrations (1mm) of the non-physiological diamines, 1,3-diamino-propane or 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane, are required to eliminate the stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase in re-fed HeLa-cell cultures. 4. A heat-labile, non-diffusible inhibitor, comparable with the inhibitory protein ornithine decarboxylase antizyme, is induced in HeLa cells by the addition of exogenous diamines or polyamines. 5. Intracellular putrescine is eliminated, intracellular spermidine and spermine are severely decreased and proliferation of HeLa cells is inhibited when cultures are maintained for 48h in the presence of the non-physiological inducer of ornithine decarboxylase antizyme, 1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane. Exogenous putrescine, a physiological inducer of the antizyme, does not decrease intracellular polyamines or interfere with proliferation of HeLa cells. PMID:7396844

  17. Characterization of a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in Malus domestica highlights the evolutionary conservation of trihydroxycinnamoyl spermidines in pollen coat of core Eudicotyledons.

    PubMed

    Elejalde-Palmett, Carolina; de Bernonville, Thomas Dugé; Glevarec, Gaëlle; Pichon, Olivier; Papon, Nicolas; Courdavault, Vincent; St-Pierre, Benoit; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Lanoue, Arnaud; Besseau, Sébastien

    2015-12-01

    Phenolamides, so called hydroxycinnamic acid amides, are specialized metabolites produced in higher plants, involved in development, reproduction and serve as defence compounds in biotic interactions. Among them, trihydroxycinnamoyl spermidine derivatives were initially found to be synthetized by a spermidine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (AtSHT) in Arabidopsis thaliana and to accumulate in the pollen coat. This study reports the identification, in Malus domestica, of an acyltransferase able to complement the sht mutant of Arabidopsis. The quantitative RT-PCR expression profile of MdSHT reveals a specific expression in flowers coordinated with anther development and tapetum cell activities. Three phenolamides including N (1),N (5),N (10)-tricoumaroyl spermidine and N (1),N (5)-dicoumaroyl-N (10)-caffeoyl spermidine identified by LC/MS, were shown to accumulate specifically in pollen grain coat of apple tree. Moreover, in vitro biochemical characterization confirmed MdSHT capacity to synthesize tri-substituted spermidine derivatives with a substrate specificity restricted to p-coumaroyl-CoA and caffeoyl-CoA as an acyl donor. Further investigations of the presence of tri-substituted hydroxycinnamoyl spermidine conjugates in higher plants were performed by targeted metabolic analyses in pollens coupled with bioinformatic analyses of putative SHT orthologues in a wide range of available plant genomes. This work highlights a probable early evolutionary appearance in the common ancestral core Eudicotyledons of a novel enzyme from the BAHD acyltransferase superfamily, dedicated to the synthesis of trihydroxycinnamoyl spermidines in pollen coat. This pathway was maintained in most species; however, recent evolutionary divergences have appeared among Eudicotyledons, such as an organ reallocation of SHT gene expression in Fabales and a loss of SHT in Malvales and Cucurbitales.

  18. Free and conjugated polyamines and phenols in raw and alkaline-clarified sugarcane juices.

    PubMed

    de Armas, R; Martinez, M; Vicente, C; Legaz, M E

    1999-08-01

    Sugarcane juice contains a lot of sucrose associated with several monosaccharides, defined as low molecular mass carbohydrates (LMMC), as well as some polysaccharides and glycoproteins, which are defined as mid and high molecular mass carbohydrates (MMMC and HMMC, respectively). These three categories of carbohydrates can be separated by size-exclusion chromatography through Sephadex G-10 and Sephadex G-50 columns, but elution profiles change drastically after juice clarification performed by adjusting the pH value of the juice to 8.0. In addition, polyamines and some phenolics are currently associated with carbohydrate preparations, and the distribution pattern of these conjugates also changes after clarification. Polyamine levels generally decrease after juice clarification. Cadaverine is completely removed from the different carbohydrate preparations, whereas spermidine is the main polyamine occurring in association with sugarcane carbohydrates, as free or acid-soluble form in LMMC preparation or as acid-soluble and -insoluble forms in both MMMC and HMMC preparations. Polyamines, presumably spermidine, conjugate to p-hydroxybenzoic acid in LMMC, mostly to caffeic acid in MMMC, and to syringic acid in HMMC preparations. HMMC-associated polyamines appear in both acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions. Syringic acid also occurs in the LMMC preparation, but juice clarification changes it from acid-soluble to free form, and it coelutes with sucrose.

  19. Amine oxidase-based biosensors for spermine and spermidine determination.

    PubMed

    Boffi, Alberto; Favero, Gabriele; Federico, Rodolfo; Macone, Alberto; Antiochia, Riccarda; Tortolini, Cristina; Sanzó, Gabriella; Mazzei, Franco

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development and optimization of electrochemical biosensors for specific determination of the biogenic polyamine spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spmd) whose assessment represents a novel important analytical tool in food analysis and human diagnostics. These biosensors have been prepared using novel engineered enzymes: polyamine oxidase (PAO) endowed with selectivity towards Spm and Spmd and spermine oxidase (SMO) characterized by strict specificity towards Spm. The current design entails biosensors in which the enzymes were entrapped in poly(vinyl alcohol) bearing styrylpyridinium groups (PVA-SbQ), a photocrosslinkable gel, onto an electrode surface. Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) were used as electrochemical transducers for enzymatically produced hydrogen peroxide, operating at different potential vs Ag/AgCl according to the material of the working electrode (WE): +700 mV for graphite (GP) or -100 mV for Prussian blue (PB)-modified SPE, respectively. Biosensor performances were evaluated by means of flow injection amperometric (FIA) measurements. The modified electrodes showed good sensitivity, long-term stability and reproducibility. Under optimal conditions, the PAO biosensor showed a linear range 0.003-0.3 mM for Spm and 0.01-0.4 mM for Spmd, while with the SMO biosensor, a linear range of 0.004-0.5 mM for Spm has been obtained. The main kinetic parameters apparent Michaelis constant (K M), turnover number (K cat) and steady-state current (I max) were determined. The proposed device was then applied to the determination of biogenic amines in blood samples. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained with the GC-MS reference method.

  20. Proteomic Analysis Reveals the Positive Effect of Exogenous Spermidine in Tomato Seedlings' Response to High-Temperature Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Qinqin; Shan, Xi; An, Yahong; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2017-01-01

    Polyamines are phytohormones that regulate plant growth and development as well as the response to environmental stresses. To evaluate their functions in high-temperature stress responses, the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) were determined in tomato leaves using two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. A total of 67 differentially expressed proteins were identified in response to high-temperature stress and/or exogenous Spd, which were grouped into different categories according to biological processes. The four largest categories included proteins involved in photosynthesis (27%), cell rescue, and defense (24%), protein synthesis, folding and degradation (22%), and energy and metabolism (13%). Exogenous Spd up-regulated most identified proteins involved in photosynthesis, implying an enhancement in photosynthetic capacity. Meanwhile, physiological analysis showed that Spd could improve net photosynthetic rate and the biomass accumulation. Moreover, an increased high-temperature stress tolerance by exogenous Spd would contribute to the higher expressions of proteins involved in cell rescue and defense, and Spd regulated the antioxidant enzymes activities and related genes expression in tomato seedlings exposed to high temperature. Taken together, these findings provide a better understanding of the Spd-induced high-temperature resistance by proteomic approaches, providing valuable insight into improving the high-temperature stress tolerance in the global warming epoch. PMID:28220137

  1. Age and gender differences in response to neonatal ethanol withdrawal and polyamine challenge in organotypic hippocampal cultures.

    PubMed

    Barron, Susan; Mulholland, Patrick J; Littleton, John M; Prendergast, Mark A

    2008-06-01

    Polyamines are synthesized and released in high concentrations during CNS development. These agents can potentiate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function and appear to play an important role in CNS development. Previous work has shown that polyamine release is increased during ethanol withdrawal (EWD). This likely promotes NMDAR overactivity and contributes to neurotoxicity during EWD, however, little is known regarding such effects in early neonatal brain. The present study compared the effects of EWD and polyamine exposure on toxicity in hippocampal slice cultures derived from postnatal day 2 (PND 2) or postnatal day 8 (PND 8) day-old rats. Due to changes in NMDAR subtypes and response to polyamines, we predicted that slices taken from PND 2 pups would be more sensitive to EWD and polyamine challenge. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were obtained from neonatal rats either 2 or 8 days of age (PND 2 or PND 8). Five days after explantation, cultures were exposed to ETOH (50 mM- typically subthreshold for EWD induced cell death) for 10 days and then withdrawn from ETOH for 24-hour in the presence of 100 microM of the polyamine spermidine and/or 100 microM ifenprodil, an NMDAR antagonist that blocks the NMDAR that is the most sensitive to polyamine modulation. Cytotoxicity was measured after 24-hour by visualization of propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence. There were clear age and gender-dependent differences in response to EWD and to polyamines. EWD produced significant increases in PI uptake in all subregions (CA1, CA3 and DG) of cultures derived from PND 2 pups, but not PND 8 pups. Exposure of cultures to spermidine for 24-hour also produced significant increases in cytotoxicity in all 3 regions of PND 2 cultures with no gender differences. In contrast, there were both gender and region-specific differences in response to spermidine in cultures from PND 8. While the CA1 region of both sexes displayed increased cytotoxicity following spermidine exposure

  2. [Effects of D-arginine on polyamine content and anaerobic respiration metabolism of cucumber seedling roots under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Hu, Xiao-hui; Guo, Shi-rong; Jia, Yong-xia; Du, Chang-xia

    2007-02-01

    By the method of solution culture, this paper studied the effects of D-arginine on the seedling roots polyamine content and anaerobic respiration metabolism of two cucumber ( Cucumis Sativus L. ) cultivars Zhongnong No. 8 and Lübachun No. 4 differed in hypoxia tolerance. The results showed that under hypoxia stress, the putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) contents in the seedling roots of test cultivars increased significantly, and anaerobic respiration accelerated. The ethanol fermentation activity was higher in the seedling roots of hypoxia-tolerant cultivar Lübachun No. 4 than in those of hypoxia-sensitive cultivar Zhongnong No. 8, while lactate fermentation activity had an opposite trend. Comparing with treatment hypoxia, hypoxia plus D -arginine decreased the Put, Spd and Spm contents in roots significantly, enhanced the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the contents of ethanol and lactate, and inhibited plant growth. Exogenous Put application lessened the effects of D-arginine. Higher level of polyamines in roots could have great benefits for cucumber seedlings to improve their resistance to hypoxia stress.

  3. The Autophagy Enhancer Spermidine Reverses Arterial Aging

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Thomas J.; Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A.; Hearon, Christopher M.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Arterial aging, characterized by stiffening of large elastic arteries and the development of arterial endothelial dysfunction, increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We tested the hypothesis that spermidine, a nutrient associated with the anti-aging process autophagy, would improve arterial aging. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, was ~20% greater in old (O, 28 months) compared with young C57BL6 mice (Y, 4 months, P < 0.05). Arterial endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD), a measure of endothelial function, was ~25% lower in O (P < 0.05 vs. Y) due to reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. These impairments were associated with greater arterial oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine), superoxide production, and protein cross-linking (advanced glycation end-products, AGEs) in O (all P < 0.05). Spermidine supplementation normalized aPWV, restored NO-mediated EDD and reduced nitrotyrosine, superoxide, AGEs and collagen in O. These effects of spermidine were associated with enhanced arterial expression of autophagy markers, and in vitro experiments demonstrated that vascular protection by spermidine was autophagy-dependent. Our results indicate that spermidine exerts a potent anti-aging influence on arteries by increasing NO bioavailability, reducing oxidative stress, modifying structural factors and enhancing autophagy. Spermidine may be a promising nutraceutical treatment for arterial aging and prevention of age-associated CVD. PMID:23612189

  4. Inhibition of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity: a new therapeutic concept in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Neidhart, Michel; Karouzakis, Emmanuel; Jüngel, Astrid; Gay, Renate E; Gay, Steffen

    2014-07-01

    Changes in polyamine-modulated factor 1 (PMF-1) promoter methylation might favor the expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SSAT-1), causing excessive consumption of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of SSAT-1 activity inhibition, either alone or in combination with SAM. Synovial fibroblasts were isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis (OA). PMF-1 promoter methylation was determined by pyrosequencing. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against SSAT-1 were transfected weekly in RA synovial fibroblasts (RASFs). In addition, synovial fibroblasts were treated with diminazene aceturate (DA), an inhibitor of SSAT-1. SSAT-1, 5-methylcytosine (5-MeC), adenosyl methionine decarboxylase (AMD), PMF-1, DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT-1), CXCL12, β1 integrin, and CD44 levels were measured by flow cytometry. Putrescine levels were determined by colorimetry. Levels of matrix metalloproteinases were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell adhesion was tested. The SCID mouse model of RA was used to monitor the invasiveness of RASFs. RASFs showed elevated SSAT-1, AMD, and PMF-1 levels. However, PMF-1 promoter methylation was unchanged. Transfection of siRNA targeting SSAT-1 increased 5-MeC levels within 21 days. Similarly, DA increased 5-MeC levels in RASFs. In addition, DA increased the levels of DNMT-1, decreased the levels of AMD, putrescine, activation markers, and MMP-1, and altered the adhesion of RASFs. DA was more efficient in RASFs with higher levels of SSAT-1. Most interestingly, the combination of DA and SAM reduced the invasiveness of RASFs by 70%. The use of DA alone or in combination with SAM/L-methionine might introduce a new therapeutic concept in RA. This is the first therapy that would directly target RASFs and thereby inhibit ongoing joint destruction. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Putrescine and Silver Nitrate Influences Shoot Multiplication, In Vitro Flowering and Endogenous Titers of Polyamines in Cichorium intybus L. cv. Lucknow Local.

    PubMed

    Bais; Sudha; Ravishankar

    2000-06-01

    The influence of putrescine (Put) and AgNO(3) on shoot multiplication, in vitro flowering and endogenous titers of polyamines in Cichorium intybus L. cv. Lucknow local was investigated. Exogenous administration of Put at a concentration of 40 mM resulted in maximum tissue response in terms of shoot numbers (34.6 +/- 2.61) and shoot lengths (7.6 +/- 0.57 cm) on MS media supplemented with 2-iP (2.0 mg L(-1)) and GA(3) (0.5 mg L(-1)) as observed on the 35(th) day. Exogenous application of 40 µM AgNO(3) resulted in maximum shoot number (36.8 +/- 2.63) and shoot lengths (7.9 +/- 0.76 cm) on day 35 on the same media. Endogenous titers of conjugated spermidine decreased sharply from day 7-21, whereas endogenous conjugated spermine levels peaked on day 28 (1265 +/- 94.9 nmoles g(-1) FW), after treatment with 40 mM Put. Whereas, AgNO(3) (40 µM) fed samples resulted in higher titers of endogenous conjugated spermine (1405 +/- 105.6 nmoles g(-1) FW, 3.62 fold over control) on day 14. All other treatments showed decreasing endogenous levels during the whole culture period. Both Put (40 mM) and AgNO(3) (40 µM) resulted in floral initiation and floral development on day 28 and 14 (3.76 +/- 0.16, 4.2 +/- 0.21 flowers per shoot apices), respectively. To investigate the role of Put (40 mM) and AgNO(3) (40 µM) on morphogenetic response and endogenous conjugated polyamine titers in shoots of chicory, polyamine inhibitors (DFMA and DFMO) were used. The morphogenetic response and the endogenous conjugated pool of polyamines were diminished in DFMA and DFMO treatments, but could be restored by addition of Put (40 mM) and AgNO(3) (40 µM). Under exogenous Put feeding, ethylene production was reduced in shoot cultures of chicory. This study shows for the first time the influence of polyamines on multiple shoot initiation from axillary buds of C. intybus L. cv. Lucknow local and also indicates the promotive effect of Put and AgNO(3) on autoregulation of polyamine biosynthesis, thereby

  6. Effects of stress temperatures of germination on polyamine titers of soybean seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda-Mejia, Renan

    High and low stress temperatures during seed germination and seedling development limit total germination and the rate of germination and growth. Changes in polyamine (PA) concentrations in seeds of different species have been associated with germination, growth and environmental stresses such as temperature, drought, oxygen, chilling injury and osmotic conditions. Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of stress temperatures during germination and seedling development on polyamine titers in soybean seeds. Three germination temperatures, 25, 30, and 36°C were used in the first study to evaluate their influence on changes in polyamine concentrations in soybean seeds germinated at 76 and 90 hours. The polyamines (PAs), cadaverine (Cad), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), agmatine (Agm), and spermine (Spin) were quantified by HPLC using a cation exchange column and an electrochemical detector. Cad, Put, Agm, and Spd declined as the germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Conversely, Spin increased considerably with an increase in temperature. Total germination was reduced from 97.2 to 92.5% as germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Germination time did not affect Cad, Agm and Spm, and total germination, however, the interaction between temperature and germination time for Put and Spd concentrations was significant. In the second study, changes in PA concentrations, seedling growth, germination time (t50), fresh and dry weight, and moisture content were measured in the embryonic axis and cotyledons of soybean seeds germinated at 10 and 25°C through six stages of germination dry seed (DS), testa split (TS), radicle at 10 mm (Ra-10), root hairs visible (RHV), secondary root primordia (SRP), and complete seedling (CS). The concentrations of Cad and Put in the embryonic axis, were significantly higher in seeds germinated under low temperature than in seeds at 25°C (approximately 10 and 3 fold respectively). However, this

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study: Nutritional Polyamines in Frequently Consumed Foods of the Turkish Population

    PubMed Central

    Buyukuslu, Nihal; Hizli, Hilal; Esin, Kubra; Garipagaoglu, Muazzez

    2014-01-01

    Putrescine, spermidine and spermine are the most abundant polycationic natural amines found in nearly all organisms. They are involved in regulation of gene expression, translation, cell proliferation and differentiation. They can be supplied by the endogenous synthesis inside the cell or by the intake from exogenous sources. There is a growing body of literature associated with the effects of bioactive amines on health and diseases, but limited information about polyamine content in foods is available. In the present study, the polyamine content of frequently consumed foods in a typical Turkish diet was estimated for adults, including tea, bread and yoghurt. The estimation of daily intake was defined as 93,057 nmol/day putrescine, 33,122 nmol/day spermidine, 13,685 nmol/day spermine. The contribution of foods to daily intake was: dairy products (47.32%), vegetables and grains (21.09%) and wheat products (12.75%). PMID:28234336

  8. Antimutagenic activities of naturally occurring polyamines in Chinese hamster ovary cell in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, R.; Perticone, P.; Bona, R.; Polani, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Spermine and spermidine, ubiquitous polyamines present in bacteria and animal cells, are also involved in cell growth. Since they interact with the double helix, they can stabilize the DNA molecule. Recent evidence of the antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic capacity of spermine has focused attention on the he mechanism(s) by which such agents can protect cells from induced damages. In the present paper the authors show the ability of spermine and spermidine to decrease the level of sister chromatid exchanges induced in Chinese hamster ovary cells cultivated in vitro, by treating them with Psoralen + UVA irradiation (able to induce mainly monoadducts and DNA cross-links). Two different mechanisms of polyamine action can be invoked to explain the preservative activity of this class of agents.

  9. Application of γ-aminobutyric acid demonstrates a protective role of polyamine and GABA metabolism in muskmelon seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhiran; Xu, Weinan; Li, Jianming; Zhao, Ning; Zhou, Yue

    2015-07-01

    The effects of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) application on growth, polyamine and endogenous GABA metabolism in muskmelon leaves and roots were measured. Plants were treated under control or 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress conditions with or without foliar spraying 50 mM GABA. Ca(NO3)2 stress significantly suppressed seedling growth and GABA transaminase activity, and enhanced glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity and endogenous GABA levels. Polyamine (PA) biosynthesis and degradation capacity increased in parallel with increasing GAD activity. Exogenous GABA application effectively alleviated the growth inhibition caused by Ca(NO3)2 stress, and significantly enhanced the activities of arginine decarboxylase (ADC), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), polyamine oxidase (PAO), and diamine oxidase (DAO). Exogenous GABA also significantly reduced the accumulation of free putrescine (Put) and increased the levels of free spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) in leaves, which improved the capacity for polyamine biosynthesis. Application of exogenous GABA under Ca(NO3)2 stress enables the plants to maintain a higher ratio of free Spd and free Spm with respect to free Put. Our data suggest that exogenous GABA has an important role in improving muskmelon seedling tolerance to Ca(NO3)2 stress by improving biosynthesis of PAs and GABA, and by preventing PA degradation. There is a potential positive feedback mechanism that results from higher endogenous GABA content and the combined effects of Ca(NO3)2 stress and exogenous GABA, which coordinately alleviate Ca(NO3)2 stress injury by enhancing PA biosynthesis and converting free Put to an insoluble bound PA form, and reduce PA degradation in muskmelon seedlings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Polyamine biosynthesis is critical for growth and differentiation of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Mastracci, Teresa L.; Robertson, Morgan A.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Anderson, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    The pancreas, in most studied vertebrates, is a compound organ with both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine compartment makes and secretes digestive enzymes, while the endocrine compartment, organized into islets of Langerhans, produces hormones that regulate blood glucose. High concentrations of polyamines, which are aliphatic amines, are reported in exocrine and endocrine cells, with insulin-producing β cells showing the highest concentrations. We utilized zebrafish as a model organism, together with pharmacological inhibition or genetic manipulation, to determine how polyamine biosynthesis functions in pancreatic organogenesis. We identified that inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis reduces exocrine pancreas and β cell mass, and that these reductions are at the level of differentiation. Moreover, we demonstrate that inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, phenocopies inhibition or knockdown of the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS). These data identify that the pancreatic requirement for polyamine biosynthesis is largely mediated through a requirement for spermidine for the downstream posttranslational modification of eIF5A by its enzymatic activator DHS, which in turn impacts mRNA translation. Altogether, we have uncovered a role for polyamine biosynthesis in pancreatic organogenesis and identified that it may be possible to exploit polyamine biosynthesis to manipulate pancreatic cell differentiation. PMID:26299433

  11. Polyamine depletion enhances the roscovitine-induced apoptosis through the activation of mitochondria in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Arısan, Elif Damla; Coker, Ajda; Palavan-Ünsal, Narçin

    2012-02-01

    Small molecule inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) show high therapeutic potential in various cancer types which are characterized by the accumulation of transformed cells due to impaired apoptotic machinery. Roscovitine, a CDK inhibitor showed to be a potent apoptotic inducer in several cancer cells. Polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, are biogenic amines involved in many cellular processes, including apoptosis. In this study, we explored the potential role of polyamines in roscovitine-induced apoptosis in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Roscovitine induced apoptosis by activating mitochondrial pathway caspases and modulating the expression of Bcl-2 family members. Depletion of polyamines by treatment with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) increased roscovitine-induced apoptosis. Transient silencing of ornithine decarboxylase, polyamine biosynthesis enzyme and special target of DFMO also increased roscovitine-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Interestingly, additional putrescine treatment was found pro-apoptotic due to the presence of non-functional ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Finally, roscovitine altered polyamine catabolic pathway and led to decrease in putrescine and spermidine levels. Therefore, the metabolic regulation of polyamines may dictate the power of roscovitine induced apoptotic responses in HCT116 colon cancer cells.

  12. Spermidine reverses arcaine's inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced hippocampal ( sup 3 H)norepinephrine release

    SciTech Connect

    Sacaan, A.I.; Johnson, K.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced ({sup 3}H)norepinephrine (({sup 3}H)NE) release by a putrescine analog was studied. We report that arcaine, diguanidinobutane, a putative competitive polyamine antagonist, completely and noncompetitively antagonized NMDA-induced ({sup 3}H)NE release from rat hippocampal minces with an IC50 value of 102 microM. Arcaine did not alter kainate- or potassium-induced ({sup 3}H)NE release suggesting a specific effect on NMDA-mediated responses. Spermidine did not alter NMDA-induced ({sup 3}H)NE release, nor did it reverse the effect of arcaine when introduced in a normal physiologic superfusion buffer. However, spermidine reversed the effect of arcaine when superfusing with buffer that contained 5% (v/v) of the organic solvent dimethylsulfoxide. This finding suggests that the polyamine site may be located at the intracellular surface of the cell membrane. Our results provide the first evidence for polyamine modulation of the NMDA receptor ionophore complex in a functional physiologic system.

  13. Targeting polyamine metabolism for finding new drugs against leishmaniasis: a review.

    PubMed

    Ilari, Andrea; Fiorillo, Annarita; Baiocco, Paola; Poser, Elena; Angiulli, Gabriella; Colotti, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The most used drugs are pentavalent antimonials that are very toxic and display the problem of drug resistance, especially in endemic regions such as Bihar in India. For this reason, it is urgent to find new and less toxic drugs against leishmaniasis. To this end, the understanding of pathways affecting parasite survival is of prime importance for targeted drug discovery. The parasite survival inside the macrophage is strongly dependent on polyamine metabolism. Polyamines are, in fact, very important for cell growth and proliferation. In particular, spermidine (Spd), the final product of the polyamine biosynthesis pathway, serves as a precursor for trypanothione (N1,N8- bis(glutathionyl)spermidine, T(SH)2) and hypusine (N(ε)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine). T(SH)2 is a key molecule for parasite defense against the hydrogen peroxide produced by macrophages during the infection. Hypusination is a posttranslational modification occurring exclusively in the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), which has an important role in avoiding the ribosome stalling during the biosynthesis of protein containing polyprolines sequences. The enzymes, belonging to the spermidine metabolism, i.e. arginase (ARG), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), spermidine synthase (SpdS), trypanothione synthetase (TryS or TSA), trypanothione reductase (TryR or TR), tryparedoxin peroxidase (TXNPx), deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) are promising targets for the development of new drugs against leishmaniasis. This minireview furnishes a picture of the structural, functional and inhibition studies on polyamine metabolism enzymes that could guide the discovery of new drugs against leishmaniasis.

  14. Dietary polyamine intake and colorectal cancer risk in postmenopausal women12

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Ashley J; Ashbeck, Erin L; Wertheim, Betsy C; Wallace, Robert B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thomson, Cynthia A; Thompson, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine (i.e., polyamines) are small cationic amines synthesized by cells or acquired from the diet or gut bacteria. Polyamines are required for both normal and colorectal cancer (CRC) cell growth. Objective: We investigated the association between dietary polyamines and risk of CRC incidence and mortality. Design: The study was a prospective analysis in 87,602 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Multivariate Cox regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs. Results: Total dietary polyamine intake (mean ± SD: 289.2 ± 127.4 μmol/d) was not positively associated with CRC in fully adjusted models. Instead, intake ≥179.67 μmol/d was associated with reduced risk of CRC [HR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.68, 1.00), 0.81 (0.66, 0.99), 0.91 (0.74, 1.12), and 0.80 (0.62, 1.02) for quintiles 2–5, respectively, compared with quintile 1]. Reduced risk was not significant across all quintiles. Polyamines were not significantly associated with CRC-specific mortality in fully adjusted models. When stratified by risk factors for CRC, only body mass index (BMI) and fiber intake significantly modified the association between polyamine intake and CRC. In women with BMI (in kg/m2) ≤25 or fiber consumption above the median, polyamine intake was associated with significantly lower risk of CRC. Conclusions: No positive association between dietary polyamines and CRC or CRC-specific mortality risk in women was observed. Instead, a protective effect of dietary polyamines was suggested in women with some CRC risk-lowering behaviors in particular. These results are consistent with emerging evidence that exogenous polyamines may be beneficial in colon health and warrant additional study. PMID:26135350

  15. Exogenous spermidine is enhancing tomato tolerance to salinity-alkalinity stress by regulating chloroplast antioxidant system and chlorophyll metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianming; Hu, Lipan; Zhang, Li; Pan, Xiongbo; Hu, Xiaohui

    2015-12-29

    Salinity-alkalinity stress is known to adversely affect a variety of processes in plants, thus inhibiting growth and decreasing crop yield. Polyamines protect plants against a variety of environmental stresses. However, whether exogenous spermidine increases the tolerance of tomato seedlings via effects on chloroplast antioxidant enzymes and chlorophyll metabolism is unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous spermidine on chlorophyll synthesis and degradation pathway intermediates and related enzyme activities, as well as chloroplast ultrastructure, gene expression, and antioxidants in salinity-alkalinity-stressed tomato seedlings. Salinity-alkalinity stress disrupted chlorophyll metabolism and hindered uroorphyrinogen III conversion to protoporphyrin IX. These effects were more pronounced in seedlings of cultivar Zhongza No. 9 than cultivar Jinpengchaoguan. Under salinity-alkalinity stress, exogenous spermidine alleviated decreases in the contents of total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a and b in seedlings of both cultivars following 4 days of stress. With extended stress, exogenous spermidine reduced the accumulation of δ-aminolevulinic acid, porphobilinogen, and uroorphyrinogen III and increased the levels of protoporphyrin IX, Mg-protoporphyrin IX, and protochlorophyllide, suggesting that spermidine promotes the conversion of uroorphyrinogen III to protoporphyrin IX. The effect occurred earlier in cultivar Jinpengchaoguan than in cultivar Zhongza No. 9. Exogenous spermidine also alleviated the stress-induced increases in malondialdehyde content, superoxide radical generation rate, chlorophyllase activity, and expression of the chlorophyllase gene and the stress-induced decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, antioxidants, and expression of the porphobilinogen deaminase gene. In addition, exogenous spermidine stabilized the chloroplast ultrastructure in stressed tomato seedlings. The tomato cultivars examined exhibited different

  16. Transcriptional inhibition of the operon for the spermidine uptake system by the substrate-binding protein PotD.

    PubMed

    Antognoni, F; Del Duca, S; Kuraishi, A; Kawabe, E; Fukuchi-Shimogori, T; Kashiwagi, K; Igarashi, K

    1999-01-22

    Inhibition of spermidine uptake in Escherichia coli, which occurs in the presence of accumulated polyamines, has been studied using the spermidine uptake operon consisting of the potA, -B, -C, and -D genes. Transcription of the potABCD operon was inhibited by PotD, a spermidine-binding protein usually found in the periplasm, and the inhibitory effect of PotD was increased by spermidine. Transcription was not affected by bovine serum albumin, PotA, or PotF, suggesting that the effects of PotD are specific to the PotD protein. In the presence of 8 mM spermidine, a 50% inhibition of transcription was observed with a molar ratio of approximately 1:500 of template DNA:PotD. It was found that PotD bound to regions -258 to -209 nucleotides upstream and +66 to +135 nucleotides downstream of the ATG initiation codon of the potA gene. Binding of PotD to the downstream site was stimulated by spermidine. Overexpression of PotD in Escherichia coli DH5alpha inhibited the uptake of spermidine, the synthesis of PotABCD mRNA, and expression of a lacZ reporter gene fused downstream of a potA gene containing the PotD binding sites. In cells overexpressing PotD, a large amount of PotD existed as PotD precursor in spheroplasts. Our results indicate that PotD precursor can also inhibit spermidine transport. The amino acid residues in PotD that are involved in its interaction with the potABCD operon were determined using mutated PotD proteins. Thr-35 and Ser-85 of PotD were found to be important for this interaction. These results suggest that transcription of the spermidine transport (potABCD) operon is inhibited in vivo by PotD precursor rather than PotD through its binding to two regions close to the transcriptional initiation site of the operon.

  17. Comparison of freezing tolerance, compatible solutes and polyamines in geographically diverse collections of Thellungiella sp. and Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thellungiella has been proposed as an extremophile alternative to Arabidopsis to investigate environmental stress tolerance. However, Arabidopsis accessions show large natural variation in their freezing tolerance and here the tolerance ranges of collections of accessions in the two species were compared. Results Leaf freezing tolerance of 16 Thellungiella accessions was assessed with an electrolyte leakage assay before and after 14 days of cold acclimation at 4°C. Soluble sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose) and free polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine) were quantified by HPLC, proline photometrically. The ranges in nonacclimated freezing tolerance completely overlapped between Arabidopsis and Thellungiella. After cold acclimation, some Thellungiella accessions were more freezing tolerant than any Arabidopsis accessions. Acclimated freezing tolerance was correlated with sucrose levels in both species, but raffinose accumulation was lower in Thellungiella and only correlated with freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. The reverse was true for leaf proline contents. Polyamine levels were generally similar between the species. Only spermine content was higher in nonacclimated Thellungiella plants, but decreased during acclimation and was negatively correlated with freezing tolerance. Conclusion Thellungiella is not an extremophile with regard to freezing tolerance, but some accessions significantly expand the range present in Arabidopsis. The metabolite data indicate different metabolic adaptation strategies between the species. PMID:22863402

  18. Polyamine pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Nicole M; Ju, Shulin; Verbitsky, Miguel; Ross, Barbara; Geddie, Melissa L; Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Muhammad, Alim; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Ringe, Dagmar; Cote, Lucien; Lindquist, Susan; Masliah, Eliezer; Petsko, Gregory A; Marder, Karen; Clark, Lorraine N; Small, Scott A

    2010-09-28

    The full complement of molecular pathways contributing to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD) remains unknown. Here we address this issue by taking a broad approach, beginning by using functional MRI to identify brainstem regions differentially affected and resistant to the disease. Relying on these imaging findings, we then profiled gene expression levels from postmortem brainstem regions, identifying a disease-related decrease in the expression of the catabolic polyamine enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1). Next, a range of studies were completed to support the pathogenicity of this finding. First, to test for a causal link between polyamines and α-synuclein toxicity, we investigated a yeast model expressing α-synuclein. Polyamines were found to enhance the toxicity of α-synuclein, and an unbiased genome-wide screen for modifiers of α-synuclein toxicity identified Tpo4, a member of a family of proteins responsible for polyamine transport. Second, to test for a causal link between SAT1 activity and PD histopathology, we investigated a mouse model expressing α-synuclein. DENSPM (N1, N11-diethylnorspermine), a polyamine analog that increases SAT1 activity, was found to reduce PD histopathology, whereas Berenil (diminazene aceturate), a pharmacological agent that reduces SAT1 activity, worsened the histopathology. Third, to test for a genetic link, we sequenced the SAT1 gene and a rare but unique disease-associated variant was identified. Taken together, the findings from human patients, yeast, and a mouse model implicate the polyamine pathway in PD pathogenesis.

  19. Polyamine pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Nicole M.; Ju, Shulin; Verbitsky, Miguel; Ross, Barbara; Geddie, Melissa L.; Rockenstein, Edward; Adame, Anthony; Muhammad, Alim; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Ringe, Dagmar; Cote, Lucien; Lindquist, Susan; Masliah, Eliezer; Petsko, Gregory A.; Marder, Karen; Clark, Lorraine N.; Small, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The full complement of molecular pathways contributing to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD) remains unknown. Here we address this issue by taking a broad approach, beginning by using functional MRI to identify brainstem regions differentially affected and resistant to the disease. Relying on these imaging findings, we then profiled gene expression levels from postmortem brainstem regions, identifying a disease-related decrease in the expression of the catabolic polyamine enzyme spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1). Next, a range of studies were completed to support the pathogenicity of this finding. First, to test for a causal link between polyamines and α-synuclein toxicity, we investigated a yeast model expressing α-synuclein. Polyamines were found to enhance the toxicity of α-synuclein, and an unbiased genome-wide screen for modifiers of α-synuclein toxicity identified Tpo4, a member of a family of proteins responsible for polyamine transport. Second, to test for a causal link between SAT1 activity and PD histopathology, we investigated a mouse model expressing α-synuclein. DENSPM (N1, N11-diethylnorspermine), a polyamine analog that increases SAT1 activity, was found to reduce PD histopathology, whereas Berenil (diminazene aceturate), a pharmacological agent that reduces SAT1 activity, worsened the histopathology. Third, to test for a genetic link, we sequenced the SAT1 gene and a rare but unique disease-associated variant was identified. Taken together, the findings from human patients, yeast, and a mouse model implicate the polyamine pathway in PD pathogenesis. PMID:20837543

  20. Mammalian Polyamine Metabolism and Function

    PubMed Central

    Pegg, Anthony E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Polyamines are ubiquitous small basic molecules that play multiple essential roles in mammalian physiology. Their cellular content is highly regulated and there is convincing evidence that altered metabolism is involvement in many disease states. Drugs altering polyamine levels may therefore have a variety of important targets. This review will summarize the current state of understanding of polyamine metabolism and function, the regulation of polyamine content, and heritable pathological conditions that may be derived from altered polyamine metabolism. PMID:19603518

  1. Structural and Biochemical Basis for Polyamine Binding to the Tp0655 Lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum

    PubMed Central

    Machius, Mischa; Brautigam, Chad A.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Ward, Patrick; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Blevins, Jon S.; Deka, Ranjit K.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    Tp0655 of Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, is predicted to be a 40-kDa membrane lipoprotein. Previous sequence analysis of Tp0655 noted its homology to polyamine-binding proteins of the bacterial PotD family, which serve as periplasmic ligand-binding proteins of ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transport systems. In the current study, the 1.8-Å crystal structure of Tp0655 demonstrated structural homology to E. coli PotD and PotF. The latter two proteins preferentially bind spermidine and putrescine, respectively. All of these proteins contain two domains that sandwich the ligand between them. The ligand-binding site of Tp0655 can be occupied by 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfanoic acid, a component of the crystallization medium. To discern the polyamine binding preferences of Tp0655, the protein was subjected to isothermal titration calorimetric experiments. The titrations established that Tp0655 binds polyamines avidly, with a marked preference for putrescine (Kd = 10 nM) over spermidine (Kd = 430 nM), but the related compounds cadaverine and spermine did not bind. Structural comparisons and structure-based sequence analyses provide insights into how polyamine-binding proteins recognize their ligands. In particular, these comparisons allow the derivation of rules that may be used to predict the function of other members of the PotD family. The sequential, structural, and functional homology of Tp0655 to PotD and PotF prompt the conclusion that the former likely is the polyamine-binding component of an ABC-type polyamine transport system in T. pallidum. We thus rename Tp0655 as TpPotD. The ramifications of TpPotD as a polyamine-binding protein to the parasitic strategy of T. pallidum are discussed. PMID:17868688

  2. Multiple pathways for uptake of paraquat, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), and polyamines

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, T.L.; Kameji, R.; Rannels, D.E.; Pegg, A.E.

    1987-06-01

    The uptake of polyamines, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), and paraquat (N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium) into control Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and a mutant CHO cell line selected for resistance to the toxicity of MGBG was examined. In contrast to control CHO cells, the mutant cells had no detectable uptake of (/sup 14/C)-MGBG or any of the polyamines. There was no difference between the two cell lines in the uptake of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric (/sup 3/H-AIB), which indicates that there was no general change in membrane transport processes. The mutant cells were also found to be resistant to the toxicity of paraquat and to have a reduced capability to take up the herbicide. This finding confirms that the uptake of paraquat is necessary for the toxicity of this compound and that the paraquat is taken up by a transport system that also transports MGBG. Competition experiments showed that an excess of unlabeled paraquat inhibited uptake of MGBG and, to a lesser extent, uptake of putrescine and spermidine, but no inhibitory action on spermine uptake could be detected. Studies with type II cells isolated from rat lung also demonstrated uptake of paraquat and spermidine, but paraquat was only a weak inhibitor of spermidine uptake in this system. These results suggest that there may be multiple systems for the uptake of MGBG and polyamines and that paraquat is taken up by at least one but not by all of these systems.

  3. Possible prebiotic significance of polyamines in the condensation, protection, encapsulation, and biological properties of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, Isabel; Ibáñez, Miguel; Wong, Carlos; Chávez, Pedro; Gariglio, Patricio; Oró, J.

    1992-07-01

    Some properties of DNA condensed with spermidine have been compared with the properties of DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6 to determine whether condensation of DNA with these trivalent cations protects DNA against the action of DNase I and increases transcription and encapsulation of DNA into liposomes. It was shown that DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6 was resistant to the action of the endonuclease DNase I such as DNA condensed with spermidine was. However, DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6 was significantly less active in transcription with theE. coli RNA polymerase than DNA-spermidine condensed forms. In addition, it was demonstrated that both compacted forms of DNA were more efficiently encapsulated into neutral liposomes; however, negatively, charged liposomes were scarcely formed in the presence of DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6. These experiments and the well documented properties of polyamines increasing the resistance to radiations and hydrolysis of nucleic acids, as well as their biological activities, such as replication, transcription, and translation, together with the low concentration of Co3+ in the environment, lead us to propose spermidine as a plausible prebiotic DNA condensing agent rather than Co3+ and the basic proteins proposed by other authors. Then, we consider the possible role and relevance of the polyamine-nucleic acids complexes in the evolution of life.

  4. Possible prebiotic significance of polyamines in the condensation, protection, encapsulation, and biological properties of DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeza, I.; Ibanez, M.; Wong, C.; Chavez, P.; Gariglio, P.; Oro, J.

    1991-01-01

    Some properties of DNA condensed with spermidine have been compared with the properties of DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6 to determine whether condensation of DNA with these trivalent cations protects DNA against the action of DNase I and increases transcription and encapsulation of DNA into liposomes. It was shown that DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6 was resistant to the action of the endonuclease DNase I such as DNA condensed with spermidine was. However, DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6 was significantly less active in transcription with the E. coli RNA polymerase than DNA-spermidine condensed forms. In addition, it was demonstrated that both compacted forms of DNA were more efficiently encapsulated into neutral liposomes; however, negatively, charged liposomes were scarcely formed in the presence of DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6. These experiments and the well documented properties of polyamines increasing the resistance to radiations and hydrolysis of nucleic acids, as well as their biological activities, such as replication, transcription, and translation, together with the low concentration of Co3+ in the environment, lead us to propose spermidine as a plausible prebiotic DNA condensing agent rather than Co3+ and the basic proteins proposed by other authors. Then, we consider the possible role and relevance of the polyamine-nucleic acids complexes in the evolution of life.

  5. Possible prebiotic significance of polyamines in the condensation, protection, encapsulation, and biological properties of DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baeza, I.; Ibanez, M.; Wong, C.; Chavez, P.; Gariglio, P.; Oro, J.

    1991-01-01

    Some properties of DNA condensed with spermidine have been compared with the properties of DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6 to determine whether condensation of DNA with these trivalent cations protects DNA against the action of DNase I and increases transcription and encapsulation of DNA into liposomes. It was shown that DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6 was resistant to the action of the endonuclease DNase I such as DNA condensed with spermidine was. However, DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6 was significantly less active in transcription with the E. coli RNA polymerase than DNA-spermidine condensed forms. In addition, it was demonstrated that both compacted forms of DNA were more efficiently encapsulated into neutral liposomes; however, negatively, charged liposomes were scarcely formed in the presence of DNA condensed with Co3+(NH3)6. These experiments and the well documented properties of polyamines increasing the resistance to radiations and hydrolysis of nucleic acids, as well as their biological activities, such as replication, transcription, and translation, together with the low concentration of Co3+ in the environment, lead us to propose spermidine as a plausible prebiotic DNA condensing agent rather than Co3+ and the basic proteins proposed by other authors. Then, we consider the possible role and relevance of the polyamine-nucleic acids complexes in the evolution of life.

  6. Consumption effect of a synbiotic beverage made from soy and yacon extracts containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 on the intestinal polyamine concentrations in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Marla Simone Jovenasso; Rossi, Elizeu Antonio; Pauly-Silveira, Nadiége Dourado; Pinto, Roseli Aparecida; Roselino, Mariana Nougalli; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone; Quilles, Marcela Bassi; de Abreu Glória, Maria Beatriz; Cavallini, Daniela Cardoso Umbelino

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a synbiotic beverage made from soy and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) extracts containing Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 on healthy elderly individuals' intestinal polyamine concentrations. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial has been conducted with twenty-nine volunteers (over 65years of age) who either had a daily intake of 150mL of synbiotic (synbiotic group - S) or placebo (placebo group - P) beverages. Both had the same nutrient composition, except that a probiotic culture was added to the synbiotic beverage. Total experiment time was 8weeks, which was divided into 3 consecutive phases: a prefeeding period (2weeks), followed by a feeding period (4weeks) and a postfeeding period (2weeks). Stool samples were collected at 3 time periods. Fecal concentrations of polyamines, putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD) and spermidine (SPD) that were obtained during the synbiotic and placebo consumption period were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those found during the pre-consumption baseline level period. No significant differences in the number of bifidobacteria, clostridia, or enterobacteria were observed in any of the two groups at the three time periods. Similarly, no significant effect on the production of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) was induced by the synbiotic or placebo beverages consumption. The results herein indicate that both the synbiotic and the placebo beverage consumption have increased polyamines levels, which are often reduced in elderly individuals, without influencing inflammatory responses. In addition, both placebo and synbiotic beverages seems to contribute by maintaining increased polyamines levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High night temperature strongly impacts TCA cycle, amino acid and polyamine biosynthetic pathways in rice in a sensitivity-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Glaubitz, Ulrike; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K; Zuther, Ellen

    2015-10-01

    Global climate change combined with asymmetric warming can have detrimental effects on the yield of crop plants such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). Little is known about metabolic responses of rice to high night temperature (HNT) conditions. Twelve cultivars with different HNT sensitivity were used to investigate metabolic changes in the vegetative stage under HNT compared to control conditions. Central metabolism, especially TCA cycle and amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly affected particularly in sensitive cultivars. Levels of several metabolites were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Furthermore, pool sizes of some metabolites negatively correlated with HNT sensitivity under control conditions, indicating metabolic pre-adaptation in tolerant cultivars. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine showed increased abundance in sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions. Correlations between the content of polyamines and 75 other metabolites indicated metabolic shifts from correlations with sugar-phosphates and 1-kestose under control to correlations with sugars and amino and organic acids under HNT conditions. Increased expression levels of ADC2 and ODC1, genes encoding enzymes catalysing the first committed steps of putrescine biosynthesis, were restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT. Additionally, transcript levels of eight polyamine biosynthesis genes were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Responses to HNT in the vegetative stage result in distinct differences between differently responding cultivars with a dysregulation of central metabolism and an increase of polyamine biosynthesis restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions and a pre-adaptation of tolerant cultivars already under control conditions with higher levels of potentially protective compatible solutes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Naturally occurring branched-chain polyamines induce a crosslinked meshwork structure in a giant DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Akira; Shimizu, Yuta; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Fukuda, Wakao; Umezawa, Naoki; Horai, Yuhei; Higuchi, Tsunehiko; Fujiwara, Shinsuke; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-12-01

    We studied the effect of branched-chain polyamines on the folding transition of genome-sized DNA molecules in aqueous solution by the use of single-molecule observation with fluorescence microcopy. Detailed morphological features of polyamine/DNA complexes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM observations indicated that branched-chain polyamines tend to induce a characteristic change in the higher-order structure of DNA by forming bridges or crosslinks between the segments of a DNA molecule. In contrast, natural linear-chain polyamines cause a parallel alignment between DNA segments. Circular dichroism measurements revealed that branched-chain polyamines induce the A-form in the secondary structure of DNA, while linear-chain polyamines have only a minimum effect. This large difference in the effects of branched- and linear-chain polyamines is discussed in relation to the difference in the manner of binding of these polyamines to negatively charged double-stranded DNA.

  9. Cotton polyamine oxidase is required for spermine and camalexin signalling in the defence response to Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Mo, Huijuan; Wang, Xingfen; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Guiyin; Zhang, Jinfa; Ma, Zhiying

    2015-09-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a destructive, soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in many economically important crops worldwide. A polyamine oxidase (PAO) gene was identified and cloned by screening suppression subtractive hybridisation and cDNA libraries of cotton genotypes tolerant to Verticillium wilt and was induced early and strongly by inoculation with V. dahliae and application of plant hormone. Recombinant cotton polyamine oxidase (GhPAO) was found to catalyse the conversion of spermine (Spm) to spermidine (Spd) in vitro. Constitutive expression of GhPAO in Arabidopsis thaliana produced improved resistance to V. dahliae and maintained putrescine, Spd and Spm at high levels. Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), salicylic acid and camalexin (a phytoalexin) levels were distinctly increased in GhPAO-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants during V. dahliae infection when compared with wild-type plants, and Spm and camalexin efficiently inhibited growth of V. dahliae in vitro. Spermine promoted the accumulation of camalexin by inducing the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases and cytochrome P450 proteins in Arabidopsis and cotton plants. The three polyamines all showed higher accumulation in tolerant cotton cultivars than in susceptible cotton cultivars after inoculation with V. dahliae. GhPAO silencing in cotton significantly reduced the Spd level and increased the Spm level, leading to enhanced susceptibility to infection by V. dahliae, and the levels of H2 O2 and camalexin were distinctly lower in GhPAO-silenced cotton plants after V. dahliae infection. Together, these results suggest that GhPAO contributes to resistance of the plant against V. dahliae through the mediation of Spm and camalexin signalling.

  10. Osmotic Stress-Induced Polyamine Accumulation in Cereal Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Hector E.; Galston, Arthur W.

    1984-01-01

    Putrescine and spermidine accumulate in cereal cells and protoplasts exposed to various osmotica (sorbitol, mannitol, proline, betaine, or sucrose). The response is fast (1-2 hour lag), massive (50- to 60-fold increase in putrescine), and is not due to release of putrescine from a bound form or to conversion from spermidine. It rather involves the activation of the biosynthetic pathway mediated by arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC 4.1.1.19) (Flores and Galston 1982 Science 217: 1259). Polyamine accumulation and the rise in ADC activity in osmotically stressed tissue are prevented by ADC inhibitors (α-difluoromethylarginine, d-arginine, and l-canavanine) but are not affected by α-difluoromethylornithine and methylornithine, inhibitors of the alternative putrescine biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17). Putrescine accumulation by oat and corn leaves is maximal in solutions only slightly hyperosmotic (0.4 molar). The stress response, which declines with leaf age, is completely prevented by cycloheximide (10 to 50 micrograms per milliliter) when added during the first hour of exposure to osmoticum, and partially by transcription inhibitors (cordycepin, Actinomycin D, 5 to 20 micrograms per milliliter). Oat seedlings allowed to wilt by withholding water also show a rise in polyamine titer and ADC activity. This response is not readily reversible upon rewatering. PMID:16663551

  11. Polyamines and Hypusination Are Required for Ebolavirus Gene Expression and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Michelle E.; Filone, Claire Marie; Rozelle, Dan; Mire, Chad E.; Agans, Krystle N.; Hensley, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ebolavirus (EBOV) is an RNA virus that is known to cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and other primates. EBOV successfully enters and replicates in many cell types. This replication is dependent on the virus successfully coopting a number of cellular factors. Many of these factors are currently unidentified but represent potential targets for antiviral therapeutics. Here we show that cellular polyamines are critical for EBOV replication. We found that small-molecule inhibitors of polyamine synthesis block gene expression driven by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of the polyamine pathway enzyme spermidine synthase also resulted in reduced EBOV replication. These findings led us to further investigate spermidine, a polyamine that is essential for the hypusination of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). Blocking the hypusination of eIF5A (and thereby inhibiting its function) inhibited both EBOV gene expression and viral replication. The mechanism appears to be due to the importance of hypusinated eIF5A for the accumulation of VP30, an essential component of the viral polymerase. The same reduction in hypusinated eIF5A did not alter the accumulation of other viral polymerase components. This action makes eIF5A function an important gate for proper EBOV polymerase assembly and function through the control of a single virus protein. PMID:27460797

  12. Dissecting Rice Polyamine Metabolism under Controlled Long-Term Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Do, Phuc Thi; Degenkolbe, Thomas; Erban, Alexander; Heyer, Arnd G.; Kopka, Joachim; Köhl, Karin I.; Hincha, Dirk K.; Zuther, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A selection of 21 rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica and japonica) was characterized under moderate long-term drought stress by comprehensive physiological analyses and determination of the contents of polyamines and selected metabolites directly related to polyamine metabolism. To investigate the potential regulation of polyamine biosynthesis at the transcriptional level, the expression of 21 genes encoding enzymes involved in these pathways were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Analysis of the genomic loci revealed that 11 of these genes were located in drought-related QTL regions, in agreement with a proposed role of polyamine metabolism in rice drought tolerance. The cultivars differed widely in their drought tolerance and parameters such as biomass and photosynthetic quantum yield were significantly affected by drought treatment. Under optimal irrigation free putrescine was the predominant polyamine followed by free spermidine and spermine. When exposed to drought putrescine levels decreased markedly and spermine became predominant in all cultivars. There were no correlations between polyamine contents and drought tolerance. GC-MS analysis revealed drought-induced changes of the levels of ornithine/arginine (substrate), substrates of polyamine synthesis, proline, product of a competing pathway and GABA, a potential degradation product. Gene expression analysis indicated that ADC-dependent polyamine biosynthesis responded much more strongly to drought than the ODC-dependent pathway. Nevertheless the fold change in transcript abundance of ODC1 under drought stress was linearly correlated with the drought tolerance of the cultivars. Combining metabolite and gene expression data, we propose a model of the coordinate adjustment of polyamine biosynthesis for the accumulation of spermine under drought conditions. PMID:23577102

  13. Regulation of estrogenic and nuclear factor kappa B functions by polyamines and their role in polyamine analog-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, N; Thomas, T J; Lewis, J S; Klinge, C M; Shirahata, A; Gelinas, C; Thomas, T

    2001-03-29

    The natural polyamines -putrescine, spermidine, and spermine- are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Polyamines are involved in several gene regulatory functions, although their mechanism(s) of action has not been elucidated. We investigated the role of polyamines in the function of NF-kappa B and estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha), two transcription factors implicated in breast cancer cell proliferation and cell survival, using MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We found that spermine facilitated the binding of ER alpha and NF-kappa B to estrogen response element (ERE)- and NF-kappa B response element (NRE), respectively, and enhanced ER alpha-mediated transcriptional activation in transient transfection experiments. We also found that the association of the co-regulatory protein CBP/p300 with ER alpha and NF-kappa B was increased by spermine treatment of MCF-7 cells. Spermine also increased the nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B compared to the control. In contrast, treatment of MCF-7 cells with polyamine analogs, BE-3-4-3 and BE-3-3-3, resulted in transcriptional inhibition of both ERE- and NRE-driven reporter plasmids. In addition, polyamine analogs inhibited the association of ER alpha and NF-kappa B with CBP/p300 and were unable to facilitate nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B. APO-BRDU assay demonstrated that polyamine analogs induced apoptosis, with a loss of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These data show a gene regulatory function of polyamines involving transcriptional activation of ER alpha and NF-kappa B, potentially leading to the up-regulation of genes involved in breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results with BE-3-4-3 and BE-3-3-3 suggest that down-regulation of ER alpha- and NF-kappa B-regulated genes is a possible mechanism for the action of polyamine analogs in inducing apoptosis of breast cancer cells.

  14. Suppression of preneoplastic changes in the intestine of rats fed low levels of polyamines.

    PubMed

    Duranton, B; Nsi-Emvo, E; Schleiffer, R; Gossé, F; Galluser, M; Raul, F

    1997-02-15

    Administration for 7 days of an enteral diet that is naturally deficient in polyamines strikingly reduces the preneoplastic changes observed in the intestines of adult Wistar rats previously treated with the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. On the contrary, supplementing the enteral diet with spermidine favors preneoplastic development. The effects of the low-polyamine diet included a 40% decline in the putrescine content of the intestinal mucosa, a significant decrease in the turnover rate of the epithelial cells from the crypts to villus tip in the ileum, and a 2-fold reduction in the number of abnormal colonic crypts. The experimental data support the view that it might be of interest to control the dietary intake of polyamines in the clinical management of cancer patients.

  15. Methods to evaluate alterations in polyamine metabolism caused by Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Alain P.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria that infects the human stomach of half of the world’s population. Colonization is followed by infiltration of the gastric mucosa by lymphocytes and myeloid cells. These cells are activated by various bacterial factors, causing them to release immune/inflammatory mediators, including reactive nitrogen species and polyamines that contribute to cellular damage and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated gastric cancer. In vitro experiments have revealed that H. pylori induces macrophage polyamine production by upregulation of the arginase 2/ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) metabolic pathway and enhances hydrogen peroxide synthesis through the activity of spermidine oxidase (SMO). In this chapter, we present a survey of the methods used to analyze the induction and the role of the enzymes related to polyamine metabolism, i.e. arginase, ODC, and SMO in H. pylori-infected macrophages. PMID:21318889

  16. The spermidine analogue GC7 (N1-guanyl-1,7-diamineoheptane) induces autophagy through a mechanism not involving the hypusination of eIF5A.

    PubMed

    Oliverio, Serafina; Corazzari, Marco; Sestito, Claudia; Piredda, Lucia; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Piacentini, Mauro

    2014-12-01

    The exogenous administration of spermidine promotes longevity in many model organisms. It has been proposed that this anti-age activity of spermidine is related to this polyamine's ability to promote autophagy. Since spermidine is the substrate for the eIF5A post-translational modification by hypusination, we asked ourselves whether mature eIF5A may represent the link between spermidine and autophagy induction. To test this hypothesis, we inhibited the conversion of native eIF5A by a pharmacological approach, using the N1-guanyl-1,7-diamineoheptane (GC7), a spermidine analogue which competitively and reversibly inhibits deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS). In addition, we also employed genetic approaches by ablating both the eIF5A protein itself and DHS, the rate limiting enzyme catalyzing the conversion of lysine to hypusine. Collectively the data presented in this study demonstrate that the mature eIF5A (hypusinated form) is not involved in the autophagic pathway and that the inhibitor of DHS, GC7, produces off-target effect(s) resulting in marked induction of basal autophagy. These data are relevant in light of the fact that GC7 is considered a potent and selective inhibitor of DHS and is a potential candidate drug for cancer, diabetes and HIV therapy.

  17. A streamlined method for the isolation and quantitation of nanomole levels of exported polyamines in cell culture media.

    PubMed

    Hawel, Leo; Byus, Craig V

    2002-12-15

    A number of years ago, our laboratory published a method for the isolation of small amounts of polyamines from cell culture media using the ion-exchange resin Bio-Rex 70. We have used this technique extensively to study the export of putrescine and cadaverine from cultured mammalian cells. Unfortunately, this method was highly inefficient in isolating the polyamines spermidine and spermine and was incapable of recovering the acetylated polyamine N(1)-acetylspermidine. In response to these shortcomings, we modified our previous protocol to quantitatively isolate the polyamines N(1)-acetylspermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, N(1)-acetylspermine, spermidine, and spermine. The new method, which is much faster to perform and more efficient than the one previously described, employs the use of disposable minicolumns and a single resin washing step using a weak solution of sodium carbonate at pH 9.3. This new protocol also eliminates the column elution step in favor of directly derivatizing the polyamines with dansyl chloride on the ion-exchange resin. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the dansylated polyamines isolated by this procedure showed that 75% of N(1)-acetylspermidine and nearly 100% of the other polyamines present in nanomolar levels were recovered from small amounts of cell culture medium. This new protocol is a valuable new tool for the study of the intracellular/extracellular dynamics of polyamine pools in cultured cells. [A detailed laboratory protocol for this procedure (containing all of the information in this paper but in a condensed form) can be requested by e-mailing the authors.

  18. Structures of Wild-Type and Mutant Human Spermidine/Spermine N1-acetyltransferase, a Potential Therapeutic Drug Target

    SciTech Connect

    Bewley,M.; Graziano, V.; Jiang, J.; Matz, E.; Studier, F.; Pegg, A.; Coleman, C.; Flanagan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Spermidine/spermine N{sup 1}-acetyltransferase (SSAT) is a key enzyme in the control of polyamine levels in human cells, as acetylation of spermidine and spermine triggers export or degradation. Increased intracellular polyamine levels accompany several types of cancers as well as other human diseases, and compounds that affect the expression, activity, or stability of SSAT are being explored as potential therapeutic drugs. We have expressed human SSAT from the cloned cDNA in Escherichia coli and have determined high-resolution structures of wild-type and mutant SSAT, as the free dimer and in binary and ternary complexes with CoA, acetyl-CoA (AcCoA), spermine, and the inhibitor N{sup 1},N{sup 11}-bis-(ethyl)-norspermine (BE-3-3-3). These structures show details of binding sites for cofactor, substrates, and inhibitor and provide a framework to understand enzymatic activity, mutations, and the action of potential drugs. Two dimer conformations were observed: a symmetric form with two open surface channels capable of binding substrate or cofactor, and an asymmetric form in which only one of the surface channels appears capable of binding and acetylating polyamines. SSAT was found to self-acetylate lysine-26 in the presence of AcCoA and absence of substrate, a reaction apparently catalyzed by AcCoA bound in the second channel of the asymmetric dimer. These unexpected and intriguing complexities seem likely to have some as yet undefined role in regulating SSAT activity or stability as a part of polyamine homeostasis. Sequence signatures group SSAT with proteins that appear to have thialysine N{sup {var_epsilon}}-acetyltransferase activity.

  19. Impact of 1-methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere storage on polyamine and 4-aminobutyrate levels in “Empire” apple fruit

    PubMed Central

    Deyman, Kristen L.; Brikis, Carolyne J.; Bozzo, Gale G.; Shelp, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) delays ethylene-meditated ripening of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit during controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 1-MCP and CA storage enhances the levels of polyamines (PAs) and 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) in apple fruit. A 46-week experiment was conducted with “Empire” apple using a split-plot design with four treatment replicates and 3°C, 2.5 kPa O2, and 0.03 or 2.5 kPa CO2 with or without 1 μL L-1 1-MCP. Total PA levels were not elevated by the 1-MCP treatment. Examination of the individual PAs revealed that: (i) total putrescine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP regardless of the CO2 level, and while this was mostly at the expense of free putrescine, large transient increases in soluble conjugated putrescine were also evident; (ii) total spermidine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP, particularly at 2.5 kPa CO2, and this was mostly at the expense of soluble conjugated spermidine; (iii) total spermine levels at 2.5 kPa CO2 tended to be lower with 1-MCP, and this was mostly at the expense of both soluble and insoluble conjugated spermine; and (iv) total spermidine and spermine levels at 0.03 kPa were relatively unaffected, compared to 2.5 kPa CO2, but transient increases in free spermidine and spermine were evident. These findings might be due to changes in the conversion of putrescine into higher PAs and the interconversion of free and conjugated forms in apple fruit, rather than altered S-adenosylmethionine availability. Regardless of 1-MCP and CO2 treatments, the availability of glutamate showed a transient peak initially, probably due to protein degradation, and this was followed by a steady decline over the remainder of the storage period which coincided with linear accumulation of GABA. This pattern has been attributed to the stimulation of glutamate decarboxylase activity and inhibition of GABA catabolism, rather than a contribution of PAs to GABA production. PMID:24782882

  20. Relationships among foliar chemistry, foliar polyamines, and soil chemistry in red spruce trees growing across the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minocha, R.; Shortle, W.C.; Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.; Minocha, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Forest trees are constantly exposed to various types of natural and anthropogenic stressors. A major long-term goal of our research is to develop a set of early physiological and biochemical markers of stress in trees before the appearance of visual symptoms. Six red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands from the northeastern United States were selected for collection of soil and foliage samples. All of the chosen sites had soil solution pH values below 4.0 in the Oa horizon but varied in their geochemistry. Some of these sites were apparently under some form of environmental stress as indicated by a large number of dead and dying red spruce trees. Samples of soil and needles (from apparently healthy red spruce trees) were collected from these sites four times during a two-year period. The needles were analyzed for perchloric acid-soluble polyamines and exchangeable inorganic ions. Soil and soil solution samples from the Oa and B horizons were analyzed for their exchange chemistry. The data showed a strong positive correlation between Ca and Mg concentrations in the needles and in the Oa horizon of the soil. However, needles from trees growing on relatively Ca-rich soils with a low exchangeable Al concentration and a low Al:Ca soil solution ratio had significantly lower concentrations of putrescine and spermidine than those growing on Ca-poor soils with a high exchangeable Al concentration and a high Al:Ca soil solution in the Oa horizon. The magnitude of this change was several fold higher for putrescine concentrations than for spermidine concentrations. Neither putrescine nor spermidine were correlated with soil solution Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations in the B horizon. The putrescine concentrations of the needles always correlated significantly with exchangeable Al (r2=0.73, p???0.05) and still solution Al:Ca ratios (r2=0.91, p???0.01) of the Oa horizon. This suggests that in conjunction with soil chemistry, putrescine and/or spermidine may be used as a potential

  1. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase regulates cell growth and metastasis via AKT/β-catenin signaling pathways in hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Jun; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Tong; Wang, Shasha; Hou, Jiuzhou; Li, Wei; Li, Qian; Li, Jinghua; Dai, Fujun; Fang, Dong; Wang, Chaojie; Xie, Songqiang

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are among the most common cancers across the world. Therefore, identifying the potential molecular mechanisms that promote HCC and CRC progression and metastasis are urgently needed. Spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) is a catabolic enzyme that acetylates the high-order polyamines spermine and spermidine, thus decreasing the cellular content of polyamines. Several publications have suggested that depletion of intracellular polyamines inhibited tumor progression and metastasis in various cancer cells. However, whether and how SSAT regulates cell growth, migration and invasion in hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma cells remains unclear. In this study, depletion of polyamines mediated by SSAT not only attenuated the tumor cell proliferation but also dramatically inhibited cell migration and invasion in hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma cells. Subsequent investigations revealed introduction of SSAT into HepG2, SMMC7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and HCT116 colorectal carcinoma cells significantly suppressed p-AKT, p-GSK3β expression as well as β-catenin nuclear translocation, while inhibition of GSK3β activity or exogenous polyamines could restore SSAT-induced decreases in the protein expression of p-AKT, p-GSK3β and β-catenin. Conversely, knockdown of SSAT in Bel7402 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and HT-29 colorectal carcinoma cells which expressed high levels of SSAT endogenously significantly promoted the expression of p-AKT, p-GSK3β as well as β-catenin nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results indicated depletion of polyamines by SSAT significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion through AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal cancer cells. PMID:27901475

  2. Use of phosphoimidazolide-activated guanosine to investigate the nucleophilicity of spermine and spermidine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Baird, E. E.; Smith, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Guanosine 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG), a labile phosphoimidazolide analog of guanosine triphosphate, was used to test the reactivity of the natural polyamines (PAs), spermine (spm) and spermidine (spd). The products are the guanosine 5'-phosphate-polyamine derivatives (PA-pG: spd-pG and spm-pG) which are quite stable in the range 4 < pH < 11. Our study is the first of which we are aware that reports on the nucleophilicity of these amines. The main findings are as follows. (i) HPLC analysis of the products indicates the formation of only two of the three possible spd products and only one of the two possible spm products. These results can be explained if only the primary amino groups of the two polyamines are reactive, while the secondary amino groups are rendered unreactive by a steric effect. The reactions of 2-MeImpG and other phosphoimidazolide derivatives of nucleosides (ImpNs) with primary and secondary monoamines support this interpretation (Kanavarioti et al. J. Org. Chem. 1995, 60, 632). (ii) The product ratio of the two spd-pG adducts derived from the primary amino groups varies between 2.40 and 0.71 in the range 6.1 < or equal to pH < or equal to 11.9. Such small variation in the product ratio can only be rationalized by the similar, but not identical, basicity of the two primary amino groups and provides strong support for a previously reported model for polyamine ionization (Onasch et. al. Biophys. Chem. 1984, 19, 245). (iii) On the basis of our kinetic determinations conditions at which the nucleophilicity of these amines is at a minimum and at which other interactions with ImpNs could be tested can be chosen.

  3. Spermidine exodus and oxidation in the apoplast induced by abiotic stress is responsible for H2O2 signatures that direct tolerance responses in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Moschou, Panagiotis N; Paschalidis, Konstantinos A; Delis, Ioannis D; Andriopoulou, Athina H; Lagiotis, George D; Yakoumakis, Dimitrios I; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A

    2008-06-01

    Polyamines (PAs) exert a protective effect against stress challenges, but their molecular role in this remains speculative. In order to detect the signaling role of apoplastic PA-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under abiotic stress, we developed a series of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) transgenic plants overexpressing or downregulating apoplastic polyamine oxidase (PAO; S-pao and A-pao plants, respectively) or downregulating S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase (samdc plants). Upon salt stress, plants secreted spermidine (Spd) into the apoplast, where it was oxidized by the apoplastic PAO, generating H2O2. A-pao plants accumulated less H2O2 and exhibited less programmed cell death (PCD) than did wild-type plants, in contrast with S-pao and samdc downregulating plants. Induction of either stress-responsive genes or PCD was dependent on the level of Spd-derived apoplastic H2O2. Thus, in wild-type and A-pao plants, stress-responsive genes were efficiently induced, although in the latter at a lower rate, while S-pao plants, with higher H2O2 levels, failed to accumulate stress-responsive mRNAs, inducing PCD instead. Furthermore, decreasing intracellular PAs, while keeping normal apoplastic Spd oxidation, as in samdc downregulating transgenic plants, caused enhanced salinity-induced PCD. These results reveal that salinity induces the exodus of Spd into the apoplast, where it is catabolized by PAO, producing H2O2. The accumulated H2O2 results in the induction of either tolerance responses or PCD, depending also on the levels of intracellular PAs.

  4. Spermidine Exodus and Oxidation in the Apoplast Induced by Abiotic Stress Is Responsible for H2O2 Signatures That Direct Tolerance Responses in Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Moschou, Panagiotis N.; Paschalidis, Konstantinos A.; Delis, Ioannis D.; Andriopoulou, Athina H.; Lagiotis, George D.; Yakoumakis, Dimitrios I.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.

    2008-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) exert a protective effect against stress challenges, but their molecular role in this remains speculative. In order to detect the signaling role of apoplastic PA-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under abiotic stress, we developed a series of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) transgenic plants overexpressing or downregulating apoplastic polyamine oxidase (PAO; S-pao and A-pao plants, respectively) or downregulating S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase (samdc plants). Upon salt stress, plants secreted spermidine (Spd) into the apoplast, where it was oxidized by the apoplastic PAO, generating H2O2. A-pao plants accumulated less H2O2 and exhibited less programmed cell death (PCD) than did wild-type plants, in contrast with S-pao and samdc downregulating plants. Induction of either stress-responsive genes or PCD was dependent on the level of Spd-derived apoplastic H2O2. Thus, in wild-type and A-pao plants, stress-responsive genes were efficiently induced, although in the latter at a lower rate, while S-pao plants, with higher H2O2 levels, failed to accumulate stress-responsive mRNAs, inducing PCD instead. Furthermore, decreasing intracellular PAs, while keeping normal apoplastic Spd oxidation, as in samdc downregulating transgenic plants, caused enhanced salinity-induced PCD. These results reveal that salinity induces the exodus of Spd into the apoplast, where it is catabolized by PAO, producing H2O2. The accumulated H2O2 results in the induction of either tolerance responses or PCD, depending also on the levels of intracellular PAs. PMID:18577660

  5. Antizyme (AZ) regulates intestinal cell growth independently of polyamines

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ramesh M.; Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Bavaria, Mitul N.; Viar, Mary Jane; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2014-01-01

    Since antizyme (AZ) is known to inhibit cell proliferation and to increase apoptosis, the question arises as to whether these effects occur independently of polyamines. Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were grown in control medium and medium containing 5mM difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) to inhibit ODC, DFMO + 5μM spermidine (SPD), DFMO+ 5μM spermine (SPM), or DFMO+ 10 μM putrescine (PUT) for 4 days and various parameters of growth were measured along with AZ levels. Cell counts were significantly decreased and mean doubling times were significantly increased by DFMO. Putrescine restored growth in the presence of DFMO. However, both SPD and SPM when added with DFMO caused a much greater inhibition of growth than did DFMO alone, and both of these polyamines caused a dramatic increase in AZ. The addition of SPD or SPM to media containing DFMO + PUT significantly inhibited growth and caused a significant increase in AZ. IEC-6 cells transfected with AZ-siRNA grew more than twice as rapidly as either control cells or those incubated with DFMO, indicating that removal of AZ increases growth in cells in which polyamine synthesis is inhibited as well as in control cells. In a separate experiment the addition of SPD increased AZ levels and inhibited growth of cells incubated with DFMO by 50%. The addition of 10 mM asparagine (ASN) prevented the increase in AZ and restored growth to control levels. These results show that cell growth in the presence or absence of ODC activity and in the presence or absence of polyamines depends only on the levels of AZ. Therefore, the effects of AZ on cell growth are independent of polyamines. PMID:24930035

  6. Perturbation of Polyamine Catabolism Can Strongly Affect Root Development and Xylem Differentiation1[W

    PubMed Central

    Tisi, Alessandra; Federico, Rodolfo; Moreno, Sandra; Lucretti, Sergio; Moschou, Panagiotis N.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Spermidine (Spd) treatment inhibited root cell elongation, promoted deposition of phenolics in cell walls of rhizodermis, xylem elements, and vascular parenchyma, and resulted in a higher number of cells resting in G1 and G2 phases in the maize (Zea mays) primary root apex. Furthermore, Spd treatment induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation as well as precocious differentiation and cell death in both early metaxylem and late metaxylem precursors. Treatment with either N-prenylagmatine, a selective inhibitor of polyamine oxidase (PAO) enzyme activity, or N,N1-dimethylthiourea, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, reverted Spd-induced autofluorescence intensification, DNA fragmentation, inhibition of root cell elongation, as well as reduction of percentage of nuclei in S phase. Transmission electron microscopy showed that N-prenylagmatine inhibited the differentiation of the secondary wall of early and late metaxylem elements, and xylem parenchymal cells. Moreover, although root growth and xylem differentiation in antisense PAO tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were unaltered, overexpression of maize PAO (S-ZmPAO) as well as down-regulation of the gene encoding S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase via RNAi in tobacco plants promoted vascular cell differentiation and induced programmed cell death in root cap cells. Furthermore, following Spd treatment in maize and ZmPAO overexpression in tobacco, the in vivo H2O2 production was enhanced in xylem tissues. Overall, our results suggest that, after Spd supply or PAO overexpression, H2O2 derived from polyamine catabolism behaves as a signal for secondary wall deposition and for induction of developmental programmed cell death. PMID:21746808

  7. Effect of end-of-day irradiations on polyamine accumulation in petal cultures of Araujia sericifera.

    PubMed

    Moysset, Luisa; Trull, Olga; Santos, M. Asunción; Simón, Esther; Torné, Josep M

    2002-01-01

    We have studied photoperiodic control and the effect of phytochrome photoconversion at the end-of-day (EOD) on polyamine (PA) accumulation in petal explants of Araujia sericifera. Petals from immature flowers were cultured under long (LD) and short (SD) days. Light was provided by Gro-lux fluorescent lamps (90-100 &mgr;mol m-2 s-1). Red (R), far red (FR), red followed by far-red (R-FR) and far-red followed by red (FR-R) light treatments were applied daily at the end of the photoperiod. The free and bound putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) fractions in petal explants were determined 40 days after the beginning of the culture. We also aimed to clarify the involvement of PA changes by using two inhibitors of PA biosynthesis: D-l-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG). We found PA accumulation to be under photoperiodic control, and the inhibitory effect of DFMA on this accumulation suggests that arginine decarboxylase (ADC) is the major pathway for Put biosynthesis. Polyamine levels were higher under LD, mainly as a result of the accumulation of free and bound Put. FR-EOD treatment, which dramatically reduced the R : FR ratio after LD, increased the accumulation of PA, mainly as free Put and free and bound Spd. Sequential R-FR and FR-R-EOD treatments strongly increased bound Spd. The concentration of MGBG used increased total PA accumulation, mainly as Put. However, all EOD light treatments dramatically reduced Put accumulation in the presence of MGBG. This may be due to a dual role of FR light in PA accumulation: (1) FR per se stimulates PA production, probably via ADC, and (2) in the presence of MGBG, FR inhibits Put accumulation, probably via ethylene production.

  8. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of free and total polyamines in human serum as fluorescamine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kai, M; Ogata, T; Haraguchi, K; Ohkura, Y

    1979-06-11

    A highly sensitive and simple fluorimetric method for the determination of free and total polyamines, spermidine, spermine, putrescine and cadaverine, in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography is described. The polyamines, obtained after clean-up of deproteinized serum by Cellex P column chromatography, are converted to their fluorescamine derivatives in the presence of nickel ion which inhibits the reaction of interfering amines with fluorescamine, and the derivatives are separated simultaneously by reversed-phase chromatography (LiChrosorb RP-18) with a linear gradient elution. The lower limits of detection are 10 and 15 pmole for spermine and the others in 0.5 ml of serum, respectively.

  9. Caenorhabditis elegans P5B-type ATPase CATP-5 operates in polyamine transport and is crucial for norspermidine-mediated suppression of RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Heinick, Alexander; Urban, Katja; Roth, Stefan; Spies, Danica; Nunes, Frank; Phanstiel, Otto; Liebau, Eva; Lüersen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Physiological polyamines are required in various biological processes. In the current study, we used norspermidine, a structural analog of the natural polyamine spermidine, to investigate polyamine uptake in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Norspermidine was found to have two remarkable effects: it is toxic for the nematode, without affecting its food, Escherichia coli; and it hampers RNA interference. By characterizing a norspermidine-resistant C. elegans mutant strain that has been isolated in a genetic screen, we demonstrate that both effects, as well as the uptake of a fluorescent polyamine-conjugate, depend on the transporter protein CATP-5, a novel P5B-type ATPase. To our knowledge, CATP-5 represents the first P5-type ATPase that is associated with the plasma membrane, being expressed in the apical membrane of intestinal cells and the excretory cell. Moreover, genetic interaction studies using C. elegans polyamine synthesis mutants indicate that CATP-5 has a function redundant to polyamine synthesis and link reduced polyamine levels to retarded postembryonic development, reduced brood size, shortened life span, and small body size. We suggest that CATP-5 represents a crucial component of the pharmacologically important polyamine transport system, the molecular nature of which has not been identified so far in metazoa.—Heinick, A., Urban, K., Roth, S., Spies, D., Nunes, F., Phanstiel IV, O., Liebau, E., Lüersen, K. Caenorhabditis elegans P5B-type ATPase CATP-5 operates in polyamine transport and is crucial for norspermidine-mediated suppression of RNA interference. PMID:19762559

  10. Long-term oral polyamine intake increases blood polyamine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Soda, Kuniyasu; Kano, Yoshihiko; Sakuragi, Masako; Takao, Koichi; Lefor, Alan; Konishi, Fumio

    2009-08-01

    Although the intracellular de novo synthesis of the polyamines decreases with age, there is no similar trend in blood polyamine levels, but rather there is wide individual variability. We hypothesized that dietary polyamines attenuate a decrease in blood polyamine levels with age and augment the previously observed individual variability. The effect of a polyamine rich diet, in both mice and humans, on blood polyamine concentrations was examined in this study. Jc1:ICR male mice were fed test diets containing 3 different polyamine concentrations. Healthy human male volunteers added 50 to 100 g of the polyamine-rich fermented soybean product, natto, to their daily intake. After 26 wk, the mean blood spermine concentration in mice receiving the test diet with high polyamine concentrations was 10.1+/-2.4 micromol/L, while the mean concentrations found in mice fed with a diet with normal or low polyamine concentrations were 5.2+/-0.9 and 4.7+/-0.5 micromol/L, respectively (p<0.05). A mean daily intake of 66.4+/-3.7 g (range=46.4-89.3 g) of natto for 2 mo by human volunteers increased the mean blood spermine concentration by a factor of 1.39 (n=10) (p<0.01), while in control volunteers (n=7), asked to exclude polyamine-rich foods from their diet, blood spermine concentration remained unchanged. The individual variability of blood polyamine levels was enhanced after polyamine intake in mice and, to a lesser extent, in humans. The long-term oral intake of enhanced polyamine diets increases blood polyamine levels in both mice and humans.

  11. High Performance Liquid Chromatography of the Dansyl Derivatives of Putrescine, Spermidine, and Spermine 1

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, M. Isabel; Legaz, M. Estrella

    1988-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method, based on dansylation and fluorescence detection, is described for the estimation of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in lichen (Evernia prunastri [L.]) samples. Because of the high concentrations of phenols and salts, dansylation was followed by a pre-HPLC purification step. Both flow rate and mobile phase (methanol:water) followed a gradient for optimum resolution on a reverse-phase column. Amounts as small as 0.3 picomole of standard polyamines could be detected. In applying the method to lichens, it was found that 5.45% (w/w) of the exogenous putrescine taken up by the thallus was unbound in the algal partner and that 60% (w/w) was conjugated in the thallus, perhaps to lichen phenolics. PMID:16666175

  12. High performance liquid chromatography of the dansyl derivatives of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine.

    PubMed

    Escribano, M I; Legaz, M E

    1988-06-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method, based on dansylation and fluorescence detection, is described for the estimation of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in lichen (Evernia prunastri [L.]) samples. Because of the high concentrations of phenols and salts, dansylation was followed by a pre-HPLC purification step. Both flow rate and mobile phase (methanol:water) followed a gradient for optimum resolution on a reverse-phase column. Amounts as small as 0.3 picomole of standard polyamines could be detected. In applying the method to lichens, it was found that 5.45% (w/w) of the exogenous putrescine taken up by the thallus was unbound in the algal partner and that 60% (w/w) was conjugated in the thallus, perhaps to lichen phenolics.

  13. Membrane fusion inducers, chloroquine and spermidine increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection

    SciTech Connect

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Bustos, Israel; Serna, Manuel; Tescucano, Alonso; Alcantara-Farfan, Veronica; Ibanez, Miguel; Montanez, Cecilia; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel

    2010-05-28

    Gene transfection into mammalian cells can be achieved with viral and non-viral vectors. Non-viral vectors, such as cationic lipids that form lipoplexes with DNA, are safer and more stable than viral vectors, but their transfection efficiencies are lower. Here we describe that the simultaneous treatment with a membrane fusion inducer (chlorpromazine or procainamide) plus the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection in human (HEK293 and C-33 A) and rat (PC12) cell lines (up to 9.2-fold), as well as in situ in BALB/c mice spleens and livers (up to 6-fold); and that the polyamine spermidine increases lipoplex-mediated gene transfection and expression in cell cultures. The use of these four drugs provides a novel, safe and relatively inexpensive way to considerably increase lipoplex-mediated gene transfection efficiency.

  14. Expression of an antisense Datura stramonium S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase cDNA in tobacco: changes in enzyme activity, putrescine-spermidine ratio, rhizogenic potential, and response to methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Torrigiani, Patrizia; Scaramagli, Sonia; Ziosi, Vanina; Mayer, Melinda; Biondi, Stefania

    2005-05-01

    S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity (SAMDC; EC 4.1.1.21) leads to spermidine and spermine synthesis through specific synthases which use putrescine, spermidine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine as substrates. In order to better understand the regulation of polyamine (PA), namely spermidine and spermine, biosynthesis, a SAMDC cDNA of Datura stramonium was introduced in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) in antisense orientation under the CaMV 35S promoter, by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and leaf disc transformation. The effect of the genetic manipulation on PA metabolism, ethylene production and plant morphology was analysed in primary transformants (R0), and in the transgenic progeny (second generation, R1) of self-fertilised primary transformants, relative to empty vector-transformed (pBin19) and wild-type (WT) controls. All were maintained in vitro by micropropagation. Primary transformants, which were confirmed by Southern and northern analyses, efficiently transcribed the antisense SAMDC gene, but SAMDC activity and PA titres did not change. By contrast, in most transgenic R1 shoots, SAMDC activity was remarkably lower than in controls, and the putrescine-to-spermidine ratio was altered, mainly due to increased putrescine, even though putrescine oxidising activity (diamine oxidase, EC 1.4.3.6) did not change relative to controls. Despite the reduction in SAMDC activity, the production of ethylene, which shares with PAs the common precursor SAM, was not influenced by the foreign gene. Some plants were transferred to pots and acclimatised in a growth chamber. In these in vivo-grown second generation transgenic plants, at the vegetative stage, SAMDC activity was scarcely reduced, and PA titres did not change. Finally, the rhizogenic potential of in vitro-cultured leaf explants excised from antisense plants was significantly diminished as compared with WT ones, and the response to methyl jasmonate, a stress-mimicking compound, in terms

  15. Correlation of endogenous free polyamine levels with root nodule senescence in different genotypes in Vigna mungo L.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Kajari; Chattopadhyay, Soumen; Ghosh, Bharati

    2004-05-01

    Endogenous free polyamines, nitrogenase (EC 1.1.8.6.1, acetylene reduction), and leghaemoglobin (pyridine-hemochrome assay) levels were compared among five genotypes of developing Vigna root nodules grown under field conditions. Nitrogenase activity and leghaemoglobin level attained a peak at the flowering stage and gradually declined thereafter. Individual and total polyamine also followed the same pattern. Ranking on the basis of legume yield and other morphometric attributes was PDU-2 > UH-28 > UH-82 > T-9 > Sardhomash. Except spermine, the levels of putrescine, spermidine, and total polyamine showed significant differences (p<0.05) amongst the genotypes, particularly from flowering to mid-pod development stage. Genotype, development stage, and their interaction between the two had significant (p<0.01) effects on individual as well as total polyamines. Moreover, significant high linear correlations were found between total free polyamine and putrescine with conventional nodule senescence marker like nitrogenase (R2 = 0.94 and R2 = 0.92, respectively). Putrescine had an overall positive correlation with high legume yield. The results strongly suggest a relationship between polyamine and nodule senescence. Endogenous free polyamine and putrescine may be considered as genotypic markers for nodule senescence in field grown V. mungo. It is suggested that the flowering stage is more suitable for selection.

  16. Ornithine Decarboxylase, Polyamines, and Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Senecio and Crotalaria

    PubMed Central

    Birecka, Helena; Birecki, Mieczyslaw; Cohen, Eric J.; Bitonti, Alan J.; McCann, Peter P.

    1988-01-01

    When tested for ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Senecio riddellii, S. longilobus (Compositae), and Crotalaria retusa (Leguminosae) plants exhibited only ornithine decarboxylase activity. This contrasts with previous studies of four species of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) in which arginine decarboxylase activity was very high relative to that of ornithine decarboxylase. Unlike Heliotropium angiospermum and Heliotropium indicum, in which endogenous arginine was the only detectable precursor of putrescine channeled into pyrrolizidines, in the species studied here—using difluoromethylornithine and difluoromethylarginine as the enzyme inhibitors—endogenous ornithine was the main if not the only precursor of putrescine converted into the alkaloid aminoalcohol moiety. In S. riddellii and C. retusa at flowering, ornithine decarboxylase activity was present mainly in leaves, especially the young ones. However, other very young organs such as inflorescence and growing roots exhibited much lower or very low activities; the enzyme activity in stems was negligible. There was no correlation between the enzyme activity and polyamine or alkaloid content in either species. In both species only free polyamines were detected except for C. retusa roots and inflorescence—with relatively very high levels of these compounds—in which conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were also found; agmatine was not identified by HPLC in any plant organ except for C. retusa roots with rhizobial nodules. Organ- or age-dependent differences in the polyamine levels were small or insignificant. The highest alkaloid contents were found in young leaves and inflorescence. PMID:16665870

  17. Depletion of intracellular polyamines relieves inward rectification of potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Shyng, S L; Sha, Q; Ferrigni, T; Lopatin, A N; Nichols, C G

    1996-10-15

    Two different approaches were used to examine the in vivo role of polyamines in causing inward rectification of potassium channels. In two-microelectrode voltage-clamp experiments, 24-hr incubation of Xenopus oocytes injected with 50 nl of difluoromethylornithine (5 mM) and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (1 mM) caused an approximate doubling of expressed Kir2.1 currents and relieved rectification by causing an approximately +10-mV shift of the voltage at which currents are half-maximally inhibited. Second, a putrescine auxotrophic, ornithine decarboxylase-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (O-CHO) cell line was stably transfected with the cDNA encoding Kir2.3. Withdrawal of putrescine from the medium led to rapid (1-day) loss of the instantaneous phase of Kir2.3 channel activation, consistent with a decline of intracellular putrescine levels. Four days after putrescine withdrawal, macroscopic conductance, assessed using an 86Rb+ flux assay, was approximately doubled, and this corresponded to a +30-mV shift of V1/2 of rectification. With increasing time after putrescine withdrawal, there was an increase in the slowest phase of current activation, corresponding to an increase in the spermine-to-spermidine ratio over time. These results provide direct evidence for a role of each polyamine in induction of rectification, and they further demonstrate that in vivo modulation of rectification is possible by manipulation of polyamine levels using genetic and pharmacological approaches.

  18. Polyamines in relation to growth in carrot cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Fallon, K M; Phillips, R

    1988-09-01

    Changes in polyamine metabolism were investigated in relation to growth of cell suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota, cv Chantenay). Changes in levels of the major amines putrescine and spermidine throughout the culture period correlated poorly with changes in fresh weight, but a closer correlation with the minor component spermine was observed. The arginine decarboxylase (ADC) inhibitor difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) strongly and specifically inhibited ADC activity in the supernatant, reduced the major amine (putrescine) by 95% and the total amine content by 80%. It had no effect on cell number and stimulated fresh weight by over 25% through increased cell expansion. Spermine content, in contrast, increased with DFMA concentration in parallel with fresh weight increases. Difluoromethylornithine strongly inhibited ornithine decarboxylase activity in the pellet, but had little effect on either polyamine levels or culture growth. It was concluded that little evidence for a correlation between free polyamines and cell number in carrot cultures could be detected, but that a possible correlation between spermine content and cell expansion was observed.

  19. Polyamines in Relation to Growth in Carrot Cell Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, Kevin M.; Phillips, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Changes in polyamine metabolism were investigated in relation to growth of cell suspension cultures of carrot (Daucus carota, cv Chantenay). Changes in levels of the major amines putrescine and spermidine throughout the culture period correlated poorly with changes in fresh weight, but a closer correlation with the minor component spermine was observed. The arginine decarboxylase (ADC) inhibitor difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) strongly and specifically inhibited ADC activity in the supernatant, reduced the major amine (putrescine) by 95% and the total amine content by 80%. It had no effect on cell number and stimulated fresh weight by over 25% through increased cell expansion. Spermine content, in contrast, increased with DFMA concentration in parallel with fresh weight increases. Difluoromethylornithine strongly inhibited ornithine decarboxylase activity in the pellet, but had little effect on either polyamine levels or culture growth. It was concluded that little evidence for a correlation between free polyamines and cell number in carrot cultures could be detected, but that a possible correlation between spermine content and cell expansion was observed. PMID:16666271

  20. Correlation between endogenous polyamines in human cardiac tissues and clinical parameters in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Meana, Clara; Rubín, José Manuel; Bordallo, Carmen; Suárez, Lorena; Bordallo, Javier; Sánchez, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Polyamines contribute to several physiological and pathological processes, including cardiac hypertrophy in experimental animals. This involves an increase in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and intracellular polyamines associated with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) increases. The aim of the study was to establish the role of these in the human heart in living patients. For this, polyamines (by high performance liquid chromatography) and the activity of ODC and N(1)-acetylpolyamine oxidases (APAO) were determined in the right atrial appendage of 17 patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation to correlate with clinical parameters. There existed enzymatic activity associated with the homeostasis of polyamines. Left atria size was positively associated with ODC (r = 0.661, P = 0.027) and negatively with APAO-N(1) -acetylspermine (r = -0.769, P = 0.026), suggesting that increased levels of polyamines are associated with left atrial hemodynamic overload. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and heart rate were positively associated with spermidine (r = 0.690, P = 0.003; r = 0.590, P = 0.021) and negatively with N(1)-acetylspermidine (r = -0.554, P = 0.032; r = -0.644, P = 0.018). LVEF was negatively correlated with cAMP levels (r = -0.835, P = 0.001) and with cAMP/ODC (r = -0.794, P = 0.011), cAMP/spermidine (r = -0.813, P = 0.001) and cAMP/spermine (r = -0.747, P = 0.003) ratios. Abnormal LVEF patients showed decreased ODC activity and spermidine, and increased N(1) -acetylspermidine, and cAMP. Spermine decreased in congestive heart failure patients. The trace amine isoamylamine negatively correlated with septal wall thickness (r = -0.634, P = 0.008) and was increased in cardiac heart failure. The results indicated that modifications in polyamine homeostasis might be associated with cardiac function and remodelling. Increased cAMP might have a deleterious effect on function. Further studies should confirm these findings and the involvement of

  1. Molecular Dynamics Insights into Polyamine-DNA Binding Modes: Implications for Cross-Link Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Bignon, Emmanuelle; Chan, Chen-Hui; Morell, Christophe; Monari, Antonio; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Dumont, Elise

    2017-08-16

    Biogenic polyamines, which play a role in DNA condensation and stabilization, are ubiquitous and are found at millimolar concentration in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. The interaction modes of three polyamines-putrescine (Put), spermine (Spm), and spermidine (Spd)-with a self-complementary 16 base pair (bp) duplex, are investigated by all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics. The length of the amine aliphatic chain leads to a change of the interaction mode from minor groove binding to major groove binding. Through all-atom dynamics, noncovalent interactions that stabilize the polyamine-DNA complex and prefigure the reactivity, leading to the low-barrier formation of deleterious DNA-polyamine cross-links, after one-electron oxidation of a guanine nucleobase, are unraveled. The binding strength is quantified from the obtained trajectories by molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area post-processing (MM-GBSA). The values of binding free energies provide the same affinity order, Putpolyamines illustrate the selectivity towards deleterious DNA-polyamine cross-link formation through the extraction of average approaching distances between the C8 atom of guanines and the ammonium group. These results imply that the formation of DNA-polyamine cross-links involves deprotonation of the guanine radical cation to attack the polyamines, which must be positively charged to lie in the vicinity of the B-helix. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A novel polyamine allosteric site of SpeG from Vibrio cholerae is revealed by Its dodecameric structure

    DOE PAGES

    Filippova, Ekaterina V.; Kuhn, Misty L.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; ...

    2015-01-23

    Spermidine N-acetyltransferase, encoded by the gene speG, catalyzes the initial step in the degradation of polyamines and is a critical enzyme for determining the polyamine concentrations in bacteria. In Escherichia coli, studies have shown that SpeG is the enzyme responsible for acetylating spermidine under stress conditions and for preventing spermidine toxicity. Not all bacteria contain speG, and many bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to either acquire or silence it for pathogenesis. Here, we present thorough kinetic analyses combined with structural characterization of the VCA0947 SpeG enzyme from the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Our studies revealed the unexpected presence ofmore » a previously unknown allosteric site and an unusual dodecameric structure for a member of the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily. We show that SpeG forms dodecamers in solution and in crystals and describe its three-dimensional structure in several ligand-free and liganded structures. Importantly, these structural data define the first view of a polyamine bound in an allosteric site of an N-acetyltransferase. Kinetic characterization of SpeG from V. cholerae showed that it acetylates spermidine and spermine. The behavior of this enzyme is complex and exhibits sigmoidal curves and substrate inhibition. We performed a detailed non-linear regression kinetic analysis to simultaneously fit families of substrate saturation curves to uncover a simple kinetic mechanism that explains the apparent complexity of this enzyme. Our results provide a fundamental understanding of the bacterial SpeG enzyme, which will be key toward understanding the regulation of polyamine levels in bacteria during pathogenesis.« less

  3. A novel polyamine allosteric site of SpeG from Vibrio cholerae is revealed by its dodecameric structure

    PubMed Central

    Filippova, Ekaterina V.; Kuhn, Misty L.; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Kiryukhina, Olga; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Ballicora, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Spermidine N-acetyltransferase, encoded by the gene speG, catalyzes the initial step in the degradation of polyamines and is a critical enzyme for determining the polyamine concentrations in bacteria. In Escherichia coli, studies have shown that SpeG is the enzyme responsible for acetylating spermidine under stress conditions and for preventing spermidine toxicity. Not all bacteria contain speG, and many bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to either acquire or silence it for pathogenesis. Here, we present thorough kinetic analyses combined with structural characterization of the VCA0947 SpeG enzyme from the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Our studies revealed the unexpected presence of a previously unknown allosteric site and an unusual dodecameric structure for a member of the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily. We show that SpeG forms dodecamers in solution and in crystals and describe its three-dimensional structure in several ligand-free and liganded structures. Importantly, these structural data define the first view of a polyamine bound in an allosteric site of an N-acetyltransferase. Kinetic characterization of SpeG from V. cholerae showed that it acetylates spermidine and spermine. The behavior of this enzyme is complex and exhibits sigmoidal curves and substrate inhibition. We performed a detailed non-linear regression kinetic analysis to simultaneously fit families of substrate saturation curves to uncover a simple kinetic mechanism that explains the apparent complexity of this enzyme. Our results provide a fundamental understanding of the bacterial SpeG enzyme, which will be key towards understanding the regulation of polyamine levels in bacteria during pathogenesis. PMID:25623305

  4. Antisense expression of carnation cDNA encoding ACC synthase or ACC oxidase enhances polyamine content and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Wi, Soo Jin; Park, Ky Young

    2002-04-30

    The amount of polyamines (such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) increased under environmental stress conditions. We used transgenic technology in an attempt to evaluate their potential for mitigating the adverse effects of several abiotic stresses in plants. Because there is a metabolic competition for S-adenosylmethionine as a precursor between polyamine (PA) and ethylene biosyntheses, it was expected that the antisense-expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes could result in an increase in PA biosynthesis. Antisense constructs of cDNAs for senescence-related 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (CAS) and ACC oxidase (CAO) were isolated from carnation flowers that were introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Several transgenic lines showed higher PA contents than wild-type plants. The number and weight of seeds also increased. Stress-induced senescence was attenuated in these transgenic plants in terms of total chlorophyll loss and phenotypic changes after oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), high salinity, acid stress (pH 3.0), and ABA treatment. These results suggest that the transgenic plants with antisense CAS and CAO cDNAs are more tolerant to abiotic stresses than wild-type plants. This shows a positive correlation between PA content and stress tolerance in plants.

  5. Polyamine oxidase 5 loss-of-function mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana trigger metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming and promote salt stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zarza, Xavier; Atanasov, Kostadin E; Marco, Francisco; Arbona, Vicent; Carrasco, Pedro; Kopka, Joachim; Fotopoulos, Vasileios; Munnik, Teun; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Alcázar, Rubén

    2017-04-01

    The family of polyamine oxidases (PAO) in Arabidopsis (AtPAO1-5) mediates polyamine (PA) back-conversion, which reverses the PA biosynthetic pathway from spermine and its structural isomer thermospermine (tSpm) into spermidine and then putrescine. Here, we have studied the involvement of PA back-conversion in Arabidopsis salinity tolerance. AtPAO5 is the Arabidopsis PAO gene member most transcriptionally induced by salt stress. Two independent loss-of-function mutants (atpao5-2 and atpao5-3) were found to exhibit constitutively higher tSpm levels, with associated increased salt tolerance. Using global transcriptional and metabolomic analyses, the underlying mechanisms were studied. Stimulation of abscisic acid and jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis and accumulation of important compatible solutes, such as sugars, polyols and proline, as well as TCA cycle intermediates were observed in atpao5 mutants under salt stress. Expression analyses indicate that tSpm modulates the transcript levels of several target genes, including many involved in the biosynthesis and signalling of JA, some of which are already known to promote salinity tolerance. Transcriptional modulation by tSpm is isomer-dependent, thus demonstrating the specificity of this response. Overall, we conclude that tSpm triggers metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming that promotes salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

  6. Development of stable isotope dilution assays for the simultaneous quantitation of biogenic amines and polyamines in foods by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Christine M; Schieberle, Peter

    2012-03-28

    Microbial amino acid metabolism may lead to substantial amounts of biogenic amines in either spontaneously fermented or spoiled foods. For products manufactured with starter cultures, it has been suggested that certain strains may produce higher amounts of such amines than others; however, to support efforts of food manufacturers in mitigating amine formation, reliable methods for amine quantitation are needed. Using 10 isotopically labeled biogenic amines as the internal standards, stable isotope dilution assays were developed for the quantitation of 12 biogenic amines and of the 2 polyamines, spermine and spermidine, in one LC-MS/MS run. Application of the method to several foods revealed high concentrations of, for example, tyramine and putrescine in salami and fermented cabbage, whereas histamine was highest in Parmesan cheese and fermented cabbage. On the other hand, ethanolamine was highest in red wine and Parmesan cheese. The results suggest that different amino acid decarboxylases are active in the respective foods depending on the microorganisms present. The polyamine spermine was highest in salami and tuna.

  7. [Statement on polyamines].

    PubMed

    Dandrifosse, G; Deloyer, P; Grandfils, C; Loret, S; Peulen, O; Dandrifosse, A C

    1999-03-01

    Polyamines are ubiquitous substances. Their intracellular concentration is controlled quickly and rigorously by extremely sophisticated systems. It depends on metabolism and cellular permeability. Polyamines act as structural and functional elements in the cell (nucleic acid conformation, cytoskeleton, radioprotection, apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation of cells...). They also play a role in various diseases (origin of food allergy, cancers...). They present a great therapeutic interest (oncology, molecular transfer to cell nucleus, transfer across the blood-brain barrier, parasitosis, effects on NMDA and GABA receptors in the central nervous system...).

  8. Novel protein–protein interaction between spermidine synthase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase from Leishmania donovani

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Arjun K.; Agnihotri, Pragati; Srivastava, Vijay Kumar; Pratap, J. Venkatesh

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • L. donovani spermidine synthase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase have been cloned and purified. • S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase has autocatalytic property. • GST pull down assay shows the two proteins to form a metabolon. • Isothermal titration calorimetry shows that binding was exothermic having K{sub d} value of 0.4 μM. • Interaction confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. - Abstract: Polyamine biosynthesis pathway has long been considered an essential drug target for trypanosomatids including Leishmania. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDc) and spermidine synthase (SpdSyn) are enzymes of this pathway that catalyze successive steps, with the product of the former, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM), acting as an aminopropyl donor for the latter enzyme. Here we have explored the possibility of and identified the protein–protein interaction between SpdSyn and AdoMetDc. The protein–protein interaction has been identified using GST pull down assay. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that the interaction is thermodynamically favorable. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies also confirms the interaction, with SpdSyn exhibiting a change in tertiary structure with increasing concentrations of AdoMetDc. Size exclusion chromatography suggests the presence of the complex as a hetero-oligomer. Taken together, these results suggest that the enzymes indeed form a heteromer. Computational analyses suggest that this complex differs significantly from the corresponding human complex, implying that this complex could be a better therapeutic target than the individual enzymes.

  9. Does polyamine catabolism influence root development and xylem differentiation under stress conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Tisi, Alessandra; Angelini, Riccardo; Cona, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Amine oxidases (AOs) oxidize polyamines (PAs) to aldehydes, simultaneously producing the removed amine moiety and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). AOs, which include copper-containing amine oxidases (CuAOs) and flavin-containing amine oxidases (PAOs), are stress-inducible enzymes involved in both PA homeostasis and H2O2 production. Here, we suggest that H2O2 derived from PAO-mediated PA catabolism has a role in inducing root xylem differentiation during plant stress responses, whereas its involvement in this event during plant development under physiological conditions is not suitably supported by the currently available data. Moreover, we show that spermidine (Spd) supply leads to a higher induction of cell death in wild-type (WT) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants as compared to tobacco plants over-expressing maize (Zea mays) PAO (S-ZmPAO) in the cell wall, in apparent contradiction with the already reported results obtained by the analysis of the corresponding WT and S-ZmPAO Spd-untreated plants. Considering this last observation, we propose that PAs  diversely affect plant development and stress responses depending on the expression levels of AOs, which in turn may lead to different plant responses by altering the PAs/H2O2 balance. PMID:22057326

  10. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on postharvest quality, antioxidant activities, and free polyamines of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunxiao; Liu, Zhenfeng; Su, Yujing; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2011-03-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the quality and antioxidant activity of asparagus stored at 18 ± 2 °C were investigated by analyzing the color, chlorophyll, shear force, and the activity of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and polyamines (PAs). The results showed that SA improved the color and maintained the chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid content of asparagus. High concentrations of SA caused a deterioration in asparagus would harm to color and had no effect on shear force within 6 d. SA induced the maximum concentration of phenolics in postharvest asparagus, promoted the increase in total flavonoids before 6 to 9 d, affected the antioxidant activity positively as indicated by the resultant increase in FRAP concentration; however, SA was only active with regard to DPPH scavenging activity within 6 d of treatment. Spermidine (Spd) is the most common form of PA in asparagus, and free putrescine (Put) contents increased over the first 3 d following harvest and then decreased. Spd and Spm concentrations evolved in a similar way and decreased during storage. Higher Spd and Spm contents in the SA pre-treatment Put was inhabited and its peaks appeared later.

  11. Antagonistic effect of polyamines on ABA-induced suppression of mitosis in Allium cepa L.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Arpana; Sharma, Shashi

    2009-02-01

    Effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and polyamines (PAs) [putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)] on mitosis in root tips of A. cepa was studied. Treatment with ABA (0.1 to 100 microM) for 24 hr suppressed the mitosis, measured as mitotic index (MI), in a concentration-dependent manner with approx. 50% suppression at 10 microM of ABA. Treatment with different PAs (1 to 100 microM) had differential mitosis suppression effect. Spm was most inhibitory followed by Spd and Put, respectively. The higher concentrations of PAs (1 mM Put; 0.1 and 1 mM Spd or Spm) caused cell distortion. Remarkably, a 24 hr pretreatment of root tips with PAs prior to ABA (100 microM) treatment resulted in a general concentration-dependent reversal of ABA-induced suppression of MI. Catalase (CAT) activity in the root tips, an indicator of redox metabolism, increased due to ABA treatment in a concentration-dependent manner, remained unaltered in response to Put and declined due to Spd and Spm (> or = 0.1 mM). However, all PAs, irrespective of their individual effects, generally antagonized the ABA-dependent increase in CAT activity. Data indicate the possibility of ABA-PA interaction in the regulation of mitosis.

  12. Relevance of the Axis Spermidine/eIF5A for Plant Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Belda-Palazón, Borja; Almendáriz, Carla; Martí, Esmeralda; Carbonell, Juan; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    One key role of the essential polyamine spermidine in eukaryotes is to provide the 4-aminobutyl moiety group destined to the post-translational modification of a lysine in the highly conserved translation factor eIF5A. This modification is catalyzed by two sequential enzymatic steps leading to the activation of eIF5A by the conversion of one conserved lysine to the unusual amino acid hypusine. The active translation factor facilitates the sequence-specific translation of polyproline sequences that otherwise cause ribosome stalling. In spite of the well-characterized involvement of active eIF5A in the translation of proline repeat-rich proteins, its biological role has been recently elucidated only in mammals, and it is poorly described at the functional level in plants. Here we describe the alterations in plant growth and development caused by RNAi-mediated conditional genetic inactivation of the hypusination pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana by knocking-down the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase. We have uncovered that spermidine-mediated activation of eIF5A by hypusination is involved in several aspects of plant biology such as the control of flowering time, the aerial and root architecture, and root hair growth. In addition this pathway is required for adaptation to challenging growth conditions such as high salt and high glucose medium and to elevated concentrations of the plant hormone ABA. We have also performed a bioinformatic analysis of polyproline-rich containing proteins as putative eIF5A targets to uncover their organization in clusters of protein networks to find molecular culprits for the disclosed phenotypes. This study represents a first attempt to provide a holistic view of the biological relevance of the spermidine-dependent hypusination pathway for plant growth and development.

  13. Prenatal ethanol exposure modifies [3H]MK-801 binding to NMDA receptors: spermidine and ifenprodil.

    PubMed

    Honse, Yumiko; Randall, Patrick K; Leslie, Steven W

    2003-12-01

    It has been suggested that abnormalities seen in fetal alcohol syndrome are linked with NMDA receptor malfunction. Our laboratory has previously shown that prenatal ethanol treatment decreases [3H]MK-801 binding density at postnatal day 21, when NMDA receptor subunit protein levels were unaltered. Thus, the focus of the present study was to examine whether prenatal ethanol modifies native NMDA receptor levels. Cerebral cortices were taken from offspring born to three treatment groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley(R) rats: an ethanol group given an ethanol liquid diet during the gestational period, a pair-fed control group that received a liquid diet without ethanol, and an ad libitum group fed rat chow and tap water. Western blot studies were carried out at postnatal days 1, 7, 14, and 21 to examine total protein expression of NR1 and NR1b splice variants. NR2 subunit levels were examined by [3H]MK-801 binding studies using spermidine, an endogenous polyamine, and ifenprodil, a selective NR2B antagonist. [3H]MK-801 binding density was significantly reduced in prenatal ethanol-treated groups compared with ad libitum and pair-fed control groups. Spermidine increased [3H]MK-801 binding, although potentiation by spermidine was not significantly different among all three experimental groups. Furthermore, no significant differences in total protein expression of NR1 or NR1b splice variants were observed in cortical membrane homogenates at postnatal days 1 through 21. [3H]MK-801 binding in the presence of ifenprodil showed that prenatal ethanol treatment significantly decreased low-affinity ifenprodil binding. High-affinity ifenprodil binding was reduced in both pair-fed and ethanol-treated groups. These results suggest that prenatal ethanol treatment reduces [3H]MK-801 binding and that this reduction may be due to a decrease in NR2A subunits.

  14. Relevance of the Axis Spermidine/eIF5A for Plant Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Belda-Palazón, Borja; Almendáriz, Carla; Martí, Esmeralda; Carbonell, Juan; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    One key role of the essential polyamine spermidine in eukaryotes is to provide the 4-aminobutyl moiety group destined to the post-translational modification of a lysine in the highly conserved translation factor eIF5A. This modification is catalyzed by two sequential enzymatic steps leading to the activation of eIF5A by the conversion of one conserved lysine to the unusual amino acid hypusine. The active translation factor facilitates the sequence-specific translation of polyproline sequences that otherwise cause ribosome stalling. In spite of the well-characterized involvement of active eIF5A in the translation of proline repeat-rich proteins, its biological role has been recently elucidated only in mammals, and it is poorly described at the functional level in plants. Here we describe the alterations in plant growth and development caused by RNAi-mediated conditional genetic inactivation of the hypusination pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana by knocking-down the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase. We have uncovered that spermidine-mediated activation of eIF5A by hypusination is involved in several aspects of plant biology such as the control of flowering time, the aerial and root architecture, and root hair growth. In addition this pathway is required for adaptation to challenging growth conditions such as high salt and high glucose medium and to elevated concentrations of the plant hormone ABA. We have also performed a bioinformatic analysis of polyproline-rich containing proteins as putative eIF5A targets to uncover their organization in clusters of protein networks to find molecular culprits for the disclosed phenotypes. This study represents a first attempt to provide a holistic view of the biological relevance of the spermidine-dependent hypusination pathway for plant growth and development. PMID:26973686

  15. Three-dimensional structures of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase with bound inhibitors suggest new strategies for drug design

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Janina; Svensson, Bo; Hålander, Jenny; Carey, Jannette; Persson, Lo; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

    2015-01-01

    The enzymes of the polyamine-biosynthesis pathway have been proposed to be promising drug targets in the treatment of malaria. Spermidine synthase (SpdS; putrescine aminopropyltransferase) catalyzes the transfer of the aminopropyl moiety from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine, leading to the formation of spermidine and 5′-methylthio­adenosine (MTA). In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of SpdS from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). Five crystal structures were determined of PfSpdS in complex with MTA and the substrate putrescine, with MTA and spermidine, which was obtained as a result of the enzymatic reaction taking place within the crystals, with dcAdoMet and the inhibitor 4-methylaniline, with MTA and 4-aminomethyl­aniline, and with a compound predicted in earlier in silico screening to bind to the active site of the enzyme, benzimidazol-(2-yl)pentan-1-amine (BIPA). In contrast to the other inhibitors tested, the complex with BIPA was obtained without any ligand bound to the dcAdoMet-binding site of the enzyme. The complexes with the aniline compounds and BIPA revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PfSpdS. The observed binding mode of the ligands, and the interplay between the two substrate-binding sites and the flexible gatekeeper loop, can be used in the design of new approaches in the search for new inhibitors of SpdS. PMID:25760598

  16. 3-Aminooxy-1-Aminopropane and Derivatives Have an Antiproliferative Effect on Cultured Plasmodium falciparum by Decreasing Intracellular Polyamine Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Das Gupta, Robin; Krause-Ihle, Tanja; Bergmann, Bärbel; Müller, Ingrid B.; Khomutov, Alex R.; Müller, Sylke; Walter, Rolf D.; Lüersen, Kai

    2005-01-01

    The intraerythrocytic development of Plasmodium falciparum correlates with increasing levels of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in the infected red blood cells; and compartmental analyses revealed that the majority is associated with the parasite. Since depletion of cellular polyamines is a promising strategy for inhibition of parasite proliferation, new inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis were tested for their antimalarial activities. The ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) inhibitor 3-aminooxy-1-aminopropane (APA) and its derivatives CGP 52622A and CGP 54169A as well as the S-adenosylmethionine decarboxlyase (AdoMetDC) inhibitors CGP 40215A and CGP 48664A potently affected the bifunctional P. falciparum ODC-AdoMetDC, with Ki values in the low nanomolar and low micromolar ranges, respectively. Furthermore, the agents were examined for their in vitro plasmodicidal activities in 48-h incubation assays. APA, CGP 52622A, CGP 54169A, and CGP 40215A were the most effective, with 50% inhibitory concentrations below 3 μM. While the effects of the ODC inhibitors were completely abolished by the addition of putrescine, growth inhibition by the AdoMetDC inhibitor CGP 40215A could not be antagonized by putrescine or spermidine. Moreover, CGP 40215A did not affect the cellular polyamine levels, indicating a mechanism of action against P. falciparum independent of polyamine synthesis. In contrast, the ODC inhibitors led to decreased cellular putrescine and spermidine levels in P. falciparum, supporting the fact that they exert their antimalarial activities by inhibition of the bifunctional ODC-AdoMetDC. PMID:15980361

  17. Involvement of potD in Streptococcus pneumoniae Polyamine Transport and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ware, D.; Jiang, Y.; Lin, W.; Swiatlo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Polyamines such as putrescine, spermidine, and cadaverine are small, polycationic molecules that are required for optimal growth in all cells. The intracellular concentrations of these molecules are maintained by de novo synthesis and transport pathways. The human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae possesses a putative polyamine transporter (pot) operon that consists of the four pot-specific genes potABCD. The studies presented here examined the involvement of potD in polyamine transport and in pneumococcal pathogenesis. A potD-deficient mutant was created in the mouse-virulent serotype 3 strain WU2 by insertion duplication mutagenesis. The growth of the WU2ΔpotD mutant was identical to that of the wild-type strain WU2 in vitro in rich media. However, WU2ΔpotD possessed severely delayed growth compared to wild-type WU2 in the presence of the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors DFMO (α-dimethyl-fluroornitithine) and MGBG [methylgloxal-bis (guanyl hydrazone)]. The mutant strain also showed a significant attenuation in virulence within murine models of systemic and pulmonary infection regardless of the inoculation route or location. These data suggest that potD is involved in pneumococcal polyamine transport and is important for pathogenesis within various infection models. PMID:16368990

  18. Interaction between Polyamines and Bacterial Outer Membranes as Investigated with Ion-Selective Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Katsu, Takashi; Nakagawa, Hideki; Yasuda, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the interaction between polyamines and the outer membrane of Escherichia coli cells using potentiometric measurements with Ca2+, tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+), and K+ electrodes. The Ca2+ electrode was used to examine the ability of the polyamines to release Ca2+ from the outer membrane. The TPP+ electrode was used to examine the ability to permeabilize the outer membrane, since the uptake of TPP+ was enhanced when the permeability barrier of the outer membrane was disrupted. The K+ electrode was used to examine permeabilization in the cytoplasmic membrane by monitoring the efflux of K+ in cytosol. Although Ca2+ release was remarkably enhanced by increasing the number of amino groups in polyamines, no TPP+ uptake was observed with polyamines of a simple structure, such as ethylenediamine, spermidine, and spermine. TPP+ uptake was observed when appropriate lipophilic moieties were further attached to the polyamines with three or four amino groups, indicating that the existence of bulky moieties as well as the number of amino groups is important to induce outer membrane permeabilization. Thus, 1-naphthylacetylspermine and N,N′-bis[6-[[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]amino]hexyl]-1,8-octanediamine (methoctramine) were especially effective in increasing the permeability of the outer membrane of E. coli cells, being comparable to polymyxin B nonapeptide, a well-known cationic peptide showing such action. PMID:11897592

  19. Intrahepatic polyamine levels during rat liver carcinogenesis induced by N-2-fluorenylacetamide.

    PubMed

    Milano, G; Aussel, C; Stora, C; Lafaurie, M; Soula, G; Lalanne, C M

    1981-01-01

    During a period of 200 days, the chronological changes of polyamine levels (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were observed in the liver of adult female Sprague Dawley rats submitted to hepatocarcinogenesis by N-2-fluorenylacetamide (FAA). Three groups of 70 rats each were used: (1) Control 1: normal diet; (2) Control 2: low protein and low riboflavin diet; and (3) EXPERIMENTAL: 0.06% FAA added to the diet. No significant differences were noted for tissue levels of the three polyamines when the two control groups were compared. In contrast, considerable variations of these molecules were observed as a function of time in the FAA treated group: (a) an early and constant rise was seen in putrescine, with 3 maxima at days 10, 60 and 150. This last peak was the highest: 25 +/- 6 nmol/g (8 times the value for the controls at this time), and coincided with the appearance of cancerous lesions. (b) While spermidine levels varied during the experiment, no significant differences were noted in comparison with the control groups. Mean levels (nmol/g) were: 535 +/- 108 Control 1; 552 +/- 95 Control 2; 633 +/- 160 FAA-treated group. (c) Spermine levels were significantly lowered, with 3 minima corresponding to the putrescine maxima. The lowest minima was observed on day 60: 114 +/- 67 nmol/g, i.e., 4 times lower than the controls. This work shows that polyamine metabolism is profoundly modified during chemical carcinogenesis, but the possible effect of polyamines on tumorigenesis itself cannot be assessed at this point since modifications of polyamine levels are probably also associated with phenomena of liver necrosis and compensatory tissue proliferation observed during the experiment.

  20. Spermidine affects the transcriptome responses to high temperature stress in ripening tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lin; Sun, Rong-rong; Wang, Fei-yan; Peng, Zhen; Kong, Fu-ling; Wu, Jian; Cao, Jia-shu; Lu, Gang

    2012-04-01

    High temperature adversely affects quality and yield of tomato fruit. Polyamine can alleviate heat injury in plants. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of polyamine and high temperature on transcriptional profiles in ripening tomato fruit. An Affymetrix tomato microarray was used to evaluate changes in gene expression in response to exogenous spermidine (Spd, 1 mmol/L) and high temperature (33/27 °C) treatments in tomato fruits at mature green stage. Of the 10101 tomato probe sets represented on the array, 127 loci were differentially expressed in high temperature-treated fruits, compared with those under normal conditions, functionally characterized by their involvement in signal transduction, defense responses, oxidation reduction, and hormone responses. However, only 34 genes were up-regulated in Spd-treated fruits as compared with non-treated fruits, which were involved in primary metabolism, signal transduction, hormone responses, transcription factors, and stress responses. Meanwhile, 55 genes involved in energy metabolism, cell wall metabolism, and photosynthesis were down-regulated in Spd-treated fruits. Our results demonstrated that Spd might play an important role in regulation of tomato fruit response to high temperature during ripening stage.

  1. Role of dietary polyamines in a phase III clinical trial of difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and sulindac for prevention of sporadic colorectal adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Raj, K P; Zell, J A; Rock, C L; McLaren, C E; Zoumas-Morse, C; Gerner, E W; Meyskens, F L

    2013-01-01

    Background: The polyamine-inhibitory regimen difluoromethylornithine (DFMO)+sulindac has marked efficacy in preventing metachronous colorectal adenomas. Polyamines are synthesised endogenously and obtained from dietary sources. Here we investigate dietary polyamine intake and outcomes in the DFMO+sulindac colorectal adenoma prevention trial. Methods: Dietary polyamine data were available for 188 of 267 patients completing the study. Total dietary polyamine content was derived by the sum of dietary putrescine, spermine and spermidine values and categorised into two groups: highest (>75–100%) vs the lower three quartiles (0–25, 25–50 and 50–75%). Baseline tissue polyamine concentration and ODC1 genotype were determined. Logistic regression models were used for risk estimation. Results: A significant interaction was detected between dietary polyamine group and treatment with regard to adenoma recurrence (P=0.012). Significant metachronous adenoma risk reduction was observed after DFMO+sulindac treatment in dietary polyamine quartiles 1–3 (risk ratio (RR) 0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08–0.42; P<0.0001) but not in quartile 4 (RR 1.51; 95% CI 0.53–4.29; P=0.44). However, a lower number of events in the placebo group within dietary quartile 4 confound the aforementioned risk estimates. Conclusion: These preliminary findings reveal complex relationships between diet and therapeutic prevention, and they support further clinical trial-based investigations where the dietary intervention itself is controlled. PMID:23340449

  2. Caenorhabditis elegans P5B-type ATPase CATP-5 operates in polyamine transport and is crucial for norspermidine-mediated suppression of RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Heinick, Alexander; Urban, Katja; Roth, Stefan; Spies, Danica; Nunes, Frank; Phanstiel, Otto; Liebau, Eva; Lüersen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Physiological polyamines are required in various biological processes. In the current study, we used norspermidine, a structural analog of the natural polyamine spermidine, to investigate polyamine uptake in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Norspermidine was found to have two remarkable effects: it is toxic for the nematode, without affecting its food, Escherichia coli; and it hampers RNA interference. By characterizing a norspermidine-resistant C. elegans mutant strain that has been isolated in a genetic screen, we demonstrate that both effects, as well as the uptake of a fluorescent polyamine-conjugate, depend on the transporter protein CATP-5, a novel P(5B)-type ATPase. To our knowledge, CATP-5 represents the first P(5)-type ATPase that is associated with the plasma membrane, being expressed in the apical membrane of intestinal cells and the excretory cell. Moreover, genetic interaction studies using C. elegans polyamine synthesis mutants indicate that CATP-5 has a function redundant to polyamine synthesis and link reduced polyamine levels to retarded postembryonic development, reduced brood size, shortened life span, and small body size. We suggest that CATP-5 represents a crucial component of the pharmacologically important polyamine transport system, the molecular nature of which has not been identified so far in metazoa.

  3. Abscisic acid has contrasting effects on salt excretion and polyamine concentrations of an inland and a coastal population of the Mediterranean xero-halophyte species Atriplex halimus

    PubMed Central

    Ben Hassine, A.; Ghanem, M. E.; Bouzid, S.; Lutts, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Different populations of the Mediterranean xerohalophyte species Atriplex halimus exhibit different levels of resistance to salt and osmotic stress depending on the nature of the osmocompatible solute they accumulate. There is, however, no conclusive description of the involvement of abscisic acid (ABA) in the plant response to NaCl or osmotic stress in this species. Methods Seedlings issued from an inland water-stress-resistant population (Sbikha) and from a coastal salt-resistant one (Monastir) were exposed in nutrient solutions to NaCl (40 or 160 mm) or to 15 % PEG for 1 d and 10 d in the presence or absence of 50 µm ABA. Key Results Plants from Sbikha accumulated higher amounts of ABA in response to osmotic stress than those of Monastir, while an opposite trend was recorded for NaCl exposure. Exogenous ABA improved osmotic stress resistance in Monastir through an improvement in the efficiency of stomatal conductance regulation. It also improved NaCl resistance in Sbikha through an increase in sodium excretion through the external bladders. It is suggested that polyamines (spermidine and spermine) are involved in the salt excretion process and that ABA contributes to polyamine synthesis as well as to the conversion from the bound and conjugated to the free soluble forms of polyamine. Proline accumulated in response to osmotic stress and slightly increased in response to ABA treatment while glycinebetaine accumulated in response to salinity and was not influenced by ABA. Conclusions It is concluded that ABA is involved in both salt and osmotic stress resistance in the xerohalophyte species Atriplex halimus but that it acts on different physiological cues in response to those distinct environmental constraints. PMID:19666900

  4. Independent evolutionary origins of functional polyamine biosynthetic enzyme fusions catalyzing de novo diamine to triamine formation

    PubMed Central

    Green, Robert; Hanfrey, Colin C.; Elliott, Katherine A.; McCloskey, Diane E.; Wang, Xiaojing; Kanugula, Sreenivas; Pegg, Anthony E.; Michael, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We have identified gene fusions of polyamine biosynthetic enzymes S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC, speD) and aminopropyltransferase (speE) orthologues in diverse bacterial phyla. Both domains are functionally active and we demonstrate the novel de novo synthesis of the triamine spermidine from the diamine putrescine by fusion enzymes from β-proteobacterium Delftia acidovorans and δ-proteobacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus, in a ΔspeDE gene deletion strain of Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium. Fusion proteins from marine α-proteobacterium Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique, actinobacterium Nocardia farcinica, chlorobi species Chloroherpeton thalassium, and β-proteobacterium Delftia acidovorans each produce a different profile of non-native polyamines including sym-norspermidine when expressed in Escherichia coli. The different aminopropyltransferase activities together with phylogenetic analysis confirm independent evolutionary origins for some fusions. Comparative genomic analysis strongly indicates that gene fusions arose by merger of adjacent open reading frames. Independent fusion events, and horizontal and vertical gene transfer contributed to the scattered phyletic distribution of the gene fusions. Surprisingly, expression of fusion genes in E. coli and S. Typhimurium revealed novel latent spermidine catabolic activity producing non-native 1,3-diaminopropane in these species. We have also identified fusions of polyamine biosynthetic enzymes agmatine deiminase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase in archaea, and of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and ornithine decarboxylase in the single-celled green alga Micromonas. PMID:21762220

  5. Identification and assays of polyamine transport systems in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2011-01-01

    Polyamine content in cells is regulated by biosynthesis, degradation, and transport. With regard to transport, uptake and excretion proteins exist in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In E. coli, the uptake systems comprise a spermidine-preferential uptake system consisting of the PotA, B, C, and D proteins, and a putrescine-specific uptake system consisting of the PotF, G, H, and I proteins. Two other proteins, PotE and CadB, each containing 12 transmembrane segments, function as antiporters (putrescine-ornithine and cadaverine-lysine) and are important for cell growth at acidic pH. MdtJI was identified as a spermidine excretion system. When putrescine was used as energy source, PuuP functioned as a putrescine transporter. In S. cerevisiae, DUR3 and SAM3, containing 16 or 12 transmembrane segments, are the major polyamine uptake proteins, whereas TPO1 and TPO5, containing 12 transmembrane segments, are the major polyamine excretion proteins, and UGA4 is a putrescine transporter on the vacuolar membrane. The activities of DUR3 and TPO1 are regulated by phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues. The identification and assay procedures of these transporters are described in this chapter.

  6. Profiling brain expression of the spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1) gene in suicide.

    PubMed

    Klempan, Timothy A; Rujescu, Dan; Mérette, Chantal; Himmelman, Carla; Sequeira, Adolfo; Canetti, Lilian; Fiori, Laura M; Schneider, Barbara; Bureau, Alexandre; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-10-05

    Altered stress reactivity is considered to be a risk factor for both major depressive disorder and suicidal behavior. The authors have sought to expand their previous findings implicating altered expression of spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1 (SAT1), the rate-limiting enzyme involved in catabolism of the polyamines spermidine and spermine in the polyamine stress response (PSR), across multiple brain regions between control individuals and depressed individuals who have died by suicide. Microarray expression of probesets annotated to SAT1 were examined across 17 brain regions in 13 controls and 26 individuals who have died by suicide (16 with a diagnosis of major depression and 10 without), all of French-Canadian origin. Profiling conducted on the Affymetrix U133A/B chipset was further examined on a second chipset (U133 Plus 2.0) using RT-PCR, and analyzed in a second, independent sample. A reduction in SAT1 expression identified through multiple probesets was observed across 12 cortical regions in depressed individuals who have died by suicide compared with controls. Of these, five cortical regions showed statistically significant reductions which were supported by RT-PCR and analysis on the additional chipset. SAT1 cortical expression levels were also found to be significantly lower in an independent sample of German subjects with major depression who died by suicide in comparison with controls. These findings suggest that downregulation of SAT1 expression may play a role in depression and suicidality, possibly by impeding the normal PSR program or through compensation for the increased polyamine metabolism accompanying the psychological distress associated with depressive disorders.

  7. Polyamine depletion inhibits the autophagic response modulating Trypanosoma cruzi infectivity.

    PubMed

    Vanrell, María C; Cueto, Juan A; Barclay, Jeremías J; Carrillo, Carolina; Colombo, María I; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Romano, Patricia S

    2013-07-01

    Autophagy is a cell process that in normal conditions serves to recycle cytoplasmic components and aged or damaged organelles. The autophagic pathway has been implicated in many physiological and pathological situations, even during the course of infection by intracellular pathogens. Many compounds are currently used to positively or negatively modulate the autophagic response. Recently it was demonstrated that the polyamine spermidine is a physiological inducer of autophagy in eukaryotic cells. We have previously shown that the etiological agent of Chagas disease, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, interacts with autophagic compartments during host cell invasion and that preactivation of autophagy significantly increases host cell colonization by this parasite. In the present report we have analyzed the effect of polyamine depletion on the autophagic response of the host cell and on T. cruzi infectivity. Our data showed that depleting intracellular polyamines by inhibiting the biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) suppressed the induction of autophagy in response to starvation or rapamycin treatment in two cell lines. This effect was associated with a decrease in the levels of LC3 and ATG5, two proteins required for autophagosome formation. As a consequence of inhibiting host cell autophagy, DFMO impaired T. cruzi colonization, indicating that polyamines and autophagy facilitate parasite infection. Thus, our results point to DFMO as a novel autophagy inhibitor. While other autophagy inhibitors such as wortmannin and 3-methyladenine are nonspecific and potentially toxic, DFMO is an FDA-approved drug that may have value in limiting autophagy and the spread of the infection in Chagas disease and possibly other pathological settings.

  8. Polyamine depletion inhibits the autophagic response modulating Trypanosoma cruzi infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Vanrell, María C.; Cueto, Juan A.; Barclay, Jeremías J.; Carrillo, Carolina; Colombo, María I.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Romano, Patricia S.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a cell process that in normal conditions serves to recycle cytoplasmic components and aged or damaged organelles. The autophagic pathway has been implicated in many physiological and pathological situations, even during the course of infection by intracellular pathogens. Many compounds are currently used to positively or negatively modulate the autophagic response. Recently it was demonstrated that the polyamine spermidine is a physiological inducer of autophagy in eukaryotic cells. We have previously shown that the etiological agent of Chagas disease, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, interacts with autophagic compartments during host cell invasion and that preactivation of autophagy significantly increases host cell colonization by this parasite. In the present report we have analyzed the effect of polyamine depletion on the autophagic response of the host cell and on T. cruzi infectivity. Our data showed that depleting intracellular polyamines by inhibiting the biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) suppressed the induction of autophagy in response to starvation or rapamycin treatment in two cell lines. This effect was associated with a decrease in the levels of LC3 and ATG5, two proteins required for autophagosome formation. As a consequence of inhibiting host cell autophagy, DFMO impaired T. cruzi colonization, indicating that polyamines and autophagy facilitate parasite infection. Thus, our results point to DFMO as a novel autophagy inhibitor. While other autophagy inhibitors such as wortmannin and 3-methyladenine are nonspecific and potentially toxic, DFMO is an FDA-approved drug that may have value in limiting autophagy and the spread of the infection in Chagas disease and possibly other pathological settings. PMID:23697944

  9. Multifactor Regulation of the MdtJI Polyamine Transporter in Shigella

    PubMed Central

    Leuzzi, Adriano; Di Martino, Maria Letizia; Campilongo, Rosaria; Falconi, Maurizio; Barbagallo, Marialuisa; Marcocci, Lucia; Pietrangeli, Paola; Casalino, Mariassunta; Grossi, Milena; Micheli, Gioacchino; Colonna, Bianca; Prosseda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The polyamine profile of Shigella, the etiological agent of bacillary dysentery in humans, differs markedly from that of E. coli, its innocuous commensal ancestor. Pathoadaptive mutations such as the loss of cadaverine and the increase of spermidine favour the full expression of the virulent phenotype of Shigella. Spermidine levels affect the expression of the MdtJI complex, a recently identified efflux pump belonging to the small multi-drug resistance family of transporters. In the present study, we have addressed the regulation of the mdtJI operon in Shigella by asking which factors influence its expression as compared to E. coli. In particular, after identifying the mdtJI promoter by primer extension analysis, in vivo transcription assays and gel-retardation experiments were carried out to get insight on the silencing of mdtJI in E. coli. The results indicate that H-NS, a major nucleoid protein, plays a key role in repressing the mdtJI operon by direct binding to the regulatory region. In the Shigella background mdtJI expression is increased by the high levels of spermidine typically found in this microorganism and by VirF, the plasmid-encoded regulator of the Shigella virulence regulatory cascade. We also show that the expression of mdtJI is stimulated by bile components. Functional analyses reveal that MdtJI is able to promote the excretion of putrescine, the spermidine precursor. This leads us to consider the MdtJI complex as a possible safety valve allowing Shigella to maintain spermidine to a level optimally suited to survival within infected macrophages and, at the same time, prevent toxicity due to spermidine over-accumulation. PMID:26313003

  10. The polyamine oxidase from lycophyte Selaginella lepidophylla (SelPAO5), unlike that of angiosperms, back-converts thermospermine to norspermidine.

    PubMed

    Sagor, G H M; Inoue, Masataka; Kim, Dong Wook; Kojima, Seiji; Niitsu, Masaru; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2015-10-07

    In the phylogeny of plant polyamine oxidases (PAOs), clade III members from angiosperms, such as Arabidopsis thaliana PAO5 and Oryza sativa PAO1, prefer spermine and thermospermine as substrates and back-convert both of these substrates to spermidine in vitro. A clade III representative of lycophytes, SelPAO5 from Selaginella lepidophylla, also prefers spermine and thermospermine but instead back-converts these substrates to spermidine and norspermidine, respectively. This finding indicates that the clade III PAOs of lycophytes and angiosperms oxidize thermospermine at different carbon positions. We discuss the physiological significance of this difference.

  11. Occurrence of polyamines in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in symbiosis with Rhizobium tropici in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    López-Gómez, Miguel; Cobos-Porras, Libertad; Hidalgo-Castellanos, Javier; Lluch, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Polyamines (PAs) are low molecular weight aliphatic compounds that have been shown to be an important part of plant responses to salt stress. For that reason in this work we have investigated the involvement of PAs in the response to salt stress in root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in symbiosis with Rhizobium tropici. The level and variety of PAs was higher in nodules, compared to leaves and roots, and in addition to the common PAs (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) we found homospermidine (Homspd) as the most abundant polyamine in nodules. UPLC-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of 4-aminobutylcadaverine (4-ABcad), only described in nodules of Vigna angularis before. Indeed, the analysis of different nodular fractions revealed higher level of 4-ABcad, as well as Homspd, in bacteroids which indicate the production of these PAs by the bacteria in symbiosis. The genes involved in PAs biosynthesis in nodules displayed an induction under salt stress conditions which was not consistent with the decline of free PAs levels, probably due to the nitrogen limitations provoked by the nitrogenase activity depletion and/or the conversion of free PAs to theirs soluble conjugated forms, that seems to be one of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PAs levels. On the contrary, cadaverine (Cad) and 4-ABcad concentrations augmented by the salinity, which might be due to their involvement in the response of bacteroids to hyper-osmotic conditions. In conclusion, the results shown in this work suggest the alteration of the bacteroidal metabolism towards the production of uncommon PAs such as 4-ABcad in the response to salt stress in legume root nodules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. N4-Hexanoylspermidine, a New Polyamine-Related Compound That Accumulates during Ovary and Petal Senescence in Pea.

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Amador, M. A.; Carbonell, J.; Navarro, J. L.; Moritz, T.; Beale, M. H.; Lewis, M. J.; Hedden, P.

    1996-01-01

    A previously unknown polyamine conjugate that accumulates in senescing ovaries of pea (Pisum sativum L.) was shown by mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and chemical synthesis to be N4-hexanoylspermidine (hexanoyl-spd) This structure was indicated by analysis of the dansylated polyamine using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, following purification by high-performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, acid hydrolysis of the compound yielded spermidine and hexanoic acid. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that spermidine was substituted at N4 in the conjugate. Hexanoyl-spd was synthesized, and its didansyl derivative was shown to have an identical mass spectrum and high-performance liquid chromatography retention time as the derivatized natural compound. Further confirmation of its structure was obtained by comparison of the synthetic and natural polyamines as trifluoroacetyl derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This new polyamine conjugate is present in pea ovaries at low levels at anthesis and its concentration remains low in developing seeded fruit or in parthenocarpic fruit that have been induced by application of growth regulators to emasculated flowers or by topping the plant. Conjugate levels are also low in parthenocarpic fruit induced naturally in the slender (la crys) mutant. However, levels of hexanoyl-spd increase progressively in senescing petals and ovaries, beginning at anthesis or 2 d later, respectively. PMID:12226251

  13. Inhibition of Polyamine Biosynthesis Is a Broad-Spectrum Strategy against RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mounce, Bryan C.; Cesaro, Teresa; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Hooikaas, Peter Jan; Yakovleva, Anna; Werneke, Scott W.; Smith, Everett Clinton; Poirier, Enzo Z.; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Prot, Matthieu; Tamietti, Carole; Vitry, Sandrine; Volle, Romain; Khou, Cécile; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Delpeyroux, Francis; Pardigon, Nathalie; Flamand, Marie; Barba-Spaeth, Giovanna; Lafon, Monique; Denison, Mark R.; Albert, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA viruses present an extraordinary threat to human health, given their sudden and unpredictable appearance, the potential for rapid spread among the human population, and their ability to evolve resistance to antiviral therapies. The recent emergence of chikungunya virus, Zika virus, and Ebola virus highlights the struggles to contain outbreaks. A significant hurdle is the availability of antivirals to treat the infected or protect at-risk populations. While several compounds show promise in vitro and in vivo, these outbreaks underscore the need to accelerate drug discovery. The replication of several viruses has been described to rely on host polyamines, small and abundant positively charged molecules found in the cell. Here, we describe the antiviral effects of two molecules that alter polyamine levels: difluoromethylornithine (DFMO; also called eflornithine), which is a suicide inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1), and diethylnorspermine (DENSpm), an activator of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT1). We show that reducing polyamine levels has a negative effect on diverse RNA viruses, including several viruses involved in recent outbreaks, in vitro and in vivo. These findings highlight the importance of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway to viral replication, as well as its potential as a target in the development of further antivirals or currently available molecules, such as DFMO. IMPORTANCE RNA viruses present a significant hazard to human health, and combatting these viruses requires the exploration of new avenues for targeting viral replication. Polyamines, small positively charged molecules within the cell, have been demonstrated to facilitate infection for a few different viruses. Our study demonstrates that diverse RNA viruses rely on the polyamine pathway for replication and highlights polyamine biosynthesis as a promising drug target. PMID:27535047

  14. Polyamine Homeostasis in Wild Type and Phenolamide Deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Stamens

    PubMed Central

    Fellenberg, Christin; Ziegler, Jörg; Handrick, Vinzenz; Vogt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) like putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are ubiquitous polycationic molecules that occur in all living cells and have a role in a wide variety of biological processes. High amounts of spermidine conjugated to hydroxycinnamic acids are detected in the tryphine of Arabidopsis thaliana pollen grains. Tapetum localized spermidine hydroxycinnamic acid transferase (SHT) is essential for the biosynthesis of these anther specific tris-conjugated spermidine derivatives. Sht knockout lines show a strong reduction of hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs). The effect of HCAA-deficient anthers on the level of free PAs was measured by a new sensitive and reproducible method using 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC) and fluorescence detection by HPLC. PA concentrations can be accurately determined even when very limited amounts of plant material, as in the case of A. thaliana stamens, are available. Analysis of free PAs in wild type stamens compared to sht deficient mutants and transcript levels of key PA biosynthetic genes revealed a highly controlled regulation of PA homeostasis in A. thaliana anthers. PMID:22912643

  15. Three-dimensional structures of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase with bound inhibitors suggest new strategies for drug design

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, Janina; Svensson, Bo; Hålander, Jenny; Carey, Jannette; Persson, Lo; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

    2015-03-01

    In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of spermidine synthase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). The enzymes of the polyamine-biosynthesis pathway have been proposed to be promising drug targets in the treatment of malaria. Spermidine synthase (SpdS; putrescine aminopropyltransferase) catalyzes the transfer of the aminopropyl moiety from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine, leading to the formation of spermidine and 5′-methylthioadenosine (MTA). In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of SpdS from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). Five crystal structures were determined of PfSpdS in complex with MTA and the substrate putrescine, with MTA and spermidine, which was obtained as a result of the enzymatic reaction taking place within the crystals, with dcAdoMet and the inhibitor 4-methylaniline, with MTA and 4-aminomethylaniline, and with a compound predicted in earlier in silico screening to bind to the active site of the enzyme, benzimidazol-(2-yl)pentan-1-amine (BIPA). In contrast to the other inhibitors tested, the complex with BIPA was obtained without any ligand bound to the dcAdoMet-binding site of the enzyme. The complexes with the aniline compounds and BIPA revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PfSpdS. The observed binding mode of the ligands, and the interplay between the two substrate-binding sites and the flexible gatekeeper loop, can be used in the design of new approaches in the search for new inhibitors of SpdS.

  16. A simple assay for mammalian spermine oxidase: a polyamine catabolic enzyme implicated in drug response and disease.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Andrew C; Murray-Stewart, Tracy R; Casero, Robert A

    2011-01-01

    Spermine oxidase (SMO), the most recently characterized polyamine metabolic enzyme, catalyzes the direct back-conversion of spermine to spermidine in an FAD-dependent reaction that also yields the byproducts hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and 3-aminopropanal. These metabolites, particularly H(2)O(2), have been implicated in cytotoxic cellular responses to specific antitumor polyamine analogs, as well as in the inflammation-associated generation of DNA damage. This chapter describes a rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive method for the chemiluminescent measurement of SMO (or alternatively, N (1)-acetyl polyamine oxidase, APAO) enzyme activity in cultured cell lysates, without the need for radioactive reagents or the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Specifically, H(2)O(2) production by SMO is coupled to chemiluminescence generated by the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of luminol. Detailed protocols for preparation of reagents, harvesting cell lysates, generation of a standard curve, assaying of samples, and calculation of SMO enzyme activity are presented.

  17. Changes in free polyamine levels, expression of polyamine biosynthesis genes, and performance of rice cultivars under salt stress: a comparison with responses to drought

    PubMed Central

    Do, Phuc T.; Drechsel, Oliver; Heyer, Arnd G.; Hincha, Dirk K.; Zuther, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity affects a large proportion of rural area and limits agricultural productivity. To investigate differential adaptation to soil salinity, we studied salt tolerance of 18 varieties of Oryza sativa using a hydroponic culture system. Based on visual inspection and photosynthetic parameters, cultivars were classified according to their tolerance level. Additionally, biomass parameters were correlated with salt tolerance. Polyamines have frequently been demonstrated to be involved in plant stress responses and therefore soluble leaf polyamines were measured. Under salinity, putrescine (Put) content was unchanged or increased in tolerant, while dropped in sensitive cultivars. Spermidine (Spd) content was unchanged at lower NaCl concentrations in all, while reduced at 100 mM NaCl in sensitive cultivars. Spermine (Spm) content was increased in all cultivars. A comparison with data from 21 cultivars under long-term, moderate drought stress revealed an increase of Spm under both stress conditions. While Spm became the most prominent polyamine under drought, levels of all three polyamines were relatively similar under salt stress. Put levels were reduced under both, drought and salt stress, while changes in Spd were different under drought (decrease) or salt (unchanged) conditions. Regulation of polyamine metabolism at the transcript level during exposure to salinity was studied for genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines and compared to expression under drought stress. Based on expression profiles, investigated genes were divided into generally stress-induced genes (ADC2, SPD/SPM2, SPD/SPM3), one generally stress-repressed gene (ADC1), constitutively expressed genes (CPA1, CPA2, CPA4, SAMDC1, SPD/SPM1), specifically drought-induced genes (SAMDC2, AIH), one specifically drought-repressed gene (CPA3) and one specifically salt-stress repressed gene (SAMDC4), revealing both overlapping and specific stress responses under these conditions

  18. The Role of Glia in Stress: Polyamines and Brain Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Skatchkov, Serguei; Woodbury, Michel; Eaton, Misty

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis This review focuses on the roles of glia and polyamines (PAs) in brain function and dysfunction, highlighting how PAs are one of the principal differences between glia and neurons as they are surprisingly stored, but not synthesized, almost exclusively in glial cells from which they can be released to regulate neuronal synaptic activity. The review includes the novel role of PAs, such as putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD) and spermine (SPM) and their precursors and derivatives. However: (i) PAs have not yet been a focus of much glial research; (ii) PAs affect many neuronal and glial receptors, channels and transporters; (iii) PAs are therefore key elements in the development of many diseases and syndromes (iv) thus forming the rationale for PA and glia focused therapy for these conditions. PMID:25455070

  19. Precipitation of DNA by polyamines: a polyelectrolyte behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Raspaud, E; Olvera de la Cruz, M; Sikorav, J L; Livolant, F

    1998-01-01

    Conditions of double-stranded DNA precipitation by the polyamines spermidine and spermine have been determined experimentally and compared to theoretical predictions. The influence of the concentrations of DNA and added monovalent salt, and of the DNA length has been investigated in a systematic manner. Three regimes of DNA concentrations are observed. We clarify the dependence of these regimes on the monovalent salt concentration and on the DNA length. Our observations make possible a rationalization of the experimental results reported in the literature. A comparison of the precipitation conditions of different kinds of polyelectrolytes suggests a general process. Our experimental data are compared to the "ion-bridging" model based on short-range electrostatic attractions. By starting from the spinodal equation, predicted by this model, and using the limiting form of Manning's fractions of condensed counterions, analytical expressions of the precipitation conditions have been found in the three regimes. Experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement. PMID:9449338

  20. Polyamines and nonmelanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Susan K.

    2007-11-01

    Elevated levels of polyamines have long been associated with skin tumorigenesis. Tightly regulated metabolism of polyamines is critical for cell survival and normal skin homeostasis, and these controls are dysregulated in skin tumorigenesis. A key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is upregulated in skin tumors compared to normal skin. Use of transgenic mouse models has demonstrated that polyamines play an essential role in the early promotional phase of skin tumorigenesis. The formation of skin tumors in these transgenic mice is dependent upon polyamine biosynthesis, especially putrescine, since treatment with inhibitors of ODC activity blocks the formation of skin tumors and causes the rapid regression of existing tumors. Although the mechanism by which polyamines promote skin tumorigenesis are not well understood, elevated levels of polyamines have been shown to stimulate epidermal proliferation, alter keratinocyte differentiation status, increase neovascularization, and increase synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins in a manner similar to that seen in wound healing. It is becoming increasingly apparent that elevated polyamine levels activate not only epidermal cells but also underlying stromal cells in the skin to promote the development and progression of skin tumors. The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis has potential to be an effective chemoprevention strategy for nonmelanoma skin cancer.

  1. The mechanism of opiorphin-induced experimental priapism in rats involves activation of the polyamine synthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kanika, Nirmala Devi; Tar, Moses; Tong, Yuehong; Kuppam, Dwaraka Srinivasa Rao; Melman, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    Intracorporal injection of plasmids encoding opiorphins into retired breeder rats can result in animals developing a priapic-like condition. Microarray analysis demonstrated that following intracorporal gene transfer of plasmids expressing opiorphins the most significantly upregulated gene in corporal tissue was the ornithine decarboxylase gene (ODC). Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the upregulation of ODC, as well as other genes involved in polyamine synthesis, such as arginase-I and -II, polyamine oxidase, spermidine synthase, spermidine acetyltransferase (SAT), and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Western blot analysis demonstrated upregulation of arginase-I and -II, ODC, and SAT at the protein level. Levels of the polyamine putrescine were upregulated in animals treated with opiorphin-expressing plasmids compared with controls. A direct role for the upregulation of polyamine synthesis in the development of the priapic-like condition was supported by the observation that the ODC inhibitor 1,3-diaminopropane, when added to the drinking water of animals treated with plasmids expressing opiorphins, prevented experimental priapism. We also demonstrate that in sickle cell mice, another model of priapism, there is increased expression of the mouse opiorphin homologue in corporal tissue compared with the background strain at a life stage prior to evidence of priapism. At a life stage when there is onset of priapism, there is increased expression of the enzymes involved in polyamine synthesis (ODC and arginase-I and -II). Our results suggest that the upregulation of enzymes involved in the polyamine synthetic pathway may play a role in the development of experimental priapism and represent a target for the prevention of priapism. PMID:19657052

  2. The mechanism of opiorphin-induced experimental priapism in rats involves activation of the polyamine synthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Kanika, Nirmala Devi; Tar, Moses; Tong, Yuehong; Kuppam, Dwaraka Srinivasa Rao; Melman, Arnold; Davies, Kelvin Paul

    2009-10-01

    Intracorporal injection of plasmids encoding opiorphins into retired breeder rats can result in animals developing a priapic-like condition. Microarray analysis demonstrated that following intracorporal gene transfer of plasmids expressing opiorphins the most significantly upregulated gene in corporal tissue was the ornithine decarboxylase gene (ODC). Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the upregulation of ODC, as well as other genes involved in polyamine synthesis, such as arginase-I and -II, polyamine oxidase, spermidine synthase, spermidine acetyltransferase (SAT), and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Western blot analysis demonstrated upregulation of arginase-I and -II, ODC, and SAT at the protein level. Levels of the polyamine putrescine were upregulated in animals treated with opiorphin-expressing plasmids compared with controls. A direct role for the upregulation of polyamine synthesis in the development of the priapic-like condition was supported by the observation that the ODC inhibitor 1,3-diaminopropane, when added to the drinking water of animals treated with plasmids expressing opiorphins, prevented experimental priapism. We also demonstrate that in sickle cell mice, another model of priapism, there is increased expression of the mouse opiorphin homologue in corporal tissue compared with the background strain at a life stage prior to evidence of priapism. At a life stage when there is onset of priapism, there is increased expression of the enzymes involved in polyamine synthesis (ODC and arginase-I and -II). Our results suggest that the upregulation of enzymes involved in the polyamine synthetic pathway may play a role in the development of experimental priapism and represent a target for the prevention of priapism.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of PotA, a membrane-associated ATPase of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in Thermotoga maritima.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Kanai, Ken; Murata, Michio; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2014-06-01

    A membrane-associated ATPase, PotA, is a component of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in prokaryotes that plays an important role in normal cell growth by regulating the cellular polyamine concentration. No three-dimensional structures of membrane-associated ATPases in polyamine-uptake systems have been determined to date. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PotA from Thermotoga maritima are reported. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.7 Å resolution from both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals. Preliminary crystallographic analysis revealed that the crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P3₁12 (or P3₂12), with unit-cell parameters a=b=88.9, c=221.2 Å, α=90, β=90, γ=120°, indicating that a dimer was present in the asymmetric unit.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of PotA, a membrane-associated ATPase of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in Thermotoga maritima

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Kanai, Ken; Murata, Michio; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2014-01-01

    A membrane-associated ATPase, PotA, is a component of the spermidine-preferential uptake system in prokaryotes that plays an important role in normal cell growth by regulating the cellular polyamine concentration. No three-dimensional structures of membrane-associated ATPases in polyamine-uptake systems have been determined to date. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of PotA from Thermotoga maritima are reported. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.7 Å resolution from both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals. Preliminary crystallographic analysis revealed that the crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P3112 (or P3212), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 88.9, c = 221.2 Å, α = 90, β = 90, γ = 120°, indicating that a dimer was present in the asymmetric unit. PMID:24915082

  5. Changes in the content of free and conjugated polyamines during Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Edgar; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2015-01-21

    Polyamines (PAs) in plant foods are relevant due to the association of these bioactive nutrients with health and disease. The scope of the present study was to monitor the content of free, conjugated, and total (free + conjugated) putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) at five stages of lettuce growth in three different greenhouses. The daily intake of PAs from lettuce consumption was estimated since its consumption represents about 7.2% of vegetables intake. Results showed that the content of free Put, Spd, and Spm decreased during plant growth, while the content of conjugated Put, Spd, and Spm increased. Nevertheless, the total PA content remained fairly constant. Significant differences were observed in the PAs content in lettuces grown in different greenhouses. The conjugated fraction of PAs in mature lettuces has an important contribution to the total PAs and will certainly influence the bioavailability and/or bioactivity of dietary polyamines.

  6. Abnormal urinary excretion of polyamines in HHH syndrome (hyperornithinemia associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria).

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Maekawa, K; Eto, Y

    1990-01-01

    The HHH syndrome (hyperornithinemia associated with hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria) is characterized by a very rare genetic defect of ornithine transport in mitochondrial membrane. We first demonstrated that a patient with HHH syndrome excreted about 6 times higher amount of polyamines in urine than the control when supplemented with high protein diets and ornithine loading. Each urinary polyamine fraction measured by HPLC method in HHH syndrome appears to be increased, as compared with those of the control. These data suggest that increased urinary excretion of polyamines in this syndrome is closely related to overflowing of plasma polyamine due to an ornithine transport defect in the mitochondrial membrane.

  7. Effects of polyamines on prostatic chromatin- and non-histone-protein-associated protein kinase reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, K; Wilson, M J; Goueli, S A; Williams-Ashman, H G

    1978-01-01

    Studies are presented on the influence of polyamines on prostatic chromatin- and non-histone-protein-associated protein kinase reactions involving both exogenous and endogenous substrates. The activities toward the model acidic protein substrate, dephosphophosvitin, were maximal at 160--200mM-NaCl (or -KCl or -NH4Cl). Under these conditions, spermidine and spermine added in concentrations up to 2mM were essentially without effect. However, without addition of NaCl to the medium, marked stimulation of these reactions was elicited by these polyamines at 1--2mM concentrations. The stimulatory effects were not due to non-specific changes in the ionic strength or to substitution of spermine for Mg2+, as maximal stimulation by 1 mM-spermine was observed only at optimal (2--4mM) Mg2+ concentrations. Qualitatively similar effects of polyamines were observed with enzyme preparations from the prostates of castrated rats, and with chromatin and non-histone-protein preparations from other tissues besides ventral prostate. When phosphorylation of endogenous non-histone proteins of the chromatin was measured, spermine stimulated both the initial rates and the final extent of transphosphorylation, even in the presence of optimal concentration of NaCl. By contrast, spermine or spermidine had no effect on the chromatin- and non-histone-protein-associated protein kinase reactions determined with lysine-rich histones as substrates. Chemically NN-dimethylated dephosphophosvitin was a less active substrate for the chromatin-associated protein kinase, but its phosphorylation was more markedly stimulated by spermine in comparison with unmodified dephosphophosvitin. These observations hint that the polyamine stimulations of the various protein kinase reactions may be due to effects on the conformations of the non-histone protein substrates rather than on the kinases themselves. PMID:747650

  8. SA improvement of hyperhydricity reversion in Thymus daenensis shoots culture may be associated with polyamines changes.

    PubMed

    Hassannejad, Sahar; Bernard, Françoise; Mirzajani, Fateme; Gholami, Morteza

    2012-02-01

    In shoot cultures of Thymus daenensis, hyperhydricity syndrome promoted by benzyladenine (BA) is characterised by the development of chlorophyll-deficient shoots with a high water content and reduced growth that is less differentiated. By removing the BA from the culture medium, the hyperhydricity was reversed, and the reversion toward a normal growth in vitro was more efficient in shoots treated with 5 μM of salicylic acid (SA), showing a significant increase in chlorophyll b after 4 weeks of culture. In the present study, the effect of salicylic acid on the reversion of shoot hyperhydricity was investigated at the level of the free, soluble and insoluble conjugated polyamine content. In T. daenensis micropropagated shoots, the level of polyamines was high, with a predominance of putrescine. BA, which triggered hyperhydricity, caused a reduction of the polyamine (PA) content by one-half due to a decrease in the putrescine content and insoluble conjugated PAs that were not detected in the hyperhydric shoots. In the reverted shoots, changes of the free polyamines, spermidine and, more notably, spermine, were shown. The spermine content doubled after 4 weeks of culture, and its amount was the same as that found in normal shoots, suggesting that free spermine could be particularly involved in the reversion of hyperhydricity. In the SA-reverted tissues, the PA pattern was marked with a transient increase of free putrescine, spermidine and spermine and an enhancement of soluble conjugated spermine. This transitory SA-dependent amplification of PAs was concomitant with a remarkable transient increase of H(2)O(2), suggesting that SA may be implicated in PA signalling pathways for tissue differentiation during the reversion of hyperhydricity in T. daenensis.

  9. Elevated polyamines in urothelial cells from OAB subjects mediate oxotremorine-evoked rapid intracellular calcium rise and delayed acetylcholine release

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingkai; Sun, Yan; Tomiya, Noboru; Hsu, Yuchao

    2013-01-01

    Increased polyamine signaling in bladder urothelial cells (BUC) may play a role in the pathophysiology of overactive bladder (OAB). We quantitated intracellular polyamine levels in cultured BUC from OAB and asymptomatic (NB) subjects. We assessed whether polyamines modulated rapid intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) changes and delayed acetylcholine (ACh) release evoked by oxotremorine (OXO, a muscarinic agonist). BUC were cultured from cystoscopic biopsies. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) quantitated intracellular putrescine, spermidine, and spermine levels. Five-millimeter difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), and one-millimeter methylglyoxalbisguanylhydrazone (MGBG) treatments were used to deplete intracellular polyamines. Ten micrometers of OXO were used to increase [Ca2+]i levels (measured by fura 2 microfluorimetry) and trigger extracellular ACh release (measured by ELISA). Polyamine levels were elevated in OAB compared with NB BUC (0.5 ± 0.15 vs. 0.16 ± 0.03 nmol/mg for putrescine, 2.4 ± 0.21 vs. 1.01 ± 0.13 nmol/mg for spermidine, and 1.90 ± 0.27 vs. 0.86 ± 0.26 nmol/mg for spermine; P < 0.05 for all comparisons). OXO evoked greater [Ca2+]i rise in OAB (205.10 ± 18.82% increase over baseline) compared with in NB BUC (119.54 ± 13.01%; P < 0.05). After polyamine depletion, OXO evoked [Ca2+]i rise decreased in OAB and NB BUC to 43.40 ± 6.45 and 38.82 ± 3.5%, respectively. OXO tended to increase ACh release by OAB vs. NB BUC (9.02 ± 0.1 vs. 7.04 ± 0.09 μM, respectively; P < 0.05). Polyamine depletion reduced ACh release by both OAB and NB BUC. In conclusion, polyamine levels were elevated twofold in OAB BUC. OXO evoked greater increase in [Ca2+]i and ACh release in OAB BUC, although these two events may be unrelated. Depletion of polyamines caused OAB BUC to behave similarly to NB BUC. PMID:23698115

  10. Excretion of polyamines in alfalfa and tobacco suspension-cultured cells and its possible role in maintenance of intracellular polyamine contents.

    PubMed

    Cvikrová, Milena; Gemperlová, Lenka; Eder, Josef; Zazímalová, Eva

    2008-07-01

    Changes in polyamines (PAs) in cells and cultivation media of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tobacco bright yellow 2 (BY-2) (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell suspension cultures were studied over their growth cycles. The total content of PAs (both free and conjugated forms) was nearly 10 times higher in alfalfa, with high level of free putrescine (Put) (in exponential growth phase it represented about 65-73% of the intracellular Put pool). In contrast, the high content of soluble Put conjugates was found in tobacco cells (in exponential phase about 70% of the intracellular Put). Marked differences occurred in the amount of PAs excreted into the cultivation medium: alfalfa cells excreted at the first day after inoculation 2117.0, 230.5, 29.0 and 88.0 nmol g(-1) of cell fresh weight (FW) of Put, spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm) and cadaverine (Cad), respectively, while at the same time tobacco cells excreted only small amount of Put and Spd (12.7 and 2.4 nmol g(-1) FW, respectively). On day 1 the amounts of Put, Spd, Spm and Cad excreted by alfalfa cells represented 21, 38, 12 and 15% of the total pool (intra- plus extra-cellular contents) of Put, Spd, Spm and Cad, respectively. In the course of lag-phase and the beginning of exponential phase the relative contents of extracellular PAs continually decreased (with the exception of Cad). On day 10, the extracellular Put, Spd, Spm and Cad still represented 11.3, 10.9, 2.1 and 27% of their total pools. The extracellular PAs in tobacco cells represented from day 3 only 0.1% from their total pools. The possible role of PA excretion into the cultivation medium in maintenance of intracellular PA contents in the cells of the two cell culture systems, differing markedly in growth rate and PA metabolism is discussed.

  11. The role of polyamines in protein-dependent hypoxic tolerance of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Vigne, Paul; Frelin, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic hypoxia is a major component of ischemic diseases such as stroke or myocardial infarction. Drosophila is more tolerant to hypoxia than most mammalian species. It is considered as a useful model organism to identify new mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance. The hypoxic tolerance of flies has previously been reported to be enhanced by low protein diets. This study analyses the mechanisms involved. Results Feeding adult Drosophila on a yeast diet dramatically reduced their longevities under chronic hypoxic conditions (5% O2). Mean and maximum longevities became close to the values observed for starving flies. The action of dietary yeast was mimicked by a whole casein hydrolysate and by anyone of the 20 natural amino acids that compose proteins. It was mimicked by amino acid intermediates of the urea cycle such as L-citrulline and L-ornithine, and by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine). α-difluoromethylornithine, a specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, partially protected hypoxic flies from amino acid toxicity but not from polyamine toxicity. N1-guanyl-1,7 diaminoheptane, a specific inhibitor of eIF5A hypusination, partially relieved the toxicities of both amino acids and polyamines. Conclusion Dietary amino acids reduced the longevity of chronically hypoxic flies fed on a sucrose diet. Pharmacological evidence suggests that the synthesis of polyamines and the hypusination of eIF5A contributed to the life-shortening effect of dietary amino acids. PMID:19055734

  12. The role of polyamines in protein-dependent hypoxic tolerance of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Paul; Frelin, Christian

    2008-12-02

    Chronic hypoxia is a major component of ischemic diseases such as stroke or myocardial infarction. Drosophila is more tolerant to hypoxia than most mammalian species. It is considered as a useful model organism to identify new mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance. The hypoxic tolerance of flies has previously been reported to be enhanced by low protein diets. This study analyses the mechanisms involved. Feeding adult Drosophila on a yeast diet dramatically reduced their longevities under chronic hypoxic conditions (5% O2). Mean and maximum longevities became close to the values observed for starving flies. The action of dietary yeast was mimicked by a whole casein hydrolysate and by anyone of the 20 natural amino acids that compose proteins. It was mimicked by amino acid intermediates of the urea cycle such as L-citrulline and L-ornithine, and by polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine). alpha-difluoromethylornithine, a specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, partially protected hypoxic flies from amino acid toxicity but not from polyamine toxicity. N1-guanyl-1,7 diaminoheptane, a specific inhibitor of eIF5A hypusination, partially relieved the toxicities of both amino acids and polyamines. Dietary amino acids reduced the longevity of chronically hypoxic flies fed on a sucrose diet. Pharmacological evidence suggests that the synthesis of polyamines and the hypusination of eIF5A contributed to the life-shortening effect of dietary amino acids.

  13. Biogenic polyamines capture CO2 and accelerate extracellular bacterial CaCO3 formation.

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Ko; Yasumoto-Hirose, Mina; Yasumoto, Jun; Murata, Ryo; Sato, Shun-Ichi; Baba, Megumi; Mori-Yasumoto, Kanami; Jimbo, Mitsuru; Oshima, Yasukatsu; Kusumi, Takenori; Watabe, Shugo

    2014-08-01

    Bacteria, including cyanobacteria, as well as some fungi, are known to deposit calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) extracellularly in calcium-containing artificial medium. Despite extensive investigation, the mechanisms involved in extracellular formation of CaCO(3) by bacteria have remained unclear. The ability of synthetic amines to remove carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from natural gas led us to examine the role of biogenic polyamines in CaCO(3) deposition by bacteria. Here, we demonstrated that biogenic polyamines such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were able to react with atmospheric CO(2) and the resultant carbamate anion was characterized by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Biogenic polyamines accelerated the formation of CaCO(3), and we artificially synthesized the dumbbell-shaped calcites, which had the same form as observed with bacterial CaCO3 precipitates, under nonbacterial conditions by using polyamines. The reaction rate of calcification increased with temperature with an optimum of around 40 °C. Our observation suggests a novel scheme for CO(2) dissipation that could be a potential tool in reducing atmospheric CO(2) levels and, therefore, global warming.

  14. Upregulation of colonic luminal polyamines produced by intestinal microbiota delays senescence in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kibe, Ryoko; Kurihara, Shin; Sakai, Yumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Ooga, Takushi; Sawaki, Emiko; Muramatsu, Koji; Nakamura, Atsuo; Yamashita, Ayano; Kitada, Yusuke; Kakeyama, Masaki; Benno, Yoshimi; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of quality of life (QOL) deterioration is associated with the inhibition of geriatric diseases and the regulation of brain function. However, no substance is known that prevents the aging of both body and brain. It is known that polyamine concentrations in somatic tissues (including the brain) decrease with increasing age, and polyamine-rich foods enhance longevity in yeast, worms, flies, and mice, and protect flies from age-induced memory impairment. A main source of exogenous polyamines is the intestinal lumen, where they are produced by intestinal bacteria. We found that arginine intake increased the concentration of putrescine in the colon and increased levels of spermidine and spermine in the blood. Mice orally administered with arginine in combination with the probiotic bifidobacteria LKM512 long-term showed suppressed inflammation, improved longevity, and protection from age-induced memory impairment. This study shows that intake of arginine and LKM512 may prevent aging-dependent declines in QOL via the upregulation of polyamines. PMID:24686447

  15. Polyamine Sharing between Tubulin Dimers Favours Microtubule Nucleation and Elongation via Facilitated Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Mechulam, Alain; Chernov, Konstantin G.; Mucher, Elodie; Hamon, Loic; Curmi, Patrick A.; Pastré, David

    2009-01-01

    We suggest for the first time that the action of multivalent cations on microtubule dynamics can result from facilitated diffusion of GTP-tubulin to the microtubule ends. Facilitated diffusion can promote microtubule assembly, because, upon encountering a growing nucleus or the microtubule wall, random GTP-tubulin sliding on their surfaces will increase the probability of association to the target sites (nucleation sites or MT ends). This is an original explanation for understanding the apparent discrepancy between the high rate of microtubule elongation and the low rate of tubulin association at the microtubule ends in the viscous cytoplasm. The mechanism of facilitated diffusion requires an attraction force between two tubulins, which can result from the sharing of multivalent counterions. Natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are present in all living cells and are potent agents to trigger tubulin self-attraction. By using an analytical model, we analyze the implication of facilitated diffusion mediated by polyamines on nucleation and elongation of microtubules. In vitro experiments using pure tubulin indicate that the promotion of microtubule assembly by polyamines is typical of facilitated diffusion. The results presented here show that polyamines can be of particular importance for the regulation of the microtubule network in vivo and provide the basis for further investigations into the effects of facilitated diffusion on cytoskeleton dynamics. PMID:19119409

  16. Polyamine sharing between tubulin dimers favours microtubule nucleation and elongation via facilitated diffusion.

    PubMed

    Mechulam, Alain; Chernov, Konstantin G; Mucher, Elodie; Hamon, Loic; Curmi, Patrick A; Pastré, David

    2009-01-01

    We suggest for the first time that the action of multivalent cations on microtubule dynamics can result from facilitated diffusion of GTP-tubulin to the microtubule ends. Facilitated diffusion can promote microtubule assembly, because, upon encountering a growing nucleus or the microtubule wall, random GTP-tubulin sliding on their surfaces will increase the probability of association to the target sites (nucleation sites or MT ends). This is an original explanation for understanding the apparent discrepancy between the high rate of microtubule elongation and the low rate of tubulin association at the microtubule ends in the viscous cytoplasm. The mechanism of facilitated diffusion requires an attraction force between two tubulins, which can result from the sharing of multivalent counterions. Natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are present in all living cells and are potent agents to trigger tubulin self-attraction. By using an analytical model, we analyze the implication of facilitated diffusion mediated by polyamines on nucleation and elongation of microtubules. In vitro experiments using pure tubulin indicate that the promotion of microtubule assembly by polyamines is typical of facilitated diffusion. The results presented here show that polyamines can be of particular importance for the regulation of the microtubule network in vivo and provide the basis for further investigations into the effects of facilitated diffusion on cytoskeleton dynamics.

  17. Triethylenetetramine modulates polyamine and energy metabolism and inhibits cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hyvönen, Mervi T; Ucal, Sebahat; Pasanen, Markku; Peräniemi, Sirpa; Weisell, Janne; Khomutov, Maxim; Khomutov, Alex R; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Alhonen, Leena; Keinänen, Tuomo A

    2016-05-15

    Polyamine metabolism is an attractive anticancer drug target, since polyamines are absolutely required for cellular proliferation, and increased levels of polyamines and their biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) are associated with cancer. Triethylenetetramine (TETA) is a charge-deficient isosteric analogue of the polyamine spermidine (Spd) and a Cu(II)-chelating compound used for the treatment of Wilson's disease, and it has been implicated as a potential anticancer therapeutic drug. In the present study, we studied the effects of TETA in comparison with two other Cu(II)-chelators, D-penicillamine (PA) and tetrathiomolybdate (TTM), on polyamine metabolism in DU145 prostate carcinoma, MCF-7 breast carcinoma and JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells. TETA induced antizyme, down-regulated ODC and inhibited [(14)C] Spd uptake. Moreover, it completely prevented α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO)-induced increase in [(14)C] Spd uptake, and inhibited [(14)C] putrescine (Put) uptake and ODC activity in vivo Seven-day treatment of DU145 cells with TETA caused growth cessation by reducing intracellular polyamine levels and suppressing the formation of hypusinated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). TETA or its N-acetylated metabolites also inhibited spermine (Spm), diamine and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases and decreased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Moreover, TETA inhibited the utilization of Put as energy source via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, as indicated by decreased production of (14)CO2 from [(14)C] Put. These results indicate that TETA attacks multiple proven anticancer drug targets not attributed to copper chelation, which warrants further studies to reveal its potential in cancer chemoprevention and cure. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. Silicon-mediated changes in polyamines participate in silicon-induced salt tolerance in Sorghum bicolor L.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lina; Wang, Shiwen; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Fujihara, Shinsuke; Itai, Akihiro; Den, Xiping; Zhang, Suiqi

    2016-02-01

    Silicon (Si) is generally considered a beneficial element for the growth of higher plants, especially under stress conditions, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Si improves salt tolerance through mediating important metabolism processes rather than acting as a mere mechanical barrier. Seedlings of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) growing in hydroponic culture were treated with NaCl (100 mm) combined with or without Si (0.83 mm). The result showed that supplemental Si enhanced sorghum salt tolerance by decreasing Na(+) accumulation. Simultaneously, polyamine (PA) levels were increased and ethylene precursor (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid: ACC) concentrations were decreased. Several key PA synthesis genes were up-regulated by Si under salt stress. To further confirm the role of PA in Si-mediated salt tolerance, seedlings were exposed to spermidine (Spd) or a PA synthesis inhibitor (dicyclohexylammonium sulphate, DCHA) combined with salt and Si. Exogenous Spd showed similar effects as Si under salt stress whereas exogenous DCHA eliminated Si-enhanced salt tolerance and the beneficial effect of Si in decreasing Na(+) accumulation. These results indicate that PAs and ACC are involved in Si-induced salt tolerance in sorghum and provide evidence that Si plays an active role in mediating salt tolerance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Rhizobacterial Strain Bacillus megaterium BOFC15 Induces Cellular Polyamine Changes that Improve Plant Growth and Drought Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cheng; Ma, Zhongyou; Zhu, Lin; Xiao, Xin; Xie, Yue; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Jianfei

    2016-01-01

    Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria can improve plant growth, development, and stress adaptation. However, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unclear. We investigated the effects of Bacillus megaterium BOFC15 on Arabidopsis plants. BOFC15 produced and secreted spermidine (Spd), a type of polyamine (PA) that plays an important role in plant growth. Moreover, BOFC15 induced changes in the cellular PAs of plants that promoted an increase of free Spd and spermine levels. However, these effects were remarkably abolished by the addition of dicyclohexylamine (DCHA), a Spd biosynthetic inhibitor. Additionally, the inoculation with BOFC15 remarkably increased plant biomass, improved root system architecture, and augmented photosynthetic capacity. Inoculated plants also displayed stronger ability to tolerate drought stress than non-inoculated (control) plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) content was notably higher in the inoculated plants than in the control plants under drought stress and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced stress conditions. However, the BOFC15-induced ABA synthesis was markedly inhibited by DCHA. Thus, microbial Spd participated in the modulation of the ABA levels. The Spd-producing BOFC15 improved plant drought tolerance, which was associated with altered cellular ABA levels and activated adaptive responses. PMID:27338359

  20. Rhizobacterial Strain Bacillus megaterium BOFC15 Induces Cellular Polyamine Changes that Improve Plant Growth and Drought Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng; Ma, Zhongyou; Zhu, Lin; Xiao, Xin; Xie, Yue; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Jianfei

    2016-06-21

    Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria can improve plant growth, development, and stress adaptation. However, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unclear. We investigated the effects of Bacillus megaterium BOFC15 on Arabidopsis plants. BOFC15 produced and secreted spermidine (Spd), a type of polyamine (PA) that plays an important role in plant growth. Moreover, BOFC15 induced changes in the cellular PAs of plants that promoted an increase of free Spd and spermine levels. However, these effects were remarkably abolished by the addition of dicyclohexylamine (DCHA), a Spd biosynthetic inhibitor. Additionally, the inoculation with BOFC15 remarkably increased plant biomass, improved root system architecture, and augmented photosynthetic capacity. Inoculated plants also displayed stronger ability to tolerate drought stress than non-inoculated (control) plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) content was notably higher in the inoculated plants than in the control plants under drought stress and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced stress conditions. However, the BOFC15-induced ABA synthesis was markedly inhibited by DCHA. Thus, microbial Spd participated in the modulation of the ABA levels. The Spd-producing BOFC15 improved plant drought tolerance, which was associated with altered cellular ABA levels and activated adaptive responses.

  1. Some physiological measurements on growth, pod yields and polyamines in leaves of chili plants (Capsicum annuum cv. Hua Reua) in relation to applied organic manures and chemical fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Rapatsa, J; Terapongtanakorn, S

    2010-03-15

    The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University during November 2006 to July 2007. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications was used. Six treatments were allocated into two experimental fields, i.e., field A, animal manures added soil. Field B, chemical fertilizers added soil and both fields have been used for chili cultivation for more than 5 years and they belong to Warin soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The results showed that mean values of soil pH and organic matter % of field A were much higher than field B but mean values of nitrogen % and phosphorus were much higher for field B than field A. Exchangeable potassium were inadequately available in all treatments. All treatments of field B gave excessive amounts of available phosphorus at a toxic level. T3 of field A gave higher plant height, total dry weight plant(-1), pod fresh and dry weights plant(-1) than T5 of field B. Of overall results in terms of growth and yields of chili plants, field A gave much better advantages over field B. The CO2 uptake and CO2 in leaves were higher for field A than field B. Polyamines of putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) of T2 were affected by stress conditions due to previous applied chemical fertilisers. Available phosphorus mean values in most treatments were excessively available. Amounts of polyamines in chili leaves due to the added organic manure and chemical fertilizers (T3 up to T6) were not cleared.

  2. Spermidine levels are implicated in heavy metal tolerance in a spermidine synthase overexpressing transgenic European pear by exerting antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Peng; Ban, Yusuke; Inoue, Hiromichi; Matsuda, Narumi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2010-02-01

    To verify whether spermidine synthase (SPDS) can confer long-term multi-heavy metal tolerance, in vitro shoots of a transgenic European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Ballad') line #32 overexpressing apple SPDS (MdSPDS1), as well as a wild type (WT) line, were subjected to stress using either CdCl(2), PbCl(2), ZnCl(2), or a combination thereof. Based on either shoot height increment or fresh weight and morphological changes upon heavy metal stress, the performance of the transgenic line #32 was better than that of WT. Although SPDS expression levels and spermidine (Spd) contents in line #32 were higher than those in WT, possibly due to transgene (MdSPDS1) expression, no obvious inductions of SPDS expression and increases in Spd-content were observed by long-term stress treatments in both lines. When the glutathione (GSH) content was compared with or without stress in each line, GSH was significantly depleted in line #32 with stress, but not as much as in WT. The activities of glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase and the content of malondialdehyde, an indicator for lipid peroxidation, changed upon stress toward a more favorable status for survival in line #32 than in WT. These antioxidant parameters were positively related to Spd-content. The accumulation of heavy metals tended to be less in line #32 than in WT except for Zn stress, and the Ca content showed an opposite trend. These results suggest that Spd-levels are implicated in enhanced heavy metal tolerance, possibly by exerting an antioxidant activity as well as by the properties of Spd per se including metal chelator.

  3. Gene dosage of the spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase ( SSAT) gene with putrescine accumulation in a patient with a Xp21.1p22.12 duplication and keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD).

    PubMed

    Gimelli, Giorgio; Giglio, Sabrina; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Alhonen, Leena; Suppola, Suvikki; Cusano, Roberto; Lo Nigro, Cristiana; Gatti, Rosanna; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Seri, Marco

    2002-09-01

    Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) or Siemens-1 syndrome is a rare X-linked disease of unknown etiology affecting the skin and the eye. Although most affected families are compatible with X-linked inheritance, KFSD appears to be clinically and genetically heterogeneous. So far, the gene has been mapped to Xp22.13p22.2 in two extended KFSD families. Analysis of additional recombination events in the first Dutch pedigree located the gene to an interval covering approximately 1 Mb between markers DXS7163 and DXS7593/DXS7105, whereas haplotype reconstruction in the second German family positioned the gene outside the previously identified region, proximal to marker DXS274. We report here the molecular characterization of an Xp21.1p22.12 duplication present in a patient affected with dosage-sensitive sex reversal (DSS) and KFSD. The duplicated region includes both the DAX1 gene (previously demonstrated to be responsible for DSS) and the KFSD interval, in which the gene encoding spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase ( SSAT) is located. This enzyme catalyzes the N(1)-acetylation of spermidine and spermine and, by the successive activity of polyamine oxidase, the spermine can be converted to spermidine and the spermidine to putrescine. Overexpression of the SSAT enzyme in a mouse model results in putrescine accumulation and a phenotype with skin and hair abnormalities reminiscent of human KFSD. Analysis of polyamine metabolism in the cells of the patient indicated that the levels of metabolites such as putrescine, spermidine and spermine were consistent with the overexpression of the SSAT gene as in the murine model. Thus, we propose that overexpression of SSAT and the consequent putrescine accumulation are involved in the KFSD phenotype, at least in our propositus.

  4. Encapsulation of biogenic and synthetic polyamines by nanoparticles PEG and mPEG-anthracene.

    PubMed

    Sanyakamdhorn, S; Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2014-01-05

    Synthetic polymers play a major role in drug delivery in vitro and in vivo. We report the bindings of biogenic polyamines, spermine (spm), and spermidine (spmd), and their synthetic analogues, 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane⋅4HCl (BE-333) and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane⋅5HCl (BE-3333) with poly(ethylene glycol) PEG-3000, PEG-8000 and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) anthracene (PEG-anthracene). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic were used to analyze polyamine binding mode, the binding constant and the effect of PEG compositions on polyamine-polymer interaction. Structural analysis showed that polyamines bind PEG through hydrophobic and hydrophilic contacts with overall binding constants of Kspm-PEG-3000=3.1×10(4)M(-1), Kspmd-PEG-3000=5.5×10(4)M(-1), KBE-333-PEG-3000=2.5×10(4)M(-1), KBE-3333-PEG-3000=1.5×10(5)M(-1), Kspm-PEG-8000=4.1×10(5)M(-1), Kspmd-PEG-8000=7.5×10(5)M(-1), KBE-333-PEG-8000=4.5×10(4)M(-1), KBE-3333-PEG-8000=2.2×10(5)M(-1), Kspm-mPEG-ant=6.5×10(5)M(-1), Kspmd-mPEG-ant=1.1×10(6)M(-1), KBE-333-mPEG-ant=2.2×10(5)M(-1) and KBE-3333-mPEG-ant=6.9×10(4)M(-1). The number of binding sites (n) occupied by polyamines were from 0.2 to 0.5. Biogenic polyamines showed stronger affinity toward polymer complexation than synthetic polyamines, while weaker interaction was observed as polyamine cationic charges increased. Our results suggest that PEG and its derivative can act as carriers for delivering antitumor polyamine analogues to target tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alterations in polyamine levels induced by phorbol diesters and other agents that promote differentiation in human promyelocytic leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huberman, E.; Weeks, C.; Herrmann, A.; Callaham, M.; Slaga, T.

    1981-02-01

    Polyamine levels were evaluated in human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells after treatment with inducers of terminal differentiation. Differentiation in these cells was determined by increases in the percentage of morphologically mature cells and in lysozyme activity. Treatment of the HL-60 cells with phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-didecanoate or other inducers of terminal differentiation such as dimethylsulfoxide and retinoic acid resulted in increased levels of putrescine. However, no increase in putrescine could be detected after PMA treatment of a HL-60 cell variant that exhibited a decreased susceptibility to PMA-induced terminal differentiation. Similarly, no increase in putrescine was observed with two nontumor-promoters (phorbol 12,13-diacetate and 4-O-methyl-PMA) or with anthralin, a non-phorbol tumor promoter. In addition to enhancing putrescine levels, PMA also increased the amount of spermidine and decreased the amount of spermine. The increase in putrescine and spermidine preceded the expression of the various differentiation markers. Unlike the changes observed in the polyamine levels after PMA treatment, the activities of ornithine and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylases, which are polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, did not significantly change. ..cap alpha..-Methylornithine and ..cap alpha..-difluoromethylornithine and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), which are inhibitors of the polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, did not affect differentiation in control or PMA-treated cells. Because of these observations, we suggest that the change in polyamine levels involve biochemical pathways other than the known biosynthetic ones. By-products of these pathways may perhaps be the controlling factors involved in the induction of terminal differentiation in the HL-60 and other cell types as well.

  6. Polyamine-induced Z-DNA conformation in plasmids containing (dA-dC)n.(dG-dT)n inserts and increased binding of lupus autoantibodies to the Z-DNA form of plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, T J; Thomas, T

    1994-01-01

    Blocks of potential Z-DNA-forming (dA-dC)n.(dG-dT)n sequences are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. We examined whether naturally occurring polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, could provoke the Z-DNA conformation in plasmids pDHf2 and pDHf14 with 23 and 60 bp inserts respectively of (dA-dC)n.(dG-dT)n sequences using an e.l.i.s.a. Spermidine and spermine could provoke Z-DNA conformation in these plasmids, but putrescine was ineffective. For pDHf2 and pDHf14, the concentration of spermidine at the midpoint of B-DNA to Z-DNA transition was 25 microM, whereas that of spermine was 16 microM. Polyamine structural specificity was evident in the ability of spermidine homologues to induce Z-DNA. Inorganic cations, Co(NH3)6(3+) and Ru(NH3)6(3+), were ineffective. Our experiments also showed increased binding of anti-DNA autoantibodies from lupus patients as well as autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr mice to pDHf2 and pDHf14 in the presence of polyamines. These data demonstrate that small blocks of (dA-dC)n.(dG-dT)n sequences could assume the Z-DNA conformation in the presence of natural polyamines. Increased concentrations of polyamines in the sera of lupus patients might facilitate immune complex-formation involving circulating DNA and anti-Z-DNA antibodies. PMID:8135759

  7. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis in Crithidia fasciculata by D,L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine and D,L-alpha-difluoromethylarginine.

    PubMed

    Hunter, K J; Strobos, C A; Fairlamb, A H

    1991-05-01

    Using Crithidia fasciculata as a model organism for Trypanosoma cruzi, we have examined the effects of D,L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and D,L-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) on growth and polyamine synthesis. In a defined, polyamine-free medium growth was markedly inhibited by DFMO (94% at 50 mM; IC50 = 37 mM) and to a lesser extent by DFMA (65% at 50 mM). Addition of putrescine, but not agmatine, reverses inhibition of growth, suggesting that the site of inhibition is ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Consistent with this conclusion, DFMO or DFMA results in a complete loss of putrescine and significant reductions in intracellular spermidine, glutathionylspermidine and N1,N8-bis(glutathionyl)spermidine (trypanothione). In addition, significant concentrations of DFMO (0.8 mM) were present in DFMA-treated cells. However, in contrast to other organisms, conversion of DFMA to DFMO is probably not catalysed by arginase. Substantial ornithine decarboxylase activity (63.1 pmol min-1 mg-1; ODC) was observed in control cells, sufficient to account for polyamine synthesis during growth. In addition, a trace arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity (1.19 pmol min-1 mg-1) was found. Evidence is presented showing that the apparent ADC activity is actually due to the concerted action of arginase (1.5 nmol min-1 mg-1) and ODC. Thus DFMA appears to inhibit growth of C. fasciculata via conversion to DFMO and subsequent inhibition of ODC.

  8. Accumulation of wound-inducible ACC synthase transcript in tomato fruit is inhibited by salicylic acid and polyamines.

    PubMed

    Li, N; Parsons, B L; Liu, D R; Mattoo, A K

    1992-02-01

    Regulation of wound-inducible 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase expression was studied in tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Pik-Red). A 70 base oligonucleotide probe homologous to published ACC synthase cDNA sequences was successfully used to identify and analyze regulation of a wound-inducible transcript. The 1.8 kb ACC synthase transcript increased upon wounding the fruit as well as during fruit ripening. Salicylic acid, an inhibitor of wound-responsive genes in tomato, inhibited the wound-induced accumulation of the ACC synthase transcript. Further, polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) that have anti-senescence properties and have been shown to inhibit the development of ACC synthase activity, inhibited the accumulation of the wound-inducible ACC synthase transcript. The inhibition by spermine was greater than that caused by putrescine or spermidine. The transcript level of a wound-repressible glycine-rich protein gene and that of the constitutively expressed rRNA were not affected as markedly by either salicylic acid or polyamines. These data suggest that salicylic acid and polyamines may specifically regulate ethylene biosynthesis at the level of ACC synthase transcript accumulation.

  9. Isolation of Two Unknown Genes Potentially Involved in Differentiation of the Hematopoietic Pathway, and Studies of Spermidine/Spermine Acetyltransferase Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kubera, C.; Gavin, I.; Huberman, E.

    2002-01-01

    Differential display identified a number of candidate genes involved with growth and differentiation in the human leukemia cell lines HL-60 and HL-525. Two of these genes were previously unknown, and one is the gene for the enzyme spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT). One of our objectives is to isolate and sequence the unknown genes, 631A1 and 510C1, in order to characterize them and determine their functions. The other is to determine how SSAT is regulated, and look at how the polyamines that SSAT regulates effect macrophage differentiation. By screening the CEM T-cell DNA library and the fetal brain library, we were able to identify clones that had inserts with homology to the 631A1 cDNA probe sequence. The insert was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and is currently being sent to the University of Chicago for automated sequencing. The library screens for 510C1 are currently underway, but hybridization of the 510C1 cDNA probe with nylon membranes containing CEM library phage DNA produced strong signal, indicating the gene is there. SSAT experiments identified that the rate-limiting enzyme that marks the polyamines spermidine and spermine for degradation is regulated by PKC and a transcription factor called Nrf2. The knowledge of regulation and function of these genes involved in macrophage differentiation will provide new insight into this cellular process, potentially making it possible to discover the roots of the problems that cause cancerous diseases.

  10. Effect of retinoic acid on proliferation and polyamine metabolism in cultured bovine retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, T; Yanagihara, N; Komatsu, T; Moriwaki, M; Shiraki, K; Miki, T; Yano, Y; Otani, S

    1999-01-01

    Reports regarding the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) on the cell growth of retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) have been contradictory. The aims of this study are to clarify the in vitro effect of RA on RPE cells and to examine polyamine metabolism after RA stimulation. A 4-day incubation of fetal-calf-serum (FCS)-stimulated RPE cells with 10 or 25 microM RA significantly increased both cell number and [3H]thymidine incorporation. RPE cells grown over an extended period for 8 days also increased in number and reached full confluency. However, if the incubation was further extended to 12 days, no further increase in cell number was detected. RA treatment of FCS-stimulated RPE cells shifted the peak of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity from 16 to 4 h. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) activity and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SAT) activity of RA-treated RPE cells were significantly greater until 8 and 16 h after incubation, respectively. The putrescine content was significantly increased in RA-treated RPE cells up until 24 h, while spermidine, spermine and N1-acetylspermidine contents were significantly increased until 16 h. Our findings suggest that RA treatment increases the intracellular polyamine concentration of RPE cells via activation of ODC, SAMDC and SAT and that this results in the promotion of RPE cell growth until the cells reach full confluency.

  11. Activation of SAT1 engages polyamine metabolism with p53-mediated ferroptotic responses.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yang; Wang, Shang-Jui; Li, Dawei; Chu, Bo; Gu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Although p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis remain critical barriers to cancer development, the emerging role of p53 in cell metabolism, oxidative responses, and ferroptotic cell death has been a topic of great interest. Nevertheless, it is unclear how p53 orchestrates its activities in multiple metabolic pathways into tumor suppressive effects. Here, we identified the SAT1 (spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1) gene as a transcription target of p53. SAT1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism critically involved in the conversion of spermidine and spermine back to putrescine. Surprisingly, we found that activation of SAT1 expression induces lipid peroxidation and sensitizes cells to undergo ferroptosis upon reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced stress, which also leads to suppression of tumor growth in xenograft tumor models. Notably, SAT1 expression is down-regulated in human tumors, and CRISPR-cas9-mediated knockout of SAT1 expression partially abrogates p53-mediated ferroptosis. Moreover, SAT1 induction is correlated with the expression levels of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15), and SAT1-induced ferroptosis is significantly abrogated in the presence of PD146176, a specific inhibitor of ALOX15. Thus, our findings uncover a metabolic target of p53 involved in ferroptotic cell death and provide insight into the regulation of polyamine metabolism and ferroptosis-mediated tumor suppression.

  12. Heterologous expression of a bacterial homospermidine synthase gene in transgenic tobacco: effects on the polyamine pathway.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Annette; Sell, Simone; Hehl, Reinhard

    2002-04-01

    Homospermidine synthase (HSS) is a branch-point enzyme that links the secondary pathway (pyrrolizidine alkaloids) to primary metabolism (polyamines). Since the diamine putrescine is a precursor of homospermidine and nicotine in tobacco, we performed heterologous expression of a bacterial homospermidine synthase gene (hss)in Nicotiana tabacum and determined the effect on free and conjugated polyamine levels. The hss gene from Rhodopseudomonas viridis was placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid in sense and antisense orientation and both hss constructs were transformed into tobacco plants. Expression of the hss gene was verified by "Northern" and "Southern Blot" analysis. 2 transgenic sense lines were generated from 1000 calli which showed weak expression of homospermidine synthase, i.e. 50 pktal/mg protein and 45 pktal/mg protein. These transgenic sense plants showed a significantly decreased content of free spermidine while the pool of conjugated spermidine was not affected. The 2 sense plants exhibited a range of abnormal phenotypes such as dwarfness and stunted growth. Homospermidine was sporadically detectable in wild type tobacco. To our knowledge, this is the first biotechnological approach to express a prokaryotic homospermidine synthase gene in tobacco plants.

  13. Renal ornithine decarboxylase activity, polyamines, and compensatory renal hypertrophy in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.H.; Etheredge, S.B.; Lin, Shanyan; Ribstein, J.; Marton, L.J. Univ. of California, San Francisco )

    1988-08-01

    The authors determined the role of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in compensatory renal hypertrophy (CRH) by relating renal ODC activity and polyamine content to kidney size, expressed as a percent of body weight, 1 wk after unilateral nephrectomy (UN). In normal rats, renal ODC activity increased after UN; 1 wk later the remaining kidney weight had increased. Renal concentration of putrescine, the product of ODC's decarboxylation of ornithine, was increased 3, 8, and 48 h after UN, but concentrations of polyamines synthesized later in the pathway, spermidine and spermine, were not appreciably affected. Pretreatment with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an irreversible inhibitor of ODC inhibited both base-line renal ODC activity and putrescine concentration as well as increases stimulated by UN, although concentrations of spermidine and spermine were not decreased. In hypophysectomized rats, both increased renal ODC activity and CRH occurred as well, indicating that these two consequences of UN do not require intact pituitary function. Thus stimulation of renal ODC activity and putrescine content do not appear critical to the process of CRH after UN.

  14. The potential role of polyamines in gill epithelial remodeling during extreme hypoosmotic challenges in the Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying; Zhang, Guo-Xia; Zhang, Shujun; Domangue, Beau; Galvez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines are a family of low molecular weight organic cations produced in part by the coordinated actions of arginase II (Arg II) and ornithine decarboxylase (Odc). Although gill polyamine homeostasis is affected by acute transfer to fresh water, little is known of its function in fish osmoregulation. The current study investigated the role of polyamines in the compensatory response of hypoosmotic challenge in the euryhaline fish, Fundulus grandis. Adult F. grandis were acclimated to 5 ppt water, transferred abruptly to 5, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.1 ppt water, and assessed for osmoregulatory function, gill morphology, and polyamine homeostasis. The plasma osmolality, Na(+) concentration, and Cl(-) concentration were only significantly reduced during exposure to salinities at or below 0.5 ppt, although these effects were transient except in the 0.1 ppt treatment. The phenotype of mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs) shifted from a seawater-type to a freshwater-type only at salinities that also produced a plasma osmotic disturbance. Hypoosmotic exposure increased the concentrations of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in the gill over the entire 7 day period. Exposure to 0.1 ppt water also transiently increased gill caspase-3 activity and gill mRNA levels of the immediate-early response genes, c-fos and c-myc, thus tightly associating polyamines with gill remodeling during freshwater acclimation. Furthermore, arginase II and ornithine decarboxylase mRNA levels were most highly expressed in MRCs, and these levels were further increased only in the 0.1 ppt treatment. Reduction of gill polyamine levels following administration of the Odc inhibitor, alpha-dl-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), inhibited gill caspase-3 activity, but surprisingly reduced the magnitude of the plasma osmotic imbalance elicited by exposure to 0.1 ppt water. We used isolated opercular epithelia mounted on Ussing chambers to assess the influence of polyamines on the attenuating response of hypotonic shock

  15. DNA mesophases induced by spermidine: structural properties and biological implications.

    PubMed Central

    Pelta, J; Durand, D; Doucet, J; Livolant, F

    1996-01-01

    Conditions of formation of DNA aggregates by the addition of spermidine were determined with 146 base pair DNA fragments as a function of spermidine and NaCl concentration. Two different phases of spermidine-DNA complexes are obtained: a cholesteric liquid crystalline phase with a large helical pitch, with interhelix distances ranging from 31.6 to 32.6 A, and a columnar hexagonal phase with a restricted fluidity in which DNA molecules are more closely packed (29.85 +/- 0.05 A). In both phases, the DNA molecule retains its B form. These phases are always observed in equilibrium with the dilute isotropic solution, and their phase diagram is defined for a DNA concentration of 1 mg/ml. DNA liquid crystalline phases induced by spermidine are compared with the DNA mesophases already described in concentrated solutions in the absence of spermidine. We propose that the liquid crystalline character of the spermidine DNA complexes is involved in the stimulation of the functional properties of the DNA reported in numerous experimental articles, and we discuss how the nature of the phase could regulate the degree of activity of the molecule. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 PMID:8804588

  16. An Improved Method for Analysis of Polyamines in Plant Tissue by Precolumn Derivatization with o-Phthalaldehyde and Separation by High Performance Liquid Chromatography 1

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, James L.; Marsh, Barry H.; Peters, Gerald A.

    1989-01-01

    An improved high-performance liquid-chromatographic method was developed for estimation of polyamines in crude plant extracts. Polyamines were derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde and mercaptoethanol (OPT). The fluorescent derivatives were eluted from a C18 column with the dimethylcyclohexylamine-phosphate buffer derived by T. Skaaden and T. Greibrokk ([1982] J Chromatogr 247: 111-122) after treatment to remove impurities in the buffer. The method had a sensitivity of 1-2 picomoles and completely resolved nine polyamines (agmatine, spermine, nor-spermidine, spermidine, 3,5-homospermidine, 4,4-homospermidine, 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine, and cadaverine) in 12 to 14 minutes. An optional ion-exchange step was used to remove less basic amines (including amino acids) and to concentrate the crude extracts. This method was compared with benzoyl chloride derivatization. Use of the benzoyl chloride method vastly under-estimated the amount of polyamine in some plant extracts, a problem not encountered with the OPT procedure. Additionally, the OPT procedure resolved two isomers of homospermidine found in Azolla caroliniana. These two isomers were not resolved with the benzoylation method. Overall, the OPT method described here requires preparation and analysis time similar to other current methods but provides greater sensitivity and selectivity. PMID:16666789

  17. Polyamines may influence phytochelatin synthesis during Cd stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Pál, Magda; Csávás, Gabriella; Szalai, Gabriella; Oláh, Tímea; Khalil, Radwan; Yordanova, Rusina; Gell, Gyöngyvér; Birinyi, Zsófia; Németh, Edit; Janda, Tibor

    2017-10-15

    Although the metabolism of phytochelatins and higher polyamines are linked with each other, the direct relationship between them under heavy metal stress has not yet been clarified. Two approaches were used to reveal the influence of polyamine content on cadmium stress responses, particularly with regard to phytochelatin synthesis: putrescine pre-treatment of rice plants followed by cadmium stress, and treatment with the putrescine synthesis inhibitor, 2-(difluoromethyl)ornithine combined with cadmium treatment. The results indicated that putrescine pre-treatment enhanced the adverse effect of cadmium, while the application of 2-(difluoromethyl)ornithine reduced it to a certain extent. These differences were associated with increased polyamine content, more intensive polyamine metabolism, but decreased thiol and phytochelatin contents. The gene expression level and enzyme activity of phytochelatin synthase also decreased in rice treated with putrescine prior to cadmium stress, compared to cadmium treatment alone. In contrast, the inhibition of putrescine synthesis during cadmium treatment resulted in higher gene expression level of phytochelatin synthase. The results suggest that polyamines may have a substantial influence on phytochelatin synthesis at several levels under cadmium stress in rice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyamine conjugates of stigmasterol.

    PubMed

    Vida, Norbert; Svobodová, Hana; Rárová, Lucie; Drašar, Pavel; Saman, David; Cvačka, Josef; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2012-10-01

    Three new polyamine conjugates with stigmasterol [(3β,22E)-stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-ol] were synthesized and subjected to basic antimicrobial and cytotoxic tests. The conjugate derived from spermine, (3β,22E)-stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-yl 4(12-amino-4,9-diaza-dodecylamino)-4-oxobutanoate (5c), displayed considerable antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus at low concentration (50 μg mL(-1)). The cytotoxic activity was tested on cells of human T-lymfoblastic leukemia (IC(50)=35.8 ± 10.3 μM (5c) and IC(50)=35.9 ± 5.7 μM (5b)) and normal human fibroblasts (IC(50)=38.0 ± 2.8 μM (5c) and IC(50)=45.5 ± 1.9 μM (5b)). Conjugate 5a displayed no activity in both tests.

  19. Aminopropyltransferases Involved in Polyamine Biosynthesis Localize Preferentially in the Nucleus of Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belda-Palazón, Borja; Ruiz, Leticia; Martí, Esmeralda; Tárraga, Susana; Tiburcio, Antonio F.; Culiáñez, Francisco; Farràs, Rosa; Carrasco, Pedro; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Plant aminopropyltransferases consist of a group of enzymes that transfer aminopropyl groups derived from decarboxylated S-adenosyl-methionine (dcAdoMet or dcSAM) to propylamine acceptors to produce polyamines, ubiquitous metabolites with positive charge at physiological pH. Spermidine synthase (SPDS) uses putrescine as amino acceptor to form spermidine, whereas spermine synthase (SPMS) and thermospermine synthase (TSPMS) use spermidine as acceptor to synthesize the isomers spermine and thermospermine respectively. In previous work it was shown that both SPDS1 and SPDS2 can physically interact with SPMS although no data concerning the subcellular localization was reported. Here we study the subcellular localization of these enzymes and their protein dimer complexes with gateway-based Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) binary vectors. In addition, we have characterized the molecular weight of the enzyme complexes by gel filtration chromatography with in vitro assembled recombinant enzymes and with endogenous plant protein extracts. Our data suggest that aminopropyltransferases display a dual subcellular localization both in the cytosol and nuclear enriched fractions, and they assemble preferably as dimers. The BiFC transient expression data suggest that aminopropyltransferase heterodimer complexes take place preferentially inside the nucleus. PMID:23056524

  20. A field-grown transgenic tomato line expressing higher levels of polyamines reveals legume cover crop mulch-specific perturbations in fruit phenotype at the levels of metabolite profiles, gene expression, and agronomic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Neelam, Anil; Cassol, Tatiana; Mehta, Roshni A; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Sobolev, Anatoli P; Goyal, Ravinder K; Abbott, Judith; Segre, Anna L; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2008-01-01

    Genetic modification of crop plants to introduce desirable traits such as nutritional enhancement, disease and pest resistance, and enhanced crop productivity is increasingly seen as a promising technology for sustainable agriculture and boosting food production in the world. Independently, cultural practices that utilize alternative agriculture strategies including organic cultivation subscribe to sustainable agriculture by limiting chemical usage and reduced tillage. How the two together affect fruit metabolism or plant growth in the field or whether they are compatible has not yet been tested. Fruit-specific yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) line 579HO, and a control line 556AZ were grown in leguminous hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) (HV) mulch and conventional black polyethylene (BP) mulch, and their fruit analysed. Significant genotypexmulch-dependent interactions on fruit phenotype were exemplified by differential profiles of 20 fruit metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. Expression patterns of the ySAMdc transgene, and tomato SAMdc, E8, PEPC, and ICDHc genes were compared between the two lines as a function of growth on either BP or HV mulch. HV mulch significantly stimulated the accumulation of asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, choline, and citrate concomitant with a decrease in glucose in the 556AZ fruits during ripening as compared to BP. It enables a metabolic system in tomato somewhat akin to the one in higher polyamine-accumulating transgenic fruit that have higher phytonutrient content. Finally, synergism was found between HV mulch and transgenic tomato in up-regulating N:C indicator genes PEPC and ICDHc in the fruit.

  1. A field-grown transgenic tomato line expressing higher levels of polyamines reveals legume cover crop mulch-specific perturbations in fruit phenotype at the levels of metabolite profiles, gene expression, and agronomic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Neelam, Anil; Cassol, Tatiana; Mehta, Roshni A.; Abdul-Baki, Aref A.; Sobolev, Anatoli P.; Goyal, Ravinder K.; Abbott, Judith; Segre, Anna L.; Handa, Avtar K.; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic modification of crop plants to introduce desirable traits such as nutritional enhancement, disease and pest resistance, and enhanced crop productivity is increasingly seen as a promising technology for sustainable agriculture and boosting food production in the world. Independently, cultural practices that utilize alternative agriculture strategies including organic cultivation subscribe to sustainable agriculture by limiting chemical usage and reduced tillage. How the two together affect fruit metabolism or plant growth in the field or whether they are compatible has not yet been tested. Fruit-specific yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) line 579HO, and a control line 556AZ were grown in leguminous hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) (HV) mulch and conventional black polyethylene (BP) mulch, and their fruit analysed. Significant genotype×mulch-dependent interactions on fruit phenotype were exemplified by differential profiles of 20 fruit metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. Expression patterns of the ySAMdc transgene, and tomato SAMdc, E8, PEPC, and ICDHc genes were compared between the two lines as a function of growth on either BP or HV mulch. HV mulch significantly stimulated the accumulation of asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, choline, and citrate concomitant with a decrease in glucose in the 556AZ fruits during ripening as compared to BP. It enables a metabolic system in tomato somewhat akin to the one in higher polyamine-accumulating transgenic fruit that have higher phytonutrient content. Finally, synergism was found between HV mulch and transgenic tomato in up-regulating N:C indicator genes PEPC and ICDHc in the fruit. PMID:18469323

  2. Induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) by aspirin in Caco-2 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Naveen; Gerner, Eugene W; Casero, Robert A

    2006-02-15

    Epidemiological, experimental and clinical results suggest that aspirin and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) inhibit the development of colon cancer. It has been shown that the NSAID sulindac induces apoptosis and suppresses carcinogenesis, in part, by a mechanism leading to the transcriptional activation of the gene encoding SSAT (spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase), a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism. In the present study, we show that a variety of NSAIDs, including aspirin, sulindac, ibuprofen and indomethacin, can induce SSAT gene expression in Caco-2 cells. Aspirin, at physiological concentrations, can induce SSAT mRNA via transcriptional initiation mechanisms. This induction leads to increased SSAT protein levels and enzyme activity. Promoter deletion analysis of the 5' SSAT promoter-flanking region led to the identification of two NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) response elements. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays showed binding of NF-kappaB complexes at these sequences after aspirin treatment. Aspirin treatment led to the activation of NF-kappaB signalling and increased binding at these NF-kappaB sites in the SSAT promoter, hence providing a potential mechanism for the induction of SSAT by aspirin in these cells. Aspirin-induced SSAT ultimately leads to a decrease in cellular polyamine content, which has been associated with decreased carcinogenesis. These results suggest that activation of SSAT by aspirin and different NSAIDs may be a common property of NSAIDs that plays an important role in their chemopreventive actions in colorectal cancer.

  3. Protective Action of Spermine and Spermidine against Photoinhibition of Photosystem I in Isolated Thylakoid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Yaakoubi, Hnia; Hamdani, Saber; Bekalé, Laurent; Carpentier, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The photo-stability of photosystem I (PSI) is of high importance for the photosynthetic processes. For this reason, we studied the protective action of two biogenic polyamines (PAs) spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd) on PSI activity in isolated thylakoid membranes subjected to photoinhibition. Our results show that pre-loading thylakoid membranes with Spm and Spd reduced considerably the inhibition of O2 uptake rates, P700 photooxidation and the accumulation of superoxide anions (O2−) induced by light stress. Spm seems to be more effective than Spd in preserving PSI photo-stability. The correlation of the extent of PSI protection, photosystem II (PSII) inhibition and O2− generation with increasing Spm doses revealed that PSI photo-protection is assumed by two mechanisms depending on the PAs concentration. Given their antioxidant character, PAs scavenge directly the O2− generated in thylakoid membranes at physiological concentration (1 mM). However, for non-physiological concentration, the ability of PAs to protect PSI is due to their inhibitory effect on PSII electron transfer. PMID:25420109

  4. Spermidine coupled with exercise rescues skeletal muscle atrophy from D-gal-induced aging rats through enhanced autophagy and reduced apoptosis via AMPK-FOXO3a signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jingjing; Yang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jie; Shu, Ziyang; Dai, Jun; Liu, Xingran; Li, Biao; Jia, Shaohui; Kou, Xianjuan; Yang, Yi; Chen, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The quality control of skeletal muscle is a continuous requirement throughout the lifetime, although its functions and quality present as a declining trend during aging process. Dysfunctional or deficient autophagy and excessive apoptosis may contribute to the atrophy of senescent skeletal muscle. Spermidine, as a natural polyamine, can be involved in important cellular functions for lifespan extension and stress resistance in several model organisms through activating autophagy. Similarly, cellular autophagic responses to exercise have also been extensively investigated. In the present study, in order to confirm the mitigation or amelioration of skeletal muscle atrophy in aging rats through spermidine coupled with exercise intervention and explore corresponding mechanisms, the rat model with aging-related atrophy of skeletal muscle was established by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose (D-gal) (200 mg/kgd), and model rats were subjected to the intervention with spermidine (5 mg/kgd) or swimming (60 min/d, 5 d/wk) or combination for 42 days. Spermidine coupled with exercise could attenuate D-gal-induced aging-related atrophy of skeletal muscle through induced autophagy and reduced apoptosis with characteristics of more autophagosomes, activated mitophagy, enhanced mitochondrial quality, alleviated cell shrinkage, and less swollen mitochondria under transmission scanning microscopic observation. Meanwhile, spermidine coupled with exercise could induce autophagy through activating AMPK-FOXO3a signal pathway with characterization of increased Beclin1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, up-regulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, down-regulated pro-apoptotic Bax and caspase-3, as well as activated AMPK and FOXO3a. Therefore, spermidine combined with exercise can execute the prevention or treatment of D-gal-induced aging-related skeletal muscle atrophy through enhanced autophagy and reduced apoptosis mediated by AMPK-FOXO3a signal pathway. PMID:28407698

  5. Effect of polyamines on shoot multiplication and furanocoumarin production in Ruta graveolens cultures.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2012-07-01

    The influence of the polyamines putrescine (Put), spermine (Spr) and spermidine (Spd) on growth and furanocoumarin production was investigated by exogenous addition, at different concentrations, to shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens at different phases of growth. Preliminary studies indicated that addition of Put (20 microM) and Spr (80 microM) had a promotive effect on shoot multiplication rate and number of multiple shoots formed. Spd was toxic, even at lower concentrations. The growth-phase of the culture at the time of exogenous addition of polyamines was found to be an important factor. Put was most effective when added at the lag phase, while Spr was most effective when added in the log phase. Time course studies of growth and furanocoumarin content were carried out for each polyamine and phase of addition. It was seen that maximum production of furanocoumarins (256.8 mg/10 g DW) occurred in the second week when Put was added in the lag phase and 260.5 mg/10 g DW in the fourth week when Spr was added in the log phase. Put addition resulted in a 3.10 fold increase in psoralen, 6.12 in xanthotoxin and 1.46 fold in bergapten production. Spr addition resulted in a 1.31 fold increase in psoralen, 4.11 fold in xanthotoxin and 1.49 fold in bergapten production. Results indicate that alteration of growth and furanocoumarin production kinetics is a combined outcome of choice of polyamine and the phase of culture at the time of exogenous addition. Polyamine addition enabled significant enhancement in production of pharmaceutically important bergapten and xanthotoxin in shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens, which could be explored for commercial production.

  6. Dietary arginine affects energy metabolism through polyamine turnover in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Andersen, Synne M; Holen, Elisabeth; Aksnes, Anders; Rønnestad, Ivar; Zerrahn, Jens-Erik; Espe, Marit

    2013-12-14

    In the present study, quadruplicate groups of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed plant protein-based diets with increasing arginine inclusions (range 28·8-37·4 g/kg DM) to investigate whether arginine supplementation affects growth and lipid accumulation through an elevated polyamine turnover. Dietary lysine was held at a constant concentration, just below the requirement. All other amino acids were balanced and equal in the diets. Arginine supplementation increased protein and fat accretion, without affecting the hepatosomatic or visceralsomatic indices. Dietary arginine correlated with putrescine in the liver (R 0·78, P= 0·01) and with ornithine in the muscle, liver and plasma (P= 0·0002, 0·003 and 0·0002, respectively). The mRNA of ornithine decarboxylase, the enzyme producing putrescine, was up-regulated in the white adipose tissue of fish fed the high-arginine inclusion compared with those fed the low-arginine diet. Concomitantly, spermidine/spermine-(N1)-acetyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine turnover that consumes acetyl-CoA, showed an increased activity in the liver of fish fed the arginine-supplemented diets. In addition, lower acetyl-CoA concentrations were observed in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet, while ATP, which is used in the process of synthesising spermidine and spermine, did not show a similar trend. Gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme for β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, was up-regulated in the liver of fish fed the high-arginine diet. Taken together, the data support that increased dietary arginine activates polyamine turnover and β-oxidation in the liver of juvenile Atlantic salmon and may act to improve the metabolic status of the fish.

  7. Spermine inhibits Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation through the NspS-MbaA polyamine signaling system.

    PubMed

    Sobe, Richard C; Bond, Whitney G; Wotanis, Caitlin K; Zayner, Josiah P; Burriss, Marybeth A; Fernandez, Nicolas; Bruger, Eric L; Waters, Christopher M; Neufeld, Howard S; Karatan, Ece

    2017-08-21

    The aquatic bacterium and human intestinal pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, senses and responds to a variety of environment-specific cues to regulate biofilm formation. Specifically, the polyamines norspermidine and spermidine enhance and repress V. cholerae biofilm formation, respectively. These effects are relevant for understanding V. cholerae pathogenicity and are mediated through the periplasmic binding protein, NspS, and the transmembrane c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase MbaA. However, the levels of spermidine required to inhibit biofilm formation through this pathway are unlikely to be encountered by V. cholerae in aquatic reservoirs or within the human host during infection. We therefore hypothesized that other polyamines in the gastrointestinal tract may control V. cholerae biofilm formation at physiological levels. The tetramine spermine has been reported to be present at nearly 50 micromolar concentrations in the intestinal lumen. Here, we report that spermine acts as an exogenous cue that inhibits V. cholerae biofilm formation through the NspS-MbaA signaling system. We found that this effect likely occurs through a direct interaction of spermine with NspS, as purified NspS protein could bind spermine in vitro Spermine also inhibited biofilm formation by altering the transcription of the vps genes involved in biofilm matrix production. Global c-di-GMP levels were unaffected by spermine supplementation, suggesting that biofilm formation may be regulated by variations in local rather than global c-di-GMP pools. Finally, we propose a model illustrating how the NspS-MbaA signaling system may communicate exogenous polyamine content to the cell to control biofilm formation in the aquatic environment and within the human intestine. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Lubricating oil compositions containing hydroxy polyether polyamines

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.B.

    1987-09-29

    This patent describes a hydroxy polyether amine or polyamine additive, and a lubricating oil composition containing a major amount of oil of lubricating viscosity and from about 0.01 to about 10 weight percent of the additive. The additives consist of certain lubricating oil soluble hydroxy polyoxyalkylene polyamines. The compositions may be either mono or polyamines, but polyamines are preferred. The additive compounds have molecular weights of from about 500 to 2000, and preferably from about 700 to 1200.

  9. Hepatocyte-specific ablation of spermine/spermidine-N1-acetyltransferase gene reduces the severity of CCl4-induced acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Sharon L.; Xu, Jie; Steinbergs, Nora; Schuster, Rebecca; Lentsch, Alex B.; Amlal, Hassane; Wang, Jiang; Casero, Robert A.; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2012-01-01

    Activation of spermine/spermidine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) leads to DNA damage and growth arrest in mammalian cells, and its ablation reduces the severity of ischemic and endotoxic injuries. Here we have examined the role of SSAT in the pathogenesis of toxic liver injury caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The expression and activity of SSAT increase in the liver subsequent to CCl4 administration. Furthermore, the early liver injury after CCl4 treatment was significantly attenuated in hepatocyte-specific SSAT knockout mice (Hep-SSAT-Cko) compared with wild-type (WT) mice as determined by the reduced serum alanine aminotransferase levels, decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation, and less severe liver damage. Cytochrome P450 2e1 levels remained comparable in both genotypes, suggesting that SSAT deficiency does not affect the metabolism of CCl4. Hepatocyte-specific deficiency of SSAT also modulated the induction of cytokines involved in inflammation and repair as well as leukocyte infiltration. In addition, Noxa and activated caspase 3 levels were elevated in the livers of WT compared with Hep-SSAT-Cko mice. Interestingly, the onset of cell proliferation was significantly more robust in the WT compared with Hep-SSAT Cko mice. The inhibition of polyamine oxidases protected the animals against CCl4-induced liver injury. Our studies suggest that while the abrogation of polyamine back conversion or inhibition of polyamine oxidation attenuate the early injury, they may delay the onset of hepatic regeneration. PMID:22723264

  10. Polyamines as new cationic plasticizers for pectin-based edible films.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marilena; Di Pierro, Prospero; Regalado-Gonzales, Carlos; Mariniello, Loredana; Giosafatto, C Valeria L; Porta, Raffaele

    2016-11-20

    Zeta potential and particle size were determined on pectin aqueous solutions as a function of pH and the effects of calcium ions, putrescine and spermidine on pectin film forming solutions and derived films were studied. Ca(2+) and polyamines were found to differently influence pectin zeta potential as well as thickness and mechanical and barrier properties of pectin films prepared at pH 7.5 either in the presence or absence of the plasticizer glycerol. In particular, Ca(2+) was found to increase film tensile strength and elongation at break only in the presence of glycerol and did not affect film thickness and permeability to both water vapor and CO2. Conversely, increasing polyamine concentrations progressively reduced film tensile strength and markedly enhanced film thickness, elongation at break and permeability to water vapor and CO2, both in the presence and absence of glycerol. Our findings indicate that polyamines give rise to a structural organization of the heteropolysaccharide different from that determined by calcium ions, previously described as "egg box" model, and suggest their possible application as plasticizers to produce pectin-based "bioplastics" with different features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitric oxide, polyamines and Cd-induced phytotoxicity in wheat roots.

    PubMed

    Groppa, M D; Rosales, E P; Iannone, M F; Benavides, M P

    2008-10-01

    To further explore the biochemical basis of Cd toxicity in developing wheat seedlings, we studied the possible role of nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines as signaling molecules involved in metal-induced root growth inhibition. When used at 0.1 mM, sodium nitroprusside, a NO-releasing compound, inhibited root growth to a similar extent as Cd and enhanced the polyamine contents as Cd also did. Putrescine and spermidine treatments caused significant decreases in root growth with spermine giving the greatest level of inhibition (77% reduction). The simultaneous addition of Cd and inhibitors of putrescine biosynthesis (DFMA and DFMO) prevented increases in putrescine levels but did not restore normal root growth. NO content, as evidenced by the fluorescent probe DAF-FM diacetate, was found to be significantly increased in the roots of both Cd and polyamine treated plants, especially in those exposed to spermine. The effect was specific for NO since the NO scavenger cPTIO almost suppressed the fluorescent signal. Concerning the oxidative status of the root system, only Cd and spermine enhanced lipid peroxidation in roots. At the same time, all treatments led to a significant increase in levels of the non-enzymatic antioxidant defense glutathione. Our results strongly suggest that Cd and spermine treatments induce NO formation in wheat roots which, in turn, is involved in root growth inhibition.

  12. Activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress response by enhanced polyamine catabolism is important in the mediation of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Sharon; Destefano-Shields, Christina; Brooks, Marybeth; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Dunworth, Matthew; Li, Weimin; Doherty, Joanne R.; Hall, Mark A.; Smith, Roger D.; Cleveland, John L.; Casero, Robert A.; Soleimani, Manoocher

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity limits its use in many cancer patients. The expression of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolism, spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) and spermine oxidase (SMOX) increase in the kidneys of mice treated with cisplatin. We hypothesized that enhanced polyamine catabolism contributes to tissue damage in cisplatin acute kidney injury (AKI). Using gene knockout and chemical inhibitors, the role of polyamine catabolism in cisplatin AKI was examined. Deficiency of SSAT, SMOX or neutralization of the toxic products of polyamine degradation, H2O2 and aminopropanal, sig