Science.gov

Sample records for higher representations duals

  1. Single or Dual Representations for Reading and Spelling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Virginia M.; Babauta, Mariko L.

    2005-01-01

    Neuropsychological models postulate that the memory representation acquired for use in reading words is separate from the one acquired for use in spelling, while developmental models assume that the same representation is developed for access in both reading and spelling. The dual-representation model contends that there is often more precise…

  2. Children's Learning from Touch Screens: A Dual Representation Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Kelly J; Uttal, David H

    2016-01-01

    Parents and educators often expect that children will learn from touch screen devices, such as during joint e-book reading. Therefore an essential question is whether young children understand that the touch screen can be a symbolic medium - that entities represented on the touch screen can refer to entities in the real world. Research on symbolic development suggests that symbolic understanding requires that children develop dual representational abilities, meaning children need to appreciate that a symbol is an object in itself (i.e., picture of a dog) while also being a representation of something else (i.e., the real dog). Drawing on classic research on symbols and new research on children's learning from touch screens, we offer the perspective that children's ability to learn from the touch screen as a symbolic medium depends on the effect of interactivity on children's developing dual representational abilities. Although previous research on dual representation suggests the interactive nature of the touch screen might make it difficult for young children to use as a symbolic medium, the unique interactive affordances may help alleviate this difficulty. More research needs to investigate how the interactivity of the touch screen affects children's ability to connect the symbols on the screen to the real world. Given the interactive nature of the touch screen, researchers and educators should consider both the affordances of the touch screen as well as young children's cognitive abilities when assessing whether young children can learn from it as a symbolic medium.

  3. The Linked Dual Representation model of vocal perception and production

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, Sean; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    The voice is one of the most important media for communication, yet there is a wide range of abilities in both the perception and production of the voice. In this article, we review this range of abilities, focusing on pitch accuracy as a particularly informative case, and look at the factors underlying these abilities. Several classes of models have been posited describing the relationship between vocal perception and production, and we review the evidence for and against each class of model. We look at how the voice is different from other musical instruments and review evidence about both the association and the dissociation between vocal perception and production abilities. Finally, we introduce the Linked Dual Representation (LDR) model, a new approach which can account for the broad patterns in prior findings, including trends in the data which might seem to be countervailing. We discuss how this model interacts with higher-order cognition and examine its predictions about several aspects of vocal perception and production. PMID:24204360

  4. Spectra of certain holographic ABJM Wilson loops in higher rank representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mück, Wolfgang; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A.; Rathee, Vimal

    2016-11-01

    The holographic configurations dual to Wilson loops in higher rank representations in the ABJM theory are described by branes with electric flux along their world volumes. In particular, D2 and D6 branes with electric flux play a central role as potential dual to totally symmetric and totally antisymmetric representations, respectively. We compute the spectra of excitations of these brane configurations in both, the bosonic and fermionic sectors. We highlight a number of aspects that distinguish these configurations from their D3 and D5 cousins including new peculiar mixing terms in the fluctuations. We neatly organize the spectrum of fluctuations into the corresponding supermultiplets.

  5. Representation learning via Dual-Autoencoder for recommendation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Fuzhen; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Qian, Mingda; Shi, Chuan; Xie, Xing; He, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Recommendation has provoked vast amount of attention and research in recent decades. Most previous works employ matrix factorization techniques to learn the latent factors of users and items. And many subsequent works consider external information, e.g., social relationships of users and items' attributions, to improve the recommendation performance under the matrix factorization framework. However, matrix factorization methods may not make full use of the limited information from rating or check-in matrices, and achieve unsatisfying results. Recently, deep learning has proven able to learn good representation in natural language processing, image classification, and so on. Along this line, we propose a new representation learning framework called Recommendation via Dual-Autoencoder (ReDa). In this framework, we simultaneously learn the new hidden representations of users and items using autoencoders, and minimize the deviations of training data by the learnt representations of users and items. Based on this framework, we develop a gradient descent method to learn hidden representations. Extensive experiments conducted on several real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method compared with state-of-the-art matrix factorization based methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dual parametrization of generalized parton distributions in two equivalent representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Polyakov, M. V.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K. M.

    2015-03-01

    The dual parametrization and the Mellin-Barnes integral approach represent two frameworks for handling the double partial wave expansion of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the conformal partial waves and in the t-channel SO(3) partial waves. Within the dual parametrization framework, GPDs are represented as integral convolutions of forward-like functions whose Mellin moments generate the conformal moments of GPDs. The Mellin-Barnes integral approach is based on the analytic continuation of the GPD conformal moments to the complex values of the conformal spin. GPDs are then represented as the Mellin-Barnes-type integrals in the complex conformal spin plane. In this paper we explicitly show the equivalence of these two independently developed GPD representations. Furthermore, we clarify the notions of the J = 0 fixed pole and the D-form factor. We also provide some insight into GPD modeling and map the phenomenologically successful Kumerički-Müller GPD model to the dual parametrization framework by presenting the set of the corresponding forward-like functions. We also build up the reparametrization procedure allowing to recast the double distribution representation of GPDs in the Mellin-Barnes integral framework and present the explicit formula for mapping double distributions into the space of double partial wave amplitudes with complex conformal spin.

  7. Jost-Lehmann-Dyson representation in higher dimensional field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharana, Jnanadeva

    2017-01-01

    The Jost-Lehmann-Dyson representation is derived for massive scalar field theories in higher spacetime dimensions, D > 4, for the four point scattering amplitude. The representation is very crucial to investigate the analyticity properties of the amplitude. The axiomatic approach of Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann is adopted to show the existence of such a representation. Consequently, a host of interesting results will follow from derivation of JLD representation such as proof of analyticity properties and asymptotic behavior of the amplitude.

  8. Community Detection Using Dual-Representation Chemical Reaction Optimization.

    PubMed

    Chang, Honghao; Feng, Zuren; Ren, Zhigang

    2016-09-23

    Many complex networks have been shown to have community structures. Detecting those structures is very important for understanding the organization and function of networks. Because this problem is NP-hard, it is appropriate to resort to evolutionary algorithms. Chemical reaction optimization (CRO) is a novel evolutionary algorithm inspired by the interactions among molecules during chemical reactions. In this paper, we propose a CRO variant named dual-representation CRO (DCRO) to address the community detection problem. DCRO encodes a solution in two representations: one is locus-based and the other is vector-based. The former representation can ensure the validity of a solution and fits for diversification search, and the latter is convenient for intensification search. We thus design two operators for CRO based on these two representations. Their cooperation enables DCRO to achieve a good balance between exploration and exploitation. Experimental results on synthetic and real-life networks show that DCRO can find community structures close to the actual ones and is capable of achieving solutions comparable to several state-of-the-art methods.

  9. Community Detection Using Dual-Representation Chemical Reaction Optimization.

    PubMed

    Chang, Honghao; Feng, Zuren; Ren, Zhigang

    2016-09-23

    Many complex networks have been shown to have community structures. Detecting those structures is very important for understanding the organization and function of networks. Because this problem is NP-hard, it is appropriate to resort to evolutionary algorithms. Chemical reaction optimization (CRO) is a novel evolutionary algorithm inspired by the interactions among molecules during chemical reactions. In this paper, we propose a CRO variant named dual-representation CRO (DCRO) to address the community detection problem. DCRO encodes a solution in two representations: one is locus-based and the other is vector-based. The former representation can ensure the validity of a solution and fits for diversification search, and the latter is convenient for intensification search. We thus design two operators for CRO based on these two representations. Their cooperation enables DCRO to achieve a good balance between exploration and exploitation. Experimental results on synthetic and real-life networks show that DCRO can find community structures close to the actual ones and is capable of achieving solutions comparable to several state-of-the-art methods.

  10. On topological field theory representation of higher analogs of classical special functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, Anton A.; Lebedev, Dimitri R.

    2011-09-01

    Looking for a quantum field theory model of Archimedean algebraic geometry a class of infinite-dimensional integral representations of classical special functions was introduced. Precisely the special functions such as Whittaker functions and Γ-function were identified with correlation functions in topological field theories on a two-dimensional disk. Mirror symmetry of the underlying topological field theory leads to a dual finite-dimensional integral representations reproducing classical integral representations for the corresponding special functions. The mirror symmetry interchanging infinite- and finite-dimensional integral representations provides an incarnation of the local Archimedean Langlands duality on the level of classical special functions. In this note we provide some directions to higher-dimensional generalizations of our previous results. In the first part we consider topological field theory representations of multiple local L-factors introduced by Kurokawa and expressed through multiple Barnes's Γ-functions. In the second part we are dealing with generalizations based on consideration of topological Yang-Mills theories on non-compact four-dimensional manifolds. Presumably, in analogy with the mirror duality in two-dimensions, S-dual description should be instrumental for deriving integral representations for a particular class of quantum field theory correlation functions and thus providing a new interesting class of special functions supplied with canonical integral representations.

  11. An Unsteady Dual Porosity Representation Of Concrete Rubble Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G

    2006-03-29

    Decontamination and decommissioning at the Savannah River Site have produced on-site disposals of low-level solid radioactive waste in the form of concrete rubble. In the case of a former tritium extraction facility, building demolition produced a significant volume of rubble embedded with tritium. The contaminated debris comprises a heterogeneous mixture of sizes, shapes, and internal tritium distributions. The rubble was disposed in long, shallow, unlined, earthen trenches, that were subsequently backfilled with excavated soil and exposed to normal infiltration. To forecast tritium flux to the water table, an unsteady dual porosity model was developed to describe vadose zone leaching and transport. Tritium was assumed to be released through unsteady, one-dimensional, molecular diffusion within concrete, while advective and diffusive transport occur in the surrounding backfill. Rubble size and shape variations were characterized through a combination of physical measurement and photographic image analysis. For simplicity, the characterization data were reduced to an approximately equivalent distribution of one-dimensional slab thicknesses for representation in the dual porosity formulation. Each size classification was simulated separately, and individual flux results were then blended in proportion to the thickness distribution to produce a composite flux. The fractional flux from concrete rubble was predicted to be roughly 40% of that from tritium-contaminated soil. The lower flux is a result of slower release to soil pore water, and a reduced effective trench conductivity from the presence of impervious concrete.

  12. Workplace Learning in Dual Higher Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poortman, Cindy L.; Reenalda, Marloes; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Workplace learning is considered an effective strategy for the development of vocation, career and professional identity. Dual training programs, in which learning at a vocational school and learning at work in a company are combined, are seen as strong carriers for skill formation processes. In this study we explore workplace learning in dual…

  13. English Idioms in the First Language and Second Language Lexicon: A Dual Representation Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Beate

    2003-01-01

    Investigated judgments native speakers of German make about the decomposability of English idioms. Findings were analyzed and compared to native judgments. Introduces the Model of Dual Idiom Representation to explain the differences between the two groups. (Author/VWL)

  14. Australian Indigenous Higher Education: Politics, Policy and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…

  15. Australian Indigenous Higher Education: Politics, Policy and Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Katie; Wilks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The growth of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participation in Australian higher education from 1959 to the present is notable statistically, but below population parity. Distinct patterns in government policy-making and programme development, inconsistent funding and political influences, together with Indigenous representation during the…

  16. Integral representations on supermanifolds: super Hodge duals, PCOs and Liouville forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, Leonardo; Catenacci, Roberto; Grassi, Pietro Antonio

    2017-01-01

    We present a few types of integral transforms and integral representations that are very useful for extending to supergeometry many familiar concepts of differential geometry. Among them we discuss the construction of the super Hodge dual, the integral representation of picture changing operators of string theories and the construction of the super-Liouville form of a symplectic supermanifold.

  17. The Effects of Single and Dual Representations on Children's Gesture Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurnham, Angela J.; Pine, Karen J.

    2006-01-01

    Investigations that focus on children's hand gestures often conclude that gesture production arises as a result of having multiple representations. To date, the predictive validity of this notion has not been tested. In this study, we compared the gestures of 82 five-year-old children holding either a single or a dual representation. The children…

  18. Higher representations and multijet resonances at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jason; Rajaraman, Arvind; Thomas, Brooks

    2011-12-01

    The CMS Collaboration has recently conducted a search for trijet resonances in multijet events at the LHC. Motivated in part by this analysis, we examine the phenomenology of exotic particles transforming under higher representations of SU(3) color, focusing on those representations which intrinsically prohibit decays to fewer than three jets. We determine the LHC discovery reach for a particle transforming in a representation of this sort and discuss several additional theoretical and phenomenological constraints which apply to such a particle. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such a particle can provide a consistent explanation for a trijet excess (an invariant-mass peak of roughly 375 GeV) observed in the recent CMS study.

  19. How dual-polarization radar observations can be used to verify model representation of secondary ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Victoria A.; Moisseev, Dmitri; Lerber, Annakaisa

    2016-09-01

    In this paper it is discussed how dual-polarization radar observations can be used to verify model representations of secondary ice production. An event where enhanced specific differential phase, Kdp, signatures in snow occur at the altitudes where temperatures lie in the range between -8 and -3°C is investigated. By combining radar and surface-based precipitation observations it is shown that these dual-polarization radar signatures are most likely caused by ice with concentrations exceeding those expected from primary ice parameterizations. It is also shown that the newly formed ice particles readily aggregate, which may explain why Kdp values seem to be capped at 0.2-0.3°/km for a C band radar. For the event of interest, multiple high-resolution (1 km) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations are conducted. When the default versions of the Morrison microphysics schemes were used, the simulated number concentration of frozen hydrometeors is much lower than observed and the simulated ice particle concentrations are comparable with values expected from primary ice parameterizations. Higher ice concentrations, which exceed values expected from primary ice parameterizations, were simulated when ad hoc thresholds for rain and cloud water mixing ratio in the Hallett-Mossop part of the Morrison scheme were removed. These results suggest that the parameterization of secondary ice production in operational weather prediction models needs to be revisited and that dual-polarization radar observations, in conjunction with ancillary observations, can be used to verify them.

  20. Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of "dual character concepts." Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for…

  1. Dual Character Concepts and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobe, Joshua; Prasada, Sandeep; Newman, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a class of "dual character concepts." Dual character concepts characterize their members in terms of both (a) a set of concrete features and (b) the abstract values that these features serve to realize. As such, these concepts provide two bases for evaluating category members and two different criteria for…

  2. Didactic Conditions of Improvement of Pedagogical Personnel Training at Higher Education Institutions to Dual Education in the System of VET

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zholdasbekova, Saule; Nurzhanbayeva, Zhanet; Mavedov, Rixsibai; Saipov, Amangeldi; Zhiyentayeva, Begaim; Tlemissova, Alja

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article consists in representation to discussion by specialists of the revealed didactic conditions of enhancement of preparation of the pedagogical personnel in higher education institution to dual training in the system of vocational and educational training. Modeling, aspect system, comparative and structural analyses…

  3. RENORMALIZATION OF POLYAKOV LOOPS IN FUNDAMENTAL AND HIGHER REPRESENTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    KACZMAREK,O.; GUPTA, S.; HUEBNER, K.

    2007-07-30

    We compare two renormalization procedures, one based on the short distance behavior of heavy quark-antiquark free energies and the other by using bare Polyakov loops at different temporal entent of the lattice and find that both prescriptions are equivalent, resulting in renormalization constants that depend on the bare coupling. Furthermore these renormalization constants show Casimir scaling for higher representations of the Polyakov loops. The analysis of Polyakov loops in different representations of the color SU(3) group indicates that a simple perturbative inspired relation in terms of the quadratic Casimir operator is realized to a good approximation at temperatures T{approx}>{Tc}, for renormalized as well as bare loops. In contrast to a vanishing Polyakov loop in representations with non-zero triality in the confined phase, the adjoint loops are small but non-zero even for temperatures below the critical one. The adjoint quark-antiquark pairs exhibit screening. This behavior can be related to the binding energy of glue-lump states.

  4. Fock parafermions and self-dual representations of the braid group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobanera, Emilio; Ortiz, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Because of potential relevance to topological quantum information processing, we introduce and study the self-dual family of representations of the braid group. Self-dual representations are physically well motivated and provide a natural generalization of the Majorana and Gaussian representations, which appear as particular instances. To show that self-dual representations admit a particle interpretation, we introduce and describe in second quantization a family of particle species with p =2,3,⋯ exclusion and θ =2π/p exchange statistics. We call these anyons Fock parafermions, because they are the particles naturally associated to the parafermionic zero-energy modes, potentially realizable in mesoscopic arrays of fractional topological insulators. Josephson junctions modeled with Fock parafermions may display a 2πp periodic relation between the Josephson current and the phase difference across the junction. Self-dual representations can be realized in terms of local quadratic combinations of either parafermions or Fock parafermions, an important requisite for physical implementation of quantum logic gates. The second-quantization description of Fock parafermions entails the concept of Fock algebra, i.e., a Fock space endowed with a statistical multiplication that captures and logically correlates these anyons' exclusion and exchange statistics. As a consequence normal ordering continues to be a well-defined operation.

  5. Conformal embeddings and higher-spin bulk duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dushyant; Sharma, Menika

    2017-03-01

    It is well known that conformal embeddings can be used to construct nondiagonal modular invariants for affine Lie algebras. This idea can be extended to construct infinite series of nondiagonal modular invariants for coset conformal field theories (CFTs). In this paper, we systematically approach the problem of identifying higher-spin bulk duals for these kind of nondiagonal invariants. In particular, for a special value of the 't Hooft coupling, there exist a class of partition functions that have enhanced supersymmetry, which should be reflected in a bulk dual. As an illustration of this, we show that a partition function of an orthogonal group coset CFT has an N =1 supersymmetric higher-spin bulk dual, in the 't Hooft limit. We also propose that two of the series of CFT partition functions, obtained from conformal embeddings, are equal, generalizing the well-known dual interpretation of the three-state Potts model as a S/U (2 )3⊗S U (2 )1 S U (2 )4 and also as a S/U (3 )1⊗S U (3 )1 S U (3 )2 coset model.

  6. Detection of dual-band infrared small target based on joint dynamic sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jinwei; Li, Jicheng; Shi, Zhiguang; Lu, Xiaowei; Ren, Dongwei

    2015-10-01

    Infrared small target detection is a crucial and yet still is a difficult issue in aeronautic and astronautic applications. Sparse representation is an important mathematic tool and has been used extensively in image processing in recent years. Joint sparse representation is applied in dual-band infrared dim target detection in this paper. Firstly, according to the characters of dim targets in dual-band infrared images, 2-dimension Gaussian intensity model was used to construct target dictionary, then the dictionary was classified into different sub-classes according to different positions of Gaussian function's center point in image block; The fact that dual-band small targets detection can use the same dictionary and the sparsity doesn't lie in atom-level but in sub-class level was utilized, hence the detection of targets in dual-band infrared images was converted to be a joint dynamic sparse representation problem. And the dynamic active sets were used to describe the sparse constraint of coefficients. Two modified sparsity concentration index (SCI) criteria was proposed to evaluate whether targets exist in the images. In experiments, it shows that the proposed algorithm can achieve better detecting performance and dual-band detection is much more robust to noise compared with single-band detection. Moreover, the proposed method can be expanded to multi-spectrum small target detection.

  7. Dual representation for the generating functional of the Feynman path-integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matone, Marco

    2016-09-01

    The generating functional for scalar theories admits a representation which is dual with respect to the one introduced by Schwinger, interchanging the role of the free and interacting terms. It maps ∫ V (δJ) and JΔJ to δϕc Δδϕc and ∫ V (ϕc), respectively, with ϕc = ∫ JΔ and Δ the Feynman propagator. Comparing the Schwinger representation with its dual version one gets a little known relation that we prove to be a particular case of a more general operatorial relation. We then derive a new representation of the generating functional T [ϕc ] = W [ J ] expressed in terms of covariant derivatives acting on 1

  8. Oscillator versus prefundamental representations. II. Arbitrary higher ranks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, Hermann; Göhmann, Frank; Klümper, Andreas; Nirov, Khazret S.; Razumov, Alexander V.

    2017-09-01

    We find the ℓ -weights and the ℓ -weight vectors for the highest ℓ -weight q-oscillator representations of the positive Borel subalgebra of the quantum loop algebra Uq(L (sl l +1 ) ) for arbitrary values of l. Having this, we establish the explicit relationship between the q-oscillator and prefundamental representations. Our consideration allows us to conclude that the prefundamental representations can be obtained by tensoring q-oscillator representations.

  9. Spatial representations elicit dual-coding effects in mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Verges, Michelle; Duffy, Sean

    2009-08-01

    Spatial aspects of words are associated with their canonical locations in the real world. Yet little research has tested whether spatial associations denoted in language comprehension generalize to their corresponding images. We directly tested the spatial aspects of mental imagery in picture and word processing (Experiment 1). We also tested whether spatial representations of motion words produce similar perceptual-interference effects as demonstrated by object words (Experiment 2). Findings revealed that words denoting an upward spatial location produced slower responses to targets appearing at the top of the display, whereas words denoting a downward spatial location produced slower responses to targets appearing at the bottom of the display. Perceptual-interference effects did not obtain for pictures or for words lacking a spatial relation. These findings provide greater empirical support for the perceptual-symbols system theory (Barsalou, 1999, 2008). Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Higher Order Pattern Structure Influences Auditory Representational Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Heather Moynihan; Jones, Mari Riess

    2006-01-01

    Representational momentum refers to the phenomenon that observers tend to incorrectly remember an event undergoing real or implied motion as shifted beyond its actual final position. This has been demonstrated in both visual and auditory domains. In 5 pitch discrimination experiments, listeners heard tone sequences that implied either linear,…

  11. Higher Order Pattern Structure Influences Auditory Representational Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Heather Moynihan; Jones, Mari Riess

    2006-01-01

    Representational momentum refers to the phenomenon that observers tend to incorrectly remember an event undergoing real or implied motion as shifted beyond its actual final position. This has been demonstrated in both visual and auditory domains. In 5 pitch discrimination experiments, listeners heard tone sequences that implied either linear,…

  12. A Family of Finite-Dimensional Representations of Generalized Double Affine Hecke Algebras of Higher Rank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuchen; Shelley-Abrahamson, Seth

    2016-06-01

    We give explicit constructions of some finite-dimensional representations of generalized double affine Hecke algebras (GDAHA) of higher rank using R-matrices for U_q(sl_N). Our construction is motivated by an analogous construction of Silvia Montarani in the rational case. Using the Drinfeld-Kohno theorem for Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov differential equations, we prove that the explicit representations we produce correspond to Montarani's representations under a monodromy functor introduced by Etingof, Gan, and Oblomkov.

  13. Conformal window of SU(N) gauge theories with fermions in higher dimensional representations

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Dennis D.; Sannino, Francesco

    2007-04-15

    We study the phase diagram as a function of the number of colors and flavors of asymptotically free nonsupersymmetric theories with matter in higher-dimensional representations of arbitrary SU(N) gauge groups. Since matter in higher-dimensional representations screens more than in the fundamental a general feature is that a lower number of flavors is needed to achieve a near-conformal theory.

  14. Urban traffic simulated from the dual representation: Flow, crisis and congestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Ruili; Wu, Qing-Song

    2009-05-01

    We propose a traffic simulation model for urban system based on the dual graph representation of a urban road network and with a random entering vehicle rate. To avoid the shortcoming of “Space Syntax” of ignoring the road's metric distance, we consider both the motion of the vehicles along roads and the navigation of the vehicles in the network. Simulations have shown some basic properties of urban traffic system, such as flux fluctuation, crisis and dissipation, phase transition from a free flow to jams, overall capacity, the distribution of traveling time, and the fundamental diagram. The system's behavior greatly depends on the topology of the transportation network. A well-planned lattice grid can keep more vehicles travelling. The critical entering vehicle rate is much greater in lattice grid than in a self-organized network. The vehicles have to travel longer time in a self-organized urban system due to the navigation cost.

  15. Adaptive Nonlocal Sparse Representation for Dual-Camera Compressive Hyperspectral Imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhi; Xiong, Zhiwei; Shi, Guangming; Wu, Feng; Zeng, Wenjun

    2016-10-25

    Leveraging the compressive sensing (CS) theory, coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging (CASSI) provides an efficient solution to recover 3D hyperspectral data from a 2D measurement. The dual-camera design of CASSI, by adding an uncoded panchromatic measurement, enhances the reconstruction fidelity while maintaining the snapshot advantage. In this paper, we propose an adaptive nonlocal sparse representation (ANSR) model to boost the performance of dualcamera compressive hyperspectral imaging (DCCHI). Specifically, the CS reconstruction problem is formulated as a 3D cube based sparse representation to make full use of the nonlocal similarity in both the spatial and spectral domains. Our key observation is that, the panchromatic image, besides playing the role of direct measurement, can be further exploited to help the nonlocal similarity estimation. Therefore, we design a joint similarity metric by adaptively combining the internal similarity within the reconstructed hyperspectral image and the external similarity within the panchromatic image. In this way, the fidelity of CS reconstruction is greatly enhanced. Both simulation and hardware experimental results show significant improvement of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art.

  16. GrDHP: a general utility function representation for dual heuristic dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhen; He, Haibo; Zhao, Dongbin; Xu, Xin; Prokhorov, Danil V

    2015-03-01

    A general utility function representation is proposed to provide the required derivable and adjustable utility function for the dual heuristic dynamic programming (DHP) design. Goal representation DHP (GrDHP) is presented with a goal network being on top of the traditional DHP design. This goal network provides a general mapping between the system states and the derivatives of the utility function. With this proposed architecture, we can obtain the required derivatives of the utility function directly from the goal network. In addition, instead of a fixed predefined utility function in literature, we conduct an online learning process for the goal network so that the derivatives of the utility function can be adaptively tuned over time. We provide the control performance of both the proposed GrDHP and the traditional DHP approaches under the same environment and parameter settings. The statistical simulation results and the snapshot of the system variables are presented to demonstrate the improved learning and controlling performance. We also apply both approaches to a power system example to further demonstrate the control capabilities of the GrDHP approach.

  17. Sound representation in higher language areas during language generation

    PubMed Central

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Aromataris, Giuseppe; Cabrini, Alessandro; Annovazzi-Lodi, Valerio; Moro, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    How language is encoded by neural activity in the higher-level language areas of humans is still largely unknown. We investigated whether the electrophysiological activity of Broca’s area correlates with the sound of the utterances produced. During speech perception, the electric cortical activity of the auditory areas correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances. In our experiment, we compared the electrocorticogram recorded during awake neurosurgical operations in Broca’s area and in the dominant temporal lobe with the sound envelope of single words versus sentences read aloud or mentally by the patients. Our results indicate that the electrocorticogram correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances, starting before any sound is produced and even in the absence of speech, when the patient is reading mentally. No correlations were found when the electrocorticogram was recorded in the superior parietal gyrus, an area not directly involved in language generation, or in Broca’s area when the participants were executing a repetitive motor task, which did not include any linguistic content, with their dominant hand. The distribution of suprathreshold correlations across frequencies of cortical activities varied whether the sound envelope derived from words or sentences. Our results suggest the activity of language areas is organized by sound when language is generated before any utterance is produced or heard. PMID:25624479

  18. Sound representation in higher language areas during language generation.

    PubMed

    Magrassi, Lorenzo; Aromataris, Giuseppe; Cabrini, Alessandro; Annovazzi-Lodi, Valerio; Moro, Andrea

    2015-02-10

    How language is encoded by neural activity in the higher-level language areas of humans is still largely unknown. We investigated whether the electrophysiological activity of Broca's area correlates with the sound of the utterances produced. During speech perception, the electric cortical activity of the auditory areas correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances. In our experiment, we compared the electrocorticogram recorded during awake neurosurgical operations in Broca's area and in the dominant temporal lobe with the sound envelope of single words versus sentences read aloud or mentally by the patients. Our results indicate that the electrocorticogram correlates with the sound envelope of the utterances, starting before any sound is produced and even in the absence of speech, when the patient is reading mentally. No correlations were found when the electrocorticogram was recorded in the superior parietal gyrus, an area not directly involved in language generation, or in Broca's area when the participants were executing a repetitive motor task, which did not include any linguistic content, with their dominant hand. The distribution of suprathreshold correlations across frequencies of cortical activities varied whether the sound envelope derived from words or sentences. Our results suggest the activity of language areas is organized by sound when language is generated before any utterance is produced or heard.

  19. Dual-Mode Universities in Higher Education: Way Station or Final Destination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John

    2012-01-01

    In the title the author asked whether dual-mode institutions were a stable "final" model for higher education or a step on the way to something else. Only a few institutions seem able to function in dual mode (i.e. with distinct groups of distance and classroom students) in a successful and sustainable way. Some institutions now claim…

  20. Dual-Mode Universities in Higher Education: Way Station or Final Destination?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John

    2012-01-01

    In the title the author asked whether dual-mode institutions were a stable "final" model for higher education or a step on the way to something else. Only a few institutions seem able to function in dual mode (i.e. with distinct groups of distance and classroom students) in a successful and sustainable way. Some institutions now claim…

  1. Abelian color cycles: A new approach to strong coupling expansion and dual representations for non-abelian lattice gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattringer, Christof; Marchis, Carlotta

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new approach to strong coupling series and dual representations for non-abelian lattice gauge theories using the SU(2) case as an example. The Wilson gauge action is written as a sum over ;abelian color cycles; (ACC) which correspond to loops in color space around plaquettes. The ACCs are complex numbers which can be commuted freely such that the strong coupling series and the dual representation can be obtained as in the abelian case. Using a suitable representation of the SU(2) gauge variables we integrate out all original gauge links and identify the constraints for the dual variables in the SU(2) case. We show that the construction can be generalized to the case of SU(2) gauge fields with staggered fermions. The result is a strong coupling series where all gauge integrals are known in closed form and we discuss its applicability for possible dual simulations. The abelian color cycle concept can be generalized to other non-abelian gauge groups such as SU(3).

  2. Lepton flavor violation in the inert scalar model with higher representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Talal Ahmed; Nasri, Salah

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the lepton flavor violation (LFV) in the inert scalar model with higher representations. We generalize the inert doublet model with right handed neutrino by using higher scalar and fermion representation of SU(2) L . As the generalized model and the inert doublet model have the same parameter space, we compare the rates of μ → eγ, μ → eeē and μ - e conversion in nuclei in the doublet and its immediate extension, the quartet model. We show that the corresponding rates are larger in the case of higher representation compared to the Inert doublet for the same region of parameter space. This implies that such extended models are more constrained by current LFV bounds and will have better prospects in future experiments.

  3. A bio-behavioral model of addiction treatment: applying dual representation theory to craving management and relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Matto, Holly

    2005-01-01

    A bio-behavioral approach to drug addiction treatment is outlined. The presented treatment model uses dual representation theory as a guiding framework for understanding the bio-behavioral processes activated during the application of expressive therapeutic methods. Specifically, the treatment model explains how visual processing techniques can supplement traditional relapse prevention therapy protocols, to help clients better manage cravings and control triggers in hard-to-treat populations such as chronic substance-dependent persons.

  4. Female Representation in the Higher Education of Geography in Hungary. Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Judit; Jelenszkyne, Ildiko Fabian

    2004-01-01

    This paper charts the changing female representation in the higher education of geography, connecting it with the faltering development of feminist geography in Hungary. The transition from socialism to capitalism has compounded gender inequalities while many of the relevant statistical data display gender blindness. Gender issues fail to form a…

  5. Accounting for Negative Automaintenance in Pigeons: A Dual Learning Systems Approach and Factored Representations

    PubMed Central

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Animals, including Humans, are prone to develop persistent maladaptive and suboptimal behaviours. Some of these behaviours have been suggested to arise from interactions between brain systems of Pavlovian conditioning, the acquisition of responses to initially neutral stimuli previously paired with rewards, and instrumental conditioning, the acquisition of active behaviours leading to rewards. However the mechanics of these systems and their interactions are still unclear. While extensively studied independently, few models have been developed to account for these interactions. On some experiment, pigeons have been observed to display a maladaptive behaviour that some suggest to involve conflicts between Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. In a procedure referred as negative automaintenance, a key light is paired with the subsequent delivery of food, however any peck towards the key light results in the omission of the reward. Studies showed that in such procedure some pigeons persisted in pecking to a substantial level despite its negative consequence, while others learned to refrain from pecking and maximized their cumulative rewards. Furthermore, the pigeons that were unable to refrain from pecking could nevertheless shift their pecks towards a harmless alternative key light. We confronted a computational model that combines dual-learning systems and factored representations, recently developed to account for sign-tracking and goal-tracking behaviours in rats, to these negative automaintenance experimental data. We show that it can explain the variability of the observed behaviours and the capacity of alternative key lights to distract pigeons from their detrimental behaviours. These results confirm the proposed model as an interesting tool to reproduce experiments that could involve interactions between Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. The model allows us to draw predictions that may be experimentally verified, which could help further investigate

  6. Accounting for negative automaintenance in pigeons: a dual learning systems approach and factored representations.

    PubMed

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Animals, including Humans, are prone to develop persistent maladaptive and suboptimal behaviours. Some of these behaviours have been suggested to arise from interactions between brain systems of Pavlovian conditioning, the acquisition of responses to initially neutral stimuli previously paired with rewards, and instrumental conditioning, the acquisition of active behaviours leading to rewards. However the mechanics of these systems and their interactions are still unclear. While extensively studied independently, few models have been developed to account for these interactions. On some experiment, pigeons have been observed to display a maladaptive behaviour that some suggest to involve conflicts between Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. In a procedure referred as negative automaintenance, a key light is paired with the subsequent delivery of food, however any peck towards the key light results in the omission of the reward. Studies showed that in such procedure some pigeons persisted in pecking to a substantial level despite its negative consequence, while others learned to refrain from pecking and maximized their cumulative rewards. Furthermore, the pigeons that were unable to refrain from pecking could nevertheless shift their pecks towards a harmless alternative key light. We confronted a computational model that combines dual-learning systems and factored representations, recently developed to account for sign-tracking and goal-tracking behaviours in rats, to these negative automaintenance experimental data. We show that it can explain the variability of the observed behaviours and the capacity of alternative key lights to distract pigeons from their detrimental behaviours. These results confirm the proposed model as an interesting tool to reproduce experiments that could involve interactions between Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. The model allows us to draw predictions that may be experimentally verified, which could help further investigate

  7. Collocated electrodynamic FDTD schemes using overlapping Yee grids and higher-order Hodge duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deimert, C.; Potter, M. E.; Okoniewski, M.

    2016-12-01

    The collocated Lebedev grid has previously been proposed as an alternative to the Yee grid for electromagnetic finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. While it performs better in anisotropic media, it performs poorly in isotropic media because it is equivalent to four overlapping, uncoupled Yee grids. We propose to couple the four Yee grids and fix the Lebedev method using discrete exterior calculus (DEC) with higher-order Hodge duals. We find that higher-order Hodge duals do improve the performance of the Lebedev grid, but they also improve the Yee grid by a similar amount. The effectiveness of coupling overlapping Yee grids with a higher-order Hodge dual is thus questionable. However, the theoretical foundations developed to derive these methods may be of interest in other problems.

  8. Review of Dual Admissions Agreements and Programs in the Virginia Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) is gathering information about the extent to which dual admissions agreements and programs between two- and four-year institutions have been developed in the Commonwealth. This is in response to the State Transfer Module legislation passed in 2004 requiring that two- and four-year…

  9. Bounding higher-order ionosphere errors for the dual-frequency GPS user

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta-Barua, S.; Walter, T.; Blanch, J.; Enge, P.

    2008-10-01

    Civil signals at L2 and L5 frequencies herald a new phase of Global Positioning System (GPS) performance. Dual-frequency users typically assume a first-order approximation of the ionosphere index of refraction, combining the GPS observables to eliminate most of the ranging delay, on the order of meters, introduced into the pseudoranges. This paper estimates the higher-order group and phase errors that occur from assuming the ordinary first-order dual-frequency ionosphere model using data from the Federal Aviation Administration's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) network on a solar maximum quiet day and an extremely stormy day postsolar maximum. We find that during active periods, when ionospheric storms may introduce slant range delays at L1 as high as 100 m, the higher-order group errors in the L1-L2 or L1-L5 dual-frequency combination can be tens of centimeters. The group and phase errors are no longer equal and opposite, so these errors accumulate in carrier smoothing of the dual-frequency code observable. We show the errors in the carrier-smoothed code are due to higher-order group errors and, to a lesser extent, to higher-order phase rate errors. For many applications, this residual error is sufficiently small as to be neglected. However, such errors can impact geodetic applications as well as the error budgets of GPS Augmentation Systems providing Category III precision approach.

  10. Sparse representation of higher-order functional interaction patterns in task-based FMRI data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Li, Xiang; Lv, Jinglei; Jiang, Xi; Zhu, Dajiang; Chen, Hanbo; Zhang, Tuo; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Traditional task-based fMRI activation detection methods, e.g., the widely used general linear model (GLM), assume that the brain's hemodynamic responses follow the block-based or event-related stimulus paradigm. Typically, these activation detections are performed voxel-wise independently, and then are usually followed by statistical corrections. Despite remarkable successes and wide adoption of these methods, it remains largely unknown how functional brain regions interact with each other within specific networks during task performance blocks and in the baseline. In this paper, we present a novel algorithmic pipeline to statistically infer and sparsely represent higher-order functional interaction patterns within the working memory network during task performance and in the baseline. Specifically, a collection of higher-order interactions are inferred via the greedy equivalence search (GES) algorithm for both task and baseline blocks. In the next stage, an effective online dictionary learning algorithm is utilized for sparse representation of the inferred higher-order interaction patterns. Application of this framework on a working memory task-based fMRI data reveals interesting and meaningful distributions of the learned sparse dictionary atoms in task and baseline blocks. In comparison with traditional voxel-wise activation detection and recent pair-wise functional connectivity analysis, our framework offers a new methodology for representation and exploration of higher-order functional activities in the brain.

  11. Public Higher Education Performance Accountability Framework Report: Goal--Access and Affordability. Measure: Percentage of Racial Representation in Systems of Higher Education Compared to Racial Representation in the State. Commission Report 07-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Despite segmental efforts to increase diversity in higher education, African American and Latino students are not achieving levels of representation in California public universities that are equivalent to their levels of representation in the overall State population. Using data for the years 1997 through 2006, the California Postsecondary…

  12. Object representation for multi-beam sonar image using local higher-order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haisen; Gao, Jue; Du, Weidong; Zhou, Tian; Xu, Chao; Chen, Baowei

    2017-01-01

    Multi-beam sonar imaging has been widely used in various underwater tasks such as object recognition and object tracking. Problems remain, however, when the sonar images are characterized by low signal-to-noise ratio, low resolution, and amplitude alterations due to viewpoint changes. This paper investigates the capacity of local higher-order statistics (HOS) to represent objects in multi-beam sonar images. The Weibull distribution has been used for modeling the background of the image. Local HOS involving skewness is estimated using a sliding computational window, thus generating the local skewness image of which a square structure is associated with a potential object. The ability of object representation with different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between object and background is analyzed, and the choice of the computational window size is discussed. In the case of the object with high SNR, a novel algorithm based on background estimation is proposed to reduce side lobe and retain object regions. The performance of object representation has been evaluated using real data that provided encouraging results in the case of the object with low amplitude, high side lobes, or large fluctuant amplitude. In conclusion, local HOS provides more reliable and stable information relating to the potential object and improves the object representation in multi-beam sonar image.

  13. MatrixExplorer: a dual-representation system to explore social networks.

    PubMed

    Henry, Nathalie; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2006-01-01

    MatrixExplorer is a network visualization system that uses two representations: node-link diagrams and matrices. Its design comes from a list of requirements formalized after several interviews and a participatory design session conducted with social science researchers. Although matrices are commonly used in social networks analysis, very few systems support the matrix-based representations to visualize and analyze networks. MatrixExplorer provides several novel features to support the exploration of social networks with a matrix-based representation, in addition to the standard interactive filtering and clustering functions. It provides tools to reorder (layout) matrices, to annotate and compare findings across different layouts and find consensus among several clusterings. MatrixExplorer also supports Node-link diagram views which are familiar to most users and remain a convenient way to publish or communicate exploration results. Matrix and node-link representations are kept synchronized at all stages of the exploration process.

  14. Using the Dual-Target Cost to Explore the Nature of Search Target Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Michael J.; Menneer, Tamaryn; Cave, Kyle R.; Donnelly, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored to examine search efficiency and infer how color is mentally represented to guide search for multiple targets. Observers located a single color target very efficiently by fixating colors similar to the target. However, simultaneous search for 2 colors produced a dual-target cost. In addition, as the similarity between…

  15. Using the Dual-Target Cost to Explore the Nature of Search Target Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroud, Michael J.; Menneer, Tamaryn; Cave, Kyle R.; Donnelly, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements were monitored to examine search efficiency and infer how color is mentally represented to guide search for multiple targets. Observers located a single color target very efficiently by fixating colors similar to the target. However, simultaneous search for 2 colors produced a dual-target cost. In addition, as the similarity between…

  16. A geometric modeler based on a dual-geometry representation polyhedra and rational b-splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klosterman, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    For speed and data base reasons, solid geometric modeling of large complex practical systems is usually approximated by a polyhedra representation. Precise parametric surface and implicit algebraic modelers are available but it is not yet practical to model the same level of system complexity with these precise modelers. In response to this contrast the GEOMOD geometric modeling system was built so that a polyhedra abstraction of the geometry would be available for interactive modeling without losing the precise definition of the geometry. Part of the reason that polyhedra modelers are effective is that all bounded surfaces can be represented in a single canonical format (i.e., sets of planar polygons). This permits a very simple and compact data structure. Nonuniform rational B-splines are currently the best representation to describe a very large class of geometry precisely with one canonical format. The specific capabilities of the modeler are described.

  17. Higher sympathetic nerve activity during ventricular (VVI) than during dual-chamber (DDD) pacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. A.; Morillo, C. A.; Eckberg, D. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We determined the short-term effects of single-chamber ventricular pacing and dual-chamber atrioventricular (AV) pacing on directly measured sympathetic nerve activity. BACKGROUND: Dual-chamber AV cardiac pacing results in greater cardiac output and lower systemic vascular resistance than does single-chamber ventricular pacing. However, it is unclear whether these hemodynamic advantages result in less sympathetic nervous system outflow. METHODS: In 13 patients with a dual-chamber pacemaker, we recorded the electrocardiogram, noninvasive arterial pressure (Finapres), respiration and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) during 3 min of underlying basal heart rate and 3 min of ventricular and AV pacing at rates of 60 and 100 beats/min. RESULTS: Arterial pressure was lowest and muscle sympathetic nerve activity was highest at the underlying basal heart rate. Arterial pressure increased with cardiac pacing and was greater with AV than with ventricular pacing (change in mean blood pressure +/- SE: 10 +/- 3 vs. 2 +/- 2 mm Hg at 60 beats/min; 21 +/- 5 vs. 14 +/- 2 mm Hg at 100 beats/min; p < 0.05). Sympathetic nerve activity decreased with cardiac pacing and the decline was greater with AV than with ventricular pacing (60 beats/min -40 +/- 11% vs. -17 +/- 7%; 100 beats/min -60 +/- 9% vs. -48 +/- 10%; p < 0.05). Although most patients showed a strong inverse relation between arterial pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity, three patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < or = 30%) showed no relation between arterial pressure and sympathetic activity. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term AV pacing results in lower sympathetic nerve activity and higher arterial pressure than does ventricular pacing, indicating that cardiac pacing mode may influence sympathetic outflow simply through arterial baroreflex mechanisms. We speculate that the greater incidence of adverse outcomes in patients treated with single-chamber ventricular

  18. Higher sympathetic nerve activity during ventricular (VVI) than during dual-chamber (DDD) pacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. A.; Morillo, C. A.; Eckberg, D. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We determined the short-term effects of single-chamber ventricular pacing and dual-chamber atrioventricular (AV) pacing on directly measured sympathetic nerve activity. BACKGROUND: Dual-chamber AV cardiac pacing results in greater cardiac output and lower systemic vascular resistance than does single-chamber ventricular pacing. However, it is unclear whether these hemodynamic advantages result in less sympathetic nervous system outflow. METHODS: In 13 patients with a dual-chamber pacemaker, we recorded the electrocardiogram, noninvasive arterial pressure (Finapres), respiration and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) during 3 min of underlying basal heart rate and 3 min of ventricular and AV pacing at rates of 60 and 100 beats/min. RESULTS: Arterial pressure was lowest and muscle sympathetic nerve activity was highest at the underlying basal heart rate. Arterial pressure increased with cardiac pacing and was greater with AV than with ventricular pacing (change in mean blood pressure +/- SE: 10 +/- 3 vs. 2 +/- 2 mm Hg at 60 beats/min; 21 +/- 5 vs. 14 +/- 2 mm Hg at 100 beats/min; p < 0.05). Sympathetic nerve activity decreased with cardiac pacing and the decline was greater with AV than with ventricular pacing (60 beats/min -40 +/- 11% vs. -17 +/- 7%; 100 beats/min -60 +/- 9% vs. -48 +/- 10%; p < 0.05). Although most patients showed a strong inverse relation between arterial pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity, three patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < or = 30%) showed no relation between arterial pressure and sympathetic activity. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term AV pacing results in lower sympathetic nerve activity and higher arterial pressure than does ventricular pacing, indicating that cardiac pacing mode may influence sympathetic outflow simply through arterial baroreflex mechanisms. We speculate that the greater incidence of adverse outcomes in patients treated with single-chamber ventricular

  19. A dual mechanism underlying alpha lateralization in attentional orienting to mental representation.

    PubMed

    Poch, Claudia; Carretie, Luis; Campo, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    Numerous electrophysiological findings support the notion that selective attention modulates alpha oscillatory activity. Specifically, alpha enhancement and suppression can be dissociated in time and space. It is now accepted that selective attention operates in either the perceptual or the representational environments. Lateralized alpha activity resulting from directing attention to mental representations, might arise from a transient alpha desynchronization, as recent proposals hypothesized. However, the contribution of enhancement vs suppression, as well as their neural correlates to the lateralized alpha modulation remain unstudied. To investigate these questions, we recorded magnetoencephalography while participants performed a retrospective cueing paradigm. Time-frequency analysis revealed a larger transient alpha desynchronization for the sensors contralateral to the relevant items which originated from the ventral lateral occipital cortex. Additionally, greater ipsilateral alpha enhancement in the medial occipital cortex occurred later and was maintained until probe presentation. Based on these differences we reasoned that the former would reflect the allocation of selective attention to relevant items, while the later might signal the inhibition of the irrelevant external hemifield instead of irrelevant WM items. Altogether, our results suggest that alpha lateralization does not arise from a unitary phenomenon. Dissociated anatomical and temporal alpha activity might be signaling different functional roles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual Character Concepts in Social Cognition: Commitments and the Normative Dimension of Conceptual Representation.

    PubMed

    Del Pinal, Guillermo; Reuter, Kevin

    2016-11-17

    The concepts expressed by social role terms such as artist and scientist are unique in that they seem to allow two independent criteria for categorization, one of which is inherently normative (Knobe, Prasada, & Newman, 2013). This study presents and tests an account of the content and structure of the normative dimension of these "dual character concepts." Experiment 1 suggests that the normative dimension of a social role concept represents the commitment to fulfill the idealized basic function associated with the role. Background information can affect which basic function is associated with each social role. However, Experiment 2 indicates that the normative dimension always represents the relevant commitment as an end in itself. We argue that social role concepts represent the commitments to basic functions because that information is crucial to predict the future social roles and role-dependent behavior of others.

  1. E. Cartan moment of rotation in Ashtekar's self-dual representation of gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Kheyfets, A. ); Miller, W.A. )

    1992-06-01

    The geometric construction of the E. Cartan moment of rotation associated to the spacetime curvature provides a geometric interpretation of the gravitational field sources and describes geometrically how the sources are wired'' to the field in standard geometrodynamics. The E. Cartan moment of rotation yields an alternate way (as opposed to using variational principles) to obtain Einstein equations. The E. Cartan construction uses, in an essential way, the soldering structure of the frame bundle underlying the geometry of the gravitational field of general relativity. The geometry of Ashtekar's connection formulation of gravitation is based on a complex-valued self-dual connection that is not defined on the frame bundle of spacetime. It is shown how to transfer the construction of the E. Cartan moment of rotation of Ashtekar's formulation of the theory of gravity and demonstrate that no spurious equations are produced via this procedure.

  2. Generating and manipulating higher order Fano resonances in dual-disk ring plasmonic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuan Hsing; Zhang, Jing Bo; Yu, Ye Feng; Luk'yanchuk, Boris

    2012-06-26

    In this article, we investigate higher order (quadrupolar, octupolar, hexadecapolar, and triakontadipolar) Fano resonances generated in disk ring (DR) silver plasmonic nanostructures. We find that the higher order Fano resonances are generated when the size of the disk is reduced and falls into a certain range. With dual-disk ring (DDR) nanostructures, a rich set of tunable Fano line shapes is provided. More specifically, we report our observations on the optical behavior of the DDRs including asymmetric cases either in two disks with different sizes or their asymmetric locations inside the ring. In the case of symmetric dual-disk ring (SDDR) nanostructures, we demonstrate that the quadrupolar and the hexadecapolar Fano resonances are suppressed, which can reduce the cross-talk in spectroscopic measurements, while the octupolar and the triakontadipolar Fano resonances are enhanced. The potential of using the studied plasmonic nanostructures as biochemical sensors is evaluated with the figure of merit (FOM) and the contrast ratio (CR). The values of the FOM and the CR achieved using the triakontadipolar Fano resonance in the SDDR are 17 and 57%, respectively. These results indicate that the SDDRs could be developed into a high-performance biochemical sensor in the visible wavelength range.

  3. Morphological architecture of dual-layer hollow fiber for membrane distillation with higher desalination performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Teoh, May May; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2011-11-01

    A new strategy to enhance the desalination performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane for membrane distillation (MD) via architecture of morphological characteristics is explored in this study. It is proposed that a dual-layer hollow fiber consisting of a fully finger-like macrovoid inner-layer and a sponge-like outer-layer may effectively enhance the permeation flux while maintaining the wetting resistance. Dual-layer fibers with the proposed morphology have been fabricated by the dry-jet wet spinning process via careful choice of dopes composition and coagulation conditions. In addition to high energy efficiency (EE) of 94%, a superior flux of 98.6 L m(-2) h(-1) is obtained during the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) desalination experiments. Moreover, the liquid entry pressure (LEP) and long-term DCMD performance test show high wetting resistance and long-term stability. Mathematical modeling has been conducted to investigate the membrane mass transfer properties in terms of temperature profile and apparent diffusivity of the membranes. It is concluded that the enhancement in permeation flux arises from the coupling effect of two mechanisms; namely, a higher driving force and a lower mass transfer resistance, while the later is the major contribution. This work provides an insight on MD fundamentals and strategy to tailor making ideal membranes for DCMD application in desalination industry.

  4. Single or dual orthographic representations for reading and spelling? A study of Italian dyslexic-dysgraphic and normal children.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    Italian children with surface dyslexia and dysgraphia show defective orthographic lexical processing in both reading and spelling. It is unclear whether this parallelism is due to impairment of separate orthographic input and output lexicons or to a unique defective lexicon. The main aim of the present study was to compare the single- versus dual-lexicon accounts in dyslexic/dysgraphic children (and in normal but younger children). In the first experiment, 9 Italian children with surface dyslexia and dysgraphia judged the orthographic correctness (input lexicon) of their phonologically plausible misspellings (output lexicon) and of phonologically plausible spellings experimentally introduced for words they consistently spelt correctly. The children were generally impaired in recognizing phonologically plausible misspellings. Parallel deficits in reading and spelling also emerged: Children were more impaired in judging items they consistently misspelt and more accurate in judging items they always spelt correctly. In a second experiment, younger normal children with reading/spelling ability similar to that of the dyslexic/dysgraphic children in the first experiment (but younger) were examined. The results confirmed a close parallelism between the orthographic lexical representations used for reading and spelling. Overall, findings support the hypothesis that a single orthographic lexicon is responsible for reading and spelling performance in both dyslexic/dysgraphic and normal (but younger) children.

  5. The Majority in the Minority: Expanding the Representation of Latina/o Faculty, Administrators and Students in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Jeanett, Ed.; Jones, Lee, Ed.

    This collection discusses various aspects of increasing the representation of Latinas and Latinos in U.S. higher education. The selections provide historical background, review issues of access and achievement, and present problems of status and barriers to success. The book opens with "Latina/o Undergraduate Experiences in American Higher…

  6. The Majority in the Minority: Expanding the Representation of Latina/o Faculty, Administrators and Students in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Jeanett, Ed.; Jones, Lee, Ed.

    This collection discusses various aspects of increasing the representation of Latinas and Latinos in U.S. higher education. The selections provide historical background, review issues of access and achievement, and present problems of status and barriers to success. The book opens with "Latina/o Undergraduate Experiences in American Higher…

  7. "Engineered dual NbTa barriers for higher Jc Nb3Sn superconductors"

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Barber; Karl T. Hartwig

    2012-07-07

    The tantalum (Ta) diffusion barrier in advanced Nb3Sn superconductors often develops a failure mode during wire drawing where the Nb and Ta layers deform non-uniformly leading to a rough interface with adjacent copper. The non-uniform deformation of these layers can lead to premature wire breakage and breaches in the barrier, and contamination of the copper stabilizer by tin (Sn). The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate that a dual NbTa layer made from severely deformed Nb and Ta exhibits improved co-deformation behavior with pure Cu in advanced Nb3Sn superconductors. This phase I project demonstrated improved microstructural uniformity and superior mechanical property characteristics of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) processed and rolled Nb and Ta sheets. The results of this work point to a method for fabrication of higher field and lower cost superconducting magnets for high energy physics applications.

  8. Kidneys at higher risk of discard: expanding the role of dual kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanriover, B; Mohan, S; Cohen, D J; Radhakrishnan, J; Nickolas, T L; Stone, P W; Tsapepas, D S; Crew, R J; Dube, G K; Sandoval, P R; Samstein, B; Dogan, E; Gaston, R S; Tanriover, J N; Ratner, L E; Hardy, M A

    2014-02-01

    Half of the recovered expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys are discarded in the United States. A new kidney allocation system offers kidneys at higher risk of discard, Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI)>85%, to a wider geographic area to promote broader sharing and expedite utilization. Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) based on the KDPI is a potential option to streamline allocation of kidneys which otherwise would have been discarded. To assess the clinical utility of the KDPI in kidneys at higher risk of discard, we analyzed the OPTN/UNOS Registry that included the deceased donor kidneys recovered between 2002 and 2012. The primary outcomes were allograft survival, patient survival and discard rate based on different KDPI categories (<80%, 80-90% and >90%). Kidneys with KDPI>90% were associated with increased odds of discard (OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.74-2.29) compared to ones with KDPI<80%. DKTs of KDPI>90% were associated with lower overall allograft failure (HR=0.74, 95% CI 0.62-0.89) and better patient survival (HR=0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98) compared to single ECD kidneys with KDPI>90%. Kidneys at higher risk of discard may be offered in the up-front allocation system as a DKT. Further modeling and simulation studies are required to determine a reasonable KDPI cutoff percentile.

  9. Perceived Factors Influencing High School Student Participation in an Integrated Statewide Dual Credit Program: An Examination of Program Success and Student Higher Education Selection Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchstone, Allison J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Dual credit programs have become increasingly popular with 71% U.S. public high schools offering dual credit courses in 2002-2003. As this popularity has grown, so have concerns regarding academic rigor, course quality, parity with college courses, and effects on higher education. Determining actual dual credit course equivalent in higher…

  10. Perceived Factors Influencing High School Student Participation in an Integrated Statewide Dual Credit Program: An Examination of Program Success and Student Higher Education Selection Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touchstone, Allison J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Dual credit programs have become increasingly popular with 71% U.S. public high schools offering dual credit courses in 2002-2003. As this popularity has grown, so have concerns regarding academic rigor, course quality, parity with college courses, and effects on higher education. Determining actual dual credit course equivalent in higher…

  11. Degradation of neural representations in higher visual cortex by sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Jia-Hou; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2017-01-01

    A night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) impairs selective attention and is accompanied by attenuated activation within ventral visual cortex (VVC). However, finer details of how TSD compromises selectivity of visual processing remain unclear. Drawing from prior work in cognitive aging, we predicted that TSD would result in dedifferentiation of neural responses for faces and houses within the VVC. Instead, we found preservation of category selectivity. This was observed both in voxels highly selective for each category, and also across multiple voxels evaluated using MVPA. Based on prior findings of impaired attentional modulation following TSD, we also predicted reduced biasing of neural representations towards the attended category when participants viewed ambiguous face/house images. When participants were well rested, attention to houses (or faces) caused activation patterns to more closely resemble those elicited by isolated house (face) images than face (house) images. During TSD, attention to faces enhanced neural similarity to both target (face) and distractor (house) representations, signifying reduced suppression of irrelevant information. Degraded sensory processing reflected in reduced VVC activation following TSD, thus appears to be a result of impaired top-down modulation of sensory representations instead of degraded selectivity of maximally category sensitive voxels, or the dedifferentiation of neural activation patterns. PMID:28361948

  12. When sounds become actions: higher-order representation of newly learned action sounds in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Weiss, Carmen; Casile, Antonino; Waszak, Florian

    2012-02-01

    In the absence of visual information, our brain is able to recognize the actions of others by representing their sounds as a motor event. Previous studies have provided evidence for a somatotopic activation of the listener's motor cortex during perception of the sound of highly familiar motor acts. The present experiments studied (a) how the motor system is activated by action-related sounds that are newly acquired and (b) whether these sounds are represented with reference to extrinsic features related to action goals rather than with respect to lower-level intrinsic parameters related to the specific movements. TMS was used to measure the correspondence between auditory and motor codes in the listener's motor system. We compared the corticomotor excitability in response to the presentation of auditory stimuli void of previous motor meaning before and after a short training period in which these stimuli were associated with voluntary actions. Novel cross-modal representations became manifest very rapidly. By disentangling the representation of the muscle from that of the action's goal, we further showed that passive listening to newly learnt action-related sounds activated a precise motor representation that depended on the variable contexts to which the individual was exposed during testing. Our results suggest that the human brain embodies a higher-order audio-visuo-motor representation of perceived actions, which is muscle-independent and corresponds to the goals of the action.

  13. An Analysis of Dual Credit Articulation to Degree Plans in a Texas Public Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Tracey M.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the rising cost of higher education, as well as the average time of six years to obtain a 4-year bachelor's degree, lawmakers, educators, and students have turned to credit-based collegiate programs as a potential solution. Dual credit is the most popular means to accumulate college credits at a lower cost. The body of research is…

  14. An Analysis of Dual Credit Articulation to Degree Plans in a Texas Public Institution of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Tracey M.

    2016-01-01

    In response to the rising cost of higher education, as well as the average time of six years to obtain a 4-year bachelor's degree, lawmakers, educators, and students have turned to credit-based collegiate programs as a potential solution. Dual credit is the most popular means to accumulate college credits at a lower cost. The body of research is…

  15. Universality of anomalous conductivities in theories with higher-derivative holographic duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozdanov, S.; Poovuttikul, N.

    2016-09-01

    Anomalous chiral conductivities in theories with global anomalies are independent of whether they are computed in a weakly coupled quantum (or thermal) field theory, hydrodynamics, or at infinite coupling from holography. While the presence of dynamical gauge fields and mixed, gauge-global anomalies can destroy this universality, in their absence, the non-renormalisation of anomalous Ward identities is expected to be obeyed at all intermediate coupling strengths. In holography, bulk theories with higher-derivative corrections incorporate coupling constant corrections to the boundary theory observables in an expansion around infinite coupling. In this work, we investigate the coupling constant dependence and universality of anomalous conductivities (and thus of the anomalous Ward identities) in general, four-dimensional systems that possess asymptotically anti-de Sitter holographic duals with a non-extremal black brane in five dimensions, and anomalous transport introduced into the boundary theory via the bulk Chern-Simons action. We show that in bulk theories with arbitrary gauge- and diffeomorphism-invariant higher-derivative actions, anomalous conductivities, which can incorporate an infinite series of (inverse) coupling constant corrections, remain universal. Owing to the existence of the membrane paradigm, the proof reduces to a construction of bulk effective theories at the horizon and the boundary. It only requires us to impose the condition of horizon regularity and correct boundary conditions on the fields. We also discuss ways to violate the universality by violating conditions for the validity of the membrane paradigm, in particular, by adding mass to the vector fields (a case with a mixed, gauge-global anomaly) and in bulk geometries with a naked singularity.

  16. Dual Temporal and Spatial Sparse Representation for Inferring Group-wise Brain Networks from Resting-state fMRI Dataset.

    PubMed

    Gong, Junhui; Liu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tianming; Zhou, Jiansong; Sun, Gang; Tian, Juanxiu

    2017-08-09

    Recently, sparse representation has been successfully used to identify brain networks from task-based fMRI dataset. However, when using the strategy to analyze resting-state fMRI dataset, it is still a challenge to automatically infer the group-wise brain networks under consideration of group commonalities and subject-specific characteristics. In the paper, a novel method based on dual temporal and spatial sparse representation (DTSSR) is proposed to meet this challenge. Firstly, the brain functional networks with subject-specific characteristics are obtained via sparse representation with online dictionary learning for the fMRI time series (temporal domain) of each subject. Next, based on the current brain science knowledge, a simple mathematical model is proposed to describe the complex nonlinear dynamic coupling mechanism of the brain networks, with which the group-wise intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) can be inferred by sparse representation for these brain functional networks (spatial domain) of all subjects. Experiments on Leiden_2180 dataset show that most group-wise ICNs obtained by the proposed DTSSR are interpretable by current brain science knowledge and are consistent with previous literature reports. The robustness of DTSSR and the reproducibility of the results are demonstrated by experiments on three different datasets (Leiden_2180, Leiden_2200 and our own dataset). Results of the present work shed new light on exploring the coupling mechanism of BFNs from perspective of information science.

  17. The Development of CyberLearning in Dual-Mode: Higher Education Institutions in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yau Jane

    2002-01-01

    Open and distance education in Taiwan has evolved into cyberlearning. Over half (56 percent) of the conventional universities and colleges have been upgraded to dual-mode institutions offering real-time multicast instructional systems using videoconferencing, cable television, virtual classrooms, and curriculum-on-demand systems. The Ministry of…

  18. The Development of CyberLearning in Dual-Mode: Higher Education Institutions in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yau Jane

    2002-01-01

    Open and distance education in Taiwan has evolved into cyberlearning. Over half (56 percent) of the conventional universities and colleges have been upgraded to dual-mode institutions offering real-time multicast instructional systems using videoconferencing, cable television, virtual classrooms, and curriculum-on-demand systems. The Ministry of…

  19. Higher Educational Cost-Sharing, Dual-Track Tuition Fees, and Higher Educational Access: The East African Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcucci, Pamela; Johnstone, D. Bruce; Ngolovoi, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Three universal demands characterize higher education globally: the demand for higher quality, for increased access, and for greater equity. In East Africa, where resources are highly constrained, no nation has been able to meet these demands on the basis of public expenditures alone. Instead countries have had to increase resources from nonpublic…

  20. Higher Educational Cost-Sharing, Dual-Track Tuition Fees, and Higher Educational Access: The East African Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcucci, Pamela; Johnstone, D. Bruce; Ngolovoi, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Three universal demands characterize higher education globally: the demand for higher quality, for increased access, and for greater equity. In East Africa, where resources are highly constrained, no nation has been able to meet these demands on the basis of public expenditures alone. Instead countries have had to increase resources from nonpublic…

  1. Whole genome/proteome based phylogeny reconstruction for prokaryotes using higher order Markov model and chaos game representation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Feng; Yu, Zu-Guo; Anh, Vo

    2016-03-01

    Traditional methods for sequence comparison and phylogeny reconstruction rely on pair wise and multiple sequence alignments. But alignment could not be directly applied to whole genome/proteome comparison and phylogenomic studies due to their high computational complexity. Hence alignment-free methods became popular in recent years. Here we propose a fast alignment-free method for whole genome/proteome comparison and phylogeny reconstruction using higher order Markov model and chaos game representation. In the present method, we use the transition matrices of higher order Markov models to characterize amino acid or DNA sequences for their comparison. The order of the Markov model is uniquely identified by maximizing the average Shannon entropy of conditional probability distributions. Using one-dimensional chaos game representation and linked list, this method can reduce large memory and time consumption which is due to the large-scale conditional probability distributions. To illustrate the effectiveness of our method, we employ it for fast phylogeny reconstruction based on genome/proteome sequences of two species data sets used in previous published papers. Our results demonstrate that the present method is useful and efficient. The source codes for our algorithm to get the distance matrix and genome/proteome sequences can be downloaded from ftp://121.199.20.25/. The software Phylip and EvolView we used to construct phylogenetic trees can be referred from their websites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Construction of Under-Representation in UK and Swedish Higher Education: Implications for Disabled Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedon, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the inclusion of disabled students in the UK and Swedish higher education systems. In the United Kingdom, performance indicators focus on the participation rate of disabled students in comparison with those of non-disabled students, while in Sweden there are no specific performance indicators relating to disabled students.…

  3. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  4. Representations of a High-Quality System of Undergraduate Education in English Higher Education Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwin, Paul; Abbas, Andrea; McLean, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which a high-quality system of undergraduate education is represented in recent policy documents from a range of actors interested in higher education. Drawing on Basil Bernstein's ideas, the authors conceptualise the policy documents as reflecting a struggle over competing views of quality that are expressed…

  5. Exploring the Impact of Higher Level Linguistic Representations on Nonword Repetition Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Gallon, Nichola

    2006-01-01

    Gathercole's (2006) comprehensive and interesting Keynote Article on the nature of the relations between nonword repetition and word learning highlights the complex number of interacting factors that affect this relation through development. In this Commentary we focus on the impact of higher level cognition, particularly linguistic…

  6. Cultural Hierarchies in the Discursive Representations of China in the "Chronicle of Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suspitsyna, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a discourse analysis of the "Chronicle of Higher Education" publications about China in 2011 and 2012. Drawing on postcolonial appropriations of governmentality to frame the discussion of globalization as the context of the study, the author analyzes the stylistic, rhetorical, and semantic strategies…

  7. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  8. Cultural Hierarchies in the Discursive Representations of China in the "Chronicle of Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suspitsyna, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a discourse analysis of the "Chronicle of Higher Education" publications about China in 2011 and 2012. Drawing on postcolonial appropriations of governmentality to frame the discussion of globalization as the context of the study, the author analyzes the stylistic, rhetorical, and semantic strategies…

  9. Representations of a High-Quality System of Undergraduate Education in English Higher Education Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwin, Paul; Abbas, Andrea; McLean, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which a high-quality system of undergraduate education is represented in recent policy documents from a range of actors interested in higher education. Drawing on Basil Bernstein's ideas, the authors conceptualise the policy documents as reflecting a struggle over competing views of quality that are expressed…

  10. The Representation of Knowledge in Written Instruction for Non-Residential Students in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    Educational experiences can now be an important element for people who want to obtain a college degree but were unable to because of the limited structure of traditional schools. This can be achieved through the nonresidential school in higher education that emphasizes student-environment interaction. If the nonresidential school is to be a…

  11. Novel asymmetric representation method for solving the higher-order Ginzburg-Landau equation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Pring; Pang, Lihui; Wu, Ye; Lei, Ming; Liu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    In ultrafast optics, optical pulses are generated to be of shorter pulse duration, which has enormous significance to industrial applications and scientific research. The ultrashort pulse evolution in fiber lasers can be described by the higher-order Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation. However, analytic soliton solutions for this equation have not been obtained by use of existing methods. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to deal with this equation. The analytic soliton solution is obtained for the first time, and is proved to be stable against amplitude perturbations. Through the split-step Fourier method, the bright soliton solution is studied numerically. The analytic results here may extend the integrable methods, and could be used to study soliton dynamics for some equations in other disciplines. It may also provide the other way to obtain two-soliton solutions for higher-order GL equations. PMID:27086841

  12. Imaging capability of the higher-frequency subsystem of a dual-frequency acoustic lens sonar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Joseph L.; Paustian, Iris C.; Marciniak, Robert; Van Tol, Dave; Folds, Donald L.

    2000-07-01

    An experimental dual-frequency acoustic lens sonar system, designed to detect both buried and non-buried objects is described with emphasis on the higher frequency subsystem. The lower frequency subsystem (35 - 100 kHz) forms conical beams with beam widths near 5 degree(s) using discrete transducer elements in the lens focal plane for both transmission and reception. The higher frequency (1 - 2 MHz) lens system is designed to be contained within the volume of the lower frequency subsystem to create a compact dual-frequency system. The higher frequency system consists of three 20-cm long cylindrical lenses designed to form fan-shaped beams over a 20 degree(s) field of view. The retina is positioned 34 cm from the entrance aperture. A test array containing several discrete elements with 1.0-mm pitch has been designed for initial testing. The final system will use a retina with 80 - 100 elements. The imaging system is designed to generate images with cross-range resolutions from 0.1 degree(s) to 0.25 degree(s), and is designed to be tested in both bistatic or monostatic modes. In the monostatic mode, results of spatial multiplexing of beams in the ratio of 3, 4, and 5 will be compared. The system is designed to make a thorough parametric evaluation of imaging in the 1 - 2 MHz range over a wide range of angular resolutions and to relate design parameters to operational performance for forward looking systems.

  13. A Dual or Segmented Curriculum for Higher Technical and Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikolji, B. H.; Plough, T. R.

    The educational literature provides extensive evidence of concern with the issue of an integration of humanities and social sciences within higher education to meet the requirements of modern technology and society. This concern is also reflected in the numerous structural and functional changes in higher education, particularly in technical…

  14. Dual-Sector Further and Higher Education: Policies, Organisations and Students in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathmaker, Ann-Marie; Brooks, Greg; Parry, Gareth; Smith, David

    2008-01-01

    Colleges and universities that provide both further and higher education are a key component of government policies to expand participation in English undergraduate education. The opportunities for access and progression made available by these organisations are regarded as central. At the same time, the division of further and higher education…

  15. Metacognition for Spelling in Higher Education Students with Dyslexia: Is There Evidence for the Dual Burden Hypothesis?

    PubMed Central

    Tops, Wim; Callens, Maaike; Desoete, Annemie; Stevens, Michaël; Brysbaert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether academic and professional bachelor students with dyslexia are able to compensate for their spelling deficits with metacognitive experience. Previous research suggested that students with dyslexia may suffer from a dual burden. Not only do they perform worse on spelling but in addition they are not as fully aware of their difficulties as their peers without dyslexia. According to some authors, this is the result of a worse feeling of confidence, which can be considered as a form of metacognition (metacognitive experience). We tried to isolate this metacognitive experience by asking 100 students with dyslexia and 100 matched control students to rate their feeling of confidence in a word spelling task and a proofreading task. Next, we used Signal Detection Analysis to disentangle the effects of proficiency and criterion setting. We found that students with dyslexia showed lower proficiencies but not suboptimal response biases. They were as good at deciding when they could be confident or not as their peers without dyslexia. They just had more cases in which their spelling was wrong. We conclude that the feeling of confidence in our students with dyslexia is as good as in their peers without dyslexia. These findings go against the Dual Burden theory (Krüger & Dunning, 1999), which assumes that people with a skills problem suffer twice as a result of insufficiently developed metacognitive competence. As a result, there is no gain to be expected from extra training of this metacognitive experience in higher education students with dyslexia. PMID:25192428

  16. Metacognition for spelling in higher education students with dyslexia: is there evidence for the dual burden hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Tops, Wim; Callens, Maaike; Desoete, Annemie; Stevens, Michaël; Brysbaert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether academic and professional bachelor students with dyslexia are able to compensate for their spelling deficits with metacognitive experience. Previous research suggested that students with dyslexia may suffer from a dual burden. Not only do they perform worse on spelling but in addition they are not as fully aware of their difficulties as their peers without dyslexia. According to some authors, this is the result of a worse feeling of confidence, which can be considered as a form of metacognition (metacognitive experience). We tried to isolate this metacognitive experience by asking 100 students with dyslexia and 100 matched control students to rate their feeling of confidence in a word spelling task and a proofreading task. Next, we used Signal Detection Analysis to disentangle the effects of proficiency and criterion setting. We found that students with dyslexia showed lower proficiencies but not suboptimal response biases. They were as good at deciding when they could be confident or not as their peers without dyslexia. They just had more cases in which their spelling was wrong. We conclude that the feeling of confidence in our students with dyslexia is as good as in their peers without dyslexia. These findings go against the Dual Burden theory (Krüger & Dunning, 1999), which assumes that people with a skills problem suffer twice as a result of insufficiently developed metacognitive competence. As a result, there is no gain to be expected from extra training of this metacognitive experience in higher education students with dyslexia.

  17. Modelling individual differences in the form of Pavlovian conditioned approach responses: a dual learning systems approach with factored representations.

    PubMed

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Flagel, Shelly B; Robinson, Terry E; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-02-01

    Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs) and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US), some rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS) itself - a lever - more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in computational

  18. Modelling Individual Differences in the Form of Pavlovian Conditioned Approach Responses: A Dual Learning Systems Approach with Factored Representations

    PubMed Central

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Flagel, Shelly B.; Robinson, Terry E.; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement Learning has greatly influenced models of conditioning, providing powerful explanations of acquired behaviour and underlying physiological observations. However, in recent autoshaping experiments in rats, variation in the form of Pavlovian conditioned responses (CRs) and associated dopamine activity, have questioned the classical hypothesis that phasic dopamine activity corresponds to a reward prediction error-like signal arising from a classical Model-Free system, necessary for Pavlovian conditioning. Over the course of Pavlovian conditioning using food as the unconditioned stimulus (US), some rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage the conditioned stimulus (CS) itself – a lever – more and more avidly, whereas other rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach the location of food delivery upon CS presentation. Importantly, although both sign-trackers and goal-trackers learn the CS-US association equally well, only in sign-trackers does phasic dopamine activity show classical reward prediction error-like bursts. Furthermore, neither the acquisition nor the expression of a goal-tracking CR is dopamine-dependent. Here we present a computational model that can account for such individual variations. We show that a combination of a Model-Based system and a revised Model-Free system can account for the development of distinct CRs in rats. Moreover, we show that revising a classical Model-Free system to individually process stimuli by using factored representations can explain why classical dopaminergic patterns may be observed for some rats and not for others depending on the CR they develop. In addition, the model can account for other behavioural and pharmacological results obtained using the same, or similar, autoshaping procedures. Finally, the model makes it possible to draw a set of experimental predictions that may be verified in a modified experimental protocol. We suggest that further investigation of factored representations in

  19. Dual Mode Offering as Viable Approach for Promotion of Higher Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Irshad

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country with 148 universities and degree awarding institutions including public and private sector. The enrolment as given in the National Educational Policy 2009 was up to 5% only. It reflects greater demands of higher/tertiary education and calls for alternative strategic measures for addressing the issue. An innovative…

  20. A novel path generation method of onsite 5-axis surface inspection using the dual-cubic NURBS representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-long; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Gang; Pang, Chang-tao; Yin, Zhou-pin

    2016-09-01

    Onsite surface inspection with a touch probe or a laser scanner is a promising technique for efficiently evaluating surface profile error. The existing work of 5-axis inspection path generation bears a serious drawback, however, as there is a drastic orientation change of the inspection axis. Such a sudden change may exceed the stringent physical limit on the speed and acceleration of the rotary motions of the machine tool. In this paper, we propose a novel path generation method for onsite 5-axis surface inspection. The accessibility cones are defined and used to generate alternative interference-free inspection directions. Then, the control points are optimally calculated to obtain the dual-cubic non-Uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) curves, which respectively determine the path points and the axis vectors in an inspection path. The generated inspection path is smooth and non-interference, which deals with the ‘mutation and shake’ problems and guarantees a stable speed and acceleration of machine tool rotary motions. Its feasibility and validity is verified by the onsite inspection experiments of impeller blade.

  1. Combining Concept Maps and Interviews to Produce Representations of Personal Professional Theories in Higher Vocational Education: Effects of Order and Vocational Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bogaart, Antoine C. M.; Schaap, Harmen; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the use of personal professional theories (PPTs) in Dutch higher vocational education. PPTs are internalised bodies of formal and practical knowledge and convictions that professionals use to direct their behaviour. With the aid of high-quality representations of students' PPTs teachers can access, monitor, and support the…

  2. Dual specificities of the glyoxysomal/peroxisomal processing protease Deg15 in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Helm, Michael; Lück, Carsten; Prestele, Jakob; Hierl, Georg; Huesgen, Pitter F; Fröhlich, Thomas; Arnold, Georg J; Adamska, Iwona; Görg, Angelika; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Gietl, Christine

    2007-07-03

    Glyoxysomes are a subclass of peroxisomes involved in lipid mobilization. Two distinct peroxisomal targeting signals (PTSs), the C-terminal PTS1 and the N-terminal PTS2, are defined. Processing of the PTS2 on protein import is conserved in higher eukaryotes. The cleavage site typically contains a Cys at P1 or P2. We purified the glyoxysomal processing protease (GPP) from the fat-storing cotyledons of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) by column chromatography, preparative native isoelectric focusing, and 2D PAGE. The GPP appears in two forms, a 72-kDa monomer and a 144-kDa dimer, which are in equilibrium with one another. The equilibrium is shifted on Ca(2+) removal toward the monomer and on Ca(2+) addition toward the dimer. The monomer is a general degrading protease and is activated by denatured proteins. The dimer constitutes the processing protease because the substrate specificity proven for the monomer (Phi-Arg/Lys downward arrow) is different from the processing substrate specificity (Cys-Xxx downward arrow/Xxx-Cys downward arrow) found with the mixture of monomer and dimer. The Arabidopsis genome analysis disclosed three proteases predicted to be in peroxisomes, a Deg-protease, a pitrilysin-like metallopeptidase, and a Lon-protease. Specific antibodies against the peroxisomal Deg-protease from Arabidopsis (Deg15) identify the watermelon GPP as a Deg15. A knockout mutation in the DEG15 gene of Arabidopsis (At1g28320) prevents processing of the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase precursor to the mature form. Thus, the GPP/Deg15 belongs to a group of trypsin-like serine proteases with Escherichia coli DegP as a prototype. Nevertheless, the GPP/Deg15 possesses specific characteristics and is therefore a new subgroup within the Deg proteases.

  3. Minimal unitary representation of 5d superconformal algebra F(4) and AdS6/CFT5 higher spin (super)-algebras

    DOE PAGES

    Fernando, Sudarshan; Günaydin, Murat

    2014-11-28

    We study the minimal unitary representation (minrep) of SO(5, 2), obtained by quantization of its geometric quasiconformal action, its deformations and supersymmetric extensions. The minrep of SO(5, 2) describes a massless conformal scalar field in five dimensions and admits a unique “deformation” which describes a massless conformal spinor. Scalar and spinor minreps of SO(5, 2) are the 5d analogs of Dirac’s singletons of SO(3, 2). We then construct the minimal unitary representation of the unique 5d supercon-formal algebra F(4) with the even subalgebra SO(5, 2) ×SU(2). The minrep of F(4) describes a massless conformal supermultiplet consisting of two scalar andmore » one spinor fields. We then extend our results to the construction of higher spin AdS6/CFT5 (super)-algebras. The Joseph ideal of the minrep of SO(5, 2) vanishes identically as operators and hence its enveloping algebra yields the AdS6/CFT5 bosonic higher spin algebra directly. The enveloping algebra of the spinor minrep defines a “deformed” higher spin algebra for which a deformed Joseph ideal vanishes identically as operators. These results are then extended to the construction of the unique higher spin AdS6/CFT5 superalgebra as the enveloping algebra of the minimal unitary realization of F(4) obtained by the quasiconformal methods.« less

  4. Representation and Student Engagement in Higher Education: A Reflection on the Views and Experiences of Course Representatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement is increasingly part of higher education rhetoric. It is seen as a means for universities to understand and enhance the student experience. This has been prompted by a number of potentially conflicting factors. These include growing consumerism in higher education, the rise of user involvement and the notion of students as…

  5. (De)Constructing Power in Higher Education Governance Structures: An Analysis of Representation and Roles in Governing Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bótas, Paulo Charles Pimentel; Huisman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how power relations are constructed in the governance of higher education institutions. It examines and deconstructs, from a Foucauldian perspective, power relations and mechanisms in the relationship between the state and higher education institutions, and between academic and management staff. This research article…

  6. (De)Constructing Power in Higher Education Governance Structures: An Analysis of Representation and Roles in Governing Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bótas, Paulo Charles Pimentel; Huisman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how power relations are constructed in the governance of higher education institutions. It examines and deconstructs, from a Foucauldian perspective, power relations and mechanisms in the relationship between the state and higher education institutions, and between academic and management staff. This research article…

  7. Representation and Student Engagement in Higher Education: A Reflection on the Views and Experiences of Course Representatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement is increasingly part of higher education rhetoric. It is seen as a means for universities to understand and enhance the student experience. This has been prompted by a number of potentially conflicting factors. These include growing consumerism in higher education, the rise of user involvement and the notion of students as…

  8. Regional Agreements, Higher Education and Representations of Indigenous Australian Reality (Why Wasn't I Taught That in School?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConville, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the rights asserted by indigenous peoples and recognized by the United Nations and then considers Australian performance in higher education relative to these recognized rights. Presents some options aimed at making Indigenous education an enforceable right rather than a matter of administrative and political goodwill. (SLD)

  9. [New ways of higher education in nursing: globalisation of nursing leadership and its teaching--dual degree in nursing].

    PubMed

    Pop, Marcel; Hollós, Sándor; Vingender, István; Mészáros, Judit

    2009-03-08

    Our paper is presenting a new initiative regarding an international cooperation willing to develop a dual degree program in nursing, the so-called Transatlantic Curriculum in Nursing. The candidates--after successful completion of their studies--will get a European and an American partner diploma in nursing. The objective is to prepare an internationally and culturally competent workforce; develop the practice of nursing students' exchange programs; process the model of dual degree independent of geographical, political or cultural borders; spread the evidence-based nursing standards in the daily practice. The partners in this initiative are Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary, Nazareth College of Rochester, NY, USA and Laurea University in Tikkurila, Finland. The planned activities in the framework of the program: mutual student and staff mobility, joint curriculum development and teaching process, determining joint standards. The expected outcomes are: to develop a standardised model for the enhancement and implementation of international educational programs in nursing; to improve institutional work culture; to improve professional terminology and cultural abilities; to create the model of a new type of nursing professional having a high level of cultural and language competence which are indispensable for participating in global programs.

  10. Job Satisfaction of Faculty Teaching Higher Education. An Examination of Herzberg's Dual-Factor Theory and Porter's Need Satisfaction Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Linda S.

    In October 1975 a questionnaire was sent to 200 members randomly selected from the "Directory of Faculty Members Teaching in the Field of Higher Education" to determine satisfaction with their teaching role. The research was designed to test Herzberg's theory, which states that "hygiene factors" (job context) are related to…

  11. A dual-targeted purple acid phosphatase in Arabidopsis thaliana moderates carbon metabolism and its overexpression leads to faster plant growth and higher seed yield.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng; Suen, Pui Kit; Zhang, Youjun; Liang, Chao; Carrie, Chris; Whelan, James; Ward, Jane L; Hawkins, Nathaniel D; Jiang, Liwen; Lim, Boon Leong

    2012-04-01

    • Overexpression of AtPAP2, a purple acid phosphatase (PAP) with a unique C-terminal hydrophobic motif in Arabidopsis, resulted in earlier bolting and a higher seed yield. Metabolite analysis showed that the shoots of AtPAP2 overexpression lines contained higher levels of sugars and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolites. Enzyme assays showed that sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity was significantly upregulated in the overexpression lines. The higher SPS activity arose from a higher level of SPS protein, and was independent of SnRK1. • AtPAP2 was found to be targeted to both plastids and mitochondria via its C-terminal hydrophobic motif. Ectopic expression of a truncated AtPAP2 without this C-terminal motif in Arabidopsis indicated that the subcellular localization of AtPAP2 is essential for its biological actions. • Plant PAPs are generally considered to mediate phosphorus acquisition and redistribution. AtPAP2 is the first PAP shown to modulate carbon metabolism and the first shown to be dual-targeted to both plastids and mitochondria by a C-terminal targeting signal. • One PAP-like sequence carrying a hydrophobic C-terminal motif could be identified in the genome of the smallest free-living photosynthetic eukaryote, Ostreococcus tauri. This might reflect a common ancestral function of AtPAP2-like sequences in the regulation of carbon metabolism. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Atypical language representation in children with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Maulisova, Alice; Korman, Brandon; Rey, Gustavo; Bernal, Byron; Duchowny, Michael; Niederlova, Marketa; Krsek, Pavel; Novak, Vilem

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated language organization in children with intractable epilepsy caused by temporal lobe focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) alone or dual pathology (temporal lobe FCD and hippocampal sclerosis, HS). We analyzed clinical, neurological, fMRI, neuropsychological, and histopathologic data in 46 pediatric patients with temporal lobe lesions who underwent excisional epilepsy surgery. The frequency of atypical language representation was similar in both groups, but children with dual pathology were more likely to be left-handed. Atypical receptive language cortex correlated with lower intellectual capacity, verbal abstract conceptualization, receptive language abilities, verbal working memory, and a history of status epilepticus but did not correlate with higher seizure frequency or early seizure onset. Histopathologic substrate had only a minor influence on neuropsychological status. Greater verbal comprehension deficits were noted in children with atypical receptive language representation, a risk factor for cognitive morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Traditional acupuncturists and higher education in Britain: the dual, paradoxical impact of biomedical alignment on the holistic view.

    PubMed

    Givati, Assaf; Hatton, Kieron

    2015-04-01

    Traditional acupuncturists' quest for external legitimacy in Britain involves the standardization of their knowledge bases through the development of training schools and syllabi, formal educational structures, and, since the 1990s, the teaching of undergraduate courses within (or validated by) Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), a process which entails biomedical alignment of the curriculum. However, as holistic discourses were commonly used as a rhetorical strategy by CAM practitioners to distance themselves from biomedicine and as a source of public appeal, this 'mainstreaming' process evoked practitioners' concerns that their holistic claims are being compromised. An additional challenge is being posed by a group of academics and scientists in Britain who launched an attack on CAM courses taught in HEIs, accusing them of being 'unscientific' and 'non-academic' in nature. This paper explores the negotiation of all these challenges during the formalization of traditional acupuncture education in Britain, with a particular focus on the role of HEIs. The in-depth qualitative investigation draws on several data sets: participant observation in a university validated acupuncture course; in-depth interviews; and documentary analysis. The findings show how, as part of the formalization process, acupuncturists in Britain (re)negotiate their holistic, anti-reductionist discourses and claims in relation to contemporary societal, political and cultural forces. Moreover, the teaching and validation of acupuncture courses by HEIs may contribute to broadening acupuncturists' 'holistic awareness' of societal and cultural influences on individuals' and communities' ill-health. This investigation emphasises the dynamic and context-specific (rather than fixed and essentialized) nature of acupuncture practice and knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Why Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, James E.; Waters, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses representations in the context of solving a system of linear equations. Views representations (concrete, tables, graphs, algebraic, matrices) from perspectives of understanding, technology, generalization, exact versus approximate solution, and learning style. (KHR)

  15. Partition function of free conformal fields in 3-plet representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

    2017-05-01

    Simplest examples of AdS/CFT duality correspond to free CFTs in d dimensions with fields in vector or adjoint representation of an internal symmetry group dual in the large N limit to a theory of massless or massless plus massive higher spins in AdS d+1. One may also study generalizations when conformal fields belong to higher dimensional representations, i.e. carry more than two internal symmetry indices. Here we consider the case of the 3-fundamental ("3-plet") representation. One motivation is a conjectured connection to multiple M5-brane theory: heuristic arguments suggest that it may be related to an (interacting) CFT of 6d (2,0) tensor multiplets in 3-plet representation of large N symmetry group that has an AdS7 dual. We compute the singlet partition function Z on S 1 × S d-1 for a free field in 3-plet representation of U( N) and analyse its novel large N behaviour. The large N limit of the low temperature expansion of Z which is convergent in the vector and adjoint cases here is only asymptotic, reflecting the much faster growth of the number of singlet operators with dimension, indicating a phase transition at very low temperature. Indeed, while the critical temperatures in the vector ( T c ˜ N γ , γ > 0) and adjoint ( T c ˜ 1) cases are finite, we find that in the 3-plet case T c ˜ (log N)-1, i.e. it approaches zero at large N. We discuss some details of large N solution for the eigenvalue distribution. Similar conclusions apply to higher p-plet representations of U( N) or O( N) and also to the free p-tensor theories invariant under [U( N)] p or [ O( N)] p with p ≥ 3.

  16. Translation among Symbolic Representations in Problem-Solving. Report on Studies Project: Alternative Strategies for Measuring Higher Order Skills: The Role of Symbol Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others

    Some aspects of the relationships among the symbolic representations (Rs) of problems given to students to solve, the Rs that students use to solve problems, and the accuracy of the solutions were studied. Focus was on determining: the mental Rs that students used while solving problems, the kinds of translation that takes place, the accuracy of…

  17. Dual Enrollment Academy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Nicolas; Chavez, Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    Dual Enrollment Engineering (DEEA) and Medical Science (DEMSA) Academies are two-year dual enrollment programs for high school students. Students explore engineering and medical careers through college coursework. Students prepare for higher education in engineering and medical fields while completing associate degrees in biology or engineering…

  18. Dual Enrollment Academy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Nicolas; Chavez, Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    Dual Enrollment Engineering (DEEA) and Medical Science (DEMSA) Academies are two-year dual enrollment programs for high school students. Students explore engineering and medical careers through college coursework. Students prepare for higher education in engineering and medical fields while completing associate degrees in biology or engineering…

  19. Function, anticipation, representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickhard, Mark. H.

    2001-06-01

    Function emerges in certain kinds of far-from-equilibrium systems. One important kind of function is that of interactive anticipation, an adaptedness to temporal complexity. Interactive anticipation is the locus of the emergence of normative representational content, and, thus, of representation in general: interactive anticipation is the naturalistic core of the evolution of cognition. Higher forms of such anticipation are involved in the subsequent macro-evolutionary sequence of learning, emotions, and reflexive consciousness.

  20. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS.

    PubMed

    Valla, Jeffrey M; Williams, Wendy M

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. "Now more than ever, the nation's changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia."-Irving P. McPhail..

  1. INCREASING ACHIEVEMENT AND HIGHER-EDUCATION REPRESENTATION OF UNDER-REPRESENTED GROUPS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS FIELDS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT K-12 INTERVENTION PROGRAMS

    PubMed Central

    Valla, Jeffrey M.; Williams, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    The under-representation of women and ethnic minorities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education and professions has resulted in a loss of human capital for the US scientific workforce and spurred the development of myriad STEM educational intervention programs. Increased allocation of resources to such programs begs for a critical, prescriptive, evidence-based review that will enable researchers to develop optimal interventions and administrators to maximize investments. We begin by providing a theoretical backdrop for K-12 STEM programs by reviewing current data on under-representation and developmental research describing individual-level social factors undergirding these data. Next, we review prototypical designs of these programs, highlighting specific programs in the literature as examples of program structures and components currently in use. We then evaluate these interventions in terms of overall effectiveness, as a function of how well they address age-, ethnicity-, or gender-specific factors, suggesting improvements in program design based on these critiques. Finally, program evaluation methods are briefly reviewed and discussed in terms of how their empirical soundness can either enable or limit our ability to delineate effective program components. “Now more than ever, the nation’s changing demographics demand that we include all of our citizens in science and engineering education and careers. For the U.S. to benefit from the diverse talents of all its citizens, we must grow the pipeline of qualified, underrepresented minority engineers and scientists to fill positions in industry and academia.”—Irving P. McPhail.. PMID:22942637

  2. Qualifications with a Dual Orientation towards Employment and Higher Education. A Collaborative Investigation of Selected Issues in Seven European Countries. INTEQUAL Report II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Sabine, Ed.

    This document is the second report on results achieved in the project, "The Acquisition of Integrated Qualifications for Professional Work and Study--An Assessment of Innovative Approaches in Seven European Countries (INTEQUAL)," which was undertaken to identify innovative approaches to granting dual qualifications that can ultimately…

  3. Concepts of a Higher Hierarchical Level Require More Dual Situated Learning Events for Conceptual Change: A Study of Air Pressure and Buoyancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, Hsiao-Ching

    2002-01-01

    Examines the process of students' conceptual changes with regard to air pressure and buoyancy as a result of teaching with the dual situated learning model. Uses a model designed according to the students' ontological viewpoint on science concepts as well as the nature of these concepts. (Contains 40 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Concepts of a Higher Hierarchical Level Require More Dual Situated Learning Events for Conceptual Change: A Study of Air Pressure and Buoyancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    She, Hsiao-Ching

    2002-01-01

    Examines the process of students' conceptual changes with regard to air pressure and buoyancy as a result of teaching with the dual situated learning model. Uses a model designed according to the students' ontological viewpoint on science concepts as well as the nature of these concepts. (Contains 40 references.) (Author/YDS)

  5. Counter-Stories as Representations of the Racialized Experiences of Students of Color in Higher Education and Student Affairs Graduate Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubain, Bryan S.; Allen, Evette L.; Harris, Jessica C.; Linder, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we employ Critical Race Theory theoretically and methodologically to examine the racialized experiences of students of color in higher education and student affairs (HESA) graduate preparation programs. We employ counter-storytelling as a method for constructing narratives that disrupt the master narrative found within HESA graduate…

  6. Counter-Stories as Representations of the Racialized Experiences of Students of Color in Higher Education and Student Affairs Graduate Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubain, Bryan S.; Allen, Evette L.; Harris, Jessica C.; Linder, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we employ Critical Race Theory theoretically and methodologically to examine the racialized experiences of students of color in higher education and student affairs (HESA) graduate preparation programs. We employ counter-storytelling as a method for constructing narratives that disrupt the master narrative found within HESA graduate…

  7. Representing Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Aaron M.

    2010-01-01

    What can be known and how to render what we know are perpetual quandaries met by qualitative research, complicated further by the understanding that the everyday discourses influencing our representations are often tacit, unspoken or heard so often that they seem to warrant little reflection. In this article, I offer analytic memos as a means for…

  8. Implicit and explicit representations.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Nicolas P

    2009-03-01

    During the past decades, the symbol grounding problem, as has been identified by Harnard [Harnard, S. (1990). The symbol grounding problem. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, 42, 335-346], became a prominent problem in the cognitive science society. The idea that a symbol is much more than a mere meaningless token that can be processed through some algorithm, sheds new light on higher brain functions such as language and cognition. We present in this article a computational framework that may help in our understanding of the nature of grounded representations. Two models are briefly introduced that aim at emphasizing the difference we make between implicit and explicit representations.

  9. Women and political representation.

    PubMed

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  10. Classification of non-coding RNA using graph representations ofsecondary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Karklin, Yan; Meraz, Richard F.; Holbrook, Stephen R.

    2004-06-07

    Some genes produce transcripts that function directly in regulatory, catalytic, or structural roles in the cell. These non-coding RNAs are prevalent in all living organisms, and methods that aid the understanding of their functional roles are essential. RNA secondary structure, the pattern of base-pairing, contains the critical information for determining the three dimensional structure and function of the molecule. In this work we examine whether the basic geometric and topological properties of secondary structure are sufficient to distinguish between RNA families in a learning framework. First, we develop a labeled dual graph representation of RNA secondary structure by adding biologically meaningful labels to the dual graphs proposed by Gan et al [1]. Next, we define a similarity measure directly on the labeled dual graphs using the recently developed marginalized kernels [2]. Using this similarity measure, we were able to train Support Vector Machine classifiers to distinguish RNAs of known families from random RNAs with similar statistics. For 22 of the 25 families tested, the classifier achieved better than 70% accuracy, with much higher accuracy rates for some families. Training a set of classifiers to automatically assign family labels to RNAs using a one vs. all multi-class scheme also yielded encouraging results. From these initial learning experiments, we suggest that the labeled dual graph representation, together with kernel machine methods, has potential for use in automated analysis and classification of uncharacterized RNA molecules or efficient genome-wide screens for RNA molecules from existing families.

  11. A Study of the Transformation of Xinjiang Higher Education Institutions from the Minority-Han Dual-Track System to the Minority-Han Unification Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simayi, Zuliyati

    2015-01-01

    "Minority-Han unified education" has already made some progress in the reform and practice of higher education in Xinjiang and accumulated precious experience. But presently minority-Han unified education in Xinjiang higher education institutions is still stuck in the trial stage in which there are many Han students and few minority…

  12. A Study of the Transformation of Xinjiang Higher Education Institutions from the Minority-Han Dual-Track System to the Minority-Han Unification Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simayi, Zuliyati

    2015-01-01

    "Minority-Han unified education" has already made some progress in the reform and practice of higher education in Xinjiang and accumulated precious experience. But presently minority-Han unified education in Xinjiang higher education institutions is still stuck in the trial stage in which there are many Han students and few minority…

  13. The Representation of Abstract Words: Why Emotion Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousta, Stavroula-Thaleia; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P.; Andrews, Mark; Del Campo, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Although much is known about the representation and processing of concrete concepts, knowledge of what abstract semantics might be is severely limited. In this article we first address the adequacy of the 2 dominant accounts (dual coding theory and the context availability model) put forward in order to explain representation and processing…

  14. Targhee Russet: A high yielding dual purpose, long russet potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content and resistance to tuber soft rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Targhee Russet is a dark-skinned russet potato variety with tubers slightly longer than Russet Burbank. It produces higher total and marketable yields than does Russet Burbank at most of the sites it was tested in the western United States. Tuber dormancy is about 58 days shorter than Russet Burba...

  15. Globalization and Dual Modes of Higher Education Policymaking in France: Je T'aime Moi Non Plus. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.2.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoareau, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    The French Government has had a paradoxical relationship with globalization. Globalization is perceived as both a threat to react against and a cradle for new policy ideas. French policymakers have a love-hate relationship with the European higher education reforms that started in the 1990s, a mixed sentiment that French singer Serge Gainsbourg…

  16. Attentional Control via Parallel Target-Templates in Dual-Target Search

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Doug J. K.; Zobay, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous search for two targets has been shown to be slower and less accurate than independent searches for the same two targets. Recent research suggests this ‘dual-target cost’ may be attributable to a limit in the number of target-templates than can guide search at any one time. The current study investigated this possibility by comparing behavioural responses during single- and dual-target searches for targets defined by their orientation. The results revealed an increase in reaction times for dual- compared to single-target searches that was largely independent of the number of items in the display. Response accuracy also decreased on dual- compared to single-target searches: dual-target accuracy was higher than predicted by a model restricting search guidance to a single target-template and lower than predicted by a model simulating two independent single-target searches. These results are consistent with a parallel model of dual-target search in which attentional control is exerted by more than one target-template at a time. The requirement to maintain two target-templates simultaneously, however, appears to impose a reduction in the specificity of the memory representation that guides search for each target. PMID:24489793

  17. Argumentation-Based Collaborative Inquiry in Science Through Representational Work: Impact on Primary Students' Representational Fluency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Kim; Gillies, Robyn; Hedberg, John

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the impact of argumentation-promoting collaborative inquiry and representational work in science on primary students' representational fluency. Two hundred sixty-six year 6 students received instruction on natural disasters with a focus on collaborative inquiry. Students in the Comparison condition received only this instruction. Students in the Explanation condition were also instructed with a focus on explanations using representations. Students in the Argumentation condition received similar instruction to the Comparison and Explanation conditions but were also instructed with a focus on argumentation using representations. Conceptual understanding and representational competencies (interpreting, explaining and constructing representations) were measured prior to and immediately following the instruction. A small group collaborative representational task was video recorded at the end of the instruction and coded for modes of knowledge-building discourse; knowledge-sharing and knowledge-construction. Higher measures of conceptual understanding, representational competencies and knowledge-construction discourse were taken together as representational fluency. Students in all conditions showed significant improvement in conceptual understanding, interpreting representations and explaining representations. Students in the Comparison and Argumentation conditions also showed significantly improved scores in constructing representations. When compared to the other conditions, the Explanation group had the highest scores in conceptual understanding and also interpreting and explaining representations. While the Argumentation group had the highest scores for constructing representations, their scores for conceptual understanding as well as interpreting and explaining representations were also high. There was no difference between the groups in knowledge-sharing discourse; however, the Argumentation group displayed the highest incidence of knowledge

  18. Mellin amplitudes for dual conformal integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulos, Miguel F.; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia

    2012-08-01

    Motivated by recent work on the utility of Mellin space for representing conformal correlators in AdS/CFT, we study its suitability for representing dual conformal integrals of the type which appear in perturbative scattering amplitudes in super-Yang-Mills theory. We discuss Feynman-like rules for writing Mellin amplitudes for a large class of integrals in any dimension, and find explicit representations for several familiar toy integrals. However we show that the power of Mellin space is that it provides simple representations even for fully massive integrals, which except for the single case of the 4-mass box have not yet been computed by any available technology. Mellin space is also useful for exhibiting differential relations between various multi-loop integrals, and we show that certain higher-loop integrals may be written as integral operators acting on the fully massive scalar n-gon in n dimensions, whose Mellin amplitude is exactly 1. Our chief example is a very simple formula expressing the 6-mass double box as a single integral of the 6-mass scalar hexagon in 6 dimensions.

  19. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1990-02-19

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation, computation, and display of surfaces interpolating to information in three or more dimensions. If the given information is located on another surface, then the problem is to construct a surface defined on a surface''. Sometimes properties of an already defined surface are desired, which is geometry processing''. Visualization of multivariate surfaces is possible by means of contouring higher dimensional surfaces. These problems and more are discussed below. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through computational algorithms to computer graphics illustrations is utilized in this research. The breadth and depth of this research activity makes this research project unique.

  20. L1 and L2 Picture Naming in Mandarin-English Bilinguals: A Test of Bilingual Dual Coding Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Poh, Rebecca Pei Yun; Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of bilinguals' conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in…

  1. L1 and L2 Picture Naming in Mandarin-English Bilinguals: A Test of Bilingual Dual Coding Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Poh, Rebecca Pei Yun; Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of bilinguals' conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in…

  2. Representation in Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Norman, Donald A.

    This paper reviews work on the representation of knowledge from within psychology and artificial intelligence. The work covers the nature of representation, the distinction between the represented world and the representing world, and significant issues concerned with propositional, analogical, and superpositional representations. Specific topics…

  3. Understanding Representation in Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodker, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the design of computer applications, focusing on understanding design representations--what makes design representations work, and how, in different contexts. Examines the place of various types of representation (e.g., formal notations, models, prototypes, scenarios, and mock-ups) in design and the role of formalisms and representations…

  4. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-01-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs…

  5. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1991-04-02

    Modern computing resources permit the generation of large amounts of numerical data. These large data sets, if left in numerical form, can be overwhelming. Such large data sets are usually discrete points from some underlying physical phenomenon. Because we need to evaluate the phenomenon at places where we don't have data, a continuous representation (a surface'') is required. A simple example is a weather map obtained from a discrete set of weather stations. (For more examples including multi-dimensional ones, see the article by Dr. Rosemary Chang in the enclosed IRIS Universe). In order to create a scientific structure encompassing the data, we construct an interpolating mathematical surface which can evaluate at arbitrary locations. We can also display and analyze the results via interactive computer graphics. In our research we construct a very wide variety of surfaces for applied geometry problems that have sound theoretical foundations. However, our surfaces have the distinguishing feature that they are constructed to solve short or long term practical problems. This DOE-funded project has developed the premiere research team in the subject of constructing surfaces (3D and higher dimensional) that provide smooth representations of real scientific and engineering information, including state of the art computer graphics visualizations. However, our main contribution is in the development of fundamental constructive mathematical methods and visualization techniques which can be incorporated into a wide variety of applications. This project combines constructive mathematics, algorithms, and computer graphics, all applied to real problems. The project is a unique resource, considered by our peers to be a de facto national center for this type of research.

  6. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  7. Dual diagnosis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gual, Antoni

    2007-01-01

    Our aim is to describe the current situation regarding the diagnosis and treatment of addiction in a variety of settings in Spain. Four-hundred and twenty-seven physicians known to treat addicted patients in non-private settings were recruited and agreed to participate. Each physician provided clinical and anonymous information on the first 6 consecutive patients who attended on a scheduled day. A total of 2361 patients were interviewed (92.1%) and data were obtained concerning gender, age, work, educational level, civil status, addiction diagnosis, type of treatment and psychiatric comorbidity. Seven-hundred and ninety-eight out of 2361 addicts (33.8%) presented with a dual diagnosis. Depression was the most prevalent disorder (21.6%), followed by anxiety disorders (11.7%). Comorbidity was found to be related to age, female gender, divorce and widowhood, and higher educational levels. Alcoholics who abused other drugs showed the highest rates of comorbidity (48.5%), while opiate addicts were at the lower end of the spectrum (27.4%). No differences were found related to the treatment setting, the doctor's medical specialty, or the geographical area. Finally, doctors tended to perceive that dual diagnosis was related to a worse psychiatric prognosis but not to higher relapse rates. Antidepressants were the most commonly prescribed drugs (62.4% of co-morbid patients) and anticraving agents were prescribed equally to comorbid and non-comorbid patients. Within the limitations of a descriptive study, our data show that comorbidity is a common clinical problem in patients who access addiction treatment. Affective and anxiety disorders are the most common comorbid diseases, and comorbidity rates seem to be unrelated to regional differences, medical settings or doctor's professional background. Dual diagnosis patients thus account for one third of the clinical workload of addiction specialists in Spain.

  8. Embedded Data Representations.

    PubMed

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles are making it increasingly easier to display data in-context. While researchers and artists have already begun to create embedded data representations, the benefits, trade-offs, and even the language necessary to describe and compare these approaches remain unexplored. In this paper, we formalize the notion of physical data referents - the real-world entities and spaces to which data corresponds - and examine the relationship between referents and the visual and physical representations of their data. We differentiate situated representations, which display data in proximity to data referents, and embedded representations, which display data so that it spatially coincides with data referents. Drawing on examples from visualization, ubiquitous computing, and art, we explore the role of spatial indirection, scale, and interaction for embedded representations. We also examine the tradeoffs between non-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications.

  9. Reading Visual Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.; Thompson, Denisse R.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is rich in visual representations. Such visual representations are the means by which mathematical patterns "are recorded and analyzed." With respect to "vocabulary" and "symbols," numerous educators have focused on issues inherent in the language of mathematics that influence students' success with mathematics communication.…

  10. Inscriptions Becoming Representations in Representational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Richard; Suthers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the interaction of 3 students working on mathematics problems over several days in a virtual math team. Our analysis traces out how successful collaboration in a later session is contingent upon the work of prior sessions and shows how the development of representational practices is an important aspect of these participants' problem…

  11. Inscriptions Becoming Representations in Representational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Richard; Suthers, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the interaction of 3 students working on mathematics problems over several days in a virtual math team. Our analysis traces out how successful collaboration in a later session is contingent upon the work of prior sessions and shows how the development of representational practices is an important aspect of these participants' problem…

  12. Flat holography: aspects of the dual field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-12-01

    Assuming the existence of a field theory in D dimensions dual to ( D + 1)-dimensional flat space, governed by the asymptotic symmetries of flat space, we make some preliminary remarks about the properties of this field theory. We review briefly some successes of the 3d bulk - 2d boundary case and then focus on the 4d bulk - 3d boundary example, where the symmetry in question is the infinite dimensional BMS4 algebra. We look at the constraints imposed by this symmetry on a 3d field theory by constructing highest weight representations of this algebra. We construct two and three point functions of BMS primary fields and surprisingly find that symmetries constrain these correlators to be identical to those of a 2d relativistic conformal field theory. We then go one dimension higher and construct prototypical examples of 4d field theories which are putative duals of 5d Minkowski spacetimes. These field theories are ultra-relativistic limits of electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theories which exhibit invariance under the conformal Carroll group in D = 4. We explore the different sectors within these Carrollian gauge theories and investigate the symmetries of the equations of motion to find that an infinite ultra-relativistic conformal structure arises in each case.

  13. Dual theories: 'Same but different' or 'different but same'?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickles, Dean

    2017-08-01

    I argue that, underneath the glitz, dual theories are simply examples of theoretically equivalent descriptions of the same underlying physical content: I distinguish them from cases of genuine underdetermination on the grounds that there is no real incompatibility involved between the descriptions. The incompatibility is at the level of purely unphysical structure. I argue that dual pairs are in fact very strongly analogous to gauge-related solutions even for dual pairs that look the most radically distinct, such as AdS/CFT. However, again by analogy with gauge freedom, I conjecture that dualities always point to a more fundamental (intrinsic) description, namely that in which the representational redundancy is eliminated.

  14. Structural representation of data structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantoni, Virginio; Gaggia, Alessandro; Gatti, Riccardo; Lombardi, Luca

    2014-06-01

    Study of the morphology of proteins, and their 3D structure, supports investigations of their functions and represents an initial step towards protein-based drug design. The goal of this paper is to define techniques, based on the geometrical and topological structure of protein surfaces, for the detection and analysis of sites of potential protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. Two protein representation modalities based on the Concavity Tree (CT) and the Enriched Complex Extended Gaussian Image (EC-EGI) are considered. In particular, the concavity tree, in which the interface is usually extended and roughly planar, is considered to be better suited to protein-protein interaction studies. Instead, the EGI is more suited to protein-ligand interactions, in which the small ligand molecule usually has to fit into the protein cavity. In fact, the histogram of the orientations is better suited to representing a mainly convex object and its dual matching region (the cavity). Both these data structures are open, and can be easily integrated with biochemical features.

  15. Contacts de langues et representations (Language Contacts and Representations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Essays on language contact and the image of language, entirely in French, include: "Representations 'du' contexte et representations 'en' contexte? Eleves et enseignants face a l'apprentissage de la langue" ("Representations 'of' Context or Representations 'in' Context? Students and Teachers Facing Language Learning" (Laurent…

  16. Dual Wavelength Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Dual wavelength lasers are discussed, covering fundamental aspects on the spectroscopy and laser dynamics of these systems. Results on Tm:Ho:Er:YAG dual wavelength laser action (Ho at 2.1 m and Er at 2.9 m) as well as Nd:YAG (1.06 and 1.3 m) are presented as examples of such dual wavelength systems. Dual wavelength lasers are not common, but there are criteria that govern their behavior. Based on experimental studies demonstrating simultaneous dual wavelength lasing, some general conclusions regarding the successful operation of multi-wavelength lasers can be made.

  17. Saliency Detection Using Sparse and Nonlinear Feature Representation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qingjie; Manzoor, Muhammad Farhan; Ishaq Khan, Saqib

    2014-01-01

    An important aspect of visual saliency detection is how features that form an input image are represented. A popular theory supports sparse feature representation, an image being represented with a basis dictionary having sparse weighting coefficient. Another method uses a nonlinear combination of image features for representation. In our work, we combine the two methods and propose a scheme that takes advantage of both sparse and nonlinear feature representation. To this end, we use independent component analysis (ICA) and covariant matrices, respectively. To compute saliency, we use a biologically plausible center surround difference (CSD) mechanism. Our sparse features are adaptive in nature; the ICA basis function are learnt at every image representation, rather than being fixed. We show that Adaptive Sparse Features when used with a CSD mechanism yield better results compared to fixed sparse representations. We also show that covariant matrices consisting of nonlinear integration of color information alone are sufficient to efficiently estimate saliency from an image. The proposed dual representation scheme is then evaluated against human eye fixation prediction, response to psychological patterns, and salient object detection on well-known datasets. We conclude that having two forms of representation compliments one another and results in better saliency detection. PMID:24895644

  18. Representation Elements of Spatial Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiantika, F. R.

    2017-04-01

    This paper aims to add a reference in revealing spatial thinking. There several definitions of spatial thinking but it is not easy to defining it. We can start to discuss the concept, its basic a forming representation. Initially, the five sense catch the natural phenomenon and forward it to memory for processing. Abstraction plays a role in processing information into a concept. There are two types of representation, namely internal representation and external representation. The internal representation is also known as mental representation; this representation is in the human mind. The external representation may include images, auditory and kinesthetic which can be used to describe, explain and communicate the structure, operation, the function of the object as well as relationships. There are two main elements, representations properties and object relationships. These elements play a role in forming a representation.

  19. The Effects of Visual Cues and Learners' Field Dependence in Multiple External Representations Environment for Novice Program Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Liew Tze; Sazilah, Salam

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual cues in multiple external representations (MER) environment on the learning performance of novices' program comprehension. Program codes and flowchart diagrams were used as dual representations in multimedia environment to deliver lessons on C-Programming. 17 field independent participants and 16 field…

  20. The Effects of Visual Cues and Learners' Field Dependence in Multiple External Representations Environment for Novice Program Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Liew Tze; Sazilah, Salam

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of visual cues in multiple external representations (MER) environment on the learning performance of novices' program comprehension. Program codes and flowchart diagrams were used as dual representations in multimedia environment to deliver lessons on C-Programming. 17 field independent participants and 16 field…

  1. Grassmannian sparse representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azary, Sherif; Savakis, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    We present Grassmannian sparse representations (GSR), a sparse representation Grassmann learning framework for efficient classification. Sparse representation classification offers a powerful approach for recognition in a variety of contexts. However, a major drawback of sparse representation methods is their computational performance and memory utilization for high-dimensional data. A Grassmann manifold is a space that promotes smooth surfaces where points represent subspaces and the relationship between points is defined by the mapping of an orthogonal matrix. Grassmann manifolds are well suited for computer vision problems because they promote high between-class discrimination and within-class clustering, while offering computational advantages by mapping each subspace onto a single point. The GSR framework combines Grassmannian kernels and sparse representations, including regularized least squares and least angle regression, to improve high accuracy recognition while overcoming the drawbacks of performance and dependencies on high dimensional data distributions. The effectiveness of GSR is demonstrated on computationally intensive multiview action sequences, three-dimensional action sequences, and face recognition datasets.

  2. Learning network representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Luis G.

    2017-02-01

    In this review I present several representation learning methods, and discuss the latest advancements with emphasis in applications to network science. Representation learning is a set of techniques that has the goal of efficiently mapping data structures into convenient latent spaces. Either for dimensionality reduction or for gaining semantic content, this type of feature embeddings has demonstrated to be useful, for example, for node classification or link prediction tasks, among many other relevant applications to networks. I provide a description of the state-of-the-art of network representation learning as well as a detailed account of the connections with other fields of study such as continuous word embeddings and deep learning architectures. Finally, I provide a broad view of several applications of these techniques to networks in various domains.

  3. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  4. Favor referential representations.

    PubMed

    Frazier, L; McNamara, P

    1995-06-01

    Avrutin and Hickok (1993) argue that agrammatic patients have the ability to represent nonreferential or "government" chains ("who ... e") but not referential or "binding" chains ("which girl ... e"). By contrast, we propose the "referential representation hypothesis," which suggests that agrammatics attempt to cope with their well-known capacity limitations by favoring referential or content-based representations. This predicts that agrammatic patients' performance should degrade noticeably as task demands increase, and referential demands should take priority over computational ones. In a semantic task, referential phrases should lead to better or more accurate performances. In syntactic tasks, the availability of a referential or content-based representation will interfere with the development of a syntactic representation, resulting in worse syntactic performance on the referential phrases than on nonreferential ones. This predicts that agrammatic patients should incorrectly accept (resumptive) pronoun sentences with a referential wh-phrase because the pronouns will find the semantic or discourse referent of the referential wh-phrase and take it as an antecedent for the pronoun. However, they should reject a (resumptive) pronoun in a sentence with the nonreferential question constituent "who" or "what." "Who" and "what" will remain in syntactic form, since they have only grammatical content and therefore will have only a "nonreferential" syntactic representation. Consequently, they cannot serve as the antecedent of the pronoun. These predictions were largely confirmed by the results of a grammaticality judgement study. Agrammatics performed well on questions with pragmatic biases but failed to distinguish reliably between grammatical and ungrammatical questions where pragmatic biases were neutralized. They assigned especially low ratings to object gap sentences with referential wh-constituents, as predicted. They assigned relatively high ratings to

  5. Early representations of ownership.

    PubMed

    Blake, Peter R; Harris, Paul L

    2011-01-01

    To navigate a world filled with private property, children must be able to assign ownership information to objects and update that information when appropriate. In this chapter, the authors propose that children include ownership as an attribute of their object representations. Children can learn about ownership attributes either by witnessing owners acting on their property, a visual source, or by receiving information from the testimony of others, a verbal source. The authors consider the differences between these two forms of information and how they might conflict at the representational level, leading to difficulties in learning about ownership. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. Umbra's system representation.

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Michael James

    2005-07-01

    This document describes the Umbra System representation. Umbra System representation, initially developed in the spring of 2003, is implemented in Incr/Tcl using concepts borrowed from Carnegie Mellon University's Architecture Description Language (ADL) called Acme. In the spring of 2004 through January 2005, System was converted to Umbra 4, extended slightly, and adopted as the underlying software system for a variety of Umbra applications that support Complex Systems Engineering (CSE) and Complex Adaptive Systems Engineering (CASE). System is now a standard part Of Umbra 4. While Umbra 4 also includes an XML parser for System, the XML parser and Schema are not described in this document.

  7. The Problem of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tervo, Juuso

    2012-01-01

    In "Postphysical Vision: Art Education's Challenge in an Age of Globalized Aesthetics (AMondofesto)" (2008) and "Beyond Aesthetics: Returning Force and Truth to Art and Its Education" (2009), jan jagodzinski argued for politics that go "beyond" representation--a project that radically questions visual culture…

  8. Compact Information Representations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-02

    detections (e.g., DDoS attacks), machine learning, databases, and search. Fundamentally, compact data representations are highly beneficial because they...Blessing of Dimensionality: Recovering Mixture Data via Dictionary Pursuit, to appear in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence... Machine Learning (ICML), 2016 11. Ping Li, One Scan 1-Bit Compressed Sensing, in International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics

  9. Knowledge Representation in PARKA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    the color of Poodle could be restricted to being just black or white, while the color of Irish-Setter could be set to red. Note that this would allow a...sub- field of knowledge representation with considerable subtlety and a history of interesting, difficult problems (see, e.g. [10]). Winston et. al

  10. Reading Students' Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; McCosker, Natalie T.

    2011-01-01

    Representations play a key role in mathematical thinking: They offer "a medium" to express mathematical knowledge or organize mathematical information and to discern mathematical relationships (e.g., relative household expenditures on a pie chart) using text, symbols, or graphics. They also furnish "tools" for mathematical processes (e.g., use of…

  11. Reading Students' Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; McCosker, Natalie T.

    2011-01-01

    Representations play a key role in mathematical thinking: They offer "a medium" to express mathematical knowledge or organize mathematical information and to discern mathematical relationships (e.g., relative household expenditures on a pie chart) using text, symbols, or graphics. They also furnish "tools" for mathematical processes (e.g., use of…

  12. The Problem of Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tervo, Juuso

    2012-01-01

    In "Postphysical Vision: Art Education's Challenge in an Age of Globalized Aesthetics (AMondofesto)" (2008) and "Beyond Aesthetics: Returning Force and Truth to Art and Its Education" (2009), jan jagodzinski argued for politics that go "beyond" representation--a project that radically questions visual culture…

  13. Representation in Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-07

    appear to contain visual, auditory, kinesthetic , and emotive components, in addition to the more abstract com- ponents necessary for the kinds of causal...it gets interpreted. . . . . . . . . o,. Rumelhart and Norman Representation in Memory June 7, 1983 81 being learned. The learner is expected to

  14. Student Engagement: Stakeholder Perspectives on Course Representation in University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement has become a key feature of UK higher education policy and analysis. At the core of this is a notion of engagement characterised by dialogue and joint venture. The article explores this by considering the role of student representation in university governance. It focuses on the system of course representation that is a feature…

  15. Student Engagement: Stakeholder Perspectives on Course Representation in University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Student engagement has become a key feature of UK higher education policy and analysis. At the core of this is a notion of engagement characterised by dialogue and joint venture. The article explores this by considering the role of student representation in university governance. It focuses on the system of course representation that is a feature…

  16. Dual-fuel, dual-throat engine preliminary analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A propulsion system analysis of the dual fuel, dual throat engine for launch vehicle applications was conducted. Basic dual throat engine characterization data were obtained to allow vehicle optimization studies to be conducted. A preliminary baseline engine system was defined.

  17. Stimulus representation in SOP: I. Theoretical rationalization and some implications.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Susan E.; Vogel, Edgar H.; Wagner, Allan R.

    2003-04-28

    THE SOP MODEL [INFORMATION PROCESSING IN ANIMALS: Memory Mechanisms, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1981, p. 5] is described in terms of its assumed stimulus representation, network characteristics, and rules for learning and performance. It is shown how several Pavlovian conditioning phenomena can be accounted on the basis of the model's presumed stimulus representation. Challenges to the SOP model prompted the adoption of a componential stimulus representation in: AESOP [Contemporary Learning Theories: Pavlovian Conditioning and the Status of Traditional Learning Theory, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, 1989, p. 149], this was a dual representation of the unconditioned stimulus (US), and C-SOP [Contemporary Learning: Theory and Application, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 2001, p. 23], this was a multi-component representation of the conditioned stimulus (CS). The assumption of a componential CS representation, where large numbers of elements can be separately learned about, necessitated a modification of the learning rule. The modified, "constrained" rule was found useful to explain timing characteristics of Pavlovian conditioned responses, as well as data offered by Rescorla [J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process. 26 (2000) 428; Q. J. Exp. Psychol. 54B (2001) 53; J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process. 28 (2002) 163] showing that stimuli trained in compound do not share the same quantitative fate.

  18. On representations for joint moments using a joint coordinate system.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Oliver M; Sena, Mark P; Feeley, Brian T; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-01

    In studies of the biomechanics of joints, the representation of moments using the joint coordinate system has been discussed by several authors. The primary purpose of this technical brief is to emphasize that there are two distinct, albeit related, representations for moment vectors using the joint coordinate system. These distinct representations are illuminated by exploring connections between the Euler and dual Euler bases, the "nonorthogonal projections" presented in a recent paper by Desroches et al. (2010, "Expression of Joint Moment in the Joint Coordinate System," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 132(11), p. 11450) and seminal works by Grood and Suntay (Grood and Suntay, 1983, "A Joint Coordinate System for the Clinical Description of Three-Dimensional Motions: Application to the Knee," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 105(2), pp. 136-144) and Fujie et al. (1996, "Forces and Moment in Six-DOF at the Human Knee Joint: Mathematical Description for Control," Journal of Biomechanics, 29(12), pp. 1577-1585) on the knee joint. It is also shown how the representation using the dual Euler basis leads to straightforward definition of joint stiffnesses.

  19. Identifying Representational Competence with Multi-Representational Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Hegarty, Mary; Deslongchamps, Ghislain

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, multi-representational educational technologies are being deployed in science classrooms to support science learning and the development of representational competence. Several studies have indicated that students experience significant challenges working with these multi-representational displays and prefer to use only one…

  20. Identifying Representational Competence with Multi-Representational Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Hegarty, Mary; Deslongchamps, Ghislain

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, multi-representational educational technologies are being deployed in science classrooms to support science learning and the development of representational competence. Several studies have indicated that students experience significant challenges working with these multi-representational displays and prefer to use only one…

  1. On scalar propagators of three-dimensional higher-spin black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hai Siong

    2016-09-01

    We explore some aspects of three-dimensional higher-spin holography by studying scalar fluctuations in the background of higher-spin black holes. We furnish an independent derivation of the bulk-boundary propagator by purely invoking a well-known infinite dimensional matrix representation of hs[λ] algebra related to its construction as a quotient of the universal enveloping algebra of sl(2), thus evading the need in previous literature to perform an analytic continuation from some integer to λ. The propagator and the boundary two-point functions are derived for black hole solutions in hs[λ] × hs[λ] Chern-Simons theory with spin-3 and spin-4 charges up to second-order in the potentials. We match them with three- and four-point torus correlation functions of the putative dual conformal field theory which has W_{∞}[λ ] symmetry and is deformed by higher-spin currents.

  2. Specialized mechanisms for theory of mind: are mental representations special because they are mental or because they are representations?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Adam S; Sasaki, Joni Y; German, Tamsin C

    2015-03-01

    Does theory of mind depend on a capacity to reason about representations generally or on mechanisms selective for the processing of mental state representations? In four experiments, participants reasoned about beliefs (mental representations) and notes (non-mental, linguistic representations), which according to two prominent theories are closely matched representations because both are represented propositionally. Reaction times were faster and accuracies higher when participants endorsed or rejected statements about false beliefs than about false notes (Experiment 1), even when statements emphasized representational format (Experiment 2), which should have favored the activation of representation concepts. Experiments 3 and 4 ruled out a counterhypothesis that differences in task demands were responsible for the advantage in belief processing. These results demonstrate for the first time that understanding of mental and linguistic representations can be dissociated even though both may carry propositional content, supporting the theory that mechanisms governing theory of mind reasoning are narrowly specialized to process mental states, not representations more broadly. Extending this theory, we discuss whether less efficient processing of non-mental representations may be a by-product of mechanisms specialized for processing mental states.

  3. Standard model of knowledge representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge representation is the core of artificial intelligence research. Knowledge representation methods include predicate logic, semantic network, computer programming language, database, mathematical model, graphics language, natural language, etc. To establish the intrinsic link between various knowledge representation methods, a unified knowledge representation model is necessary. According to ontology, system theory, and control theory, a standard model of knowledge representation that reflects the change of the objective world is proposed. The model is composed of input, processing, and output. This knowledge representation method is not a contradiction to the traditional knowledge representation method. It can express knowledge in terms of multivariate and multidimensional. It can also express process knowledge, and at the same time, it has a strong ability to solve problems. In addition, the standard model of knowledge representation provides a way to solve problems of non-precision and inconsistent knowledge.

  4. Nonnegative local coordinate factorization for image representation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jiemi; Cai, Deng; Liu, Wei; He, Xiaofei

    2013-03-01

    Recently, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has become increasingly popular for feature extraction in computer vision and pattern recognition. NMF seeks two nonnegative matrices whose product can best approximate the original matrix. The nonnegativity constraints lead to sparse parts-based representations that can be more robust than nonsparse global features. To obtain more accurate control over the sparseness, in this paper, we propose a novel method called nonnegative local coordinate factorization (NLCF) for feature extraction. NLCF adds a local coordinate constraint into the standard NMF objective function. Specifically, we require that the learned basis vectors be as close to the original data points as possible. In this way, each data point can be represented by a linear combination of only a few nearby basis vectors, which naturally leads to sparse representation. Extensive experimental results suggest that the proposed approach provides a better representation and achieves higher accuracy in image clustering.

  5. In defense of abstract conceptual representations.

    PubMed

    Binder, Jeffrey R

    2016-08-01

    An extensive program of research in the past 2 decades has focused on the role of modal sensory, motor, and affective brain systems in storing and retrieving concept knowledge. This focus has led in some circles to an underestimation of the need for more abstract, supramodal conceptual representations in semantic cognition. Evidence for supramodal processing comes from neuroimaging work documenting a large, well-defined cortical network that responds to meaningful stimuli regardless of modal content. The nodes in this network correspond to high-level "convergence zones" that receive broadly crossmodal input and presumably process crossmodal conjunctions. It is proposed that highly conjunctive representations are needed for several critical functions, including capturing conceptual similarity structure, enabling thematic associative relationships independent of conceptual similarity, and providing efficient "chunking" of concept representations for a range of higher order tasks that require concepts to be configured as situations. These hypothesized functions account for a wide range of neuroimaging results showing modulation of the supramodal convergence zone network by associative strength, lexicality, familiarity, imageability, frequency, and semantic compositionality. The evidence supports a hierarchical model of knowledge representation in which modal systems provide a mechanism for concept acquisition and serve to ground individual concepts in external reality, whereas broadly conjunctive, supramodal representations play an equally important role in concept association and situation knowledge.

  6. Self-dual gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2017-05-01

    Self-dual gravity is a diffeomorphism invariant theory in four dimensions that describes two propagating polarisations of the graviton and has a negative mass dimension coupling constant. Nevertheless, this theory is not only renormalisable but quantum finite, as we explain. We also collect various facts about self-dual gravity that are scattered across the literature.

  7. Dual Credit Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, legislation to improve access to dual-credit programs and to reduce disparities in access and completion--particularly for low income and underrepresented students--was enacted. The new law focused on expanding access to College in the High School but acknowledged issues in other dual-credit programs and reinforced the notion that cost…

  8. Naturalising Representational Content

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out a view about the explanatory role of representational content and advocates one approach to naturalising content – to giving a naturalistic account of what makes an entity a representation and in virtue of what it has the content it does. It argues for pluralism about the metaphysics of content and suggests that a good strategy is to ask the content question with respect to a variety of predictively successful information processing models in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience; and hence that data from psychology and cognitive neuroscience should play a greater role in theorising about the nature of content. Finally, the contours of the view are illustrated by drawing out and defending a surprising consequence: that individuation of vehicles of content is partly externalist. PMID:24563661

  9. Representation in incremental learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Work focused on two areas in machine learning: representation for inductive learning and how to apply concept learning techniques to learning state preferences, which can represent search control knowledge for problem solving. Specifically, in the first area the issues of the effect of representation on learning, on how learning formalisms are biased, and how concept learning can benefit from the use of a hybrid formalism are addressed. In the second area, the issues of developing an agent to learn search control knowledge from the relative values of states, of the source of that qualitative information, and of the ability to use both quantitative and qualitative information in order to develop an effective problem-solving policy are examined.

  10. Multiple Forms of Dynamic Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; VanLabeke, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The terms dynamic representation and animation are often used as if they are synonymous, but in this paper we argue that there are multiple ways to represent phenomena that change over time. Time-persistent representations show a range of values over time. Time-implicit representations also show a range of values but not the specific times when…

  11. Representations in Mental Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    five, ojposed of c jmputer scientists, experimental psychologists, linguit philosophe and connectionists met to share views on representations and their... difficulty in developing an integrated, focussed discipline typical of the older Natural Sciences or of the more recently formed Neurosciences. The Problem for...into a useful, integrated framework. (See Peters and Kaplan.) The Nature of Cognitive Science The difficulty the group had in sharing a common

  12. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    PubMed Central

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and

  13. The field representation language.

    PubMed

    Tsafnat, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The complexity of quantitative biomedical models, and the rate at which they are published, is increasing to a point where managing the information has become all but impossible without automation. International efforts are underway to standardise representation languages for a number of mathematical entities that represent a wide variety of physiological systems. This paper presents the Field Representation Language (FRL), a portable representation of values that change over space and/or time. FRL is an extensible mark-up language (XML) derivative with support for large numeric data sets in Hierarchical Data Format version 5 (HDF5). Components of FRL can be reused through unified resource identifiers (URI) that point to external resources such as custom basis functions, boundary geometries and numerical data. To demonstrate the use of FRL as an interchange we present three models that study hyperthermia cancer treatment: a fractal model of liver tumour microvasculature; a probabilistic model simulating the deposition of magnetic microspheres throughout it; and a finite element model of hyperthermic treatment. The microsphere distribution field was used to compute the heat generation rate field around the tumour. We used FRL to convey results from the microsphere simulation to the treatment model. FRL facilitated the conversion of the coordinate systems and approximated the integral over regions of the microsphere deposition field.

  14. Translation between representation languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbaalen, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    A capability for translating between representation languages is critical for effective knowledge base reuse. A translation technology for knowledge representation languages based on the use of an interlingua for communicating knowledge is described. The interlingua-based translation process consists of three major steps: translation from the source language into a subset of the interlingua, translation between subsets of the interlingua, and translation from a subset of the interlingua into the target language. The first translation step into the interlingua can typically be specified in the form of a grammar that describes how each top-level form in the source language translates into the interlingua. In cases where the source language does not have a declarative semantics, such a grammar is also a specification of a declarative semantics for the language. A methodology for building translators that is currently under development is described. A 'translator shell' based on this methodology is also under development. The shell has been used to build translators for multiple representation languages and those translators have successfully translated nontrivial knowledge bases.

  15. [Time perceptions and representations].

    PubMed

    Tordjman, S

    2015-09-01

    Representations of time and time measurements depend on subjective constructs that vary according to changes in our concepts, beliefs, societal needs and technical advances. Similarly, the past, the future and the present are subjective representations that depend on each individual's psychic time and biological time. Therefore, there is no single, one-size-fits-all time for everyone, but rather a different, subjective time for each individual. We need to acknowledge the existence of different inter-individual times but also intra-individual times, to which different functions and different rhythms are attached, depending on the system of reference. However, the construction of these time perceptions and representations is influenced by objective factors (physiological, physical and cognitive) related to neuroscience which will be presented and discussed in this article. Thus, studying representation and perception of time lies at the crossroads between neuroscience, human sciences and philosophy. Furthermore, it is possible to identify several constants among the many and various representations of time and their corresponding measures, regardless of the system of time reference. These include the notion of movements repeated in a stable rhythmic pattern involving the recurrence of the same interval of time, which enables us to define units of time of equal and invariable duration. This rhythmicity is also found at a physiological level and contributes through circadian rhythms, in particular the melatonin rhythm, to the existence of a biological time. Alterations of temporality in mental disorders will be also discussed in this article illustrated by certain developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. In particular, the hypothesis will be developed that children with autism would need to create discontinuity out of continuity through stereotyped behaviors and/or interests. This discontinuity repeated at regular intervals could have been

  16. Information Technology and Mathematics: Opening New Representational Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaput, James J.

    1986-01-01

    Examples of relatively novel computer software environments from the representation perspective are described. Even more novel approaches to curriculum reform to cultivate higher-order thinking skills are then discussed. (MNS)

  17. Student Representation and Multiparty Politics in African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luescher-Mamashela, Thierry M.; Mugume, Taabo

    2014-01-01

    The transition from one-party rule and other forms of authoritarianism to multiparty democracy in the 1990s has had a profound impact on the organisation and role of student politics in Africa. Against the background of student involvement in African politics in the twentieth century, leading up to student participation in Africa's "second…

  18. Student Representation and Multiparty Politics in African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luescher-Mamashela, Thierry M.; Mugume, Taabo

    2014-01-01

    The transition from one-party rule and other forms of authoritarianism to multiparty democracy in the 1990s has had a profound impact on the organisation and role of student politics in Africa. Against the background of student involvement in African politics in the twentieth century, leading up to student participation in Africa's "second…

  19. Poetic Re-Presentations on Trust in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Kim; Bloomquist, Candace

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses using poetic transcription (Glesne, 1997) as a tool for examining trust, including what trust looks and feels like from the "lived experiences" (Richardson, 1992) of university educators. We first explore the rationale for using poetic transcription in this study, discussing how and why poetry may be used as a…

  20. Dual coding: a cognitive model for psychoanalytic research.

    PubMed

    Bucci, W

    1985-01-01

    Four theories of mental representation derived from current experimental work in cognitive psychology have been discussed in relation to psychoanalytic theory. These are: verbal mediation theory, in which language determines or mediates thought; perceptual dominance theory, in which imagistic structures are dominant; common code or propositional models, in which all information, perceptual or linguistic, is represented in an abstract, amodal code; and dual coding, in which nonverbal and verbal information are each encoded, in symbolic form, in separate systems specialized for such representation, and connected by a complex system of referential relations. The weight of current empirical evidence supports the dual code theory. However, psychoanalysis has implicitly accepted a mixed model-perceptual dominance theory applying to unconscious representation, and verbal mediation characterizing mature conscious waking thought. The characterization of psychoanalysis, by Schafer, Spence, and others, as a domain in which reality is constructed rather than discovered, reflects the application of this incomplete mixed model. The representations of experience in the patient's mind are seen as without structure of their own, needing to be organized by words, thus vulnerable to distortion or dissolution by the language of the analyst or the patient himself. In these terms, hypothesis testing becomes a meaningless pursuit; the propositions of the theory are no longer falsifiable; the analyst is always more or less "right." This paper suggests that the integrated dual code formulation provides a more coherent theoretical framework for psychoanalysis than the mixed model, with important implications for theory and technique. In terms of dual coding, the problem is not that the nonverbal representations are vulnerable to distortion by words, but that the words that pass back and forth between analyst and patient will not affect the nonverbal schemata at all. Using the dual code

  1. Teton Russet: an early-maturing, dual-purpose potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content, low Asparagine, and resistances to common scab and Fusarium dry rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Teton Russet is an early-maturing, medium- russeted, potato cultivar with high merit for both fresh-pack and processing. In early harvest trials in the Pacific Northwest, Teton Russet had total yields similar to Russet Norkotah, and higher than Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank. Marketable yield of T...

  2. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  3. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  4. The Impact of Dual Enrollment on the Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnick, Katherine N.

    2012-01-01

    Proving the value of dual enrollment to the institution has become particularly important in recent years as the recession has squeezed state budgets for higher education. Programs that are not viewed as offering benefits to the institution become vulnerable in tough economic times. In addition, to operate effectively, all dual enrollment programs…

  5. Back in the USSR: Path Dependence Effects in Student Representation in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirikov, Igor; Gruzdev, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the current state of student representation in Russia as deeply rooted in the institutional structure of the Soviet higher education system. The study traces the origins of existing institutional arrangements for student representation at the level of university governance and analyses how representation practices have been…

  6. Back in the USSR: Path Dependence Effects in Student Representation in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirikov, Igor; Gruzdev, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the current state of student representation in Russia as deeply rooted in the institutional structure of the Soviet higher education system. The study traces the origins of existing institutional arrangements for student representation at the level of university governance and analyses how representation practices have been…

  7. 76 FR 58140 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Annual Representations and Certifications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Regulation Supplement; Annual Representations and Certifications (DFARS Case 2009-D011) AGENCY: Defense... higher-level changes in the Code of Federal Regulation relating to annual representations and... provision 252.204-7007, Alternate A, Annual Representations and Certifications, in contracts that also...

  8. Dual education and industrial cooperation in electrical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Váradiné Szarka, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dual education in higher education is a new system in Hungary introduced by Mercedes Benz with cooperation of Kecskemet College. In the new system companies support certain number of students and provide them strong practical education in their field. Students applying successfully for dual education study together with non-dual students at the university, so they go through the same university courses as their non-dual colleagues, but while non-dual students’ academic year includes 2×14 weeks active semester and 2×6 weeks exam session, all over 40 weeks, dual students have 48 working weeks including study at the university and practicing at the company. The main question of the success which one is the most effective model to be applied. This paper summarises 2 models of dual education with their advantages and disadvantages and also it presents practical realization at the University of Debrecen with special attention to measurement and instrumentation. Dual education in BSc level electrical engineering course cooperates with 6 multinational companies of the region in four specialization. Dual education also has great impact to the modernisation of engineering education. Detailed study of dual education in field of instrumentation and measurement is provided in the paper.

  9. Bifocal dual reflector antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    A bifocal dual reflector antenna is similar to and has better scan capability than classical cassegrain reflector antenna. The method used in determining the reflector surfaces is a modification of a design method for the dielectric bifocal lens. The three dimensional dual reflector is obtained by first designing an exact (in geometrical optics sense) two-point corrected two dimensional reflector and then rotating it around its axis of symmetry. A point by point technique is used in computing the reflector surfaces. Computed radiation characteristics of the dual reflector are compared with those of a cassegrain reflector. The results confirm that the bifocal antenna has superior performance.

  10. A new polysialic acid production process based on dual-stage pH control and fed-batch fermentation for higher yield and resulting high molecular weight product.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Shun-Zhi; Li, Guo-Shun; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung; Wu, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Li

    2013-03-01

    To determine the factors influencing the resulting molecular weight of polysialic acid (PSA), batch fermentations by using Escherichia coli were conducted. It was found that temperature and pH were significant factors affecting the PSA production and its resulting molecular weight. When pH was set at 6.4, temperature of 37 °C was suitable for cell growth and PSA production while 33 °C facilitated production of higher molecular weight of PSA. pH 6.4 was favorable for PSA production while pH 7.4 was good for higher molecular weight of PSA at 37 °C. Intramolecular self-cleavage of PSA might lead to relatively low molecular weight under mild acidic condition. Our data suggest that the PSA molecular weight is significantly affected by the pH condition rather than the temperature. It is concluded that the resulting PSA molecular weight not only depends on fermentation conditions but also relates to cell growth rate and PSA production rate. Higher PSA molecular weight was made when its production rate was faster than degradation rate. A novel two-stage pH control fermentation process for production of high molecular weight PSA was developed. At the first stage, pH was set at 6.4 to encourage cell growth and PSA production, whereas pH was set at 7.4 at the second stage to promote the formation of higher molecular weight PSA. PSA yield up to 5.65 g/L and its resulting molecular weight of 260 kDa was attained, the highest level ever reported.

  11. Representation of categories.

    PubMed

    Boot, Inge; Pecher, Diane

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were presented inside or outside a frame that should activate the container schema. We found that performance to pictures was influenced by the frame in congruence with the metaphorical mapping (same category—inside bounded region; different category—not in same bounded region). These results show that the concept categories is metaphorically represented by containers.

  12. High-strain composites and dual-matrix composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqueda Jimenez, Ignacio

    another finite element model that simulated a homogenized rod under axial compression. A statistical representation of the fiber angles was implemented in the model. The presence of fiber angles increased the longitudinal shear stiffness of the material, resulting in a higher strength in compression. The simulations showed a large increase of the strength in compression for lower values of the standard deviation of the fiber angle, and a slight decrease of strength in compression for lower values of the mean fiber angle. The strength observed in the experiments was achieved with the minimum local angle standard deviation observed in the CFRS rods, whereas the shear stiffness measured in torsion tests was achieved with the overall fiber angle distribution observed in the CFRS rods. High strain composites exhibit good bending capabilities, but they tend to be soft out-of-plane. To achieve a higher out-of-plane stiffness, the concept of dual-matrix composites is introduced. Dual-matrix composites are foldable composites which are soft in the crease regions and stiff elsewhere. Previous attempts to fabricate continuous dual-matrix fiber composite shells had limited performance due to excessive resin flow and matrix mixing. An alternative method, presented in this thesis uses UV-cure silicone and fiberglass to avoid these problems. Preliminary experiments on the effect of folding on the out-of-plane stiffness are presented. An application to a conical log-periodic antenna for CubeSats is proposed, using origami-inspired stowing schemes, that allow a conical dual-matrix composite shell to reach very high compaction ratios.

  13. Teaching Representation and Solution of Algebraic Word Problems to Learning Disabled Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Nancy; Hemingway, Peter

    The dual purpose of this study was (1) to design instruction in problem representation and solution of algebraic word problems in order to improve the algebraic problem solving skills of learning disabled (LD) adolescents; and (2) to devise and evaluate the effectiveness of instructional procedures for teaching LD adolescents to represent and…

  14. Degradation of Cortical Representations during Encoding following Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Poh, Jia-Hou; Chee, Michael W L

    2017-02-01

    A night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) reduces task-related activation of fronto-parietal and higher visual cortical areas. As this reduction in activation corresponds to impaired attention and perceptual processing, it might also be associated with poorer memory encoding. Related animal work has established that cortical columns stochastically enter an 'off' state in sleep deprivation, leading to predictions that neural representations are less stable and distinctive following TSD. To test these predictions participants incidentally encoded scene images while undergoing fMRI, either during rested wakefulness (RW) or after TSD. In scene-selective PPA, TSD reduced stability of neural representations across repetition. This was accompanied by poorer subsequent memory. Greater representational stability benefitted subsequent memory in RW but not TSD. Even for items subsequently recognized, representational distinctiveness was lower in TSD, suggesting that quality of encoding is degraded. Reduced representational stability and distinctiveness are two novel mechanisms by which TSD can contribute to poorer memory formation.

  15. Extension of the \\mathfrak{o}\\mathfrak{s}\\mathfrak{p}(m|n)\\sim \\mathfrak{s}\\mathfrak{o}(m-n) correspondence to the infinite-dimensional chiral spinors and self dual tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, N. I.; Thierry-Mieg, J.; Van der Jeugt, J.

    2017-04-01

    The spinor representations of the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebras osp(m|n) are considered and constructed. These are infinite-dimensional irreducible representations, of which the superdimension coincides with the dimension of the spinor representation of so(m-n) . Next, we consider the self dual tensor representations of osp(m|n) and their generalizations: these are also infinite-dimensional and correspond to the highest irreducible component of the pth power of the spinor representation. We determine the character of these representations, and deduce a superdimension formula. From this, it follows that also for these representations the osp(m|n)∼ so(m-n) correspondence holds.

  16. Dual Enrollment Variables and College Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Morgan, Grant B.; Robertson, Shun; Rivers, Hope E.

    2013-01-01

    In the knowledge economy, now more than ever, students are encouraged to attend an institution of higher education. Students actively search for resources to assist them in their progress toward a college degree, even before high school graduation. Dual enrollment is an opportunity for students to complete college courses while still in high…

  17. Face recognition using dual-tree complex wavelet features.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao-Chun; Dai, Dao-Qing

    2009-11-01

    We propose a novel facial representation based on the dual-tree complex wavelet transform for face recognition. It is effective and efficient to represent the geometrical structures in facial image with low redundancy. Moreover, we experimentally verify that the proposed method is more powerful to extract facial features robust against the variations of shift and illumination than the discrete wavelet transform and Gabor wavelet transform.

  18. An array fed dual reflector antenna for limited sector electronic beam scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, R. A.; Davies, D. E. N.; Cullen, A. L.

    A dual reflector configuration capable of electronic beam deflection is described. It was found that, in two dimensions, the performance of a confocal reflector arrangement can be significantly improved by shaping the subreflector. A computationally efficient method for analyzing the three-dimensional antenna has been demonstrated which combines an accurate array representation with a minimal amount of ray tracing to overcome the difficulties of modeling the array fed dual reflector antenna.

  19. Women in Higher Education Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth Secretariat, London (England).

    This volume contains 11 papers on the under-representation of women in higher education management in Bahrain, Finland, France, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Peru, the United States and Canada, the South Pacific and the West Indies. All papers were written by women vice-chancellors, presidents and senior managers of universities in those…

  20. Spinfoams in the holomorphic representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Eugenio; Magliaro, Elena; Perini, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    We study a holomorphic representation for spinfoams. The representation is obtained via the Ashtekar-Lewandowski-Marolf-Mourão-Thiemann coherent state transform. We derive the expression of the 4d spinfoam vertex for Euclidean and for Lorentzian gravity in the holomorphic representation. The advantage of this representation rests on the fact that the variables used have a clear interpretation in terms of a classical intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of space. We show how the peakedness on the extrinsic geometry selects a single exponential of the Regge action in the semiclassical large-scale asymptotics of the spinfoam vertex.

  1. Improving Evolvability through Generative Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    One of the main limitations of computer automated design systems is the representation used for encoding designs. Using computer programs as an analogy, representations can be thought of as having the properties of combination, control-flow and abstraction. Generative representations are those which have the ability to reuse elements in an encoding through either iteration, a form of control-flow, or abstraction. Here we argue that generative representations improve the evolvability of designs by capturing design dependencies in a way that makes them easier to change, and we support this with examples from two design substrates.

  2. Resource representation in COMPASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Barry R.

    1991-01-01

    A set of viewgraphs on resource representation in COMPASS is given. COMPASS is an incremental, interactive, non-chronological scheduler written in Ada with an X-windows user interface. Beginning with an empty schedule, activities are added to the schedule one at a time, taking into consideration the placement of the activities already on the timeline and the resources that have been reserved for them. The order that the activities are added to the timeline and their location on the timeline are controlled by selection and placement commands invoked by the user. The order that activities are added to the timeline and their location are independent. The COMPASS code library is a cost effective platform for the development of new scheduling applications. It can be effectively used off the shelf for compatible scheduling applications or it can be used as a parts library for the development of custom scheduling systems.

  3. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  4. Age Differences in Symbolic Representation: Fluidity in Representational Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifel, Stuart

    This paper reports a cross-sectional, developmental study of the fluidity of children's mental functioning (representational skills) in contexts involving the representational use of blocks. Data were collected from a sample of 40 children from a laboratory school: 20 four-year-olds and 20 seven-year-olds, with an equal number of boys and girls in…

  5. Preschool Children's Participation in Representational and Non-Representational Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined representational and non-representational activities in which children in a Head Start classroom participated. This was an investigation from the perspective of cultural-historical activity theory of how components (e.g. artifacts and division of labour) of classroom activities vary across and within types of activities.…

  6. Massless and massive higher spins from anti-de Sitter space waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwak, Seungho; Kim, Jaewon; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2016-11-01

    Understanding Higgs mechanism for higher-spin gauge fields is an outstanding open problem. We investigate this problem in the context of Kaluza-Klein compactification. Starting from a free massless higher-spin field in ( d + 2)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and compactifying over a finite angular wedge, we obtain an infinite tower of heavy, light and massless higher-spin fields in ( d + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. All massive higher-spin fields are described gauge invariantly in terms of Stueckelberg fields. The spectrum depends on the boundary conditions imposed at both ends of the wedges. We observed that higher-derivative boundary condition is inevitable for spin greater than three. For some higher-derivative boundary conditions, equivalently, spectrum-dependent boundary conditions, we get a non-unitary representation of partially-massless higher-spin fields of varying depth. We present intuitive picture which higher-derivative boundary conditions yield non-unitary system in terms of boundary action. We argue that isotropic Lifshitz interfaces in O( N ) Heisenberg magnet or O( N ) Gross-Neveu model provides the holographic dual conformal field theory and propose experimental test of (inverse) Higgs mechanism for massive and partially massless higher-spin fields.

  7. Detecting Dual AGN at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in most, if not all, galaxies, along with observations of galaxy mergers, suggests that pairs of SMBHs should exist for some time in the merger remnant. Observational evidence for these systems at kpc-scale separations (i.e. dual AGN) has dramatically increased recently through a combination of spectral and morphological selections. I discuss observations of CXOXBJ142607.6+353351 (CXOJ1426+35), a candidate dual AGN at z=1.175, and put its properties, including significant obscuration, within the context of other candidate/confirmed dual AGN at lower redshifts. Though dual AGN are expected to be more common at higher redshifts, they are more difficult to detect. Furthermore, adding to the difficulties of detection are a number of other physical mechanisms which can mimic the spectroscopic signature of two Type 2 AGN. In particular, I will discuss the possibility of strong outflows from an AGN. These outflow phenomena can be an important feedback mechanism in galaxies and are apparently common in AGN, making them a viable alternative to the dual AGN scenario. Based on our candidate's luminosity and emission line intensities, we find that an outflow is a possibility. If this is the case, such an outflow would be especially strong and has implications for AGN feedback in galaxies. However, the dual AGN scenario cannot be ruled out, and at z=1.175, the two putative AGN could potentially be resolved with Chandra. Other candidate dual AGN at similar redshifts and with significant obscuration could also be confirmed this way. This research was sponsored by the Strategic University Research Partnership Program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Arkansas NASA EPSCoR program.

  8. UNDERSTANDING DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVATION IN THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Vasudevan, Ranjan; Trippe, Margaret; Treister, Ezequiel

    2012-02-20

    We study the fraction of dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in a sample of 167 nearby (z < 0.05), moderate-luminosity, ultra-hard X-ray-selected AGNs from the all-sky Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey. Combining new Chandra and Gemini observations together with optical and X-ray observations, we find that the dual AGN frequency at scales <100 kpc is {approx}10% (16/167). Of the 16 dual AGNs, only 3 (19%) were detected using X-ray spectroscopy and were not detected using emission line diagnostics. Close dual AGNs (<30 kpc) tend to be more common among the most X-ray luminous systems. In dual AGNs, the X-ray luminosity of both AGNs increases strongly with decreasing galaxy separation, suggesting that the merging event is key in powering both AGNs. Fifty percent of the AGNs with a very close companion (<15 kpc) are dual AGNs. We also find that dual AGNs are more likely to occur in major mergers and tend to avoid absorption line galaxies with elliptical morphologies. Finally, we find that SDSS Seyferts are much less likely than BAT AGNs (0.25% versus 7.8%) to be found in dual AGNs at scales <30 kpc because of a smaller number of companion galaxies, fiber collision limits, a tendency for AGNs at small separations to be detected only in X-rays, and a higher fraction of dual AGN companions with increasing AGN luminosity.

  9. Are dual eligibles admitted to poorer quality skilled nursing facilities?

    PubMed

    Rahman, Momotazur; Grabowski, David C; Gozalo, Pedro L; Thomas, Kali S; Mor, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    Dual eligibles, persons who qualify for both Medicare and Medicaid coverage, often receive poorer quality care relative to other Medicare beneficiaries. To determine whether dual eligibles are discharged to lower quality post-acute skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) compared with Medicare-only beneficiaries. Following the random utility maximization model, we specified a discharge function using a conditional logit model and tested how this discharge rule varied by dual-eligibility status. A total of 692,875 Medicare fee-for-service patients (22% duals) who were discharged for Medicare paid SNF care between July 2004 and June 2005. Medicare enrollment and the Medicaid Analytic Extract files were used to determine dual eligibility. The proportion of Medicaid patients and nursing staff characteristics provided measures of SNF quality. Duals are more likely to be discharged to SNFs with a higher share of Medicaid patients and fewer nurses. These results are robust to estimation with an alternative subsample of patients based on primary diagnoses, propensity of being dual eligible, and likelihood of remaining in the nursing home. Disparities exist in access to quality SNF care for duals. Strategies to improve discharge planning processes are required to redirect patients to higher quality providers, regardless of Medicaid eligibility. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Dual adaptive control: Design principles and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookerjee, Purusottam

    1988-01-01

    The design of an actively adaptive dual controller based on an approximation of the stochastic dynamic programming equation for a multi-step horizon is presented. A dual controller that can enhance identification of the system while controlling it at the same time is derived for multi-dimensional problems. This dual controller uses sensitivity functions of the expected future cost with respect to the parameter uncertainties. A passively adaptive cautious controller and the actively adaptive dual controller are examined. In many instances, the cautious controller is seen to turn off while the latter avoids the turn-off of the control and the slow convergence of the parameter estimates, characteristic of the cautious controller. The algorithms have been applied to a multi-variable static model which represents a simplified linear version of the relationship between the vibration output and the higher harmonic control input for a helicopter. Monte Carlo comparisons based on parametric and nonparametric statistical analysis indicate the superiority of the dual controller over the baseline controller.

  11. Representation of Fuzzy Symmetric Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-19

    Std Z39-18 REPRESENTATION OF FUZZY SYMMETRIC RELATIONS L. Valverde Dept. de Matematiques i Estadistica Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Avda...REPRESENTATION OF FUZZY SYMMETRIC RELATIONS L. "Valverde* Dept. de Matematiques i Estadistica Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Avda. Diagonal, 649

  12. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  13. Symbolic representation of probabilistic worlds.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Jacob

    2012-04-01

    Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative measure of the effectiveness of symbolic representation, and develops formal constraints under which such representation is in fact warranted. The effectiveness of symbolic representation hinges on the probabilistic structure of the environment that is to be represented. For arbitrary probability distributions (i.e., environments), symbolic representation is generally not warranted. But in modal environments, defined here as those that consist of mixtures of component distributions that are narrow ("spiky") relative to their spreads, symbolic representation can be shown to represent the environment with a relatively negligible loss of information. Modal environments support propositional forms, logical relations, and other familiar features of symbolic representation. Hence the assumption that our environment is, in fact, modal is a key tacit assumption underlying the use of symbols in cognitive science.

  14. Symbolic Representation of Probabilistic Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic representation of environmental variables is a ubiquitous and often debated component of cognitive science. Yet notwithstanding centuries of philosophical discussion, the efficacy, scope, and validity of such representation has rarely been given direct consideration from a mathematical point of view. This paper introduces a quantitative…

  15. Learning with Interactive Graphical Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saljo, Roger, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The seven articles of this theme issue deal with the use of computer-based interactive graphical representations. Studying their use will bring answers to users of static graphics in traditional paper-based media and those who plan instruction using graphical representations that allow semantically direct manipulation. (SLD)

  16. Revealing Children's Implicit Spelling Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J.; Messer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned…

  17. Scientific Representation and Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matta, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine three examples of philosophical theories of scientific representation with the aim of assessing which of these is a good candidate for a philosophical theory of scientific representation in science learning. The three candidate theories are Giere's intentional approach, Suárez's inferential approach and Lynch and…

  18. Revealing Children's Implicit Spelling Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J.; Messer, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned…

  19. The Representational Value of Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Fitzallen, Noleine E.; Wilson, Karen G.; Creed, Julie F.

    2008-01-01

    The literature that is available on the topic of representations in mathematics is vast. One commonly discussed item is graphical representations. From the history of mathematics to modern uses of technology, a variety of graphical forms are available for middle school students to use to represent mathematical ideas. The ideas range from algebraic…

  20. The Representational Value of Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Fitzallen, Noleine E.; Wilson, Karen G.; Creed, Julie F.

    2008-01-01

    The literature that is available on the topic of representations in mathematics is vast. One commonly discussed item is graphical representations. From the history of mathematics to modern uses of technology, a variety of graphical forms are available for middle school students to use to represent mathematical ideas. The ideas range from algebraic…

  1. A generalized wavelet extrema representation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jian; Lades, M.

    1995-10-01

    The wavelet extrema representation originated by Stephane Mallat is a unique framework for low-level and intermediate-level (feature) processing. In this paper, we present a new form of wavelet extrema representation generalizing Mallat`s original work. The generalized wavelet extrema representation is a feature-based multiscale representation. For a particular choice of wavelet, our scheme can be interpreted as representing a signal or image by its edges, and peaks and valleys at multiple scales. Such a representation is shown to be stable -- the original signal or image can be reconstructed with very good quality. It is further shown that a signal or image can be modeled as piecewise monotonic, with all turning points between monotonic segments given by the wavelet extrema. A new projection operator is introduced to enforce piecewise inonotonicity of a signal in its reconstruction. This leads to an enhancement to previously developed algorithms in preventing artifacts in reconstructed signal.

  2. Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.

    PubMed

    Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J; Messer, David J

    2013-06-01

    Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed.

  3. Involutive representations of coordinate algebras and quantum spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurić, Tajron; Poulain, Timothé; Wallet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-07-01

    We show that su(2) Lie algebras of coordinate operators related to quantum spaces with su(2) noncommutativity can be conveniently represented by SO(3)-covariant poly-differential involutive representations. We show that the quantized plane waves ob-tained from the quantization map action on the usual exponential functions are determined by polar decomposition of operators combined with constraint stemming from the Wigner theorem for SU(2). Selecting a subfamily of ∗-representations, we show that the resulting star-product is equivalent to the Kontsevich product for the Poisson manifold dual to the finite dimensional Lie algebra su(2) . We discuss the results, indicating a way to extend the construction to any semi-simple non simply connected Lie group and present noncommutative scalar field theories which are free from perturbative UV/IR mixing.

  4. Archival Representation in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the representation systems of three digitized archival collections using the traditional archival representation framework of provenance, order, and content. The results of the study reveal a prominent role of provenance representation, a compromised role of order representation, and an active role of content representation in…

  5. Sugawara construction for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    1999-04-01

    By the classical genus zero Sugawara construction one obtains representations of the Virasoro algebra from admissible representations of affine Lie algebras (Kac-Moody algebras of affine type). In this lecture, the classical construction is recalled first. Then, after giving a review on the global multi-point algebras of Krichever-Novikov type for compact Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus, the higher genus Sugawara construction is introduced. Finally, the lecture reports on results obtained in a joint work with O. K. Sheinman. We were able to show that also in the higher genus, multi-point situation one obtains (from representations of the global algebras of affine type) representations of a centrally extended algebra of meromorphic vector fields on Riemann surfaces. The latter algebra is a generalization of the Virasoro algebra to higher genus.

  6. Integrating conventional and inverse representation for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Yang, Jian; Lai, Zhihui; Zhang, David

    2014-10-01

    Representation-based classification methods are all constructed on the basis of the conventional representation, which first expresses the test sample as a linear combination of the training samples and then exploits the deviation between the test sample and the expression result of every class to perform classification. However, this deviation does not always well reflect the difference between the test sample and each class. With this paper, we propose a novel representation-based classification method for face recognition. This method integrates conventional and the inverse representation-based classification for better recognizing the face. It first produces conventional representation of the test sample, i.e., uses a linear combination of the training samples to represent the test sample. Then it obtains the inverse representation, i.e., provides an approximation representation of each training sample of a subject by exploiting the test sample and training samples of the other subjects. Finally, the proposed method exploits the conventional and inverse representation to generate two kinds of scores of the test sample with respect to each class and combines them to recognize the face. The paper shows the theoretical foundation and rationale of the proposed method. Moreover, this paper for the first time shows that a basic nature of the human face, i.e., the symmetry of the face can be exploited to generate new training and test samples. As these new samples really reflect some possible appearance of the face, the use of them will enable us to obtain higher accuracy. The experiments show that the proposed conventional and inverse representation-based linear regression classification (CIRLRC), an improvement to linear regression classification (LRC), can obtain very high accuracy and greatly outperforms the naive LRC and other state-of-the-art conventional representation based face recognition methods. The accuracy of CIRLRC can be 10% greater than that of LRC.

  7. Moral transgressions corrupt neural representations of value.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Molly J; Siegel, Jenifer Z; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2017-06-01

    Moral systems universally prohibit harming others for personal gain. However, we know little about how such principles guide moral behavior. Using a task that assesses the financial cost participants ascribe to harming others versus themselves, we probed the relationship between moral behavior and neural representations of profit and pain. Most participants displayed moral preferences, placing a higher cost on harming others than themselves. Moral preferences correlated with neural responses to profit, where participants with stronger moral preferences had lower dorsal striatal responses to profit gained from harming others. Lateral prefrontal cortex encoded profit gained from harming others, but not self, and tracked the blameworthiness of harmful choices. Moral decisions also modulated functional connectivity between lateral prefrontal cortex and the profit-sensitive region of dorsal striatum. The findings suggest moral behavior in our task is linked to a neural devaluation of reward realized by a prefrontal modulation of striatal value representations.

  8. Dual-Mode Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  9. Multiple Representations of Buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliviera, Jessica; Weglarz, Meredith; Vesenka, James

    2009-10-01

    For many students the concept of buoyancy falls under a category that can be loosely described as ``knowing it when they see it.'' Unfortunately some of the misconceptions this generates are that ``objects float because they are light'' and ``objects float because they are full of air'' [1]. Those these can some times be true, these descriptions are vague at best, and frequently can be wrong. Part of these misconceptions may stem from incomplete immersion of the object in the fluid and the vector nature of forces. We describe a demonstration/lab activity to help students make sense about relationship between the tension on and weight of an object immersed in water. The activity is in rich in multiple representations, graphical, diagrammatical as well as mathematical. A simple four question multiple choice pre/post test survey has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the lab activity.[4pt] [1] Bruce Harlan ``Diving Science'', www.stmatthewsschool.com/deep/pdfs/Diving%20Science.pdf

  10. Representation of research hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypotheses are now being automatically produced on an industrial scale by computers in biology, e.g. the annotation of a genome is essentially a large set of hypotheses generated by sequence similarity programs; and robot scientists enable the full automation of a scientific investigation, including generation and testing of research hypotheses. Results This paper proposes a logically defined way for recording automatically generated hypotheses in machine amenable way. The proposed formalism allows the description of complete hypotheses sets as specified input and output for scientific investigations. The formalism supports the decomposition of research hypotheses into more specialised hypotheses if that is required by an application. Hypotheses are represented in an operational way – it is possible to design an experiment to test them. The explicit formal description of research hypotheses promotes the explicit formal description of the results and conclusions of an investigation. The paper also proposes a framework for automated hypotheses generation. We demonstrate how the key components of the proposed framework are implemented in the Robot Scientist “Adam”. Conclusions A formal representation of automatically generated research hypotheses can help to improve the way humans produce, record, and validate research hypotheses. Availability http://www.aber.ac.uk/en/cs/research/cb/projects/robotscientist/results/ PMID:21624164

  11. Dual approximations in optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, W. W.; Ianculescu, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    A dual approximation for the solution to an optimal control problem is analyzed. The differential equation is handled with a Lagrange multiplier while other constraints are treated explicitly. An algorithm for solving the dual problem is presented.

  12. Tobacco denormalisation and representations of different tobacco users in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Saebø, Gunnar

    2016-03-01

    This study asks whether representations of different typical tobacco users vary in line with established stereotypes and by social group membership (especially tobacco user status). Social identity theory posits that representations differ due to varying identification with product users on the basis of personal use, while distinction theory suggests representations will be structured by proximity and distance to user groups. Using principal component analysis to identify representations and regression analysis to determine variances in representations, we find that four of five groups of typical tobacco users (snus users, pipe, cigarette, and cigar smokers) can be classified according to three similar representations: socially secure, culturally marginal and unappealing. Respondents who themselves use a certain tobacco product are more likely to consider a 'typical' user from their own group as more 'socially secure' and less 'culturally marginal' and 'unappealing' than non-users. Former smokers tend to side with non-smokers, which suggests their 'smoker identity' is on the wane. At the representational level, then, socio-historical distinctions between different tobacco products seem to have diminished in favour of a largely dual classification, with users expressing positive and non-users negative representations, of any typical user. This is a likely consequence of persistent tobacco denormalisation policies.

  13. From clinical to tissue-based dual TIA: Validation and refinement of ABCD3-I score.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qiliang; Sun, Wen; Xiong, Yunyun; Hankey, Graeme J; Xiao, Lulu; Zhu, Wusheng; Ma, Minmin; Liu, Wenhua; Liu, Dezhi; Cai, Qiankun; Han, Yunfei; Duan, Lihui; Chen, Xiangliang; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2015-04-07

    To investigate whether dual tissue-defined ischemic attacks, defined as multiple diffusion-weighted imaging lesions of different age and/or arterial territory (dual DWI), are an independent and stronger predictor of 90-day stroke than dual clinical TIAs (dual TIA). Consecutive patients with clinically defined TIA were enrolled and assessed clinically and by MRI within 3 days. The predictive ability of the ABCD clinical factors, dual TIA, and dual DWI was evaluated by means of multivariate logistic regression. Among 658 patients who were included in the study and completed 90 days of follow-up, a total of 70 patients (10.6%) experienced subsequent stroke by 90 days. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that dual DWI was an independent predictor for subsequent stroke (odds ratio 4.64, 95% confidence interval 2.15-10.01), while dual TIA was not (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.69-2.01). C statistics was higher when the item of dual TIA in ABCD3-I score was replaced by dual DWI (0.759 vs 0.729, p = 0.035). The net reclassification value for 90-day stroke risk was also improved (continuous net reclassification improvement 0.301, p = 0.017). Dual DWI independently predicted future stroke in patients with TIA. A new ABCD3-I score with dual DWI instead of dual clinical TIA may improve risk stratification for early stroke risk after TIA. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Dual energy with dual source CT and kVp switching with single source CT: a comparison of dual energy performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasruck, M.; Kappler, S.; Reinwand, M.; Stierstorfer, K.

    2009-02-01

    Stimulated by the introduction of clinical dual source CT, the interest in dual energy methods has been increasing in the past years. Whereas the potential of material decomposition by dual energy methods is known since the early 1980ies, the realization of dual energy methods is a wide field of today's research. Energy separation can be achieved with energy selective detectors or by varying X-ray source spectra. This paper focuses on dual energy techniques with varying X-ray spectra. These can be provided by dual source CT devices, operated with different kVp settings on each tube. Excellent spectral separation is the key property for use in clinical routine. The drawback of higher cost for two tubes and two detectors leads to an alternative realization, where a single source CT yields different spectra by fast kVp switching from reading to reading. This provides access to dual-energy methods in single source CT. However, this technique comes with some intrinsic limitations. The maximum X-ray flux is reduced in comparison to the dual source system. The kVp rise and fall time between each reading reduces the spectral separation. In comparison to dual source CT, for a constant number of projections per energy spectrum the temporal resolution is reduced; a reasonable trade of between reduced numbers of projection and limited temporal resolution has to be found. The overall dual energy performance is the guiding line for our investigations. We present simulations and measurements which benchmark both solutions in terms of spectral behavior, especially of spectral separation.

  15. Representations of filtered solvable Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Panov, Alexander N

    2012-01-31

    The representation theory of filtered solvable Lie algebras is constructed. In this framework a classification of irreducible representations is obtained and spectra of some reducible representations are found. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  16. Fidelity of the representation of value in decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Dowding, Ben A.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to make optimal decisions depends on evaluating the expected rewards associated with different potential actions. This process is critically dependent on the fidelity with which reward value information can be maintained in the nervous system. Here we directly probe the fidelity of value representation following a standard reinforcement learning task. The results demonstrate a previously-unrecognized bias in the representation of value: extreme reward values, both low and high, are stored significantly more accurately and precisely than intermediate rewards. The symmetry between low and high rewards pertained despite substantially higher frequency of exposure to high rewards, resulting from preferential exploitation of more rewarding options. The observed variation in fidelity of value representation retrospectively predicted performance on the reinforcement learning task, demonstrating that the bias in representation has an impact on decision-making. A second experiment in which one or other extreme-valued option was omitted from the learning sequence showed that representational fidelity is primarily determined by the relative position of an encoded value on the scale of rewards experienced during learning. Both variability and guessing decreased with the reduction in the number of options, consistent with allocation of a limited representational resource. These findings have implications for existing models of reward-based learning, which typically assume defectless representation of reward value. PMID:28248958

  17. Fidelity of the representation of value in decision-making.

    PubMed

    Bays, Paul M; Dowding, Ben A

    2017-03-01

    The ability to make optimal decisions depends on evaluating the expected rewards associated with different potential actions. This process is critically dependent on the fidelity with which reward value information can be maintained in the nervous system. Here we directly probe the fidelity of value representation following a standard reinforcement learning task. The results demonstrate a previously-unrecognized bias in the representation of value: extreme reward values, both low and high, are stored significantly more accurately and precisely than intermediate rewards. The symmetry between low and high rewards pertained despite substantially higher frequency of exposure to high rewards, resulting from preferential exploitation of more rewarding options. The observed variation in fidelity of value representation retrospectively predicted performance on the reinforcement learning task, demonstrating that the bias in representation has an impact on decision-making. A second experiment in which one or other extreme-valued option was omitted from the learning sequence showed that representational fidelity is primarily determined by the relative position of an encoded value on the scale of rewards experienced during learning. Both variability and guessing decreased with the reduction in the number of options, consistent with allocation of a limited representational resource. These findings have implications for existing models of reward-based learning, which typically assume defectless representation of reward value.

  18. Representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homem De Mello, Luiz S.; Sanderson, Arthur C.

    1991-01-01

    Five types of representations for assembly sequences are reviewed: the directed graph of feasible assembly sequences, the AND/OR graph of feasible assembly sequences, the set of establishment conditions, and two types of sets of precedence relationships. (precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process). The mappings of one representation into the others are established. The correctness and completeness of these representations are established. The results presented are needed in the proof of correctness and completeness of algorithms for the generation of mechanical assembly sequences.

  19. Attitude Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The four-component quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation, it represents the attitude matrix as a homogeneous quadratic function, and its dynamic propagation equation is bilinear in the quaternion and the angular velocity. The quaternion is required to obey a unit norm constraint, though, so Kalman filters often employ a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for small errors about the estimate. We consider these mixed attitude representations for both a first-order Extended Kalman filter and a second-order filter, as well for quaternion-norm-preserving attitude propagation.

  20. Dual Coding in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  1. Dual beam optical interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A dual beam interferometer device is disclosed that enables moving an optics module in a direction, which changes the path lengths of two beams of light. The two beams reflect off a surface of an object and generate different speckle patterns detected by an element, such as a camera. The camera detects a characteristic of the surface.

  2. Computer aided surface representation

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  3. Impact of Differing Definitions of Dual Tobacco Use: Implications for Studying Dual Use and a Call for Operational Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Morgan, Glen D.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah; Asfar, Taghrid; Talcott, Wayne G.; DeBon, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Concomitant use of two forms of tobacco is an increasing public health concern, yet there is little consensus regarding a consistent definition of so-called “dual use.” We defined dual use as cigarette and smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption with either product used daily or nondaily. Methods: We analyzed a cohort of 36,013 Air Force recruits. We categorized dual tobacco use across 2 dimensions, type of tobacco products (cigarettes, ST, or others), and the frequency of use (daily vs. nondaily). We determined how varying the definition impacted the prevalence estimates and evaluated the prevalence estimate based on our recommended definition of dual use. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk profile of dual users of ST and cigarettes versus mono users of ST and mono users of cigarettes. Results: Varying definitions of dual use vary prevalence estimates 50-fold (0.5%–25.3%). Including only ST and cigarettes narrows the prevalence estimate to less than 4-fold (2.0%–9.7%). Dual users are more likely to be young Caucasian males, with lower education, and from families with relatively higher incomes. Compared with mono users, dual users of cigarettes and ST have a distinct pattern of risk profiles. Conclusions: Depending on the definition of dual use, markedly different prevalence and risk profiles are observed. Dual users of ST and cigarettes are a unique group of tobacco users. We propose a common definition of dual use to advance our understanding of this unique group. PMID:21436298

  4. Affine Riesz bases and the dual function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhin, P. A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is concerned with systems of functions on the unit interval which are generated by dyadic dilations and integer translations of a given function. Similar systems have a wide range of applications in the theory of wavelets, in nonlinear, and in particular, in greedy approximations, in the representation of functions by series, in problems in numerical analysis, and so on. Conditions, and in some particular cases, criteria for the generating function are given for the system to be Besselian, to form a Riesz basis or to be an orthonormal system, and separately, to be complete. For this purpose, the concept of the dual function of the generating function of a system is introduced and studied. Some of the conditions given below are easy to verify in practice, as is demonstrated by examples. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  5. Dual Coding Theory, Word Abstractness, and Emotion: A Critical Review of Kousta et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Kousta, Vigliocco, Del Campo, Vinson, and Andrews (2011) questioned the adequacy of dual coding theory and the context availability model as explanations of representational and processing differences between concrete and abstract words. They proposed an alternative approach that focuses on the role of emotional content in the processing of…

  6. The link between mental rotation ability and basic numerical representations

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Jacqueline M.; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Moeller, Korbinian; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotation and number representation have both been studied widely, but although mental rotation has been linked to higher-level mathematical skills, to date it has not been shown whether mental rotation ability is linked to the most basic mental representation and processing of numbers. To investigate the possible connection between mental rotation abilities and numerical representation, 43 participants completed four tasks: 1) a standard pen-and-paper mental rotation task; 2) a multi-digit number magnitude comparison task assessing the compatibility effect, which indicates separate processing of decade and unit digits; 3) a number-line mapping task, which measures precision of number magnitude representation; and 4) a random number generation task, which yields measures both of executive control and of spatial number representations. Results show that mental rotation ability correlated significantly with both size of the compatibility effect and with number mapping accuracy, but not with any measures from the random number generation task. Together, these results suggest that higher mental rotation abilities are linked to more developed number representation, and also provide further evidence for the connection between spatial and numerical abilities. PMID:23933002

  7. Computer representation of molecular surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.L.

    1981-07-06

    This review article surveys recent work on computer representation of molecular surfaces. Several different algorithms are discussed for producing vector or raster drawings of space-filling models formed as the union of spheres. Other smoother surfaces are also considered.

  8. Graphical Representation of Complex Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renka, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes methods and software for graphing representation of a complex function of a complex variable. Includes an application of a graphical interpretation of the complex zeros of the cubic and their properties. (PK)

  9. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  10. E11 as E10 representation at low levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel

    2004-01-01

    The Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebra E11, obtained by doubly overextending the compact E8, is decomposed into representations of its canonical hyperbolic E10 subalgebra. Whereas the appearing representations at levels 0 and 1 are known on general grounds, higher level representations can currently only be obtained by recursive methods. We present the results of such an analysis up to height 120 in E11 which comprises representations on the first five levels. The algorithms used are a combination of Weyl orbit methods and standard methods based on the Peterson and Freudenthal formulae. In the appendices we give all multiplicities of E10 occurring up to height 340 and for E11 up to height 240.

  11. Dynamic speech representations in the human temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Matthew K; Chang, Edward F

    2014-09-01

    Speech perception requires rapid integration of acoustic input with context-dependent knowledge. Recent methodological advances have allowed researchers to identify underlying information representations in primary and secondary auditory cortex and to examine how context modulates these representations. We review recent studies that focus on contextual modulations of neural activity in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), a major hub for spectrotemporal encoding. Recent findings suggest a highly interactive flow of information processing through the auditory ventral stream, including influences of higher-level linguistic and metalinguistic knowledge, even within individual areas. Such mechanisms may give rise to more abstract representations, such as those for words. We discuss the importance of characterizing representations of context-dependent and dynamic patterns of neural activity in the approach to speech perception research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Minority Representation in Migraine Treatment Trials.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Nathaniel M; Bernat, James L

    2017-03-01

    Minorities have historically been underrepresented in clinical research trials despite having comparatively poor health indicators. Recognizing the dual inequalities of increased disease burden and decreased research participation, the National Institute of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act of 1993 mandated the inclusion and reporting of women and minorities in NIH-funded research. While progress has been made in the subsequent decades, this underrepresentation of minorities in research trials persists and has been documented in multiple disciplines. However, the extent of adequate representation and reporting of minority inclusion in clinical trials for migraine remains unknown. In this systematic review and study, we review the literature examining the representation of women and minorities in migraine clinical research trials METHODS: First we searched PubMed for pertinent articles examining the inclusion of women and minorities in migraine clinical research trials. Second, we identified controlled-trials for migraine published since 2011 in major neurology, headache, and general medicine journals using the terms "migraine randomized controlled trial." We then reviewed the results manually and excluded pilot studies and those with fewer than 50 participants. We next determined (a) how frequently representation of minorities and women were reported in these major trials; (b) what factors correlated with reporting; and (c) whether women and minority inclusion comprised their ratios in the general population. We identified 128 relevant clinical trials, of which 36 met our inclusion criteria. All 36 trials (100%) reported gender frequency, and 25 of 36 (69.4%) reported ethnicity or race. Among all studies, women and Whites represented 84.2 and 82.9% of participants (mean), respectively. Studies conducted in the United States and funded by a private company were more likely to report race than studies conducted exclusively outside of the U.S. or with a public sponsor

  13. Progress in knowledge representation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of research being carried out in the field of knowledge representation. Dynamic simulation and modelling of planning systems with real-time sensor inputs; development of domain-independent knowledge representation tools which can be used in the development of application-specific expert and planning systems; and development of a space-borne very high speed integrated circuit processor are among the projects discussed.

  14. Half-Face Dictionary Integration for Representation-Based Classification.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoning; Feng, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Guosheng; Wu, Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a half-face dictionary integration (HFDI) algorithm for representation-based classification. The proposed HFDI algorithm measures residuals between an input signal and the reconstructed one, using both the original and the synthesized dual-column (row) half-face training samples. More specifically, we first generate a set of virtual half-face samples for the purpose of training data augmentation. The aim is to obtain high-fidelity collaborative representation of a test sample. In this half-face integrated dictionary, each original training vector is replaced by an integrated dual-column (row) half-face matrix. Second, to reduce the redundancy between the original dictionary and the extended half-face dictionary, we propose an elimination strategy to gain the most robust training atoms. The last contribution of the proposed HFDI method is the use of a competitive fusion method weighting the reconstruction residuals from different dictionaries for robust face classification. Experimental results obtained from the Facial Recognition Technology, Aleix and Robert, Georgia Tech, ORL, and Carnegie Mellon University-pose, illumination and expression data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, especially in the case of the small sample size problem.

  15. Half-Face Dictionary Integration for Representation-Based Classification.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoning; Feng, Zhen-Hua; Hu, Guosheng; Wu, Xiao-Jun

    2015-12-24

    This paper presents a half-face dictionary integration (HFDI) algorithm for representation-based classification. The proposed HFDI algorithm measures residuals between an input signal and the reconstructed one, using both the original and the synthesized dual-column (row) half-face training samples. More specifically, we first generate a set of virtual half-face samples for the purpose of training data augmentation. The aim is to obtain high-fidelity collaborative representation of a test sample. In this half-face integrated dictionary, each original training vector is replaced by an integrated dual-column (row) half-face matrix. Second, to reduce the redundancy between the original dictionary and the extended half-face dictionary, we propose an elimination strategy to gain the most robust training atoms. The last contribution of the proposed HFDI method is the use of a competitive fusion method weighting the reconstruction residuals from different dictionaries for robust face classification. Experimental results obtained from the Facial Recognition Technology, Aleix and Robert, Georgia Tech, ORL, and Carnegie Mellon University-pose, illumination and expression data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, especially in the case of the small sample size problem.

  16. Dual-Band Miniaturized Patch Antennas for Microwave Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Al-Joumayly, Mudar A.; Aguilar, Suzette M.; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C.

    2010-01-01

    We present a miniaturized, dual-band patch antenna array element that is designed for use in a 3-D microwave tomography system for breast imaging. Dual-band operation is achieved by manipulating the fundamental resonant mode of the patch antenna and one of its higher-order modes. Miniaturization and tuning of the resonant frequencies are achieved by loading the antenna with non-radiating slots at strategic locations along the patch. This results in a compact, dual-band antenna with symmetric radiation patterns and similar radiation characteristics at both bands of operation. The performance of the antenna in a biocompatible immersion medium is verified experimentally. PMID:21866218

  17. Dual-Band Miniaturized Patch Antennas for Microwave Breast Imaging.

    PubMed

    Al-Joumayly, Mudar A; Aguilar, Suzette M; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C

    2010-03-18

    We present a miniaturized, dual-band patch antenna array element that is designed for use in a 3-D microwave tomography system for breast imaging. Dual-band operation is achieved by manipulating the fundamental resonant mode of the patch antenna and one of its higher-order modes. Miniaturization and tuning of the resonant frequencies are achieved by loading the antenna with non-radiating slots at strategic locations along the patch. This results in a compact, dual-band antenna with symmetric radiation patterns and similar radiation characteristics at both bands of operation. The performance of the antenna in a biocompatible immersion medium is verified experimentally.

  18. Dictionary learning algorithms for sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Murray, Joseph F; Rao, Bhaskar D; Engan, Kjersti; Lee, Te-Won; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2003-02-01

    Algorithms for data-driven learning of domain-specific overcomplete dictionaries are developed to obtain maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori dictionary estimates based on the use of Bayesian models with concave/Schur-concave (CSC) negative log priors. Such priors are appropriate for obtaining sparse representations of environmental signals within an appropriately chosen (environmentally matched) dictionary. The elements of the dictionary can be interpreted as concepts, features, or words capable of succinct expression of events encountered in the environment (the source of the measured signals). This is a generalization of vector quantization in that one is interested in a description involving a few dictionary entries (the proverbial "25 words or less"), but not necessarily as succinct as one entry. To learn an environmentally adapted dictionary capable of concise expression of signals generated by the environment, we develop algorithms that iterate between a representative set of sparse representations found by variants of FOCUSS and an update of the dictionary using these sparse representations. Experiments were performed using synthetic data and natural images. For complete dictionaries, we demonstrate that our algorithms have improved performance over other independent component analysis (ICA) methods, measured in terms of signal-to-noise ratios of separated sources. In the overcomplete case, we show that the true underlying dictionary and sparse sources can be accurately recovered. In tests with natural images, learned overcomplete dictionaries are shown to have higher coding efficiency than complete dictionaries; that is, images encoded with an overcomplete dictionary have both higher compression (fewer bits per pixel) and higher accuracy (lower mean square error).

  19. Dictionary Learning Algorithms for Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Murray, Joseph F.; Rao, Bhaskar D.; Engan, Kjersti; Lee, Te-Won; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    Algorithms for data-driven learning of domain-specific overcomplete dictionaries are developed to obtain maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori dictionary estimates based on the use of Bayesian models with concave/Schur-concave (CSC) negative log priors. Such priors are appropriate for obtaining sparse representations of environmental signals within an appropriately chosen (environmentally matched) dictionary. The elements of the dictionary can be interpreted as concepts, features, or words capable of succinct expression of events encountered in the environment (the source of the measured signals). This is a generalization of vector quantization in that one is interested in a description involving a few dictionary entries (the proverbial “25 words or less”), but not necessarily as succinct as one entry. To learn an environmentally adapted dictionary capable of concise expression of signals generated by the environment, we develop algorithms that iterate between a representative set of sparse representations found by variants of FOCUSS and an update of the dictionary using these sparse representations. Experiments were performed using synthetic data and natural images. For complete dictionaries, we demonstrate that our algorithms have improved performance over other independent component analysis (ICA) methods, measured in terms of signal-to-noise ratios of separated sources. In the overcomplete case, we show that the true underlying dictionary and sparse sources can be accurately recovered. In tests with natural images, learned overcomplete dictionaries are shown to have higher coding efficiency than complete dictionaries; that is, images encoded with an over-complete dictionary have both higher compression (fewer bits per pixel) and higher accuracy (lower mean square error). PMID:12590811

  20. Partial Data Traces: Efficient Generation and Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, F; De Supinski, B R; McKee, S A; Yoo, A

    2001-08-20

    Binary manipulation techniques are increasing in popularity. They support program transformations tailored toward certain program inputs, and these transformations have been shown to yield performance gains beyond the scope of static code optimizations without profile-directed feedback. They even deliver moderate gains in the presence of profile-guided optimizations. In addition, transformations can be performed on the entire executable, including library routines. This work focuses on program instrumentation, yet another application of binary manipulation. This paper reports preliminary results on generating partial data traces through dynamic binary rewriting. The contributions are threefold. First, a portable method for extracting precise data traces for partial executions of arbitrary applications is developed. Second, a set of hierarchical structures for compactly representing these accesses is developed. Third, an efficient online algorithm to detect regular accesses is introduced. The authors utilize dynamic binary rewriting to selectively collect partial address traces of regions within a program. This allows partial tracing of hot paths for only a short time during program execution in contrast to static rewriting techniques that lack hot path detection and also lack facilities to limit the duration of data collection. Preliminary results show reductions of three orders of a magnitude of inline instrumentation over a dual process approach involving context switching. They also report constant size representations for regular access patters in nested loops. These efforts are part of a larger project to counter the increasing gap between processor and main memory speeds by means of software optimization and hardware enhancements.

  1. Dual diagnosis among physicians: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Braquehais, María Dolores; Lusilla, Pilar; Bel, Miquel Jordi; Navarro, María Cecilia; Nasillo, Viviana; Díaz, Albert; Valero, Sergi; Padrós, Jaume; Bruguera, Eugeni; Casas, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Co-occurrence of mental disorders and substance use disorders (dual diagnosis) among doctors is a cause of serious concern due to its negative personal, professional, and social consequences. This work provides an overview of the prevalence of dual diagnosis among physicians, suggests a clinical etiological model to explain the development of dual diagnosis in doctors, and recommends some treatment strategies specifically for doctors. The most common presentation of dual diagnosis among doctors is the combination of alcohol use disorders and affective disorders. There are also high rates of self-medication with benzodiazepines, legal opiates, and amphetamines compared to the general population, and cannabis use disorders are increasing, mainly in young doctors. The prevalence of nicotine dependence varies from one country to another depending on the nature of public health policies. Emergency medicine physicians, psychiatrists, and anaesthesiologists are at higher risk for developing a substance use disorder compared with other doctors, perhaps because of their knowledge of and access to certain legal drugs. Two main pathways may lead doctors toward dual diagnosis: (a) the use of substances (often alcohol or self-prescribed drugs) as an unhealthy strategy to cope with their emotional or mental distress and (b) the use of substances for recreational or other purposes. In both cases, doctors tend to delay seeking help once a problem has been established, often for many years. Denial, minimization, and rationalization are common defense mechanisms, maybe because of the social stigma associated with mental or substance use disorders, the risk of losing employment/medical license, and a professional culture of perfectionism and denial of emotional needs or failures. Personal vulnerability interacts with these factors to increase the risk of a dual diagnosis developing in some individuals. When doctors with substance use disorders accept treatment in programs

  2. No Telescoping Effect with Dual Tendon Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Bellan, Valeria; Wallwork, Sarah B.; Stanton, Tasha R.; Reverberi, Carlo; Gallace, Alberto; Moseley, G. Lorimer

    2016-01-01

    The tendon vibration illusion has been extensively used to manipulate the perceived position of one’s own body part. However, findings from previous research do not seem conclusive sregarding the perceptual effect of the concurrent stimulation of both agonist and antagonist tendons over one joint. On the basis of recent data, it has been suggested that this paired stimulation generates an inconsistent signal about the limb position, which leads to a perceived shrinkage of the limb. However, this interesting effect has never been replicated. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of a simultaneous and equal vibration of the biceps and triceps tendons on the perceived location of the hand. Experiment 1 replicated and extended the previous findings. We compared a dual tendon stimulation condition with single tendon stimulation conditions and with a control condition (no vibration) on both ‘upward-downward’ and ‘towards-away from the elbow’ planes. Our results show a mislocalisation towards the elbow of the position of the vibrated arm during dual vibration, in line with previous results; however, this did not clarify whether the effect was due to arm representation contraction (i.e., a ‘telescoping’ effect). Therefore, in Experiment 2 we investigated explicitly and implicitly the perceived arm length during the same conditions. Our results clearly suggest that in all the vibration conditions there was a mislocalisation of the entire arm (including the elbow), but no evidence of a contraction of the perceived arm length. PMID:27305112

  3. No Telescoping Effect with Dual Tendon Vibration.

    PubMed

    Bellan, Valeria; Wallwork, Sarah B; Stanton, Tasha R; Reverberi, Carlo; Gallace, Alberto; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2016-01-01

    The tendon vibration illusion has been extensively used to manipulate the perceived position of one's own body part. However, findings from previous research do not seem conclusive sregarding the perceptual effect of the concurrent stimulation of both agonist and antagonist tendons over one joint. On the basis of recent data, it has been suggested that this paired stimulation generates an inconsistent signal about the limb position, which leads to a perceived shrinkage of the limb. However, this interesting effect has never been replicated. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of a simultaneous and equal vibration of the biceps and triceps tendons on the perceived location of the hand. Experiment 1 replicated and extended the previous findings. We compared a dual tendon stimulation condition with single tendon stimulation conditions and with a control condition (no vibration) on both 'upward-downward' and 'towards-away from the elbow' planes. Our results show a mislocalisation towards the elbow of the position of the vibrated arm during dual vibration, in line with previous results; however, this did not clarify whether the effect was due to arm representation contraction (i.e., a 'telescoping' effect). Therefore, in Experiment 2 we investigated explicitly and implicitly the perceived arm length during the same conditions. Our results clearly suggest that in all the vibration conditions there was a mislocalisation of the entire arm (including the elbow), but no evidence of a contraction of the perceived arm length.

  4. Assimilation of Dual-Polarimetric Radar Observations with WRF GSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xuanli; Mecikalski, John; Fehnel, Traci; Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Dual-polarimetric (dual-pol) radar typically transmits both horizontally and vertically polarized radio wave pulses. From the two different reflected power returns, more accurate estimate of liquid and solid cloud and precipitation can be provided. The upgrade of the traditional NWS WSR-88D radar to include dual-pol capabilities will soon be completed for the entire NEXRAD network. Therefore, the use of dual-pol radar network will have a broad impact in both research and operational communities. The assimilation of dual-pol radar data is especially challenging as few guidelines have been provided by previous research. It is our goal to examine how to best use dual-pol radar data to improve forecast of severe storm and forecast initialization. In recent years, the Development Testbed Center (DTC) has released the community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) DA system for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The community GSI system runs in independently environment, yet works functionally equivalent to operational centers. With collaboration with the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, this study explores regional assimilation of the dual-pol radar variables from the WSR-88D radars for real case storms. Our presentation will highlight our recent effort on incorporating the horizontal reflectivity (ZH), differential reflectivity (ZDR), specific differential phase (KDP), and radial velocity (VR) data for initializing convective storms, with a significant focus being on an improved representation of hydrometeor fields. In addition, discussion will be provided on the development of enhanced assimilation procedures in the GSI system with respect to dual-pol variables. Beyond the dual-pol variable assimilation procedure developing within a GSI framework, highresolution (=1 km) WRF model simulations and storm scale data assimilation experiments will be examined, emphasizing both model initialization and short-term forecast

  5. Dual-beam mastering for advanced formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaart, Gerarous J.; Stockx, Harry; Wijn, Josephus M.; Yoon, Du-Seop

    1996-09-01

    A dual beam recorder for high density format has been developed. The recorder features remote control of size and mutual distance of both recording spots, a special beam pointing control system, and a high accuracy, laser interferometer controlled, radial drive. The recorder can switch between very dissimilar formats without intermediate alignment. The performance of the recorder has been shown for DVD, MO, and even higher density formats. Track pitches down to 0.7 micrometers have been realized.

  6. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  7. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  8. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    Themes in 1989 higher education case law reflect the difficulty in reducing the federal deficit, increased service demands on state budgets, and an economic condition of marginal growth. The interpretation of constitutional rights in relationships between the institution and students, employees, and communities continues to be heavily litigated.…

  9. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Laurence W.; Wedlock, Eldon D., Jr.

    Courts have been consistently reluctant to interfere with governing boards' powers to control the administration of institutions of higher education. This deference seems to be based on the belief that board expertise makes it significantly more qualified than are the courts to make the necessary administrative decisions. Uncritical deference by…

  10. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  11. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  12. Dual-throat thruster thermal model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewen, R. L.; Obrien, C. J.; Matthews, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The dual-throat engine is one of the dual nozzle engine concepts studied for advanced space transportation applications. It provides a thrust change and an in-flight area ratio change through the use of two concentric combustors with their throats arranged in series. Test results are presented for a dual throat thruster burning gaseous oxygen and hydrogen at primary (inner) chamber pressures from 380 to 680 psia. Heat flux profiles were obtained from calorimetric cooling channels in the inner nozzle, outer or secondary chamber and the tip of the inner nozzle. Data were obtained for two nozzle spacings over a chamber pressure ratio (secondary/primary) range of 0.45 to 0.83 with both chambers firing (Mode I). Fluxes near the end of the inner nozzle were significantly higher than in Mode II when only the inner chamber was fired, due to the flow separation and recirculation caused by the back pressure imposed by the secondary chamber. As the pressure ratio increased, these heat fluxes increased and the region of high heat flux relative to Mode II extended farther upstream. The use of the gaseous hydrogen bleed flow in the secondary chamber to control heat fluxes in the primary plume attachment region was investigated in Mode II testing. A thermal model of a dual throat thruster was developed and upgraded using the experimental data.

  13. Supersymmetric higher spin theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezgin, Ergin; Sundell, Per

    2013-05-01

    We revisit the higher spin extensions of the anti de Sitter algebra in four dimensions that incorporate internal symmetries and admit representations that contain fermions, classified long ago by Konstein and Vasiliev. We construct the dS4, Euclidean and Kleinian version of these algebras, as well as the corresponding fully nonlinear Vasiliev type higher spin theories, in which the reality conditions we impose on the master fields play a crucial role. The N=2 supersymmetric higher spin theory in dS4, on which we elaborate further, is included in this class of models. A subset of the Konstein-Vasiliev algebras are the minimal higher spin extensions of the AdS4 superalgebra osp(4|N ) with N=1, 2, 4 mod 4, whose R-symmetry can be realized using fermionic oscillators. We tensor these algebras with appropriate internal symmetry algebras, namely u(n) for N= 2 mod 4 and so(n) or usp(n) for N=1,4 mod 4. We show that the N= 3 mod 4 higher spin algebras are isomorphic to those with N = 4 mod 4. We describe the fully nonlinear higher spin theories based on these algebras, including the coupling between the adjoint and twisted-adjoint master fields. We elaborate further on the N = 6 model in AdS4, and provide two equivalent descriptions one of which exhibits manifestly its relation to the N = 8 model. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  14. Performance in Dual Tasks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-29

    Continue on reverse aide it neceeay and identify by block nualtber) Problem solving, attention , computer simulation, choice reaction time ...construct a single theoretical framework for the analysis of problem solving and real time 4attention and performance’ behavior. Such a model has been...the "production system * approach. The program has been used to simulate results from choice reaction time , stimulus repetition, dual channel

  15. Observables, Evolution Equation, and Stationary States Equation in the Joint Probability Representation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korennoy, Ya. A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    Symplectic and optical joint probability representations of quantum mechanics are considered, in which the functions describing the states are the probability distributions with all random arguments (except the argument of time). The general formalism of quantizers and dequantizers determining the star product quantization scheme in these representations is given. Taking the Gaussian functions as the distributions of the tomographic parameters the correspondence rules for most interesting physical operators are found and the expressions of the dual symbols of operators in the form of singular and regular generalized functions are derived. Evolution equations and stationary states equations for symplectic and optical joint probability distributions are obtained.

  16. Observables, Evolution Equation, and Stationary States Equation in the Joint Probability Representation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korennoy, Ya. A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    Symplectic and optical joint probability representations of quantum mechanics are considered, in which the functions describing the states are the probability distributions with all random arguments (except the argument of time). The general formalism of quantizers and dequantizers determining the star product quantization scheme in these representations is given. Taking the Gaussian functions as the distributions of the tomographic parameters the correspondence rules for most interesting physical operators are found and the expressions of the dual symbols of operators in the form of singular and regular generalized functions are derived. Evolution equations and stationary states equations for symplectic and optical joint probability distributions are obtained.

  17. The DUAL mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ballmoos, Peter; Alvarez, Jose; Barriere, Nicolas; Boggs, Steve; Bykov, Andrei; Del Cura Velayos, Juan Manuel; Frontera, Filippo; Hanlon, Lorraine; Hernanz, Margarita; Hinglais, Emmanuel; Isern, Jordi; Jean, Pierre; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Kuiper, Lucien; Leising, Mark; Pirard, Benoît; Prost, Jean-Pierre; da Silva, Rui; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tomsick, John; Walter, Roland; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    DUAL will study the origin and evolution of the elements and explores new frontiers of physics: extreme energies that drive powerful stellar explosions and accelerate particles to macroscopic energies; extreme densities that modify the laws of physics around the most compact objects known; and extreme fields that influence matter in a way that is unknown on Earth. The variability of these extreme objects requires continuous all-sky coverage, while detailed study demands an improvement in sensitivity over previous technologies by at least an order of magnitude. The DUAL payload is composed of an All-Sky Compton Imager (ASCI), and two optical modules, the Laue-Lens Optic (LLO) and the Coded-Mask Optic (CMO). The ASCI serves dual roles simultaneously, both as an optimal focal-plane sensor for deep observations with the optical modules and as a sensitive true all-sky telescope in its own right for all-sky surveys and monitoring. While the optical modules are located on the main satellite, the All-Sky Compton Imager is situated on a deployable structure at a distance of 30 m from the satellite. This configuration not only permits to maintain the less massive payload at the focal distance, it also greatly reduces the spacecraft-induced detector background, and, above all it provides ASCI with a continuous all-sky exposure.

  18. Dual-Schemata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  19. Data Representations for Geographic Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Clifford A.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys the field and literature of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial data representation as it relates to GIS. Highlights include GIS terms, data types, and operations; vector representations and raster, or grid, representations; spatial indexing; elevation data representations; large spatial databases; and problem areas and future…

  20. The Representation of Abstract Words: What Matters? Reply to Paivio's (2013) Comment on Kousta et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula; Vinson, David; Andrews, Mark; Del Campo, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In Kousta, Vigliocco, Vinson, Andrews, and Del Campo (2011), we presented an embodied theory of semantic representation, which crucially included abstract concepts as internally embodied via affective states. Paivio (2013) took issue with our treatment of dual coding theory, our reliance on data from lexical decision, and our theoretical proposal.…

  1. The Representation of Abstract Words: What Matters? Reply to Paivio's (2013) Comment on Kousta et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula; Vinson, David; Andrews, Mark; Del Campo, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In Kousta, Vigliocco, Vinson, Andrews, and Del Campo (2011), we presented an embodied theory of semantic representation, which crucially included abstract concepts as internally embodied via affective states. Paivio (2013) took issue with our treatment of dual coding theory, our reliance on data from lexical decision, and our theoretical proposal.…

  2. Culture as shared cognitive representations.

    PubMed Central

    Romney, A K; Boyd, J P; Moore, C C; Batchelder, W H; Brazill, T J

    1996-01-01

    Culture consists of shared cognitive representations in the minds of individuals. This paper investigates the extent to which English speakers share the "same" semantic structure of English kinship terms. The semantic structure is defined as the arrangement of the terms relative to each other as represented in a metric space in which items judged more similar are placed closer to each other than items judged as less similar. The cognitive representation of the semantic structure, residing in the mind of an individual, is measured by judged similarity tasks involving comparisons among terms. Using six independent measurements, from each of 122 individuals, correspondence analysis represents the data in a common multidimensional spatial representation. Judged by a variety of statistical procedures, the individuals in our sample share virtually identical cognitive representations of the semantic structure of kinship terms. This model of culture accounts for 70-90% of the total variability in these data. We argue that our findings on kinship should generalize to all semantic domains--e.g., animals, emotions, etc. The investigation of semantic domains is important because they may reside in localized functional units in the brain, because they relate to a variety of cognitive processes, and because they have the potential to provide methods for diagnosing individual breakdowns in the structure of cognitive representations typical of such ailments as Alzheimer disease. PMID:11607678

  3. On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Miyato, N. Yagi, M.; Scott, B. D.

    2015-01-15

    Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear.

  4. Representation Theory over Tropical Semifield and Langlands Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, Anton A.; Lebedev, Dimitri R.

    2013-06-01

    Recently we propose a class of infinite-dimensional integral representations of classical {{gl}_{ell+1}}-Whittaker functions and local Archimedean local L-factors using two-dimensional topological field theory framework. The local Archimedean Langlands duality was identified in this setting with the mirror symmetry of the underlying topological field theories. In this note we introduce elementary analogs of the Whittaker functions and the Archimedean L-factors given by U ℓ+1-equivariant symplectic volumes of appropriate Kähler U ℓ+1-manifolds. We demonstrate that the functions thus defined have a dual description as matrix elements of representations of monoids {GL_{ell+1}({R}), {R}} being the tropical semifield. We also show that the elementary Whittaker functions can be obtained from the non-Archimedean Whittaker functions over {{Q}_p} by taking the formal limit p→ 1. Hence the elementary special functions constructed in this way might be considered as functions over the mysterious field {{Q}_1}. The existence of two representations for the elementary Whittaker functions, one as an equivariant volume and the other as a matrix element, should be considered as a manifestation of a hypothetical elementary analog of the local Langlands duality for number fields. We would like to note that the elementary local L-factors coincide with L-factors introduced previously by Kurokawa.

  5. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-12-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

  6. Turning Symbolic: The Representation of Motion Direction in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Seidel Malkinson, Tal; Pertzov, Yoni; Zohary, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    What happens to the representation of a moving stimulus when it is no longer present and its motion direction has to be maintained in working memory (WM)? Is the initial, sensorial representation maintained during the delay period or is there another representation, at a higher level of abstraction? It is also feasible that multiple representations may co-exist in WM, manifesting different facets of sensory and more abstract features. To that end, we investigated the mnemonic representation of motion direction in a series of three psychophysical experiments, using a delayed motion-discrimination task (relative clockwise∖counter-clockwise judgment). First, we show that a change in the dots’ contrast polarity does not hamper performance. Next, we demonstrate that performance is unaffected by relocation of the Test stimulus in either retinotopic or spatiotopic coordinate frames. Finally, we show that an arrow-shaped cue presented during the delay interval between the Sample and Test stimulus, strongly biases performance toward the direction of the arrow, although the cue itself is non-informative (it has no predictive value of the correct answer). These results indicate that the representation of motion direction in WM could be independent of the physical features of the stimulus (polarity or position) and has non-sensorial abstract qualities. It is plausible that an abstract mnemonic trace might be activated alongside a more basic, analog representation of the stimulus. We speculate that the specific sensitivity of the mnemonic representation to the arrow-shaped symbol may stem from the long term learned association between direction and the hour in the clock. PMID:26909059

  7. Turning Symbolic: The Representation of Motion Direction in Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Seidel Malkinson, Tal; Pertzov, Yoni; Zohary, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    What happens to the representation of a moving stimulus when it is no longer present and its motion direction has to be maintained in working memory (WM)? Is the initial, sensorial representation maintained during the delay period or is there another representation, at a higher level of abstraction? It is also feasible that multiple representations may co-exist in WM, manifesting different facets of sensory and more abstract features. To that end, we investigated the mnemonic representation of motion direction in a series of three psychophysical experiments, using a delayed motion-discrimination task (relative clockwise∖counter-clockwise judgment). First, we show that a change in the dots' contrast polarity does not hamper performance. Next, we demonstrate that performance is unaffected by relocation of the Test stimulus in either retinotopic or spatiotopic coordinate frames. Finally, we show that an arrow-shaped cue presented during the delay interval between the Sample and Test stimulus, strongly biases performance toward the direction of the arrow, although the cue itself is non-informative (it has no predictive value of the correct answer). These results indicate that the representation of motion direction in WM could be independent of the physical features of the stimulus (polarity or position) and has non-sensorial abstract qualities. It is plausible that an abstract mnemonic trace might be activated alongside a more basic, analog representation of the stimulus. We speculate that the specific sensitivity of the mnemonic representation to the arrow-shaped symbol may stem from the long term learned association between direction and the hour in the clock.

  8. Executive control influences linguistic representations.

    PubMed

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Keysar, Boaz

    2014-02-01

    Although it is known that words acquire their meanings partly from the contexts in which they are used, we proposed that the way in which words are processed can also influence their representation. We further propose that individual differences in the way that words are processed can consequently lead to individual differences in the way that they are represented. Specifically, we showed that executive control influences linguistic representations by influencing the coactivation of competing and reinforcing terms. Consequently, people with poorer executive control perceive the meanings of homonymous terms as being more similar to one another, and those of polysemous terms as being less similar to one another, than do people with better executive control. We also showed that bilinguals with poorer executive control experience greater cross-linguistic interference than do bilinguals with better executive control. These results have implications for theories of linguistic representation and language organization.

  9. Psychosexuality and the representational world.

    PubMed

    Stolorow, R D

    1979-01-01

    The sensual experiences, fantasies and enactments that occur in the course of normal development are seen as psychic organizers which contribute vitally to the structuralization of the representational world. In the sexual perversions which occur in structurally deficient, developmentally arrested individuals, this function of early psychosexual experiences has been retained and is regressively relied upon in order to restore or sustain the cohesion and stability of crumbling, fragmenting or disintegrating self and object representations. Analytic exploration of the details of perverse fantasies and acts, their origins and functions, reveals the particular ways in which they compensate for specific structural weaknesses in patients' representational worlds. Some clinical illustrations and therapeutic implications of these formulations are briefly presented.

  10. Representation of Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Roscoe B. White

    2013-01-15

    One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through δ Β = ∇ X (xi X B) ensures that δ B • ∇ ψ = 0 at a resonance, with ψ labelling an equilibrium flux surface. Also useful for the analysis of guiding center orbits in a perturbed field is the representation δ Β = ∇ X αB. These two representations are equivalent, but the vanishing of δ B • ∇ψ at a resonance is necessary but not sufficient for the preservation of field line topology, and a indiscriminate use of either perturbation in fact destroys the original equilibrium flux topology. It is necessary to find the perturbed field to all orders in xi to conserve the original topology. The effect of using linearized perturbations on stability and growth rate calculations is discussed

  11. Representational issues in machine learning

    SciTech Connect

    Liepins, G.E.; Hilliard, M.R.

    1986-10-25

    Classifier systems are numeric machine learning systems. They are machine counterparts to the natural genetic process and learn by reproduction, crossover, and mutation. Much publicity has been attended to their ability to demonstrate significant learning from a random start and without human intervention. Less well publicized is the considerable care that must be given to the choices of parameter settings and representation. Without the proper ''nurturing environment'' genetic algorithms are apt to learn very little. This infusion of human intelligence is often discounted, but the choice of appropriate representation forms the core of much of the current genetic algorithm research. This paper will address some of the representational issues from the perspective of two current experiments, one with scheduling and the other with a simulated robot. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Assessing value representation in animals.

    PubMed

    San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome value and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-value. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome value in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the value of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions.

  13. Dual-polarization radar rainfall estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, Robert; Chandrasekar, V.

    Dual-polarization radar is a critical tool for weather research applications, including rainfall estimation, and is at the verge of being a key instrument for operational meteorologists. This new radar system is being integrated into radar networks around the world, including the planned upgrade of the U.S. National Weather Service Weather Surveillance Radar, 1988 Doppler radars. Dual polarization offers several advantages compared to single-polarization radar systems, including additional information about the size, shape, and orientation of hydrometeors. This information can be used to more accurately retrieve characteristics of the drop size distribution, identify types of hydrometeors, correct for signal loss (attenuation) in heavy precipitation, and more easily identify spurious echo scatterers. In addition to traditional backscatter measurements, differential propagation phase characteristics allow for rainfall estimation that is immune to absolute calibration of the radar system, attenuation effects, as well as partial beam blocking. By combining different radar measurements, rainfall retrieval algorithms have developed that minimize the error characteristics of the different rainfall estimators, while at the same time taking advantage of the data quality enhancements. Although dual-polarization techniques have been applied to S band and C band radar systems for several decades, polarization diversity at higher frequencies including X band are now widely available to the radar community. This chapter provides an overview of dual-polarization rainfall estimation applications that are typically utilized at X, C, and S bands. The concept of distinguishing basic and applied science issues and their impact on rainfall estimation is introduced. Various dual-polarization radar rainfall techniques are discussed, emphasizing the strengths and weaknesses of various estimators at different frequencies.

  14. The Statistics of Visual Representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.

    2002-01-01

    The experience of retinex image processing has prompted us to reconsider fundamental aspects of imaging and image processing. Foremost is the idea that a good visual representation requires a non-linear transformation of the recorded (approximately linear) image data. Further, this transformation appears to converge on a specific distribution. Here we investigate the connection between numerical and visual phenomena. Specifically the questions explored are: (1) Is there a well-defined consistent statistical character associated with good visual representations? (2) Does there exist an ideal visual image? And (3) what are its statistical properties?

  15. Medieval theories of mental representation.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S

    1998-11-01

    Throughout most of the Middle ages, it was generally held that stored mental representations of perceived objects or events preserved the forms or species of such objects. This belief was consistent with a metaphor used by Plato. It was also consistent with the medieval belief that a number of cognitive processes took place in the ventricles of the brain and with the phenomenology of afterimages and imagination itself. In the 14th century, William of Ockham challenged this belief by claiming that mental representations are not stored but instead constructed in the basis of past learned experiences.

  16. Cross-modal influences on representational momentum and representational gravity.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Courtney, Jon R

    2010-01-01

    Effects of cross-modal information on representational momentum and on representational gravity (ie on displacement of remembered location in the direction of target motion or in the direction of gravitational attraction, respectively) were examined. In experiment 1, ascending or descending visual motion (in the picture plane) was paired with ascending or descending auditory motion (in frequency space); motion was congruent (both ascending, both descending) or incongruent (one ascending, one descending). Memory for visual location or auditory pitch was probed. Congruence resulted in larger forward displacement for auditory pitch, but did not influence forward displacement for visual location. In experiment 2, horizontal visual motion was paired with ascending, descending, or no auditory motion. Memory for visual location was displaced downward with descending or no auditory motion, and downward displacement was larger for visual motion paired with descending auditory motion than for visual motion paired with ascending auditory motion. Effects of cross-modal information on displacement suggest representational momentum and representational gravity reflect high-level processing.

  17. Dual coding theory, word abstractness, and emotion: a critical review of Kousta et al. (2011).

    PubMed

    Paivio, Allan

    2013-02-01

    Kousta, Vigliocco, Del Campo, Vinson, and Andrews (2011) questioned the adequacy of dual coding theory and the context availability model as explanations of representational and processing differences between concrete and abstract words. They proposed an alternative approach that focuses on the role of emotional content in the processing of abstract concepts. Their dual coding critique is, however, based on impoverished and, in some respects, incorrect interpretations of the theory and its implications. This response corrects those gaps and misinterpretations and summarizes research findings that show predicted variations in the effects of dual coding variables in different tasks and contexts. Especially emphasized is an empirically supported dual coding theory of emotion that goes beyond the Kousta et al. emphasis on emotion in abstract semantics.

  18. Dual-channel and multifrequency radar system calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stjernman, Anders; Vivekanandan, J.; Nystrom, Anders

    1995-03-01

    Uncertainty in absolute gain and crosstalk factors are the primary sources of error in dual-channel radar measurements. A full two-port calibration technique compensates for the errors introduced due to an imperfect antenna system and improves the isolation between orthogonal polarization channels as long as the observed cross section is above the equivalent system noise cross section. A novel technique for calibrating a dual-polarized network analyzer-based scatterometer system is discussed. Rigorous two-port S-parameter representation is used to describe absolute gain and crosstalk characteristics. Validity of the crosstalk correction is demonstrated by measuring the point target scattering matrix. Correction factors are obtained by measuring the S-parameters of trihedral and dihedral corner reflectors of known sizes. Results of absolute gain of the antenna system are verified using independent test target cross section measurements.

  19. Dual mode warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Obrsky, J.; Alexander, A.A.; Griffen, O.H.; Foster, J.S.; Shamblen, M.

    1980-12-31

    A dual mode warhead is provided for use against both soft and hard targets and capable of sensing which type of target has been struck comprising a casing made of a ductile material containing an explosive charge and a fuze assembly. The ductile warhead casing will mushroom and later split upon striking a hard target while still confining the explosive. Proper ductility and confinement are necessary for fuze sensing. The fuze assembly contains a pair of parallel firing trains, one initiated only by high and one by low impact deceleration. The firing train actuated by low impact deceleration contains a pyrotechnic delay to allow penetration of soft targets.

  20. Dual modification of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Maruani, Antoine; Richards, Daniel A; Chudasama, Vijay

    2016-07-14

    With the advent of novel bioorthogonal reactions and "click" chemistry, an increasing number of strategies for the single labelling of proteins and oligonucleotides have emerged. Whilst several methods exist for the site-selective introduction of a single chemical moiety, site-selective and bioorthogonal dual modification of biomolecules remains a challenge. The introduction of multiple modules enables a plethora of permutations and combinations and can generate a variety of bioconjuguates with many potential applications. From de novo approaches on oligomers to the post-translational functionalisation of proteins, this review will highlight the main strategies to dually modify biomolecules.

  1. Dual stage check valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, D. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A dual stage seat valve head arrangement is described which consists of a primary sealing point located between a fixed orifice seat and a valve poppet, and a secondary sealing point between an orifice poppet and a valve poppet. Upstream of the valve orifice is a flexible, convoluted metal diaphragm attached to the orifice poppet. Downstream of the valve orifice, a finger spring exerts a force against the valve poppet, tending to keep the valve in a closed position. The series arrangement of a double seat and poppet is able to tolerate small particle contamination while minimizing chatter by controlling throttling or metering across the secondary seat, thus preserving the primary sealing surface.

  2. Rotation-independent representations for haptic movements.

    PubMed

    Shioiri, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Takanori; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The existence of a common mechanism for visual and haptic representations has been reported in object perception. In contrast, representations of movements might be more specific to modalities. Referring to the vertical axis is natural for visual representations whereas a fixed reference axis might be inappropriate for haptic movements and thus also inappropriate for its representations in the brain. The present study found that visual and haptic movement representations are processed independently. A psychophysical experiment examining mental rotation revealed the well-known effect of rotation angle for visual representations whereas no such effect was found for haptic representations. We also found no interference between processes for visual and haptic movements in an experiment where different stimuli were presented simultaneously through visual and haptic modalities. These results strongly suggest that (1) there are separate representations of visual and haptic movements, and (2) the haptic process has a rotation-independent representation.

  3. The role of national identity representation in the relation between in-group identification and out-group derogation: ethnic versus civic representation.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Joke; Duriez, Bart; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Boen, Filip

    2010-06-01

    Two studies investigated whether the content of in-group identity affects the relation between in-group identification and ethnic prejudice. The first study among university students, tested whether national identity representations (i.e., ethnic vs. civic) moderate or mediate the relation between Flemish in-group identification and ethnic prejudice. A moderation hypothesis is supported when those higher in identification who subscribe to a more ethnic representation display higher ethnic prejudice levels than those higher in identification who subscribe to a more civic representation. A mediation hypothesis is supported when those higher in identification tend towards one specific representation, which in turn, should predict ethnic prejudice. Results supported a mediation hypothesis and showed that the more respondents identified with the Flemish in-group, the more ethnic their identity representation, and the more they were inclined to display ethnic prejudice. The second study tested this mediation from a longitudinal perspective in a two-wave study among high school students. In-group identification at Time 1 predicted over-time changes in identity representation, which in turn, predicted changes in ethnic prejudice. In addition to this, changes in identity representation were predicted by initial ethnic prejudice levels. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. 34 CFR 74.17 - Certifications and representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certifications and representations. 74.17 Section 74.17 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 74.17...

  5. 34 CFR 74.17 - Certifications and representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifications and representations. 74.17 Section 74.17 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 74.17...

  6. Interests and Representation: Ethnic Advocacy on California School Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraga, Luis Ricardo; Elis, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Researchers have found that school districts with greater representation of Latinos and African Americans on their school boards tend to also have higher percentages of Latino and African American administrators and teachers. This increased presence of coethnics in the educational bureaucracy was then found to predict more…

  7. A verification logic representation of indeterministic signal states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The integration of modern CAD tools with formal verification environments require translation from hardware description language to verification logic. A signal representation including both unknown state and a degree of strength indeterminacy is essential for the correct modeling of many VLSI circuit designs. A higher-order logic theory of indeterministic logic signals is presented.

  8. 22 CFR 145.17 - Certifications and representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certifications and representations. 145.17 Section 145.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements §...

  9. 22 CFR 145.17 - Certifications and representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certifications and representations. 145.17 Section 145.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements §...

  10. 22 CFR 145.17 - Certifications and representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certifications and representations. 145.17 Section 145.17 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements §...

  11. 20 CFR 435.17 - Certifications and representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certifications and representations. 435.17 Section 435.17 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NON-PROFIT...

  12. More than Skin Deep: Body Representation beyond Primary Somatosensory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Matthew R.; Azanon, Elena; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The neural circuits underlying initial sensory processing of somatic information are relatively well understood. In contrast, the processes that go beyond primary somatosensation to create more abstract representations related to the body are less clear. In this review, we focus on two classes of higher-order processing beyond Somatosensation.…

  13. Effects of Discussion Representation: Comparisons between Social and Cognitive Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Kyungbin; Park, Su Jin

    2017-01-01

    An online discussion facilitates students' higher order thinking in online classes, especially when adopted with the instructor's guidance. The current experimental study examined the effects of two different discussion representation tools (social and cognitive diagrams) on students' discussion behaviors. The social diagram emphasized…

  14. Students Protest Lack of Representation at Spellings Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Student lobbyists have sent Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings a letter scolding her for what they see as a minimizing of student representation at the higher-education summit held last week. The Department of Education responded by saying that students had indeed been invited to participate. The letter, which was signed by Jennifer S. Pae,…

  15. Interests and Representation: Ethnic Advocacy on California School Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraga, Luis Ricardo; Elis, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Researchers have found that school districts with greater representation of Latinos and African Americans on their school boards tend to also have higher percentages of Latino and African American administrators and teachers. This increased presence of coethnics in the educational bureaucracy was then found to predict more…

  16. 34 CFR 74.17 - Certifications and representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certifications and representations. 74.17 Section 74.17 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 74.17...

  17. 34 CFR 74.17 - Certifications and representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certifications and representations. 74.17 Section 74.17 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 74.17...

  18. 34 CFR 74.17 - Certifications and representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certifications and representations. 74.17 Section 74.17 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATION OF GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 74.17...

  19. Dual Ectopic Thyroid with Normally Located Thyroid: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Choudhury, Bipul; Kaimal Saikia, Uma; Sarma, Dipti; Saikia, Mihir; Dutta Choudhury, Sarojini; Barua, Santanu; Dewri, Swapna

    2011-01-01

    Dual ectopic thyroid is a rare presentation of thyroid ectopia. Only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of a normally located thyroid is even rarer. We report a case of dual ectopic thyroid in the lingual and submandibular areas in a seventeen-year-old female with hypoplastic thyroid gland in its normal location. The patient presented with a midline swelling at the base of tongue with dysphagia. Thyroid function test revealed primary hypothyroidism. Ultrasonography of the neck showed hypoplastic thyroid in its normal location. A thyroid scan with Technetium-99 m pertechnate showed two intensely hyperfunctioning foci of ectopic thyroid tissue at a higher level in the midline consistent with dual ectopic thyroid, one at the base of tongue and the other in submental region. No uptake was seen in the normal bed. PMID:21765986

  20. Biome representational in silico karyotyping

    PubMed Central

    Muthappan, Valliammai; Lee, Aaron Y.; Lamprecht, Tamara L.; Akileswaran, Lakshmi; Dintzis, Suzanne M.; Lee, Choli; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R.; Shendure, Jay; Van Gelder, Russell N.

    2011-01-01

    Metagenomic characterization of complex biomes remains challenging. Here we describe a modification of digital karyotyping—biome representational in silico karyotyping (BRISK)—as a general technique for analyzing a defined representation of all DNA present in a sample. BRISK utilizes a Type IIB DNA restriction enzyme to create a defined representation of 27-mer DNAs in a sample. Massively parallel sequencing of this representation allows for construction of high-resolution karyotypes and identification of multiple species within a biome. Application to normal human tissue demonstrated linear recovery of tags by chromosome. We apply this technique to the biome of the oral mucosa and find that greater than 25% of recovered DNA is nonhuman. DNA from 41 microbial species could be identified from oral mucosa of two subjects. Of recovered nonhuman sequences, fewer than 30% are currently annotated. We characterized seven prevalent unknown sequences by chromosome walking and find these represent novel microbial sequences including two likely derived from novel phage genomes. Application of BRISK to archival tissue from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma resulted in identification of Epstein-Barr virus infection. These results suggest that BRISK is a powerful technique for the analysis of complex microbiomes and potentially for pathogen discovery. PMID:21324882

  1. Biome representational in silico karyotyping.

    PubMed

    Muthappan, Valliammai; Lee, Aaron Y; Lamprecht, Tamara L; Akileswaran, Lakshmi; Dintzis, Suzanne M; Lee, Choli; Magrini, Vincent; Mardis, Elaine R; Shendure, Jay; Van Gelder, Russell N

    2011-04-01

    Metagenomic characterization of complex biomes remains challenging. Here we describe a modification of digital karyotyping-biome representational in silico karyotyping (BRISK)-as a general technique for analyzing a defined representation of all DNA present in a sample. BRISK utilizes a Type IIB DNA restriction enzyme to create a defined representation of 27-mer DNAs in a sample. Massively parallel sequencing of this representation allows for construction of high-resolution karyotypes and identification of multiple species within a biome. Application to normal human tissue demonstrated linear recovery of tags by chromosome. We apply this technique to the biome of the oral mucosa and find that greater than 25% of recovered DNA is nonhuman. DNA from 41 microbial species could be identified from oral mucosa of two subjects. Of recovered nonhuman sequences, fewer than 30% are currently annotated. We characterized seven prevalent unknown sequences by chromosome walking and find these represent novel microbial sequences including two likely derived from novel phage genomes. Application of BRISK to archival tissue from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma resulted in identification of Epstein-Barr virus infection. These results suggest that BRISK is a powerful technique for the analysis of complex microbiomes and potentially for pathogen discovery.

  2. Mental Representations of Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bordeaux, Andrew R.; Ambady, Nalni

    2004-01-01

    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers…

  3. Grobner Basis Representations of Sudoku

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taalman, Laura; Arnold, Elizabeth; Lucas, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Grobner bases to explore the inherent structure of Sudoku puzzles and boards. In particular, we develop three different ways of representing the constraints of Sudoku puzzles with a system of polynomial equations. In one case, we explicitly show how a Grobner basis can be used to obtain a more meaningful representation of the…

  4. A qualia representation of cyberspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Timothy H.; Mills, Robert F.; Raines, Richard A.; Oxley, Mark E.; Bauer, Kenneth W.; Rogers, Steven K.

    2008-04-01

    E.C Adam defined Situational Awareness (SA) as "the mental representation and understanding of objects, events, people, system states, interactions, environmental conditions, and other situation-specific factors affecting human performance in complex and dynamic tasks. Stated in lay terms, SA is simply knowing what is going on so you can figure out what to do." We propose a novel idea to assist the human in gaining SA. Our hypothesis is that nature uses qualia as a compression scheme to represent the many concepts encountered in everyday life. Qualia enable humans to quickly come up with SA based on many complex measurements from their sensors, (eyes, ears, taste, touch, memory, etc.), expectations, and experiences. Our ultimate objective is to develop a computer that uses qualia concepts to transform sensor data to assist the human in gaining and maintaining improved SA. However, before any computer can use qualia, we must first define a representation for qualia that can be implemented computationally. This paper will present our representation for qualia. The representation is not simply a hierarchical aggregation of input data. Instead, it is a prediction of what will happen next, derived from computations resulting from sensory inputs and the computational engine of a qualia generator and qualia processor.

  5. Correct Representation of Conformational Equilibria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulop, F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In representing conformational equilibria of compounds having only one chiral center, erroneous formulas showing different antipodes on the two sides of the equilibrium are rare. In contrast, with compounds having two or more chiral centers especially with saturated heterocycles, this erroneous representation occurs frequently in the chemical…

  6. Lie antialgebras: cohomology and representations

    SciTech Connect

    Ovsienko, V.

    2008-11-18

    We describe the main algebraic and geometric properties of the class of algebras introduced in [1]. We discuss their origins in symplectic geometry and associative algebra, and the notions of cohomology and representations. We formulate classification theorems and give a number of examples.

  7. Representational Momentum in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Andrea S.; Jakobson, Lorna S.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have a tendency to perceive motion even in static images that simply "imply" movement. This tendency is so strong that our memory for actions depicted in static images is distorted in the direction of implied motion--a phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM). In the present study, we created an RM display depicting a pattern of…

  8. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  9. Representational learning for sonar ATR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, Jason C.

    2014-06-01

    Learned representations have been shown to give hopeful results for solving a multitude of novel learning tasks, even though these tasks may be unknown when the model is being trained. A few notable examples include the techniques of topic models, deep belief networks, deep Boltzmann machines, and local discriminative Gaussians, all inspired by human learning. This self-learning of new concepts via rich generative models has emerged as a promising area of research in machine learning. Although there has been recent progress, existing computational models are still far from being able to represent, identify and learn the wide variety of possible patterns and struc- ture in real-world data. An important issue for further consideration is the use of unsupervised representations for novel underwater target recognition applications. This work will discuss and demonstrate the use of latent Dirichlet allocation and autoencoders for learning unsupervised representations of objects in sonar imagery. The objective is to make these representations more abstract and invariant to noise in the training distribution and improve performance.

  10. Exploring Mental Representations for Literal Symbols Using Priming and Comparison Distance Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Courtney; Leon Guerrero, Sibylla; Star, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level mathematics requires a connection between literal symbols (e.g., "x") and their mental representations. The current study probes the nature of mental representations for literal symbols using both the priming distance effect, in which ease of comparing a target number to a fixed standard is a function of prime-target…

  11. Exploring Mental Representations for Literal Symbols Using Priming and Comparison Distance Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Courtney; Leon Guerrero, Sibylla; Star, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level mathematics requires a connection between literal symbols (e.g., "x") and their mental representations. The current study probes the nature of mental representations for literal symbols using both the priming distance effect, in which ease of comparing a target number to a fixed standard is a function of prime-target…

  12. The Changing Role of Students' Representation in Poland: An Historical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonowicz, Dominik; Pinheiro, Rómulo; Smuzewska, Marcelina

    2014-01-01

    Student representation in Poland has a relatively short but turbulent history. This article offers an historical appraisal of the development of student representation at the national level in the context of rapid and deep structural changes in Polish higher education. Based on a desktop analysis of official documentation, legislation, ideological…

  13. The Changing Role of Students' Representation in Poland: An Historical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonowicz, Dominik; Pinheiro, Rómulo; Smuzewska, Marcelina

    2014-01-01

    Student representation in Poland has a relatively short but turbulent history. This article offers an historical appraisal of the development of student representation at the national level in the context of rapid and deep structural changes in Polish higher education. Based on a desktop analysis of official documentation, legislation, ideological…

  14. Dual-Band Optical Bench for Terahertz Radiometer for Outer Planet Atmospheres (TROPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlecht, Erich; Jamnejad, Vahraz

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a wide-band dual frequency spectrometer for use in deep space planetary atmospheric spectroscopy. The instrument uses a dual-band architecture, both to be able to observe spectral lines from a wide range of atmospheric species, and to allow a higher precision retrieval of temperature/pressure/partial pressure and wind profiles. This dual-band approach requires a new design for the optical bench to couple both frequencies into their respective receivers.

  15. Asymptotic and Fredholm representations of discrete groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuilov, V. M.; Mishchenko, A. S.

    1998-10-01

    A C^*-algebra servicing the theory of asymptotic representations and its embedding into the Calkin algebra that induces an isomorphism of K_1-groups is constructed. As a consequence, it is shown that all vector bundles over the classifying space B\\pi that can be obtained by means of asymptotic representations of a discrete group \\pi can also be obtained by means of representations of the group \\pi \\times {\\mathbb Z} into the Calkin algebra. A generalization of the concept of Fredholm representation is also suggested, and it is shown that an asymptotic representation can be regarded as an asymptotic Fredholm representation.

  16. Dual permeability modeling of tile drain management influences on hydrologic and nutrient transport characteristics in macroporous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Steven K.; Hwang, Hyoun-Tae; Park, Young-Jin; Hussain, Syed I.; Gottschall, Natalie; Edwards, Mark; Lapen, David R.

    2016-04-01

    Tile drainage management is considered a beneficial management practice (BMP) for reducing nutrient loads in surface water. In this study, 2-dimensional dual permeability models were developed to simulate flow and transport following liquid swine manure and rhodamine WT (strongly sorbing) tracer application on macroporous clay loam soils under controlled (CD) and free drainage (FD) tile management. Dominant flow and transport characteristics were successfully replicated, including higher and more continuous tile discharge and lower peak rhodamine WT concentrations in FD tile effluent; in relation to CD, where discharge was intermittent, peak rhodamine concentrations higher, and mass exchange from macropores into the soil matrix greater. Explicit representation of preferential flow was essential, as macropores transmitted >98% of surface infiltration, tile flow, and tile solute loads for both FD and CD. Incorporating an active 3rd type lower boundary condition that facilitated groundwater interaction was imperative for simulating CD, as the higher (relative to FD) water table enhanced water and soluble nutrient movement from the soil profile into deeper groundwater. Scenario analysis revealed that in conditions where slight upwards hydraulic gradients exist beneath tiles, groundwater upwelling can influence the concentration of surface derived solutes in tile effluent under FD conditions; whereas the higher and flatter CD water table can restrict groundwater upwelling. Results show that while CD can reduce tile discharge, it can also lead to an increase in surface-application derived nutrient concentrations in tile effluent and hence surface water receptors, and it can promote NO3 loading into groundwater. This study demonstrates dual permeability modeling as a tool for increasing the conceptual understanding of tile drainage BMPs.

  17. Dual Relationships in Group Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews and critiques the literature regarding dual relationships in group work training. It explores the ethical concerns raised within the field, and relates this to an emerging literature concerning potentially beneficial relationships. Anecdotal and empirical evidence regarding dual relationships is reviewed, demonstrating the…

  18. Dual-Credit in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Credit-based transition programs provide high school students with opportunities to jump start their college education. The Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) offers college credit through dual-credit programs. While KCTCS dual-credit offerings have been successful in helping high school students start their college education…

  19. Benefits of Dual Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallstrum, Kiara

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper examines how dual language education (DLE) programs are valuable. The literature shows that children do much more than just thrive in a dual language environment. According to research, children who are bilingual are cognitively, academically, intellectually, socially and verbally more advantaged than their monolingual…

  20. Dual-Credit in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Credit-based transition programs provide high school students with opportunities to jump start their college education. The Kentucky Community and Technical College System (KCTCS) offers college credit through dual-credit programs. While KCTCS dual-credit offerings have been successful in helping high school students start their college education…

  1. Mental representations in women with panic disorder: an urban African-American sample.

    PubMed

    Porcerelli, John H; Huprich, Steven K; Markova, Tsveti

    2010-02-01

    Psychodynamic theories of panic disorder (PD) suggest an association between PD and impairments in mental representations. This study tested this hypothesis by comparing mental representations of 25 African-American women recruited from an urban primary care clinic with PD with a group of 25 women without PD and matched on race, age, marital status, education, and income. Mental representations were assessed through spontaneous descriptions of mothers and reliably coded with the Qualitative and Structural Dimensions of Object Representations scale (Blatt et al., Unpublished manual, 1992). Results essentially supported the hypotheses for impaired mental representations (lower benevolence, higher ambivalence, and lower conceptual level) for women with PD as compared with women without PD. No differences in mental representations were found between women with PD with major depression and women with only PD. The findings provide preliminary support for a psychodynamic theory of PD in a sample of African-American women.

  2. Quantization maps, algebra representation, and non-commutative Fourier transform for Lie groups

    SciTech Connect

    Guedes, Carlos; Oriti, Daniele; Raasakka, Matti

    2013-08-15

    The phase space given by the cotangent bundle of a Lie group appears in the context of several models for physical systems. A representation for the quantum system in terms of non-commutative functions on the (dual) Lie algebra, and a generalized notion of (non-commutative) Fourier transform, different from standard harmonic analysis, has been recently developed, and found several applications, especially in the quantum gravity literature. We show that this algebra representation can be defined on the sole basis of a quantization map of the classical Poisson algebra, and identify the conditions for its existence. In particular, the corresponding non-commutative star-product carried by this representation is obtained directly from the quantization map via deformation quantization. We then clarify under which conditions a unitary intertwiner between such algebra representation and the usual group representation can be constructed giving rise to the non-commutative plane waves and consequently, the non-commutative Fourier transform. The compact groups U(1) and SU(2) are considered for different choices of quantization maps, such as the symmetric and the Duflo map, and we exhibit the corresponding star-products, algebra representations, and non-commutative plane waves.

  3. The Private Presence in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Howard R.

    The importance of private initiative has long been recognized in tax exemption by federal, state, and local governments. One outcome of this history is the dual system of higher education--a system that is partly private and partly public. Despite the important service rendered by the private sector, it is today facing a bleak financial future.…

  4. Representability of Bloch states on Projector-augmented-wave (PAW) basis sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapito, Luis; Ferretti, Andrea; Curtarolo, Stefano; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Design of small, yet `complete', localized basis sets is necessary for an efficient dual representation of Bloch states on both plane-wave and localized basis. Such simultaneous dual representation permits the development of faster more accurate (beyond DFT) electronic-structure methods for atomistic materials (e.g. the ACBN0 method.) by benefiting from algorithms (real and reciprocal space) and hardware acceleration (e.g. GPUs) used in the quantum-chemistry and solid-state communities. Finding a `complete' atomic-orbital basis (partial waves) is also a requirement in the generation of robust and transferable PAW pseudopotentials. We have employed the atomic-orbital basis from available PAW data sets, which extends through most of the periodic table, and tested the representability of Bloch states on such basis. Our results show that PAW data sets allow systematic and accurate representability of the PAW Bloch states, better than with traditional quantum-chemistry double-zeta- and double-zeta-polarized-quality basis sets.

  5. Cerebral artery evaluation of dual energy CT angiography with dual source CT.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Liu, Cheng; Deng, Kai; Song, Shao-juan; Wang, Dao-ping; Huang, Ling

    2010-05-05

    Conventional computed tomography angiography (CTA) is time consuming, user-dependent and has poor image quality in skull base region. This study assessed the feasibility of a new method, dual energy CTA for depicting the cerebral artery. Phantom scan was done with head CTA sequences on dual source CT and 64 spiral CT for radiation dose calculation. Dual energy CTA was done with dual source CT on 36 patients who were suspected of having cerebral vascular disease. Three series axial images in 0.75 mm thick, 0.4 mm increment were acquired, which were named with 80 kV, 140 kV and merged images; 80 kV and 140 kV images were transferred into dual energy software, and maximum intensity projection (MIP) image was generated quickly by dual energy bone remove (DEBR group); merged images were transferred into In Space software to acquire MIP image through manual conventional bone remove (CoBR group). Post processing time and reading time were compared. Image qualities of the two groups were compared, mainly focusing on skull base segments of internal carotid artery and bone subtraction. ANOVA and SNK tests were applied for radiation dose comparison. Student's t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were applied for assessing differences between data for significance. Cohen's kappa was used for interobserver agreement. Radiation dose of phantom scan showed dual energy CTA was between digital bone subtraction and conventional CTA. The post processing time and reading time were much shorter in DEBR than CoBR, and image quality in skull base was much higher in DEBR than CoBR (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference for suprasellar vessels between two groups (P > 0.5). Interobserver agreement for all vessel segments was excellent (kappa = 0.97). Dual energy CTA is a reliable, new modality for depicting cerebral artery, overcoming the limitation of conventional CTA in the skull base region. It can save much time in post processing and reading than conventional CTA.

  6. Attachment stability and the emergence of unresolved representations during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Aikins, Julie Wargo; Howes, Carollee; Hamilton, Claire

    2009-09-01

    This 15-year longitudinal study examined the stability of attachment representations from infancy to adolescence and investigated the emergence of unresolved representations during adolescence in a sample of 47 16-year-olds. Attachment was assessed at 12 months using the Strange Situation Procedure, at 4 years using the modified Strange Situation Procedure, and again at 16 years with the Adult Attachment Projective (AAP). The emergence of unresolved classifications in adolescence (AAP) was associated with higher rates of negative life events, low levels of early mother-child relationship security (an aggregate measure of the 12-month and 4-year measures), negative teacher-child relationship experiences in middle childhood, and low early adolescent friendship quality. The results support the growing body of evidence suggesting that changes in attachment are lawful, while adding to the growing understanding of the emergence of unresolved attachment representations.

  7. Language modulates brain activity underlying representation of kinship terms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyan; Ge, Yue; Tang, Honghong; Luo, Yue-Jia; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao

    2015-12-21

    Kinship terms have been found to be highly diverse across languages. Here we investigated the brain representation of kinship terms in two distinct populations, native Chinese and Caucasian English speakers, with a five-element kinship identification (FEKI) task. The neuroimaging results showed a common extensive frontal and parietal lobe brain activation pattern for different kinship levels for both Chinese and Caucasian English speakers. Furthermore, Chinese speakers had longer reaction times and elicited more fronto-parietal brain networks activation compared to English speakers in level three (e.g., uncle and nephew) and four (e.g., cousin), including an association between the middle frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobe, which might be associated with higher working memory, attention control, and social distance representation load in Chinese kinship system processing. These results contribute to our understanding of the representation of kinship terms in the two languages.

  8. Language modulates brain activity underlying representation of kinship terms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haiyan; Ge, Yue; Tang, Honghong; Luo, Yue-Jia; Mai, Xiaoqin; Liu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Kinship terms have been found to be highly diverse across languages. Here we investigated the brain representation of kinship terms in two distinct populations, native Chinese and Caucasian English speakers, with a five-element kinship identification (FEKI) task. The neuroimaging results showed a common extensive frontal and parietal lobe brain activation pattern for different kinship levels for both Chinese and Caucasian English speakers. Furthermore, Chinese speakers had longer reaction times and elicited more fronto-parietal brain networks activation compared to English speakers in level three (e.g., uncle and nephew) and four (e.g., cousin), including an association between the middle frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobe, which might be associated with higher working memory, attention control, and social distance representation load in Chinese kinship system processing. These results contribute to our understanding of the representation of kinship terms in the two languages. PMID:26685907

  9. Dual surface interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Pardue, R.M.; Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-12

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarterwave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  10. Dual surface interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Pardue, Robert M.; Williams, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    A double-pass interferometer is provided which allows direct measurement of relative displacement between opposed surfaces. A conventional plane mirror interferometer may be modified by replacing the beam-measuring path cube-corner reflector with an additional quarter-wave plate. The beam path is altered to extend to an opposed plane mirrored surface and the reflected beam is placed in interference with a retained reference beam split from dual-beam source and retroreflected by a reference cube-corner reflector mounted stationary with the interferometer housing. This permits direct measurement of opposed mirror surfaces by laser interferometry while doubling the resolution as with a conventional double-pass plane mirror laser interferometer system.

  11. Integrated Dual Imaging Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, David M.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of image detector was designed to simultaneously analyze the polarization of light at all picture elements in a scene. The integrated Dual Imaging detector (IDID) consists of a lenslet array and a polarizing beamsplitter bonded to a commercial charge coupled device (CCD). The IDID simplifies the design and operation of solar vector magnetographs and the imaging polarimeters and spectroscopic imagers used, for example, in atmosphere and solar research. When used in a solar telescope, the vector magnetic fields on the solar surface. Other applications include environmental monitoring, robot vision, and medical diagnoses (through the eye). Innovations in the IDID include (1) two interleaved imaging arrays (one for each polarization plane); (2) large dynamic range (well depth of 10(exp 5) electrons per pixel); (3) simultaneous readout and display of both images; and (4) laptop computer signal processing to produce polarization maps in field situations.

  12. Dual-Mode Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyne, Christopher P.; McDaniel, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Virginia has conducted an investigation of the mixing and combustion processes in a hydrogen fueled dual-mode scramjet combustor. The experiment essentially consisted of the "direct connect" continuous operation of a Mach 2 rectangular combustor with a single unswept ramp fuel injector. The stagnation enthalpy of the test flow simulated a flight Mach number of 5. Measurements were obtained using conventional wall instrumentation and laser based diagnostics. These diagnostics included, pressure and wall temperature measurements, Fuel Plume Imaging (FPI) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A schematic of the combustor configuration and a summary of the measurements obtained are presented. The experimental work at UVa was parallel by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work at NASA Langley. The numerical and experiment results are compared in this document.

  13. Dual broadband metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ju; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-02-23

    We propose polarization-independent and dual-broadband metamaterial absorbers at microwave frequencies. This is a periodic meta-atom array consisting of metal-dielectric-multilayer truncated cones. We demonstrate not only one broadband absorption from the fundamental magnetic resonances but additional broadband absorption in high-frequency range using the third-harmonic resonance, by both simulation and experiment. In simulation, the absorption was over 90% in 3.93-6.05 GHz, and 11.64-14.55 GHz. The corresponding experimental absorption bands over 90% were 3.88-6.08 GHz, 9.95-10.46 GHz and 11.86-13.84 GHz, respectively. The origin of absorption bands was elucidated. Furthermore, it is independent of polarization angle owing to the multilayered circular structures. The design is scalable to smaller size for the infrared and the visible ranges.

  14. Dual Tank Fuel System

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  15. Dual-exposure technique for extending the dynamic range of x-ray flat panel detectors.

    PubMed

    Sisniega, A; Abella, M; Desco, M; Vaquero, J J

    2014-01-20

    This work presents an approach to extend the dynamic range of x-ray flat panel detectors by combining two acquisitions of the same sample taken with two different x-ray photon flux levels and the same beam spectral configuration. In order to combine both datasets, the response of detector pixels was modelled in terms of mean and variance using a linear model. The model was extended to take into account the effect of pixel saturation. We estimated a joint probability density function (j-pdf) of the pixel values by assuming that each dataset follows an independent Gaussian distribution. This j-pdf was used for estimating the final pixel value of the high-dynamic-range dataset using a maximum likelihood method. The suitability of the pixel model for the representation of the detector signal was assessed using experimental data from a small-animal cone-beam micro-CT scanner equipped with a flat panel detector. The potential extension in dynamic range offered by our method was investigated for generic flat panel detectors using analytical expressions and simulations. The performance of the proposed dual-exposure approach in realistic imaging environments was compared with that of a regular single-exposure technique using experimental data from two different phantoms. Image quality was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, and analysis of profiles drawn on the images. The dynamic range, measured as the ratio between the exposure for saturation and the exposure equivalent to instrumentation noise, was increased from 76.9 to 166.7 when using our method. Dual-exposure results showed higher contrast-to-noise ratio and contrast resolution than the single-exposure acquisitions for the same x-ray dose. In addition, image artifacts were reduced in the combined dataset. This technique to extend the dynamic range of the detector without increasing the dose is particularly suited to image samples that contain both low and high attenuation regions.

  16. Dual-exposure technique for extending the dynamic range of x-ray flat panel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisniega, A.; Abella, M.; Desco, M.; Vaquero, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents an approach to extend the dynamic range of x-ray flat panel detectors by combining two acquisitions of the same sample taken with two different x-ray photon flux levels and the same beam spectral configuration. In order to combine both datasets, the response of detector pixels was modelled in terms of mean and variance using a linear model. The model was extended to take into account the effect of pixel saturation. We estimated a joint probability density function (j-pdf) of the pixel values by assuming that each dataset follows an independent Gaussian distribution. This j-pdf was used for estimating the final pixel value of the high-dynamic-range dataset using a maximum likelihood method. The suitability of the pixel model for the representation of the detector signal was assessed using experimental data from a small-animal cone-beam micro-CT scanner equipped with a flat panel detector. The potential extension in dynamic range offered by our method was investigated for generic flat panel detectors using analytical expressions and simulations. The performance of the proposed dual-exposure approach in realistic imaging environments was compared with that of a regular single-exposure technique using experimental data from two different phantoms. Image quality was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, and analysis of profiles drawn on the images. The dynamic range, measured as the ratio between the exposure for saturation and the exposure equivalent to instrumentation noise, was increased from 76.9 to 166.7 when using our method. Dual-exposure results showed higher contrast-to-noise ratio and contrast resolution than the single-exposure acquisitions for the same x-ray dose. In addition, image artifacts were reduced in the combined dataset. This technique to extend the dynamic range of the detector without increasing the dose is particularly suited to image samples that contain both low and high attenuation regions.

  17. Visual Tracking Based on Extreme Learning Machine and Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baoxian; Tang, Linbo; Yang, Jinglin; Zhao, Baojun; Wang, Shuigen

    2015-01-01

    The existing sparse representation-based visual trackers mostly suffer from both being time consuming and having poor robustness problems. To address these issues, a novel tracking method is presented via combining sparse representation and an emerging learning technique, namely extreme learning machine (ELM). Specifically, visual tracking can be divided into two consecutive processes. Firstly, ELM is utilized to find the optimal separate hyperplane between the target observations and background ones. Thus, the trained ELM classification function is able to remove most of the candidate samples related to background contents efficiently, thereby reducing the total computational cost of the following sparse representation. Secondly, to further combine ELM and sparse representation, the resultant confidence values (i.e., probabilities to be a target) of samples on the ELM classification function are used to construct a new manifold learning constraint term of the sparse representation framework, which tends to achieve robuster results. Moreover, the accelerated proximal gradient method is used for deriving the optimal solution (in matrix form) of the constrained sparse tracking model. Additionally, the matrix form solution allows the candidate samples to be calculated in parallel, thereby leading to a higher efficiency. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracker. PMID:26506359

  18. Visual tracking based on extreme learning machine and sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baoxian; Tang, Linbo; Yang, Jinglin; Zhao, Baojun; Wang, Shuigen

    2015-10-22

    The existing sparse representation-based visual trackers mostly suffer from both being time consuming and having poor robustness problems. To address these issues, a novel tracking method is presented via combining sparse representation and an emerging learning technique, namely extreme learning machine (ELM). Specifically, visual tracking can be divided into two consecutive processes. Firstly, ELM is utilized to find the optimal separate hyperplane between the target observations and background ones. Thus, the trained ELM classification function is able to remove most of the candidate samples related to background contents efficiently, thereby reducing the total computational cost of the following sparse representation. Secondly, to further combine ELM and sparse representation, the resultant confidence values (i.e., probabilities to be a target) of samples on the ELM classification function are used to construct a new manifold learning constraint term of the sparse representation framework, which tends to achieve robuster results. Moreover, the accelerated proximal gradient method is used for deriving the optimal solution (in matrix form) of the constrained sparse tracking model. Additionally, the matrix form solution allows the candidate samples to be calculated in parallel, thereby leading to a higher efficiency. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed tracker.

  19. Dual-Lagrangian description adapted to quantum optics in dispersive and dissipative dielectric media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezet, Aurélien

    2016-11-01

    We develop a dual description of quantum optics adapted to dielectric systems without magnetic property. Our formalism, which is shown to be equivalent to the standard one within some dipolar approximations discussed in the article, is applied to the description of polaritons in dielectric media. We show that the dual formalism leads to the Huttner-Barnett equations [B. Huttner and S. M. Barnett, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4306 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevA.46.4306] for QED in dielectric systems. More generally, we discuss the role of electromagnetic duality in the quantization procedure for optical systems and derive the structure of the dynamical laws in the various representations.

  20. Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lotfi A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.

  1. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  2. Mental representations of social status.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Joan Y; Bordeaux, Andrew R; Ambady, Nalini

    2004-09-01

    How do people think about social status? We investigated the nature of social status and number representations using a semantic distance latency test. In Study 1, 21 college students compared words connoting different social status as well as numbers, which served as a control task. Participants were faster at comparing occupations and numbers that were semantically farther apart relative to those more closely related. In Study 2, we examined the semantic distance effect for a social status category, for which participants have as much knowledge of, as with numbers. We asked 15 US Navy Midshipmen to compare the social status associated with different ranks in the Navy as well as compare number magnitudes. Participants were fastest when comparing ranks far in status relative to ranks close in status. These findings reveal that humans have mental representations of social status that share properties with that of number.

  3. Time representations in social science

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Yvan

    2012-01-01

    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged “acceleration” of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them. PMID:23393420

  4. Time representations in social science.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    Time has long been a major topic of study in social science, as in other sciences or in philosophy. Social scientists have tended to focus on collective representations of time, and on the ways in which these representations shape our everyday experiences. This contribution addresses work from such disciplines as anthropology, sociology and history. It focuses on several of the main theories that have preoccupied specialists in social science, such as the alleged "acceleration" of life and overgrowth of the present in contemporary Western societies, or the distinction between so-called linear and circular conceptions of time. The presentation of these theories is accompanied by some of the critiques they have provoked, in order to enable the reader to form her or his own opinion of them.

  5. Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lotfi A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.

  6. Representations of mad cow disease.

    PubMed

    Washer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the reporting of the story of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and its human derivative variant Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (vCJD) in the British newspapers. Three 'snapshots' of newspaper coverage are sampled and analysed between the period 1986 and 1996 focusing on how representations of the disease evolved over the 10-year period. Social representations theory is used to elucidate how this new disease threat was conceptualised in the newspaper reporting and how it was explained to the UK public. This paper examines who or what was said to be at risk from the new disease, and whether some individuals or groups held to blame for the diseases' putative origins, the appearance of vCJD in human beings, and its spread.

  7. Free boundary ballooning mode representation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L. J.

    2012-10-15

    A new type of ballooning mode invariance is found in this paper. Application of this invariance is shown to be able to reduce the two-dimensional problem of free boundary high n modes, such as the peeling-ballooning modes, to a one-dimensional problem. Here, n is toroidal mode number. In contrast to the conventional ballooning representation, which requires the translational invariance of the Fourier components of the perturbations, the new invariance reflects that the independent solutions of the high n mode equations are translationally invariant from one radial interval surrounding a single singular surface to the other intervals. The conventional ballooning mode invariance breaks down at the vicinity of plasma edge, since the Fourier components with rational surfaces in vacuum region are completely different from those with rational surfaces in plasma region. But, the new type of invariance remains valid. This overcomes the limitation of the conventional ballooning mode representation for studying free boundary modes.

  8. 48 CFR 1480.803 - Representation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... enterprise to an IA CO in the IEE representation at 1452.280-4 in response to a specific solicitation under the Buy Indian Act. (c) The CO may ask the appropriate Regional Solicitor to review the enterprise's representation. (d) The IEE representation does not relieve the CO of the obligation for determining...

  9. Promoting Decimal Number Sense and Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Chris; Jamieson, Spencer; Mills, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The abstract nature of mathematics requires the communication of mathematical ideas through multiple representations, such as words, symbols, pictures, objects, or actions. Building representational fluency involves using mathematical representations flexibly and being able to interpret and translate among these different models and mathematical…

  10. Promoting Decimal Number Sense and Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Chris; Jamieson, Spencer; Mills, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The abstract nature of mathematics requires the communication of mathematical ideas through multiple representations, such as words, symbols, pictures, objects, or actions. Building representational fluency involves using mathematical representations flexibly and being able to interpret and translate among these different models and mathematical…

  11. STORM: A STatistical Object Representation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Rafanelli, M. ); Shoshani, A. )

    1989-11-01

    In this paper we explore the structure and semantic properties of the entities stored in statistical databases. We call such entities statistical objects'' (SOs) and propose a new statistical object representation model,'' based on a graph representation. We identify a number of SO representational problems in current models and propose a methodology for their solution. 11 refs.

  12. Imitation and the Dialectic of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelazo, Philip David; Lourenco, Stella Felix

    2003-01-01

    Describes a theory of the understanding and use of representations, drawing heavily on Paul Ricoeur's and James Mark Baldwin's theories. Presents this theory as construing representation as intrinsically mimetic, characterizing the development of representational understanding as internalization, and emphasizing the importance of self-reflection…

  13. Methods and Strategies: The Science Representation Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Joanne K.

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that people more easily understand abstractions when they are preceded by concrete representations (Lawson 2002). This article describes how educators can use science representations to help students form lasting understandings of abstract concepts. A spectrum illustrating some commonly used representation types and their level…

  14. 27 CFR 71.30 - Personal representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Personal representation. 71.30 Section 71.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... General Representation at Hearings § 71.30 Personal representation. Any individual or member of a...

  15. Facilitating Mathematical Practices through Visual Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murata, Aki; Stewart, Chana

    2017-01-01

    Effective use of mathematical representation is key to supporting student learning. In "Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All" (NCTM 2014), "use and connect mathematical representations" is one of the effective Mathematics Teaching Practices. By using different representations, students examine concepts…

  16. 33 CFR 20.301 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 20.301 Section 20... Motions § 20.301 Representation. (a) A party may appear— (1) Without counsel; (2) With an attorney; or (3... United States. A personal representation of membership is sufficient proof, unless the ALJ orders more...

  17. 29 CFR 18.34 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Representation. 18.34 Section 18.34 Labor Office of the... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.34 Representation. (a) Appearances. Any party shall have the right to... own representation that he or she is in good standing before any of such courts shall be sufficient...

  18. 24 CFR 180.305 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Representation. 180.305 Section 180... Representation. (a) HUD is represented by the General Counsel. (b) Any party may appear on his/her/its own behalf... State. The attorney's representation that he/she is in good standing before any of these courts is...

  19. 27 CFR 71.30 - Personal representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal representation. 71.30 Section 71.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... General Representation at Hearings § 71.30 Personal representation. Any individual or member of a...

  20. 76 FR 37291 - Representation Case Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... BOARD 29 CFR Parts 101, 102, 103 RIN 3142-AAO8 Representation Case Procedures AGENCY: National Labor... amendments to the Board's rules governing representation case procedures, published at 76 FR 15307 (June 22, 2011) and make other proposals for improving representation case procedures. DATES: The meeting will be...

  1. 4 CFR 28.25 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 28.25 Section 28.25 Accounts GOVERNMENT... Parties, Practitioners and Witnesses § 28.25 Representation. (a) All parties to a petition may be..., in the petition or responsive pleading. Any subsequent changes in representation shall also be in...

  2. 75 FR 32273 - Representation Election Procedure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... 29 CFR Parts 1202 and 1206 RIN 3140-ZA00 Representation Election Procedure AGENCY: National Mediation... delaying the effective date of its rule regarding representation election procedures from June 10, 2010 to... Representation Election Procedure Rule have been made. The NMB will notify participants if there are any further...

  3. 46 CFR 401.615 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Representation. 401.615 Section 401.615 Shipping COAST... Representation. (a) The U.S. Registered Pilot, designated “respondent” in a suspension or revocation hearing or... a representation that under the provisions of this subpart and applicable law he is authorized and...

  4. 45 CFR 1613.4 - Authorized representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authorized representation. 1613.4 Section 1613.4... ON LEGAL ASSISTANCE WITH RESPECT TO CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS § 1613.4 Authorized representation. Legal... professional responsibility requires representation in a criminal proceeding arising out of a transaction with...

  5. 12 CFR 704.14 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation. 704.14 Section 704.14 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.14 Representation. (a) Board representation. The board will be determined as stipulated in its...

  6. 17 CFR 31.19 - Unlawful representations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful representations. 31... TRANSACTIONS § 31.19 Unlawful representations. It shall be unlawful for any person: (a) Required to be... without also stating in writing in connection with that representation that the Commission, by registering...

  7. 28 CFR 4.9 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 4.9 Section 4.9 Judicial... OF 1974 § 4.9 Representation. The applicant may be represented before the Commission by any person... constitute a representation to the Commission that under the provisions of this part and applicable law he is...

  8. 37 CFR 350.2 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 350.2 Section... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS § 350.2 Representation. Individual... representation that the attorney is a member of the bar, in one or more states, in good standing. ...

  9. 29 CFR 4003.6 - Representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Representation. 4003.6 Section 4003.6 Labor Regulations... OF AGENCY DECISIONS General Provisions § 4003.6 Representation. A person may file any document or... of attorney, signed by the person making the designation, which authorizes the representation and...

  10. Religious Representations for Christian Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to explore the key concept of religious representations that reflect an individual's relational world and indicates the individual's religious maturity. While the term "representations" is originally used in psychodynamic studies, the article discusses the idea that religious representations provide important indications of an…

  11. Imitation and the Dialectic of Representation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelazo, Philip David; Lourenco, Stella Felix

    2003-01-01

    Describes a theory of the understanding and use of representations, drawing heavily on Paul Ricoeur's and James Mark Baldwin's theories. Presents this theory as construing representation as intrinsically mimetic, characterizing the development of representational understanding as internalization, and emphasizing the importance of self-reflection…

  12. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  13. Computing Visible-Surface Representations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Terzopoulos N00014-75-C-0643 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AMC ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA A...Massachusetts Institute of lechnolog,. Support lbr the laboratory’s Artificial Intelligence research is provided in part by the Advanced Rtccarcl Proj...dynamically maintaining visible surface representations. Whether the intention is to model human vision or to design competent artificial vision systems

  14. Computational representation of biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, Zach; McDermott, Jason E.; Guerquin, Michal; Samudrala, Ram

    2009-04-20

    Integration of large and diverse biological data sets is a daunting problem facing systems biology researchers. Exploring the complex issues of data validation, integration, and representation, we present a systematic approach for the management and analysis of large biological data sets based on data warehouses. Our system has been implemented in the Bioverse, a framework combining diverse protein information from a variety of knowledge areas such as molecular interactions, pathway localization, protein structure, and protein function.

  15. Receptive fields and visual representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient representation of images for human use requires an understanding of how the brain processes and represents visual information. Spatial imagery is represented in the brain in the receptive fields of visual neurons. Models of these neurons lead to models of image fidelity, and to digital implementations of these neural codes. This approach will be illustrated by two example codes. The advantages and difficulties of this approach will be discussed.

  16. Cooperativity and 3-D Representation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-28

    image, to simplified mechanisms for understandingshadows and shading and to renewed interest in " isophot " models of shading. Visual searchstudies have...reversals of contrast. One such representation is the isophots of the images, the lines of equal luminance. They capture the flow field of the brightness...shading as an oriented field of isophots (or at least short oriented segments) is still at an exploratory stage. We will digitize live scenes in our

  17. Spatial Representations of Taxi Drivers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-28

    some people have suggested that adults, when they learn a new environment, proceed through these same Piagetian Stages in their representations...East Green Street Naval Postgraduate School Pasadena, CA 91101 Monterey, CA 93940 1 Special Asst. for Education and I Dr. Robert Wisher Training (OP-O1E...Research Laborat Pensacola, FL 32508 1 Dr. Gary Poock Operations Research Department Code 55PK Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93940 1 Roger W

  18. SAR Image Complex Pixel Representations

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-03-01

    Complex pixel values for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of uniform distributed clutter can be represented as either real/imaginary (also known as I/Q) values, or as Magnitude/Phase values. Generally, these component values are integers with limited number of bits. For clutter energy well below full-scale, Magnitude/Phase offers lower quantization noise than I/Q representation. Further improvement can be had with companding of the Magnitude value.

  19. State of the Art of Dual Therapy in 2015.

    PubMed

    Nozza, Silvia; Svicher, Valentina; Saracino, Annalisa; d'Ettorre, Gabriella; De Luca, Andrea; Maggiolo, Franco; Bonora, Stefano; di Biagio, Antonio; Rusconi, Stefano; Mussini, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Dual therapy refers to combinations of two antiretroviral drugs applied in different clinical settings; they are considered and studied due to possibly reduced drug toxicities. In antiretroviral-naive patients, dual combinations have lower virologic efficacy than standard therapy; the sole efficacious regimen is lamivudine plus lopinavir/ritonavir. Due to a higher possibility of virologic failure, these regimens are generally not allowed in this clinical setting. In antiretroviral-experienced patients, dual regimens are examined in studies with a small sample size, centered on clinical practice, and should be ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based. These combinations have a good virological efficacy; combinations with the integrase inhibitor raltegravir have small sample size and demonstrated efficacy only with etravirine. Virological aspects involving dual therapy should always consider genetic barriers, particularly in simplification strategies, and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors are mandatory. As far as immunological aspects are concerned, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing regimens have some encouraging data, probably due to the bone marrow toxicity of this class. Combinations with maraviroc were effective in reducing inflammation, but data about immunological recovery are conflicting. The choice of regimen should focus on specific class toxicity since dual regimens are studied in particular for improving safety and tolerability. This review will analyze different dual regimens in the clinical setting, with a peculiar focus on ameliorating toxicities and improving quality of life.

  20. Dual intervention to improve pathologic staging of resectable lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Ramirez, Robert A; Wang, Christopher G; Miller, Laura E; Smeltzer, Matthew M; Sareen, Srishti; Javed, Ahmed Y; Robbins, Samuel G; Khandekar, Alim; Wolf, Bradley A; Gibson, Jeffrey; Spencer, David; Robbins, Edward T

    2013-12-01

    Detection of lymph node metastasis is of immense prognostic value in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but routine pathologic nodal staging is suboptimal. To determine the impact on the rate of detection of nodal metastasis, we tested dual intervention with a prelabeled lymph node specimen collection kit to improve intraoperative node dissection and a fastidious gross dissection of the lung resection specimen for intrapulmonary lymph nodes. We matched dual-intervention cases with controls staged using standard surgical specimen collection and pathologic examination protocols. Controls were hierarchically matched for extent of resection, laterality, surgeon, pathologist, and T stage. All statistical comparisons were made with exact conditional logistic regression, to account for the matched case-control design. One hundred dual-intervention cases were matched with 100 controls. The dual interventions resulted in approximately a 3-fold increase in the number of lymph nodes examined and the number of lymph nodes with metastasis detected; they also increased the proportion of patients with lymph node metastasis from 21% to 35% (p = 0.02). There were strong trends toward higher aggregate stage distribution, and eligibility for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in the dual-intervention cases. The combination of interventions improved the thoroughness and accuracy of pathologic nodal staging. A prospective randomized trial to test the survival impact of the dual interventions is warranted. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural Representations of Physics Concepts.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-06-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to assess neural representations of physics concepts (momentum, energy, etc.) in juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in physics or engineering. Our goal was to identify the underlying neural dimensions of these representations. Using factor analysis to reduce the number of dimensions of activation, we obtained four physics-related factors that were mapped to sets of voxels. The four factors were interpretable as causal motion visualization, periodicity, algebraic form, and energy flow. The individual concepts were identifiable from their fMRI signatures with a mean rank accuracy of .75 using a machine-learning (multivoxel) classifier. Furthermore, there was commonality in participants' neural representation of physics; a classifier trained on data from all but one participant identified the concepts in the left-out participant (mean accuracy = .71 across all nine participant samples). The findings indicate that abstract scientific concepts acquired in an educational setting evoke activation patterns that are identifiable and common, indicating that science education builds abstract knowledge using inherent, repurposed brain systems.

  2. Infants hierarchically organize memory representations.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into chunks. Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this ability. In particular, it remains unknown whether infants can create more complex memory hierarchies, binding representations of chunks into still larger chunks in recursive fashion. Here we tested the limits of early chunking, first measuring the number of items infants can bind into a single chunk and the number of chunks infants can maintain concurrently, and then, critically, whether infants can embed chunked representations into larger units. We tested 14-month-old infants' memory for hidden objects using a manual search task in which we manipulated memory load (the number of objects infants saw hidden) and the chunking cues provided. We found that infants are limited in the number of items they can chunk and in the number of chunks they can remember. However, we also found that infants can bind representations of chunks into 'superchunks'. These results suggest that hierarchically organizing information strongly affects working memory, starting in infancy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

    All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

  4. Topographic NMF for data representation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yanhui; Zhu, Zhenfeng; Zhao, Yao; Wei, Yunchao; Wei, Shikui; Li, Xuelong

    2014-10-01

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is a useful technique to explore a parts-based representation by decomposing the original data matrix into a few parts-based basis vectors and encodings with nonnegative constraints. It has been widely used in image processing and pattern recognition tasks due to its psychological and physiological interpretation of natural data whose representation may be parts-based in human brain. However, the nonnegative constraint for matrix factorization is generally not sufficient to produce representations that are robust to local transformations. To overcome this problem, in this paper, we proposed a topographic NMF (TNMF), which imposes a topographic constraint on the encoding factor as a regularizer during matrix factorization. In essence, the topographic constraint is a two-layered network, which contains the square nonlinearity in the first layer and the square-root nonlinearity in the second layer. By pooling together the structure-correlated features belonging to the same hidden topic, the TNMF will force the encodings to be organized in a topographical map. Thus, the feature invariance can be promoted. Some experiments carried out on three standard datasets validate the effectiveness of our method in comparison to the state-of-the-art approaches.

  5. Representations of metabolic knowledge: Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, P.D.; Paley, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The automatic generation of drawings of metabolic pathways is a challenging problem that depends intimately on exactly what information has been recorded for each pathway, and on how that information is encoded. The chief contributions of the paper are a minimized representation for biochemical pathways called the predecessor list, and inference procedures for converting the predecessor list into a pathway-graph representation that can serve as input to a pathway-drawing algorithm. The predecessor list has several advantages over the pathway graph, including its compactness and its lack of redundancy. The conversion between the two representations can be formulated as both a constraint-satisfaction problem and a logical inference problem, whose goal is to assign directions to reactions, and to determine which are the main chemical compounds in the reaction. We describe a set of production rules that solves this inference problem. We also present heuristics for inferring whether the exterior compounds that are substrates of reactions at the periphery of a pathway are side or main compounds. These techniques were evaluated on 18 metabolic pathways from the EcoCyc knowledge base.

  6. Representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.

    2013-02-15

    One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through {delta}B(vector sign)={nabla} Multiplication-Sign ({xi}(vector sign) Multiplication-Sign B(vector sign)) ensures that {delta}B(vector sign){center_dot}{nabla}{psi}=0 at a resonance, with {psi} labelling an equilibrium flux surface. Also useful for the analysis of guiding center orbits in a perturbed field is the representation {delta}B(vector sign)={nabla} Multiplication-Sign {alpha}B(vector sign). These two representations are equivalent, but the vanishing of {delta}B(vector sign){center_dot}{nabla}{psi} at a resonance is necessary but not sufficient for the preservation of field line topology, and a indiscriminate use of either perturbation in fact destroys the original equilibrium flux topology. It is necessary to find the perturbed field to all orders in {xi}(vector sign) to conserve the original topology. The effect of using linearized perturbations on stability and growth rate calculations is discussed.

  7. On Performance Skill Representation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Koichi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Saori

    In this paper, we propose a framework for representing performance skill. Firstly, we notice the importance of performance skill representation. We introduce five different representation targets: performance tasks, performance rules, pre-shaping actions, dynamic integrity constraints, and performance states. Performance task description consists of a sequence of performance tasks and expressions. It acts as a goal description in planning. Performance rules describe model performance methods for given tasks including how to shape body parts and how to use various muscles. Pre-shaping action rules are similar to performance rules. Its role is to pre-shape in between consecutive tasks to prepare for the next task. Dynamic integrity constraints specify constraints to be satisfied during performance. They provide such general rules as prohibiting simultaneous strong activations of agonist and antagonist. Performance states are for describing real performance done by players including professionals and amateurs. The aim of the framework is to provide a uniform scheme for representing model performance methods given performance score such as music score. The representation framework will define targets of inducing formal skill rules as well as describing performance states automatically from biomechanical performance data. It also is related to a fundamental research issue of attributes finding/selection in discovering useful rules for skillful performance. We conclude our paper by stating future research direction.

  8. Military Representation: The Theoretical and Practical Implications of Population Representation in the American Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    REPRESENTATION AND SOCIAL EQUITY: PAST AND PRESENT EXPERIENCES.. ............... 103 Equity in the Military Melting Pot Black Representation in the...Vietnam The Vietnam-Era Draft in Retrospect Military Representation and Social Equity under the AVF Measures of Social Equity Implications CHAPTER V...MILITARY REPRESENTATION AND SOCIAL EQUITY: THE POLICY MAZE ........ ..................... ... 183 Benefits vs. Burdens of Military Service

  9. Negotiated Representational Mediators: How Young Children Decide What to Include in Their Science Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Joshua A.; Enyedy, Noel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesize two bodies of work related to students' representational activities: the notions of meta-representational competence and representation as a form of practice. We report on video analyses of kindergarten and first-grade students as they create representations of pollination in a science classroom, as well as summarize…

  10. Negotiated Representational Mediators: How Young Children Decide What to Include in Their Science Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danish, Joshua A.; Enyedy, Noel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesize two bodies of work related to students' representational activities: the notions of meta-representational competence and representation as a form of practice. We report on video analyses of kindergarten and first-grade students as they create representations of pollination in a science classroom, as well as summarize…

  11. Representation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    absolutely nothing, for others familiarity or even a sense of kinship while others feel pangs of contemptuousness. The psychologist Carl Jung ...noticed this about people.1 Of the Christian cross, Jung noted that it carried a much different significance (p.81) if found after one’s name in a book...signifying their death as opposed to its placement on a building. Jung researched early Christianity and discovered that the crossbeam of its Latin

  12. The cognitive representation of self-stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Latrofa, Marcella; Vaes, Jeroen; Cadinu, Mara; Carnaghi, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The present work looks at the self-stereotyping process and reveals its underlying cognitive structure. When this process occurs, it is necessarily the result of an overlap between the representation of the ingroup and that of the self. Two studies measured this overlap and showed that it was higher on stereotype-relevant than on stereotype-irrelevant traits, it involved both positive and negative stereotypical traits, and it implied a deduction-to-the-self process of ingroup stereotypical dimensions. Moreover, the status of one's social group was found to be a key variable in this process, showing that self-stereotyping is limited to low-status group members. Indeed, results of Study 2 showed that the overlap between the self and the ingroup for high-status group members was the result of an induction-to-the-ingroup process of personal characteristics. Implications for research on people's self-construal are discussed.

  13. The NASA Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) System For GPM Ground Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, V.; Schwaller, Mathew; Vega, Manuel; Carswell, James; Vijay Mishra, Kumar; Nguyen, Cuong; Meneghini, Robert; Peterson, Walt

    2010-05-01

    Following on the successful introduction of single-frequency (Ku-Band) weather radar onboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite in 1997, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission attempts to advance further the goal of making global scale precipitation observations by deploying the next generation of satellite-borne weather radars. The GPM satellite will carry a Ka-Ku band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) that can make measurements of parameters directly related to the microphysics of precipitation (such as raindrop size distribution). The Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarized Doppler Radar (D3R) is a ground validation radar, as a part of the GPM Ground Validation (GV) program, to enable both physical validation support in terms of understanding the microphysical description of the observations as well as algorithm retrieval implications. This paper provides a scientific and technical overview of the D3R system as well as major challenges. The preferred frequency bands of operation for precipitation surveillance in ground radar systems have been nearly non-attenuating frequencies (such as S-, C-band) or short-range measurements of attenuating frequencies (as in X band). However, it is not practical to use traditional ground radar frequencies for precipitation observations in space-borne radars. The GPM mission has embarked on a dual-frequency approach at Ku- and Ka-band for characterizing precipitation. Moving to higher frequencies to observe precipitation though has its own challenges namely, attenuation due to precipitation and reduced Doppler velocity Nyquist limits. Ground radar measurements enjoy the advantage of coincident microphysical observations available to interpret radar signatures but they are currently unavailable at Ku- and Ka-band. An important broader science goal of the NASA D3R is to enhance the database of dual-frequency radar observations on the ground, in conjunction with existing observations, in order to provide a

  14. A common representation of spatial features drives action and perception: grasping and judging object features within trials.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Jens H; Christensen, Jeppe; Grünbaum, Thor; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Spatial features of an object can be specified using two different response types: either by use of symbols or motorically by directly acting upon the object. Is this response dichotomy reflected in a dual representation of the visual world: one for perception and one for action? Previously, symbolic and motoric responses, specifying location, has been shown to rely on a common representation. What about more elaborate features such as length and orientation? Here we show that when motoric and symbolic responses are made within the same trial, the probability of making the same symbolic and motoric response is well above chance for both length and orientation. This suggests that motoric and symbolic responses to length and orientation are driven by a common representation. We also show that, for both response types, the spatial features of an object are processed independently. This finding of matching object-processing characteristics is also in agreement with the idea of a common representation driving both response types.

  15. Dual-Phase Nozzle Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Two-phase 20. A T RACT (0.31lmm 401 teV9 i 01 000* u...in #CMIdR@0fr &V WNHI& WARNeJ A revieW or the dual-phase -ower system was made. This study ...pr-et5 ._ lnering Dean of Science and Engineering J* ABSTRACT A review of the dual-phase power system was made. This study focused on the multi...be studied in detail, but first a review of the dual-phase cycle will be carried out from information obtained from References 1 and 2. Reference 1

  16. Modular invariant representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and superalgebras.

    PubMed

    Kac, V G; Wakimoto, M

    1988-07-01

    In this paper, we launch a program to describe and classify modular invariant representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and superalgebras. We prove a character formula for a large class of highest weight representations L(lambda) of a Kac-Moody algebra [unk] with a symmetrizable Cartan matrix, generalizing the Weyl-Kac character formula [Kac, V. G. (1974) Funct. Anal. Appl. 8, 68-70]. In the case of an affine [unk], this class includes modular invariant representations of arbitrary rational level m = t/u, where t [unk] Z and u [unk] N are relatively prime and m + g >/= g/u (g is the dual Coxeter number). We write the characters of these representations in terms of theta functions and calculate their asymptotics, generalizing the results of Kac and Peterson [Kac, V. G. & Peterson, D. H. (1984) Adv. Math. 53, 125-264] and of Kac and Wakimoto [Kac, V. G. & Wakimoto, M. (1988) Adv. Math. 70, 156-234] for the u = 1 (integrable) case. We work out in detail the case [unk] = A(1) ((1)), in particular classifying all its modular invariant representations. Furthermore, we show that the modular invariant representations of the Virasoro algebra Vir are precisely the "minimal series" of Belavin et al. [Belavin, A. A., Polyakov, A. M. & Zamolodchikov, A. B. (1984) Nucl. Phys. B 241, 333-380] using the character formulas of Feigin and Fuchs [Feigin, B. L. & Fuchs, D. B. (1984) Lect. Notes Math. 1060, 230-245]. We show that tensoring the basic representation and modular invariant representations of A(1) ((1)) produces all modular invariant representations of Vir generalizing the results of Goddard et al. [Goddard P., Kent, A. & Olive, D. (1986) Commun. Math. Phys. 103, 105-119] and of Kac and Wakimoto [Kac, V. G. & Wakimoto, M. (1986) Lect. Notes Phys. 261, 345-371] in the unitary case. We study the general branching functions as well. All these results are generalized to the Kac-Moody superalgebras introduced by Kac [Kac, V. G. (1978) Adv. Math. 30, 85-136] and to N

  17. Alternative Approach to Nuclear Data Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Brown, D; Beck, B; McNabb, D P

    2005-07-27

    This paper considers an approach for representing nuclear data that is qualitatively different from the approach currently adopted by the nuclear science community. Specifically, they examine a representation in which complicated data is described through collections of distinct and self contained simple data structures. This structure-based representation is compared with the ENDF and ENDL formats, which can be roughly characterized as dictionary-based representations. A pilot data representation for replacing the format currently used at LLNL is presented. Examples are given as is a discussion of promises and shortcomings associated with moving from traditional dictionary-based formats to a structure-rich or class-like representation.

  18. Irreducibility of the Ashtekar Isham Lewandowski representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahlmann, Hanno; Thiemann, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Much of the work in loop quantum gravity and quantum geometry rests on a mathematically rigorous integration theory on spaces of distributional connections. Most notably, a diffeomorphism invariant representation of the algebra of basic observables of the theory, the Ashtekar Isham Lewandowski (AIL) representation, has been constructed. Recently, several uniqueness results for this representation have been worked out. In the present paper, we contribute to these efforts by showing that the AIL representation is irreducible, provided it is viewed as the representation of a certain C*-algebra which is very similar to the Weyl algebra used in the canonical quantization of free quantum field theories.

  19. Relational Knowledge in Higher Cognitive Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.

    Explicit representation of relations plays some role in virtually all higher cognitive processes, but relational knowledge has seldom been investigated systematically. This paper considers how relational knowledge is involved in some tasks that have been important to cognitive development, including transitivity, the balance scale, classification…

  20. Strategy and Quality Maps in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the integration of strategic management and quality assurance in higher education. The study presents how the value chain can be described in the strategy and quality maps, which are, respectively graphical representations of the strategic plan and the quality assurance system. The quality map is a new…

  1. Cortical Representations of Speech in a Multitalker Auditory Scene.

    PubMed

    Puvvada, Krishna C; Simon, Jonathan Z

    2017-09-20

    The ability to parse a complex auditory scene into perceptual objects is facilitated by a hierarchical auditory system. Successive stages in the hierarchy transform an auditory scene of multiple overlapping sources, from peripheral tonotopically based representations in the auditory nerve, into perceptually distinct auditory-object-based representations in the auditory cortex. Here, using magnetoencephalography recordings from men and women, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in distinct hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. Using systems-theoretic methods of stimulus reconstruction, we show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex contain dominantly spectrotemporal-based representations of the entire auditory scene. Here, both attended and ignored speech streams are represented with almost equal fidelity, and a global representation of the full auditory scene with all its streams is a better candidate neural representation than that of individual streams being represented separately. We also show that higher-order auditory cortical areas, by contrast, represent the attended stream separately and with significantly higher fidelity than unattended streams. Furthermore, the unattended background streams are more faithfully represented as a single unsegregated background object rather than as separated objects. Together, these findings demonstrate the progression of the representations and processing of a complex acoustic scene up through the hierarchy of the human auditory cortex.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using magnetoencephalography recordings from human listeners in a simulated cocktail party environment, we investigate how a complex acoustic scene consisting of multiple speech sources is represented in separate hierarchical stages of the auditory cortex. We show that the primary-like areas in the auditory cortex use a dominantly spectrotemporal-based representation of the entire auditory

  2. [Clinical impact of dual antiplatelet therapy on peptic ulcer disease].

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dae Geon; Kim, Beom Jin; Kim, Jeong Wook; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2014-08-01

    Increased incidence of coronary artery disease has led to the increased use of dual antiplatelet therapy composed of aspirin and clopidogrel. We investigated the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in patients who received single or dual antiplatelet therapy and analyzed their clinical characteristics in order to predict the prognostic factors. Between January 2009 and December 2011, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent coronary angiography at Chung-Ang University Hospital (Seoul, Korea). One hundred and ninety-four patients were classified into two groups: aspirin alone group and dual antiplatelet group. Clinical characteristics, past medical history, and presence of peptic ulcer were analyzed. During the follow-up period, 11 patients had duodenal ulcer; the event rate was 2.02% in the aspirin alone group and 9.47% in the dual antiplatelet group (hazard ratio [HR] 5.24, 95% CI 1.03-26.55, p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding: 0% vs. 4.2% (p=0.78). In patients who received proton pump inhibitor (PPI), 24 patients had gastric ulcer; the event rate was significantly different between the two groups: 4.87% vs. 22.98% (HR 3.40, 95% CI 1.02-11.27, p<0.05). Dual antiplatelet groups had a higher incidence of duodenal ulcers without significant bleeding compared with the aspirin alone group. In patients who received PPI, the dual antiplatelet therapy group had a higher incidence of gastric ulcers without significant bleeding compared with the aspirin alone group. Therefore, physicians must pay attention to high risk groups who receive dual antiplatelet therapy and aggressive diagnostic endoscopy should also be considered.

  3. Representation learning: a review and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bengio, Yoshua; Courville, Aaron; Vincent, Pascal

    2013-08-01

    The success of machine learning algorithms generally depends on data representation, and we hypothesize that this is because different representations can entangle and hide more or less the different explanatory factors of variation behind the data. Although specific domain knowledge can be used to help design representations, learning with generic priors can also be used, and the quest for AI is motivating the design of more powerful representation-learning algorithms implementing such priors. This paper reviews recent work in the area of unsupervised feature learning and deep learning, covering advances in probabilistic models, autoencoders, manifold learning, and deep networks. This motivates longer term unanswered questions about the appropriate objectives for learning good representations, for computing representations (i.e., inference), and the geometrical connections between representation learning, density estimation, and manifold learning.

  4. Differences between Spatial and Visual Mental Representations

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Jan Frederik; Schultheis, Holger; Barkowsky, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between visual mental representations and spatial mental representations in human visuo-spatial processing. By comparing two common theories of visuo-spatial processing – mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery – we identified two open questions: (1) which representations are modality-specific, and (2) what is the role of the two representations in reasoning. Two experiments examining eye movements and preferences for under-specified problems were conducted to investigate these questions. We found that significant spontaneous eye movements along the processed spatial relations occurred only when a visual mental representation is employed, but not with a spatial mental representation. Furthermore, the preferences for the answers of the under-specified problems differed between the two mental representations. The results challenge assumptions made by mental model theory and the theory of mental imagery. PMID:23761768

  5. The Man of Dual Nationality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Yoshio

    1985-01-01

    Presents an English translation of the first few pages, set in a Japanese internment camp in the U.S. during World War II, of a Japanese novel about the problems of dual nationality and personal identity. (KH)

  6. Dual X-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Albert; Aaron, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    Dual X-ray absorptiometry is widely used in analyzing body composition and imaging. Both the method and its limitations are related to the Compton and photoelectric contributions to the X-ray attenuation coefficients of materials.

  7. Dual nozzle aerodynamic and cooling analysis study. [dual throat and dual expander nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meagher, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Geometric, aerodynamic flow field, performance prediction, and heat transfer analyses are considered for two advanced chamber nozzle concepts applicable to Earth-to-orbit engine systems. Topics covered include improvements to the dual throat aerodynamic and performance prediction program; geometric and flow field analyses of the dual expander concept; heat transfer analysis of both concepts, and engineering analysis of data from the NASA/MSFC hot-fire testing of a dual throat thruster model thrust chamber assembly. Preliminary results obtained are presented in graphs.

  8. The mental representation of music notation: notational audiation.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Warren; Kessler, Yoav; Rubinstein, Bat-Sheva; Ginsborg, Jane; Henik, Avishai

    2008-04-01

    This study investigated the mental representation of music notation. Notational audiation is the ability to internally "hear" the music one is reading before physically hearing it performed on an instrument. In earlier studies, the authors claimed that this process engages music imagery contingent on subvocal silent singing. This study refines the previously developed embedded melody task and further explores the phonatory nature of notational audiation with throat-audio and larynx-electromyography measurement. Experiment 1 corroborates previous findings and confirms that notational audiation is a process engaging kinesthetic-like covert excitation of the vocal folds linked to phonatory resources. Experiment 2 explores whether covert rehearsal with the mind's voice also involves actual motor processing systems and suggests that the mental representation of music notation cues manual motor imagery. Experiment 3 verifies findings of both Experiments 1 and 2 with a sample of professional drummers. The study points to the profound reliance on phonatory and manual motor processing--a dual-route stratagem--used during music reading. Further implications concern the integration of auditory and motor imagery in the brain and cross-modal encoding of a unisensory input. (Copyright) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Composite representation invariants and unoriented topological string amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Chandrima; Borhade, Pravina; Ramadevi, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sinha and Vafa [1] had conjectured that the SO Chern-Simons gauge theory on S must be dual to the closed A-model topological string on the orientifold of a resolved conifold. Though the Chern-Simons free energy could be rewritten in terms of the topological string amplitudes providing evidence for the conjecture, we needed a novel idea in the context of Wilson loop observables to extract cross-cap c=0,1,2 topological amplitudes. Recent paper of Marino [2] based on the work of Morton and Ryder [3] has clearly shown that the composite representation placed on the knots and links plays a crucial role to rewrite the topological string cross-cap c=0 amplitude. This enables extracting the unoriented cross-cap c=2 topological amplitude. In this paper, we have explicitly worked out the composite invariants for some framed knots and links carrying composite representations in U(N) Chern-Simons theory. We have verified generalised Rudolph's theorem, which relates composite invariants to the invariants in SO(N) Chern-Simons theory, and also verified Marino's conjectures on the integrality properties of the topological string amplitudes. For some framed knots and links, we have tabulated the BPS integer invariants for cross-cap c=0 and c=2 giving the open-string topological amplitude on the orientifold of the resolved conifold.

  10. Representation and re-presentation in litigation science.

    PubMed

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Federal appellate courts have devised several criteria to help judges distinguish between reliable and unreliable scientific evidence. The best known are the U.S. Supreme Court's criteria offered in 1993 in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. This article focuses on another criterion, offered by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, that instructs judges to assign lower credibility to "litigation science" than to science generated before litigation. In this article I argue that the criterion-based approach to judicial screening of scientific evidence is deeply flawed. That approach buys into the faulty premise that there are external criteria, lying outside the legal process, by which judges can distinguish between good and bad science. It erroneously assumes that judges can ascertain the appropriate criteria and objectively apply them to challenged evidence before litigation unfolds, and before methodological disputes are sorted out during that process. Judicial screening does not take into account the dynamics of litigation itself, including gaming by the parties and framing by judges, as constitutive factors in the production and representation of knowledge. What is admitted through judicial screening, in other words, is not precisely what a jury would see anyway. Courts are sites of repeated re-representations of scientific knowledge. In sum, the screening approach fails to take account of the wealth of existing scholarship on the production and validation of scientific facts. An unreflective application of that approach thus puts courts at risk of relying upon a "junk science" of the nature of scientific knowledge.

  11. Dual porphyrias revisited.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Gutiérrez, Pamela; Badeloe, Sadhanna; Wiederholt, Tonio; Merk, Hans F; Frank, Jorge

    2006-09-01

    The porphyrias are clinically and genetically heterogeneous metabolic diseases, which predominantly result from a hereditary dysfunction in the pathway of haeme biosynthesis. Currently, at least eight different forms of porphyrias can be differentiated, all of them characterized by a specific enzyme deficiency that is either inherited in an autosomal-dominant fashion, autosomal recessively or, in the case of porphyria cutanea tarda, might also be acquired. All genes encoding these enzymes have been cloned and several mutations underlying the different types of porphyrias have been reported. Traditionally, the diagnosis of porphyria is made on the basis of clinical symptoms, characteristic biochemical findings and enzyme assays. In some porphyria patients and families, however, these diagnostic tools can reveal simultaneous findings compatible with two different forms of porphyria, a phenomenon referred to as dual porphyria. Here, we give an overview on what is currently known about these peculiar variants of porphyria and suggest that, whenever feasible, molecular genetic analysis should complement the analytical techniques used to characterize patients and families in which a double enzymatic deficiency within the haeme biosynthetic pathway is assumed.

  12. Neuroretinitis with dual infections

    PubMed Central

    Kiu, Kwong-Han; Hanizasurana, Hashim; Zunaina, Embong

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old Malay female presented with left eye floaters for 2 weeks, associated with temporal visual field defect and metamorphopsia for 3 days. She has a guinea pig and a hedgehog at home, but denied being bitten or scratched by them. Her visual acuity at presentation was 6/12 on the left eye and 6/6 on the right eye. Her left eye relative afferent pupillary defect was barely positive with mild anterior chamber reaction. Fundus examination of the left eye showed mild vitritis, swollen optic disc with macular star, crops of active choroidal lesions at superonasal retina with a linear arrangement in the form of migratory track nasally. However, there were no nematodes seen on fundus examination. Investigations showed normal full blood count with no eosinophilia and positive serology test for Bartonella henselae. She was diagnosed to have dual infection – diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN), based on the presence of crops of choroidal lesions with migratory track, and cat scratch disease (CSD) based on a positive serological test. She was treated with oral albendazole 400 mg 12 hourly for 6 weeks for DUSN and oral doxycycline 100 mg 12 hourly for 4 weeks for CSD. Focal laser had been applied to the area of migratory track in the left eye. Her left eye vision improved to 6/6 at 1 month after treatment, with resolution of neuroretinitis. PMID:26527902

  13. Fast dual tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrion, Philip M.

    1990-09-01

    This paper can be considered as a continuation of the work by Carrion and Carneiro (1989), where a generalized approach to linearized inversion of geophysical data was developed. Their method allows one to incorporate virtually any constraints in the inversion and reformulate the problem in the dual space of Langrangian multipliers (see also Carrion, 1989a). The constrained tomography makes traveltime inversion robust: it automatically rejects “bad data” which correspond to solutions beyond the chosen constraints and allows one to start inversion with an arbitrary chosen initial model.In this paper, I will derive basic formulas for constrained tomographic imaging that can be used in such areas of geophysics as global mapping of the earth interior, exploration geophysics, etc. The method is fast: an example that will be shown in the paper took only 6 min. of VAX CPU time. Had the conventional least-squares matrix inversion been used it would have taken more than 10 hours of the CPU time to solve the same problem.

  14. Bispidines for dual imaging.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Holger; Walther, Martin; Fähnemann, Silke; Ceroni, Paola; Molloy, Jennifer K; Bergamini, Giacomo; Heisig, Fabian; Müller, Christa E; Kraus, Werner; Comba, Peter

    2014-12-15

    The efficient transformation of the hexadentate bispidinol 1 into carbamate derivatives yields functional bispidines enabling convenient functionalization for targeted imaging. The BODIPY-substituted bispidine 3 combines a coordination site for metal ions, such as radioactive (64) Cu(II) , with a fluorescent unit. Product 3 was thoroughly characterized by standard analytical methods, single crystal X-ray diffraction, radiolabeling, and photophysical analysis. The luminescence of ligand 3 was found to be strongly dependent on metal ion coordination: Cu(II) quenches the BODIPY fluorescence, whereas Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions do not affect it. It follows that, in imaging applications with the positron emitter (64) Cu(II) , residues of its origin from enriched (64) Ni and the decay products (64) Ni(II) and (64) Zn(II) , efficiently restore the fluorescence of the ligand. This allows for monitoring of the emitted radiation as well as the fluorescence signal. The stability of the (64) Cu(II) 3 complex is investigated by transmetalation experiments with Zn(II) and Ni(II) , using fluorescence and radioactivity detection, and the results confirm the high stability of (64) Cu(II) 3. In addition, metal complexes of ligand 3 with the lanthanide ions Tb(III) , Eu(III) , and Nd(III) are shown to exhibit emission of the BODIPY ligand and the lanthanide ion, thus enabling dual emission detection. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Unattended Dual Current Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, Matthew R.; Parker, Robert F.; Jones, David C.

    2016-08-11

    The Unattended Dual Current Monitor (UDCM) is an ideal solution for current measurement needs such as ion chamber gamma measurements. The UDCM has two independent inputs and each input detects currents in two user selectable ranges, -0.2nA to -20nA or -20nA to -2uA. Measurement results can be retrieved via an Ethernet connection or by monitoring the TTL output pulses with a simple counter. Measurement data is also stored on a user accessible micro-SD card and automatically downloaded to a USB flash drive. A programmable negative High Voltage (HV) power supply provides detector bias voltages from 0 to -1,000V. The UDCM is fully compatible with the IAEA Multi Instrument Collect (MIC) software and responds to the existing MiniGRAND commands. The Ethernet port provides an IAEA RAINSTORM compliant data transfer and data security interface. The UDCM produces TTL pulses at a rate proportional to the input current, 100cps/nA. The UDCM can simplify instrumentation needs by enabling the use of a simple pulse counter for both neutron and gamma measurements. The UDCM is a simple instrument, inexpensive to manufacturer and designed for reliability.

  16. Unitary Representations of Gauge Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano, Ruth Stella

    I generalize to the case of gauge groups over non-trivial principal bundles representations that I. M. Gelfand, M. I. Graev and A. M. Versik constructed for current groups. The gauge group of the principal G-bundle P over M, (G a Lie group with an euclidean structure, M a compact, connected and oriented manifold), as the smooth sections of the associated group bundle is presented and studied in chapter I. Chapter II describes the symmetric algebra associated to a Hilbert space, its Hilbert structure, a convenient exponential and a total set that later play a key role in the construction of the representation. Chapter III is concerned with the calculus needed to make the space of Lie algebra valued 1-forms a Gaussian L^2-space. This is accomplished by studying general projective systems of finitely measurable spaces and the corresponding systems of sigma -additive measures, all of these leading to the description of a promeasure, a concept modeled after Bourbaki and classical measure theory. In the case of a locally convex vector space E, the corresponding Fourier transform, family of characters and the existence of a promeasure for every quadratic form on E^' are established, so the Gaussian L^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space is constructed. Chapter III finishes by exhibiting the explicit Hilbert space isomorphism between the Gaussian L ^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space and the complexification of its symmetric algebra. In chapter IV taking as a Hilbert space H the L^2-space of the Lie algebra valued 1-forms on P, the gauge group acts on the motion group of H defining in an straight forward fashion the representation desired.

  17. The conceptual representation of number.

    PubMed

    Patson, Nikole D; George, Gerret; Warren, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    The experiments reported here investigated the format of plural conceptual representations using a picture-matching paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences that ended with a singular noun phrase (NP), a two-quantified plural NP, or a plural definite description [The parents handed the child the (two) crayon/s] and then saw a picture of one or multiple referents for the NP. Judgement times to confirm that there was overlap between the pictured object(s) and a noun in the sentence showed an interaction between the NP's number and NP-picture match. For singular NPs and two-quantified NPs, participants were reliably faster to respond "yes" to a picture that had the exact number of objects specified by the NP, but for plural definite descriptions, the effect of the number of pictured items was not reliable. Experiment 2 extended this finding to conceptual plurals. Participants read sentences biased toward either a collective (Together the men carried a box-box is interpreted as singular) or distributed (Each of the men carried a box-box is likely interpreted as plural) reading. Experiment 2 showed the same interaction between NP conceptual plurality and NP-picture match as that in Experiment 1. These results suggest that: (a) our default conceptual representations for plural definite descriptions are no more similar to images of small sets of multiple items than to images of singular items; and (b) the difference between singular and plural conceptual representations is unlikely to be simply the presence or absence of a plural feature. The results are consistent with theories in which plurality is unmarked, such that some plural NPs can refer to singular referents [e.g., Sauerland, U., Anderssen, J., & Yatsushiro, J. (2005). The plural is semantically unmarked. In S. Kepser & M. Reis (Eds.), Linguistic evidence (pp. 413-434). Berlin: de Gruyter].

  18. High sensitivity dual microring sensor based on intensity detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, H.; Citrin, D. S.; Zhou, Z.

    2010-12-01

    By employing the enhanced phase transfer of single microring resonator, the enhanced intensity sensing is obtained based on the dual microring resonator with coupled mode theory. The two times higher sensitivity than the conventional microring sensor is demonstrated based on the FDTD simulation.

  19. A tandem-based compact dual-energy gamma generator

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, A.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.N.; Ludewigt, B.; Tanaka, N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Antolak, A.J.; Morse, D.H.; Raber, T.

    2009-11-11

    A dual-energy tandem-type gamma generator has been developed at E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. The tandem accelerator geometry allows higher energy nuclear reactions to be reached, thereby allowing more flexible generation of MeV-energy gammas for active interrogation applications.

  20. Women otolaryngologist representation in specialty society membership and leadership positions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sukgi S; Miller, Robert H

    2012-11-01

    To determine the proportion of female otolaryngologists in leadership positions relative to their number in the specialty, their membership in various otolaryngology organizations, and age. Cross-sectional analyses of otolaryngology organization membership with a subgroup analysis on female membership and leadership proportion comparing 5-year male/female cohort groups. Information on the number of members and leaders was obtained from various specialty societies by direct communication and from their Web sites between June and December 2010. The number of female and male otolaryngologists and their age distribution in 5-year age groups was obtained from the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS). Statistical analyses were used to determine whether women had proportional membership and leadership representation in various specialty societies. Additionally, female representation in other leadership roles was analyzed using the male/female ratio within the 5-year cohort groups. Female otolaryngologists were found to constitute approximately 11% of practicing otolaryngologists. The American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology had a higher proportion of female members (22%) compared to five other societies. When the gender composition within each organization was taken into account, female representation in specialty society leadership positions was proportionate to their membership across all societies. When gender and age were considered, women have achieved proportionate representation in each of the specialty societies' leadership positions. There was also proportionate representation of females as program directors, American Board of Otolaryngology directors, Residency Review Committee members, and journal editors/editorial board members. Finally, fewer female chairs or chiefs of departments/divisions were seen, but when age was taken into consideration, this difference was no longer significant. Women have achieved parity in

  1. Fluidodynamical Representation and Quantum Jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiatti, Leonardo; Licata, Ignazio

    The sophistication of recent experimental procedures has made it possible to detect experimentally the so-called Quantum Jumps (QJ), i.e. the stop and restart of the wave function as a real phenomenon. In this work, we connect this experimental evidence to a foundational interpretation of QM, based on an a-temporal vacuum. In that picture, the QJ is a localization process, defined as the time-symmetric action of a self-conjugate projection operator. The compatibility of these discontinuous processes with the Theory of Relativity is demonstrated using the Bohm representation of quantum mechanics.

  2. Efficient Type Representation in TAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying compilers generate proofs for low-level code that guarantee safety properties of the code. Type information is an essential part of safety proofs. But the size of type information remains a concern for certifying compilers in practice. This paper demonstrates type representation techniques in a large-scale compiler that achieves both concise type information and efficient type checking. In our 200,000-line certifying compiler, the size of type information is about 36% of the size of pure code and data for our benchmarks, the best result to the best of our knowledge. The type checking time is about 2% of the compilation time.

  3. Visual representation of scientific information.

    PubMed

    Wong, Bang

    2011-02-15

    Great technological advances have enabled researchers to generate an enormous amount of data. Data analysis is replacing data generation as the rate-limiting step in scientific research. With this wealth of information, we have an opportunity to understand the molecular causes of human diseases. However, the unprecedented scale, resolution, and variety of data pose new analytical challenges. Visual representation of data offers insights that can lead to new understanding, whether the purpose is analysis or communication. This presentation shows how art, design, and traditional illustration can enable scientific discovery. Examples will be drawn from the Broad Institute's Data Visualization Initiative, aimed at establishing processes for creating informative visualization models.

  4. Particles, Cutoffs and Inequivalent Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egg, Matthias; Lam, Vincent; Oldofredi, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    We critically review the recent debate between Doreen Fraser and David Wallace on the interpretation of quantum field theory, with the aim of identifying where the core of the disagreement lies. We show that, despite appearances, their conflict does not concern the existence of particles or the occurrence of unitarily inequivalent representations. Instead, the dispute ultimately turns on the very definition of what a quantum field theory is. We further illustrate the fundamental differences between the two approaches by comparing them both to the Bohmian program in quantum field theory.

  5. Representation of orthofermion spin operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, R.; Mishra, A. K.

    2008-04-01

    The algebraic expressions for the total spin operators expressed in terms of orthofermion creation and annihilation operators are combined into a single equation. The terms in this expressions are rearranged to provide representations of local spin operators. This task is essential for modelling a system of orthofermions in the presence of a magnetic field. By factorizing the orthofermion annihilation (creation) operators into charge and spin dependent parts, it is shown that the latter part suffices to represent spin number, raising and lowering operators. Finally a connection is provided between the spin systems and Greenberg’s infinite statistics.

  6. QED in the worldline representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Christian

    2007-06-01

    Simultaneously with inventing the modern relativistic formalism of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman presented also a first-quantized representation of QED in terms of worldline path integrals. Although this alternative formulation has been studied over the years by many authors, only during the last fifteen years it has acquired some popularity as a computational tool. I will shortly review here three very different techniques which have been developed during the last few years for the evaluation of worldline path integrals, namely (i) the "string-inspired formalism", based on the use of worldline Green functions, (ii) the numerical "worldline Monte Carlo formalism", and (iii) the semiclassical "worldline instanton" approach.

  7. Cognitive representation of negative numbers.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Martin H

    2003-05-01

    To understand negative numbers, must we refer to positive number representations (the phylogenetic hypothesis), or do we acquire a negative mental number line (the ontogenetic hypothesis)? In the experiment reported here, participants made lateralized button responses to indicate the larger of two digits from the range -9 to 9. Digit pairs were displayed spatially congruent or incongruent with either a phylogenetic or an ontogenetic mental number line. The pattern of decision latencies suggests that negative numbers become associated with left space, thus supporting the ontogenetic view.

  8. Topologically massive higher spin gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Lal, Shailesh; Saha, Arunabha; Sahoo, Bindusar

    2011-10-01

    We look at the generalisation of topologically massive gravity (TMG) to higher spins, specifically spin-3. We find a special "chiral" point for the spin-three, analogous to the spin-two example, which actually coincides with the usual spin-two chiral point. But in contrast to usual TMG, there is the presence of a non-trivial trace and its logarithmic partner at the chiral point. The trace modes carry energy opposite in sign to the traceless modes. The logarithmic partner of the traceless mode carries negative energy indicating an instability at the chiral point. We make several comments on the asymptotic symmetry and its possible deformations at this chiral point and speculate on the higher spin generalisation of LCFT2 dual to the spin-3 massive gravity at the chiral point.

  9. Accessing orthographic representations from speech: the role of left ventral occipitotemporal cortex in spelling.

    PubMed

    Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Kronbichler, Martin; Wimmer, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The present fMRI study used a spelling task to investigate the hypothesis that the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) hosts neuronal representations of whole written words. Such an orthographic word lexicon is posited by cognitive dual-route theories of reading and spelling. In the scanner, participants performed a spelling task in which they had to indicate if a visually presented letter is present in the written form of an auditorily presented word. The main experimental manipulation distinguished between an orthographic word spelling condition in which correct spelling decisions had to be based on orthographic whole-word representations, a word spelling condition in which reliance on orthographic whole-word representations was optional and a phonological pseudoword spelling condition in which no reliance on such representations was possible. To evaluate spelling-specific activations the spelling conditions were contrasted with control conditions that also presented auditory words and pseudowords, but participants had to indicate if a visually presented letter corresponded to the gender of the speaker. We identified a left vOT cluster activated for the critical orthographic word spelling condition relative to both the control condition and the phonological pseudoword spelling condition. Our results suggest that activation of left vOT during spelling can be attributed to the retrieval of orthographic whole-word representations and, thus, support the position that the left vOT potentially represents the neuronal equivalent of the cognitive orthographic word lexicon.

  10. Scalar representations in the light of electroweak phase transition and cold dark matter phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    AbdusSalam, Shehu S.; Chowdhury, Talal Ahmed E-mail: chowdhu@sissa.it

    2014-05-01

    The extension of the standard model's minimal Higgs sector with an inert SU(2){sub L} scalar doublet can provide light dark matter candidate and simultaneously induce a strong phase transition for explaining Baryogenesis. There is however no symmetry reasons to prevent the extension using scalars with higher SU(2){sub L} representations. By making random scans over the models' parameters, we show that in the light of electroweak physics constraints, strong first order electroweak phase transition and the possibility of having sub-TeV cold dark matter candidate the higher representations are rather disfavored compared to the inert doublet. This is done by computing generic perturbativity behavior and impact on electroweak phase transitions of higher representations in comparison with the inert doublet model. Explicit phase transition and cold dark matter phenomenology within the context of the inert triplet and quartet representations are used for detailed illustrations.

  11. On volume-source representations based on the representation theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Mie; Kusakabe, Tetsuya; Kame, Nobuki; Kumagai, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We discuss different ways to characterize a moment tensor associated with an actual volume change of ΔV C , which has been represented in terms of either the stress glut or the corresponding stress-free volume change ΔV T . Eshelby's virtual operation provides a conceptual model relating ΔV C to ΔV T and the stress glut, where non-elastic processes such as phase transitions allow ΔV T to be introduced and subsequent elastic deformation of - ΔV T is assumed to produce the stress glut. While it is true that ΔV T correctly represents the moment tensor of an actual volume source with volume change ΔV C , an explanation as to why such an operation relating ΔV C to ΔV T exists has not previously been given. This study presents a comprehensive explanation of the relationship between ΔV C and ΔV T based on the representation theorem. The displacement field is represented using Green's function, which consists of two integrals over the source surface: one for displacement and the other for traction. Both integrals are necessary for representing volumetric sources, whereas the representation of seismic faults includes only the first term, as the second integral over the two adjacent fault surfaces, across which the traction balances, always vanishes. Therefore, in a seismological framework, the contribution from the second term should be included as an additional surface displacement. We show that the seismic moment tensor of a volume source is directly obtained from the actual state of the displacement and stress at the source without considering any virtual non-elastic operations. A purely mathematical procedure based on the representation theorem enables us to specify the additional imaginary displacement necessary for representing a volume source only by the displacement term, which links ΔV C to ΔV T . It also specifies the additional imaginary stress necessary for representing a moment tensor solely by the traction term, which gives the "stress glut." The

  12. The mental representation of bilingualism.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Claudia Maria

    2010-09-01

    This article addresses the question of how different languages are represented in our memory and how bilingual speakers access these languages in language production. The first section discusses diverse approaches to language storage. It introduces a model that considers connections between different levels of language representation, i.e., conceptual and lexical features, morpho-syntactic information, and phonological patterns. The second section is concerned with access to different languages: the focus here is on language production and models of interactive activation. The next section focuses on control mechanisms that are capable of inhibiting one language while the other is spoken. These theoretical assumptions are illustrated by authentic speech production data that provide insights into the cognitive workings of bilingual speakers. Finally, differences in mental representation due to age of acquisition or language proficiency are discussed and explained by dissimilarities in memory types and neural processes of knowledge activation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  13. Conceptual Representations of Perceptual Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Edward E.; Myers, Nicholas; Sethi, Umrao; Pantazatos, Spiro; Yanagihara, Ted; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies of semantic memory have argued that knowledge of an object’s perceptual properties are represented in a modality-specific manner. These studies often base their argument on finding activation in the left-hemisphere fusiform gyrus - a region assumed to be involved in perceptual processing - when the participant is verifying verbal statements about objects and properties. In this paper we report an extension of one of these influential papers—Kan, Barsalou, Solomon, Minor, and Thompson-Schill (2003)—and present evidence for an amodal component in the representation and processing of perceptual knowledge. Participants were required to verify object-property statements (e.g., “cat- whiskers?”; “bear-wings?”) while they were being scanned by fMRI. We replicated Kan et al’s activation in the left fusiform gyrus, but also found activation in regions of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and middle-temporal gyrus, areas known to reflect amodal processes or representations. Further, only activations in the left IFG, an amodal area, were correlated with measures of behavioral performance. PMID:22994286

  14. Manual experience shapes object representations.

    PubMed

    Yee, Eiling; Chrysikou, Evangelia G; Hoffman, Esther; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2013-06-01

    How do people represent object meaning? It is now uncontentious that thinking about manipulable objects (e.g., pencils) activates brain regions underlying action. But is this activation part of the meaning of these objects, or is it merely incidental? The research we report here shows that when the hands are engaged in a task involving motions that are incompatible with those used to interact with frequently manipulated objects, it is more difficult to think about those objects--but not harder to think about infrequently manipulated objects (e.g., bookcases). Critically, the amount of manual experience with the object determines the amount of interference. These findings show that brain activity underlying manual action is part of, not peripheral to, the representation of frequently manipulated objects. Further, they suggest that people's ability to think about an object changes dynamically on the basis of the match between their (experience-based) mental representation of its meaning and whatever they are doing at that moment.

  15. Dual-Arm Generalized Compliant Motion With Shared Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    Dual-Arm Generalized Compliant Motion (DAGCM) primitive computer program implementing improved unified control scheme for two manipulator arms cooperating in task in which both grasp same object. Provides capabilities for autonomous, teleoperation, and shared control of two robot arms. Unifies cooperative dual-arm control with multi-sensor-based task control and makes complete task-control capability available to higher-level task-planning computer system via large set of input parameters used to describe desired force and position trajectories followed by manipulator arms. Some concepts discussed in "A Generalized-Compliant-Motion Primitive" (NPO-18134).

  16. Modular high accuracy tracker for dual channel laser Doppler velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridman, J. D.; Young, R. M.; Seavey, R. E.; Orloff, K. L.

    1976-01-01

    In the study described, a scanning dual-channel cross-beam laser Doppler velocimeter (developed for measuring simultaneously the two orthogonal components of flow velocity and turbulence intensity) was used to measure the instantaneous velocity characteristics of a model helicopter rotor and in a vortex wake survey experiment on a Boeing 747 aircraft model. Particular attention is given to a special purpose dual-loop frequency tracker developed to track and demodulate 10 microsecond wide pulse burst Doppler signals with a study cycle of 25% (or narrower signals at a higher duty cycle) generated by the laser Doppler velocimeter.

  17. Temperature representation in the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Dominic D.; Jouandet, Genevieve C.; Kearney, Patrick J.; Macpherson, Lindsey J.; Gallio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In Drosophila, rapid temperature changes are detected at the periphery by dedicated receptors forming a simple sensory map for hot and cold in the brain1. However, flies show a host of complex innate and learned responses to temperature, indicating that they are able to extract a range of information from this simple input. Here, we define the anatomical and physiological repertoire for temperature representation in the Drosophila brain. First, we use a photolabeling strategy2 to trace the connections that relay peripheral thermosensory information to higher brain centers, and show that they largely converge onto three target regions: the Mushroom Body, Lateral Horn (well-known centers for sensory processing) and the Posterior Lateral Protocerebrum, a region we now define as a major site of thermosensory representation. Then, using in vivo calcium imaging3, we describe the thermosensory projection neurons selectively activated by hot or cold stimuli. Fast-adapting neurons display transient “ON” and “OFF” responses and track rapid temperature shifts remarkably well, while slow-adapting cell responses better reflect the magnitude of simple thermal changes. Unexpectedly, we also find a population of ‘broadly-tuned’ cells that respond to both heating and cooling, and show that they are required for normal behavioral avoidance of both hot and cold in a simple 2-choice temperature preference assay. Taken together, our results uncover a coordinated ensemble of neural responses to temperature in the fly brain, demonstrate that a broadly tuned thermal-line contributes to rapid avoidance behavior, and illustrate how stimulus quality, temporal structure, and intensity can be extracted from a simple glomerular map at a single synaptic station. PMID:25739506

  18. Illness representation, coping and outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

    PubMed

    Rutter, Claire L.; Rutter, Derek R.

    2002-11-01

    OBJECTIVE: Irritable bowel syndrome has no observable symptom markers and there is little that the medical profession can do to help sufferers. Psychotherapy, antidepressants and drugs aimed at the most problematic symptoms have been shown to have limited efficacy. In an attempt to help understand the illness better, and to suggest alternative forms of intervention, the study tested whether outcome might be influenced by patients' representation of their illness and by their coping strategies. METHOD: All members of the IBS Network (an independent charitable support network based in the UK) were invited to participate via their quarterly newsletter, and 209 completed questionnaires were returned. Participants completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ), the COPE, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and rated their quality of life and their satisfaction with their health. RESULTS: The reporting of serious consequences was associated with lower quality of life and lower satisfaction with health, and with higher scores for anxiety and depression (p <.001). Weaker control beliefs were related to lower quality of life, lower satisfaction with health, and higher depression scores (p <.01). Lower illness scores were associated with more satisfaction with health (p <.01), but not with quality of life (p >.05). Psychological causal attribution of IBS was positively correlated with anxiety (p <.001) and depression (p <.01). Path analyses based on multiple linear regression demonstrated that (1) the reporting of serious consequences was a strong independent predictor of outcome; (2) coping mediated the link between representation and outcome; and (3) when predicting depression, coping strategies predicted coping independently of representation dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the illness representations of IBS sufferers can have significant implications for outcome. Therapeutic interventions based on illness representations may

  19. Representing higher-order dependencies in networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Wickramarathne, Thanuka L.; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the correctness of network analysis methods, the network (as the input) has to be a sufficiently accurate representation of the underlying data. However, when representing sequential data from complex systems, such as global shipping traffic or Web clickstream traffic as networks, conventional network representations that implicitly assume the Markov property (first-order dependency) can quickly become limiting. This assumption holds that, when movements are simulated on the network, the next movement depends only on the current node, discounting the fact that the movement may depend on several previous steps. However, we show that data derived from many complex systems can show up to fifth-order dependencies. In these cases, the oversimplifying assumption of the first-order network representation can lead to inaccurate network analysis results. To address this problem, we propose the higher-order network (HON) representation that can discover and embed variable orders of dependencies in a network representation. Through a comprehensive empirical evaluation and analysis, we establish several desirable characteristics of HON, including accuracy, scalability, and direct compatibility with the existing suite of network analysis methods. We illustrate how HON can be applied to a broad variety of tasks, such as random walking, clustering, and ranking, and we demonstrate that, by using it as input, HON yields more accurate results without any modification to these tasks. PMID:27386539

  20. Generative Representations for Automated Design of Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homby, Gregory S.; Lipson, Hod; Pollack, Jordan B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of automated design of complex, modular robots involves an evolutionary process in which generative representations of designs are used. The term generative representations as used here signifies, loosely, representations that consist of or include algorithms, computer programs, and the like, wherein encoded designs can reuse elements of their encoding and thereby evolve toward greater complexity. Automated design of robots through synthetic evolutionary processes has already been demonstrated, but it is not clear whether genetically inspired search algorithms can yield designs that are sufficiently complex for practical engineering. The ultimate success of such algorithms as tools for automation of design depends on the scaling properties of representations of designs. A nongenerative representation (one in which each element of the encoded design is used at most once in translating to the design) scales linearly with the number of elements. Search algorithms that use nongenerative representations quickly become intractable (search times vary approximately exponentially with numbers of design elements), and thus are not amenable to scaling to complex designs. Generative representations are compact representations and were devised as means to circumvent the above-mentioned fundamental restriction on scalability. In the present method, a robot is defined by a compact programmatic form (its generative representation) and the evolutionary variation takes place on this form. The evolutionary process is an iterative one, wherein each cycle consists of the following steps: 1. Generative representations are generated in an evolutionary subprocess. 2. Each generative representation is a program that, when compiled, produces an assembly procedure. 3. In a computational simulation, a constructor executes an assembly procedure to generate a robot. 4. A physical-simulation program tests the performance of a simulated constructed robot, evaluating the performance

  1. Effect of Long-term Care Use on Medicare and Medicaid Expenditures for Dual Eligible and Non-dual Eligible Elderly Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Robert L; Wysocki, Andrea; Parashuram, Shriram; Shippee, Tetyana; Lum, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dual eligible Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries consume disproportionate shares of both programs. Objectives: To compare Medicare and Medicaid expenditures of elderly dual eligible beneficiaries with non-dual eligible beneficiaries based on their long-term care (LTC) use. Research Design: Secondary analysis of linked MAX and Medicare data in seven states. Subjects: Dual eligible adults (65+) receiving LTC in institutions, in the community, or not at all; and Medicare non-dual eligibles. Measures: Medicaid acute medical and LTC expenditures per beneficiary year, Medicare expenditures. Results: Among dual eligibles and non-dual eligibles, the average number of diseases and case mix scores are higher for LTC users. Adjusting for case mix virtually eliminates the difference for medical costs, but not for LTC expenditures. Adjusting for LTC status reduces the difference in LTC costs, but increases the difference in medical costs. Conclusions: Efforts to control costs for dual eligibles should target those in LTC while better coordinating medical and LTC expenditures. PMID:24753971

  2. Evaluation of Representations and Response Models for Polarizable Force Fields

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For classical simulations of condensed-phase systems, such as organic liquids and biomolecules, to achieve high accuracy, they will probably need to incorporate an accurate, efficient model of conformation-dependent electronic polarization. Thus, it is of interest to understand what determines the accuracy of a polarizable electrostatics model. This study approaches this problem by breaking polarization models down into two main components: the representation of electronic polarization and the response model used for mapping from an inducing field to the polarization within the chosen representation. Among the most common polarization representations are redistribution of atom-centered charges, such as those used in the fluctuating charge model, and atom-centered point dipoles, such as those used in a number of different polarization models. Each of these representations has been combined with one or more response models. The response model of fluctuating charge, for example, is based on the idea of electronegativity equalization in the context of changing electrostatic potentials (ESPs), whereas point-dipole representations typically use a response model based on point polarizabilities whose induced dipoles are computed based on interaction with other charges and dipoles. Here, we decouple polarization representations from their typical response models to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of various polarization approximations. First, we compare the maximal possible accuracies achievable by the charge redistribution and point-dipole model representations, by testing their ability to replicate quantum mechanical (QM) ESPs around small molecules polarized by external inducing charges. Perhaps not surprisingly, the atom-centered dipole model can yield higher accuracy. Next, we test two of the most commonly used response functions used for the point-dipole representations, self-consistent and direct (or first-order) inducible point polarizabilities, where the

  3. Representation and Re-Presentation in Litigation Science

    PubMed Central

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Federal appellate courts have devised several criteria to help judges distinguish between reliable and unreliable scientific evidence. The best known are the U.S. Supreme Court’s criteria offered in 1993 in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. This article focuses on another criterion, offered by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, that instructs judges to assign lower credibility to “litigation science” than to science generated before litigation. In this article I argue that the criterion-based approach to judicial screening of scientific evidence is deeply flawed. That approach buys into the faulty premise that there are external criteria, lying outside the legal process, by which judges can distinguish between good and bad science. It erroneously assumes that judges can ascertain the appropriate criteria and objectively apply them to challenged evidence before litigation unfolds, and before methodological disputes are sorted out during that process. Judicial screening does not take into account the dynamics of litigation itself, including gaming by the parties and framing by judges, as constitutive factors in the production and representation of knowledge. What is admitted through judicial screening, in other words, is not precisely what a jury would see anyway. Courts are sites of repeated re-representations of scientific knowledge. In sum, the screening approach fails to take account of the wealth of existing scholarship on the production and validation of scientific facts. An unreflective application of that approach thus puts courts at risk of relying upon a “junk science” of the nature of scientific knowledge. PMID:18197311

  4. Braid group representation on quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Ryan Kasyfil; Muchtadi-Alamsyah, Intan

    2015-09-30

    There are many studies about topological representation of quantum computation recently. One of diagram representation of quantum computation is by using ZX-Calculus. In this paper we will make a diagrammatical scheme of Dense Coding. We also proved that ZX-Calculus diagram of maximally entangle state satisfies Yang-Baxter Equation and therefore, we can construct a Braid Group representation of set of maximally entangle state.

  5. The Husimi representation and the Vlasov equation

    SciTech Connect

    LEplattenier, P.; Suraud, E.; Reinhard, P.G.

    1995-12-01

    We investigate the {ital h} expansion of the Time-Dependent Hartree Fock equation in the Wigner and Husimi representations. Both lead formally to the Vlasov equation in lowest order. The Husimi representation delivers a more stable expansion in particular when the self-interaction in the mean field is considered. The test particle solution of the Vlasov equation turns out to be closely related to the Husimi representation. Copyright {copyright} 1995 Academic Press, Inc.

  6. Issues in Interaction Language Specification and Representation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    A16~ REPRESENTATION(J) VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INST AND STATE UNIV BLACKSBURG COMPUTER S. D N JOHNSON ET AL. NOV 83 UNCLASSIFIED CSIE-83-15 NBOB14 81 K...8217, ___ 4 ~ISSUES IN INTERACTION LANGUAGE SPECIFICATION AND REPRESENTATION Deborah H. Johnson H. Rex Hartson .4 This document has been approved...ISSUES IN INTERACTION LANGUAGE SPECIFICATION AND REPRESENTATION Deborah H. Johnson H. Rex Hartson TECHNICAL REPORT Prepared for Engineering Psychology

  7. Survey of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    many formal knowledge representation and reasoning methodologies because it provides languages for symbolic representation, truth conditions for...example applied to knowledge representation, we examine the tableau and resolution proof methods , the two main methods of reasoning in FOL. We conclude the...calculating entailment can be thought of as a knowledge base (KB). Before looking at the resolution and tableau proof methods used to infer

  8. On Lazy Representations and Sturmian Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epifanio, Chiara; Frougny, Christiane; Gabriele, Alessandra; Mignosi, Filippo; Shallit, Jeffrey

    In this paper we establish a strong relationship between the set of lazy representations and the set of paths in a Sturmian graph associated with a real number α. We prove that for any non-negative integer i the unique path weighted i in the Sturmian graph associated with α represents the lazy representation of i in the Ostrowski numeration system associated with α. Moreover, we provide several properties of the representations of the natural integers in this numeration system.

  9. [Social and cultural representations in epilepsy awareness].

    PubMed

    Arborio, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Representations relating to epilepsy have evolved over the centuries, but the manifestations of epilepsy awaken archaic images linked to death, violence and disgust. Indeed, the generalised epileptic seizure symbolises a rupture with the surrounding environment, "informs it", through the loss of social codes which it causes. The social and cultural context, as well as medical knowledge, influences the representations of the disease. As a result, popular knowledge is founded on the social and cultural representations of a given era, in a given society.

  10. Attitude Error Representations for Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The quaternion has the lowest dimensionality possible for a globally nonsingular attitude representation. The quaternion must obey a unit norm constraint, though, which has led to the development of an extended Kalman filter using a quaternion for the global attitude estimate and a three-component representation for attitude errors. We consider various attitude error representations for this Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter and its second-order extension.

  11. Co-lateralized bilingual mechanisms for reading in single and dual language contexts: evidence from visual half-field processing of action words in proficient bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Krefta, Marlena; Michałowski, Bartosz; Kowalczyk, Jacek; Króliczak, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    When reading, proficient bilinguals seem to engage the same cognitive circuits regardless of the language in use. Yet, whether or not such “bilingual” mechanisms would be lateralized in the same way in distinct—single or dual—language contexts is a question for debate. To fill this gap, we tested 18 highly proficient Polish (L1) —English (L2) childhood bilinguals whose task was to read aloud one of the two laterally presented action verbs, one stimulus per visual half field. While in the single-language blocks only L1 or L2 words were shown, in the subsequent mixed-language blocks words from both languages were concurrently displayed. All stimuli were presented for 217 ms followed by masks in which letters were replaced with hash marks. Since in non-simultaneous bilinguals the control of language, skilled actions (including reading), and representations of action concepts are typically left lateralized, the vast majority of our participants showed the expected, significant right visual field advantage for L1 and L2, both for accuracy and response times. The observed effects were nevertheless associated with substantial variability in the strength of the lateralization of the mechanisms involved. Moreover, although it could be predicted that participants' performance should be better in a single-language context, accuracy was significantly higher and response times were significantly shorter in a dual-language context, irrespective of the language tested. Finally, for both accuracy and response times, there were significant positive correlations between the laterality indices (LIs) of both languages independent of the context, with a significantly greater left-sided advantage for L1 vs. L2 in the mixed-language blocks, based on LIs calculated for response times. Thus, despite similar representations of the two languages in the bilingual brain, these results also point to the functional separation of L1 and L2 in the dual-language context. PMID:26300834

  12. Marker-free dual-axis tilt series alignment

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Hanspeter; Taylor, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Dual-axis tilt series in electron tomography are collected by successively tilting the object about two approximately orthogonal tilt axes. Here we report on the extension of marker-free image registration based on cross-correlation techniques to dual-axis tilt series. A simultaneous geometry refinement yields accurate parameters for the computati on of the final reconstruction. Both, image registration and 3D-reconstruction operate on the combined data from the paired single axis series rather than computing individual single axis tomograms followed by a separate combination step. We show that with simultaneous registration and reconstruction of dual-axis tilt series, tomograms with higher resolution are obtained than by merging separately computed tomograms. PMID:23435123

  13. Better dual-task processing in simultaneous interpreters

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting (SI) is a highly complex activity and requires the performance and coordination of multiple, simultaneous tasks: analysis and understanding of the discourse in a first language, reformulating linguistic material, storing of intermediate processing steps, and language production in a second language among others. It is, however, an open issue whether persons with experience in SI possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks and whether they are able to transfer these skills to lab-based dual-task situations. Within the present study, we set out to explore whether interpreting experience is associated with related higher-order executive functioning in the context of dual-task situations of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) type. In this PRP situation, we found faster reactions times in participants with experience in simultaneous interpretation in contrast to control participants without such experience. Thus, simultaneous interpreters possess superior skills in coordination of multiple tasks in lab-based dual-task situations. PMID:26528232

  14. Dual renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G; Chrysant, George S

    2015-01-01

    Single renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade has been shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) with proteinuria. Due to the action of RAAS blockers at various levels of the RAAS cascade, it was hypothesized that dual RAAS blockade would result in more complete inhibition of angiotensin II (Ang II) production and be more effective in blocking its detrimental cardiovascular remodeling effects. Unfortunately, several clinical trials in patients with hypertension, CHD, HF, and CKD with proteinuria have demonstrated no superiority of dual versus single RAAS blockade, but a higher incidence of adverse events. Based on these findings, dual RAAS blockade is no longer recommended for the routine treatment of various cardiovascular diseases, except diabetic nephropathy with proteinuria and HF with reduced ejection fraction. All the new information gathered from studies within the last 3 years will be presented in this review.

  15. New Hamiltonians for loop quantum cosmology with arbitrary spin representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Achour, Jibril; Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Geiller, Marc

    2017-04-01

    In loop quantum cosmology, one has to make a choice of SU(2) irreducible representation in which to compute holonomies and regularize the curvature of the connection. The systematic choice made in the literature is to work in the fundamental representation, and very little is known about the physics associated with higher spin labels. This constitutes an ambiguity of which the understanding, we believe, is fundamental for connecting loop quantum cosmology to full theories of quantum gravity like loop quantum gravity, its spin foam formulation, or cosmological group field theory. We take a step in this direction by providing here a new closed formula for the Hamiltonian of flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker models regularized in a representation of arbitrary spin. This expression is furthermore polynomial in the basic variables which correspond to well-defined operators in the quantum theory, takes into account the so-called inverse-volume corrections, and treats in a unified way two different regularization schemes for the curvature. After studying the effective classical dynamics corresponding to single and multiple-spin Hamiltonians, we study the behavior of the critical density when the number of representations is increased and the stability of the difference equations in the quantum theory.

  16. Decoding the neural representation of story meanings across languages.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Morteza; Boghrati, Reihane; Man, Kingson; Hoover, Joe; Gimbel, Sarah I; Vaswani, Ashish; Zevin, Jason D; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Gordon, Andrew S; Damasio, Antonio; Kaplan, Jonas T

    2017-09-20

    Drawing from a common lexicon of semantic units, humans fashion narratives whose meaning transcends that of their individual utterances. However, while brain regions that represent lower-level semantic units, such as words and sentences, have been identified, questions remain about the neural representation of narrative comprehension, which involves inferring cumulative meaning. To address these questions, we exposed English, Mandarin, and Farsi native speakers to native language translations of the same stories during fMRI scanning. Using a new technique in natural language processing, we calculated the distributed representations of these stories (capturing the meaning of the stories in high-dimensional semantic space), and demonstrate that using these representations we can identify the specific story a participant was reading from the neural data. Notably, this was possible even when the distributed representations were calculated using stories in a different language than the participant was reading. Our results reveal that identification relied on a collection of brain regions most prominently located in the default mode network. These results demonstrate that neuro-semantic encoding of narratives happens at levels higher than individual semantic units and that this encoding is systematic across both individuals and languages. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Graph Representation for Configurational Properties of Crystalline Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuge, Koretaka

    2017-02-01

    We propose representation of configurational physical quantities and microscopic structures for multicomponent system on lattice, by extending a concept of generalized Ising model (GIM) to graph theory. We construct graph Laplacian (and adjacency matrix) composed of symmetry-equivalent neighboring edges, whose landscape of spectrum explicitly represents GIM description of structures as well as low-dimensional topological information in terms of graph. The proposed representation indicates the importance of linear combination of graph to further investigate the role of spatial constraint on equilibrium properties in classical systems. We demonstrate that spectrum for such linear combination of graph can find out additional characteristic microscopic structures compared with GIM-based descriptions for given set of figures on the same low-dimensional configuration space, coming from the proposed representation explicitly having more structural information for, e.g., higher-order closed links of selected element. Statistical interdependence for density of microscopic states including graph representation for structures is also examined, which exhibits similar behavior that has been seen for GIM description of the microscopic structures.

  18. Vertex representations of quantum affine algebras.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, I B; Jing, N

    1988-12-01

    We construct vertex representations of quantum affine algebras of ADE type, which were first introduced in greater generality by Drinfeld and Jimbo. The limiting special case of our construction is the untwisted vertex representation of affine Lie algebras of Frenkel-Kac and Segal. Our representation is given by means of a new type of vertex operator corresponding to the simple roots and satisfying the defining relations. In the case of the quantum affine algebra of type A, we introduce vertex operators corresponding to all the roots and determine their commutation relations. This provides an analogue of a Chevalley basis of the affine Lie algebra [unk](n) in the basic representation.

  19. Representations of the generalized Lie algebra ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrev, V. K.; Sudbery, A.

    1998-08-01

    We construct finite-dimensional irreducible representations of two quantum algebras related to the generalized Lie algebra 0305-4470/31/31/010/img6 introduced by Lyubashenko and Sudbery. We consider separately the cases of q generic and q at roots of unity. Some of the representations have no classical analogue even for generic q. Some of the representations have no analogue to the finite-dimensional representations of the quantized enveloping 0305-4470/31/31/010/img7, while in those that do there are different matrix elements.

  20. Precedence relationship representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homendemello, L. S.; Sanderson, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of precedence relationship representations for mechanical assembly sequences are presented: precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between two parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process. Precedence relationship representations have the advantage of being very compact. The problem with these representations was how to guarantee their correctness and completeness. Two theorems are presented each of which leads to the generation of one type of precedence relationship representation guaranteeing its correctness and completeness for a class of assemblies.