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Sample records for higher-order pattern unification

  1. Higher-Order Neural Networks Recognize Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Ochoa, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Networks of higher order have enhanced capabilities to distinguish between different two-dimensional patterns and to recognize those patterns. Also enhanced capabilities to "learn" patterns to be recognized: "trained" with far fewer examples and, therefore, in less time than necessary to train comparable first-order neural networks.

  2. Sparse representation of higher-order functional interaction patterns in task-based FMRI data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Li, Xiang; Lv, Jinglei; Jiang, Xi; Zhu, Dajiang; Chen, Hanbo; Zhang, Tuo; Guo, Lei; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Traditional task-based fMRI activation detection methods, e.g., the widely used general linear model (GLM), assume that the brain's hemodynamic responses follow the block-based or event-related stimulus paradigm. Typically, these activation detections are performed voxel-wise independently, and then are usually followed by statistical corrections. Despite remarkable successes and wide adoption of these methods, it remains largely unknown how functional brain regions interact with each other within specific networks during task performance blocks and in the baseline. In this paper, we present a novel algorithmic pipeline to statistically infer and sparsely represent higher-order functional interaction patterns within the working memory network during task performance and in the baseline. Specifically, a collection of higher-order interactions are inferred via the greedy equivalence search (GES) algorithm for both task and baseline blocks. In the next stage, an effective online dictionary learning algorithm is utilized for sparse representation of the inferred higher-order interaction patterns. Application of this framework on a working memory task-based fMRI data reveals interesting and meaningful distributions of the learned sparse dictionary atoms in task and baseline blocks. In comparison with traditional voxel-wise activation detection and recent pair-wise functional connectivity analysis, our framework offers a new methodology for representation and exploration of higher-order functional activities in the brain.

  3. Hotspot detection using image pattern recognition based on higher-order local auto-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Shimon; Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Ogawa, Ryuji; Ichikawa, Hirotaka; Takahata, Kazuhiro; Miyairi, Masahiro; Kotani, Toshiya; Nojima, Shigeki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Kei; Saito, Tamaki; Mimotogi, Shoji; Inoue, Soichi; Nosato, Hirokazu; Sakanashi, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Takumi; Murakawa, Masahiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Eiichi; Otsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    Below 40nm design node, systematic variation due to lithography must be taken into consideration during the early stage of design. So far, litho-aware design using lithography simulation models has been widely applied to assure that designs are printed on silicon without any error. However, the lithography simulation approach is very time consuming, and under time-to-market pressure, repetitive redesign by this approach may result in the missing of the market window. This paper proposes a fast hotspot detection support method by flexible and intelligent vision system image pattern recognition based on Higher-Order Local Autocorrelation. Our method learns the geometrical properties of the given design data without any defects as normal patterns, and automatically detects the design patterns with hotspots from the test data as abnormal patterns. The Higher-Order Local Autocorrelation method can extract features from the graphic image of design pattern, and computational cost of the extraction is constant regardless of the number of design pattern polygons. This approach can reduce turnaround time (TAT) dramatically only on 1CPU, compared with the conventional simulation-based approach, and by distributed processing, this has proven to deliver linear scalability with each additional CPU.

  4. Periodic Folded Wave Patterns for (2+1)-Dimensional Higher-Order Broer Kaup Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Hua

    2008-10-01

    A general solution including three arbitrary functions is obtained for the (2+1)-dimensional higher-order Broer Kaup equation by means of WTC truncation method. Introducing proper multiple valued functions and Jacobi elliptic functions in the seed solution, special types of periodic folded waves are derived. In long wave limit these periodic folded wave patterns may degenerate into single localized folded solitary wave excitations. The interactions of the periodic folded waves and their degenerated single folded solitary waves are investigated graphically and are found to be completely elastic.

  5. Assessing reliable human mobility patterns from higher order memory in mobile communications.

    PubMed

    Matamalas, Joan T; De Domenico, Manlio; Arenas, Alex

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how people move within a geographical area, e.g. a city, a country or the whole world, is fundamental in several applications, from predicting the spatio-temporal evolution of an epidemic to inferring migration patterns. Mobile phone records provide an excellent proxy of human mobility, showing that movements exhibit a high level of memory. However, the precise role of memory in widely adopted proxies of mobility, as mobile phone records, is unknown. Here we use 560 million call detail records from Senegal to show that standard Markovian approaches, including higher order ones, fail in capturing real mobility patterns and introduce spurious movements never observed in reality. We introduce an adaptive memory-driven approach to overcome such issues. At variance with Markovian models, it is able to realistically model conditional waiting times, i.e. the probability to stay in a specific area depending on individuals' historical movements. Our results demonstrate that in standard mobility models the individuals tend to diffuse faster than observed in reality, whereas the predictions of the adaptive memory approach significantly agree with observations. We show that, as a consequence, the incidence and the geographical spread of a disease could be inadequately estimated when standard approaches are used, with crucial implications on resources deployment and policy-making during an epidemic outbreak.

  6. Assessing reliable human mobility patterns from higher order memory in mobile communications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how people move within a geographical area, e.g. a city, a country or the whole world, is fundamental in several applications, from predicting the spatio-temporal evolution of an epidemic to inferring migration patterns. Mobile phone records provide an excellent proxy of human mobility, showing that movements exhibit a high level of memory. However, the precise role of memory in widely adopted proxies of mobility, as mobile phone records, is unknown. Here we use 560 million call detail records from Senegal to show that standard Markovian approaches, including higher order ones, fail in capturing real mobility patterns and introduce spurious movements never observed in reality. We introduce an adaptive memory-driven approach to overcome such issues. At variance with Markovian models, it is able to realistically model conditional waiting times, i.e. the probability to stay in a specific area depending on individuals' historical movements. Our results demonstrate that in standard mobility models the individuals tend to diffuse faster than observed in reality, whereas the predictions of the adaptive memory approach significantly agree with observations. We show that, as a consequence, the incidence and the geographical spread of a disease could be inadequately estimated when standard approaches are used, with crucial implications on resources deployment and policy-making during an epidemic outbreak. PMID:27581479

  7. Connectivity strategies for higher-order neural networks applied to pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Reid, Max B.

    1990-01-01

    Different strategies for non-fully connected HONNs (higher-order neural networks) are discussed, showing that by using such strategies an input field of 128 x 128 pixels can be attained while still achieving in-plane rotation and translation-invariant recognition. These techniques allow HONNs to be used with the larger input scenes required for practical pattern-recognition applications. The number of interconnections that must be stored has been reduced by a factor of approximately 200,000 in a T/C case and about 2000 in a Space Shuttle/F-18 case by using regional connectivity. Third-order networks have been simulated using several connection strategies. The method found to work best is regional connectivity. The main advantages of this strategy are the following: (1) it considers features of various scales within the image and thus gets a better sample of what the image looks like; (2) it is invariant to shape-preserving geometric transformations, such as translation and rotation; (3) the connections are predetermined so that no extra computations are necessary during run time; and (4) it does not require any extra storage for recording which connections were formed.

  8. Connectivity strategies for higher-order neural networks applied to pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Reid, Max B.

    1990-01-01

    Different strategies for non-fully connected HONNs (higher-order neural networks) are discussed, showing that by using such strategies an input field of 128 x 128 pixels can be attained while still achieving in-plane rotation and translation-invariant recognition. These techniques allow HONNs to be used with the larger input scenes required for practical pattern-recognition applications. The number of interconnections that must be stored has been reduced by a factor of approximately 200,000 in a T/C case and about 2000 in a Space Shuttle/F-18 case by using regional connectivity. Third-order networks have been simulated using several connection strategies. The method found to work best is regional connectivity. The main advantages of this strategy are the following: (1) it considers features of various scales within the image and thus gets a better sample of what the image looks like; (2) it is invariant to shape-preserving geometric transformations, such as translation and rotation; (3) the connections are predetermined so that no extra computations are necessary during run time; and (4) it does not require any extra storage for recording which connections were formed.

  9. Pattern dynamics and filamentation of femtosecond terawatt laser pulses in air including the higher-order Kerr effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, T W; Zhou, C T; He, X T

    2013-05-01

    Plasma defocusing and higher-order Kerr effects on multiple filamentation and pattern formation of ultrashort laser pulse propagation in air are investigated. Linear analyses and numerical results show that these two saturable nonlinear effects can destroy the coherent evolution of the laser field, and small-scale spatial turbulent structures rapidly appear. For the two-dimensional case, numerical simulations show that blow-up-like solutions, spatial chaos, and pseudorecurrence can appear at higher laser intensities if only plasma defocusing is included. These complex patterns result from the stochastic evolution of the higher- or shorter-wavelength modes of the laser light spectrum. From the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics, filamentation can be attributed to the modulational instability of these spatial incoherent localized structures. Furthermore, filament patterns associated with multiphoton ionization of the air molecules with and without higher-order Kerr effects are compared.

  10. Instability criteria and pattern formation in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with higher-order terms.

    PubMed

    Mohamadou, Alidou; Ayissi, Bebe Emilienne; Kofané, Timoléon Crépin

    2006-10-01

    We study the modulational instability and spatial pattern formation in extended media, taking the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with higher-order terms as a perturbation of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation as a model. By stability analysis for the original partial differential equation, we derive its stability condition as well as the threshold for amplitude perturbations and we show how nonlinear higher-order terms qualitatively change the behavior of the system. The analytical results are found to be in agreement with numerical findings. Modulational instability mediates pattern formation through the lattice. The main feature of the traveling plane waves is its disintegration in pulse train during the propagation through the system.

  11. DNA replication timing and higher-order nuclear organization determine single-nucleotide substitution patterns in cancer genomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; De, Subhajyoti; Michor, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Single-nucleotide substitutions are a defining characteristic of cancer genomes. Many single-nucleotide substitutions in cancer genomes arise because of errors in DNA replication, which is spatio-temporally stratified. Here we propose that DNA replication patterns help shape the mutational landscapes of normal and cancer genomes. Using data on five fully sequenced cancer types and two personal genomes, we determined that the frequency of intergenic single-nucleotide substitution is significantly higher in late DNA replication timing regions, even after controlling for a number of genomic features. Furthermore, some substitution signatures are more frequent in certain DNA replication timing zones. Finally, integrating data on higher-order nuclear organization, we found that genomic regions in close spatial proximity to late-replicating domains display similar mutation spectra as the late-replicating regions themselves. These data suggest that DNA replication timing together with higher-order genomic organization contribute to the patterns of single-nucleotide substitution in normal and cancer genomes.

  12. Higher Order Crossings (HOC).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Results on the higher order crossings approach to signal detection were obtained. In politicular, the earth:s polar notion was analyzed and new...periodicities were obtained. Another application was to online testing for white noise. It was also demonstrated that a higher order crossing sequence will converge to a frequency regardless of the signal to noise ratio. (kr)

  13. Higher Order Crossings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    L AD-A199 489 HIGHER ORDER CROSSIMGSCU) MRRYLANDUUNIV COLLEGE PARK B KEDEN RAY 87 AFOSR-TR-87-1768 AFOSR-82-ai87 UNCLASSIFIED FVG 12/2 ML 6oi 132. @4...20332-6448 611027 2304 A5 MIt.rA TILsk~bbibl cankusd"i Higher Order Crossings M2 PAOWNAL AUTHORS1) B. Kedem all, TYP6 OF REPORT 1 136, TIME COVERED Lj...device that is useful as a diagnostic tool for higher order crossings was introduced. The graphical tool is also useful as a descriptive similarity

  14. Higher-order organization of complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Austin R.; Gleich, David F.; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Networks are a fundamental tool for understanding and modeling complex systems in physics, biology, neuroscience, engineering, and social science. Many networks are known to exhibit rich, lower-order connectivity patterns that can be captured at the level of individual nodes and edges. However, higher-order organization of complex networks—at the level of small network subgraphs—remains largely unknown. Here, we develop a generalized framework for clustering networks on the basis of higher-order connectivity patterns. This framework provides mathematical guarantees on the optimality of obtained clusters and scales to networks with billions of edges. The framework reveals higher-order organization in a number of networks, including information propagation units in neuronal networks and hub structure in transportation networks. Results show that networks exhibit rich higher-order organizational structures that are exposed by clustering based on higher-order connectivity patterns. PMID:27387949

  15. Decoding sequential finger movements from preparatory activity in higher-order motor regions: a functional magnetic resonance imaging multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Nambu, Isao; Hagura, Nobuhiro; Hirose, Satoshi; Wada, Yasuhiro; Kawato, Mitsuo; Naito, Eiichi

    2015-11-01

    Performing a complex sequential finger movement requires the temporally well-ordered organization of individual finger movements. Previous behavioural studies have suggested that the brain prepares a whole sequence of movements as a single set, rather than the movements of individual fingers. However, direct neuroimaging support for this hypothesis is lacking and, assuming it to be true, it remains unclear which brain regions represent the information of a prepared sequence. Here, we measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while 14 right-handed healthy participants performed two types of well-learned sequential finger movements with their right hands. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, we examined whether the types of the forthcoming sequence could be predicted from the preparatory activities of nine regions of interest, which included the motor, somatosensory and posterior parietal regions in each hemisphere, bilateral visual cortices, cerebellum and basal ganglia. We found that, during preparation, the activity of the contralateral motor regions could predict which of the two sequences would be executed. Further detailed analysis revealed that the contralateral dorsal premotor cortex and supplementary motor area were the key areas that contributed to the prediction consistently across participants. These contrasted with results from execution-related brain activity where a performed sequence was successfully predicted from the activities in the broad cortical sensory-motor network, including the bilateral motor, parietal and ipsilateral somatosensory cortices. Our study supports the hypothesis that temporary well-organized sequences of movements are represented as a set in the brain, and that preparatory activity in higher-order motor regions represents information about upcoming motor actions.

  16. Complex higher order derivative theories

    SciTech Connect

    Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David

    2012-08-24

    In this work is considered a complex scalar field theory with higher order derivative terms and interactions. A procedure is developed to quantize consistently this system avoiding the presence of negative norm states. In order to achieve this goal the original real scalar high order field theory is extended to a complex space attaching a complex total derivative to the theory. Next, by imposing reality conditions the complex theory is mapped to a pair of interacting real scalar field theories without the presence of higher derivative terms.

  17. Higher-order uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünsche, A.

    2006-07-01

    Using the non-negativity of Gram determinants of arbitrary order, we derive higher-order uncertainty relations for the symmetric uncertainty matrices of corresponding order n?>?2 to n Hermitean operators (n?=?2 is the usual case). The special cases of third-order and fourth-order uncertainty relations are considered in detail. The obtained third-order uncertainty relations are applied to the Lie groups SU(1,1) with three Hermitean basis operators (K1,K2,K0) and SU(2) with three Hermitean basis operators (J1,J2,J3) where, in particular, the group-coherent states of Perelomov type and of Barut Girardello type for SU(1,1) and the spin or atomic coherent states for SU(2) are investigated. The uncertainty relations for the determinant of the third-order uncertainty matrix are satisfied with the equality sign for coherent states and this determinant becomes vanishing for the Perelomov type of coherent states for SU(1,1) and SU(2). As an example of the application of fourth-order uncertainty relations, we consider the canonical operators (Q1,P1,Q2,P2) of two boson modes and the corresponding uncertainty matrix formed by the operators of the corresponding mean deviations, taking into account the correlations between the two modes. In two mathematical appendices, we prove the non-negativity of the determinant of correlation matrices of arbitrary order and clarify the principal structure of higher-order uncertainty relations.

  18. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  19. Higher-Order Superposition for Dependent Types,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Proofs for Higher-Order Rewrite Systems, J. Heering, K. Meinke , B. Moller, T. Nipkow ed., Higher Order Algebra, Logic and Term Rewriting, Lect. Notes in...Heering, K. Meinke , B. Moller, T. Nipkow ed., Higher Order Algebra, Logic and Term Rewriting, Lect. Notes in Comp. Sci., Vol 816, Springer Verlag, 1994, pp. 305-325

  20. A Novel Higher Order Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuxiang

    2010-05-01

    In this paper a new Higher Order Neural Network (HONN) model is introduced and applied in several data mining tasks. Data Mining extracts hidden patterns and valuable information from large databases. A hyperbolic tangent function is used as the neuron activation function for the new HONN model. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of the new HONN model, when compared with several conventional Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models: Feedforward ANN with the sigmoid activation function; Feedforward ANN with the hyperbolic tangent activation function; and Radial Basis Function (RBF) ANN with the Gaussian activation function. The experimental results seem to suggest that the new HONN holds higher generalization capability as well as abilities in handling missing data.

  1. Generalized structure of higher order nonclassicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Amit; Pathak, Anirban

    2010-02-01

    A generalized notion of higher order nonclassicality (in terms of higher order moments) is introduced. Under this generalized framework of higher order nonclassicality, conditions of higher order squeezing and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics are derived. A simpler form of the Hong-Mandel higher order squeezing criterion is derived under this framework by using an operator ordering theorem introduced by us in [A. Pathak, J. Phys. A 33 (2000) 5607]. It is also generalized for multi-photon Bose operators of Brandt and Greenberg. Similarly, condition for higher order subpoissonian photon statistics is derived by normal ordering of higher powers of number operator. Further, with the help of simple density matrices, it is shown that the higher order antibunching (HOA) and higher order subpoissonian photon statistics (HOSPS) are not the manifestation of the same phenomenon and consequently it is incorrect to use the condition of HOA as a test of HOSPS. It is also shown that the HOA and HOSPS may exist even in absence of the corresponding lower order phenomenon. Binomial state, nonlinear first order excited squeezed state (NLESS) and nonlinear vacuum squeezed state (NLVSS) are used as examples of quantum state and it is shown that these states may show higher order nonclassical characteristics. It is observed that the Binomial state which is always antibunched, is not always higher order squeezed and NLVSS which shows higher order squeezing does not show HOSPS and HOA. The opposite is observed in NLESS and consequently it is established that the HOSPS and HOS are two independent signatures of higher order nonclassicality.

  2. Higher order mechanics on graded bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, Andrew James; Grabowska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Janusz

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we develop a geometric approach to higher order mechanics on graded bundles in both, the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism, via the recently discovered weighted algebroids. We present the corresponding Tulczyjew triple for this higher order situation and derive in this framework the phase equations from an arbitrary (also singular) Lagrangian or Hamiltonian, as well as the Euler-Lagrange equations. As important examples, we geometrically derive the classical higher order Euler-Lagrange equations and analogous reduced equations for invariant higher order Lagrangians on Lie groupoids.

  3. Resonant radiation from oscillating higher order solitons

    DOE PAGES

    Driben, R.; Yulin, A. V.; Efimov, A.

    2015-07-15

    We present radiation mechanism exhibited by a higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution the higher-order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in formation of multipeak frequency comb-like spectral band. The shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is corroborated by numerical simulations. Research showed that for longer pulses the described effect persists also under the action of higher order perturbations such as Raman and self-steepening.

  4. Resonant radiation from oscillating higher order solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Driben, R.; Yulin, A. V.; Efimov, A.

    2015-07-15

    We present radiation mechanism exhibited by a higher order soliton. In a course of its evolution the higher-order soliton emits polychromatic radiation resulting in formation of multipeak frequency comb-like spectral band. Moreover, the shape and spectral position of this band can be effectively controlled by the relative strength of the third order dispersion. An analytical description is corroborated by numerical simulations. It is also shown that for longer pulses the described effect persists also under the action of higher order perturbations such as Raman and self-steepening.

  5. Unification of soil feedback patterns under different evaporation conditions to improve soil differentiation over flat area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shanxin; Zhu, A.-Xing; Meng, Lingkui; Burt, James E.; Du, Fei; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Guiming

    2016-07-01

    Detailed and accurate information on the spatial variation of soil types and soil properties are critical components of environmental research and hydrological modeling. Early studies introduced a soil feedback pattern as a promising environmental covariate to predict spatial variation over low-relief areas. However, in practice, local evaporation can have a significant influence on these patterns, making them incomparable at different locations. This study aims to solve this problem by examining the concept of transforming the dynamic patterns of soil feedback from the original time-related space to a new evaporation-related space. A study area in northeastern Illinois with large low-relief farmland was selected to examine the effectiveness of this idea. Images from MODIS in Terra for every April-May period over 12 years (2000-2011) were used to extract the soil feedback patterns. Compared to the original time-related space, the results indicate that the patterns in the new evaporation-related space tend to be more stable and more easily captured from multiple rain events regardless of local evaporation conditions. Random samples selected for soil subgroups from the SSURGO soil map show that patterns in the new space reveal a difference between different soil types. And these differences in patterns are closely related to the difference in the soil structure of the surface layer.

  6. Higher-order awareness, misrepresentation and function

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, David

    2012-01-01

    Conscious mental states are states we are in some way aware of. I compare higher-order theories of consciousness, which explain consciousness by appeal to such higher-order awareness (HOA), and first-order theories, which do not, and I argue that higher-order theories have substantial explanatory advantages. The higher-order nature of our awareness of our conscious states suggests an analogy with the metacognition that figures in the regulation of psychological processes and behaviour. I argue that, although both consciousness and metacognition involve higher-order psychological states, they have little more in common. One thing they do share is the possibility of misrepresentation; just as metacognitive processing can misrepresent one's cognitive states and abilities, so the HOA in virtue of which one's mental states are conscious can, and sometimes does, misdescribe those states. A striking difference between the two, however, has to do with utility for psychological processing. Metacognition has considerable benefit for psychological processing; in contrast, it is unlikely that there is much, if any, utility to mental states' being conscious over and above the utility those states have when they are not conscious. PMID:22492758

  7. Higher-order awareness, misrepresentation and function.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, David

    2012-05-19

    Conscious mental states are states we are in some way aware of. I compare higher-order theories of consciousness, which explain consciousness by appeal to such higher-order awareness (HOA), and first-order theories, which do not, and I argue that higher-order theories have substantial explanatory advantages. The higher-order nature of our awareness of our conscious states suggests an analogy with the metacognition that figures in the regulation of psychological processes and behaviour. I argue that, although both consciousness and metacognition involve higher-order psychological states, they have little more in common. One thing they do share is the possibility of misrepresentation; just as metacognitive processing can misrepresent one's cognitive states and abilities, so the HOA in virtue of which one's mental states are conscious can, and sometimes does, misdescribe those states. A striking difference between the two, however, has to do with utility for psychological processing. Metacognition has considerable benefit for psychological processing; in contrast, it is unlikely that there is much, if any, utility to mental states' being conscious over and above the utility those states have when they are not conscious.

  8. Electromagnetic cloaking in higher order spherical cloaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhwa, H. H.; Aiyar, R. P. R. C.; Kulkarni, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    The inception of transformation optics has led to the realisation of the invisibility devices for various applications, one of which is spherical cloaking. In this paper, a formulation for a higher-order spherical cloak has been proposed to reduce its physical thickness significantly by introducing a nonlinear relation between the original and transformed coordinate systems and it has been verified using the ray tracing approach. Analysis has been carried out to observe the anomalies in the variation of refractive index for higher order cloaks indicating the presence of poles in the relevant equations. Furthermore, a higher-order spherical cloak with predefined values of the material characteristics on its inner and outer surfaces has been designed for practical application.

  9. Higher-order force gradient symplectic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Kidwell, Donald W.

    2000-12-01

    We show that a recently discovered fourth order symplectic algorithm, which requires one evaluation of force gradient in addition to three evaluations of the force, when iterated to higher order, yielded algorithms that are far superior to similarly iterated higher order algorithms based on the standard Forest-Ruth algorithm. We gauge the accuracy of each algorithm by comparing the step-size independent error functions associated with energy conservation and the rotation of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector when solving a highly eccentric Kepler problem. For orders 6, 8, 10, and 12, the new algorithms are approximately a factor of 103, 104, 104, and 105 better.

  10. Higher-order phase shift reconstruction approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cong Wenxiang; Wang Ge

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: Biological soft tissues encountered in clinical and preclinical imaging mainly consists of atoms of light elements with low atomic numbers and their elemental composition is nearly uniform with little density variation. Hence, x-ray attenuation contrast is relatively poor and cannot achieve satisfactory sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, x-ray phase-contrast provides a new mechanism for soft tissue imaging. The x-ray phase shift of soft tissues is about a thousand times greater than the x-ray absorption over the diagnostic x-ray energy range, yielding a higher signal-to-noise ratio than the attenuation contrast counterpart. Thus, phase-contrast imaging is a promising technique to reveal detailed structural variation in soft tissues, offering a high contrast resolution between healthy and malignant tissues. Here the authors develop a novel phase retrieval method to reconstruct the phase image on the object plane from the intensity measurements. The reconstructed phase image is a projection of the phase shift induced by an object and serves as input to reconstruct the 3D refractive index distribution inside the object using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm. Such x-ray refractive index images can reveal structural features in soft tissues, with excellent resolution differentiating healthy and malignant tissues. Methods: A novel phase retrieval approach is proposed to reconstruct an x-ray phase image of an object based on the paraxial Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory. A primary advantage of the authors' approach is higher-order accuracy over that with the conventional linear approximation models, relaxing the current restriction of slow phase variation. The nonlinear terms in the autocorrelation equation of the Fresnel diffraction pattern are eliminated using intensity images measured at different distances in the Fresnel diffraction region, simplifying the phase reconstruction to a linear inverse problem. Numerical experiments are performed

  11. Assessing Higher Order Thinking in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulm, Gerald, Ed.

    This book explores current theory, research, practice, and policy in the assessment of higher order thinking in mathematics, focusing on the elementary and secondary grades. Current knowledge and research on mathematics learning and testing is synthesized. Examples of innovative test items for classroom use and state assessment programs are…

  12. A higher-order Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Nitta, Muneto

    2017-09-01

    We propose a higher-order Skyrme model with derivative terms of eighth, tenth and twelfth order. Our construction yields simple and easy-to-interpret higher-order Lagrangians. We first show that a Skyrmion with higher-order terms proposed by Marleau has an instability in the form of a baby-Skyrmion string, while the static energies of our construction are positive definite, implying stability against time-independent perturbations. However, we also find that the Hamiltonians of our construction possess two kinds of dynamical instabilities, which may indicate the instability with respect to time-dependent perturbations. Different from the well-known Ostrogradsky instability, the instabilities that we find are intrinsically of nonlinear nature and also due to the fact that even powers of the inverse metric gives a ghost-like higher-order kinetic-like term. The vacuum state is, however, stable. Finally, we show that at sufficiently low energies, our Hamiltonians in the simplest cases, are stable against time-dependent perturbations.

  13. Higher Order Thinking in the Dance Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Ann-Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The author identifies higher order thinking as an essential component of dance training for students of all ages and abilities. Weaving together insights from interviews with experts in the field of dance education with practical pedagogical applications within an Improvisation and Composition class for talented and gifted youth, this article…

  14. Higher Order Thinking in the Dance Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Ann-Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The author identifies higher order thinking as an essential component of dance training for students of all ages and abilities. Weaving together insights from interviews with experts in the field of dance education with practical pedagogical applications within an Improvisation and Composition class for talented and gifted youth, this article…

  15. Analogy, higher order thinking, and education.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey Engle; Simms, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Analogical reasoning, the ability to understand phenomena as systems of structured relationships that can be aligned, compared, and mapped together, plays a fundamental role in the technology rich, increasingly globalized educational climate of the 21st century. Flexible, conceptual thinking is prioritized in this view of education, and schools are emphasizing 'higher order thinking', rather than memorization of a cannon of key topics. The lack of a cognitively grounded definition for higher order thinking, however, has led to a field of research and practice with little coherence across domains or connection to the large body of cognitive science research on thinking. We review literature on analogy and disciplinary higher order thinking to propose that relational reasoning can be productively considered the cognitive underpinning of higher order thinking. We highlight the utility of this framework for developing insights into practice through a review of mathematics, science, and history educational contexts. In these disciplines, analogy is essential to developing expert-like disciplinary knowledge in which concepts are understood to be systems of relationships that can be connected and flexibly manipulated. At the same time, analogies in education require explicit support to ensure that learners notice the relevance of relational thinking, have adequate processing resources available to mentally hold and manipulate relations, and are able to recognize both the similarities and differences when drawing analogies between systems of relationships. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Using Reflection to Develop Higher Order Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerch, Carol; Bilics, Andrea; Colley, Binta

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to look at how we used specific writing assignments in our courses to encourage metacognitive reflection in order to increase the learning that takes place. The study also aimed to aid in the development of higher order processing skills through the development of student reflection. The students involved in the…

  17. Human motion perception: Higher-order organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of higher-order motion perception and organization. It is argued that motion is sufficient to fully specify a number of environmental properties, including: depth order, three-dimensional form, object displacement, and dynamics. A grammar of motion perception is proposed; applications of this work for display design are discussed.

  18. Cosmological models in higher-order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros

    This thesis is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the conformal structure, inflationary regimes, and singularity theorems in the context of higher-order gravity theories. The second part focuses on the question of the nature of cosmological singularities and in particular on the occurrence of chaotic behavior in the framework of these theories. We begin part one by formulating and proving what we call the conformal equivalence theorem which states that higher order gravity theories which are derived from a lagrangian density that is an analytic function of the scalar curvature are conformally equivalent to general relativity plus a scalar field matter source with a particular self-interaction potential. The solution space of higher-order gravity theories is examined and the weak field limit of these theories is calculated. The role of conformal non-invariance and the associated particle production in these theories is discussed. Several interpretative issues concerning the physical equivalence of these theories to general relativity with scalar field matter source are given and the physical reality of the conformally related metric tensors is examined in detail. The existence and stability conditions of the de Sitter space in the context of these theories are established and several examples which lead to successful inflation are presented. Effective potentials are drawn for certain classes of these theories. Singularity theorems are proved in the context of higher-order gravity theories and the status of the cosmic no-hair conjectures in these theories is critically presented. In the second part we start by reviewing certain useful and powerful methods for the study of chaotic behavior near cosmological singularities in general relativity. Recent numerical evidence that concerns the genericity of such oscillatory solutions is critically presented and commented upon. A new method based on the analytic theory of ordinary differential equations is

  19. Performance assessment of higher order thinking.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study investigating the effect of intervention on student problem solving and higher order competency development using a series of complex numeracy performance tasks (Airasian and Russell, 2008). The tasks were sequenced to promote and monitor student development towards hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Using Rasch partial credit analysis (Wright and Masters, 1982) to calibrate the tasks and analysis of residual gain scores to examine the effect of class and school membership, the study illustrates how directed intervention can improve students' higher order competency skills. This paper demonstrates how the segmentation defined by Wright and Masters can offer a basis for interpreting the construct underlying a test and how segment definitions can deliver targeted interventions. Implications for teacher intervention and teaching mentor schemes are considered. The article also discusses multilevel regression models that differentiate class and school effects, and describes a process for generating, testing and using value added models.

  20. Systems with Higher-order Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Yaakov; Kaplan, Arkady; Seimetz, Matthias

    The chapter covers concepts, systems aspects, and key components for higher-order modulation. The introductory section presents relevant variants of higher-order modulation formats and includes coherent detection and coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing as well. The next section is devoted to system configurations with particular emphasis on transmitter structures and receiver concepts, whereas the subsequent chapter focuses on key components. Included are LiNbO3-based quadrature modulators, integrated coherent receivers, in particular 90° hybrids, ranging from new concepts to proven implementations. A treatment of integrated balanced four-branch receivers ranges from theoretical analysis to the presentation of commercially available devices. The chapter concludes with a discussion of system trends and expected future developments.

  1. Higher order structure in ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Gutell, R R; Noller, H F; Woese, C R

    1986-05-01

    The only reliable general method currently available for determining precise higher order structure in the large ribosomal RNAs is comparative sequence analysis. The method is here applied to reveal 'tertiary' structure in the 16S-like rRNAs, i.e. structure more complex than simple double-helical, secondary structure. From a list of computer-generated potential higher order interactions within 16S rRNA one such interaction considered likely was selected for experimental test. The putative interaction involves a Watson-Crick one to one correspondence between positions 570 and 866 in the molecule (E. coli numbering). Using existing oligonucleotide catalog information several organisms were selected whose 16S rRNA sequences might test the proposed co-variation. In all of the (phylogenetically independent) cases selected, full sequence evidence confirms the predicted one to one (Watson-Crick) correspondence. An interaction between positions 570 and 866 is, therefore, considered proven phylogenetically.

  2. Random interactions in higher order neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Pierre; Venkatesh, Santosh S.

    1993-01-01

    Recurrent networks of polynomial threshold elements with random symmetric interactions are studied. Precise asymptotic estimates are derived for the expected number of fixed points as a function of the margin of stability. In particular, it is shown that there is a critical range of margins of stability (depending on the degree of polynomial interaction) such that the expected number of fixed points with margins below the critical range grows exponentially with the number of nodes in the network, while the expected number of fixed points with margins above the critical range decreases exponentially with the number of nodes in the network. The random energy model is also briefly examined and links with higher order neural networks and higher order spin glass models made explicit.

  3. Higher-Order Mentalising and Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Higher-order mentalising is the ability to represent the beliefs and desires of other people at multiple, iterated levels - a capacity that sets humans apart from other species. However, there has not yet been a systematic attempt to determine what cognitive processes underlie this ability. Here we present three correlational studies assessing the extent to which performance on higher-order mentalising tasks relates to emotion recognition, self-reported empathy and self-inhibition. In Study 1a and 1b, examining emotion recognition and empathy, a relationship was identified between individual differences in the ability to mentalise and an emotion recognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task), but no correlation was found with the Empathy Quotient, a self-report scale of empathy. Study 2 investigated whether a relationship exists between individual mentalising abilities and four different forms of self-inhibition: motor inhibition, executive inhibition, automatic imitation and temporal discounting. Results demonstrate that only temporal discounting performance relates to mentalising ability; suggesting that cognitive skills relevant to representation of the minds of others' are not influenced by the ability to perform more basic inhibition. Higher-order mentalising appears to rely on the cognitive architecture that serves both low-level social cognition (emotion recognition), and complex forms of inhibition.

  4. Higher-Order Mentalising and Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Higher-order mentalising is the ability to represent the beliefs and desires of other people at multiple, iterated levels – a capacity that sets humans apart from other species. However, there has not yet been a systematic attempt to determine what cognitive processes underlie this ability. Here we present three correlational studies assessing the extent to which performance on higher-order mentalising tasks relates to emotion recognition, self-reported empathy and self-inhibition. In Study 1a and 1b, examining emotion recognition and empathy, a relationship was identified between individual differences in the ability to mentalise and an emotion recognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task), but no correlation was found with the Empathy Quotient, a self-report scale of empathy. Study 2 investigated whether a relationship exists between individual mentalising abilities and four different forms of self-inhibition: motor inhibition, executive inhibition, automatic imitation and temporal discounting. Results demonstrate that only temporal discounting performance relates to mentalising ability; suggesting that cognitive skills relevant to representation of the minds of others’ are not influenced by the ability to perform more basic inhibition. Higher-order mentalising appears to rely on the cognitive architecture that serves both low-level social cognition (emotion recognition), and complex forms of inhibition. PMID:26543298

  5. Modeling Higher-Order Correlations within Cortical Microcolumns

    PubMed Central

    Köster, Urs; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha; Gray, Charles M.; Olshausen, Bruno A.

    2014-01-01

    We statistically characterize the population spiking activity obtained from simultaneous recordings of neurons across all layers of a cortical microcolumn. Three types of models are compared: an Ising model which captures pairwise correlations between units, a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) which allows for modeling of higher-order correlations, and a semi-Restricted Boltzmann Machine which is a combination of Ising and RBM models. Model parameters were estimated in a fast and efficient manner using minimum probability flow, and log likelihoods were compared using annealed importance sampling. The higher-order models reveal localized activity patterns which reflect the laminar organization of neurons within a cortical column. The higher-order models also outperformed the Ising model in log-likelihood: On populations of 20 cells, the RBM had 10% higher log-likelihood (relative to an independent model) than a pairwise model, increasing to 45% gain in a larger network with 100 spatiotemporal elements, consisting of 10 neurons over 10 time steps. We further removed the need to model stimulus-induced correlations by incorporating a peri-stimulus time histogram term, in which case the higher order models continued to perform best. These results demonstrate the importance of higher-order interactions to describe the structure of correlated activity in cortical networks. Boltzmann Machines with hidden units provide a succinct and effective way to capture these dependencies without increasing the difficulty of model estimation and evaluation. PMID:24991969

  6. Modeling higher-order correlations within cortical microcolumns.

    PubMed

    Köster, Urs; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha; Gray, Charles M; Olshausen, Bruno A

    2014-07-01

    We statistically characterize the population spiking activity obtained from simultaneous recordings of neurons across all layers of a cortical microcolumn. Three types of models are compared: an Ising model which captures pairwise correlations between units, a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) which allows for modeling of higher-order correlations, and a semi-Restricted Boltzmann Machine which is a combination of Ising and RBM models. Model parameters were estimated in a fast and efficient manner using minimum probability flow, and log likelihoods were compared using annealed importance sampling. The higher-order models reveal localized activity patterns which reflect the laminar organization of neurons within a cortical column. The higher-order models also outperformed the Ising model in log-likelihood: On populations of 20 cells, the RBM had 10% higher log-likelihood (relative to an independent model) than a pairwise model, increasing to 45% gain in a larger network with 100 spatiotemporal elements, consisting of 10 neurons over 10 time steps. We further removed the need to model stimulus-induced correlations by incorporating a peri-stimulus time histogram term, in which case the higher order models continued to perform best. These results demonstrate the importance of higher-order interactions to describe the structure of correlated activity in cortical networks. Boltzmann Machines with hidden units provide a succinct and effective way to capture these dependencies without increasing the difficulty of model estimation and evaluation.

  7. Visualizing higher order finite elements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2005-11-01

    This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elements into regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which the algorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomial approximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analytical solution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and momentum. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate. Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and these coefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of freedom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution. Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increasing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number of finite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some types of simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedom than increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation has determined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools do not exist for visual inspection of the solution. This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finite element simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicial regions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. The requirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the places where the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacing algorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.

  8. Higher-order corrections to Coulomb fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Raymond T.; Norbury, John W.

    1995-03-01

    Fission cross sections resulting from a 120 MeV/nucleon 238U beam incident upon Be, Al, Cu, Ag, and U targets have recently been measured by Justice et al. [Phys. Rev. C 49, R5 (1994)]. The electromagnetic contribution to these experimental cross sections have been compared to Weizsäcker-Williams theory which is based on first-order perturbation theory. The present work calculates the contribution to these cross sections due to higher-order excitations. Our results show that these corrections are insignificant in comparison to experimental error.

  9. The regular state in higher order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Kadry, Seifedine; Trachilis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    We consider the higher-order gravity theory derived from the quadratic Lagrangian R + 𝜖R2 in vacuum as a first-order (ADM-type) system with constraints, and build time developments of solutions of an initial value formulation of the theory. We show that all such solutions, if analytic, contain the right number of free functions to qualify as general solutions of the theory. We further show that any regular analytic solution which satisfies the constraints and the evolution equations can be given in the form of an asymptotic formal power series expansion.

  10. Higher Order Equations and Constituent Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barci, D. G.; Bollini, C. G.; Oxman, L. E.; Rocca, M.

    We consider a simple wave equation of fourth degree in the D'Alembertian operator. It contains the main ingredients of a general Lorentz-invariant higher order equation, namely, a normal bradyonic sector, a tachyonic state and a pair of complex conjugate modes. The propagators are respectively the Feynman causal function and three Wheeler-Green functions (half-advanced and half-retarded). The latter are Lorentz-invariant and consistent with the elimination of tachyons and complex modes from free asymptotic states. We also verify the absence of absorptive parts from convolutions involving Wheeler propagators.

  11. The minimal power spectrum: Higher order contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, J. N.

    1994-01-01

    It has been an accepted belief for some time that gravity induces a minimal tail P(k) approximately k(exp 4) in the power spectrum as k approaches 0 for distributions with no initial power on large scales. In a recent numerical experiment with initial power confined to a restricted range in k, Shandarin and Melott (1990) found a k approaches 0 tail that at early stages of evolution behaves as k(exp 4) and grows with time as a(exp 4)(t), where a(t) is the cosmological expansion factor, and at late times depends on scale as k(exp 3) and grows with time as a(exp 2)(t). I compute analytically several contributions to the power spectrum of higher order than those included in earlier work, and I apply the results to the particular case of initial power restricted to a finite range of k. As expected, in the perturbative regime P(k) approximately a(exp 4)k(exp 4) from the first correction to linear perturbation theory is the dominant term as k approaches 0. Numerical investigations show that the higher order contributions go as k(exp 4) also. However, perturbation theory alone cannot tell whether the P approximately a(exp 2)k(exp 3) result is 'nonperturbative' or a numerical artifact.

  12. Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene

    2002-01-01

    The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.

  13. Higher order cumulants in colorless partonic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cherif, S.; Ahmed, M. A. A.; Ladrem, M.

    2016-06-10

    Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume T{sub 0}(V), a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the ℒ{sub m,n}-Method is used. We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase transition point. In the context of our model, we have shown that the finite volume transition point is always associated to the appearance of a particular point in whole higher order cumulants under consideration.

  14. Nonconservative higher-order hydrodynamic modulation instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmoun, O.; Hsu, H. C.; Kibler, B.; Chabchoub, A.

    2017-08-01

    The modulation instability (MI) is a universal mechanism that is responsible for the disintegration of weakly nonlinear narrow-banded wave fields and the emergence of localized extreme events in dispersive media. The instability dynamics is naturally triggered, when unstable energy sidebands located around the main energy peak are excited and then follow an exponential growth law. As a consequence of four wave mixing effect, these primary sidebands generate an infinite number of additional sidebands, forming a triangular sideband cascade. After saturation, it is expected that the system experiences a return to initial conditions followed by a spectral recurrence dynamics. Much complex nonlinear wave field motion is expected, when the secondary or successive sideband pair that is created is also located in the finite instability gain range around the main carrier frequency peak. This latter process is referred to as higher-order MI. We report a numerical and experimental study that confirms observation of higher-order MI dynamics in water waves. Furthermore, we show that the presence of weak dissipation may counterintuitively enhance wave focusing in the second recurrent cycle of wave amplification. The interdisciplinary weakly nonlinear approach in addressing the evolution of unstable nonlinear waves dynamics may find significant resonance in other nonlinear dispersive media in physics, such as optics, solids, superfluids, and plasma.

  15. Higher order modes in photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Gansch, Roman; Kalchmair, Stefan; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron M; Klang, Pavel; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2011-08-15

    We present a detailed investigation of higher order modes in photonic crystal slabs. In such structures the resonances exhibit a blue-shift compared to an ideal two-dimensional photonic crystal, which depends on the order of the slab mode and the polarization. By fabricating a series of photonic crystal slab photo detecting devices, with varying ratios of slab thickness to photonic crystal lattice constant, we are able to distinguish between 0th and 1st order slab modes as well as the polarization from the shift of resonances in the photocurrent spectra. This method complements the photonic band structure mapping technique for characterization of photonic crystal slabs. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. Higher order correlations of IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meiksin, Avery; Szapudi, Istvan; Szalay, Alexander

    1992-01-01

    The higher order irreducible angular correlation functions are derived up to the eight-point function, for a sample of 4654 IRAS galaxies, flux-limited at 1.2 Jy in the 60 microns band. The correlations are generally found to be somewhat weaker than those for the optically selected galaxies, consistent with the visual impression of looser clusters in the IRAS sample. It is found that the N-point correlation functions can be expressed as the symmetric sum of products of N - 1 two-point functions, although the correlations above the four-point function are consistent with zero. The coefficients are consistent with the hierarchical clustering scenario as modeled by Hamilton and by Schaeffer.

  17. Higher-order structure of rRNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutell, R. R.; Woese, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative search for phylogenetically covarying basepair replacements within potential helices has been the only reliable method to determine the correct secondary structure of the 3 rRNAs, 5S, 16S, and 23S. The analysis of 16S from a wide phylogenetic spectrum, that includes various branches of the eubacteria, archaebacteria, eucaryotes, in addition to the mitochondria and chloroplast, is beginning to reveal the constraints on the secondary structures of these rRNAs. Based on the success of this analysis, and the assumption that higher order structure will also be phylogenetically conserved, a comparative search was initiated for positions that show co-variation not involved in secondary structure helices. From a list of potential higher order interactions within 16S rRNA, two higher-order interactions are presented. The first of these interactions involves positions 570 and 866. Based on the extent of phylogenetic covariation between these positions while maintaining Watson-Crick pairing, this higher-order interaction is considered proven. The other interaction involves a minimum of six positions between the 1400 and 1500 regions of the 16S rRNA. Although these patterns of covariation are not as striking as the 570/866 interaction, the fact that they all exist in an anti-parallel fashion and that experimental methods previously implicated these two regions of the molecule in tRNA function suggests that these interactions be given serious consideration.

  18. Higher-order structure of rRNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutell, R. R.; Woese, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative search for phylogenetically covarying basepair replacements within potential helices has been the only reliable method to determine the correct secondary structure of the 3 rRNAs, 5S, 16S, and 23S. The analysis of 16S from a wide phylogenetic spectrum, that includes various branches of the eubacteria, archaebacteria, eucaryotes, in addition to the mitochondria and chloroplast, is beginning to reveal the constraints on the secondary structures of these rRNAs. Based on the success of this analysis, and the assumption that higher order structure will also be phylogenetically conserved, a comparative search was initiated for positions that show co-variation not involved in secondary structure helices. From a list of potential higher order interactions within 16S rRNA, two higher-order interactions are presented. The first of these interactions involves positions 570 and 866. Based on the extent of phylogenetic covariation between these positions while maintaining Watson-Crick pairing, this higher-order interaction is considered proven. The other interaction involves a minimum of six positions between the 1400 and 1500 regions of the 16S rRNA. Although these patterns of covariation are not as striking as the 570/866 interaction, the fact that they all exist in an anti-parallel fashion and that experimental methods previously implicated these two regions of the molecule in tRNA function suggests that these interactions be given serious consideration.

  19. Higher-order brane gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Balcerzak, Adam

    2010-06-23

    We discuss a very general theory of gravity, of which Lagrangian is an arbitrary function of the curvature invariants, on the brane. In general, the formulation of the junction conditions (except for Euler characteristics such as Gauss-Bonnet term) leads to the powers of the delta function and requires regularization. We suggest the way to avoid such a problem by imposing the metric and its first derivative to be regular at the brane, the second derivative to have a kink, the third derivative of the metric to have a step function discontinuity, and no sooner as the fourth derivative of the metric to give the delta function contribution to the field equations. Alternatively, we discuss the reduction of the fourth-order gravity to the second order theory by introducing extra scalar and tensor fields: the scalaron and the tensoron. In order to obtain junction conditions we apply two methods: the application of the Gauss-Codazzi formalism and the application of the generalized Gibbons-Hawking boundary terms which are appended to the appropriate actions. In the most general case we derive junction conditions without assuming the continuity of the scalaron and the tensoron on the brane. The derived junction conditions can serve studying the cosmological implications of the higher-order brane gravity models.

  20. Higher order organization of human placental aromatase.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debashis; Jiang, Wenhua; Lo, Jessica; Egbuta, Chinaza

    2011-07-01

    Aromatase (CYP19A1) is an integral membrane enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the 19-methyl group and aromatization of the A-ring of androgens. All human estrogens are synthesized from their androgenic precursors by this unique cytochrome P450. The crystal structure of active aromatase purified from human placenta has recently been determined in complex with its natural substrate androstenedione in the high-spin ferric state of heme. Hydrogen bond forming interactions and tight packing hydrophobic side chains closely complement puckering of the steroid backbone, thereby providing the molecular basis for the androgenic specificity of aromatase. In the crystal, aromatase molecules are linked by a head-to-tail intermolecular interaction via a surface loop between helix D and helix E of one aromatase molecule that penetrates the heme-proximal cavity of the neighboring, crystallographically related molecule, thus forming in tandem a polymeric aromatase chain. This intermolecular interaction is similar to the aromatase-cytochrome P450 reductase coupling and is driven by electrostatics between the negative potential surface of the D-E loop region and the positively charged heme-proximal cavity. This loop-to-proximal site link in aromatase is rather unique--there are only a few of examples of somewhat similar intermolecular interactions in the entire P450 structure database. Furthermore, the amino acids involved in the intermolecular contact appear to be specific for aromatase. Higher order organization of aromatase monomers may have implications in lipid integration and catalysis.

  1. Higher order structure of aquaporin-4.

    PubMed

    Nicchia, G P; Rossi, A; Mola, M G; Pisani, F; Stigliano, C; Basco, D; Mastrototaro, M; Svelto, M; Frigeri, A

    2010-07-28

    Unlike other mammalian AQPs, multiple tetramers of AQP4 associate in the plasma membrane to form peculiar structures called Orthogonal Arrays of Particles (OAPs), that are observable by freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FFEM). However, FFEM cannot give information about the composition of OAPs of different sizes, and due to its technical complexity is not easily applicable as a routine technique. Recently, we employed the 2D gel electrophoresis BN-SDS/PAGE that for the first time enabled the biochemical isolation of AQP4-OAPs from several tissues. We found that AQP4 protein is present in several higher-order complexes (membrane pools of supra-structures) which contain different ratios of M1/M23 isoforms corresponding to AQP4-OAPs of different size. In this paper, we illustrate in detail the potentiality of 2D BN/SDS-PAGE for analyzing AQP4 supra-structures, their relationship with the dystrophin glycoprotein complex and other membrane proteins, and their role as a specific target of Neuromyelitis Optica autoantibodies.

  2. Representing higher-order dependencies in networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Wickramarathne, Thanuka L.; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the correctness of network analysis methods, the network (as the input) has to be a sufficiently accurate representation of the underlying data. However, when representing sequential data from complex systems, such as global shipping traffic or Web clickstream traffic as networks, conventional network representations that implicitly assume the Markov property (first-order dependency) can quickly become limiting. This assumption holds that, when movements are simulated on the network, the next movement depends only on the current node, discounting the fact that the movement may depend on several previous steps. However, we show that data derived from many complex systems can show up to fifth-order dependencies. In these cases, the oversimplifying assumption of the first-order network representation can lead to inaccurate network analysis results. To address this problem, we propose the higher-order network (HON) representation that can discover and embed variable orders of dependencies in a network representation. Through a comprehensive empirical evaluation and analysis, we establish several desirable characteristics of HON, including accuracy, scalability, and direct compatibility with the existing suite of network analysis methods. We illustrate how HON can be applied to a broad variety of tasks, such as random walking, clustering, and ranking, and we demonstrate that, by using it as input, HON yields more accurate results without any modification to these tasks. PMID:27386539

  3. Aspects of general higher-order gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Pablo; Cano, Pablo A.; Min, Vincent S.; Visser, Manus R.

    2017-02-01

    We study several aspects of higher-order gravities constructed from general contractions of the Riemann tensor and the metric in arbitrary dimensions. First, we use the fast-linearization procedure presented in [P. Bueno and P. A. Cano, arXiv:1607.06463] to obtain the equations satisfied by the metric perturbation modes on a maximally symmetric background in the presence of matter and to classify L (Riemann ) theories according to their spectrum. Then, we linearize all theories up to quartic order in curvature and use this result to construct quartic versions of Einsteinian cubic gravity. In addition, we show that the most general cubic gravity constructed in a dimension-independent way and which does not propagate the ghostlike spin-2 mode (but can propagate the scalar) is a linear combination of f (Lovelock ) invariants, plus the Einsteinian cubic gravity term, plus a new ghost-free gravity term. Next, we construct the generalized Newton potential and the post-Newtonian parameter γ for general L (Riemann ) gravities in arbitrary dimensions, unveiling some interesting differences with respect to the four-dimensional case. We also study the emission and propagation of gravitational radiation from sources for these theories in four dimensions, providing a generalized formula for the power emitted. Finally, we review Wald's formalism for general L (Riemann ) theories and construct new explicit expressions for the relevant quantities involved. Many examples illustrate our calculations.

  4. Symmetries and generalized higher order conserved vectors of the wave equation on Bianchi I spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim; Jhangeer, Adil

    Conservation laws of various systems have been studied for decades due to their unparalleled importance in unraveling systems’ intricacies without having to go into microscopic details of the physical process involved. Their association with symmetries has not only had a stupendous impact in the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics, but also open doors to further explorations and unifications of others. In this study, we present the Lie symmetries and nonlinearly self-adjoint classifications of the wave equation on Bianchi I spacetime. For different forms of the metric potentials, generalized higher order non-trivial conserved vectors are constructed. Some exact invariant solutions are also exhibited.

  5. Supersymmetry, Supergravity, and Unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Pran

    2016-12-01

    Dedication; Preface; 1. A brief history of unification; 2. Gravitation; 3. Non-abelian gauge theory; 4. Spontaneous breaking of global and local symmetries; 5. The Standard Model; 6. Anomalies; 7. Effective Lagrangians; 8. Supersymmetry; 9. Grand unification; 10. MSSM Lagrangian; 11. N = 1 supergravity; 12. Coupling of supergravity with matter and gauge fields; 13. Supergravity grand unification; 14. Phenomenology of supergravity grand unification; 15. CP violation in supergravity unified theories; 16. Proton stability in supergravity unified theories; 17. Cosmology, astroparticle physics and SUGRA unification; 18. Extended supergravities and supergravities from superstrings; 19. Specialized topics; 20. The future of unification; 21. Appendices; 22. Notations, conventions, and formulae; 23. Physical constants; 24. List of books and reviews for further reading; Index.

  6. Higher-order polarization singularitites in tailored vector beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, E.; Alpmann, C.; Denz, C.

    2016-07-01

    Higher-order polarization singularities embedded in tailored vector beams are introduced and experimentally realized. As holographic modulation allows to define order and location of any vectorial singularity, the surrounding vector field can be dynamically shaped. We demonstrate light fields associated with flowers or spider webs due to regular and even irregular patterns of the orientation of polarization ellipses. Beyond that, not yet investigated hybrid structures are introduced that allow generating networks of flowers and webs in very close vicinity. Our results pave the way to applications of singular optics in spatially extended, optimized optical tweezing and high-resolution imaging.

  7. Higher Order Pattern Structure Influences Auditory Representational Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Heather Moynihan; Jones, Mari Riess

    2006-01-01

    Representational momentum refers to the phenomenon that observers tend to incorrectly remember an event undergoing real or implied motion as shifted beyond its actual final position. This has been demonstrated in both visual and auditory domains. In 5 pitch discrimination experiments, listeners heard tone sequences that implied either linear,…

  8. Higher Order Pattern Structure Influences Auditory Representational Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Heather Moynihan; Jones, Mari Riess

    2006-01-01

    Representational momentum refers to the phenomenon that observers tend to incorrectly remember an event undergoing real or implied motion as shifted beyond its actual final position. This has been demonstrated in both visual and auditory domains. In 5 pitch discrimination experiments, listeners heard tone sequences that implied either linear,…

  9. Higher-Order Interference in Extensions of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ciarán M.; Selby, John H.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum interference, manifest in the two slit experiment, lies at the heart of several quantum computational speed-ups and provides a striking example of a quantum phenomenon with no classical counterpart. An intriguing feature of quantum interference arises in a variant of the standard two slit experiment, in which there are three, rather than two, slits. The interference pattern in this set-up can be written in terms of the two and one slit patterns obtained by blocking one, or more, of the slits. This is in stark contrast with the standard two slit experiment, where the interference pattern cannot be written as a sum of the one slit patterns. This was first noted by Rafael Sorkin, who raised the question of why quantum theory only exhibits irreducible interference in the two slit experiment. One approach to this problem is to compare the predictions of quantum theory to those of operationally-defined `foil' theories, in the hope of determining whether theories that do exhibit higher-order interference suffer from pathological—or at least undesirable—features. In this paper two proposed extensions of quantum theory are considered: the theory of Density Cubes proposed by Dakić, Paterek and Brukner, which has been shown to exhibit irreducible interference in the three slit set-up, and the Quartic Quantum Theory of Życzkowski. The theory of Density Cubes will be shown to provide an advantage over quantum theory in a certain computational task and to posses a well-defined mechanism which leads to the emergence of quantum theory—analogous to the emergence of classical physics from quantum theory via decoherence. Despite this, the axioms used to define Density Cubes will be shown to be insufficient to uniquely characterise the theory. In comparison, Quartic Quantum Theory is a well-defined theory and we demonstrate that it exhibits irreducible interference to all orders. This feature of Życzkowski's theory is argued not to be a genuine phenomenon, but to

  10. Higher-Order Interference in Extensions of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ciarán M.; Selby, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum interference, manifest in the two slit experiment, lies at the heart of several quantum computational speed-ups and provides a striking example of a quantum phenomenon with no classical counterpart. An intriguing feature of quantum interference arises in a variant of the standard two slit experiment, in which there are three, rather than two, slits. The interference pattern in this set-up can be written in terms of the two and one slit patterns obtained by blocking one, or more, of the slits. This is in stark contrast with the standard two slit experiment, where the interference pattern cannot be written as a sum of the one slit patterns. This was first noted by Rafael Sorkin, who raised the question of why quantum theory only exhibits irreducible interference in the two slit experiment. One approach to this problem is to compare the predictions of quantum theory to those of operationally-defined `foil' theories, in the hope of determining whether theories that do exhibit higher-order interference suffer from pathological—or at least undesirable—features. In this paper two proposed extensions of quantum theory are considered: the theory of Density Cubes proposed by Dakić, Paterek and Brukner, which has been shown to exhibit irreducible interference in the three slit set-up, and the Quartic Quantum Theory of Życzkowski. The theory of Density Cubes will be shown to provide an advantage over quantum theory in a certain computational task and to posses a well-defined mechanism which leads to the emergence of quantum theory—analogous to the emergence of classical physics from quantum theory via decoherence. Despite this, the axioms used to define Density Cubes will be shown to be insufficient to uniquely characterise the theory. In comparison, Quartic Quantum Theory is a well-defined theory and we demonstrate that it exhibits irreducible interference to all orders. This feature of Życzkowski's theory is argued not to be a genuine phenomenon, but to

  11. Software Contracts in a Higher-order World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    02-2012 final 01 March 2009 -01 February 2012 Software Contracts in a Higher -order World FA9550-09-1-0110 Matthias Felleisen Northeastern...contracts in a higher -order world of programming. The primary thrust of the work explored the meaning of contracts. We focused on three questions. First...contracts higher -order programming U U U UU 4 Matthias Felleisen 617-363-2085 Software Contracts in a Higher -Order World Matthias Felleisen matthias

  12. Conceptualizing and Assessing Higher-Order Thinking in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter; Cho, Byeong-Young; Kim, Jong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Students engage in higher-order thinking as they read complex texts and perform complex reading-related tasks. However, the most consequential assessments, high-stakes tests, are currently limited in providing information about students' higher-order thinking. In this article, we describe higher-order thinking in relation to reading. We provide a…

  13. Conceptualizing and Assessing Higher-Order Thinking in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afflerbach, Peter; Cho, Byeong-Young; Kim, Jong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Students engage in higher-order thinking as they read complex texts and perform complex reading-related tasks. However, the most consequential assessments, high-stakes tests, are currently limited in providing information about students' higher-order thinking. In this article, we describe higher-order thinking in relation to reading. We provide a…

  14. Vehicle track segmentation using higher order random fields

    DOE PAGES

    Quach, Tu -Thach

    2017-01-09

    Here, we present an approach to segment vehicle tracks in coherent change detection images, a product of combining two synthetic aperture radar images taken at different times. The approach uses multiscale higher order random field models to capture track statistics, such as curvatures and their parallel nature, that are not currently utilized in existing methods. These statistics are encoded as 3-by-3 patterns at different scales. The model can complete disconnected tracks often caused by sensor noise and various environmental effects. Coupling the model with a simple classifier, our approach is effective at segmenting salient tracks. We improve the F-measure onmore » a standard vehicle track data set to 0.963, up from 0.897 obtained by the current state-of-the-art method.« less

  15. Higher-order harmonics in bleached silver halide holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bányász, I.

    2006-09-01

    A large number of plane wave holograms were recorded in Agfa-Gevaert 8E75HD holographic plates, at a wide range of bias exposures and fringe visibilities. The plates were processed by various combinations of developers (AAC, Pyrogallol and Catechol) and bleaching agents (R-9 and EDTA). The phase gratings were studied by phase-contrast microscopy, using a high-power immersion (100×) objective. The phase-contrast photomicrographs were Fourier analysed. Thus, first-, second-, and third-order modulations of the refractive index as a function of bias exposure and visibility of the recording interference pattern could be determined. The ratio of the amplitudes of higher-order modulations to that of the first-order can serve as a measure of the nonlinearity of the holographic recording.

  16. Higher Order Crossings from a Parametric Family of Linear Filters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    HIGHER ORDER CROSSINGS FROM A PARAMETRIC FAMILY OF LINEAR FILTERS DTIC DTC Benjamin Kedem and Ta-hsin Li E! U 4C99 Department of MathematicsS4 9...NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Higher order crossings from a parametric family Technical Report of linear filters...corresponding family of zero-crossing counts. The resulting family of counts is referred to as higher order crossings or HOC. Thus, HOC are zero-crossing

  17. Skinner-Rusk unified formalism for higher-order systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-07-01

    The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of R. Skinner and R. Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, first-order and higher-order field theories, and higher-order autonomous systems. In this work we present a generalization of this formalism for higher-order non-autonomous mechanical systems.

  18. Generation of Higher Order Modes in a Rectangular Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Brown, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    Advanced noise control methodologies to reduce sound emission from aircraft engines take advantage of the modal structure of the noise in the duct. This noise is caused by the interaction of rotor wakes with downstream obstructions such as exit guide vanes. Mode synthesis has been accomplished in circular ducts and current active noise control work has made use of this capability to cancel fan noise. The goal of the current effort is to examine the fundamental process of higher order mode propagation through an acoustically treated, curved duct. The duct cross-section is rectangular to permit greater flexibility in representation of a range of duct curvatures. The work presented is the development of a feedforward control system to generate a user-specified modal pattern in the duct. The multiple-error, filtered-x LMS algorithm is used to determine the magnitude and phase of signal input to the loudspeakers to produce a desired modal pattern at a set of error microphones. Implementation issues, including loudspeaker placement and error microphone placement, are discussed. Preliminary results from a 9-3/8 inch by 21 inch duct, using 12 loudspeakers and 24 microphones, are presented. These results demonstrate the ability of the control system to generate a user-specified mode while suppressing undesired modes.

  19. Promoting Higher Order Thinking Skills Using Inquiry-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhuri, G. V.; Kantamreddi, V. S. S. N; Prakash Goteti, L. N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in…

  20. Planning a Telelearning Environment To Foster Higher Order Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, Catherine; Oliver, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Discusses audiographic conferencing in Western Australia and describes research that investigated telematics classrooms, with a focus on changing the teaching/learning environment to develop higher-order thinking skills. Results indicate that higher-order thinking increased with the scaffolding role of the teacher and social interaction and…

  1. Promoting Higher Order Thinking Skills Using Inquiry-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhuri, G. V.; Kantamreddi, V. S. S. N; Prakash Goteti, L. N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in…

  2. Higher Order Thinking: Definition, Meaning and Instructional Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ruth G., Ed.

    This publication shares current thinking, research, and practice in the area of higher order thinking skills with home economics educators, including teachers, supervisors, and teacher educators. The first three articles provide general discussions of thinking skills. They are "Introduction" (Ruth Pestle); "Can Higher Order Thinking…

  3. Higher-order Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Truong X.; Duong, Dũng C.

    2015-10-15

    We study optical analogues of higher-order Dirac solitons (HODSs) in binary waveguide arrays. Like higher-order solitons obtained from the well-known nonlinear Schrödinger equation governing the pulse propagation in an optical fiber, these HODSs have amplitude profiles which are numerically shown to be periodic over large propagation distances. At the same time, HODSs possess some unique features. Firstly, the period of a HODS depends on its order parameter. Secondly, the discrete nature in binary waveguide arrays imposes the upper limit on the order parameter of HODSs. Thirdly, the order parameter of HODSs can vary continuously in a certain range. - Highlights: • Higher-order Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays are numerically demonstrated. • Amplitude profiles of higher-order Dirac solitons are periodic during propagation. • The period of higher-order Dirac solitons decreases when the soliton order increases.

  4. Higher order factors of personality: do they exist?

    PubMed

    Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom; Goldberg, Lewis R; de Vries, Reinout E

    2009-05-01

    Scales that measure the Big Five personality factors are often substantially intercorrelated. These correlations are sometimes interpreted as implying the existence of two higher order factors of personality. The authors show that correlations between measures of broad personality factors do not necessarily imply the existence of higher order factors and might instead be due to variables that represent same-signed blends of orthogonal factors. Therefore, the hypotheses of higher order factors and blended variables can only be tested with data on lower level personality variables that define the personality factors. The authors compared the higher order factor model and the blended variable model in three participant samples using the Big Five Aspect Scales, and found better fit for the latter model. In other analyses using the HEXACO Personality Inventory, they identified mutually uncorrelated markers of six personality factors. The authors conclude that correlations between personality factor scales can be explained without postulating any higher order dimensions of personality.

  5. Higher-order mode photonic crystal based nanofluidic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wang; Chen, Youping; Ai, Wu

    2017-01-01

    A higher-order photonic crystal (PC) based nanofluidic sensor, which worked at 532 nm, was designed and demonstrated. A systematical and detailed method for sculpturing a PC sensor for a given peak wavelength value (PWV) and specified materials was illuminated. It was the first time that the higher order mode was used to design PC based nanofluidic sensor, and the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of this sensor had been verified with FDTD simulation software from Lumerical. The enhanced electrical field of higher order mode structure was mostly confined in the channel area, where the enhance field is wholly interacting with the analytes in the channels. The comparison of RI sensitivity between fundamental mode and higher order mode shows the RI variation of higher order mode is 124.5 nm/RIU which is much larger than the fundamental mode. The proposed PC based nanofluidic structure pioneering a novel style for future optofluidic design.

  6. Hidden SUSY from precision gauge unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krippendorf, Sven; Nilles, Hans Peter; Ratz, Michael; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    We revisit the implications of naturalness and gauge unification in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We find that precision unification of the couplings in connection with a small μ parameter requires a highly compressed gaugino pattern as it is realized in mirage mediation. Due to the small mass difference between the gluino and lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), collider limits on the gluino mass are drastically relaxed. Without further assumptions, the relic density of the LSP is very close to the observed dark matter density due to coannihilation effects.

  7. Higher order SVD analysis for dynamic texture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Roberto; Sbaiz, Luciano; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Videos representing flames, water, smoke, etc., are often defined as dynamic textures: "textures" because they are characterized by the redundant repetition of a pattern and "dynamic" because this repetition is also in time and not only in space. Dynamic textures have been modeled as linear dynamic systems by unfolding the video frames into column vectors and describing their trajectory as time evolves. After the projection of the vectors onto a lower dimensional space by a singular value decomposition (SVD), the trajectory is modeled using system identification techniques. Synthesis is obtained by driving the system with random noise. In this paper, we show that the standard SVD can be replaced by a higher order SVD (HOSVD), originally known as Tucker decomposition. HOSVD decomposes the dynamic texture as a multidimensional signal (tensor) without unfolding the video frames on column vectors. This is a more natural and flexible decomposition, since it permits us to perform dimension reduction in the spatial, temporal, and chromatic domain, while standard SVD allows for temporal reduction only. We show that for a comparable synthesis quality, the HOSVD approach requires, on average, five times less parameters than the standard SVD approach. The analysis part is more expensive, but the synthesis has the same cost as existing algorithms. Our technique is, thus, well suited to dynamic texture synthesis on devices limited by memory and computational power, such as PDAs or mobile phones.

  8. A robot architecture based on higher order perception loop.

    PubMed

    Chella, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the self-consciousness of a robot as based on higher order perceptions of the robot itself. In this sense, the first order perceptions of the robot are the immediate perceptions of the outer world of the robot, while higher order perceptions are the robot perceptions of its own inner world. The resulting architecture based on higher order perceptions has been implemented and tested in a project regarding a robotic touristic guide acting in the Botanical Garden of the University of Palermo.

  9. Higher order mode of a microstripline fed cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. V. Praveen

    2016-03-01

    A microstrip transmission line can be used to excite the broadside radiating mode of a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (CDRA). The same is found to excite considerably well a higher order mode (HOM) as well. However unlike the broadside mode, the higher order mode gives distorted radiation pattern which makes this mode less useful for practical applications. The cause of distortion in the HOM radiation and the dependence of HOM coupling on the microstrip feed line are explored using HFSS simulations.

  10. Higher order mode of a microstripline fed cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, A. V. Praveen

    2016-03-09

    A microstrip transmission line can be used to excite the broadside radiating mode of a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (CDRA). The same is found to excite considerably well a higher order mode (HOM) as well. However unlike the broadside mode, the higher order mode gives distorted radiation pattern which makes this mode less useful for practical applications. The cause of distortion in the HOM radiation and the dependence of HOM coupling on the microstrip feed line are explored using HFSS simulations.

  11. Symplectic structures related with higher order variational problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijowski, Jerzy; Moreno, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we derive the symplectic framework for field theories defined by higher order Lagrangians. The construction is based on the symplectic reduction of suitable spaces of iterated jets. The possibility of reducing a higher order system of partial differential equations to a constrained first-order one, the symplectic structures naturally arising in the dynamics of a first-order Lagrangian theory, and the importance of the Poincaré-Cartan form for variational problems, are all well-established facts. However, their adequate combination corresponding to higher order theories is missing in the literature. Here we obtain a consistent and truly finite-dimensional canonical formalism, as well as a higher order version of the Poincaré-Cartan form. In our exposition, the rigorous global proofs of the main results are always accompanied by their local coordinate descriptions, indispensable to work out practical examples.

  12. Higher-order intersections in low-dimensional topology

    PubMed Central

    Conant, Jim; Schneiderman, Rob; Teichner, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We show how to measure the failure of the Whitney move in dimension 4 by constructing higher-order intersection invariants of Whitney towers built from iterated Whitney disks on immersed surfaces in 4-manifolds. For Whitney towers on immersed disks in the 4-ball, we identify some of these new invariants with previously known link invariants such as Milnor, Sato–Levine, and Arf invariants. We also define higher-order Sato–Levine and Arf invariants and show that these invariants detect the obstructions to framing a twisted Whitney tower. Together with Milnor invariants, these higher-order invariants are shown to classify the existence of (twisted) Whitney towers of increasing order in the 4-ball. A conjecture regarding the nontriviality of the higher-order Arf invariants is formulated, and related implications for filtrations of string links and 3-dimensional homology cylinders are described. PMID:21518909

  13. Application of Mass Lumped Higher Order Finite Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Strauss, H. R.; Jardin, S. C.; Park, W.; Sugiyama, L. E.; G. Fu; Breslau, J.

    2005-11-01

    There are many interesting phenomena in extended-MHD such as anisotropic transport, mhd, 2-fluid effects stellarator and hot particles. Any one of them challenges numerical analysts, and researchers are seeking for higher order methods, such as higher order finite difference, higher order finite elements and hp/spectral elements. It is true that these methods give more accurate solution than their linear counterparts. However, numerically they are prohibitively expensive. Here we give a successful solution of this conflict by applying mass lumped higher order finite elements. This type of elements not only keep second/third order accuracy but also scale closely to linear elements by doing mass lumping. This is especially true for second order lump elements. Full M3D and anisotropic transport models are studied.

  14. Unambiguous formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Cédric M.; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David; Vankerschaver, Joris

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose an unambiguous intrinsic formalism for higher order field theories which avoids the arbitrariness in the generalization of the conventional description of field theories, and implies the existence of different Cartan forms and Legendre transformations. We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. As both of these objects are uniquely defined, the Skinner-Rusk approach has the advantage that it does not suffer from the arbitrariness in conventional descriptions. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic version of the Euler-Lagrange equations for higher order field theories. Several examples illustrate our construction.

  15. Higher-Order Modes in Free Electron Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Higher -Order Modes in Free Electron Lasers by B. W. Williams September 2005 Thesis Advisor: W...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE September 2005 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Higher ...for the fundamental Gaussian mode, and higher -order modes in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinate spaces, yielding expressions for the complete and

  16. The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism for higher order field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitagliano, Luca

    2010-06-01

    We generalize the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formalism of Skinner and Rusk to higher order field theories on fiber bundles. As a byproduct we solve the long standing problem of defining, in a coordinate free manner, a Hamiltonian formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories. Namely, our formalism does only depend on the action functional and, therefore, unlike previously proposed ones, is free from any relevant ambiguity.

  17. Unification of Fundamental Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Abdus; Taylor, Foreword by John C.

    2005-10-01

    Foreword John C. Taylor; 1. Unification of fundamental forces Abdus Salam; 2. History unfolding: an introduction to the two 1968 lectures by W. Heisenberg and P. A. M. Dirac Abdus Salam; 3. Theory, criticism, and a philosophy Werner Heisenberg; 4. Methods in theoretical physics Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac.

  18. Higher order language competence and adolescent mental health.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nancy J; Farnia, Fataneh; Im-Bolter, Nancie

    2013-07-01

    Clinic and community-based epidemiological studies have shown an association between child psychopathology and language impairment. The demands on language for social and academic adjustment shift dramatically during adolescence and the ability to understand the nonliteral meaning in language represented by higher order language becomes essential.  : This article reports on the association between difficulties in higher order language skills, reading, cognition, and social-emotional adjustment in adolescents.  : 144 clinic-referred and 186 comparison youth aged 12-18 years were administered a battery of standardized tests of intelligence, working memory, structural and higher order language, and reading achievement. Parent ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist were used as a measure of severity of social-emotional problems.  : Clinic-referred youth scored significantly lower than comparison youth on measures of structural and higher order language, working memory, and reading. Of the clinic-referred youth, 45% had some type of higher order language impairment, whereas this was the case for 15% of youth in the comparison group. Lower levels of nonverbal ability and working memory as well as lower level of mothers' education were associated with greater risk of having higher order language impairment.  : Findings have implications for practitioners' seeking to understand and treat adolescents since therapeutic techniques rely on skills where higher order language is at play including the ability to discuss opinions flexibly and to weigh interpretations. Therapists must be aware that there are areas that have potential for miscommunication with some adolescents and where inaccurate inferences may be made about their behavior. Furthermore, educators must consider resources for youth who may increasingly struggle in high school because of such difficulties. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and

  19. Higher Order Modeling In the BEM/FEM Hybrid Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Wilton, Don R.

    2000-01-01

    Hybrid formulations using low order curl-conforming bases to represent the total electric field within a finite element region and low order divergence-conforming bases to represent equivalent electric and magnetic currents on the boundary are well known. However, higher-order divergence and curl-conforming bases have been shown to provide significant benefits in convergence rates and accuracy when employed in strictly integral equation and strictly finite element formulations. In this paper, a hybrid electric field formulation employing higher order bases is presented. The paper addresses benefits and issues associated with using higher order divergence-and curl-conforming bases in the hybrid finite element/boundary element electric field formulation. The method of singularity subtraction may be used to compute the self terms of the boundary integral when the bases are of low order. But this method becomes laborious and requires great care when the divergence conforming bases are of higher order. In order to handle these singularities simply and accurately, a generalized Gaussian quadrature method is employed in which the expansion functions account for the singularity. In preliminary tests of the higher order hybrid formulation, the equivalent electric current induced by scattering of a plane wave from a square dielectric cylinder is examined. Accurate results are obtained using only a two-triangle mesh when the current basis is of order 4 or 5. Additional results are presented comparing the error obtained using higher order bases to that obtained using lower order bases when the number of unknowns is approximately equal. Also, convergence rates obtained with higher order bases are compared to those obtained with lower order bases for selected sample problems.

  20. Tensor Spectral Clustering for Partitioning Higher-order Network Structures.

    PubMed

    Benson, Austin R; Gleich, David F; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Spectral graph theory-based methods represent an important class of tools for studying the structure of networks. Spectral methods are based on a first-order Markov chain derived from a random walk on the graph and thus they cannot take advantage of important higher-order network substructures such as triangles, cycles, and feed-forward loops. Here we propose a Tensor Spectral Clustering (TSC) algorithm that allows for modeling higher-order network structures in a graph partitioning framework. Our TSC algorithm allows the user to specify which higher-order network structures (cycles, feed-forward loops, etc.) should be preserved by the network clustering. Higher-order network structures of interest are represented using a tensor, which we then partition by developing a multilinear spectral method. Our framework can be applied to discovering layered flows in networks as well as graph anomaly detection, which we illustrate on synthetic networks. In directed networks, a higher-order structure of particular interest is the directed 3-cycle, which captures feedback loops in networks. We demonstrate that our TSC algorithm produces large partitions that cut fewer directed 3-cycles than standard spectral clustering algorithms.

  1. Tensor Spectral Clustering for Partitioning Higher-order Network Structures

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Austin R.; Gleich, David F.; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Spectral graph theory-based methods represent an important class of tools for studying the structure of networks. Spectral methods are based on a first-order Markov chain derived from a random walk on the graph and thus they cannot take advantage of important higher-order network substructures such as triangles, cycles, and feed-forward loops. Here we propose a Tensor Spectral Clustering (TSC) algorithm that allows for modeling higher-order network structures in a graph partitioning framework. Our TSC algorithm allows the user to specify which higher-order network structures (cycles, feed-forward loops, etc.) should be preserved by the network clustering. Higher-order network structures of interest are represented using a tensor, which we then partition by developing a multilinear spectral method. Our framework can be applied to discovering layered flows in networks as well as graph anomaly detection, which we illustrate on synthetic networks. In directed networks, a higher-order structure of particular interest is the directed 3-cycle, which captures feedback loops in networks. We demonstrate that our TSC algorithm produces large partitions that cut fewer directed 3-cycles than standard spectral clustering algorithms. PMID:27812399

  2. Higher-Order Factors of Personality: Do They Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Michael C.; Lee, Kibeom; Goldberg, Lewis R.; de Vries, Reinout E.

    2010-01-01

    Scales that measure the Big Five personality factors are often substantially intercorrelated. These correlations are sometimes interpreted as implying the existence of two higher-order factors of personality. We show that correlations between measures of broad personality factors do not necessarily imply the existence of higher-order factors, and might instead be due to variables that represent same-signed blends of orthogonal factors. Therefore, the hypotheses of higher-order factors and blended variables can only be tested with data on lower-level personality variables that define the personality factors. We compared the higher-order factor model and the blended variable model in three participant samples using the Big Five Aspect Scales, and found better fit for the latter model. In other analyses using the HEXACO Personality Inventory, we identified mutually uncorrelated markers of six personality factors. We conclude that correlations between personality factor scales can be explained without postulating any higher-order dimensions of personality. PMID:19458345

  3. Dynamics and control of higher-order nonholonomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio Hervas, Jaime

    A theoretical framework is established for the control of higher-order nonholonomic systems, defined as systems that satisfy higher-order nonintegrable constraints. A model for such systems is developed in terms of differential-algebraic equations defined on a higher-order tangent bundle. A number of control-theoretic properties such as nonintegrability, controllability, and stabilizability are presented. Higher-order nonholonomic systems are shown to be strongly accessible and, under certain conditions, small time locally controllable at any equilibrium. There are important examples of higher-order nonholonomic systems that are asymptotically stabilizable via smooth feedback, including space vehicles with multiple slosh modes and Prismatic-Prismatic-Revolute (PPR) robots moving open liquid containers, as well as an interesting class of systems that do not admit asymptotically stabilizing continuous static or dynamic state feedback. Specific assumptions are introduced to define this class, which includes important examples of robotic systems. A discontinuous nonlinear feedback control algorithm is developed to steer any initial state to the equilibrium at the origin. The applicability of the theoretical development is illustrated through two examples: control of a planar PPR robot manipulator subject to a jerk constraint and control of a point mass moving on a constant torsion curve in a three dimensional space.

  4. Higher order annular Gaussian laser beam propagation in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyyuboglu, Halil T.; Yenice, Yusuf E.; Baykal, Yahya K.

    2006-03-01

    Propagation of higher order annular Gaussian (HOAG) laser beams in free space is examined. HOAG beams are defined as the difference of two Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beams; thus, they can be produced by subtracting a smaller beam from a larger beam, that are cocentered and both possess HG mode field distributions. Such beams can be considered as a generalization of the well-known annular Gaussian beams. We formulate the source and receiver plane characteristics and kurtosis parameter of HOAG beams propagating in free space and evaluate them numerically. In comparison to HG beams, HOAG beams have a broader beam size with outer lobes of kidney shape. The amount of received power within the same receiver aperture size, that is, power in bucket, is generally lower for higher order beams. The convergence of the kurtosis parameter to an asymptotic value for higher order beams takes much longer propagation distances compared to zero-order beams.

  5. Higher Order Lagrange Finite Elements In M3D

    SciTech Connect

    J. Chen; H.R. Strauss; S.C. Jardin; W. Park; L.E. Sugiyama; G. Fu; J. Breslau

    2004-12-17

    The M3D code has been using linear finite elements to represent multilevel MHD on 2-D poloidal planes. Triangular higher order elements, up to third order, are constructed here in order to provide M3D the capability to solve highly anisotropic transport problems. It is found that higher order elements are essential to resolve the thin transition layer characteristic of the anisotropic transport equation, particularly when the strong anisotropic direction is not aligned with one of the Cartesian coordinates. The transition layer is measured by the profile width, which is zero for infinite anisotropy. It is shown that only higher order schemes have the ability to make this layer converge towards zero when the anisotropy gets stronger and stronger. Two cases are considered. One has the strong transport direction partially aligned with one of the element edges, the other doesn't have any alignment. Both cases have the strong transport direction misaligned with the grid line by some angles.

  6. Higher-order theories from the minimal length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, M.; Hoff da Silva, J. M.; Scatena, E.

    2016-06-01

    We show that the introduction of a minimal length in the context of noncommutative space-time gives rise (after some considerations) to higher-order theories. We then explicitly demonstrate how these higher-derivative theories appear as a generalization of the standard electromagnetism and general relativity by applying a consistent procedure that modifies the original Maxwell and Einstein-Hilbert actions. In order to set a bound on the minimal length, we compare the deviations from the inverse-square law with the potentials obtained in the higher-order theories and discuss the validity of the results. The introduction of a quantum bound for the minimal length parameter β in the higher-order QED allows us to lower the actual limits on the parameters of higher-derivative gravity by almost half of their order of magnitude.

  7. Higher-order discrete variational problems with constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; Martín de Diego, David; Zuccalli, Marcela

    2013-09-01

    An interesting family of geometric integrators for Lagrangian systems can be defined using discretizations of the Hamilton's principle of critical action. This family of geometric integrators is called variational integrators. In this paper, we derive new variational integrators for higher-order Lagrangian mechanical system subjected to higher-order constraints. From the discretization of the variational principles, we show that our methods are automatically symplectic and, in consequence, with a very good energy behavior. Additionally, the symmetries of the discrete Lagrangian imply that momentum is conserved by the integrator. Moreover, we extend our construction to variational integrators where the Lagrangian is explicitly time-dependent. Finally, some motivating applications of higher-order problems are considered; in particular, optimal control problems for explicitly time-dependent underactuated systems and an interpolation problem on Riemannian manifolds.

  8. Higher-order modulation instability in nonlinear fiber optics.

    PubMed

    Erkintalo, Miro; Hammani, Kamal; Kibler, Bertrand; Finot, Christophe; Akhmediev, Nail; Dudley, John M; Genty, Goëry

    2011-12-16

    We report theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of higher-order modulation instability in the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This higher-order instability arises from the nonlinear superposition of elementary instabilities, associated with initial single breather evolution followed by a regime of complex, yet deterministic, pulse splitting. We analytically describe the process using the Darboux transformation and compare with experiments in optical fiber. We show how a suitably low frequency modulation on a continuous wave field induces higher-order modulation instability splitting with the pulse characteristics at different phases of evolution related by a simple scaling relationship. We anticipate that similar processes are likely to be observed in many other systems including plasmas, Bose-Einstein condensates, and deep water waves.

  9. Detection of small target using recursive higher order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Wang; Sun, Hongyuan; Lei, Zhihui

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, a recursive higher order statistics algorithm is proposed for small target detection in temporal domain. Firstly, the background of image sequence is normalized. Then, the higher order statistics are recursively solved in image sequence to obtain the feature image. Finally, the feature image is segmented with threshold to detect the small target. To validate the algorithm proposed in this paper, five simulated and one semi-simulation image sequences are created. The ROC curves are employed for evaluation of experimental results. Experiment results show that our method is very effective for small target detection.

  10. Higher-Order Airy Scaling in Deformed Dyck Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, Nils; Olde Daalhuis, Adri; Prellberg, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a deformed version of Dyck paths (DDP), where additional to the steps allowed for Dyck paths, `jumps' orthogonal to the preferred direction of the path are permitted. We consider the generating function of DDP, weighted with respect to their half-length, area and number of jumps. This represents the first example of an exactly solvable two-dimensional lattice vesicle model showing a higher-order multicritical point. Applying the generalized method of steepest descents, we see that the associated two-variable scaling function is given by the logarithmic derivative of a generalized (higher-order) Airy integral.

  11. Higher-order figure discrimination in fly and human vision.

    PubMed

    Aptekar, Jacob W; Frye, Mark A

    2013-08-19

    Visually-guided animals rely on their ability to stabilize the panorama and simultaneously track salient objects, or figures, that are distinct from the background in order to avoid predators, pursue food resources and mates, and navigate spatially. Visual figures are distinguished by luminance signals that produce coherent motion cues as well as more enigmatic 'higher-order' statistical features. Figure discrimination is thus a complex form of motion vision requiring specialized neural processing. In this minireview, we will highlight recent advances in understanding the perceptual, behavioral, and neurophysiological basis of higher-order figure detection in flies, much of which is grounded in the historical perspective and mechanistic underpinnings of human psychophysics.

  12. Vakonomic Constraints in Higher-Order Classical Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Cédric M.

    2010-07-01

    We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher-order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both, the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher-order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic description of the dynamics. The case of vakonomic constraints is also studied within this formalism.

  13. Unified formalism for higher order non-autonomous dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-03-01

    This work is devoted to giving a geometric framework for describing higher order non-autonomous mechanical systems. The starting point is to extend the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of Skinner and Rusk for these kinds of systems, generalizing previous developments for higher order autonomous mechanical systems and first-order non-autonomous mechanical systems. Then, we use this unified formulation to derive the standard Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, including the Legendre-Ostrogradsky map and the Euler-Lagrange and the Hamilton equations, both for regular and singular systems. As applications of our model, two examples of regular and singular physical systems are studied.

  14. Methods and framework for visualizing higher-order finite elements.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, William J; Bertel, François; Malaterre, Mathieu; Thompson, David; Pébay, Philippe P; O'Bara, Robert; Tendulkar, Saurabh

    2006-01-01

    The finite element method is an important, widely used numerical technique for solving partial differential equations. This technique utilizes basis functions for approximating the geometry and the variation of the solution field over finite regions, or elements, of the domain. These basis functions are generally formed by combinations of polynomials. In the past, the polynomial order of the basis has been low-typically of linear and quadratic order. However, in recent years so-called p and hp methods have been developed, which may elevate the order of the basis to arbitrary levels with the aim of accelerating the convergence of the numerical solution. The increasing complexity of numerical basis functions poses a significant challenge to visualization systems. In the past, such systems have been loosely coupled to simulation packages, exchanging data via file transfer, and internally reimplementing the basis functions in order to perform interpolation and implement visualization algorithms. However, as the basis functions become more complex and, in some cases, proprietary in nature, it becomes increasingly difficult if not impossible to reimplement them within the visualization system. Further, most visualization systems typically process linear primitives, in part to take advantage of graphics hardware and, in part, due to the inherent simplicity of the resulting algorithms. Thus, visualization of higher-order finite elements requires tessellating the basis to produce data compatible with existing visualization systems. In this paper, we describe adaptive methods that automatically tessellate complex finite element basis functions using a flexible and extensible software framework. These methods employ a recursive, edge-based subdivision algorithm driven by a set of error metrics including geometric error, solution error, and error in image space. Further, we describe advanced pretessellation techniques that guarantees capture of the critical points of the

  15. Computer-Mediated Assessment of Higher-Order Thinking Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Raiyn, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Solving complicated problems in a contemporary knowledge-based society requires higher-order thinking (HOT). The most productive way to encourage development of HOT in students is through use of the Problem-based Learning (PBL) model. This model organizes learning by solving corresponding problems relative to study courses. Students are directed…

  16. Using Higher Order Computer Tasks with Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil

    A pilot program initially designed for a 12-year-old girl with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities in higher order computer tasks was developed for a larger group of students with similar disabilities enrolled in fifth and sixth grades (ages 9-12) at three different schools. An examination of the original pilot study was undertaken to…

  17. Higher order microfibre modes for dielectric particle trapping and propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimaiti, Aili; Truong, Viet Giang; Sergides, Marios; Gusachenko, Ivan; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2015-03-01

    Optical manipulation in the vicinity of optical micro- and nanofibres has shown potential across several fields in recent years, including microparticle control, and cold atom probing and trapping. To date, most work has focussed on the propagation of the fundamental mode through the fibre. However, along the maximum mode intensity axis, higher order modes have a longer evanescent field extension and larger field amplitude at the fibre waist compared to the fundamental mode, opening up new possibilities for optical manipulation and particle trapping. We demonstrate a microfibre/optical tweezers compact system for trapping and propelling dielectric particles based on the excitation of the first group of higher order modes at the fibre waist. Speed enhancement of polystyrene particle propulsion was observed for the higher order modes compared to the fundamental mode for particles ranging from 1 μm to 5 μm in diameter. The optical propelling velocity of a single, 3 μm polystyrene particle was found to be 8 times faster under the higher order mode than the fundamental mode field for a waist power of 25 mW. Experimental data are supported by theoretical calculations. This work can be extended to trapping and manipulation of laser-cooled atoms with potential for quantum networks.

  18. Higher order microfibre modes for dielectric particle trapping and propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Maimaiti, Aili; Truong, Viet Giang; Sergides, Marios; Gusachenko, Ivan; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2015-01-01

    Optical manipulation in the vicinity of optical micro- and nanofibres has shown potential across several fields in recent years, including microparticle control, and cold atom probing and trapping. To date, most work has focussed on the propagation of the fundamental mode through the fibre. However, along the maximum mode intensity axis, higher order modes have a longer evanescent field extension and larger field amplitude at the fibre waist compared to the fundamental mode, opening up new possibilities for optical manipulation and particle trapping. We demonstrate a microfibre/optical tweezers compact system for trapping and propelling dielectric particles based on the excitation of the first group of higher order modes at the fibre waist. Speed enhancement of polystyrene particle propulsion was observed for the higher order modes compared to the fundamental mode for particles ranging from 1 μm to 5 μm in diameter. The optical propelling velocity of a single, 3 μm polystyrene particle was found to be 8 times faster under the higher order mode than the fundamental mode field for a waist power of 25 mW. Experimental data are supported by theoretical calculations. This work can be extended to trapping and manipulation of laser-cooled atoms with potential for quantum networks. PMID:25766925

  19. Building Higher-Order Markov Chain Models with EXCEL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Wai-Ki; Fung, Eric S.; Ng, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    Categorical data sequences occur in many applications such as forecasting, data mining and bioinformatics. In this note, we present higher-order Markov chain models for modelling categorical data sequences with an efficient algorithm for solving the model parameters. The algorithm can be implemented easily in a Microsoft EXCEL worksheet. We give a…

  20. Improving Reading Comprehension through Higher-Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Brigitte A.; Barnett, Cynthia L.

    2007-01-01

    This action research project report documents the action research project that was conducted to improve reading comprehension with second grade and third grade students. The teacher researchers intended to improve reading comprehension by using higher-order thinking skills such as predicting, making connections, visualizing, inferring,…

  1. Recent Advances in Higher-Order, Multimodal, Biomedical Imaging Agents.

    PubMed

    Rieffel, James; Chitgupi, Upendra; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2015-09-16

    Advances in biomedical imaging have spurred the development of integrated multimodal scanners, usually capable of two simultaneous imaging modes. The long-term vision of higher-order multimodality is to improve diagnostics or guidance through the analysis of complementary, data-rich, co-registered images. Synergies achieved through combined modalities could enable researchers to better track diverse physiological and structural events, analyze biodistribution and treatment efficacy, and compare established and emerging modalities. Higher-order multimodal approaches stand to benefit from molecular imaging probes and, in recent years, contrast agents that have hypermodal characteristics have increasingly been reported in preclinical studies. Given the chemical requirements for contrast agents representing various modalities to be integrated into a single entity, the higher-order multimodal agents reported so far tend to be of nanoparticulate form. To date, the majority of reported nanoparticles have included components that are active for magnetic resonance. Herein, recent progress in higher-order multimodal imaging agents is reviewed, spanning a range of material and structural classes, and demonstrating utility in three (or more) imaging modalities.

  2. An Analysis of Higher Order Thinking in Online Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, D.; Mynard, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a study of online discussion forums as tools for promoting higher-order thinking. The study was carried out in a women's university in the United Arab Emirates. Data, in the form of online discussion forum transcripts, were collected over a 20-week semester and were analysed according to a model developed by Garrison,…

  3. Addition of higher order plate elements to NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanaswami, R.; Mei, C.

    1976-01-01

    Two plate elements, the linear strain triangular membrane element CTRIM6 and the higher order plate bending element CTRPLT1, were added to NASTRAN Level 16.0. The theoretical formulation, programming details, and bulk data information pertaining to the addition of these elements are discussed. Sample problems illustrating the use of these elements are presented.

  4. Higher order Fano graphene metamaterials for nanoscale optical sensing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiangdong; Hu, Hai; Zhu, Xing; Yang, Xiaoxia; Dai, Qing

    2017-10-12

    Plasmonic Fano metamaterials provide a unique platform for optical sensing applications due to their sharp spectral response and the ability to confine light to nanoscale regions that make them a strong prospect for refractive-index sensing. Higher order Fano resonance modes in noble metal plasmonic structures can further improve the sensitivity, but their applications are heavily limited by crosstalk between different modes due to the large damping rates and broadband spectral responses of the metal plasmon modes. Here, we create pure higher order Fano modes by designing asymmetric metamaterials comprised of a split-ring resonator and disk with a low-loss graphene plasmon. These higher order modes are highly sensitive to the nanoscale analyte (8 nm thick) both in refractive-index and in infrared vibrational fingerprint sensing, as demonstrated by the numerical calculation. The frequency sensitivity and figure-of-merit of the hexacontatetrapolar mode can reach 289 cm(-1) per RIU and 29, respectively, and it can probe the weak infrared vibrational modes of the analyte with more than 400 times enhancement. The enhanced sensitivity and tunability of higher order Fano graphene metamaterials promise a high-performance nanoscale optical sensor.

  5. Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills through Clinical Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varutharaju, Elengovan; Ratnavadivel, Nagendralingan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study aimed to explore, describe and analyse the design and implementation of clinical simulation as a pedagogical tool in bridging the deficiency of higher order thinking skills among para-medical students, and to make recommendations on incorporating clinical simulation as a pedagogical tool to enhance thinking skills and align the…

  6. Higher order microfibre modes for dielectric particle trapping and propulsion.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Aili; Truong, Viet Giang; Sergides, Marios; Gusachenko, Ivan; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2015-03-13

    Optical manipulation in the vicinity of optical micro- and nanofibres has shown potential across several fields in recent years, including microparticle control, and cold atom probing and trapping. To date, most work has focussed on the propagation of the fundamental mode through the fibre. However, along the maximum mode intensity axis, higher order modes have a longer evanescent field extension and larger field amplitude at the fibre waist compared to the fundamental mode, opening up new possibilities for optical manipulation and particle trapping. We demonstrate a microfibre/optical tweezers compact system for trapping and propelling dielectric particles based on the excitation of the first group of higher order modes at the fibre waist. Speed enhancement of polystyrene particle propulsion was observed for the higher order modes compared to the fundamental mode for particles ranging from 1 μm to 5 μm in diameter. The optical propelling velocity of a single, 3 μm polystyrene particle was found to be 8 times faster under the higher order mode than the fundamental mode field for a waist power of 25 mW. Experimental data are supported by theoretical calculations. This work can be extended to trapping and manipulation of laser-cooled atoms with potential for quantum networks.

  7. [Higher order aberrations in physiological optical system--own experience].

    PubMed

    Zelichowska, Beata; Rekas, Marek; Krix-Jachym, Karolina; Rubajczyk, Marcin

    2007-01-01

    To assess higher order aberrations in the physiological optical system in relation to pupil diameter and age of people studied. The study comprised 235 eyes of 122 subjects (67 women and 55 men) (mean age 43.8 +/- 15.5 years). Aberrations of the optical system were assessed using a LADARWave aberrometer (Alcon Laboratories). Aberration finding analysis included age, the pupil diameter, and their interrelations. ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallistest, multiple comparison and Ch2 tests were used to establish the statistical significance, and the correlation coefficient was calculated according to Spearman test. Basing on the studies performed, we found that the older subjects were the more statistically significant was the increase in the prevalence of higher order aberrations, including coma and spherical aberrations, at the same pupil diameter of 5-6.5 mm. When the relationship between aberrations and the pupil diameter was analyzed in a group of subjects aged 20-40 yrs, it turned out that the bigger the pupil diameter was the more statistically significant was the increase of higher order aberrations, including coma. While assessing the whole group studied we found a statistically significant reverse correlation between the pupil diameter and the subjects' age. Aberrations parameters between age groups 20-40, 40-60 and over 60 y. did not differ significantly. In the optical system an age-related increase of higher order aberrations is compensated by miosis, which reduces disadvantages of these aberrations and maintains the best optical quality of retinal image.

  8. A Model for the National Assessment of Higher Order Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Nosich, Gerald M.

    This document provides a model for the national assessment of higher order thinking and consists of a preface and four main sections. The preface discusses the problem of lower order learning, summarizes the state of research into critical thinking and instructional reform, and explains the structure of the paper. Section 1 of the paper describes…

  9. Developing Higher-Order Thinking Skills through WebQuests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polly, Drew; Ausband, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 32 teachers participated in a year-long professional development project related to technology integration in which they designed and implemented a WebQuest. This paper describes the extent to which higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) and levels of technology implementation (LoTI) occur in the WebQuests that participants designed.…

  10. Higher Order Language Competence and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Nancy J.; Farnia, Fataneh; Im-Bolter, Nancie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinic and community-based epidemiological studies have shown an association between child psychopathology and language impairment. The demands on language for social and academic adjustment shift dramatically during adolescence and the ability to understand the nonliteral meaning in language represented by higher order language…

  11. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  12. Multimedia: A Gateway to Higher-Order Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Lynn A.; And Others

    In June 1990, the research group at George Mason University (Virginia) Center for Interactive Educational Technology began designing a multimedia prototype to foster higher-order thinking skills in social studies. As an initial step, the Civil War Interactive Project using the Ken Burns documentary, "The Civil War," was used in a design…

  13. Numerical modeling of higher order magnetic moments in UXO discrimination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, V.; Yaoguo, L.; Nabighian, M.N.; Wright, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    The surface magnetic anomaly observed in unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance is mainly dipolar, and consequently, the dipole is the only magnetic moment regularly recovered in UXO discrimination. The dipole moment contains information about the intensity of magnetization but lacks information about the shape of the target. In contrast, higher order moments, such as quadrupole and octupole, encode asymmetry properties of the magnetization distribution within the buried targets. In order to improve our understanding of magnetization distribution within UXO and non-UXO objects and to show its potential utility in UXO clearance, we present a numerical modeling study of UXO and related metallic objects. The tool for the modeling is a nonlinear integral equation describing magnetization within isolated compact objects of high susceptibility. A solution for magnetization distribution then allows us to compute the magnetic multipole moments of the object, analyze their relationships, and provide a depiction of the anomaly produced by different moments within the object. Our modeling results show the presence of significant higher order moments for more asymmetric objects, and the fields of these higher order moments are well above the noise level of magnetic gradient data. The contribution from higher order moments may provide a practical tool for improved UXO discrimination. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  14. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  15. Higher-Order Latent Trait Models for Cognitive Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Douglas, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Higher-order latent traits are proposed for specifying the joint distribution of binary attributes in models for cognitive diagnosis. This approach results in a parsimonious model for the joint distribution of a high-dimensional attribute vector that is natural in many situations when specific cognitive information is sought but a less informative…

  16. Higher Order Language Competence and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Nancy J.; Farnia, Fataneh; Im-Bolter, Nancie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinic and community-based epidemiological studies have shown an association between child psychopathology and language impairment. The demands on language for social and academic adjustment shift dramatically during adolescence and the ability to understand the nonliteral meaning in language represented by higher order language…

  17. Constrained variational calculus for higher order classical field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Cédric M.; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David

    2010-11-01

    We develop an intrinsic geometrical setting for higher order constrained field theories. As a main tool we use an appropriate generalization of the classical Skinner-Rusk formalism. Some examples of applications are studied, in particular to the geometrical description of optimal control theory for partial differential equations.

  18. SVP-like MADS-box protein from Carya cathayensis forms higher-order complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Hou, Chuanming; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Zhengjia; Xu, Yingwu

    2015-03-01

    To properly regulate plant flowering time and construct floral pattern, MADS-domain containing transcription factors must form multimers including homo- and hetero-dimers. They are also active in forming hetero-higher-order complexes with three to five different molecules. However, it is not well known if a MADS-box protein can also form homo-higher-order complex. In this study a biochemical approach is utilized to provide insight into the complex formation for an SVP-like MADS-box protein cloned from hickory. The results indicated that the protein is a heterogeneous higher-order complex with the peak population containing over 20 monomers. Y2H verified the protein to form homo-complex in yeast cells. Western blot of the hickory floral bud sample revealed that the protein exists in higher-order polymers in native. Deletion assays indicated that the flexible C-terminal residues are mainly responsible for the higher-order polymer formation and the heterogeneity. Current results provide direct biochemical evidences for an active MADS-box protein to be a high order complex, much higher than a quartermeric polymer. Analysis suggests that a MADS-box subset may be able to self-assemble into large complexes, and thereby differentiate one subfamily from the other in a higher-order structural manner. Present result is a valuable supplement to the action of mechanism for MADS-box proteins in plant development.

  19. Study of thermally induced higher order microcantilever modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Ashwini

    Microcantilevers have been widely studied for sensing tiny quantities of chemical and biological analytes in both vapor and liquid media. They have been shown to respond to changes in chemical, biological, thermal and physical processes. The primary sensing mechanisms are static bending due to induced differential surface stress and changes in the fundamental resonant frequency upon mass uptake. Although the possibility of using thermally induced higher order modes has been suggested for sensing and for understanding the mechanical behavior of microcantilevers, experimental demonstrations have not been given in the literature. Studies of thermally induced spectra provide an alternate in-situ detection technique for microcantilever sensing that is attractive in that no external excitation mechanism is required. However, thermally induced higher order modes have smaller amplitudes than what is obtained with external excitation. This dissertation examines the use of thermally induced higher order microcantilever modes both for sensing and studying adsorption induced interfacial changes between the Au coated microcantilever surface and Hg. The use of a thermally induced spectrum takes advantage of the fact that no additional external components are necessary to study them when using the optical lever (AFM style) detection technique. A process to microfabricate rectangular microcantilever is optimized and demonstrated. Thermally induced higher order flexural modes are demonstrated for Hg sensing with Au coated microcantilevers. Furthermore Hg sensing is carried out with microcantilevers having different Au coverage to investigate the use of thermally induced higher order modes for sensing. Two different types of Au surfaces are employed for Hg sensing with microcantilevers, one obtained by thermally evaporating Au, and the other by sputtering Au. Although the conventionally used deflection signal showed similar trend to Hg with both these films, exactly the opposite

  20. Superstrings, anomalies and unification

    SciTech Connect

    Martinis, M.

    1986-01-01

    This recently concluded Adriatic Meeting provides coverage on the theoretical and experimental aspects of particle physics. Contents: Differential Geometry and String Theory; Supergravity from Superstrings; Gravitational Collapse and Quantum Mechanics; Interacting String Field Theory; Superstrings from 26 Dimensions and Superstring Field Theory and the Covariant Fermion Emission Vertex; Unification of Families; Phenomenology and Cosmology with Superstring Models; Effective Lagrangian Anomalies and Spontaneous Symmetry; Anomalies and Schwinger Terms and others.

  1. Novel Object Exploration as a Potential Assay for Higher Order Repetitive Behaviors in Mice.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Jessica M; Garza, Elizabeth T; Ryan, Bryce C

    2016-08-20

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disrupt the lives of affected individuals. RRBs are commonly split into lower-order and higher-order components, with lower order RRBs consisting of motor stereotypies and higher order RRBs consisting of perseverative and sequencing behaviors. Higher order RRBs are challenging to model in mice. Current assays for RRBs in mice focus primarily on the lower order components, making basic biomedical research into potential treatments or interventions for higher-order RRBs difficult. Here we describe a new assay, novel object exploration. This assay uses a basic open-field arena with four novel objects placed around the perimeter. The test mouse is allowed to freely explore the arena and the order in which the mouse investigates the novel objects is recorded. From these data, patterned sequences of exploration can be identified, as can the most preferred object for each mouse. The representative data shared here and past results using the novel object exploration assay illustrate that inbred mouse strains do demonstrate different behavior in this assay and that strains with elevated lower order RRBs also show elevated patterned behavior. As such, the novel object exploration assay appears to possess good face validity for higher order RRBs in humans and may be a valuable assay for future studies investigating novel therapeutics for ASD.

  2. Radiation characteristics and generation of higher-order modes of circular microstrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, G.; Shafai, L.

    1984-08-01

    The characteristics of higher-order modes of circular microstrip antennas, such as radiation pattern, directivity, bandwidth, efficiency, and location of the feedpoint to match a 50 ohm line, are studied, and the effects of varying the substrate parameters are investigated. A multifeed technique to generate any particular mode is also presented.

  3. Mixture IRT Model with a Higher-Order Structure for Latent Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Hung-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Mixture item response theory (IRT) models have been suggested as an efficient method of detecting the different response patterns derived from latent classes when developing a test. In testing situations, multiple latent traits measured by a battery of tests can exhibit a higher-order structure, and mixtures of latent classes may occur on…

  4. Speckle reduction via higher order total variation approach.

    PubMed

    Wensen Feng; Hong Lei; Yang Gao

    2014-04-01

    Multiplicative noise (also known as speckle) reduction is a prerequisite for many image-processing tasks in coherent imaging systems, such as the synthetic aperture radar. One approach extensively used in this area is based on total variation (TV) regularization, which can recover significantly sharp edges of an image, but suffers from the staircase-like artifacts. In order to overcome the undesirable deficiency, we propose two novel models for removing multiplicative noise based on total generalized variation (TGV) penalty. The TGV regularization has been mathematically proven to be able to eliminate the staircasing artifacts by being aware of higher order smoothness. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm is developed for solving the TGV-based optimization problems. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our proposed methods achieve state-of-the-art results, both visually and quantitatively. In particular, when the image has some higher order smoothness, our methods outperform the TV-based algorithms.

  5. Stable static structures in models with higher-order derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Bazeia, D.; Lobão, A.S.; Menezes, R.

    2015-09-15

    We investigate the presence of static solutions in generalized models described by a real scalar field in four-dimensional space–time. We study models in which the scalar field engenders higher-order derivatives and spontaneous symmetry breaking, inducing the presence of domain walls. Despite the presence of higher-order derivatives, the models keep to equations of motion second-order differential equations, so we focus on the presence of first-order equations that help us to obtain analytical solutions and investigate linear stability on general grounds. We then illustrate the general results with some specific examples, showing that the domain wall may become compact and that the zero mode may split. Moreover, if the model is further generalized to include k-field behavior, it may contribute to split the static structure itself.

  6. Toddlers infer higher-order relational principles in causal learning.

    PubMed

    Walker, Caren M; Gopnik, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Children make inductive inferences about the causal properties of individual objects from a very young age. When can they infer higher-order relational properties? In three experiments, we examined 18- to 30-month-olds' relational inferences in a causal task. Results suggest that at this age, children are able to infer a higher-order relational causal principle from just a few observations and use this inference to guide their own subsequent actions and bring about a novel causal outcome. Moreover, the children passed a revised version of the relational match-to-sample task that has proven very difficult for nonhuman primates. The findings are considered in light of their implications for understanding the nature of relational and causal reasoning, and their evolutionary origins.

  7. Higher-order energy-conserving gyrokinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, Alexey; Brizard, Alain J.

    2011-02-15

    A higher-order self-consistent energy-conserving gyrokinetic system of equations is derived. It is shown that additional terms appear in the quasineutrality condition. These terms are nonlinear in the electric field. The derivation includes higher-order terms in the gyrokinetic Hamiltonian (needed for the energy conservation) and employs a variational principle that automatically provides all the conservation laws through the Noether theorem. The equations derived here can be applied in certain transition layers such as the stellarator transport barriers caused by the transition between the electron and ion root regimes. The theory may also be of interest for the edge plasma, where the nonlinear terms in the quasineutrality equation could be relevant. The equations derived are simple enough and can readily be used in gyrokinetic codes.

  8. Promoting higher order thinking skills using inquiry-based learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhuri, G. V.; S. S. N Kantamreddi, V.; Goteti, L. N. S. Prakash

    2012-05-01

    Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in chemistry. Laboratory exercises are designed based on Bloom's taxonomy and a just-in-time facilitation approach is used. A pre-laboratory discussion outlining the theory of the experiment and its relevance is carried out to enable the students to analyse real-life problems. The performance of the students is assessed based on their ability to perform the experiment, design new experiments and correlate practical utility of the course module with real life. The novelty of the present approach lies in the fact that the learning outcomes of the existing experiments are achieved through establishing a relationship with real-world problems.

  9. X Y model with higher-order exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žukovič, Milan; Kalagov, Georgii

    2017-08-01

    An X Y model, generalized by inclusion of up to an infinite number of higher-order pairwise interactions with an exponentially decreasing strength, is studied by spin-wave theory and Monte Carlo simulations. At low temperatures the model displays a quasi-long-range-order phase characterized by an algebraically decaying correlation function with the exponent η =T /[2 π J (p ,α )] , nonlinearly dependent on the parameters p and α that control the number of the higher-order terms and the decay rate of their intensity, respectively. At higher temperatures the system shows a crossover from the continuous Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless to the first-order transition for the parameter values corresponding to a highly nonlinear shape of the potential well. The role of topological excitations (vortices) in changing the nature of the transition is discussed.

  10. Self-similarity of higher-order moving averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arianos, Sergio; Carbone, Anna; Türk, Christian

    2011-10-01

    In this work, higher-order moving average polynomials are defined by straightforward generalization of the standard moving average. The self-similarity of the polynomials is analyzed for fractional Brownian series and quantified in terms of the Hurst exponent H by using the detrending moving average method. We prove that the exponent H of the fractional Brownian series and of the detrending moving average variance asymptotically agree for the first-order polynomial. Such asymptotic values are compared with the results obtained by the simulations. The higher-order polynomials correspond to trend estimates at shorter time scales as the degree of the polynomial increases. Importantly, the increase of polynomial degree does not require to change the moving average window. Thus trends at different time scales can be obtained on data sets with the same size. These polynomials could be interesting for those applications relying on trend estimates over different time horizons (financial markets) or on filtering at different frequencies (image analysis).

  11. Higher order interactions in magneto-inductive waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syms, R. R. A.; Sydoruk, O.; Shamonina, E.; Solymar, L.

    2007-03-01

    The properties of periodic chains of magnetically coupled L-C resonators supporting magneto-inductive (MI) waves are examined in the case when non-nearest neighbour interactions are significant. The variation of the coupling coefficient with separation is measured using resonant elements based on printed circuit board inductors and surface mount capacitors, and used to predict the S-parameters and dispersion characteristics of magnetoinductive waveguides. Good agreement with experimental measurements is obtained when higher order interactions are included. The significance of non-nearest neighbour interactions in more general MI wave devices is then highlighted in an example problem involving reflection from a waveguide discontinuity, and the influence of higher order evanescent waves is discussed.

  12. A higher-order-statistics-based approach to face detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunming; Li, Yushan; Wu, Ruihong; Li, Qiuming; Zhuang, Qingde; Zhang, Zhan

    2005-02-01

    A face detection method based on higher order statistics is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the object model and noise model are established to extract moving object from the background according to the fact that higher order statistics is nonsense to Gaussian noise. Secondly, the improved Sobel operator is used to extract the edge image of moving object. And a projection function is used to detect the face in the edge image. Lastly, PCA(Principle Component Analysis) method is used to do face recognition. The performance of the system is evaluated on the real video sequences. It is shown that the proposed method is simple and robust to the detection of human faces in the video sequences.

  13. Higher order relativistic galaxy number counts: dominating terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TrØst Nielsen, Jeppe; Durrer, Ruth

    2017-03-01

    We review the number counts to second order concentrating on the terms which dominate on sub horizon scales. We re-derive the result for these terms and compare it with the different versions found in the literature. We generalize our derivation to higher order terms, especially the third order number counts which are needed to compute the 1-loop contribution to the power spectrum.

  14. Higher Order Aberrations after Femtosecond LASIK Flap Creation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-03

    such as corneal refractive surgery . While studies have previously compared HOA in microkeratome vs. femtosecond corneal flap creation, no studies... surgery . Higher order aberrations · after LASIK with femtosecond flap creation Jason Croskrey, Matthew Caldwell. J . Richard Townley, Douglas Apsey...and post- surgery between iFS and Z04 eyes, (P>0.05) No statistical difference in the change in spherical equivalent pre and post- surgery between

  15. Higher order matrix differential equations with singular coefficient matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Fragkoulis, V. C.; Kougioumtzoglou, I. A.; Pantelous, A. A.; Pirrotta, A.

    2015-03-10

    In this article, the class of higher order linear matrix differential equations with constant coefficient matrices and stochastic process terms is studied. The coefficient of the highest order is considered to be singular; thus, rendering the response determination of such systems in a straightforward manner a difficult task. In this regard, the notion of the generalized inverse of a singular matrix is used for determining response statistics. Further, an application relevant to engineering dynamics problems is included.

  16. Higher Order Mode Coupler Heating in Continuous Wave Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solyak, N.; Awida, M.; Hocker, A.; Khabibobulline, T.; Lunin, A.

    Electromagnetic heating due to higher order modes (HOM) propagation is particularly a concern for continuous wave (CW) particle accelerator machines. Power on the order of several watts could flow out of the cavity's HOM ports in CW operations. The upgrade of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS-II) at SLAC requires a major modification of the design of the higher order mode (HOM) antenna and feed through of the conventional ILC elliptical 9-cell cavity in order to utilize it for LCLS-II. The HOM antenna is required to bear higher RF losses, while relatively maintaining the coupling level of the higher order modes. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the heating expected in the HOM coupler with a thorough thermal quench study in comparison with the conventional ILC design. We discuss also how the heat will be removed from the cavity through RF cables with specially designed cooling straps. Finally, we report on the latest experimental results of cavity testing in vertical and horizontal cryostats.

  17. Transversely isotropic higher-order averaged structure tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashlamoun, Kotaybah; Federico, Salvatore

    2017-08-01

    For composites or biological tissues reinforced by statistically oriented fibres, a probability distribution function is often used to describe the orientation of the fibres. The overall effect of the fibres on the material response is accounted for by evaluating averaging integrals over all possible directions in space. The directional average of the structure tensor (tensor product of the unit vector describing the fibre direction by itself) is of high significance. Higher-order averaged structure tensors feature in several models and carry similarly important information. However, their evaluation has a quite high computational cost. This work proposes to introduce mathematical techniques to minimise the computational cost associated with the evaluation of higher-order averaged structure tensors, for the case of a transversely isotropic probability distribution of orientation. A component expression is first introduced, using which a general tensor expression is obtained, in terms of an orthonormal basis in which one of the vectors coincides with the axis of symmetry of transverse isotropy. Then, a higher-order transversely isotropic averaged structure tensor is written in an appropriate basis, constructed starting from the basis of the space of second-order transversely isotropic tensors, which is constituted by the structure tensor and its complement to the identity.

  18. Quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions with inclined rectangular apertures gratings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuwei; Zhu, Xiaoli; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Wenhai; Fan, Quanping; Wei, Lai; Yang, Zuhua; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Qian, Feng; Chen, Yong; He, Weihua; Wu, Yinzhong; Yan, Zhuoyang; Hua, Yilei; Zhao, Yidong; Cui, Mingqi; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhang, Baohan; Xie, Changqing; Cao, Leifeng

    2015-01-01

    Advances in the fundamentals and applications of diffraction gratings have received much attention. However, conventional diffraction gratings often suffer from higher-order diffraction contamination. Here, we introduce a simple and compact single optical element, named inclined rectangular aperture gratings (IRAG), for quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions. We show, both in the visible light and soft x-ray regions, that IRAG can significantly suppress higher-order diffractions with moderate diffraction efficiency. Especially, as no support strut is needed to maintain the free-standing patterns, the IRAG is highly advantageous to the extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions. The diffraction efficiency of the IRAG and the influences of fabrication constraints are also discussed. The unique quasi-single order diffraction properties of IRAG may open the door to a wide range of photonic applications. PMID:26563588

  19. Quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions with inclined rectangular apertures gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuwei; Zhu, Xiaoli; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Wenhai; Fan, Quanping; Wei, Lai; Yang, Zuhua; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Qian, Feng; Chen, Yong; He, Weihua; Wu, Yinzhong; Yan, Zhuoyang; Hua, Yilei; Zhao, Yidong; Cui, Mingqi; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Weimin; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhang, Baohan; Xie, Changqing; Cao, Leifeng

    2015-11-01

    Advances in the fundamentals and applications of diffraction gratings have received much attention. However, conventional diffraction gratings often suffer from higher-order diffraction contamination. Here, we introduce a simple and compact single optical element, named inclined rectangular aperture gratings (IRAG), for quasi suppression of higher-order diffractions. We show, both in the visible light and soft x-ray regions, that IRAG can significantly suppress higher-order diffractions with moderate diffraction efficiency. Especially, as no support strut is needed to maintain the free-standing patterns, the IRAG is highly advantageous to the extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions. The diffraction efficiency of the IRAG and the influences of fabrication constraints are also discussed. The unique quasi-single order diffraction properties of IRAG may open the door to a wide range of photonic applications.

  20. Enhanced sensitivity at higher-order exceptional points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodaei, Hossein; Hassan, Absar U.; Wittek, Steffen; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; El-Ganainy, Ramy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh

    2017-08-01

    Non-Hermitian degeneracies, also known as exceptional points, have recently emerged as a new way to engineer the response of open physical systems, that is, those that interact with the environment. They correspond to points in parameter space at which the eigenvalues of the underlying system and the corresponding eigenvectors simultaneously coalesce. In optics, the abrupt nature of the phase transitions that are encountered around exceptional points has been shown to lead to many intriguing phenomena, such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional invisibility, band merging, topological chirality and laser mode selectivity. Recently, it has been shown that the bifurcation properties of second-order non-Hermitian degeneracies can provide a means of enhancing the sensitivity (frequency shifts) of resonant optical structures to external perturbations. Of particular interest is the use of even higher-order exceptional points (greater than second order), which in principle could further amplify the effect of perturbations, leading to even greater sensitivity. Although a growing number of theoretical studies have been devoted to such higher-order degeneracies, their experimental demonstration in the optical domain has so far remained elusive. Here we report the observation of higher-order exceptional points in a coupled cavity arrangement—specifically, a ternary, parity-time-symmetric photonic laser molecule—with a carefully tailored gain-loss distribution. We study the system in the spectral domain and find that the frequency response associated with this system follows a cube-root dependence on induced perturbations in the refractive index. Our work paves the way for utilizing non-Hermitian degeneracies in fields including photonics, optomechanics, microwaves and atomic physics.

  1. Higher-Order Theory for Functionally Graded Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the full generalization of the Cartesian coordinate-based higher-order theory for functionally graded materials developed by the authors during the past several years. This theory circumvents the problematic use of the standard micromechanical approach, based on the concept of a representative volume element, commonly employed in the analysis of functionally graded composites by explicitly coupling the local (microstructural) and global (macrostructural) responses. The theoretical framework is based on volumetric averaging of the various field quantities, together with imposition of boundary and interfacial conditions in an average sense between the subvolumes used to characterize the composite's functionally graded microstructure. The generalization outlined herein involves extension of the theoretical framework to enable the analysis of materials characterized by spatially variable microstructures in three directions. Specialization of the generalized theoretical framework to previously published versions of the higher-order theory for materials functionally graded in one and two directions is demonstrated. In the applications part of the paper we summarize the major findings obtained with the one-directional and two-directional versions of the higher-order theory. The results illustrate both the fundamental issues related to the influence of microstructure on microscopic and macroscopic quantities governing the response of composites and the technologically important applications. A major issue addressed herein is the applicability of the classical homogenization schemes in the analysis of functionally graded materials. The technologically important applications illustrate the utility of functionally graded microstructures in tailoring the response of structural components in a variety of applications involving uniform and gradient thermomechanical loading.

  2. Enhanced sensitivity at higher-order exceptional points.

    PubMed

    Hodaei, Hossein; Hassan, Absar U; Wittek, Steffen; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; El-Ganainy, Ramy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh

    2017-08-09

    Non-Hermitian degeneracies, also known as exceptional points, have recently emerged as a new way to engineer the response of open physical systems, that is, those that interact with the environment. They correspond to points in parameter space at which the eigenvalues of the underlying system and the corresponding eigenvectors simultaneously coalesce. In optics, the abrupt nature of the phase transitions that are encountered around exceptional points has been shown to lead to many intriguing phenomena, such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional invisibility, band merging, topological chirality and laser mode selectivity. Recently, it has been shown that the bifurcation properties of second-order non-Hermitian degeneracies can provide a means of enhancing the sensitivity (frequency shifts) of resonant optical structures to external perturbations. Of particular interest is the use of even higher-order exceptional points (greater than second order), which in principle could further amplify the effect of perturbations, leading to even greater sensitivity. Although a growing number of theoretical studies have been devoted to such higher-order degeneracies, their experimental demonstration in the optical domain has so far remained elusive. Here we report the observation of higher-order exceptional points in a coupled cavity arrangement-specifically, a ternary, parity-time-symmetric photonic laser molecule-with a carefully tailored gain-loss distribution. We study the system in the spectral domain and find that the frequency response associated with this system follows a cube-root dependence on induced perturbations in the refractive index. Our work paves the way for utilizing non-Hermitian degeneracies in fields including photonics, optomechanics, microwaves and atomic physics.

  3. Lipkin method of particle-number restoration to higher orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. B.; Dobaczewski, J.; Kortelainen, M.; Yu, L. F.; Stoitsov, M. V.

    2014-07-01

    Background: On the mean-field level, pairing correlations are incorporated through the Bogoliubov-Valatin transformation, whereby the particle degrees of freedom are replaced by quasiparticles. This approach leads to a spontaneous breaking of the particle-number symmetry and mixing of states with different particle numbers. In order to restore the particle number, various methods have been employed, which are based on projection approaches before or after variation. Approximate variation-after-projection (VAP) schemes, utilizing the Lipkin method, have mostly been used within the Lipkin-Nogami prescription. Purpose: Without employing the Lipkin-Nogami prescription, and using, instead, states rotated in the gauge space, we derive the Lipkin method of particle-number restoration up to sixth order and we test the convergence and accuracy of the obtained expansion. Methods: We perform self-consistent calculations using the higher-order Lipkin method to restore the particle-number symmetry in the framework of superfluid nuclear energy-density functional theory. We also apply the Lipkin method to a schematic exactly solvable two-level pairing model. Results: Calculations performed in open-shell tin and lead isotopes show that the Lipkin method converges at fourth order and satisfactorily reproduces the VAP ground-state energies and energy kernels. Near closed shells, the higher-order Lipkin method cannot be applied because of a nonanalytic kink in the ground-state energies as a function of the particle number. Conclusions: In open-shell nuclei, the higher-order Lipkin method provides a good approximation to the exact VAP energies. The method is computationally inexpensive, making it particularly suitable, for example, for future optimizations of the nuclear energy density functionals and simultaneous restoration of different symmetries.

  4. An improved higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, F. E.; Epton, M. A.; Johnson, F. T.; Magnus, A. E.; Rubbert, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow is described. Each panel, defined by four points on the surface, is divided into eight subpanels in such a way that all subpanel and panel edges are contiguous. By prescribing a quadratic distribution of the doublet on each subpanel, the doublet strength is made strictly continuous on the paneled surface. A linear source distribution is also used. Numerical results are smoother and in better agreement with experiment than the previous method with less strict continuity. A brief discussion of superinclined panels used to eliminate interior interference in nacelles is included.

  5. Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics.

  6. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  7. Analytical formulas for gravitational lensing: Higher order calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo; Arceo, Santiago; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2006-10-15

    We extend to higher order a recently published method for calculating the deflection angle of light in a general static and spherically symmetric metric. We have tested our method on the metric of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, on the metric of a charged black hole coupled to Born-Infeld electrodynamics and on the metric of Weyl gravity. Since our method is geometrically convergent, as proved in our previous work, our analytical formulas obtained working to fourth order are sufficient to reach errors of few percents even in proximity of the photon sphere.

  8. Extension of MINOTAUR to higher-order spatial functions

    SciTech Connect

    Pevey, R.E.

    1999-09-01

    MINOTAUR, a generalized multidimensional geometry discrete ordinates kernel that can be used to calculate the particle flow through a complicated geometrical arrangement of materials, has been extended to use higher-order within-node spatial flux expansions. MINOTAUR is an improved version of the CENTAUR code, which was developed at the Savannah River Site by DeHart, Pevey, and Parish for flat intranode flux distributions. CENTAUR was later extended to linear spatial flux shapes by Grove and Pevey. Both of these codes were limited to two-dimensional generalized geometries, for which the regions are bounded by arbitrarily oriented line segments.

  9. Higher Order Mode Properties of Superconducting Two-Spoke Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C. S.; Delayen, J. R.; Olave, R. G.

    2011-07-01

    Multi-Spoke cavities lack the cylindrical symmetry that many other cavity types have, which leads to a more complex Higher Order Mode (HOM) spectrum. In addition, spoke cavities offer a large velocity acceptance which means we must perform a detailed analysis of the particle velocity dependence for each mode's R/Q. We present here a study of the HOM properties of two-spoke cavities designed for high-velocity applications. Frequencies, R/Q and field profiles of HOMs have been calculated and are reported.

  10. Tight focusing of higher orders Laguerre-Gaussian modes

    SciTech Connect

    Savelyev, Dmitry A. Khonina, Svetlana N.; Golub, Ilya

    2016-04-13

    The spatial redistribution of the contribution of different electric field components provides a decrease in the size of the central focal spot for higher orders Laguerre-Gaussian modes. It was shown that when sharply focusing laser beams with vortex or special binary phase plate, a sub-wavelength light localization of separate vector field components is possible for any polarization type. This fact should be considered for the interaction of laser radiation with materials selectively sensitive to lateral and longitudinal components of the electromagnetic field.

  11. Higher-order dynamical effects in Coulomb dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Esbensen, H.; Bertsch, G.F.; Bertulani, C.A.

    1995-08-01

    Coulomb dissociation is a technique commonly used to extract the dipole response of nuclei far from stability. This technique is applicable if the dissociation is dominated by dipole transitions and if first-order perturbation theory is valid. In order to assess the significance of higher-order processes we solve numerically the time evolution of the wave function for a two-body breakup in the Coulomb field from a high Z target. We applied this method to the breakup reactions: {sup 11}Be {yields} {sup 10}Be + n and {sup 11}Li {yields} +2n. The latter is treated as a two-body breakup, using a di-neutron model.

  12. A new theorem on higher order derivatives of Lyapunov functions.

    PubMed

    Meigoli, Vahid; Nikravesh, Seyyed Kamaleddin Yadavar

    2009-04-01

    The Lyapunov stability analysis method for nonlinear dynamic systems requires a non positive first derivative of the Lyapunov functions along the system's trajectories. In this paper, a new method is developed to relax this requirement. A new sufficient condition is developed for the stability analysis of nonlinear systems, introducing some inequalities for higher order derivatives of the Lyapunov function. The differential inequalities can be considered as a new controllable canonical form linear time invariant system with negative inputs. The stability analysis of a given nonlinear system is then reduced to check if the characteristic equation for the new linear time invariant system is Hurwitz. Some examples are presented to establish the approach.

  13. A higher order theory of laminated composite cylindrical shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishna Murthy, A. V.; Reddy, T. S. R.

    1986-01-01

    A new higher order theory has been proposed for the analysis of composite cylindrical shells. The formulation allows for arbitrary variation of inplane displacements. Governing equations are presented in the form of a hierarchy of sets of partial differential equations. Each set describes the shell behavior to a certain degree of approximation. The natural frequencies of simply-supported isotropic and laminated shells and stresses in a ring loaded composite shell have been determined to various orders of approximation and compared with three dimensional solutions. These numerical studies indicate the improvements achievable in estimating the natural frequencies and the interlaminar shear stresses in laminated composite cylinders.

  14. Higher order multiple births: natural wonder or failure of therapy?

    PubMed

    Grützner-Könnecke, H; Grützner, P; Grützner, B; Grützner, U; Spalding-Grützner, A; Spalding, P

    1990-01-01

    Data of 601 families with triplets and higher multiples have been collected. Since about nine years the number of higher-order births has been increasing enormously. The average pregnancy duration and the average birthweight of these mostly premature children have been declining from year to year. Despite the progress in neonatology, the death rate and the rate of handicapped children is very high. To prevent such disastrous outcomes, treatments for infertility should be performed only by physicians in centers with strong controls. Selective abortions are no regular solution to the problem of higher multiple gestation.

  15. Higher-order modes in the APS storage ring waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, S.O.; Kustom, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    Twelve higher-order modes (HOMs) in the single-cell accelerating cavities for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring were calculated to have complex impedances that will cause coupled-bunched instabilities near or below the 300mA positron current which is the design goal. Some of these modes couple, through the coupling loop, from the storage ring cavity into the waveguide. This study investigates the transmission of these modes from the cavity into the waveguide. The standing wave ratio (VSWR) of a WR2300 hybrid waveguide component has been measured at each HOM frequency, and its effect on the transmitted modes in the waveguide is studied.

  16. Determination of higher order accelerations by a functional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudosie, C.

    A functional method is developed for the simultaneous determination of all the linear accelerations which exist in the differential equation of a material system dynamics. The method introduces variable angular accelerations of different orders, called direct connection functions, which allow the passing from a linear acceleration of a certain order to that of a higher order. Feedback functions are also introduced which allow the passing from a linear acceleration of a certain order to that of lower orders. This method is applicable to accelerations which occur when passenger trains move rapidly around a curve and at the vertical vibrations of trucks and tractors.

  17. Higher order software - A methodology for defining software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, M.; Zeldin, S.

    1976-01-01

    Higher order software (HOS) is concerned only with computable functions and relationships. The HOS methodology can be used for the definition of software for multiprogrammed, multiprocessor, or multicomputer systems. A description of HOS methodology is presented, giving attention to questions of formulation, interface correctness, specification language principles, and HOS analyzers. Aspects of system design are considered, and details of software management are discussed. Attention is given to modularity as defined by HOS, frozen module management, the assembly control supervisor, and aspects of reliability and efficiency.

  18. Higher-order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers

    SciTech Connect

    Elvira, D.; Hachair, X.; Braive, R.; Beaudoin, G.; Robert-Philip, I.; Sagnes, I.; Abram, I.; Beveratos, A.; Verma, V. B.; Baek, B.; Nam, S. W.; Stevens, M. J.; Dauler, E. A.

    2011-12-15

    We report on the higher-order photon correlations of a high-{beta} nanolaser under pulsed excitation at room temperature. Using a multiplexed four-element superconducting single-photon detector we measured g{sup (n)}(0-vector) with n=2,3,4. All orders of correlation display partially chaotic statistics, even at four times the threshold excitation power. We show that this departure from coherence and Poisson statistics is due to the quantum fluctuations associated with the small number of photons at the lasing threshold.

  19. Higher-order-mode fiber optimized for energetic soliton propagation.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Martin E V; Cheng, Ji; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-08-15

    We describe the design optimization of a higher-order-mode (HOM) fiber for energetic soliton propagation at wavelengths below 1300 nm. A new HOM fiber is fabricated according to our design criteria. The HOM fiber is pumped at 1045 nm by an energetic femtosecond fiber laser. The soliton self-frequency shift process shifts the center wavelength of the soliton to 1085 nm. The soliton has a temporal duration of 216 fs and a pulse energy of 6.3 nJ. The demonstrated pulse energy is approximately six times higher than the previous record in a solid core fiber at wavelengths below 1300 nm.

  20. Prominent Higher-Order Contributions to Electronic Recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Beilmann, C.; Mokler, P. H.; Bernitt, S.; Keitel, C. H.; Ullrich, J.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Harman, Z.

    2011-09-30

    Intershell higher-order (HO) electronic recombination is reported for highly charged Ar, Fe, and Kr ions, where simultaneous excitation of one K-shell electron and one or two additional L-shell electrons occurs upon resonant capture of a free electron. For the mid-Z region, HO resonance strengths grow unexpectedly strong with decreasing atomic number Z ({proportional_to}Z{sup -4}), such that, for Ar ions the 2nd-order overwhelms the 1st-order resonant recombination considerably. The experimental findings are confirmed by multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations including hitherto neglected excitation pathways.

  1. An improved higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, F. E.; Epton, M. A.; Johnson, F. T.; Magnus, A. E.; Rubbert, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved higher order panel method for linearized supersonic flow is described. Each panel, defined by four points on the surface, is divided into eight subpanels in such a way that all subpanel and panel edges are contiguous. By prescribing a quadratic distribution of the doublet on each subpanel, the doublet strength is made strictly continuous on the paneled surface. A linear source distribution is also used. Numerical results are smoother and in better agreement with experiment than the previous method with less strict continuity. A brief discussion of superinclined panels used to eliminate interior interference in nacelles is included.

  2. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  3. Sandia Higher Order Elements (SHOE) v 0.5 alpha

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-24

    SHOE is research code for characterizing and visualizing higher-order finite elements; it contains a framework for defining classes of interpolation techniques and element shapes; methods for interpolating triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, and hexahedral cells using Lagrange and Legendre polynomial bases of arbitrary order; methods to decompose each element into domains of constant gradient flow (using a polynomial solver to identify critical points); and an isocontouring technique that uses this decomposition to guarantee topological correctness. Please note that this is an alpha release of research software and that some time has passed since it was actively developed; build- and run-time issues likely exist.

  4. Learning in higher order Boltzmann machines using linear response.

    PubMed

    Leisink, M A; Kappen, H J

    2000-04-01

    We introduce an efficient method for learning and inference in higher order Boltzmann machines. The method is based on mean field theory with the linear response correction. We compute the correlations using the exact and the approximated method for a fully connected third order network of ten neurons. In addition, we compare the results of the exact and approximate learning algorithm. Finally we use the presented method to solve the shifter problem. We conclude that the linear response approximation gives good results as long as the couplings are not too large.

  5. Unification and new particles at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Low, Matthew; Pinner, David

    2016-11-01

    Precision gauge coupling unification is one of the primary quantitative successes of low energy or split supersymmetry. Preserving this success puts severe restrictions on possible matter and gauge sectors that might appear at collider-accessible energies. In this work we enumerate new gauge sectors which are compatible with unification, consisting of horizontal gauge groups acting on vector-like matter charged under the Standard Model. Interestingly, almost all of these theories are in the supersymmetric conformal window at high energies and confine quickly after the superpartners are decoupled. For a range of scalar masses compatible with both moderately tuned and minimally split supersymmetry, the confining dynamics happen at the multi-TeV scale, leading to a spectrum of multiple spin-0 and spin-1 resonances accessible to the LHC, with unusual quantum numbers and striking decay patterns.

  6. Higher order parametric excitation modes for spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2011-12-15

    This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system. When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.

  7. Higher order parametric excitation modes for spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system. When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.

  8. Orchestration of Molecular Information through Higher Order Chemical Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezza, Brian M.

    Broadly defined, higher order chemical recognition is the process whereby discrete chemical building blocks capable of specifically binding to cognate moieties are covalently linked into oligomeric chains. These chains, or sequences, are then able to recognize and bind to their cognate sequences with a high degree of cooperativity. Principally speaking, DNA and RNA are the most readily obtained examples of this chemical phenomenon, and function via Watson-Crick cognate pairing: guanine pairs with cytosine and adenine with thymine (DNA) or uracil (RNA), in an anti-parallel manner. While the theoretical principles, techniques, and equations derived herein apply generally to any higher-order chemical recognition system, in practice we utilize DNA oligomers as a model-building material to experimentally investigate and validate our hypotheses. Historically, general purpose information processing has been a task limited to semiconductor electronics. Molecular computing on the other hand has been limited to ad hoc approaches designed to solve highly specific and unique computation problems, often involving components or techniques that cannot be applied generally in a manner suitable for precise and predictable engineering. Herein, we provide a fundamental framework for harnessing high-order recognition in a modular and programmable fashion to synthesize molecular information process networks of arbitrary construction and complexity. This document provides a solid foundation for routinely embedding computational capability into chemical and biological systems where semiconductor electronics are unsuitable for practical application.

  9. New, higher-order, elasticity-based micromechanics model

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T. O.

    2003-01-01

    The formulation for a new homogenization theory is presented. The theory utilizes a higher-order, elasticity-based cell analysis of a periodic array of unit cells. The unit cell is discretized into subregions or subcells. The displacement field within each subcell is approximated by an (truncated) eigenfunction function expansion of up to fifth order. The governing equations are developed by satisfying the pointwise governing equations of geometrically linear continuum mechanics exactly up through the given order of the subcell displacement fields. The specified governing equations are valid for any type of constitutive model used to describe the behavior of the material in a subcell. The fifth order theory is subsequently reduced to a third order theory. The appropriate reduction of the fifth and third order theories to the first order theory (which corresponds to a variant of the original method of cells (MOC) (Aboudi, 1991) theory) is outlined. The 3D ECM theory correctly reduces to the 2D ECM theory microstructures and the exact 1D theory for bilaminated structures. Comparison of the predicted bulk and local responses with published results indicates that the theory accurately predicts both types of responses. Furthermore, it is shown that the higher order fields introduced coupling effects between the local fields that can result in substantial changes in the predicted bulk inelastic response of a composite.

  10. Temporal difference models describe higher-order learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Ben; O'Doherty, John P; Dayan, Peter; Koltzenburg, Martin; Jones, Anthony K; Dolan, Raymond J; Friston, Karl J; Frackowiak, Richard S

    2004-06-10

    The ability to use environmental stimuli to predict impending harm is critical for survival. Such predictions should be available as early as they are reliable. In pavlovian conditioning, chains of successively earlier predictors are studied in terms of higher-order relationships, and have inspired computational theories such as temporal difference learning. However, there is at present no adequate neurobiological account of how this learning occurs. Here, in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of higher-order aversive conditioning, we describe a key computational strategy that humans use to learn predictions about pain. We show that neural activity in the ventral striatum and the anterior insula displays a marked correspondence to the signals for sequential learning predicted by temporal difference models. This result reveals a flexible aversive learning process ideally suited to the changing and uncertain nature of real-world environments. Taken with existing data on reward learning, our results suggest a critical role for the ventral striatum in integrating complex appetitive and aversive predictions to coordinate behaviour.

  11. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, M. B.; Rajapaksa, Indrajit; Kim, Yunseok; Marincel, Dan; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Jesse, Stephen; Nagarajan, Valanoor; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics underpin a vast array of physical phenomena ranging from interfacial motion to jamming transitions. In many cases, decoupling the contributions of competing or co-existing mechanisms to the system response can be achieved through investigation of higher order harmonics. Here, a method using band excitation scanning probe microscopy to investigate higher order harmonics of the electromechanical response, with nanometer scale spatial resolution is presented. The utility of the technique is demonstrated by probing the first three harmonics of strain for a well-known system, a model Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 ferroelectric capacitor. It is shown that the second order harmonic response is correlated with the first harmonic response, whereas the third harmonic is not. Additionally, nanoscale measurements of the second harmonic response with field reveal significant deviations from Rayleigh-type models in the form of a much more complicated field dependence than is observed in the spatially averaged data. These results illustrate the versatility of combining proximal probe techniques with nth harmonic detection methods in exploring and decoupling nonlinear dynamics in a wide variety of nanoscale materials.

  12. Laser-PlasmaWakefield Acceleration with Higher Order Laser Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Mullowney, P.; Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-06-01

    Laser-plasma collider designs point to staging of multiple accelerator stages at the 10 GeV level, which are to be developed on the upcoming BELLA laser, while Thomson Gamma source designs use GeV stages, both requiring efficiency and low emittance. Design and scaling of stages operating in the quasi-linear regime to address these needs are presented using simulations in the VORPAL framework. In addition to allowing symmetric acceleration of electrons and positrons, which is important for colliders, this regime has the property that the plasma wakefield is proportional to the transverse gradient of the laser intensity profile. We demonstrate use of higher order laser modes to tailor the laser pulse and hence the transverse focusing forces in the plasma. In particular, we show that by using higher order laser modes, we can reduce the focusing fields and hence increase the matched electron beam radius, which is important to increased charge and efficiency, while keeping the low bunch emittance required for applications.

  13. Higher-Order Hurst Signatures: Dynamical Information in Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferenbaugh, Willis

    2005-10-01

    Understanding and comparing time series from different systems requires characteristic measures of the dynamics embedded in the series. The Hurst exponent is a second-order dynamical measure of a time series which grew up within the blossoming fractal world of Mandelbrot. This characteristic measure is directly related to the behavior of the autocorrelation, the power-spectrum, and other second-order things. And as with these other measures, the Hurst exponent captures and quantifies some but not all of the intrinsic nature of a series. The more elusive characteristics live in the phase spectrum and the higher-order spectra. This research is a continuing quest to (more) fully characterize the dynamical information in time series produced by plasma experiments or models. The goal is to supplement the series information which can be represented by a Hurst exponent, and we would like to develop supplemental techniques in analogy with Hurst's original R/S analysis. These techniques should be another way to plumb the higher-order dynamics.

  14. Higher-order modulation theory for resonant flow over topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher Albalwi, M.; Marchant, T. R.; Smyth, Noel F.

    2017-07-01

    The flow of a fluid over isolated topography in the long wavelength, weakly nonlinear limit is considered. The upstream flow velocity is assumed to be close to a linear long wave velocity of the unforced flow so that the flow is near resonant. Higher order nonlinear, dispersive and nonlinear-dispersive terms beyond the Korteweg-de Vries approximation are included so that the flow is governed by a forced extended Korteweg-de Vries equation. Modulation theory solutions for the undular bores generated upstream and downstream of the forcing are found and used to study the influence of the higher-order terms on the resonant flow, which increases for steeper waves. These modulation theory solutions are compared with numerical solutions of the forced extended Korteweg-de Vries equation for the case of surface water waves. Good comparison is obtained between theoretical and numerical solutions, for properties such as the upstream and downstream solitary wave amplitudes and the widths of the bores.

  15. Inhibitory control gains from higher-order cognitive strategy training.

    PubMed

    Motes, Michael A; Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Chapman, Sandra B; Rao, Neena K; Maguire, Mandy J; Brier, Matthew R; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control. Middle school students enrolled in a comprehension- and reasoning-focused cognitive strategy training program and passive controls participated. The training program taught students a set of steps for inferring essential gist or themes from materials. Both before and after training or a comparable duration in the case of the passive controls, participants completed a semantically cued Go/No-Go task that was designed to assess the effects of depth of semantic processing on response inhibition and components of event-related potentials (ERP) related to response inhibition. Depth of semantic processing was manipulated by varying the level of semantic categorization required for response selection and inhibition. The SMART-trained group showed inhibitory control gains and changes in fronto-central P3 ERP amplitudes on inhibition trials; whereas, the control group did not. The results provide evidence of the transfer of higher-order cognitive strategy training to inhibitory control and modulation of ERPs associated with semantically cued inhibitory control. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for cognitive strategy training, models of cognitive abilities, and education. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Higher-order ionosphere modeling for CODE's next reprocessing activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, S.; Schaer, S.; Meindl, M.; Dach, R.; Steigenberger, P.

    2009-12-01

    CODE (the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) is a joint venture between the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Bern, Switzerland), the Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo, Wabern, Switzerland), the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany), and the Institut für Astronomische und Phsyikalische Geodäsie of the Technische Universität München (IAPG/TUM, Munich, Germany). It acts as one of the global analysis centers of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and participates in the first IGS reprocessing campaign, a full reanalysis of GPS data collected since 1994. For a future reanalyis of the IGS data it is planned to consider not only first-order but also higher-order ionosphere terms in the space geodetic observations. There are several works (e.g. Fritsche et al. 2005), which showed a significant and systematic influence of these effects on the analysis results. The development version of the Bernese Software used at CODE is expanded by the ability to assign additional (scaling) parameters to each considered higher-order ionosphere term. By this, each correction term can be switched on and off on normal-equation level and, moreover, the significance of each correction term may be verified on observation level for different ionosphere conditions.

  17. Visualizing Higher Order Finite Elements: FY05 Yearly Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2005-11-01

    This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elementsinto regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which thealgorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomialapproximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analyticalsolution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and mo-mentim. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate.Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and thesecoefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of free-dom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution.Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increas-ing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number offinite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some typesof simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedomthan increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation hasdetermined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools donot exist for visual inspection of the solution.This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finiteelement simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicialregions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. Therequirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the placeswhere the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacingalgorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.3 AcknowledgementThe authors would like to thank David Day and Louis Romero for their insight into poly-nomial system solvers and the LDRD Senior Council for the opportunity to pursue thisresearch. The authors were

  18. Effects of higher-order Kerr nonlinearity and plasma diffraction on multiple filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses in air

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T. W.; Zhou, C. T.; Zhang, H.; He, X. T.

    2013-07-15

    The effect of higher-order Kerr nonlinearity on channel formation by, and filamentation of, ultrashort laser pulses propagating in air is considered. Filament patterns originating from multiphoton ionization of the air molecules with and without the higher-order Kerr and molecular-rotation effects are investigated. It is found that diverging multiple filaments are formed if only the plasma-induced defocusing effect is included. In the presence of the higher-order Kerr effects, the light channel can exist for a long distance. The effect of noise on the filament patterns is also discussed.

  19. Dependable software through higher-order strategic programming.

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Victor Lono; Fraij, Fares; Roach, Steve

    2004-03-01

    Program transformation is a restricted form of software construction that can be amenable to formal verification. When successful, the nature of the evidence provided by such a verification is considered strong and can constitute a major component of an argument that a high-consequence or safety-critical system meets its dependability requirements. This article explores the application of novel higher-order strategic programming techniques to the development of a portion of a class loader for a restricted implementation of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The implementation is called the SSP and is intended for use in high-consequence safety-critical embedded systems. Verification of the strategic program using ACL2 is also discussed.

  20. Revealing Higher Order Protein Structure Using Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chait, Brian T.; Cadene, Martine; Olinares, Paul Dominic; Rout, Michael P.; Shi, Yi

    2016-06-01

    The development of rapid, sensitive, and accurate mass spectrometric methods for measuring peptides, proteins, and even intact protein assemblies has made mass spectrometry (MS) an extraordinarily enabling tool for structural biology. Here, we provide a personal perspective of the increasingly useful role that mass spectrometric techniques are exerting during the elucidation of higher order protein structures. Areas covered in this brief perspective include MS as an enabling tool for the high resolution structural biologist, for compositional analysis of endogenous protein complexes, for stoichiometry determination, as well as for integrated approaches for the structural elucidation of protein complexes. We conclude with a vision for the future role of MS-based techniques in the development of a multi-scale molecular microscope.

  1. Neutron scattering studies on chromatin higher-order structure

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, V.; Gerchman, S.E.; Schneider, D.K.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    1994-12-31

    We have been engaged in studies of the structure and condensation of chromatin into the 30nm filament using small-angle neutron scattering. We have also used deuterated histone H1 to determine its location in the chromatin 30nm filament. Our studies indicate that chromatin condenses with increasing ionic strength to a limiting structure that has a mass per unit length of 6-7 nucleosomes/11 nm. They also show that the linker histone H1/H5 is located in the interior of the chromatin filament, in a position compatible with its binding to the inner face of the nucleosome. Analysis of the mass per unit length as a function of H5 stoichiometry suggests that 5-7 contiguous nucleosomes need to have H5 bound before a stable higher order structure can exist.

  2. Higher order monochromatic aberrations of the human infant eye

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T. Rowan

    2009-01-01

    The monochromatic optical aberrations of the eye degrade retinal image quality. Any significant aberrations during postnatal development could contribute to infants’ immature visual performance and provide signals for the control of eye growth. Aberrations of human infant eyes from 5 to 7 weeks old were compared with those of adult subjects using a model of an adultlike infant eye that accounted for differences in both eye and pupil size. Data were collected using the COAS Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The results demonstrate that the higher order aberrations of the 5-to-7-week-old eye are less than a factor of 2 greater than predicted for an adultlike infant eye of this age. The data are discussed in the context of infants’ visual performance and the signals available for controlling growth of the eye. PMID:16097867

  3. Higher-order automatic differentiation of mathematical functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Isabelle; Dal Cappello, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Functions of mathematical physics such as the Bessel functions, the Chebyshev polynomials, the Gauss hypergeometric function and so forth, have practical applications in many scientific domains. On the one hand, differentiation formulas provided in reference books apply to real or complex variables. These do not account for the chain rule. On the other hand, based on the chain rule, the automatic differentiation has become a natural tool in numerical modeling. Nevertheless automatic differentiation tools do not deal with the numerous mathematical functions. This paper describes formulas and provides codes for the higher-order automatic differentiation of mathematical functions. The first method is based on Faà di Bruno's formula that generalizes the chain rule. The second one makes use of the second order differential equation they satisfy. Both methods are exemplified with the aforementioned functions.

  4. Higher order statistics of planetary gravities and topographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, William M.

    1993-01-01

    The statistical properties of Earth, Venus, Mars, Moon, and a 3-D mantle convection model are compared. The higher order properties are expressed by third and fourth moments: i.e., as mean products over equilateral triangles (defined as coskewance) and equilateral quadrangles (defined as coexance). For point values, all the fields of real planets have positive skewness, ranging from slightly above zero for Lunar gravity to 2.6 sigma(exp 3) for Martian gravity (sigma is rms magnitude). Six of the eight excesses are greater than Gaussian (3 sigma(exp 4)), ranging from 2.0 sigma(exp 4) for Earth topography to 18.6 sigma(exp 4), for Martian topography. The coskewances and coexances drop off to zero within 20 deg arc in most cases. The mantle convective model has zero skewness and excess slightly less than Gaussian, probably arising from viscosity variations being only radial.

  5. Inflationary scenarios in Starobinsky model with higher order corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artymowski, Michał; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek

    2015-06-01

    We consider the Starobinsky inflation with a set of higher order corrections parametrised by two real coefficients λ1 , λ2. In the Einstein frame we have found a potential with the Starobinsky plateau, steep slope and possibly with an additional minimum, local maximum or a saddle point. We have identified three types of inflationary behaviour that may be generated in this model: i) inflation on the plateau, ii) at the local maximum (topological inflation), iii) at the saddle point. We have found limits on parameters λi and initial conditions at the Planck scale which enable successful inflation and disable eternal inflation at the plateau. We have checked that the local minimum away from the GR vacuum is stable and that the field cannot leave it neither via quantum tunnelling nor via thermal corrections.

  6. RNA Seeds Higher Order Assembly of FUS Protein

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jacob C.; Wang, Xueyin; Podell, Elaine R.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The abundant nuclear RNA-binding protein FUS binds the CTD of RNA polymerase II in an RNA-dependent manner, affecting Ser2 phosphorylation and transcription. Here we examine the mechanism of this process and find that RNA binding nucleates the formation of higher order FUS RNP assemblies that bind the CTD. Both the low-complexity domain and the RGG domain of FUS contribute to assembly. The assemblies appear fibrous by electron microscopy and have characteristics of beta-zipper structures. These results support the emerging view that the pathologic protein aggregation seen in neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS may occur by exaggeration of functionally important assemblies of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:24268778

  7. Higher-order cellular information processing with synthetic RNA devices.

    PubMed

    Win, Maung Nyan; Smolke, Christina D

    2008-10-17

    The engineering of biological systems is anticipated to provide effective solutions to challenges that include energy and food production, environmental quality, and health and medicine. Our ability to transmit information to and from living systems, and to process and act on information inside cells, is critical to advancing the scale and complexity at which we can engineer, manipulate, and probe biological systems. We developed a general approach for assembling RNA devices that can execute higher-order cellular information processing operations from standard components. The engineered devices can function as logic gates (AND, NOR, NAND, or OR gates) and signal filters, and exhibit cooperativity. RNA devices process and transmit molecular inputs to targeted protein outputs, linking computation to gene expression and thus the potential to control cellular function.

  8. A higher-order-mode erbium-doped-fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J W; Fini, J M; DeSantolo, A M; Monberg, E; DiMarcello, F; Fleming, J; Headley, C; DiGiovanni, D J; Ghalmi, S; Ramachandran, S

    2010-08-16

    We demonstrate the first erbium-doped fiber amplifier operating in a single, large-mode area, higher-order mode. A high-power, fundamental-mode, Raman fiber laser operating at 1480 nm was used as a pump source. Using a UV-written, long-period grating, both pump and 1564 nm signal were converted to the LP(0,10) mode, which had an effective area of 2700 microm(2) at 1550 nm. A maximum output power of 5.8 W at 1564 nm with more than 20 dB of gain in a 2.68 m long amplifier was obtained. The mode profile was undistorted at the highest output power.

  9. Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-23

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  10. Higher order spin effects in inspiralling compact objects binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsat, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    We present recent progress on higher order spin effects in the post-Newtonian dynamics of compact objects binaries. We present first an extension of a Lagrangian formalism for point particle with spins, where finite size effects are represented by an additional multipolar structure. When applied to the case of a spin-induced octupole, the formalism allows for the computation of the cubic-in-spin effects that enter at the order 3.5PN. We also report on results obtained for quadratic-in-spin effects at the next-to-leading order 3PN. In both cases, we recover existing results for the dynamics, and derive for the first time the gravitational wave energy flux and orbital phasing. These results will be useful for the data analysis of the upcoming generation of advanced detectors of gravitational waves. NASA Grant 11-ATP-046.

  11. Higher order mode propagation in nonuniform circular ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.; Ingard, K. U.

    1980-01-01

    Higher order mode propagation in a nonuniform circular duct without mean flow was investigated. An approximate wave equation is derived on the assumptions that the duct cross section varies slowly and that mode conversion is negligible. Exact closed form solutions are obtained for a particular class of converging-diverging circular duct which referred to as 'circular cosh duct.' Numerical results are presented in terms of the transmission loss for the various duct shapes and frequencies. The results are applicable to multimodal propagation, single mode propagation, and sound radiation from certain types of contoured inlet ducts, or of sound propagation in a converging-diverging duct of somewhat different shape from a cosh duct.

  12. Higher order mode propagation in nonuniform circular ducts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. C.; Ingard, K. U.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation of higher order mode propagation in a nonuniform circular duct without mean flow. An approximate wave equation is derived on the assumptions that the duct cross section varies slowly and that mode conversion is negligible. Exact closed form solutions are obtained for a particular class of converging-diverging circular duct which is here referred to as 'circular cosh duct'. Numerical results are presentd in terms of the transmission loss for the various duct shapes and frequencies. The results are applicable to studies of multimodal propagation as well as single mode propagation. The results are also applicable to studies of sound radiation from certain types of contoured inlet ducts, or of sound propagation in a converging-diverging duct of somewhat different shape from a cosh duct.

  13. Higher order statistical moment application for solar PV potential analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Abdullah, Samizee; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Harun, Khairulezuan

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaic energy could be as alternative energy to fossil fuel, which is depleting and posing a global warming problem. However, this renewable energy is so variable and intermittent to be relied on. Therefore the knowledge of energy potential is very important for any site to build this solar photovoltaic power generation system. Here, the application of higher order statistical moment model is being analyzed using data collected from 5MW grid-connected photovoltaic system. Due to the dynamic changes of skewness and kurtosis of AC power and solar irradiance distributions of the solar farm, Pearson system where the probability distribution is calculated by matching their theoretical moments with that of the empirical moments of a distribution could be suitable for this purpose. On the advantage of the Pearson system in MATLAB, a software programming has been developed to help in data processing for distribution fitting and potential analysis for future projection of amount of AC power and solar irradiance availability.

  14. Higher Order Intentionality Tasks Are Cognitively More Demanding.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Penelope A; Birch, Amy; Hall, Alexander; Dunbar, R I M

    2017-03-13

    A central assumption that underpins much of the discussion of the role played by social cognition in brain evolution is that social cognition is unusually cognitively demanding. This assumption has never been tested. Here, we use a task in which participants read stories and then answered questions about the stories in a behavioural experiment (39 participants) and an fMRI experiment (17 participants) to show that mentalising requires more time for responses than factual memory of a matched complexity and also that higher orders of mentalising is disproportionately more demanding and requires the recruitment of more neurons in brain regions known to be associated with theory of mind, including insula, posterior STS, temporal pole, and cerebellum. These results have significant implications both for models of brain function and for models of brain evolution.

  15. A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness.

    PubMed

    LeDoux, Joseph E; Brown, Richard

    2017-03-07

    Emotional states of consciousness, or what are typically called emotional feelings, are traditionally viewed as being innately programmed in subcortical areas of the brain, and are often treated as different from cognitive states of consciousness, such as those related to the perception of external stimuli. We argue that conscious experiences, regardless of their content, arise from one system in the brain. In this view, what differs in emotional and nonemotional states are the kinds of inputs that are processed by a general cortical network of cognition, a network essential for conscious experiences. Although subcortical circuits are not directly responsible for conscious feelings, they provide nonconscious inputs that coalesce with other kinds of neural signals in the cognitive assembly of conscious emotional experiences. In building the case for this proposal, we defend a modified version of what is known as the higher-order theory of consciousness.

  16. Higher Order Mode Damping Simulation and Multipacting Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liling

    2015-10-01

    When the beam is passing through an accelerator, it will generate higher order modes (HOM), which will affect to the beam quality especially in high energy accelerators such as International Linear accelerator Collider (ILC). In order to preserve the beam quality, HOM couplers are required to be installed to extract HOM power. Most of HOM couplers are 3D complex structures including small features. In addition, many physics process are involved in HOM coupler design such as RF heating and multipacting. Numerical modeling and simulation are essential for HOM coupler design and optimization for successful operation of high energy accelerators. SLAC developed 3D finite element parallel electromagnetics code suite ACE3P can be used to accelerator modeling with higher accuracy in fast turnaround time. In this paper, ACE3P application for HOM damping simulation and multipating analysis is presented for ILC 3.9 GHz crab cavity.

  17. Higher order parabolic approximations of the reduced wave equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaninch, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Asymptotic solutions of order k to the nth are developed for the reduced wave equation. Here k is a dimensionless wave number and n is the arbitrary order of the approximation. These approximations are an extension of geometric acoustics theory, and provide corrections to that theory in the form of multiplicative functions which satisfy parabolic partial differential equations. These corrections account for the diffraction effects caused by variation of the field normal to the ray path and the interaction of these transverse variations with the variation of the field along the ray. The theory is applied to the example of radiation from a piston, and it is demonstrated that the higher order approximations are more accurate for decreasing values of k.

  18. Higher order correlation beams in atmosphere under strong turbulence conditions.

    PubMed

    Avetisyan, H; Monken, C H

    2016-02-08

    Higher order correlation beams, that is, two-photon beams obtained from the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by Hermite-Gauss or Laguerre-Gauss beams of any order, can be used to encode information in many modes, opening the possibility of quantum communication with large alphabets. In this paper we calculate, analytically, the fourth-order correlation function for the Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss coherent and partially coherent correlation beams propagating through a strong turbulent medium. We show that fourth-order correlation functions for correlation beams have, under certain conditions, expressions similar to those of intensities of classical beams and are degraded by turbulence in a similar way as the classical beams. Our results can be useful in establishing limits for the use of two-photon beams in quantum communications with larger alphabets under atmospheric turbulence.

  19. Higher order time integration methods for two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kees, Christopher E.; Miller, Cass T.

    Time integration methods that adapt in both the order of approximation and time step have been shown to provide efficient solutions to Richards' equation. In this work, we extend the same method of lines approach to solve a set of two-phase flow formulations and address some mass conservation issues from the previous work. We analyze these formulations and the nonlinear systems that result from applying the integration methods, placing particular emphasis on their index, range of applicability, and mass conservation characteristics. We conduct numerical experiments to study the behavior of the numerical models for three test problems. We demonstrate that higher order integration in time is more efficient than standard low-order methods for a variety of practical grids and integration tolerances, that the adaptive scheme successfully varies the step size in response to changing conditions, and that mass balance can be maintained efficiently using variable-order integration and an appropriately chosen numerical model formulation.

  20. A higher-order Robert-Asselin type time filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Trenchea, Catalin

    2014-02-01

    The Robert-Asselin (RA) time filter combined with leapfrog scheme is widely used in numerical models of weather and climate. It successfully suppresses the spurious computational mode associated with the leapfrog method, but it also weakly dampens the physical mode and degrades the numerical accuracy. The Robert-Asselin-Williams (RAW) time filter is a modification of the RA filter that reduces the undesired numerical damping of RA filter and increases the accuracy. We propose a higher-order Robert-Asselin (hoRA) type time filter which effectively suppresses the computational modes and achieves third-order accuracy with the same storage requirement as RAW filter. Like RA and RAW filters, the hoRA filter is non-intrusive, and so it would be easily implementable. The leapfrog scheme with hoRA filter is almost as accurate, stable and efficient as the intrusive third-order Adams-Bashforth (AB3) method.

  1. Inflationary scenarios in Starobinsky model with higher order corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Artymowski, Michał; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek

    2015-06-17

    We consider the Starobinsky inflation with a set of higher order corrections parametrised by two real coefficients λ{sub 1} ,λ{sub 2}. In the Einstein frame we have found a potential with the Starobinsky plateau, steep slope and possibly with an additional minimum, local maximum or a saddle point. We have identified three types of inflationary behaviour that may be generated in this model: i) inflation on the plateau, ii) at the local maximum (topological inflation), iii) at the saddle point. We have found limits on parameters λ{sub i} and initial conditions at the Planck scale which enable successful inflation and disable eternal inflation at the plateau. We have checked that the local minimum away from the GR vacuum is stable and that the field cannot leave it neither via quantum tunnelling nor via thermal corrections.

  2. Higher-order resonances in a Stark decelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y.T. van de; Bethlem, Hendrick L.; Vanhaecke, Nicolas; Meijer, Gerard

    2005-05-15

    The motion of polar molecules can be controlled by time-varying inhomogeneous electric fields. In a Stark decelerator, this is exploited to select a fraction of a molecular beam that is accelerated, transported, or decelerated. Phase stability ensures that the selected bunch of molecules is kept together throughout the deceleration process. In this paper an extended description of phase stability in a Stark decelerator is given, including higher-order effects. This analysis predicts a wide variety of resonances that originate from the spatial and temporal periodicity of the electric fields. These resonances are experimentally observed using a beam of OH ({sup 2}{pi}{sub 3/2},v=0,J=3/2) radicals passing through a Stark decelerator.

  3. Efficient multiple time-stepping algorithms of higher order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Abdullah; Niegemann, Jens; Busch, Kurt; Hochbruck, Marlis

    2015-03-01

    Multiple time-stepping (MTS) algorithms allow to efficiently integrate large systems of ordinary differential equations, where a few stiff terms restrict the timestep of an otherwise non-stiff system. In this work, we discuss a flexible class of MTS techniques, based on multistep methods. Our approach contains several popular methods as special cases and it allows for the easy construction of novel and efficient higher-order MTS schemes. In addition, we demonstrate how to adapt the stability contour of the non-stiff time-integration to the physical system at hand. This allows significantly larger timesteps when compared to previously known multistep MTS approaches. As an example, we derive novel predictor-corrector (PCMTS) schemes specifically optimized for the time-integration of damped wave equations on locally refined meshes. In a set of numerical experiments, we demonstrate the performance of our scheme on discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) simulations of Maxwell's equations.

  4. Chemical probes for higher-order structure in RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Peattie, D A; Gilbert, W

    1980-01-01

    Three chemical reactions can probe the secondary and tertiary interactions of RNA molecules in solution. Dimethyl sulfate monitors the N-7 of guanosines and senses tertiary interactions there, diethyl pyrocarbonate detects stacking of adenosines, and an alternate dimethyl sulfate reaction examines the N-3 of cytidines and thus probes base pairing. The reactions work between 0 degrees C and 90 degrees C and at pH 4.5--8.5 in a variety of buffers. As an example we follow the progressive denaturation of yeast tRNAPhe terminally labeled with 32P as the tertiary and secondary structures sequentially melt out. A single autoradiograph of a terminally labeled molecule locates regions of higher-order structure and identifies the bases involved. Images PMID:6159633

  5. A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness

    PubMed Central

    LeDoux, Joseph E.; Brown, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Emotional states of consciousness, or what are typically called emotional feelings, are traditionally viewed as being innately programmed in subcortical areas of the brain, and are often treated as different from cognitive states of consciousness, such as those related to the perception of external stimuli. We argue that conscious experiences, regardless of their content, arise from one system in the brain. In this view, what differs in emotional and nonemotional states are the kinds of inputs that are processed by a general cortical network of cognition, a network essential for conscious experiences. Although subcortical circuits are not directly responsible for conscious feelings, they provide nonconscious inputs that coalesce with other kinds of neural signals in the cognitive assembly of conscious emotional experiences. In building the case for this proposal, we defend a modified version of what is known as the higher-order theory of consciousness. PMID:28202735

  6. Evidence for several higher order structural elements in ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed

    Woese, C R; Gutell, R R

    1989-05-01

    Comparative analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences suggests the existence of two new higher order interactions: (i) a double-helical structure involving positions 505-507 and 524-526 (Escherichia coli numbering) and (ii) an interaction between the region of position 130 and the helix located approximately between positions 180 and 195. In the first of these, one of the strands of the helix exists in the bulge loop, and the other strand exists in the terminal loop of a previously recognized compound helix involving positions 500-545. Therefore, the new structure formally represents a pseudoknot. In the second, the insertion/deletion of a nucleotide in the vicinity of position 130 correlates with the length of the helix in the 180-195 region, the latter having a 3-base-pair stalk when the base in question is deleted and a stalk of approximately 10 pairs when it is inserted.

  7. Evidence for several higher order structural elements in ribosomal RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Woese, C R; Gutell, R R

    1989-01-01

    Comparative analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences suggests the existence of two new higher order interactions: (i) a double-helical structure involving positions 505-507 and 524-526 (Escherichia coli numbering) and (ii) an interaction between the region of position 130 and the helix located approximately between positions 180 and 195. In the first of these, one of the strands of the helix exists in the bulge loop, and the other strand exists in the terminal loop of a previously recognized compound helix involving positions 500-545. Therefore, the new structure formally represents a pseudoknot. In the second, the insertion/deletion of a nucleotide in the vicinity of position 130 correlates with the length of the helix in the 180-195 region, the latter having a 3-base-pair stalk when the base in question is deleted and a stalk of approximately 10 pairs when it is inserted. PMID:2654936

  8. Higher-order nonlinear effects in a Josephson parametric amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Fedorov, Arkady

    2015-12-01

    Nonlinearity of the current-phase relationship of a Josephson junction is the key resource for a Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) as well as for a Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier, the only devices in which the quantum limit for added noise has so far been approached at microwave frequencies. A standard approach to describe JPA takes into account only the lowest order (cubic) nonlinearity resulting in a Duffing-like oscillator equation of motion or in a Kerr-type nonlinearity term in the Hamiltonian. In this paper we derive the quantum expression for the gain of JPA including all orders of the Josephson junction nonlinearity in the linear response regime. We then analyze gain saturation effect for stronger signals within a semiclassical approach. Our results reveal nonlinear effects of higher orders and their implications for operation of a JPA.

  9. Dynamic facilitation picture of a higher-order glass singularity.

    PubMed

    Sellitto, Mauro; De Martino, Daniele; Caccioli, Fabio; Arenzon, Jeferson J

    2010-12-31

    We show that facilitated spin mixtures with a tunable facilitation reproduce, on a Bethe lattice, the simplest higher-order singularity scenario predicted by the mode-coupling theory (MCT) of liquid-glass transition. Depending on the facilitation strength, they yield either a discontinuous glass transition or a continuous one, with no underlying thermodynamic singularity. Similar results are obtained for facilitated spin models on a diluted Bethe lattice. The mechanism of dynamical arrest in these systems can be interpreted in terms of bootstrap and standard percolation and corresponds to a crossover from a compact to a fractal structure of the incipient spanning cluster of frozen spins. Theoretical and numerical simulation results are fully consistent with MCT predictions.

  10. Higher order corrections to asymptotic-de Sitter inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsenzadeh, M.; Yusofi, E.

    2017-08-01

    Since trans-Planckian considerations can be associated with the re-definition of the initial vacuum, we investigate further the influence of trans-Planckian physics on the spectra produced by the initial quasi-de Sitter (dS) state during inflation. We use the asymptotic-dS mode to study the trans-Planckian correction of the power spectrum to the quasi-dS inflation. The obtained spectra consist of higher order corrections associated with the type of geometry and harmonic terms sensitive to the fluctuations of space-time (or gravitational waves) during inflation. As an important result, the amplitude of the power spectrum is dependent on the choice of c, i.e. the type of space-time in the period of inflation. Also, the results are always valid for any asymptotic dS space-time and particularly coincide with the conventional results for dS and flat space-time.

  11. Polymer quantization, stability and higher-order time derivative terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumsille, Patricio; Reyes, Carlos M.; Ossandon, Sebastian; Reyes, Camilo

    2016-03-01

    The possibility that fundamental discreteness implicit in a quantum gravity theory may act as a natural regulator for ultraviolet singularities arising in quantum field theory has been intensively studied. Here, along the same expectations, we investigate whether a nonstandard representation called polymer representation can smooth away the large amount of negative energy that afflicts the Hamiltonians of higher-order time derivative theories, rendering the theory unstable when interactions come into play. We focus on the fourth-order Pais-Uhlenbeck model which can be reexpressed as the sum of two decoupled harmonic oscillators one producing positive energy and the other negative energy. As expected, the Schrödinger quantization of such model leads to the stability problem or to negative norm states called ghosts. Within the framework of polymer quantization we show the existence of new regions where the Hamiltonian can be defined well bounded from below.

  12. Inflationary scenarios in Starobinsky model with higher order corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Artymowski, Michał; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek E-mail: Zygmunt.Lalak@fuw.edu.pl

    2015-06-01

    We consider the Starobinsky inflation with a set of higher order corrections parametrised by two real coefficients λ{sub 1} , λ{sub 2}. In the Einstein frame we have found a potential with the Starobinsky plateau, steep slope and possibly with an additional minimum, local maximum or a saddle point. We have identified three types of inflationary behaviour that may be generated in this model: i) inflation on the plateau, ii) at the local maximum (topological inflation), iii) at the saddle point. We have found limits on parameters λ{sub i} and initial conditions at the Planck scale which enable successful inflation and disable eternal inflation at the plateau. We have checked that the local minimum away from the GR vacuum is stable and that the field cannot leave it neither via quantum tunnelling nor via thermal corrections.

  13. Intermediary LEO propagation including higher order zonal harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautesserres, Denis; Lara, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two new intermediary orbits of the artificial satellite problem are proposed. The analytical solutions include higher order effects of the geopotential, and are obtained by means of a torsion transformation applied to the quasi-Keplerian system resulting after the elimination of the parallax simplification, for the first intermediary, and after the elimination of the parallax and perigee simplifications, for the second one. The new intermediaries perform notably well for low Earth orbits propagation, are free from special functions, and result advantageous, both in accuracy and efficiency, when compared to the standard Cowell integration of the J_2 problem, thus providing appealing alternatives for onboard, short-term, orbit propagation under limited computational resources.

  14. Higher order mode damping in an ALS test cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, A.F.; Lamberston, G.R. ); Barry, W. )

    1990-06-01

    The higher order mode attenuation scheme proposed for the Advanced Light Source accelerating cavities consists of two broad-band dampers placed 90{degrees} apart on the outer edge. In order to assess the damping efficiency a test assembly was built. The HOM damping was obtained by comparing the peak values of the transmission through the cavity for both the damped and the undamped case. Because of the high number of modes and frequency shifts due to the damping gear, the damping was assessed statistically, by averaging over several modes. In the frequency range from 1.5 to 5.5 GHz, average damping greater than 100 was obtained. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  15. Higher order mode analysis of the APT superconducting cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, F.L.

    1997-08-01

    In another contribution to this conference the design of superconducting cavities for low velocity proton beams will be reported. Besides an optimization of the rf properties of the accelerating {pi}-mode, other modes, possibly excited by the traversing proton beam, need to be regarded. The full spectrum of modes in {beta} = 0.64 and {beta} = 0.82 5-cell cavities, as proposed for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) facility, has been calculated up to frequencies higher than 2.0 GHz. These have been evaluated for their potential to affect the beam. The presence of {open_quotes}trapped{close_quotes} modes has also been investigated. In addition to the specific mode spectrum, the total power deposited into the cavities by the beam has been determined from the induced wake-fields. Due to the operation with beams below the velocity of light, extreme care was required to prevent incorrect results by wave reflections from the boundaries of the calculation volume. The simulations indicate that a power deposition of up to 17 W per cavity can be expected in the worst case. This power might have to be removed by higher order mode couplers, which is a technically feasible task. Transporting this power out to a room temperature dump does not even noticeably increase the requirements to the cryogenic system. Also for the prevention of beam break-up effects and for suppression of resonant excitation of specific higher order modes (HOMs) it is of interest to investigate the removal of this HOM-power. Different approaches to implement this removal technically are entertained.

  16. Higher-order phase transitions on financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzak, A.; Kutner, R.; Perelló, J.; Masoliver, J.

    2010-08-01

    Statistical and thermodynamic properties of the anomalous multifractal structure of random interevent (or intertransaction) times were thoroughly studied by using the extended continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism of Montroll, Weiss, Scher, and Lax. Although this formalism is quite general (and can be applied to any interhuman communication with nontrivial priority), we consider it in the context of a financial market where heterogeneous agent activities can occur within a wide spectrum of time scales. As the main general consequence, we found (by additionally using the Saddle-Point Approximation) the scaling or power-dependent form of the partition function, Z(q'). It diverges for any negative scaling powers q' (which justifies the name anomalous) while for positive ones it shows the scaling with the general exponent τ(q'). This exponent is the nonanalytic (singular) or noninteger power of q', which is one of the pilar of higher-order phase transitions. In definition of the partition function we used the pausing-time distribution (PTD) as the central one, which takes the form of convolution (or superstatistics used, e.g. for describing turbulence as well as the financial market). Its integral kernel is given by the stretched exponential distribution (often used in disordered systems). This kernel extends both the exponential distribution assumed in the original version of the CTRW formalism (for description of the transient photocurrent measured in amorphous glassy material) as well as the Gaussian one sometimes used in this context (e.g. for diffusion of hydrogen in amorphous metals or for aging effects in glasses). Our most important finding is the third- and higher-order phase transitions, which can be roughly interpreted as transitions between the phase where high frequency trading is most visible and the phase defined by low frequency trading. The specific order of the phase transition directly depends upon the shape exponent α defining the stretched

  17. Exploratory movement generates higher-order information that is sufficient for accurate perception of scaled egocentric distance.

    PubMed

    Mantel, Bruno; Stoffregen, Thomas A; Campbell, Alain; Bardy, Benoît G

    2015-01-01

    Body movement influences the structure of multiple forms of ambient energy, including optics and gravito-inertial force. Some researchers have argued that egocentric distance is derived from inferential integration of visual and non-visual stimulation. We suggest that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in perceptual stimulation as higher-order patterns that extend across optics and inertia. We formalize a pattern that specifies the egocentric distance of a stationary object across higher-order relations between optics and inertia. This higher-order parameter is created by self-generated movement of the perceiver in inertial space relative to the illuminated environment. For this reason, we placed minimal restrictions on the exploratory movements of our participants. We asked whether humans can detect and use the information available in this higher-order pattern. Participants judged whether a virtual object was within reach. We manipulated relations between body movement and the ambient structure of optics and inertia. Judgments were precise and accurate when the higher-order optical-inertial parameter was available. When only optic flow was available, judgments were poor. Our results reveal that participants perceived egocentric distance from the higher-order, optical-inertial consequences of their own exploratory activity. Analysis of participants' movement trajectories revealed that self-selected movements were complex, and tended to optimize availability of the optical-inertial pattern that specifies egocentric distance. We argue that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in higher-order patterns of ambient energy, that self-generated movement can generate these higher-order patterns, and that these patterns can be detected and used to support perception of egocentric distance that is precise and accurate.

  18. Exploratory Movement Generates Higher-Order Information That Is Sufficient for Accurate Perception of Scaled Egocentric Distance

    PubMed Central

    Mantel, Bruno; Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Campbell, Alain; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2015-01-01

    Body movement influences the structure of multiple forms of ambient energy, including optics and gravito-inertial force. Some researchers have argued that egocentric distance is derived from inferential integration of visual and non-visual stimulation. We suggest that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in perceptual stimulation as higher-order patterns that extend across optics and inertia. We formalize a pattern that specifies the egocentric distance of a stationary object across higher-order relations between optics and inertia. This higher-order parameter is created by self-generated movement of the perceiver in inertial space relative to the illuminated environment. For this reason, we placed minimal restrictions on the exploratory movements of our participants. We asked whether humans can detect and use the information available in this higher-order pattern. Participants judged whether a virtual object was within reach. We manipulated relations between body movement and the ambient structure of optics and inertia. Judgments were precise and accurate when the higher-order optical-inertial parameter was available. When only optic flow was available, judgments were poor. Our results reveal that participants perceived egocentric distance from the higher-order, optical-inertial consequences of their own exploratory activity. Analysis of participants’ movement trajectories revealed that self-selected movements were complex, and tended to optimize availability of the optical-inertial pattern that specifies egocentric distance. We argue that accurate information about egocentric distance exists in higher-order patterns of ambient energy, that self-generated movement can generate these higher-order patterns, and that these patterns can be detected and used to support perception of egocentric distance that is precise and accurate. PMID:25856410

  19. Higher-order Fourier analysis over finite fields and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatami, Pooya

    Higher-order Fourier analysis is a powerful tool in the study of problems in additive and extremal combinatorics, for instance the study of arithmetic progressions in primes, where the traditional Fourier analysis comes short. In recent years, higher-order Fourier analysis has found multiple applications in computer science in fields such as property testing and coding theory. In this thesis, we develop new tools within this theory with several new applications such as a characterization theorem in algebraic property testing. One of our main contributions is a strong near-equidistribution result for regular collections of polynomials. The densities of small linear structures in subsets of Abelian groups can be expressed as certain analytic averages involving linear forms. Higher-order Fourier analysis examines such averages by approximating the indicator function of a subset by a function of bounded number of polynomials. Then, to approximate the average, it suffices to know the joint distribution of the polynomials applied to the linear forms. We prove a near-equidistribution theorem that describes these distributions for the group F(n/p) when p is a fixed prime. This fundamental fact was previously known only under various extra assumptions about the linear forms or the field size. We use this near-equidistribution theorem to settle a conjecture of Gowers and Wolf on the true complexity of systems of linear forms. Our next application is towards a characterization of testable algebraic properties. We prove that every locally characterized affine-invariant property of functions f : F(n/p) → R with n∈ N, is testable. In fact, we prove that any such property P is proximity-obliviously testable. More generally, we show that any affine-invariant property that is closed under subspace restrictions and has "bounded complexity" is testable. We also prove that any property that can be described as the property of decomposing into a known structure of low

  20. Technical Decision Making With Higher Order Structure Data: Perspectives on Higher Order Structure Characterization From the Biopharmaceutical Industry.

    PubMed

    Weiss, William F; Gabrielson, John P; Al-Azzam, Wasfi; Chen, Guodong; Davis, Darryl L; Das, Tapan K; Hayes, David B; Houde, Damian; Singh, Satish K

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of the higher order structure (HOS) of protein-based biopharmaceutical products is an important aspect of their development. Opinions vary about how best to apply biophysical methods, in which contexts to use these methods, and how to use the resulting data to make technical decisions as drug candidates are commercialized [Gabrielson JP, Weiss WF IV. J Pharm Sci. 2015;104(4):1240-1245]. The aim of this commentary is to provide guidance for the development and implementation of a robust and comprehensive HOS characterization strategy. We first consider important concepts involved in developing a strategy that is appropriately suited to a particular biologic, and then discuss ways industry can partner with academia, technology companies, government laboratories, and regulatory agencies to improve the consistency with which HOS characterization is applied across the biopharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Higher-Order Finite Elements for Computing Thermal Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Dana C.

    2004-01-01

    Two variants of the finite-element method have been developed for use in computational simulations of radiative transfers of heat among diffuse gray surfaces. Both variants involve the use of higher-order finite elements, across which temperatures and radiative quantities are assumed to vary according to certain approximations. In this and other applications, higher-order finite elements are used to increase (relative to classical finite elements, which are assumed to be isothermal) the accuracies of final numerical results without having to refine computational meshes excessively and thereby incur excessive computation times. One of the variants is termed the radiation sub-element (RSE) method, which, itself, is subject to a number of variations. This is the simplest and most straightforward approach to representation of spatially variable surface radiation. Any computer code that, heretofore, could model surface-to-surface radiation can incorporate the RSE method without major modifications. In the basic form of the RSE method, each finite element selected for use in computing radiative heat transfer is considered to be a parent element and is divided into sub-elements for the purpose of solving the surface-to-surface radiation-exchange problem. The sub-elements are then treated as classical finite elements; that is, they are assumed to be isothermal, and their view factors and absorbed heat fluxes are calculated accordingly. The heat fluxes absorbed by the sub-elements are then transferred back to the parent element to obtain a radiative heat flux that varies spatially across the parent element. Variants of the RSE method involve the use of polynomials to interpolate and/or extrapolate to approximate spatial variations of physical quantities. The other variant of the finite-element method is termed the integration method (IM). Unlike in the RSE methods, the parent finite elements are not subdivided into smaller elements, and neither isothermality nor other

  2. Higher-order neural network software for distortion invariant object recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly

    1991-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in pattern recognition for such applications as automatic target recognition and industrial robotic vision relies on digital image processing. We present a higher-order neural network model and software which performs the complete feature extraction-pattern classification paradigm required for automatic pattern recognition. Using a third-order neural network, we demonstrate complete, 100 percent accurate invariance to distortions of scale, position, and in-plate rotation. In a higher-order neural network, feature extraction is built into the network, and does not have to be learned. Only the relatively simple classification step must be learned. This is key to achieving very rapid training. The training set is much smaller than with standard neural network software because the higher-order network only has to be shown one view of each object to be learned, not every possible view. The software and graphical user interface run on any Sun workstation. Results of the use of the neural software in autonomous robotic vision systems are presented. Such a system could have extensive application in robotic manufacturing.

  3. Non-rigid registration using higher-order mutual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueckert, D.; Clarkson, M. J.; Hill, D. L. G.; Hawkes, D. J.

    2000-03-01

    Non-rigid registration of multi-modality images is an important tool for assessing temporal and structural changesbetween images. For rigid registration, voxel similarity measures like mutual information have been shown to alignimages from different modalities accurately and robustly. For non-rigid registration, mutual information can besensitive to local variations of intensity which in MR images may be caused by RF inhomogeneity. The reasonfor the sensitivity of mutual information towards intensity variations stems from the fact that mutual informationignores any spatial information. In this paper we propose an extension of the mutual information framework whichincorporates spatial information about higher-order image structure into the registration process and has the potentialto improve the accuracy and robustness of non-rigid registration in the presence of intensity variations. We haveapplied the non-rigid registration algorithm to a number of simulated MR brain images of a digital phantom whichhave been degraded by a simulated intensity shading and a known deformation. In addition, we have applied thealgorithm for the non-rigid registration of eight pre- and post-operative brain MR images which were acquired withan interventional MR scanner and therefore have substantial intensity shading due to RF field inhomogeneities. Inall cases the second-order estimate of mutual information leads to robust and accurate registration.

  4. Predicting perceptual learning from higher-order cortical processing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Huang, Jing; Lv, Yaping; Ma, Xiaoli; Yang, Bin; Wang, Encong; Du, Boqi; Li, Wu; Song, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning has been shown to be highly specific to the retinotopic location and attributes of the trained stimulus. Recent psychophysical studies suggest that these specificities, which have been associated with early retinotopic visual cortex, may in fact not be inherent in perceptual learning and could be related to higher-order brain functions. Here we provide direct electrophysiological evidence in support of this proposition. In a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from human adults over the course of learning in a texture discrimination task (TDT). The results consistently showed that the earliest C1 component (68-84ms), known to reflect V1 activity driven by feedforward inputs, was not modulated by learning regardless of whether the behavioral improvement is location specific or not. In contrast, two later posterior ERP components (posterior P1 and P160-350) over the occipital cortex and one anterior ERP component (anterior P160-350) over the prefrontal cortex were progressively modified day by day. Moreover, the change of the anterior component was closely correlated with improved behavioral performance on a daily basis. Consistent with recent psychophysical and imaging observations, our results indicate that perceptual learning can mainly involve changes in higher-level visual cortex as well as in the neural networks responsible for cognitive functions such as attention and decision making.

  5. Analytical higher-order model for flexible and stretchable sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongfang; Zhu, Hongbin; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Xu; Liu, Fuxi; Lü, Yanjun

    2015-03-01

    The stretchable sensor wrapped around a foldable airfoil or embedded inside of it has great potential for use in the monitoring of the structural status of the foldable airfoil. The design methodology is important to the development of the stretchable sensor for status monitoring on the foldable airfoil. According to the requirement of mechanical flexibility of the sensor, the combined use of a layered flexible structural formation and a strain isolation layer is implemented. An analytical higher-order model is proposed to predict the stresses of the strain-isolation layer based on the shear-lag model for the safe design of the flexible and stretchable sensors. The normal stress and shear stress equations in the constructed structure of the sensors are obtained by the proposed model. The stress distribution in the structure is investigated when bending load is applied to the structures. The numerical results show that the proposed model can predict the variation of normal stress and shear stress along the thickness of the strain-isolation (polydimethylsiloxane) layer accurately. The results by the proposed model are in good agreement with the finite element method, in which the normal stress is variable while the shear stress is invariable along the thickness direction of strain-isolation layer. The high-order model is proposed to predict the stresses of the layered structure of the flexible and stretchable sensor for monitoring the status of the foldable airfoil.

  6. Higher-order web link analysis using multilinear algebra.

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Joseph P.; Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2005-07-01

    Linear algebra is a powerful and proven tool in web search. Techniques, such as the PageRank algorithm of Brin and Page and the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg, score web pages based on the principal eigenvector (or singular vector) of a particular non-negative matrix that captures the hyperlink structure of the web graph. We propose and test a new methodology that uses multilinear algebra to elicit more information from a higher-order representation of the hyperlink graph. We start by labeling the edges in our graph with the anchor text of the hyperlinks so that the associated linear algebra representation is a sparse, three-way tensor. The first two dimensions of the tensor represent the web pages while the third dimension adds the anchor text. We then use the rank-1 factors of a multilinear PARAFAC tensor decomposition, which are akin to singular vectors of the SVD, to automatically identify topics in the collection along with the associated authoritative web pages.

  7. Higher order acoustoelastic Lamb wave propagation in stressed plates.

    PubMed

    Pei, Ning; Bond, Leonard J

    2016-11-01

    Modeling and experiments are used to investigate Lamb wave propagation in the direction perpendicular to an applied stress. Sensitivity, in terms of changes in velocity, for both symmetrical and anti-symmetrical modes was determined. Codes were developed based on analytical expressions for waves in loaded plates and they were used to give wave dispersion curves. The experimental system used a pair of compression wave transducers on variable angle wedges, with set separation, and variable frequency tone burst excitation, on an aluminum plate 0.16 cm thick with uniaxial applied loads. The loads, which were up to 600 με, were measured using strain gages. Model results and experimental data are in good agreement. It was found that the change in Lamb wave velocity, due to the acoustoelastic effect, for the S1 mode exhibits about ten times more sensitive, in terms of velocity change, than the traditional bulk wave measurements, and those performed using the fundamental Lamb modes. The data presented demonstrate the potential for the use of higher order Lamb modes for online industrial stress measurement in plate, and that the higher sensitivity seen offers potential for improved measurement systems.

  8. Higher Order Mode Heating Analysis for the ILC Superconducting Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Nantista, C.; Adolphsen, C.; /SLAC

    2010-10-27

    The superconducting cavities and interconnects in the 11 km long linacs of the International Linear Collider (ILC) are designed to operate at 2K, where cooling costs are very expensive. It is thus important to minimize cryogenic heat loads. In addition to an unavoidable static load and the dynamic load of the fundamental 1.3 GHz accelerating rf, a further heat source is presented by the higher order mode (HOM) power deposited by the beam. Such modes will be damped by specially designed HOM couplers attached to the cavities (for trapped modes), and by ceramic dampers at 70K that are located between the eight or nine cavity cryomodules (for propagating modes). Brute force calculation of the higher frequency modes excited in a string of cryomodules is limited by computing capacity (see, e.g. [1]). M. Liepe has calculated {approx} 400 longitudinal TM modes in 3 superconducting cavities plus absorbers, up to 8 GHz [2]. Joestingmeier, et al., have used a ray tracing calculation to find the effect at higher frequencies, specifically in the range of tens of GHz and above [3]. In this report we present a scattering matrix approach, which we apply to an rf unit comprising 26 cavities and 3 absorbers. We perform calculations at sample frequencies (up to 20 GHz) to predict the effectiveness of the ceramic dampers in limiting HOM heat deposition at 2K.

  9. Higher-order nonclassical effects in fluctuating-loss channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohmann, M.; Sperling, J.; Semenov, A. A.; Vogel, W.

    2017-01-01

    We study the evolution of higher-order nonclassicality and entanglement criteria in atmospheric fluctuating-loss channels. By formulating input-output relations for the matrix of moments, we investigate the influence of such channels on the corresponding quantumness criteria. This generalization of our previous work on Gaussian entanglement [M. Bohmann et al., Phys. Rev. A 94, 010302(R) (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.010302] not only exploits second-order-based scenarios, but it also provides a detailed investigation of nonclassicality and entanglement in non-Gaussian and multimode radiation fields undergoing a fluctuating attenuation. That is, various examples of criteria and states are studied in detail, unexpected effects, e.g., the dependency of the squeezing transfer on the coherent displacement, are discovered, and it is demonstrated that non-Gaussian entanglement can be more robust against atmospheric losses than Gaussian one. Additionally, we propose a detection scheme for measuring the considered moments after propagation through the atmosphere. Therefore, our results may help to develop, improve, and optimize non-Gaussian sources of quantum light for applications in free-space quantum communication.

  10. Higher Order Aberration and Astigmatism in Children with Hyperopic Amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Kwon; Chang, Ji Woong

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the changes in corneal higher-order aberration (HOA) during amblyopia treatment and the correlation between HOA and astigmatism in hyperopic amblyopia children. In this retrospective study, a total of 72 eyes from 72 patients ranging in age from 38 to 161 months were included. Patients were divided into two groups based on the degree of astigmatism. Corneal HOA was measured using a KR-1W aberrometer at the initial visit and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between HOA and astigmatism. A total of 72 patients were enrolled in this study, 37 of which were classified as belonging to the higher astigmatism group, while 35 were assigned to the lower astigmatism group. There was a statistically significant difference in success rate between the higher and lower astigmatism groups. In both groups, all corneal HOAs were significantly reduced during amblyopia treatment. When comparing the two groups, a significant difference in coma HOA at the 12-month follow-up was detected (p = 0.043). In the Pearson correlation test, coma HOA at the 12-month follow-up demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with astigmatism and a stronger correlation with astigmatism in the higher astigmatism group than in the lower astigmatism group (coefficient values, 0.383 and 0.284 as well as p = 0.021 and p = 0.038, respectively). HOA, particularly coma HOA, correlated with astigmatism and could exert effects in cases involving hyperopic amblyopia.

  11. Higher order statistical frequency domain decomposition for operational modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, G. M.; Mahgoub, M. A.; Sharyatpanahi, S. G.; Cretu, N. C.; El-Fouly, T. M.

    2017-02-01

    Experimental methods based on modal analysis under ambient vibrational excitation are often employed to detect structural damages of mechanical systems. Many of such frequency domain methods, such as Basic Frequency Domain (BFD), Frequency Domain Decomposition (FFD), or Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFFD), use as first step a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) estimate of the power spectral density (PSD) associated with the response of the system. In this study it is shown that higher order statistical estimators such as Spectral Kurtosis (SK) and Sample to Model Ratio (SMR) may be successfully employed not only to more reliably discriminate the response of the system against the ambient noise fluctuations, but also to better identify and separate contributions from closely spaced individual modes. It is shown that a SMR-based Maximum Likelihood curve fitting algorithm may improve the accuracy of the spectral shape and location of the individual modes and, when combined with the SK analysis, it provides efficient means to categorize such individual spectral components according to their temporal dynamics as coherent or incoherent system responses to unknown ambient excitations.

  12. Correlated stopping, proton clusters and higher order proton cumulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzdak, Adam; Koch, Volker; Skokov, Vladimir

    2017-05-01

    We investigate possible effects of correlations between stopped nucleons on higher order proton cumulants at low energy heavy-ion collisions. We find that fluctuations of the number of wounded nucleons N_{part} lead to rather nontrivial dependence of the correlations on the centrality; however, this effect is too small to explain the large and positive four-proton correlations found in the preliminary data collected by the STAR collaboration at √{s}=7.7 GeV. We further demonstrate that, by taking into account additional proton clustering, we are able to qualitatively reproduce the preliminary experimental data. We speculate that this clustering may originate either from collective/multi-collision stopping which is expected to be effective at lower energies or from a possible first-order phase transition, or from (attractive) final state interactions. To test these ideas we propose to measure a mixed multi-particle correlation between stopped protons and a produced particle (e.g. pion, antiproton).

  13. Effective description of higher-order scalar-tensor theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, David; Mancarella, Michele; Noui, Karim; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2017-05-01

    Most existing theories of dark energy and/or modified gravity, involving a scalar degree of freedom, can be conveniently described within the framework of the Effective Theory of Dark Energy, based on the unitary gauge where the scalar field is uniform. We extend this effective approach by allowing the Lagrangian in unitary gauge to depend on the time derivative of the lapse function. Although this dependence generically signals the presence of an extra scalar degree of freedom, theories that contain only one propagating scalar degree of freedom, in addition to the usual tensor modes, can be constructed by requiring the initial Lagrangian to be degenerate. Starting from a general quadratic action, we derive the dispersion relations for the linear perturbations around Minkowski and a cosmological background. Our analysis directly applies to the recently introduced Degenerate Higher-Order Scalar-Tensor (DHOST) theories. For these theories, we find that one cannot recover a Poisson-like equation in the static linear regime except for the subclass that includes the Horndeski and so-called "beyond Horndeski" theories. We also discuss Lorentz-breaking models inspired by Horava gravity.

  14. Degree of musical expertise modulates higher order brain functioning.

    PubMed

    Oechslin, Mathias S; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Lazeyras, François; Hauert, Claude-Alain; James, Clara E

    2013-09-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show for the first time that levels of musical expertise stepwise modulate higher order brain functioning. This suggests that degree of training intensity drives such cerebral plasticity. Participants (non-musicians, amateurs, and expert musicians) listened to a comprehensive set of specifically composed string quartets with hierarchically manipulated endings. In particular, we implemented 2 irregularities at musical closure that differed in salience but were both within the tonality of the piece (in-key). Behavioral sensitivity scores (d') of both transgressions perfectly separated participants according to their level of musical expertise. By contrasting brain responses to harmonic transgressions against regular endings, functional brain imaging data showed compelling evidence for stepwise modulation of brain responses by both violation strength and expertise level in a fronto-temporal network hosting universal functions of working memory and attention. Additional independent testing evidenced an advantage in visual working memory for the professionals, which could be predicted by musical training intensity. The here introduced findings of brain plasticity demonstrate the progressive impact of musical training on cognitive brain functions that may manifest well beyond the field of music processing.

  15. A general higher-order remap algorithm for ALE calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chiravalle, Vincent P

    2011-01-05

    A numerical technique for solving the equations of fluid dynamics with arbitrary mesh motion is presented. The three phases of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) methodology are outlined: the Lagrangian phase, grid relaxation phase and remap phase. The Lagrangian phase follows a well known approach from the HEMP code; in addition the strain rate andflow divergence are calculated in a consistent manner according to Margolin. A donor cell method from the SALE code forms the basis of the remap step, but unlike SALE a higher order correction based on monotone gradients is also added to the remap. Four test problems were explored to evaluate the fidelity of these numerical techniques, as implemented in a simple test code, written in the C programming language, called Cercion. Novel cell-centered data structures are used in Cercion to reduce the complexity of the programming and maximize the efficiency of memory usage. The locations of the shock and contact discontinuity in the Riemann shock tube problem are well captured. Cercion demonstrates a high degree of symmetry when calculating the Sedov blast wave solution, with a peak density at the shock front that is similar to the value determined by the RAGE code. For a flyer plate test problem both Cercion and FLAG give virtually the same velocity temporal profile at the target-vacuum interface. When calculating a cylindrical implosion of a steel shell, Cercion and FLAG agree well and the Cercion results are insensitive to the use of ALE.

  16. Analysis of higher order harmonics with holographic reflection gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas-Abellan, P.; Madrigal, R.; Fimia, A.

    2017-05-01

    Silver halide emulsions have been considered one of the most energetic sensitive materials for holographic applications. Nonlinear recording effects on holographic reflection gratings recorded on silver halide emulsions have been studied by different authors obtaining excellent experimental results. In this communication specifically we focused our investigation on the effects of refractive index modulation, trying to get high levels of overmodulation that will produce high order harmonics. We studied the influence of the overmodulation and its effects on the transmission spectra for a wide exposure range by use of 9 μm thickness films of ultrafine grain emulsion BB640, exposed to single collimated beams using a red He-Ne laser (wavelength 632.8 nm) with Denisyuk configuration obtaining a spatial frequency of 4990 l/mm recorded on the emulsion. The experimental results show that high overmodulation levels of refractive index produce second order harmonics with high diffraction efficiency (higher than 75%) and a narrow grating bandwidth (12.5 nm). Results also show that overmodulation produce diffraction spectra deformation of the second order harmonic, transforming the spectrum from sinusoidal to approximation of square shape due to very high overmodulation. Increasing the levels of overmodulation of refractive index, we have obtained higher order harmonics, obtaining third order harmonic with diffraction efficiency (up to 23%) and narrowing grating bandwidth (5 nm). This study is the first step to develop a new easy technique to obtain narrow spectral filters based on the use of high index modulation reflection gratings.

  17. Certifiable higher order sliding mode control: Practical stability margins approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panathula, Chandrasekhara Bharath

    The Higher Order Sliding Mode (HOSM) controllers are well known for their robustness/insensitivity to bounded perturbations and for handling any given arbitrary relative degree system. The HOSM controller is to be certified for robustness to unmodeled dynamics, before deploying the controller for practical applications. Phase Margin (PM) and Gain Margin ( GM) are the classical characteristics used in linear systems to quantify the linear controller robustness to unmodeled dynamics, and certain values of these margins are required to certify the controller. These conventional margins (PM and GM) are extended to Practical Stability Phase Margin (PSPM) and Practical Stability Gain Margin (PSGM) in this dissertation, and are used to quantify the HOSM control robustness to unmodeled dynamics, presiding the tool to close the gap for HOSM control certification. The proposed robustness metrics ( PSPM and PSGM) are identified by developing tools/algorithms based on Describing Function-Harmonic Balance method. In order for the HOSM controller to achieve the prescribed values on robustness metrics ( PSPM and PSGM), the HOSM controller is cascaded with a linear compensator. A case study of the application of the proposed metrics (PSPM and PSGM) for the certification of F-16 aircraft HOSM attitude control robustness to cascade unmodeled dynamics is presented. In addition, several simulation examples are presented to verify and to validate the proposed methodology.

  18. Image denoising using the higher order singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Rajwade, Ajit; Rangarajan, Anand; Banerjee, Arunava

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a very simple and elegant patch-based, machine learning technique for image denoising using the higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD). The technique simply groups together similar patches from a noisy image (with similarity defined by a statistically motivated criterion) into a 3D stack, computes the HOSVD coefficients of this stack, manipulates these coefficients by hard thresholding, and inverts the HOSVD transform to produce the final filtered image. Our technique chooses all required parameters in a principled way, relating them to the noise model. We also discuss our motivation for adopting the HOSVD as an appropriate transform for image denoising. We experimentally demonstrate the excellent performance of the technique on grayscale as well as color images. On color images, our method produces state-of-the-art results, outperforming other color image denoising algorithms at moderately high noise levels. A criterion for optimal patch-size selection and noise variance estimation from the residual images (after denoising) is also presented.

  19. SPHS: smoothed particle hydrodynamics with a higher order dissipation switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. I.; Hayfield, T.

    2012-06-01

    We present a novel implementation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics that uses the spatial derivative of the velocity divergence as a higher order dissipation switch. Our switch - which is second order accurate - detects flow convergence before it occurs. If particle trajectories are going to cross, we switch on the usual SPH artificial viscosity, as well as conservative dissipation in all advected fluid quantities (e.g. the entropy). The viscosity and dissipation terms (that are numerical errors) are designed to ensure that all fluid quantities remain single valued as particles approach one another, to respect conservation laws, and to vanish on a given physical scale as the resolution is increased. SPHS alleviates a number of known problems with 'classic' SPH, successfully resolving mixing, and recovering numerical convergence with increasing resolution. An additional key advantage is that - treating the particle mass similarly to the entropy - we are able to use multimass particles, giving significantly improved control over the refinement strategy. We present a wide range of code tests including the Sod shock tube, Sedov-Taylor blast wave, Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability, the 'blob test' and some convergence tests. Our method performs well on all tests, giving good agreement with analytic expectations.

  20. Higher-order graph wavelets and sparsity on circulant graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzagiannidis, Madeleine S.; Dragotti, Pier Luigi

    2015-08-01

    The notion of a graph wavelet gives rise to more advanced processing of data on graphs due to its ability to operate in a localized manner, across newly arising data-dependency structures, with respect to the graph signal and underlying graph structure, thereby taking into consideration the inherent geometry of the data. In this work, we tackle the problem of creating graph wavelet filterbanks on circulant graphs for a sparse representation of certain classes of graph signals. The underlying graph can hereby be data-driven as well as fixed, for applications including image processing and social network theory, whereby clusters can be modelled as circulant graphs, respectively. We present a set of novel graph wavelet filter-bank constructions, which annihilate higher-order polynomial graph signals (up to a border effect) defined on the vertices of undirected, circulant graphs, and are localised in the vertex domain. We give preliminary results on their performance for non-linear graph signal approximation and denoising. Furthermore, we provide extensions to our previously developed segmentation-inspired graph wavelet framework for non-linear image approximation, by incorporating notions of smoothness and vanishing moments, which further improve performance compared to traditional methods.

  1. Pressure and higher-order spectra for homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pullin, D. I.; Rogallo, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    The spectra of the pressure, and other higher-order quantities including the dissipation, the enstrophy, and the square of the longitudinal velocity derivative are computed using data obtained from direct numerical simulation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence at Taylor-Reynolds numbers R(sub lambda) in the range 38 - 170. For the pressure spectra we find reasonable collapse in the dissipation range (of the velocity spectrum) when scaled in Kolmogorov variables and some evidence, which is not conclusive, for the existence of a k(exp -7/3) inertial range where k = absolute value of K, is the modulus of the wavenumber. The power spectra of the dissipation, the enstrophy, and the square of the longitudinal velocity derivative separate in the dissipation range, but appear to converge together in the short inertial range of the simulations. A least-squares curve-fit in the dissipation range for one value of R(sub lambda) = 96 gives a form for the spectrum of the dissipation as k(exp 0)exp(-Ck eta), for k(eta) greater than 0.2, where eta is the Kolmogorov length and C is approximately equal to 2.5.

  2. Correlated stopping, proton clusters and higher order proton cumulants

    DOE PAGES

    Bzdak, Adam; Koch, Volker; Skokov, Vladimir

    2017-05-05

    Here, we investigate possible effects of correlations between stopped nucleons on higher order proton cumulants at low energy heavy-ion collisions. We find that fluctuations of the number of wounded nucleons Npart lead to rather nontrivial dependence of the correlations on the centrality; however, this effect is too small to explain the large and positive four-proton correlations found in the preliminary data collected by the STAR collaboration at √s = 7.7 GeV. We further demonstrate that, by taking into account additional proton clustering, we are able to qualitatively reproduce the preliminary experimental data. We speculate that this clustering may originate eithermore » from collective/multi-collision stopping which is expected to be effective at lower energies or from a possible first-order phase transition, or from (attractive) final state interactions. To test these ideas we propose to measure a mixed multi-particle correlation between stopped protons and a produced particle (e.g. pion, antiproton).« less

  3. Higher-Order Synaptic Interactions Coordinate Dynamics in Recurrent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Brendan; MacLean, Jason N.

    2016-01-01

    Linking synaptic connectivity to dynamics is key to understanding information processing in neocortex. Circuit dynamics emerge from complex interactions of interconnected neurons, necessitating that links between connectivity and dynamics be evaluated at the network level. Here we map propagating activity in large neuronal ensembles from mouse neocortex and compare it to a recurrent network model, where connectivity can be precisely measured and manipulated. We find that a dynamical feature dominates statistical descriptions of propagating activity for both neocortex and the model: convergent clusters comprised of fan-in triangle motifs, where two input neurons are themselves connected. Fan-in triangles coordinate the timing of presynaptic inputs during ongoing activity to effectively generate postsynaptic spiking. As a result, paradoxically, fan-in triangles dominate the statistics of spike propagation even in randomly connected recurrent networks. Interplay between higher-order synaptic connectivity and the integrative properties of neurons constrains the structure of network dynamics and shapes the routing of information in neocortex. PMID:27542093

  4. The Weak Field Limit of Higher Order Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, Arturo

    2008-09-01

    The Higher Order Theories of Gravity - f(R, R_{alphabeta}R(alphabeta) ) - theory, where R is the Ricci scalar, R_{alphabeta} is the Ricci tensor and f is any analytic function - have recently attracted a lot of interest as alternative candidates to explain the observed cosmic acceleration, the flatness of the rotation curves of spiral galaxies and other relevant astrophysical phenomena. It is a crucial point testing these alternative theories in the so called weak field and newtonian limit of a f(R, R_{alphabeta}R(alphabeta) ) - theory. With this "perturbation technique" it is possible to find spherically symmetric solutions and compare them with the ones of General Relativity. On both approaches we found a modification of General Relativity: the behaviour of gravitational potential presents a modification Yukawa - like in the newtonian case and a massive propagation in the weak field case. When the modification of the theory is removed (i.e. f(R, R_{alphabeta}R(alphabeta) ) = R, Hilbert - Einstein lagrangian) we find the usual outcomes of General Relativity. Also the Noether symmetries technique has been investigated to find some time independent spherically symmetric solutions.

  5. Grand unification through gravitational effects

    SciTech Connect

    Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Reeb, David

    2010-02-01

    We systematically study the unification of gauge couplings in the presence of (one or more) effective dimension-5 operators cHG{sub {mu}{nu}G}{sup {mu}{nu}/}4M{sub pl}, induced into the grand unified theory by gravitational interactions at the Planck scale. These operators alter the usual condition for gauge-coupling unification, which can, depending on the Higgs content H and vacuum expectation value, result in unification at scales M{sub X} significantly different than naively expected. We find nonsupersymmetric models of SU(5) and SO(10) unification, with natural Wilson coefficients c, that easily satisfy the constraints from proton decay. Furthermore, gauge-coupling unification at scales as high as the Planck scale seems feasible, possibly hinting at simultaneous unification of gauge and gravitational interactions. In the Appendix we work out the group theoretical aspects of this scenario for SU(5) and SO(10) unified groups in detail; this material is also relevant in the analysis of nonuniversal gaugino masses obtained from supergravity.

  6. Cycles in finite samples and cumulative processes of higher orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemeš, VíT.; Klemeš, Ivo

    1988-01-01

    The process formed by a sequence of cumulative departures from the mean or from some other constant (residual mass curve, cusum chart) is a popular tool for the representation and analysis of time series in many sciences, for example, in hydrology, climatology, economics, game theory. In these and other natural and social sciences, similar cumulative processes also often arise naturally; examples include fluctuations of storage in a dam with a constant release rate, lake levels, volume of glaciers, biomass, inventories, and bank accounts. Moreover, many natural economic and other phenomena may represent, or contain, components of cumulative processes of higher orders, i.e., cumulative processes of cumulative processes. In this paper we show that for a sample {yt(0)}≡{xt} of any finite size N, the pure cumulative process of nth order, yt(n)≡∑i=1t(yi(n-1) - μ(n-1)), where μ(n-1) is the sample mean of {yt(n-1)} and t=1, 2, …, N, converges for n→∞ to a sine wave with a period equal to an integral fraction of the sample size N. This happens for any initial sample {yt(0)} and the convergence is of an exponential order. For samples from most stochastic as well as deterministic processes, the period of the limiting sine wave is equal to the sample size N. This behavior is demonstrated by examples involving samples from various processes ranging from pure random series to various deterministic series and including time series of some natural processes such as streamflow, lake levels, and glacier volumes. The paper includes a demonstration of effects of noise superimposed on, and of error in the value of, sample mean on the rate of convergence, and a discussion of some practical implications of the phenomenon described; it brings together some aspects of the work of Slutzky (1937), Hurst (1951), and Yule (1926).

  7. Separating higher-order nonlinearities in transient absorption microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Anderson, Miguel; Park, Jong Kang; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.

    2015-08-01

    The transient absorption response of melanin is a promising optically-accessible biomarker for distinguishing malignant melanoma from benign pigmented lesions, as demonstrated by earlier experiments on thin sections from biopsied tissue. The technique has also been demonstrated in vivo, but the higher optical intensity required for detecting these signals from backscattered light introduces higher-order nonlinearities in the transient response of melanin. These components that are higher than linear with respect to the pump or the probe introduce intensity-dependent changes to the overall response that complicate data analysis. However, our data also suggest these nonlinearities might be advantageous to in vivo imaging, in that different types of melanins have different nonlinear responses. Therefore, methods to separate linear from nonlinear components in transient absorption measurements might provide additional information to aid in the diagnosis of melanoma. We will discuss numerical methods for analyzing the various nonlinear contributions to pump-probe signals, with the ultimate objective of real time analysis using digital signal processing techniques. To that end, we have replaced the lock-in amplifier in our pump-probe microscope with a high-speed data acquisition board, and reprogrammed the coprocessor field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to perform lock-in detection. The FPGA lock-in offers better performance than the commercial instrument, in terms of both signal to noise ratio and speed. In addition, the flexibility of the digital signal processing approach enables demodulation of more complicated waveforms, such as spread-spectrum sequences, which has the potential to accelerate microscopy methods that rely on slow relaxation phenomena, such as photo-thermal and phosphorescence lifetime imaging.

  8. A viscoelastic higher-order beam finite element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Tressler, Alexander

    1996-01-01

    A viscoelastic internal variable constitutive theory is applied to a higher-order elastic beam theory and finite element formulation. The behavior of the viscous material in the beam is approximately modeled as a Maxwell solid. The finite element formulation requires additional sets of nodal variables for each relaxation time constant needed by the Maxwell solid. Recent developments in modeling viscoelastic material behavior with strain variables that are conjugate to the elastic strain measures are combined with advances in modeling through-the-thickness stresses and strains in thick beams. The result is a viscous thick-beam finite element that possesses superior characteristics for transient analysis since its nodal viscous forces are not linearly dependent an the nodal velocities, which is the case when damping matrices are used. Instead, the nodal viscous forces are directly dependent on the material's relaxation spectrum and the history of the nodal variables through a differential form of the constitutive law for a Maxwell solid. The thick beam quasistatic analysis is explored herein as a first step towards developing more complex viscoelastic models for thick plates and shells, and for dynamic analyses. The internal variable constitutive theory is derived directly from the Boltzmann superposition theorem. The mechanical strains and the conjugate internal strains are shown to be related through a system of first-order, ordinary differential equations. The total time-dependent stress is the superposition of its elastic and viscous components. Equations of motion for the solid are derived from the virtual work principle using the total time-dependent stress. Numerical examples for the problems of relaxation, creep, and cyclic creep are carried out for a beam made from an orthotropic Maxwell solid.

  9. Emotion recognition from EEG using higher order crossings.

    PubMed

    Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2010-03-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition is a relatively new field in the affective computing area with challenging issues regarding the induction of the emotional states and the extraction of the features in order to achieve optimum classification performance. In this paper, a novel emotion evocation and EEG-based feature extraction technique is presented. In particular, the mirror neuron system concept was adapted to efficiently foster emotion induction by the process of imitation. In addition, higher order crossings (HOC) analysis was employed for the feature extraction scheme and a robust classification method, namely HOC-emotion classifier (HOC-EC), was implemented testing four different classifiers [quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), k-nearest neighbor, Mahalanobis distance, and support vector machines (SVMs)], in order to accomplish efficient emotion recognition. Through a series of facial expression image projection, EEG data have been collected by 16 healthy subjects using only 3 EEG channels, namely Fp1, Fp2, and a bipolar channel of F3 and F4 positions according to 10-20 system. Two scenarios were examined using EEG data from a single-channel and from combined-channels, respectively. Compared with other feature extraction methods, HOC-EC appears to outperform them, achieving a 62.3% (using QDA) and 83.33% (using SVM) classification accuracy for the single-channel and combined-channel cases, respectively, differentiating among the six basic emotions, i.e., happiness, surprise, anger, fear, disgust, and sadness. As the emotion class-set reduces its dimension, the HOC-EC converges toward maximum classification rate (100% for five or less emotions), justifying the efficiency of the proposed approach. This could facilitate the integration of HOC-EC in human machine interfaces, such as pervasive healthcare systems, enhancing their affective character and providing information about the user's emotional status (e.g., identifying user's emotion

  10. Distortion Measurement of Multi-Finger Transistor Using Split Higher-Order Laue Zone Lines Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesugi, Fumihiko; Yamazaki, Takashi; Kuramochi, Koji; Hashimoto, Iwao; Kojima, Kenji; Takeno, Shiro

    2008-05-01

    A distortion measurement in a region close to the interface between different materials in LSI is performed using a convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) pattern. Split higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) lines emerge in the CBED pattern so that a stressing region is observed close to the interface. The calculation method of the split HOLZ lines based on kinematical approximation with the sample's deformation model well reflects the experimental results. As a result of split HOLZ line analysis using the present method, it is found that there is distortion depending on the external form of a multi-finger transistor.

  11. Analysis of wheezes using wavelet higher order spectral features.

    PubMed

    Taplidou, Styliani A; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2010-07-01

    . This paves the way for the use of the wavelet higher order spectral features as an input vector to an efficient classifier. Apparently, this would integrate the intrinsic characteristics of wheezes within computerized diagnostic tools toward their more efficient evaluation.

  12. Higher-order spectra for identification of nonlinear modal coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Daryl; Worden, Keith; Platten, Michael F.; Wright, Jan R.; Cooper, Jonathan E.

    2009-05-01

    Over the past four decades considerable work has been done in the area of power spectrum estimation. The information contained within the power spectrum relates to a signal's autocorrelation or 'second-order statistics'. The power spectrum provides a complete statistical description of a Gaussian process; however, a problem with this information is that it is phase blind. This problem is addressed if one turns to a system's frequency response function (FRF). The FRF graphs the magnitude and phase of the frequency response of a system; in order to do this it requires information regarding the frequency content of the input and output signals. Situations arise in science and engineering whereby signal analysts are required to look beyond second-order statistics and analyse a signal's higher-order statistics (HOS). HOS or spectra give information on a signal's deviation from Gaussianity and consequently are a good indicator function for the presence of nonlinearity within a system. One of the main problems in nonlinear system identification is that of high modal density. Many modelling schemes involve making some expansion of the nonlinear restoring force in terms of polynomial or other basis terms. If more than one degree-of-freedom is involved this becomes a multivariate problem and the number of candidate terms in the expansion grows explosively with the order of nonlinearity and the number of degrees-of-freedom. This paper attempts to use HOS to detect and qualify nonlinear behaviour for a number of symmetrical and asymmetrical systems over a range of degrees-of-freedom. In doing so the paper also attempts to show that HOS are a more sensitive tool than the FRF in detecting nonlinearity. Furthermore, the object of this paper is to try and identify which modes couple in a nonlinear manner in order to reduce the number of candidate coupling terms, for a model, as much as possible. The bispectrum method has previously been applied to simple low-DOF systems with high

  13. Experimental characterization of a quantum many-body system via higher-order correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweigler, Thomas; Kasper, Valentin; Erne, Sebastian; Mazets, Igor; Rauer, Bernhard; Cataldini, Federica; Langen, Tim; Gasenzer, Thomas; Berges, Jürgen; Schmiedmayer, Jörg

    2017-05-01

    Quantum systems can be characterized by their correlations. Higher-order (larger than second order) correlations, and the ways in which they can be decomposed into correlations of lower order, provide important information about the system, its structure, its interactions and its complexity. The measurement of such correlation functions is therefore an essential tool for reading, verifying and characterizing quantum simulations. Although higher-order correlation functions are frequently used in theoretical calculations, so far mainly correlations up to second order have been studied experimentally. Here we study a pair of tunnel-coupled one-dimensional atomic superfluids and characterize the corresponding quantum many-body problem by measuring correlation functions. We extract phase correlation functions up to tenth order from interference patterns and analyse whether, and under what conditions, these functions factorize into correlations of lower order. This analysis characterizes the essential features of our system, the relevant quasiparticles, their interactions and topologically distinct vacua. From our data we conclude that in thermal equilibrium our system can be seen as a quantum simulator of the sine-Gordon model, relevant for diverse disciplines ranging from particle physics to condensed matter. The measurement and evaluation of higher-order correlation functions can easily be generalized to other systems and to study correlations of any other observable such as density, spin and magnetization. It therefore represents a general method for analysing quantum many-body systems from experimental data.

  14. Higher-order correlations in common input shapes the output spiking activity of a neural population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montangie, Lisandro; Montani, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Recent neurophysiological experiments suggest that populations of neurons use a computational scheme in which spike timing is regulated by common non-Gaussian inputs across neurons. The presence of beyond-pairwise correlations in the neuronal inputs and the spiking outputs following a non-Gaussian statistics elicits the need of developing a new theoretical framework taking into account the complexity of synchronous activity patterns. To this end, we quantify the amount of higher-order correlations in the common neuronal inputs and outputs of a population of neurons. We provide a novel formalism, of easy numerical implementation, that can capture the subtle changes of the inputs heterogeneities. Within our approach, correlations across neurons arise from q-Gaussian inputs into threshold neurons and higher-order correlations in the spiking outputs activity are quantified by the parameter q. We present an exhaustive analysis of how input statistics are transformed in this threshold process into output statistics, and we show under which conditions higher-order correlations can lead to either bigger or smaller number of synchronized spikes in the neural population outputs.

  15. The use of higher-order statistics in rapid object categorization in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Banno, Hayaki; Saiki, Jun

    2015-02-04

    We can rapidly and efficiently recognize many types of objects embedded in complex scenes. What information supports this object recognition is a fundamental question for understanding our visual processing. We investigated the eccentricity-dependent role of shape and statistical information for ultrarapid object categorization, using the higher-order statistics proposed by Portilla and Simoncelli (2000). Synthesized textures computed by their algorithms have the same higher-order statistics as the originals, while the global shapes were destroyed. We used the synthesized textures to manipulate the availability of shape information separately from the statistics. We hypothesized that shape makes a greater contribution to central vision than to peripheral vision and that statistics show the opposite pattern. Results did not show contributions clearly biased by eccentricity. Statistical information demonstrated a robust contribution not only in peripheral but also in central vision. For shape, the results supported the contribution in both central and peripheral vision. Further experiments revealed some interesting properties of the statistics. They are available for a limited time, attributable to the presence or absence of animals without shape, and predict how easily humans detect animals in original images. Our data suggest that when facing the time constraint of categorical processing, higher-order statistics underlie our significant performance for rapid categorization, irrespective of eccentricity.

  16. Incorporating higher-order representative features improves prediction in network-based cancer prognosis analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuangge; Kosorok, Michael R; Huang, Jian; Dai, Ying

    2011-01-12

    In cancer prognosis studies with gene expression measurements, an important goal is to construct gene signatures with predictive power. In this study, we describe the coordination among genes using the weighted coexpression network, where nodes represent genes and nodes are connected if the corresponding genes have similar expression patterns across samples. There are subsets of nodes, called modules, that are tightly connected to each other. In several published studies, it has been suggested that the first principal components of individual modules, also referred to as "eigengenes", may sufficiently represent the corresponding modules. In this article, we refer to principal components and their functions as representative features". We investigate higher-order representative features, which include the principal components other than the first ones and second order terms (quadratics and interactions). Two gradient thresholding methods are adopted for regularized estimation and feature selection. Analysis of six prognosis studies on lymphoma and breast cancer shows that incorporating higher-order representative features improves prediction performance over using eigengenes only. Simulation study further shows that prediction performance can be less satisfactory if the representative feature set is not properly chosen. This study introduces multiple ways of defining the representative features and effective thresholding regularized estimation approaches. It provides convincing evidence that the higher-order representative features may have important implications for the prediction of cancer prognosis.

  17. Incorporating higher-order representative features improves prediction in network-based cancer prognosis analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In cancer prognosis studies with gene expression measurements, an important goal is to construct gene signatures with predictive power. In this study, we describe the coordination among genes using the weighted coexpression network, where nodes represent genes and nodes are connected if the corresponding genes have similar expression patterns across samples. There are subsets of nodes, called modules, that are tightly connected to each other. In several published studies, it has been suggested that the first principal components of individual modules, also referred to as "eigengenes", may sufficiently represent the corresponding modules. Results In this article, we refer to principal components and their functions as representative features". We investigate higher-order representative features, which include the principal components other than the first ones and second order terms (quadratics and interactions). Two gradient thresholding methods are adopted for regularized estimation and feature selection. Analysis of six prognosis studies on lymphoma and breast cancer shows that incorporating higher-order representative features improves prediction performance over using eigengenes only. Simulation study further shows that prediction performance can be less satisfactory if the representative feature set is not properly chosen. Conclusions This study introduces multiple ways of defining the representative features and effective thresholding regularized estimation approaches. It provides convincing evidence that the higher-order representative features may have important implications for the prediction of cancer prognosis. PMID:21226928

  18. Simultaneous silence organizes structured higher-order interactions in neural populations

    PubMed Central

    Shimazaki, Hideaki; Sadeghi, Kolia; Ishikawa, Tomoe; Ikegaya, Yuji; Toyoizumi, Taro

    2015-01-01

    Activity patterns of neural population are constrained by underlying biological mechanisms. These patterns are characterized not only by individual activity rates and pairwise correlations but also by statistical dependencies among groups of neurons larger than two, known as higher-order interactions (HOIs). While HOIs are ubiquitous in neural activity, primary characteristics of HOIs remain unknown. Here, we report that simultaneous silence (SS) of neurons concisely summarizes neural HOIs. Spontaneously active neurons in cultured hippocampal slices express SS that is more frequent than predicted by their individual activity rates and pairwise correlations. The SS explains structured HOIs seen in the data, namely, alternating signs at successive interaction orders. Inhibitory neurons are necessary to maintain significant SS. The structured HOIs predicted by SS were observed in a simple neural population model characterized by spiking nonlinearity and correlated input. These results suggest that SS is a ubiquitous feature of HOIs that constrain neural activity patterns and can influence information processing. PMID:25919985

  19. Solving cochlear mechanics problems with higher-order differential equations.

    PubMed

    de Boer, E; van Bienema, E

    1982-11-01

    Since most "exact" solution methods for cochlear models are rather unwieldy, they do not lend themselves to easy and multi-purpose application. In this paper a new solution method is described that is more flexible in this respect. A three-dimensional cochlear model is considered. It can be described by an integral equation in terms of the wavenumber k. The kernel Q (k) of that equation is approximated by a rational function of k and this makes it possible to reformulate the problem as a differential equation. The latter can be solved by a straightforward and well-known method. Results of computations with this technique are presented in two forms: an overview of the entire cochlear wave pattern and a detailed representation of the response peak. The method is also used to determine whether a discernible reflected wave is produced in the cochlea or not. For this purpose the wavenumber spectrum of the cochlear wave is studied: it is found to be a one-sided function of k. With surprisingly simple means it is thus shown that no appreciable reflection occurs from the inhomogeneity that is characteristic in cochlear wave propagation. This holds true for values of damping constant delta as low as 0.01, a factor of 5 smaller than is commonly used in cochlear modeling.

  20. Problems in unification and supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, G.; Henyey, F.

    1984-01-01

    Problems in unification of the various gauge groups, quantum gravity, supersymmetry and supergravity, compact dimensions of space-time, and conditions at the beginning of the universe are discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 15 papers presented. (WHK)

  1. Application of higher order spectral features and support vector machines for bearing faults classification.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Lotfi; Ben Ali, Jaouher; Fnaiech, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings timely and accurately are very important to ensure the reliability of rotating machinery. This paper presents a novel pattern classification approach for bearings diagnostics, which combines the higher order spectra analysis features and support vector machine classifier. The use of non-linear features motivated by the higher order spectra has been reported to be a promising approach to analyze the non-linear and non-Gaussian characteristics of the mechanical vibration signals. The vibration bi-spectrum (third order spectrum) patterns are extracted as the feature vectors presenting different bearing faults. The extracted bi-spectrum features are subjected to principal component analysis for dimensionality reduction. These principal components were fed to support vector machine to distinguish four kinds of bearing faults covering different levels of severity for each fault type, which were measured in the experimental test bench running under different working conditions. In order to find the optimal parameters for the multi-class support vector machine model, a grid-search method in combination with 10-fold cross-validation has been used. Based on the correct classification of bearing patterns in the test set, in each fold the performance measures are computed. The average of these performance measures is computed to report the overall performance of the support vector machine classifier. In addition, in fault detection problems, the performance of a detection algorithm usually depends on the trade-off between robustness and sensitivity. The sensitivity and robustness of the proposed method are explored by running a series of experiments. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve made the results more convincing. The results indicated that the proposed method can reliably identify different fault patterns of rolling element bearings based on vibration signals.

  2. Strategy-effects in prefrontal cortex during learning of higher-order S-R rules.

    PubMed

    Wolfensteller, Uta; von Cramon, D Yves

    2011-07-15

    All of us regularly face situations that require the integration of the available information at hand with the established rules that guide behavior in order to generate the most appropriate action. But where individuals differ from one another is most certainly in terms of the different strategies that are adopted during this process. A previous study revealed differential brain activation patterns for the implementation of well established higher-order stimulus-response (S-R) rules depending on inter-individual strategy differences (Wolfensteller and von Cramon, 2010). This raises the question of how these strategies evolve or which neurocognitive mechanisms underlie these inter-individual strategy differences. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study revealed striking strategy-effects across regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex during the implementation of higher-order S-R rules at an early stage of learning. The left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex displayed a quantitative strategy-effect, such that activation during rule integration based on a mismatch was related to the degree to which participants continued to rely on rule integration. A quantitative strategy ceiling effect was observed for the left inferior frontal junction area. Conversely, the right inferior frontal gyrus displayed a qualitative strategy-effect such that participants who at a later point relied on an item-based strategy showed stronger activations in this region compared to those who continued with the rule integration strategy. Together, the present findings suggest that a certain amount of rule integration is mandatory when participants start to learn higher-order rules. The more efficient item-based strategy that evolves later appears to initially require the recruitment of additional cognitive resources in order to shield the currently relevant S-R association from interfering information.

  3. How does participation in inquiry-based activities influence gifted students' higher order thinking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reger, Barbara H.

    Inquiry-based learning is considered a useful technique to strengthen the critical thinking skills of students. The National Science Standards emphasize its use and the complexities and challenge it provides are well suited for meeting the needs of the gifted. While many studies have documented the effectiveness of this type of instruction, there is a lack of research on growth in higher-order thinking through participation in science inquiry. This study investigated such growth among a small group of gifted fifth-grade students. In this study a group of fifth-grade gifted science students completed a series of three forensics inquiry lessons, and documented questions, ideas and reflections as they constructed evidence to solve a crime. From this class of students, one small group was purposely selected to serve as the focus of the study. Using qualitative techniques, the questions and statements students made as they interacted in the activity were analyzed. Videotaped comments and student logs were coded for emerging patterns and also examined for evidence of increased levels of higher-order thinking based on a rubric that was designed using the six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Evidence from this study showed marked increase in and deeper levels of higher-order thinking for two of the students. The other boy and girl showed progress using the inquiry activities, but it was not as evident. The social dynamics of the group seemed to hinder one girl's participation during some of the activities. The social interactions played a role in strengthening the exchange of ideas and thinking skills for the others. The teacher had a tremendous influence over the production of higher-level statements by modeling that level of thinking as she questioned the students. Through her practice of answering a question with a question, she gradually solicited more analytical thinking from her students.

  4. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-21

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects' affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain's motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  5. Molecular Behavior of DNA Origami in Higher-Order Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhe; Liu, Minghui; Wang, Lei; Nangreave, Jeanette; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    DNA-based self-assembly is a unique method for achieving higher-order molecular architectures made possible by the fact that DNA is a programmable information-coding polymer. In the past decade, two main types of DNA nanostructures have been developed: branch-shaped DNA tiles with small dimensions (commonly up to ~20 nm) and DNA origami tiles with larger dimensions (up to ~100 nm). Here we aimed to determine the important factors involved in the assembly of DNA origami superstructures. We constructed a new series of rectangular-shaped DNA origami tiles in which parallel DNA helices are arranged in a zigzag pattern when viewed along the DNA helical axis, a design conceived in order to relax an intrinsic global twist found in the original planar, rectangular origami tiles. Self-associating zigzag tiles were found to form linear arrays in both diagonal directions, while planar tiles showed significant growth in only one direction. Although the series of zigzag tiles were designed to promote two-dimensional array formation, one-dimensional linear arrays and tubular structures were observed instead. We discovered that the dimensional aspect ratio of the origami unit tiles and intertile connection design play important roles in determining the final products, as revealed by atomic force microscopy imaging. This study provides insight into the formation of higher-order structures from self-assembling DNA origami tiles, revealing their unique behavior in comparison with conventional DNA tiles having smaller dimensions. PMID:20825190

  6. Molecular Behavior of DNA Origami in Higher-Order Self-Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhe; Liu, Minghui; Lei, Wang; Nangreave, Jeanette; Yan, Hao; Liu, Yan

    2010-09-08

    DNA-based self-assembly is a unique method for achieving higher-order molecular architectures made possible by the fact that DNA is a programmable information-coding polymer. In the past decade, two main types of DNA nanostructures have been developed: branch-shaped DNA tiles with small dimensions (commonly up to ~20 nm) and DNA origami tiles with larger dimensions (up to ~100 nm). Here we aimed to determine the important factors involved in the assembly of DNA origami superstructures. We constructed a new series of rectangular-shaped DNA origami tiles in which parallel DNA helices are arranged in a zigzag pattern when viewed along the DNA helical axis, a design conceived in order to relax an intrinsic global twist found in the original planar, rectangular origami tiles. Self-associating zigzag tiles were found to form linear arrays in both diagonal directions, while planar tiles showed significant growth in only one direction. Although the series of zigzag tiles were designed to promote two-dimensional array formation, one-dimensional linear arrays and tubular structures were observed instead. We discovered that the dimensional aspect ratio of the origami unit tiles and intertile connection design play important roles in determining the final products, as revealed by atomic force microscopy imaging. This study provides insight into the formation of higher-order structures from self-assembling DNA origami tiles, revealing their unique behavior in comparison with conventional DNA tiles having smaller dimensions.

  7. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  8. Spatio-Chromatic Adaptation via Higher-Order Canonical Correlation Analysis of Natural Images

    PubMed Central

    Gutmann, Michael U.; Laparra, Valero; Hyvärinen, Aapo; Malo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Independent component and canonical correlation analysis are two general-purpose statistical methods with wide applicability. In neuroscience, independent component analysis of chromatic natural images explains the spatio-chromatic structure of primary cortical receptive fields in terms of properties of the visual environment. Canonical correlation analysis explains similarly chromatic adaptation to different illuminations. But, as we show in this paper, neither of the two methods generalizes well to explain both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation at the same time. We propose a statistical method which combines the desirable properties of independent component and canonical correlation analysis: It finds independent components in each data set which, across the two data sets, are related to each other via linear or higher-order correlations. The new method is as widely applicable as canonical correlation analysis, and also to more than two data sets. We call it higher-order canonical correlation analysis. When applied to chromatic natural images, we found that it provides a single (unified) statistical framework which accounts for both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation. Filters with spatio-chromatic tuning properties as in the primary visual cortex emerged and corresponding-colors psychophysics was reproduced reasonably well. We used the new method to make a theory-driven testable prediction on how the neural response to colored patterns should change when the illumination changes. We predict shifts in the responses which are comparable to the shifts reported for chromatic contrast habituation. PMID:24533049

  9. Spatio-chromatic adaptation via higher-order canonical correlation analysis of natural images.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Michael U; Laparra, Valero; Hyvärinen, Aapo; Malo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Independent component and canonical correlation analysis are two general-purpose statistical methods with wide applicability. In neuroscience, independent component analysis of chromatic natural images explains the spatio-chromatic structure of primary cortical receptive fields in terms of properties of the visual environment. Canonical correlation analysis explains similarly chromatic adaptation to different illuminations. But, as we show in this paper, neither of the two methods generalizes well to explain both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation at the same time. We propose a statistical method which combines the desirable properties of independent component and canonical correlation analysis: It finds independent components in each data set which, across the two data sets, are related to each other via linear or higher-order correlations. The new method is as widely applicable as canonical correlation analysis, and also to more than two data sets. We call it higher-order canonical correlation analysis. When applied to chromatic natural images, we found that it provides a single (unified) statistical framework which accounts for both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation. Filters with spatio-chromatic tuning properties as in the primary visual cortex emerged and corresponding-colors psychophysics was reproduced reasonably well. We used the new method to make a theory-driven testable prediction on how the neural response to colored patterns should change when the illumination changes. We predict shifts in the responses which are comparable to the shifts reported for chromatic contrast habituation.

  10. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-01-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states. PMID:26996254

  11. A Method for Online Testing by HOC (Higher Order Crossings)-Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    produces its zero-crossings and higher order zero-crossings sequentially in time is studied, illustrated, and applied in white noise testing.-- IA I-N ~y...crossing rates of higher order differences of the time series. In this paper we examine the dynamic process by which a time series and its higher order...from the original time series by repeated differencing. Such processes will be called higher order crossings rate processes or simply HOC-processes

  12. A Method for Online Testing by HOC (Higher Order Crossings)-Processes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    7 D-N1tlg376 fA METHOD FOR ONLINE TESTIN BY HOC ( HIGHER ORDER / CROSSINGS)-PROCESSES(U) MARYLAND UNJY COLLEGE PRKI DEPT OF MATHEMATICS M BERGER ET...series produces Its zero-crossings and higher order zero-crossings sequentially in time is studied, Illustrated, and applied in white noise testing... higher order differences of the time series. In I this paper we examine the dynamic process by which a time series and its higher order differences

  13. A Higher Order Analysis of the Factor Structure of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Mauzey, Edward; Johnson, Annabel M.; Murphy, Stanley D.; Zimmerman, Kurt J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the higher order structure of Form G of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. A third order component analysis of a sample (N=926) found two higher order components. This higher order analysis contributes to the research literature pertaining to the generalized structure of the personality measure. (Contains 44 references and 1 table.) (GCP)

  14. The Meaning of Higher-Order Factors in Reflective-Measurement Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Michael; Koch, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Higher-order factor analysis is a widely used approach for analyzing the structure of a multidimensional test. Whenever first-order factors are correlated researchers are tempted to apply a higher-order factor model. But is this reasonable? What do the higher-order factors measure? What is their meaning? Willoughby, Holochwost, Blanton, and Blair…

  15. A Higher Order Analysis of the Factor Structure of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Mauzey, Edward; Johnson, Annabel M.; Murphy, Stanley D.; Zimmerman, Kurt J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the higher order structure of Form G of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. A third order component analysis of a sample (N=926) found two higher order components. This higher order analysis contributes to the research literature pertaining to the generalized structure of the personality measure. (Contains 44 references and 1 table.) (GCP)

  16. The Meaning of Higher-Order Factors in Reflective-Measurement Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Michael; Koch, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Higher-order factor analysis is a widely used approach for analyzing the structure of a multidimensional test. Whenever first-order factors are correlated researchers are tempted to apply a higher-order factor model. But is this reasonable? What do the higher-order factors measure? What is their meaning? Willoughby, Holochwost, Blanton, and Blair…

  17. Supersymmetric unification requires extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Fallbacher, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael

    2013-05-23

    We discuss settings that predict precision gauge unification in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We show that, if one requires anomaly freedom and fermion masses while demanding that unification is not an accident, only R symmetries can forbid the supersymmetric Higgs mass term {mu}. We then review the proof that R symmetries are not available in conventional grand unified theories (GUTs) and argue that this prevents natural solutions to the doublet-triplet splitting problem in four dimensions. On the other hand, higher-dimensional GUTs do not suffer from this problem. We briefly comment on an explicit string-derived model in which the {mu} and dimension five proton decay problems are solved by an order four discrete R symmetry, and comment on the higher-dimensional origin of this symmetry.

  18. Naturality, unification, and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Virkajaervi, Jussi; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2010-08-15

    We consider a model where electroweak symmetry breaking is driven by technicolor dynamics with minimal particle content required for walking coupling and saturation of global anomalies. Furthermore, the model features three additional Weyl fermions singlet under technicolor interactions, two of which provide for a one-loop unification of the standard model gauge couplings. Among these extra matter fields exists a possible candidate for weakly interacting dark matter. We evaluate the relic densities and find that they are sufficient to explain the cosmological observations and avoid the experimental limits from earth-based searches. Hence, we establish a nonsupersymmetric framework where hierarchy and naturality problems are solved, coupling constant unification is achieved, and a plausible dark matter candidate exists.

  19. Inflation driven by unification energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Mark P.; Wilczek, Frank

    2017-03-01

    We examine the hypothesis that inflation is primarily driven by vacuum energy at a scale indicated by gauge coupling unification. Concretely, we consider a class of hybrid inflation models wherein the vacuum energy associated with a grand unified theory condensate provides the dominant energy during inflation, while a second "inflaton" scalar slow rolls. We show that it is possible to obtain significant tensor-to-scalar ratios while fitting the observed spectral index.

  20. Flavour democracy in strong unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, S. A.; King, S. F.

    1998-09-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of ``strong unification''. Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged SU(3)LxSU(3)R family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  1. Macroscopic constraints on string unification

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.R.

    1989-03-01

    The comparison of sting theory with experiment requires a huge extrapolation from the microscopic distances, of order of the Planck length, up to the macroscopic laboratory distances. The quantum effects give rise to large corrections to the macroscopic predictions of sting unification. I discus the model-independent constraints on the gravitational sector of string theory due to the inevitable existence of universal Fradkin-Tseytlin dilatons. 9 refs.

  2. Petite unification: an alternative viewpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, P.Q.

    1981-05-01

    It is assumed that at some distance scale, not too many orders of magnitude less than the compton wavelength of intermediate bosons W/sup + -/ and Z/sup 0/, the SU(3)/sub c/ x SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1)/sub Y/ gauge theory, characterized by three coupling constants, becomes embedded in a gauge theory G/sub S/ x G/sub W/ characterized by only two coupling constants, g/sub S/ and g/sub W/. The strong group G/sub S/ and weak group G/sub W/ are assumed each to be either simple or pseudo-simple i.e. a direct product of simple groups with identical coupling strengths. Such a possibility is caled petite unification. Any subsequent unification of the strong force with the weak at still shorter distances is left unconsidered. A building-up procedure is adopted, that is to say the available inputs from the low-energy theory SU(3)/sub c/ x SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1)/sub Y/ are used to restrict the choices of G/sub S/ and G/sub W/. The inputs used are the experimental value of sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/ and the known fermion representations. The choices of G/sub W/ are found to be quite restricted. The smallest acceptable G/sub W/ turns out to be (SU(2))/sup 4/, and the most efficient choice of a strong group is SU(4) built a la Pati and Salam, which is the simplest case for which the electroweak U(1)/sub Y/ generator is a linear combination of both G/sub S/ and G/sub W/ generators. Furthermore, leptons provide the fourth color degree of freedom achieving thus an early quark-lepton unification. The phenomenology of the minimal petite unification model SU(4) x (SU(2))/sup 4/ is examined in detail.

  3. Naval Cooperation After Korean Unification,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    Korean Unification _ ’ - < ~ ■::-■;-■’ "’&■ ■ *>’ -■ ■’■ I Analyses for Defense Analyses Center for Korea ... Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA) held a workshop in Washington, DC, from December 4 to 6, 1995, to examine the prospects for U.S.- Korean ... Korean Navy, coastal missions are certain to continue. Korea will still require defense of its coastlines; regulatory missions to enforce

  4. Soliton excitations and shape-changing collisions in alpha helical proteins with interspine coupling at higher order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Xing; Lin, Fuhong

    2016-03-01

    Based on the Lax representation, we solve the three coupled higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equations with the achievement of N-soliton solution formula, by means of Darboux transformation. With the involvement of multi-parameters (actually 21parameters) in the two-soliton solutions, we investigate the soliton excitations and collisions in alpha helical proteins with interspine coupling at higher order, in virtue of multi-parameter management and graphical simulation. It is found that both elastic and inelastic collisions can take place under suitable parametric conditions. Additionally, there exist three kinds of shape-changing collision patterns among the three components, and the inelastic collision of single solitons occur in two different manners: enhancement or suppression of intensity. Our results of multi-parameter management analysis may give theoretical support as well as further impetus in the experimental investigation on soliton excitations, elastic and inelastic collisions in alpha helical proteins with interspine coupling at higher order.

  5. Instability of higher-order optical vortices analyzed with a multi-pinhole interferometer.

    PubMed

    Ricci, F; Löffler, W; van Exter, M P

    2012-09-24

    Higher-order optical vortices are inherently unstable in the sense that they tend to split up in a series of vortices with unity charge. We demonstrate this vortex-splitting phenomenon in beams produced with holograms and spatial light modulators and discuss its generic and practically unavoidable nature. To analyze the splitting phenomena in detail, we use a multi-pinhole interferometer to map the combined amplitude and phase profile of the optical field. This technique, which is based on the analysis of the far-field interference pattern observed behind an opaque screen perforated with multiple pinholes, turns out to be very robust and can among others be used to study very 'dark' regions of electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, the vortex splitting provides an ultra-sensitive measurement method of unwanted scattering from holograms and other phase-changing optical elements.

  6. Effects of higher-order aberration correction on stereopsis at different viewing durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jian; Xiao, Fei; Zhao, Junlei; Zhao, Haoxin; Hu, Yiyun; Tang, Guomao; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-07-01

    To better understand how the eye's optics affects stereopsis, we measured stereoacuity before and after higher-order aberration (HOA) correction with a binocular adaptive optics visual simulator. The HOAs were corrected either binocularly or monocularly in the better eye (the eye with better contrast sensitivity). A two-line stereo pattern served as the visual stimulus. Stereo thresholds at different viewing durations were obtained with the psychophysical method of constant stimuli. Binocular HOA correction led to significant improvement in stereoacuity. However, better eye HOA correction could bring either a bad degradation or a slight improvement in stereoacuity. As viewing duration increased, the stereo benefit approached the level of 1.0 for both binocular and better eye correction, suggesting that long viewing durations might weaken the effects of the eye's optical quality on stereopsis.

  7. Comparison of sound reproduction using higher order loudspeakers and equivalent line arrays in free-field conditions.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Mark A; Betlehem, Terence; Abhayapala, Thushara D

    2014-07-01

    Higher order sound sources of Nth order can radiate sound with 2N + 1 orthogonal radiation patterns, which can be represented as phase modes or, equivalently, amplitude modes. This paper shows that each phase mode response produces a spiral wave front with a different spiral rate, and therefore a different direction of arrival of sound. Hence, for a given receiver position a higher order source is equivalent to a linear array of 2N + 1 monopole sources. This interpretation suggests performance similar to a circular array of higher order sources can be produced by an array of sources, each of which consists of a line array having monopoles at the apparent source locations of the corresponding phase modes. Simulations of higher order arrays and arrays of equivalent line sources are presented. It is shown that the interior fields produced by the two arrays are essentially the same, but that the exterior fields differ because the higher order sources produces different equivalent source locations for field positions outside the array. This work provides an explanation of the fact that an array of L Nth order sources can reproduce sound fields whose accuracy approaches the performance of (2N + 1)L monopoles.

  8. A hierarchical generalization of the acoustic reciprocity theorem involving higher-order derivatives and interaction quantities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ju; Li, Jie; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Ning

    2016-10-01

    An acoustic reciprocity theorem is generalized, for a smoothly varying perturbed medium, to a hierarchy of reciprocity theorems including higher-order derivatives of acoustic fields. The standard reciprocity theorem is the first member of the hierarchy. It is shown that the conservation of higher-order interaction quantities is related closely to higher-order derivative distributions of perturbed media. Then integral reciprocity theorems are obtained by applying Gauss's divergence theorem, which give explicit integral representations connecting higher-order interactions and higher-order derivative distributions of perturbed media. Some possible applications to an inverse problem are also discussed.

  9. LIGHT-ADJUSTABLE LENS: CUSTOMIZING CORRECTION FOR MULTIFOCALITY AND HIGHER-ORDER ABERRATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Sandstedt, Christian A.; Chang, Shiao H.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Schwartz, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To determine the feasibility of creating customized multifocal and aspheric patterns onto a light-adjustable lens (LAL) using a digital light delivery (DLD) system. Methods Silicone LALs were placed in a wet cell and irradiated in vitro using the DLD. Spatial intensity patterns were designed and generated to (1) create a multifocal optic with customized power and diameter and (2) simultaneously correct defocus and spherical aberration. In addition, the LALs were adjusted in vivo for defocus and spherical aberration using a rabbit model. Optical properties of the adjusted LALs were determined using a phase-shifting Fizeau Interferometer and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Results In vitro creation of multifocal patterns demonstrated ability to reproducibly customize zone diameter and power. Both bull’s-eye bifocal and annular patterns were successfully created on LAL. Central adds ranging from +2.0 to +3.5 D with zone diameters ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 mm were demonstrated with the bull’s-eye pattern. Application of the annular pattern showed that an annular zone ranging from +2.25 to +2.8 D was written around either an unchanged or −2.5 D corrected LAL central 2-mm region. Spherical aberration was reduced simultaneously with correction of hyperopia and myopia, both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, these customized spatial intensity profiles can be written onto an LAL that is first adjusted to emmotropia. The ability to readjust the LAL is demonstrated. Conclusions Customized multifocal optics were created in vitro on the LAL. Spherical aberration was reduced simultaneously with correction of defocus both in vitro and in vivo. Potential correction for higher-order aberrations was also demonstrated. PMID:17471323

  10. F-GAMMA program: Unification and physical interpretation of the radio spectra variability patterns in Fermi blazars and detection of radio jet emission from NLSY1 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelakis, E.

    2012-01-01

    The F-GAMMA program aims at understanding the physics at work in AGN via a multi-frequency monitoring approach. A number of roughly 65 Fermi-GST detectable blazars are being monitored monthly since January 2007 at radio wavelengths. The core program relies on the 100-m Effelsberg telescope operating at 8 frequencies between 2.6 and 43 GHz, the 30-m IRAM telescope observing at 86, 145 and 240 GHz and the APEX 12-m telescope at 345 GHz. For the targeted sources the LAT instrument onboard Fermi-GST provides gamma-ray light curves sampled daily. Here we discuss two recent findings: A). On the basis of their variability pattern, the observed quasi-simultaneous broad-band spectra can be classified to merely 5 classes. The variability for the first 4 is clearly dominated by spectral-evolution. Sources of the last class vary self-similarly with almost no apparent shift of the peak frequency. The former classes can be attributed to a two-component principal system made of a quiescent optically thin spectrum and a super-imposed flaring event. The later class must be interpreted in terms of a completely different mechanism. The apparent differences among the classes are explained in terms of a redshift modulus and an intrinsic-source/flare parameters modulus. Numerical simulations have shown that a shock-in-jet model can very well describe the observed behavior. It is concluded therefore that only two mechanisms seem to be producing variability. None of the almost 90 sources used for this study show a switch of class indicating that the variability mechanism is either (a) a finger-print of the source, or (b) remains stable on timescales far longer than the monitoring period of almost 4 years. B). Recently it has been disclosed that Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies show gamma-ray emission. Within the F-GAMMA program radio jet emission has been detected from 3 such sources challenging the belief that jets are associated with elliptical galaxies. The recent findings in this area

  11. Nonlinear and higher-order approaches to the encoding of natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Zetzsche, Christoph; Nuding, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Linear operations can only partially exploit the statistical redundancies of natural scenes, and nonlinear operations are ubiquitous in visual cortex. However, neither the detailed function of the nonlinearities nor the higher-order image statistics are yet fully understood. We suggest that these complicated issues can not be tackled by one single approach, but require a range of methods, and the understanding of the crosslinks between the results. We consider three basic approaches: (i) State space descriptions can theoretically provide complete information about statistical properties and nonlinear operations, but their practical usage is confined to very low-dimensional settings. We discuss the use of representation-related state-space coordinates (multivariate wavelet statistics) and of basic nonlinear coordinate transformations of the state space (e.g., a polar transform). (ii) Indirect methods, like unsupervised learning in multi-layer networks, provide complete optimization results, but no direct information on the statistical properties, and no simple model structures. (iii) Approximation by lower-order terms of power-series expansions is a classical strategy that has not yet received broad attention. On the statistical side, this approximation amounts to cumulant functions and higher-order spectra (polyspectra), on the processing side to Volterra Wiener systems. In this context we suggest that an important concept for the understanding of natural scene statistics, of nonlinear neurons, and of biological pattern recognition can be found in AND-like combinations of frequency components. We investigate how the different approaches can be related to each other, how they can contribute to the understanding of cortical nonlinearities such as complex cells, cortical gain control, end-stopping and other extraclassical receptive field properties, and how we can obtain a nonlinear perspective on overcomplete representations and invariant coding in visual cortex.

  12. Grand unification in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori

    2003-07-01

    We have recently proposed an alternative picture for the physics at the scale of gauge coupling unification, where the unified symmetry is realized in higher dimensions but is broken locally by a symmetry breaking defect. Gauge coupling unification, the quantum numbers of quarks and leptons and the longevity of the proton arise as phenomena of the symmetrical bulk, while the lightness of the Higgs doublets and the masses of the light quarks and leptons probe the symmetry breaking defect. Moreover, the framework is extremely predictive if the effective higher dimensional theory is valid over a large energy interval up to the scale of strong coupling. Precise agreement with experiments is obtained in the simplest theory— SU(5) in five dimensions with two Higgs multiplets propagating in the bulk. The weak mixing angle is predicted to be sin 2θw=0.2313±0.0004, which fits the data with extraordinary accuracy. The compactification scale and the strong coupling scale are determined to be M c≃5×10 14 GeV and M s≃1×10 17 GeV, respectively. Proton decay with a lifetime of order 10 34 years is expected with a variety of final states such as e+π0, and several aspects of flavor, including large neutrino mixing angles, are understood by the geometrical locations of the matter fields. When combined with a particular supersymmetry breaking mechanism, the theory predicts large lepton flavor violating μ→ e and τ→ μ transitions, with all superpartner masses determined by only two free parameters. The predicted value of the bottom quark mass from Yukawa unification agrees well with the data. This paper is mainly a review of the work presented in hep-ph/0103125, hep-ph/0111068, and hep-ph/0205067 [1-3].

  13. European Unification: A Conceptual Guide for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Steven L., Ed.

    This book is intended to provide educators with the means to observe and teach about the unification process in Europe. The book contains a collection of essays about different aspects of unification. The Preface, by Dagmar Kraemer and Manfred Stassen, presents a brief historic overview of the development of the European Union. Chapter 1 is the…

  14. German Unification and Its Ramifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    national iden- tity. Yet the unification of Germany will do more than finally bring to an end the painful realities of German partition; it will also...the Unite Sn-w te4 esn omomic Polly Groi Meet- * irg in B"d we Ju 7-9 190. %9ý Gerniwu OECD £waomk 8wwpy 1990 M (OECD UVW- Seeavo Pao% 1980). i+ i I Ii...also force painful changes within Germany, as it will open or break up a variety of arrangements that have previously protected uncompetitive sectors of

  15. ON THE ORIGIN OF ANISOTROPY IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE: THE ROLE OF HIGHER-ORDER CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Oughton, Sean; Wan Minping; Matthaeus, William H.; Servidio, Sergio

    2013-05-01

    Evolution of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is often discussed in terms of second-order statistics like the energy spectra, but consideration of the structure of the von Karman-Howarth hierarchy for MHD indicates that higher-order statistical correlations occupy an influential role. Here we show that both spectral anisotropy and energy decay are strongly associated with higher-order statistics. Dynamical emergence of spectral anisotropy must occur at a higher order in the statistical hierarchy, while numerical evidence suggests that strong variations in energy decay are connected with variations in higher-order statistics.

  16. Probing higher order correlations of the photon field with photon number resolving avalanche photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Dynes, J F; Yuan, Z L; Sharpe, A W; Thomas, O; Shields, A J

    2011-07-04

    We demonstrate the use of two high speed avalanche photodiodes in exploring higher order photon correlations. By employing the photon number resolving capability of the photodiodes the response to higher order photon coincidences can be measured. As an example we show experimentally the sensitivity to higher order correlations for three types of photon sources with distinct photon statistics. This higher order correlation technique could be used as a low cost and compact tool for quantifying the degree of correlation of photon sources employed in quantum information science.

  17. Low-scale gaugino mass unification

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Motoi; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2008-07-15

    We study a new class of scenarios with the gaugino mass unification at the weak scale. The unification conditions are generally classified and then, the mirage gauge mediation is explored where the low-energy mass spectrum is governed by a mirage of unified gauge coupling which is seen by low-energy observers. The gaugino masses have natural and stable low-scale unification. The mass parameters of scalar quarks and leptons are given by gauge couplings but exhibit no large mass hierarchy. They are nonuniversal even when mediated at the gauge coupling unification scale. In addition, the gravitino is rather heavy and not the lightest superparticle. These facts are in contrast to existing gauge and mirage mediation models. We also present several explicit models for dynamically realizing the TeV-scale unification.

  18. Modeling Multi-Agent Self-Organization through the Lens of Higher Order Attractor Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Butner, Jonathan E.; Wiltshire, Travis J.; Munion, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Social interaction occurs across many time scales and varying numbers of agents; from one-on-one to large-scale coordination in organizations, crowds, cities, and colonies. These contexts, are characterized by emergent self-organization that implies higher order coordinated patterns occurring over time that are not due to the actions of any particular agents, but rather due to the collective ordering that occurs from the interactions of the agents. Extant research to understand these social coordination dynamics (SCD) has primarily examined dyadic contexts performing rhythmic tasks. To advance this area of study, we elaborate on attractor dynamics, our ability to depict them visually, and quantitatively model them. Primarily, we combine difference/differential equation modeling with mixture modeling as a way to infer the underlying topological features of the data, which can be described in terms of attractor dynamic patterns. The advantage of this approach is that we are able to quantify the self-organized dynamics that agents exhibit, link these dynamics back to activity from individual agents, and relate it to other variables central to understanding the coordinative functionality of a system's behavior. We present four examples that differ in the number of variables used to depict the attractor dynamics (1, 2, and 6) and range from simulated to non-simulated data sources. We demonstrate that this is a flexible method that advances scientific study of SCD in a variety of multi-agent systems. PMID:28373853

  19. The Use of Metacognitive Knowledge Patterns to Compose Physics Higher Order Thinking Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Helmi; Malago, Jasruddin D.; Bundu, Patta; Thalib, Syamsul Bachri

    2013-01-01

    The main aspect in physics learning is the use of equation in problem solving. Equation is a mathematical form of theoretical statements, principles, and laws in physics, and describes a relationship between one concept to another by using a specific symbol. In a context of knowledge dimension, equation is a procedural knowledge. Students are…

  20. The Use of Metacognitive Knowledge Patterns to Compose Physics Higher Order Thinking Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Helmi; Malago, Jasruddin D.; Bundu, Patta; Thalib, Syamsul Bachri

    2013-01-01

    The main aspect in physics learning is the use of equation in problem solving. Equation is a mathematical form of theoretical statements, principles, and laws in physics, and describes a relationship between one concept to another by using a specific symbol. In a context of knowledge dimension, equation is a procedural knowledge. Students are…

  1. Towards a new paradigm for quark-lepton unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    The quark and charged lepton mass patterns upset their naïve unification. In this paper, a new approach to solve this problem is proposed. Model-independently, we find that a successful unification can be achieved. A mechanism is identified by which the large top quark mass renders its third-generation leptonic partner very light. This state is thus identified with the electron. We then construct a toy model to implement dynamically this mechanism, using tree-level exchanges of vector leptons to relate the quark and charged lepton flavor structures. In a supersymmetric context, this same mechanism splits the squark masses, and third generation squarks end up much lighter than the others. Finally, the implementation of this mechanism in SU(5) GUT permits to avoid introducing any flavor structure beyond the two minimal Yukawa couplings, ensuring the absence of unknown mixing matrices and their potentially large impact on FCNC.

  2. Unification of quantum information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeyesinghe, Anura

    We present the unification of many previously disparate results in noisy quantum Shannon theory and the unification of all of noiseless quantum Shannon theory. More specifically we deal here with bipartite, unidirectional, and memoryless quantum Shannon theory. We find all the optimal protocols and quantify the relationship between the resources used, both for the one-shot and for the ensemble case, for what is arguably the most fundamental task in quantum information theory: sharing entangled states between a sender and a receiver. We find that all of these protocols are derived from our one-shot superdense coding protocol and relate nicely to each other. We then move on to noisy quantum information theory and give a simple, direct proof of the "mother" protocol, or rather her generalization to the Fully Quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol (FQSW). FQSW simultaneously accomplishes two goals: quantum communication-assisted entanglement distillation, and state transfer from the sender to the receiver. As a result, in addition to her other "children," the mother protocol generates the state merging primitive of Horodecki, Oppenheim, and Winter as well as a new class of distributed compression protocols for correlated quantum sources, which are optimal for sources described by separable density operators. Moreover, the mother protocol described here is easily transformed into the so-called "father" protocol, demonstrating that the division of single-sender/single-receiver protocols into two families was unnecessary: all protocols in the family are children of the mother.

  3. An Investigation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Smaller Learning Community Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…

  4. An Investigation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Smaller Learning Community Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which higher-order thinking skills are promoted in social studies classes in high schools that are implementing smaller learning communities (SLCs). Data collection in this mixed-methods study included classroom observations and in-depth interviews. Findings indicated that higher-order thinking was rarely…

  5. Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…

  6. Higher order multi-dimensional extensions of Cesàro theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Luigi; Ji, Un Cig; Saitô, Kimiaki

    2015-12-01

    The Cesàro theorem is extended to the cases: (1) higher order Cesàro mean for sequence (discrete case); and (2) higher order, multi-dimensional and continuous Cesàro mean for functions. Also, we study the Cesàro theorem for the case of positive-order.

  7. Family Consumer Sciences Teachers' Use of Technology to Teach Higher Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Beth Erica

    2009-01-01

    Family and consumer sciences (FACS) high school teachers were surveyed on their use of technology to teach higher order thinking skills (HOTS). This study determined if teachers had enough support and training to use technology. Lesson plans were accumulated that required both technology and higher order thinking skills. These lessons were then…

  8. Higher Order Thinking Skills among Secondary School Students in Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saido, Gulistan Mohammed; Siraj, Saedah; Bin Nordin, Abu Bakar; Al Amedy, Omed Saadallah

    2015-01-01

    A central goal of science education is to help students to develop their higher order thinking skills to enable them to face the challenges of daily life. Enhancing students' higher order thinking skills is the main goal of the Kurdish Science Curriculum in the Iraqi-Kurdistan region. This study aimed at assessing 7th grade students' higher order…

  9. From "Hello" to Higher-Order Thinking: The Effect of Coaching and Feedback on Online Chats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David S.; Wanstreet, Constance E.; Slagle, Paula; Trinko, Lynn A.; Lutz, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the effect of a coaching and feedback intervention in teaching presence and social presence on higher-order thinking in an online community of inquiry. Coaching occurred before each chat, and feedback was provided immediately afterwards. The findings suggest that over time, the frequency of higher-order thinking…

  10. On the Higher Power Sums of Reciprocal Higher-Order Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Let {un} be a higher-order linear recursive sequence. In this paper, we use the properties of error estimation and the analytic method to study the reciprocal sums of higher power of higher-order sequences. Then we establish several new and interesting identities relating to the infinite and finite sums. PMID:24741351

  11. Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…

  12. Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Constructs by Using an Information-Processing Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickison, Philip; Luo, Xiao; Kim, Doyoung; Woo, Ada; Muntean, William; Bergstrom, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Designing a theory-based assessment with sound psychometric qualities to measure a higher-order cognitive construct is a highly desired yet challenging task for many practitioners. This paper proposes a framework for designing a theory-based assessment to measure a higher-order cognitive construct. This framework results in a modularized yet…

  13. Authentic Instruction for 21st Century Learning: Higher Order Thinking in an Inclusive School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preus, Betty

    2012-01-01

    The author studied a public junior high school identified as successfully implementing authentic instruction. Such instruction emphasizes higher order thinking, deep knowledge, substantive conversation, and value beyond school. To determine in what ways higher order thinking was fostered both for students with and without disabilities, the author…

  14. Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills. Current Perspectives on Cognition, Learning and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…

  15. Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…

  16. Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…

  17. Assessing School Work Culture: A Higher-Order Analysis and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.; Zimmerman, Kurt J.

    This paper reviews a work culture productivity model and reports the development of a work culture instrument based on the culture productivity model. Higher order principal components analysis was used to assess work culture, and a third-order factor analysis shows how the first-order factors group into higher-order factors. The school work…

  18. Higher Order Skills, Job Design, and Incentives: An Analysis and Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaway, Jane

    1992-01-01

    The current imbalance between teaching basic skills and higher order skills can be addressed by redesigning teaching into two specialized areas. Using the principal-agent model and applying ideas from organization theory, the advantages of restructuring teaching to increase emphasis on problem-solving and higher order skills are discussed. (SLD)

  19. Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Constructs by Using an Information-Processing Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickison, Philip; Luo, Xiao; Kim, Doyoung; Woo, Ada; Muntean, William; Bergstrom, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Designing a theory-based assessment with sound psychometric qualities to measure a higher-order cognitive construct is a highly desired yet challenging task for many practitioners. This paper proposes a framework for designing a theory-based assessment to measure a higher-order cognitive construct. This framework results in a modularized yet…

  20. Improving Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Higher-Order Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Kelsey J.; Renshaw, Carl E.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has been shown to enhance rote memory skills and improve higher order critical thinking skills. The challenge now is to identify what aspects of CAI improve which specific higher-order skills. This study focuses on the effectiveness of using CAI to teach logarithmic graphing and dimensional analysis. Two groups…

  1. From "Hello" to Higher-Order Thinking: The Effect of Coaching and Feedback on Online Chats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, David S.; Wanstreet, Constance E.; Slagle, Paula; Trinko, Lynn A.; Lutz, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the effect of a coaching and feedback intervention in teaching presence and social presence on higher-order thinking in an online community of inquiry. Coaching occurred before each chat, and feedback was provided immediately afterwards. The findings suggest that over time, the frequency of higher-order thinking…

  2. An Analysis of Higher-Order Thinking on Algebra I End-of-Course Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This research provides insight into one US state's effort to incorporate higher-order thinking on its Algebra I End-of-Course tests. To facilitate the inclusion of higher-order thinking, the state used "Dimensions of Thinking" (Marzano et al., 1988) and "Bloom's Taxonomy" (Bloom et al., 1956). An analysis of Algebra I test…

  3. Questions for Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills: It's Not Just Bloom's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick

    2013-01-01

    We present an exploratory study of biologists' ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  4. Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…

  5. Assessing Teachers' Beliefs Regarding Issues Pertaining to Instruction of Higher Order Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwartzer, Noa; Zohar, Anat

    The purposes of this study are to describe the development and validation of a research instrument for assessing teachers' beliefs regarding issues pertaining to the instruction of higher order thinking, and to explore the beliefs of Israeli science teachers regarding issues pertaining to instruction of higher order thinking. This paper describes…

  6. An Analysis of Higher-Order Thinking on Algebra I End-of-Course Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This research provides insight into one US state's effort to incorporate higher-order thinking on its Algebra I End-of-Course tests. To facilitate the inclusion of higher-order thinking, the state used "Dimensions of Thinking" (Marzano et al., 1988) and "Bloom's Taxonomy" (Bloom et al., 1956). An analysis of Algebra I test…

  7. Diagnosis and Instruction of Higher Order Rules for Solving Geometry Construction Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Joseph M.; And Others

    This study is one of several conducted by the authors in their investigation of the use of "higher order rules" in the solution of problems. The focus of the current experiment was determination of the compatibility of identified rules with the knowledge of average teenagers, and of the extent to which instruction in higher order rules…

  8. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists.

  9. Parallel unification scheduling in Prolog. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Citrin

    1986-09-18

    Unification, the fundamental operation in the Prolog logic programming language can take up to 50% of the execution time of a typical Prolog system. One approach to speeding up the unification operation is to perform it on parallel hardware. Although it has been shown that, in general, there is no parallel algorithm for unification that is better than the best sequential algorithm, there is a substantial subset of unification which may be done in parallel. Identifying these subsets involves gathering data using an extension of Chang's static data-dependency analysis (SDDA), then using that data to schedule the components of a unification for parallel unification. Improvements to the information gathered by SDDA may be achieved through procedures splitting, a source-level transformation of the program. This thesis describes and evaluates the above-mentioned techniques and their implementation. Results are compared to other techniques for speeding up unification. Ways in which these techniques may be applied to the Berkeley PLM machine are also described.

  10. Regular expression order-sorted unification and matching

    PubMed Central

    Kutsia, Temur; Marin, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    We extend order-sorted unification by permitting regular expression sorts for variables and in the domains of function symbols. The obtained signature corresponds to a finite bottom-up unranked tree automaton. We prove that regular expression order-sorted (REOS) unification is of type infinitary and decidable. The unification problem presented by us generalizes some known problems, such as, e.g., order-sorted unification for ranked terms, sequence unification, and word unification with regular constraints. Decidability of REOS unification implies that sequence unification with regular hedge language constraints is decidable, generalizing the decidability result of word unification with regular constraints to terms. A sort weakening algorithm helps to construct a minimal complete set of REOS unifiers from the solutions of sequence unification problems. Moreover, we design a complete algorithm for REOS matching, and show that this problem is NP-complete and the corresponding counting problem is #P-complete. PMID:26523088

  11. Higher-order factors of the big five and basic values: empirical and theoretical relations.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Michele; Alessandri, Guido; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Caprara, Gianvittorio

    2011-08-01

    The Big Five Model of personality and Schwartz's theory of basic values are two prominent taxonomies that offer a convenient way to organize the major individual differences in, respectively, personality traits and personal values. Both taxonomies provide a hierarchical framework, whose components can be traced back to a smaller number of broader dimensions. The current study investigated the relationship between the two superordinate factors of personality encompassing the Big Five dimensions (alpha and beta) and the four higher-level value types from Schwartz's theory (Self-transcendence, Self-enhancement, Conservation, and Openness to change). To examine the relations between higher-order traits and values, we relied on factor analysis and multidimensional scaling. Results indicated that alpha and beta were differently related to the Conservation versus Openness to change dimension. Alpha was positively related to values that emphasize protecting stability and respecting norms and traditions, and negatively related to values emphasizing receptiveness to change and independence of thought, feeling, and action. The opposite pattern of relations was found for beta.

  12. Statistical Mechanics of Nucleosomes Constrained by Higher-Order Chromatin Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chereji, Răzvan V.; Morozov, Alexandre V.

    2011-07-01

    Eukaryotic DNA is packaged into chromatin: one-dimensional arrays of nucleosomes separated by stretches of linker DNA are folded into 30-nm chromatin fibers which in turn form higher-order structures (Felsenfeld and Groudine in Nature 421:448, 2003). Each nucleosome, the fundamental unit of chromatin, has 147 base pairs (bp) of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer (Richmond and Davey in Nature 423:145, 2003). In order to describe how chromatin fiber formation affects nucleosome positioning and energetics, we have developed a thermodynamic model of finite-size particles with effective nearest-neighbor interactions and arbitrary DNA-binding energies. We show that both one- and two-body interactions can be extracted from one-particle density profiles based on high-throughput maps of in vitro or in vivo nucleosome positions. Although a simpler approach that neglects two-body interactions (even if they are in fact present in the system) can be used to predict sequence determinants of nucleosome positions, the full theory is required to disentangle one- and two-body effects. Finally, we construct a minimal model in which nucleosomes are positioned primarily by steric exclusion and two-body interactions rather than intrinsic histone-DNA sequence preferences. The model reproduces nucleosome occupancy patterns observed over transcribed regions in living cells.

  13. Quantum Gravitational Effects and Grand Unification

    SciTech Connect

    Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Reeb, David

    2008-11-23

    In grand unified theories with large numbers of fields, renormalization effects significantly modify the scale at which quantum gravity becomes strong. This in turn can modify the boundary conditions for coupling constant unification, if higher dimensional operators induced by gravity are taken into consideration. We show that the generic size of, and the uncertainty in, these effects from gravity can be larger than the two-loop corrections typically considered in renormalization group analyses of unification. In some cases, gravitational effects of modest size can render unification impossible.

  14. Grand unification and enhanced quantum gravitational effects.

    PubMed

    Calmet, Xavier; Hsu, Stephen D H; Reeb, David

    2008-10-24

    In grand unified theories with large numbers of fields, renormalization effects significantly modify the scale at which quantum gravity becomes strong. This in turn can modify the boundary conditions for coupling constant unification, if higher dimensional operators induced by gravity are taken into consideration. We show that the generic size of, and the uncertainty in, these effects from gravity can be larger than the two-loop corrections typically considered in renormalization group analyses of unification. In some cases, gravitational effects of modest size can render unification impossible.

  15. Accommodation with higher-order monochromatic aberrations corrected with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Kruger, Philip B.; Hofer, Heidi; Singer, Ben; Williams, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order monochromatic aberrations in the human eye cause a difference in the appearance of stimuli at distances nearer and farther from best focus that could serve as a signed error signal for accommodation. We explored whether higher-order monochromatic aberrations affect the accommodative response to 0.5 D step changes in vergence in experiments in which these aberrations were either present as they normally are or removed with adaptive optics. Of six subjects, one could not accommodate at all for steps in either condition. One subject clearly required higher-order aberrations to accommodate at all. The remaining four subjects could accommodate in the correct direction even when higher-order aberrations were removed. No subjects improved their accommodation when higher-order aberrations were corrected, indicating that the corresponding decrease in the depth of field of the eye did not improve the accommodative response. These results are consistent with previous findings of large individual differences in the ability to accommodate in impoverished conditions. These results suggest that at least some subjects can use monochromatic higher-order aberrations to guide accommodation. They also show that some subjects can accommodate correctly when higher-order monochromatic aberrations as well as established cues to accommodation are greatly reduced.

  16. Geometric Integrators for Higher-Order Variational Systems and Their Application to Optimal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; Ferraro, Sebastián; Martín de Diego, David

    2016-12-01

    Numerical methods that preserve geometric invariants of the system, such as energy, momentum or the symplectic form, are called geometric integrators. In this paper we present a method to construct symplectic-momentum integrators for higher-order Lagrangian systems. Given a regular higher-order Lagrangian L:T^{(k)}Q→ R with k≥ 1, the resulting discrete equations define a generally implicit numerical integrator algorithm on T^{(k-1)}Q× T^{(k-1)}Q that approximates the flow of the higher-order Euler-Lagrange equations for L. The algorithm equations are called higher-order discrete Euler-Lagrange equations and constitute a variational integrator for higher-order mechanical systems. The general idea for those variational integrators is to directly discretize Hamilton's principle rather than the equations of motion in a way that preserves the invariants of the original system, notably the symplectic form and, via a discrete version of Noether's theorem, the momentum map. We construct an exact discrete Lagrangian L_d^e using the locally unique solution of the higher-order Euler-Lagrange equations for L with boundary conditions. By taking the discrete Lagrangian as an approximation of L_d^e, we obtain variational integrators for higher-order mechanical systems. We apply our techniques to optimal control problems since, given a cost function, the optimal control problem is understood as a second-order variational problem.

  17. Separating method factors and higher order traits of the Big Five: a meta-analytic multitrait-multimethod approach.

    PubMed

    Chang, Luye; Connelly, Brian S; Geeza, Alexis A

    2012-02-01

    Though most personality researchers now recognize that ratings of the Big Five are not orthogonal, the field has been divided about whether these trait intercorrelations are substantive (i.e., driven by higher order factors) or artifactual (i.e., driven by correlated measurement error). We used a meta-analytic multitrait-multirater study to estimate trait correlations after common method variance was controlled. Our results indicated that common method variance substantially inflates trait correlations, and, once controlled, correlations among the Big Five became relatively modest. We then evaluated whether two different theories of higher order factors could account for the pattern of Big Five trait correlations. Our results did not support Rushton and colleagues' (Rushton & Irwing, 2008; Rushton et al., 2009) proposed general factor of personality, but Digman's (1997) α and β metatraits (relabeled by DeYoung, Peterson, and Higgins (2002) as Stability and Plasticity, respectively) produced viable fit. However, our models showed considerable overlap between Stability and Emotional Stability and between Plasticity and Extraversion, raising the question of whether these metatraits are redundant with their dominant Big Five traits. This pattern of findings was robust when we included only studies whose observers were intimately acquainted with targets. Our results underscore the importance of using a multirater approach to studying personality and the need to separate the causes and outcomes of higher order metatraits from those of the Big Five. We discussed the implications of these findings for the array of research fields in which personality is studied.

  18. Higher order feed-forward control of reticle writing error fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haren, Richard; Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Beltman, Jan; Pastol, Anne; Sundermann, Frank; Gatefait, Maxime

    2015-10-01

    The understanding and control of the intra-field overlay budget becomes crucial particularly after the introduction of multi-patterning applications. The intra-field overlay budget is built-up out of many contributors, each with its own characteristic. Some of them are (semi-)static like the reticle writing error (RWE) fingerprint, the scanner lens fingerprint, or the intra-field processing signature. Others are more dynamic. Examples are reticle heating and lens heating due to the absorption of a small portion of the exposure light. Ideally, all overlay contributors that are understood and known could be taken out of the feed-back control loop and send as feed-forward corrections to the scanner. As a consequence, only non-correctable overlay residuals are measured on the wafer. In the current work, we have studied the possibility to characterize the reticle writing error fingerprint by an off-line position measurement tool and use this information to send feed-forward corrections to the ASML TWINSCANTM exposure tool. The current work is an extension of the work we published earlier. To this end, we have selected a reticle pair out of 50 production reticles that are used to manufacture a 28-nm technology device. These two reticles are special in the sense that the delta fingerprint contains a significant higher order RWE signature. While previously only the linear parameters were sent as feed-forward corrections to the ASML TWINSCANTM exposure tool, this time we additionally demonstrate the capability to correct for the non-linear terms as well. Since the concept heavily relies on the quality of the off-line mask registration measurements, a state-of-the-art reticle registration tool was chosen. Special care was taken to eliminate any effects of the tool induced shifts that may affect the quality of the measurements. The on-wafer overlay verification measurements were performed on an ASML YieldStar metrology tool as well as on a different vendor tool. In conclusion

  19. Towards a unification of unified theories of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    McGill, Brian J

    2010-05-01

    A unified theory in science is a theory that shows a common underlying set of rules that regulate processes previously thought to be distinct. Unified theories have been important in physics including the unification of electricity and magnetism and the unification of the electromagnetic with the weak nuclear force. Surprisingly, ecology, specifically the subfields of biodiversity and macroecology, also possess not one but at least six unified theories. This is problematic as only one unified theory is desirable. Superficially, the six unified theories seem very different. However, I show that all six theories use the same three rules or assertions to describe a stochastic geometry of biodiversity. The three rules are: (1) intraspecifically individuals are clumped together; (2) interspecifically global or regional abundance varies according to a hollow curve distribution; and (3) interspecifically individuals are placed without regard to individuals of other species. These three rules appear sufficient to explain local species abundance distributions, species-area relationships, decay of similarity of distance and possibly other patterns of biodiversity. This provides a unification of the unified theories. I explore implications of this unified theory for future research.

  20. Grand unification of neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-04-20

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical "grand unification" of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  1. Considerations Concerning the Overall Unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2012-03-01

    The direction of the century old search, based on non-probabilistic gravity, for the unification of forces blockades the search for consciousness at the fundamental level. Probabilistic gravity deriving strong coupling from a quantum mechanically modified inverse square law of gravity, and derivation of the fine structure constants' 137 by a computional route throw light on the quantum source of consciousness as explained in the book ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality'' by this author in more details. Uniformity of microwave background, spooky action, quantum tunnelling and other issues are natural consequences of nonlocal gravity. I will show how this constitutes a play on the shoulders of the giants and also on the imaginary dimensions of the string theory.

  2. Gauge coupling unification without leptoquarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karananas, Georgios K.; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2017-08-01

    We propose an interpretation of the gauge coupling unification scale which is not related to any new particle threshold. We revisit Grand Unified Theories and show that it is possible to completely eliminate the scalar as well as vector leptoquarks from the particle physics spectrum. As a consequence, in our approach the gauge hierarchy problem is put on different grounds, and the proton may be absolutely stable. In order to achieve that, we employ a number of nonlinear gauge-invariant constraints which only affect the superheavy degrees of freedom. We illustrate our considerations in a model based on the SU(5) group, with the generalization to other groups being straightforward. We discuss how scale or conformal invariance may be added to our proposal.

  3. Higher-Order Spectral Analysis of a Nonlinear Pitch and Plunge Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Strganac, Thomas W.; Hajj, Muhammad R.

    2005-01-01

    Simulated aeroelastic responses of a nonlinear pitch and plunge apparatus are analyzed using various statistical signal processing techniques including higher-order spectral methods. A MATLAB version of the Nonlinear Aeroelastic Testbed Apparatus (NATA) at the Texas A&M University is used to generate various aeroelastic response data including limit cycle oscillations (LCO). Traditional and higher-order spectral (HOS) methods are applied to the simulated aeroelastic responses. Higher-order spectral methods are used to identify critical signatures that indicate the transition from linear to nonlinear (LCO) aeroelastic behavior.

  4. The Use of Higher-Order Difference Methods in Beam Vibration Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Donald T.

    1961-01-01

    Simple and higher-order difference methods for the solution for the natural frequencies of vibration of a uniform beam are compared. The same basic higher-order method is used throughout for the interior cells, but three different methods of boundary-condition representation are given. Tables and graphs of the error in mode frequencies, as compared with a continuous beam, are given for the various methods as a function of the number of cells. It is concluded that higher-order methods improve accuracy for a given number of cells, with essentially no change in the quantity of computing equipment required.

  5. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse correlator

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-16

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a demodulation decoder coupled to the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a clock coupled to the demodulation decoder; and a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to both the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator and the clock. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  6. Multi-domain, Higher Order Level Set Scheme for 3D Image Segmentation on the GPU.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Zhang, Qin; Anton, François; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2010-06-13

    Level set method based segmentation provides an efficient tool for topological and geometrical shape handling. Conventional level set surfaces are only C(0) continuous since the level set evolution involves linear interpolation to compute derivatives. Bajaj et al. present a higher order method to evaluate level set surfaces that are C(2) continuous, but are slow due to high computational burden. In this paper, we provide a higher order GPU based solver for fast and efficient segmentation of large volumetric images. We also extend the higher order method to multi-domain segmentation. Our streaming solver is efficient in memory usage.

  7. Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for autonomous higher order dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2011-09-01

    The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of Skinner and Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, as well as for first-order and higher order field theories. However, a complete generalization to higher order mechanical systems is yet to be described. In this work, after reviewing the natural geometrical setting and the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms for higher order autonomous mechanical systems, we develop a complete generalization of the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for these kinds of systems, and we use it to analyze some physical models from this new point of view.

  8. Genetic mechanisms control the linear scaling between related cortical primary and higher order sensory areas

    PubMed Central

    Zembrzycki, Andreas; Stocker, Adam M; Leingärtner, Axel; Sahara, Setsuko; Chou, Shen-Ju; Kalatsky, Valery; May, Scott R; Stryker, Michael P; O'Leary, Dennis DM

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the neocortical layout consists of few modality-specific primary sensory areas and a multitude of higher order ones. Abnormal layout of cortical areas may disrupt sensory function and behavior. Developmental genetic mechanisms specify primary areas, but mechanisms influencing higher order area properties are unknown. By exploiting gain-of and loss-of function mouse models of the transcription factor Emx2, we have generated bi-directional changes in primary visual cortex size in vivo and have used it as a model to show a novel and prominent function for genetic mechanisms regulating primary visual area size and also proportionally dictating the sizes of surrounding higher order visual areas. This finding redefines the role for intrinsic genetic mechanisms to concomitantly specify and scale primary and related higher order sensory areas in a linear fashion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11416.001 PMID:26705332

  9. Higher-order corrections to dust ion-acoustic soliton in a quantum dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Prasanta; Das, Brindaban; Mondal, Ganesh; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.

    2010-10-15

    Dust ion-acoustic soliton is studied in an electron-dust-ion plasma by employing a two-fluid quantum hydrodynamic model. Ions and electrons are assumed to follow quantum mechanical behaviors in dust background. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and higher order contribution to KdV equations are derived using reductive perturbation technique. The higher order contribution is obtained as a higher order inhomogeneous differential equation. The nonsecular solution of the higher order contribution is obtained by using the renormalization method and the particular solution of the inhomogeneous equation is determined using a truncated series solution method. The effects of dust concentration, quantum parameter for ions and electrons, and soliton velocity on the amplitude and width of the dressed soliton are discussed.

  10. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  11. Propagation of a higher-order cosh-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoquan

    2011-02-28

    The propagation of a higher-order cosh-Gaussian beam through a paraxial and real ABCD optical system in turbulent atmosphere has been investigated. The analytical expressions for the average intensity, the effective beam size, and the kurtosis parameter of a higher-order cosh-Gaussian beam through a paraxial and real ABCD optical system are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a higher-order cosh-Gaussian in turbulent atmosphere are numerically demonstrated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a higher-order cosh-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere are also examined in detail.

  12. Generalizing higher-order Bessel-Gauss beams: analytical description and demonstration.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Damian N; Schulte, Jan; Putnam, William P; Kärtner, Franz X

    2012-11-19

    We report on a novel class of higher-order Bessel-Gauss beams in which the well-known Bessel-Gauss beam is the fundamental mode and the azimuthally symmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams are special cases. We find these higher-order Bessel-Gauss beams by superimposing decentered Hermite-Gaussian beams. We show analytically and experimentally that these higher-order Bessel-Gauss beams resemble higher-order eigenmodes of optical resonators consisting of aspheric mirrors. This work is relevant for the many applications of Bessel-Gauss beams in particular the more recently proposed high-intensity Bessel-Gauss enhancement cavities for strong-field physics applications.

  13. Multiple sextupole system for the correction of third and higher order aberration

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, Albert V.

    1983-01-01

    A means is provided for compensating for third and higher order aberration in charged particle beam devices. The means includes two sextupoles with an intermediate focusing lens, all positioned between two focusing lenses.

  14. Development of higher-order modal methods for transient thermal and structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1989-01-01

    A force-derivative method which produces higher-order modal solutions to transient problems is evaluated. These higher-order solutions converge to an accurate response using fewer degrees-of-freedom (eigenmodes) than lower-order methods such as the mode-displacement or mode-acceleration methods. Results are presented for non-proportionally damped structural problems as well as thermal problems modeled by finite elements.

  15. Buckling Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates by Using Various Higher-Order Shear Deformation Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, S.; Wang, J.; Ai, Y. T.; Li, G.-Ch.

    2015-11-01

    The buckling of simply supported laminated composite plates is studied using various higher-order shear deformation theories. A Navier-type analytical method is used to solve the governing differential equations. The critical buckling loads of simply supported laminated composite plates under a uniaxial buckling load are calculated. The present results are compared with available published results to verify the accuracy of the higher-order shear deformation theories considered.

  16. a Higher Order Theory for STATIC-DYNAMIC Analysis of Laminated Plates Using a Warping Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HASSIS, H.

    2000-08-01

    A higher order theory is developed to model the behaviour of laminated plates. This theory is based on a warping theory of plate deformation developed by Hassis [1]. Through comparison with elasticity solutions obtained with classical models [2-6] and the higher order theory of Lo et al.[7, 8], it is shown that the present theory correctly models effects not attainable by the low order theories.

  17. Higher Order Convergence Rates in Theory of Homogenization: Equations of Non-divergence Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghan; Lee, Ki-Ahm

    2016-03-01

    We establish higher order convergence rates in the theory of periodic homogenization of both linear and fully nonlinear uniformly elliptic equations of non-divergence form. The rates are achieved by involving higher order correctors which fix the errors occurring both in the interior and on the boundary layer of our physical domain. The proof is based on a viscosity method and a new regularity theory which captures the stability of the correctors with respect to the shape of our limit profile.

  18. Higher-order Schrödinger and Hartree–Fock equations

    SciTech Connect

    Carles, Rémi; Lucha, Wolfgang; Moulay, Emmanuel

    2015-12-15

    The domain of validity of the higher-order Schrödinger equations is analyzed for harmonic-oscillator and Coulomb potentials as typical examples. Then, the Cauchy theory for higher-order Hartree–Fock equations with bounded and Coulomb potentials is developed. Finally, the existence of associated ground states for the odd-order equations is proved. This renders these quantum equations relevant for physics.

  19. Laser-printer computer-generated holograms exhibiting suppressed higher orders in the replay field.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Edward; Wilkinson, Tim

    2006-05-15

    Conventional computer-generated holograms (CGHs) consist of regularly spaced square pixels, which, when replayed, exhibit many repeated higher orders. Furthermore, such pixellated CGHs are not well suited to printing using a conventional laser printer. In this Letter a novel method is presented that exploits the characteristics of a conventional laser-printing process to generate holograms with replay fields that exhibit markedly suppressed higher orders.

  20. Higher-order terms in sensitivity analysis through a differential approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dubi, A.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1981-06-01

    A differential approach to sensitivity analysis has been developed that eliminates some difficulties existing in previous work. The new development leads to simple explicit expressions for the first-order perturbation as well as any higher-order terms. The higher-order terms are dependent only on differentials of the transport operator, the unperturbed flux, the adjoint flux, and the unperturbed Green's function of the system.

  1. Scalar non-degeneracy and flavor unification

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Kentaro

    2008-05-13

    Grand unified models of the strong and electroweak forces generally predict some types of flavor unification. The flavor structure in unified theory is probed with superparticle mass spectrum observed in future particle experiments. It is shown that the generation dependence of sfermion mass non-degeneracy provides direct imprints of unification of the standard model matter multiplets. The implication from flavor-violating rare process is also discussed.

  2. The Economic Implications of Korean Unification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    the two sides agreed to push for a joint Imjin River flood 80 Byung Chul Koh, ed. Korea: Dynamics...background_notes. 82 Byung Chul Koh, Korea: Dynamics of Diplomacy and Unification, 86. 27 control project at an early date. And they were able to...publications/factbook. 85 Byung Chul Koh, Korea: Dynamics of Diplomacy and Unification, 34. 28 idea as the Korean economy slowly recovers from the Asian

  3. The Role of China in Korean Unification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    Westview Press, 1988. p. 21. 63 Byung Chul Koh. The Foreign Policy Systems of North and South Korea. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California...Unification: A Framework for Policy Choices in Korea.” Korea: Dynamics and Diplomacy and Unification. Byung Chul Koh. (Ed.) CA: CMC/KECK, 2001. p. 171. 243...Security Policy in the Era of Reform, 1978-2000. David M. Lampton (Ed.). Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2001. Koh, Byung Chul . The

  4. Optimal higher order modeling methodology based on method of moments and finite element method for electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopf, Eve Marian

    General guidelines and quantitative recipes for adoptions of optimal higher order parameters for computational electromagnetics (CEM) modeling using the method of moments and the finite element method are established and validated, based on an exhaustive series of numerical experiments and comprehensive case studies on higher order hierarchical CEM models of metallic and dielectric scatterers. The modeling parameters considered are: electrical dimensions of elements (subdivisions) in the model (h -refinement), polynomial orders of basis and testing functions ( p-refinement), orders of Gauss-Legendre integration formulas (numbers of integration points -- integration accuracy), and geometrical orders of elements (orders of Lagrange-type curvature) in the model. The goal of the study, which is the first such study of higher order parameters in CEM, is to reduce the dilemmas and uncertainties associated with the great modeling flexibility of higher order elements, basis and testing functions, and integration procedures (this flexibility is the principal advantage but also the greatest shortcoming of the higher order CEM), and to ease and facilitate the decisions to be made on how to actually use them, by both CEM developers and practitioners. The ultimate goal is to close the large gap between the rising academic interest in higher order CEM, which evidently shows great numerical potential, and its actual usefulness and application to electromagnetics research and engineering applications.

  5. Fast algorithm for scaling analysis with higher-order detrending moving average method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Yutaka; Miki, Yuki; Shimatani, Satoshi; Kiyono, Ken

    2016-05-01

    Among scaling analysis methods based on the root-mean-square deviation from the estimated trend, it has been demonstrated that centered detrending moving average (DMA) analysis with a simple moving average has good performance when characterizing long-range correlation or fractal scaling behavior. Furthermore, higher-order DMA has also been proposed; it is shown to have better detrending capabilities, removing higher-order polynomial trends than original DMA. However, a straightforward implementation of higher-order DMA requires a very high computational cost, which would prevent practical use of this method. To solve this issue, in this study, we introduce a fast algorithm for higher-order DMA, which consists of two techniques: (1) parallel translation of moving averaging windows by a fixed interval; (2) recurrence formulas for the calculation of summations. Our algorithm can significantly reduce computational cost. Monte Carlo experiments show that the computational time of our algorithm is approximately proportional to the data length, although that of the conventional algorithm is proportional to the square of the data length. The efficiency of our algorithm is also shown by a systematic study of the performance of higher-order DMA, such as the range of detectable scaling exponents and detrending capability for removing polynomial trends. In addition, through the analysis of heart-rate variability time series, we discuss possible applications of higher-order DMA.

  6. Study of higher order non-classical properties of squeezed Kerr state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Devendra Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Recently, Prakash and Mishra [J. Phys. B: at. Mol. Opt. Phys., 39, 2291(2006); 40, 2531(2007)] have studied higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistic conditions for non-classicality in the form of general inequalities for expectation values of products of arbitrary powers of photon number and of photon-number fluctuation. It is, therefore, vital to study the generation of these higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistics (phase-insensitive behavior) in a physically realizable medium and their relations to higher order squeezing (phase-sensitive behavior). In the present paper, we study higher order non-classical properties, such as Hong and Mandel squeezing, amplitude-squared squeezing and higher order sub-Poissonian photon statistics, of squeezed Kerr state which is generated by squeezing the output of a Kerr medium whose input is coherent light. Such states can be realized if laser light is sent through an optical fiber and then into a degenerate parametric amplifier. It is established that the squeezed Kerr state can exhibit higher order non-classical properties.

  7. Questions for assessing higher-order cognitive skills: it's not just Bloom's.

    PubMed

    Lemons, Paula P; Lemons, J Derrick

    2013-01-01

    We present an exploratory study of biologists' ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students' experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants' ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists' assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write.

  8. Influence of cosmetically tinted soft contact lenses on higher-order wavefront aberrations and visual performance.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Takahiro; Ishii, Yuko; Okamoto, Fumiki; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the influence of cosmetically tinted soft contact lenses on ocular higher-order aberrations and visual performance, and to analyze the relationship between these parameters after the lens wear. In 44 eyes of 22 subjects, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity under photopic and mesopic conditions, and ocular higher-order aberrations were evaluated before and after wearing the tinted soft contact lenses (1-day Acuvue Colours; Vistakon, Jacksonville, FL). Contrast sensitivity under a photopic condition was determined at 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree, and the area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF) was calculated. Mesopic contrast sensitivity with and without glare was assessed. Ocular higher-order aberrations for a 4-mm pupil were measured, and coma-like, spherical-like, and total higher-order aberrations were determined. The tinted contact lens wearing resulted in significant decreases in log contrast sensitivity at all spatial frequencies (P < 0.05) and AULCSF (P < 0.0001), although 100% contrast visual acuity did not change. Log mesopic contrast sensitivity with and without glare was also reduced significantly by the lens wear (P < 0.0001). The contact lens wear significantly increased coma-like, spherical-like, and total higher-order aberrations (P < 0.0001). The induced changes in higher-order aberrations were analyzed in relation to the changes in contrast sensitivity function. Although the changes in coma-like and spherical-like aberrations did not correlate significantly with those in AULCSF (P > 0.05), the changes in total higher-order aberrations showed a significant correlation with those in AULCSF (P < 0.05). On the other hand, there was no significant relationship between the changes in higher-order aberrations and the changes in log mesopic contrast sensitivity with and without glare (P > 0.05). Cosmetically tinted contact lenses increase ocular higher-order aberrations and worsen contrast sensitivity under both

  9. SyntEyes KTC: higher order statistical eye model for developing keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Rozema, Jos J; Rodriguez, Pablo; Ruiz Hidalgo, Irene; Navarro, Rafael; Tassignon, Marie-José; Koppen, Carina

    2017-05-01

    To present and validate a stochastic eye model for developing keratoconus to e.g. improve optical corrective strategies. This could be particularly useful for researchers that do not have access to original keratoconic data. The Scheimpflug tomography, ocular biometry and wavefront of 145 keratoconic right eyes were collected. These data were processed using principal component analysis for parameter reduction, followed by a multivariate Gaussian fit that produces a stochastic model for keratoconus (SyntEyes KTC). The output of this model is filtered to remove the occasional incorrect topography patterns by either an automatic or manual procedure. Finally, the output of this keratoconus model is matched to that of the original model for normal eyes using the non-corneal biometry to obtain a description of keratoconus development. The synthetic data generated by the model were found to be significantly equal to the original data (non-parametric Mann-Whitney equivalence test; 145/154 passed). The variability of the synthetic data, however, was often significantly less than that of the original data, especially for the higher order Zernike terms of corneal elevation (non-parametric Levene test; p < 0.05/154). These results remained generally the same after applying either filter procedure to remove the synthetic eyes with incorrect topographies. Interpolation between matched pairs of normal and keratoconic SyntEyes appears to provide an adequate model for keratoconus progression. The synthetic data provided by the proposed keratoconus model closely resembles actual clinical data and may be used for a range of research applications when (sufficient) real data is not available. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  10. A neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving with possible implications for higher-order cognition and instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Grossberg's neural modeling principles of learning, perception, cognition, and motor control are presented as the basis for construction of a neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving. The pattern of problem solving is assumed to be universal, thus is sought in the higher-order shift from the child's use of an additive strategy to the adolescent's use of a proportions strategy to solve the Pouring Water Task (Suarez and Rhonheimer, 1974). Possible neurological principles involved in this shift and in the process of psychological equilibration are discussed as are possible educational implications.

  11. Performance of Higher Order Campbell methods, Part II: calibration and experimental application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elter, Zs.; de Izarra, G.; Filliatre, P.; Jammes, C.; Pázsit, I.

    2016-11-01

    Applying Higher Order Campbelling methods in neutron flux monitoring with fission chambers is advantageous due to their capabilities to suppress the impact of unwanted noises and signal contributions (such as gamma radiation). This work aims to verify through experimental results that the basic assumptions behind the Higher Order Campelling methods are valid in critical reactors. The experiments, reported in this work, were performed at the MINERVE reactor in Cadarache. It is shown that the calibration of a fission chamber and the associated electronic system is possible in higher order mode. With the use of unbiased cumulant estimators and with digital processing, it is shown that over a wide count rate range, accurate count rate estimation can be achieved based on signal samples of a few ms, which is a significant progress compared to similar experimental results in the literature. The difference between the count rate estimated by pulse counting and by the Higher Order Campelling is less than 4%. The work also investigates the possibility of monitoring transient events. For this purpose, a control rod drop event was followed in Higher Order Campbelling mode.

  12. An efficient higher-order PML in WLP-FDTD method for time reversed wave simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Kun; Shao, Wei; Ou, Haiyan; Wang, Bing-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Derived from a stretched coordinate formulation, a higher-order complex frequency shifted (CFS) perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs). The higher-order PML is implemented with an auxiliary differential equation (ADE) approach. In order to further improve absorbing performance, the parameter values of stretching functions in the higher-order PML are optimized by the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The optimal solutions can be chosen from the Pareto front for trading-off between two independent objectives. It is shown in a numerical test that the higher-order PML is efficient in terms of attenuating propagating waves and reducing late time reflections. Moreover, the higher-order PML can be placed very close to the wall when analyzing the channel characteristics of time reversal (TR) waves in a multipath indoor environment. Numerical examples of TR wave propagation demonstrate the availability of the proposed method.

  13. CuBIC: cumulant based inference of higher-order correlations in massively parallel spike trains

    PubMed Central

    Rotter, Stefan; Grün, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in electrophysiological and optical recording techniques enable the simultaneous observation of large numbers of neurons. A meaningful interpretation of the resulting multivariate data, however, presents a serious challenge. In particular, the estimation of higher-order correlations that characterize the cooperative dynamics of groups of neurons is impeded by the combinatorial explosion of the parameter space. The resulting requirements with respect to sample size and recording time has rendered the detection of coordinated neuronal groups exceedingly difficult. Here we describe a novel approach to infer higher-order correlations in massively parallel spike trains that is less susceptible to these problems. Based on the superimposed activity of all recorded neurons, the cumulant-based inference of higher-order correlations (CuBIC) presented here exploits the fact that the absence of higher-order correlations imposes also strong constraints on correlations of lower order. Thus, estimates of only few lower-order cumulants suffice to infer higher-order correlations in the population. As a consequence, CuBIC is much better compatible with the constraints of in vivo recordings than previous approaches, which is shown by a systematic analysis of its parameter dependence. PMID:19862611

  14. Nuclear organization of mammalian genomes. Polar chromosome territories build up functionally distinct higher order compartments.

    PubMed

    Sadoni, N; Langer, S; Fauth, C; Bernardi, G; Cremer, T; Turner, B M; Zink, D

    1999-09-20

    We investigated the nuclear higher order compartmentalization of chromatin according to its replication timing (Ferreira et al. 1997) and the relations of this compartmentalization to chromosome structure and the spatial organization of transcription. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive and integrated view on the relations between chromosome structure and functional nuclear architecture. Using different mammalian cell types, we show that distinct higher order compartments whose DNA displays a specific replication timing are stably maintained during all interphase stages. The organizational principle is clonally inherited. We directly demonstrate the presence of polar chromosome territories that align to build up higher order compartments, as previously suggested (Ferreira et al. 1997). Polar chromosome territories display a specific orientation of early and late replicating subregions that correspond to R- or G/C-bands of mitotic chromosomes. Higher order compartments containing G/C-bands replicating during the second half of the S phase display no transcriptional activity detectable by BrUTP pulse labeling and show no evidence of transcriptional competence. Transcriptionally competent and active chromatin is confined to a coherent compartment within the nuclear interior that comprises early replicating R-band sequences. As a whole, the data provide an integrated view on chromosome structure, nuclear higher order compartmentalization, and their relation to the spatial organization of functional nuclear processes.

  15. A reduced-rank approach for implementing higher-order Volterra filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O. Batista, Eduardo L.; Seara, Rui

    2016-12-01

    The use of Volterra filters in practical applications is often limited by their high computational burden. To cope with this problem, many strategies for implementing Volterra filters with reduced complexity have been proposed in the open literature. Some of these strategies are based on reduced-rank approaches obtained by defining a matrix of filter coefficients and applying the singular value decomposition to such a matrix. Then, discarding the smaller singular values, effective reduced-complexity Volterra implementations can be obtained. The application of this type of approach to higher-order Volterra filters (considering orders greater than 2) is however not straightforward, which is especially due to some difficulties encountered in the definition of higher-order coefficient matrices. In this context, the present paper is devoted to the development of a novel reduced-rank approach for implementing higher-order Volterra filters. Such an approach is based on a new form of Volterra kernel implementation that allows decomposing higher-order kernels into structures composed only of second-order kernels. Then, applying the singular value decomposition to the coefficient matrices of these second-order kernels, effective implementations for higher-order Volterra filters can be obtained. Simulation results are presented aiming to assess the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Higher-Order Correlations in Non-Stationary Parallel Spike Trains: Statistical Modeling and Inference

    PubMed Central

    Staude, Benjamin; Grün, Sonja; Rotter, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which groups of neurons exhibit higher-order correlations in their spiking activity is a controversial issue in current brain research. A major difficulty is that currently available tools for the analysis of massively parallel spike trains (N >10) for higher-order correlations typically require vast sample sizes. While multiple single-cell recordings become increasingly available, experimental approaches to investigate the role of higher-order correlations suffer from the limitations of available analysis techniques. We have recently presented a novel method for cumulant-based inference of higher-order correlations (CuBIC) that detects correlations of higher order even from relatively short data stretches of length T = 10–100 s. CuBIC employs the compound Poisson process (CPP) as a statistical model for the population spike counts, and assumes spike trains to be stationary in the analyzed data stretch. In the present study, we describe a non-stationary version of the CPP by decoupling the correlation structure from the spiking intensity of the population. This allows us to adapt CuBIC to time-varying firing rates. Numerical simulations reveal that the adaptation corrects for false positive inference of correlations in data with pure rate co-variation, while allowing for temporal variations of the firing rates has a surprisingly small effect on CuBICs sensitivity for correlations. PMID:20725510

  17. Minimal SUSY SO(10) and Yukawa unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Nobuchika

    2013-05-01

    The minimal supersymmetric (SUSY) SO(10) model, where only two Higgs multiplets {10 ⊕ 126} are utilized for Yukawa couplings with matter fields, can nicely fit the neutrino oscillation parameters as well as charged fermion masses and mixing angles. In the fitting of the fermion mass matrix data, the largest element in the Yukawa coupling with the 126-plet Higgs (Y126) is found to be of order one, so that the right see-saw scale should be provided by Higgs vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of \\Vbgr(1014GeV). This fact causes a serious problem, namely, the gauge coupling unification is spoiled because of the presence of many exotic Higgs multiples emerging at the see-saw scale. In order to solve this problem, we consider a unification between bottom-quark and tau Yukawa couplings (b - τ Yukawa coupling unification) at the grand unified theory (GUT) scale, due to threshold corrections of superpartners to the Yukawa couplings at the 1 TeV scale. When the b - τ Yukawa coupling unification is very accurate, the largest element in Y126 can become \\Vbgr(0.01), so that the right see-saw scale is realized by the GUT scale VEV and the usual gauge coupling unification is maintained. Since the b - τ Yukawa unification alters the Yukawa coupling data at the GUT scale, we re-analyze the fitting of the fermion mass matrix data by taking all the relevant free parameters into account. Unfortunately, we find that no parameter region shows up to give a nice fit for the current neutrino oscillation data and therefore, the usual picture of the gauge coupling unification cannot accommodate the fermion mass matrix data fitting in our procedure.

  18. Last workshop on grand unification

    SciTech Connect

    Frampton, P.H. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1991-01-01

    The presentations at the workshop alternated between experiment and theory in the traditional manner. Let me introduce first all the experimental topics. For the proton decay experiments, their present status was provided by Ayres, Ernwein, Gajewski and Totsuka for the Soudan, Frejus, IMB and Kamioka groups respectively. Massive neutrinos were reviewed by Robertson, solar neutrinos by Bahcall, and double beta decay by Avignone. Monopole searches were covered by Barish. Other experimental talks concerned both astrophysics and the Standard Model. In astrophysics, Perlmutter presented the possible discovery of a sub- millisecond pulsar in supernova 1987A and Sadoulet outlined a program to search for dark matter. Within the Standard Model, Matthews reported the recent discovery of Z{sup 0} particle decays at SLC and Dehmelt described his high-accuracy measurement of (g-2){sub c}. The theoretical talks were on GUTs, extensions of the Standard Model, general relativity and strings, and theoretical astrophysics and cosmology. Langacker talked on grand unification, proton decay and neutrino masses.

  19. Finite Unification: Theory and Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemeyer, Sven; Mondragón, Myriam; Zoupanos, George

    2010-06-01

    All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are very interesting N=1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) which not only realise an old field theoretic dream but also have a remarkable predictive power due to the required reduction of couplings. The reduction of the dimensionless couplings in N=1 GUTs is achieved by searching for renormalization group invariant (RGI) relations among them holding beyond the unification scale. Finiteness results from the fact that there exist RGI relations among dimensionless couplings that guarantee the vanishing of all beta-functions in certain N=1 GUTs even to all orders. Furthermore developments in the soft supersymmetry breaking sector of N=1 GUTs and FUTs lead to exact RGI relations, i.e. reduction of couplings, in this dimensionful sector of the theory too. Based on the above theoretical framework phenomenologically consistent FUTS have been constructed. Here we present FUT models based on the SU(5) and SU(3)3 gauge groups and their predictions. Of particular interest is the Higgs mass prediction of one of the models which is expected to be tested at the LHC.

  20. Higher-order cumulants and spectral kurtosis for early detection of subterranean termites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Rosa, Juan José González; Moreno Muñoz, Antonio

    2008-02-01

    This paper deals with termite detection in non-favorable SNR scenarios via signal processing using higher-order statistics. The results could be extrapolated to all impulse-like insect emissions; the situation involves non-destructive termite detection. Fourth-order cumulants in time and frequency domains enhance the detection and complete the characterization of termite emissions, non-Gaussian in essence. Sliding higher-order cumulants offer distinctive time instances, as a complement to the sliding variance, which only reveal power excesses in the signal; even for low-amplitude impulses. The spectral kurtosis reveals non-Gaussian characteristics (the peakedness of the probability density function) associated to these non-stationary measurements, specially in the near ultrasound frequency band. Contrasted estimators have been used to compute the higher-order statistics. The inedited findings are shown via graphical examples.

  1. Alignment of Learning Objectives and Assessments in Therapeutics Courses to Foster Higher-Order Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Hawboldt, John; Doyle, Daniel; Genge, Terri

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether national educational outcomes, course objectives, and classroom assessments for 2 therapeutics courses were aligned for curricular content and cognitive processes, and if they included higher-order thinking. Method. Document analysis and student focus groups were used. Outcomes, objectives, and assessment tasks were matched for specific therapeutics content and cognitive processes. Anderson and Krathwohl’s Taxonomy was used to define higher-order thinking. Students discussed whether assessments tested objectives and described their thinking when responding to assessments. Results. There were 7 outcomes, 31 objectives, and 412 assessment tasks. The alignment for content and cognitive processes was not satisfactory. Twelve students participated in the focus groups. Students thought more short-answer questions than multiple choice questions matched the objectives for content and required higher-order thinking. Conclusion. The alignment analysis provided data that could be used to reveal and strengthen the enacted curriculum and improve student learning. PMID:25741026

  2. A higher order visual neuron tuned to the spatial amplitude spectra of natural scenes

    PubMed Central

    Dyakova, Olga; Lee, Yu-Jen; Longden, Kit D.; Kiselev, Valerij G.; Nordström, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Animal sensory systems are optimally adapted to those features typically encountered in natural surrounds, thus allowing neurons with limited bandwidth to encode challengingly large input ranges. Natural scenes are not random, and peripheral visual systems in vertebrates and insects have evolved to respond efficiently to their typical spatial statistics. The mammalian visual cortex is also tuned to natural spatial statistics, but less is known about coding in higher order neurons in insects. To redress this we here record intracellularly from a higher order visual neuron in the hoverfly. We show that the cSIFE neuron, which is inhibited by stationary images, is maximally inhibited when the slope constant of the amplitude spectrum is close to the mean in natural scenes. The behavioural optomotor response is also strongest to images with naturalistic image statistics. Our results thus reveal a close coupling between the inherent statistics of natural scenes and higher order visual processing in insects. PMID:26439748

  3. Higher-order factors of the Big Five in a multi-informant sample.

    PubMed

    DeYoung, Colin G

    2006-12-01

    In a large community sample (N=490), the Big Five were not orthogonal when modeled as latent variables representing the shared variance of reports from 4 different informants. Additionally, the standard higher-order factor structure was present in latent space: Neuroticism (reversed), Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness formed one factor, labeled Stability, and Extraversion and Openness/Intellect formed a second factor, labeled Plasticity. Comparison of two instruments, the Big Five Inventory and the Mini-Markers, supported the hypotheses that single-adjective rating instruments are likely to yield lower interrater agreement than phrase rating instruments and that lower interrater agreement is associated with weaker correlations among the Big Five and a less coherent higher-order factor structure. In conclusion, an interpretation of the higher-order factors is discussed, including possible neurobiological substrates.

  4. Measurement and computation of the higher order modes of the ALS 500 MHz accelerating cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.; Byrd, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    Higher order modes in the accelerating cavities are expected to drive coupled bunch instabilities in the ALS, which will be overcome by a bunch-by-bunch feedback system. Computations of the cavity higher order modes using the URMEL-T and MAFIA codes are presented. Damping of the higher order modes is achieved by filters in the high power feeder waveguide which is aperture coupled to the cavity. Measurements of the modes in an ALS 500 MHz cavity are presented and compared with computed values for an isolated, un-damped cavity. The resources of the Lambertson Beam Electrodynamics Laboratory of the Center for Beam Physics at LBL were used to perform these studies.

  5. The Analysis of Thin Wires Using Higher-Order Elements and Basis Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Champagne, N J; Wilton, D R; Rockway, J W

    2006-01-23

    Thin wire analysis was applied to curved wire segments in [1], but a special procedure was needed to evaluate the self and near-self terms. The procedure involved associating the singular behavior with a straight segment tangent to the curved source segment, permitting use of algorithms for straight wires. Recently, a procedure that avoids the singularity extraction for straight wires was presented in [2-4]. In this paper, the approach in [4] is applied to curved (or higher-order) wires using a procedure similar to that used in [1] for singularity extraction. Here, the straight tangent segment is used to determine the quadrature rules to be used on the curved segment. The result is a formulation that allows for a general mixture of higher-order basis functions [5] and higher-order wire segments.

  6. Design and Application of Strategies/Tactics in Higher Order Logics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, Myla (Editor); diVito, Ben (Editor); Munoz, Cesar (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This Proceedings includes both a paper from the implementors of PVS providing guidance for PVS strategy writers and a tutorial on PVS strategy writing distilled from the experience of three PVS users who have written extensive sets of PVS user strategies. Following these are three full papers from the higher-order logic theorem proving community that discuss PVS strategies to enhance arithmetic and other interactive reasoning in PVS; implementing first-order tactics in higher-order provers; and a proposed technique for specifying small step semantics that can be used in multiple higher order logic theorem provers, with illustrations from both Coq and PVS. The Proceedings concludes with three position papers for a panel session that discuss three settings in which development of PVS strategies is worth while.

  7. Regularity properties of fiber derivatives associated with higher-order mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study fiber derivatives associated to Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing the dynamics of a higher-order autonomous dynamical system. More precisely, given a function in T∗T(k-1)Q, we find necessary and sufficient conditions for such a function to describe the dynamics of a kth-order autonomous dynamical system, thus being a kth-order Hamiltonian function. Then, we give a suitable definition of (hyper)regularity for these higher-order Hamiltonian functions in terms of their fiber derivative. In addition, we also study an alternative characterization of the dynamics in Lagrangian submanifolds in terms of the solutions of the higher-order Euler-Lagrange equations.

  8. Higher order mode laser beam intensity fluctuations in strong oceanic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykal, Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Intensity fluctuations of the higher order mode laser beams are evaluated when these beams propagate in a medium exhibiting strong oceanic turbulence. Our formulation involves the modified Rytov solution that extends the Rytov solution to cover strong turbulence as well, and our recently reported expression that relates the atmospheric turbulence structure constant to the oceanic turbulence parameters and oceanic wireless optical communication link parameters. The variations of the intensity fluctuations are reported against the changes of the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum, rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of mean-squared temperature, viscosity and the source size of the higher order mode laser beam. Our results indicate that under any oceanic turbulence parameters, it is advantageous to employ higher order laser modes in reducing the scintillation noise in wireless optical communication links operating in a strongly turbulent ocean.

  9. A Higher-Order Boundary Treatment for Cartesian-Grid Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrer, Hans; Jeltsch, Rolf

    1998-03-01

    The Euler equations describe the flow phenomena of compressible inviscid gas dynamics. We simulate such flows using a higher-order Cartesian-grid method, together with a special treatment for the cells cut by the boundary of an object. A new method for the treatment of the boundary is described where these cut boundary cells are maintained as whole cells rather than as cut cells, thus avoiding stability problems. The method is second-order accurate in one dimension and higher-order accurate in two dimensions but not strictly conservative; however, we show that this error in the conservation does not lead to spurious phenomena on some representative test calculations. The advantages of the new boundary treatment are that it is higher-order accurate, that it is independent of the applied method, and that it is simple.

  10. Development of a Higher Order Laminate Theory for Modeling Composites with Induced Strain Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1996-01-01

    A refined higher order plate theory is developed to investigate the actuation mechanism of piezoelectric materials surface bonded or embedded in composite laminates. The current analysis uses a displacement field which accurately accounts for transverse shear stresses. Some higher order terms are identified by using the conditions that shear stresses vanish at all free surfaces. Therefore, all boundary conditions for displacements and stresses are satisfied in the present theory. The analysis is implemented using the finite element method which provides a convenient means to construct a numerical solution due to the discrete nature of the actuators. The higher order theory is computationally less expensive than a full three dimensional analysis. The theory is also shown to agree well with published experimental results. Numerical examples are presented for composite plates with thicknesses ranging from thin to very thick.

  11. Investigating higher order modes effects on thermionic RF gun transverse emittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, A.; Shokri, B.; Feghhi, S. A. H.

    2017-02-01

    As the excitation of higher order modes in high gradient accelerating cavities of the RF gun negatively influences electron beam quality, in the present work a theory is obtained based on generalizing Panofsky-Wenzel theorem to study the effect of transverse magnetic modes on transverse emittance growth of the RF gun. Based on this theory, the impact of higher order modes on transverse momentum is investigated. Based on analysis and simulation results, it is shown that different RF modes result in divergence or convergence effects on beam transverse dynamics. The presence of dipole and quadrupole modes can enhance the transverse emittance by 320 % and 450 % , respectively. The compound effect of the presence of two higher order modes results in 470 % transverse emittance growth.

  12. Collocated electrodynamic FDTD schemes using overlapping Yee grids and higher-order Hodge duals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deimert, C.; Potter, M. E.; Okoniewski, M.

    2016-12-01

    The collocated Lebedev grid has previously been proposed as an alternative to the Yee grid for electromagnetic finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. While it performs better in anisotropic media, it performs poorly in isotropic media because it is equivalent to four overlapping, uncoupled Yee grids. We propose to couple the four Yee grids and fix the Lebedev method using discrete exterior calculus (DEC) with higher-order Hodge duals. We find that higher-order Hodge duals do improve the performance of the Lebedev grid, but they also improve the Yee grid by a similar amount. The effectiveness of coupling overlapping Yee grids with a higher-order Hodge dual is thus questionable. However, the theoretical foundations developed to derive these methods may be of interest in other problems.

  13. Development of a Higher Order Laminate Theory for Modeling Composites with Induced Strain Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1996-01-01

    A refined higher order plate theory is developed to investigate the actuation mechanism of piezoelectric materials surface bonded or embedded in composite laminates. The current analysis uses a displacement field which accurately accounts for transverse shear stresses. Some higher order terms are identified by using the conditions that shear stresses vanish at all free surfaces. Therefore, all boundary conditions for displacements and stresses are satisfied in the present theory. The analysis is implemented using the finite element method which provides a convenient means to construct a numerical solution due to the discrete nature of the actuators. The higher order theory is computationally less expensive than a full three dimensional analysis. The theory is also shown to agree well with published experimental results. Numerical examples are presented for composite plates with thicknesses ranging from thin to very thick.

  14. Alignment of learning objectives and assessments in therapeutics courses to foster higher-order thinking.

    PubMed

    FitzPatrick, Beverly; Hawboldt, John; Doyle, Daniel; Genge, Terri

    2015-02-17

    To determine whether national educational outcomes, course objectives, and classroom assessments for 2 therapeutics courses were aligned for curricular content and cognitive processes, and if they included higher-order thinking. Document analysis and student focus groups were used. Outcomes, objectives, and assessment tasks were matched for specific therapeutics content and cognitive processes. Anderson and Krathwohl's Taxonomy was used to define higher-order thinking. Students discussed whether assessments tested objectives and described their thinking when responding to assessments. There were 7 outcomes, 31 objectives, and 412 assessment tasks. The alignment for content and cognitive processes was not satisfactory. Twelve students participated in the focus groups. Students thought more short-answer questions than multiple choice questions matched the objectives for content and required higher-order thinking. The alignment analysis provided data that could be used to reveal and strengthen the enacted curriculum and improve student learning.

  15. Analogues of Lusztig's higher order relations for the q-Onsager algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baseilhac, P.; Vu, T. T.

    2014-08-01

    Let A, A* be the generators of the q-Onsager algebra. Analogues of Lusztig's r-th higher order relations are proposed. In a first part, based on the properties of tridiagonal pairs of q-Racah type which satisfy the defining relations of the q-Onsager algebra, higher order relations are derived for r generic. The coefficients entering in the relations are determined from a two-variable polynomial generating function. In a second part, it is conjectured that A, A* satisfy the higher order relations previously obtained. The conjecture is proven for r = 2, 3. For r generic, using an inductive argument recursive formulae for the coefficients are derived. The conjecture is checked for several values of r ≥ 4. Consequences for coideal subalgebras and integrable systems with boundaries at q a root of unity are pointed out.

  16. Analytical investigation of higher-order plasmonic modes on a metal-dielectric interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordi, Mahdi; Armin, Fahimeh; Malekfar, Mohammad R.; Mirsalehi, Mir Mojtaba; Shokooh-Saremi, Mehrdad

    2017-03-01

    Based on the plane-wave expansion method, we have analytically obtained a set of higher-order transverse magnetic (TM) modes that can exist on a metal-dielectric interface. Any linear combination of these modes can be supported on the interface. Our analysis is based on the assumption of nonuniformity of the electromagnetic fields in all directions. We have also shown that no higher-order transverse electric (TE) mode can propagate on the interface. Furthermore, the orientation of Poynting vector and energy flow of the TM modes are described. Our results show that the Poynting vector of a higher-order TM mode always makes an angle with the interface, which means TM modes are not pure surface waves.

  17. Obtaining tight bounds on higher-order interferences with a 5-path interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauten, Thomas; Keil, Robert; Kaufmann, Thomas; Pressl, Benedikt; Brukner, Časlav; Weihs, Gregor

    2017-03-01

    Within the established theoretical framework of quantum mechanics, interference always occurs between pairs of paths through an interferometer. Higher order interferences with multiple constituents are excluded by Born’s rule and can only exist in generalized probabilistic theories. Thus, high-precision experiments searching for such higher order interferences are a powerful method to distinguish between quantum mechanics and more general theories. Here, we perform such a test in an optical multi-path interferometer, which avoids crucial systematic errors, has access to the entire phase space and is more stable than previous experiments. Our results are in accordance with quantum mechanics and rule out the existence of higher order interference terms in optical interferometry to an extent that is more than four orders of magnitude smaller than the expected pairwise interference, refining previous bounds by two orders of magnitude.

  18. On the selection of tuning methodology of FOPID controllers for the control of higher order processes.

    PubMed

    Das, Saptarshi; Saha, Suman; Das, Shantanu; Gupta, Amitava

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a comparative study is done on the time and frequency domain tuning strategies for fractional order (FO) PID controllers to handle higher order processes. A new fractional order template for reduced parameter modelling of stable minimum/non-minimum phase higher order processes is introduced and its advantage in frequency domain tuning of FOPID controllers is also presented. The time domain optimal tuning of FOPID controllers have also been carried out to handle these higher order processes by performing optimization with various integral performance indices. The paper highlights on the practical control system implementation issues like flexibility of online autotuning, reduced control signal and actuator size, capability of measurement noise filtration, load disturbance suppression, robustness against parameter uncertainties etc. in light of the above tuning methodologies.

  19. Role of Higher-Order Elastic Moduli in Large Elastic Finite Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Tetsuro; Osuka, Ken'ichi

    1993-05-01

    It is proposed here that the change in free energy of crystals associated with large elastic finite deformation can be estimated using higher-order elastic moduli up to a limited order. Numerical estimation of the change in free energy is performed for two examples of finite elastic deformation, with use of the data for higher-order elastic moduli of β-brass obtained by Swartz. One example is Bain deformation, which converts a bcc lattice into an fcc lattice or vice versa. The other is shear deformation along the (100) atomic plane.

  20. A Higher-Order Plate Theory with Ideal Finite Element Suitability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    MTL TR 89-85 rAP I A HIGHER-ORDER PLATE THEORY WITH IDEAL FINITE ELEMENT SUITABILITY ALEXANDER TESSLER MECHANICS AND STRUCTURES BRANCH September 1989...OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Final Report A HIGHER-ORDER PLATE THEORY WITH IDEAL FINITE ELEMENT SUITABILITY 6. PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER 7...KEY ANOROS ’(, -.nnn an rresze s-ia Jn"r¢_ssav ard ulrns i-v Eitk nufer Plate theory Field consistency ttigncr order Equations cf motion Shear d

  1. Parenting quality: Confirmation of a higher-order latent construct with mothers of Head Start children

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Page, Melanie C.; Huey, Erron L.; Starost, Huei-Juang; Culp, Anne McDonald; Culp, Rex E.; Harper, M. Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    We proposed a higher order latent construct of parenting young children, parenting quality. This higher-order latent construct comprises five component constructs: demographic protection, psychological distress, psychosocial maturity, moral and cognitive reflectivity, and parenting attitudes and beliefs. We evaluated this model with data provided by 199 mothers of 4-year-old children enrolled in Head Start. The model was confirmed with only one adjustment suggested by modification indices. Final RMSEA was .05, CFI .96, and NNFI .94, indicating good model fit. Results were interpreted as emphasizing the interdependence of psychological and environmental demands on parenting. Implications of the model for teachers, early interventionists, and public policy are discussed. PMID:19629192

  2. Nonlinear Dynamic Stability of the Viscoelastic Plate Considering Higher Order Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuanxiang; Wang, Cheng

    2016-11-01

    -The dynamic stability of viscoelastic plates is investigated in this paper by using chaotic and fractal theory. The nonlinear integro-differential dynamic equation is changed into an autonomic 4-dimensional dynamical system. The numerical time integrations of equations are obtained by using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. And the Lyapunov exponent spectrum, the fractal dimension of strange attractors and the time evolution of deflection are obtained. The influence of viscoelastic parameter on dynamic buckling of viscoelastic plates is discussed. The effect of higher order modes on dynamic stability of viscoelastic plate is obtained, the necessity of considering higher order modes is discussed.

  3. A higher-order split-step Fourier parabolic-equation sound propagation solution scheme.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Tsong; Duda, Timothy F

    2012-08-01

    A three-dimensional Cartesian parabolic-equation model with a higher-order approximation to the square-root Helmholtz operator is presented for simulating underwater sound propagation in ocean waveguides. The higher-order approximation includes cross terms with the free-space square-root Helmholtz operator and the medium phase speed anomaly. It can be implemented with a split-step Fourier algorithm to solve for sound pressure in the model. Two idealized ocean waveguide examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of this numerical technique.

  4. Mixed Electromagnetic and Circuit Simulations using Higher-Order Elements and Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Champagne, N J; Rockway, J D; Jandhyala, V

    2003-06-18

    In this paper, an approach to couple higher-order electromagnetic surface integral equations to circuit simulations is presented. Terminals are defined that connect circuit elements to contacts modeled on the distributed electromagnetic domain. A modified charge-current continuity equation is proposed for a generalized KCL connection at the contacts. The distributive electromagnetic integral equations are developed using higher-order bases and elements that allow both better convergence and accuracy for modeling. The resulting scheme enables simultaneous solution of electromagnetic integral equations for arbitrarily-shaped objects and SPICE-like modeling for lumped circuits, and permits design iterations and visualization of the interaction between the two domains.

  5. Higher order BLG supersymmetry transformations from 10-dimensional super Yang Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, John; Low, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    We study a Simple Route for constructing the higher order Bagger-Lambert-Gustavsson theory - both supersymmetry transformations and Lagrangian - starting from knowledge of only the 10-dimensional Super Yang Mills Fermion Supersymmetry transformation. We are able to uniquely determine the four-derivative order corrected supersymmetry transformations, to lowest non-trivial order in Fermions, for the most general three-algebra theory. For the special case of Euclidean three-algbera, we reproduce the result presented in arXiv:1207.1208, with significantly less labour. In addition, we apply our method to calculate the quadratic fermion terms in the higher order BLG fermion supersymmetry transformation.

  6. Impact of higher-order effects on pulsating and chaotic solitons in dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latas, Sofia C. V.; Ferreira, Mário F. S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate numerically, both in time and frequency domains, the influence of some higher-order effects, namely the third-order dispersion, intrapulse Raman scattering, and self-steepening, on the dynamics of different pulsating and chaotic solitons in dissipative systems, which are described by a generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. We show that the higher-order effects can have a dramatic impact on the dynamics of such pulses and that, for some ranges of the parameter values, they can be transformed into fixed-shape solitons. This paper is dedicated to Prof. Helmut Brand on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  7. Construction of classical superintegrable systems with higher order integrals of motion from ladder operators

    SciTech Connect

    Marquette, Ian

    2010-07-15

    We construct integrals of motion for multidimensional classical systems from ladder operators of one-dimensional systems. This method can be used to obtain new systems with higher order integrals. We show how these integrals generate a polynomial Poisson algebra. We consider a one-dimensional system with third order ladder operators and found a family of superintegrable systems with higher order integrals of motion. We obtain also the polynomial algebra generated by these integrals. We calculate numerically the trajectories and show that all bounded trajectories are closed.

  8. "Superchiral" Spectroscopy: Detection of Protein Higher Order Hierarchical Structure with Chiral Plasmonic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tullius, Ryan; Karimullah, Affar S; Rodier, Marion; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Barron, Laurence D; Rotello, Vincent M; Cooke, Graeme; Lapthorn, Adrian; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2015-07-08

    Optical spectroscopic methods do not routinely provide information on higher order hierarchical structure (tertiary/quaternary) of biological macromolecules and assemblies. This necessitates the use of time-consuming and material intensive techniques, such as protein crystallography, NMR, and electron microscopy. Here we demonstrate a spectroscopic phenomenon, superchiral polarimetry, which can rapidly characterize ligand-induced changes in protein higher order (tertiary/quaternary) structure at the picogram level, which is undetectable using conventional CD spectroscopy. This is achieved by utilizing the enhanced sensitivity of superchiral evanescent fields to mesoscale chiral structure.

  9. Higher order solutions to ion-acoustic solitons in a weakly relativistic two-fluid plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, Tarsem Singh; Bala, Parveen; Kaur, Harvinder

    2008-12-15

    The nonlinear wave structure of small amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASs) is investigated in a two-fluid plasma consisting of weakly relativistic streaming ions and electrons. Using the reductive perturbation theory, the basic set of governing equations is reduced to the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the lowest order perturbation. This analysis is further extended using the renormalization technique for the inclusion of higher order nonlinear and dispersive effects for better accuracy. The effect of higher order correction and various parameters on the soliton characteristics is investigated and also discussed.

  10. Higher--order CO/sub 2/ laser beam spot size and depth of focus determined

    SciTech Connect

    Luxon, J.T.; Parker, D.E.

    1981-06-01

    Measurements of higher-order CO/sub 2/ laser beam spot size have been made and found in good agreement with a Hermite-Gaussian rectangular beam propagation model. A modified working definition of spot size is introduced, and a useful depth of focus relationship is presented. It is shown that a single measurement of spot size for any higher-order mode is all that is required to reasonably predict spot size for the same laser operating in different modes. Alternatively, beam size can be predicted theoretically on the basis of the optical cavity parameters.

  11. Derivation of Feynman rules for higher order poles using cross-ratio identities in CHY construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kang; Rao, Junjie; Feng, Bo

    2017-06-01

    In order to generalize the integration rules to general CHY integrands which include higher order poles, algorithms are proposed in two directions. One is to conjecture new rules, and the other is to use the cross-ratio identity method. In this paper, we use the cross-ratio identity approach to re-derive the conjectured integration rules involving higher order poles for several special cases: the single double pole, single triple pole and duplexdouble pole. The equivalence between the present formulas and the previously conjectured ones is discussed for the first two situations.

  12. Optical diagnosis of cervical cancer by higher order spectra and boosting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiher, Sawon; Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Barman, Ritwik; Pratiher, Souvik; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2017-03-01

    In this contribution, we report the application of higher order statistical moments using decision tree and ensemble based learning methodology for the development of diagnostic algorithms for optical diagnosis of cancer. The classification results were compared to those obtained with an independent feature extractors like linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The performance and efficacy of these methodology using higher order statistics as a classifier using boosting has higher specificity and sensitivity while being much faster as compared to other time-frequency domain based methods.

  13. The motor system estimates uncertainty and higher order statistics for the control of grip forces.

    PubMed

    Hadjiosif, Alkis M; Smith, Maurice A

    2011-01-01

    Successful manipulation of an object requires exerting grip forces (GF) sufficient to prevent slippage. To prevent slip in more uncertain environments, GF would need to increase. Here we investigate the brain's ability to efficiently control grasp by producing GFs that correspond to confidence estimates of uncertain environments that are characterized by probability density functions of different variances and higher order moments. We found that GFs increased dramatically with the level of environmental uncertainty, and even when environmental uncertainty was held constant while higher order moments were varied, GFs changes in a way that was appropriate for kurtosis.

  14. Higher Order Modeling in Hybrid Approaches to the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilton, Donald R.; Fink, Patrick W.; Graglia, Roberto D.

    2000-01-01

    Higher order geometry representations and interpolatory basis functions for computational electromagnetics are reviewed. Two types of vector-valued basis functions are described: curl-conforming bases, used primarily in finite element solutions, and divergence-conforming bases used primarily in integral equation formulations. Both sets satisfy Nedelec constraints, which optimally reduce the number of degrees of freedom required for a given order. Results are presented illustrating the improved accuracy and convergence properties of higher order representations for hybrid integral equation and finite element methods.

  15. The effect of carbon concentration and plastic deformation on ultrasonic higher order elastic properties of steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.; Allison, S. G.; Salama, K.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of higher order elastic properties, which are much more sensitive to material state than are second order properties, has been studied for steel alloys AISI 1016, 1045, 1095, and 8620 by measuring the stress derivative of the acoustic natural velocity to determine the stress acoustic constants (SAC's). Results of these tests show a 20 percent linear variation of SAC's with carbon content as well as even larger variations with prestrain (plastic deformation). The use of higher order elastic characterization permits quantitative evaluation of solids and may prove useful in studies of fatigue and fracture.

  16. Higher Order Modeling in Hybrid Approaches to the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilton, Donald R.; Fink, Patrick W.; Graglia, Roberto D.

    2000-01-01

    Higher order geometry representations and interpolatory basis functions for computational electromagnetics are reviewed. Two types of vector-valued basis functions are described: curl-conforming bases, used primarily in finite element solutions, and divergence-conforming bases used primarily in integral equation formulations. Both sets satisfy Nedelec constraints, which optimally reduce the number of degrees of freedom required for a given order. Results are presented illustrating the improved accuracy and convergence properties of higher order representations for hybrid integral equation and finite element methods.

  17. Higher order structure characterization of protein therapeutics by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Richard Y-C; Chen, Guodong

    2014-10-01

    Characterization of therapeutic drugs is a crucial step in drug development in the biopharmaceutical industry. Analysis of protein therapeutics is a challenging task because of the complexities associated with large molecular size and 3D structures. Recent advances in hydrogen/deuterium-exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) have provided a means to assess higher-order structure of protein therapeutics in solution. In this review, the principles and procedures of HDX-MS for protein therapeutics characterization are presented, focusing on specific applications of epitope mapping for protein-protein interactions and higher-order structure comparison studies for conformational dynamics of protein therapeutics.

  18. The effect of carbon concentration and plastic deformation on ultrasonic higher order elastic properties of steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.; Allison, S. G.; Salama, K.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of higher order elastic properties, which are much more sensitive to material state than are second order properties, has been studied for steel alloys AISI 1016, 1045, 1095, and 8620 by measuring the stress derivative of the acoustic natural velocity to determine the stress acoustic constants (SAC's). Results of these tests show a 20 percent linear variation of SAC's with carbon content as well as even larger variations with prestrain (plastic deformation). The use of higher order elastic characterization permits quantitative evaluation of solids and may prove useful in studies of fatigue and fracture.

  19. Lax Pairs and Integrability Conditions of Higher-Order Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asad-uz-zaman, M.; Chachou Samet, H.; Khawaja, U. Al

    2016-08-01

    We derive the Lax pairs and integrability conditions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher-order terms, complex potentials, and time-dependent coefficients. Cubic and quintic nonlinearities together with derivative terms are considered. The Lax pairs and integrability conditions for some of the well-known nonlinear Schrödinger equations, including a new equation which was not considered previously in the literature, are then derived as special cases. We show most clearly with a similarity transformation that the higher-order terms restrict the integrability to linear potential in contrast with quadratic potential for the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  20. A higher-order nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory and its applications in wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, C. W.; Zhang, G.; Reddy, J. N.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years there have been many papers that considered the effects of material length scales in the study of mechanics of solids at micro- and/or nano-scales. There are a number of approaches and, among them, one set of papers deals with Eringen's differential nonlocal model and another deals with the strain gradient theories. The modified couple stress theory, which also accounts for a material length scale, is a form of a strain gradient theory. The large body of literature that has come into existence in the last several years has created significant confusion among researchers about the length scales that these various theories contain. The present paper has the objective of establishing the fact that the length scales present in nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory describe two entirely different physical characteristics of materials and structures at nanoscale. By using two principle kernel functions, the paper further presents a theory with application examples which relates the classical nonlocal elasticity and strain gradient theory and it results in a higher-order nonlocal strain gradient theory. In this theory, a higher-order nonlocal strain gradient elasticity system which considers higher-order stress gradients and strain gradient nonlocality is proposed. It is based on the nonlocal effects of the strain field and first gradient strain field. This theory intends to generalize the classical nonlocal elasticity theory by introducing a higher-order strain tensor with nonlocality into the stored energy function. The theory is distinctive because the classical nonlocal stress theory does not include nonlocality of higher-order stresses while the common strain gradient theory only considers local higher-order strain gradients without nonlocal effects in a global sense. By establishing the constitutive relation within the thermodynamic framework, the governing equations of equilibrium and all boundary conditions are derived via the variational

  1. Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Straub, M; Ventura, M; Gu, M

    2003-07-25

    Engineering of stop gaps between higher photonic bands provides an alternative to miniaturization of photonic crystals. Femtosecond laser microfabrication of highly correlated void channel polymer microstructures results in photonic crystals with large stop gaps and a multitude of higher-order gaps in the mid- and near-infrared spectral regions. The gap wavelengths obey Bragg's law. Consistent with theory, varying the woodpile structure unit cell allows for tuning the number of higher-order gaps, and transitions from mere resonant Bragg scattering to stop band total reflection are observed.

  2. Comparison of diffusion approximation and higher order diffusion equations for optical tomography of osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhen; Zhang, Qizhi; Sobel, Eric; Jiang, Huabei

    2009-09-01

    In this study, a simplified spherical harmonics approximated higher order diffusion model is employed for 3-D diffuse optical tomography of osteoarthritis in the finger joints. We find that the use of a higher-order diffusion model in a stand-alone framework provides significant improvement in reconstruction accuracy over the diffusion approximation model. However, we also find that this is not the case in the image-guided setting when spatial prior knowledge from x-rays is incorporated. The results show that the reconstruction error between these two models is about 15 and 4%, respectively, for stand-alone and image-guided frameworks.

  3. International Scientific Terminology and Neologisms in the Course of Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoberski, Zygmunt

    1978-01-01

    Provides a list of international medical and pharmaceutical terminology in three stages of development: (1) established international terms; (2) neologisms in the course of unification; and (3) recent neologisms in the course of unification. (AM)

  4. Dynamics of the higher-order rogue waves for a generalized mixed nonlinear Schrödinger model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Jiang, Dong-Yang; Qi, Feng-Hua; Shi, Yu-Ying; Zhao, Yin-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a generalized mixed nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GMNLSE) which arises in several physical areas including the quantum field theory, weakly nonlinear dispersive water waves, and nonlinear optics. The linear stability analysis is performed and the instability zones as well as the modulational instability gain are obtained and discussed. Higher-order rogue waves (RWs) in terms of the determinants for the GMNLSE model are constructed by the N-fold Darboux transformation. Several patterns of the RWs are illustrated, such as the fundamental pattern, triangular pattern, circular pattern, pentagon pattern, circular-triangular pattern, and circular-fundamental pattern. Effects of the nonlinear parameters on the RWs are discussed. It is found that the nonlinear terms affect the widths and velocities of the RWs, although the amplitudes of these waves remain unchanged. The semirational RW solution, which is a combination of rational and exponential functions, is derived to describe the interaction between the RW and multi-breather.

  5. Aliphatic β-Nitroalcohols for Therapeutic Corneoscleral Cross-linking: Chemical Mechanisms and Higher Order Nitroalcohols

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Marissa R.; Wen, Quan; Turro, Nicholas J.; Trokel, Stephen L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The recent tissue cross-linking studies indicate that aliphatic β-nitroalcohols (BNAs) may be useful as pharmacologic corneoscleral cross-linking agents. The present study was performed to identify the specific chemistry involved under physiologic conditions, with the intent of identifying more effective agents. Methods. The mechanism of chemical cross-linking at pH 7.4 and 37°C was studied using three techniques. The colorimetric Griess assay was used to follow the release of nitrite from three mono-nitroalcohols (2-nitroethanol [2ne], 2-nitro-1-propanol [2nprop]), and 3-nitro-2-pentanol [3n2pent]). Second, the evolution of 2nprop in 0.2 M NaH2PO4/Na2HPO4/D2O was studied using 1H-NMR. Third, thermal shrinkage temperature analysis (Ts), a measure of tissue cross-linking, was used to support information from 1the H-NMR studies. Results. A time-dependent release of nitrite was observed for all three mono-nitroalcohols studied. The maximum levels were comparable using either 2ne or 2nprop (∼30%). However, much less (∼10%) was observed from 3n2pent. Using 1H-NMR, 2nprop evolved into a unique splitting pattern. No match was observed with reference spectra from three possible products of denitration. In contrast, 2-methyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (MNPD), a nitro-diol, was identified, implying the formation of formaldehyde from a retro-nitroaldol (i.e., reverse Henry) reaction. In support of this mechanism, Ts shifts induced by the nitro-triol 2-hydroxymethyl-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol (HNPD) were superior to the nitro-diol MNPD which were superior to the mono nitroalcohol 2nprop. Conclusions. BNAs function as both formaldehyde and nitrite donors under physiologic conditions to cross-link collagenous tissue. Higher order BNAs are more effective than mono nitroalcohols, raising the possibility of using these agents for therapeutic corneoscleral cross-linking. PMID:19797229

  6. Higher order concentration moments collapse in the expected mass fraction (EMF) based risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srzic, Veljko; Gotovac, Hrvoje; Cvetkovic, Vladimir; Andricevic, Roko

    2014-05-01

    In this work Langrangian framework is used for conservative tracer transport simulations through 2-D extremely heterogeneous porous media. Conducted numerical simulations enable large sets of concentration values in both spatial and temporal domains. In addition to the advection, which acts on all scales, an additional mechanism considered is local scale dispersion (LSD), accounting for both mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion. The ratio between these two mechanisms is quantified by the Peclet (Pe) number. In its base, the work gives answers to concentration scalar features when influenced by: i) different log-conductivity variance; ii) log-conductivity structures defined by the same global variogram but with different log conductivity patterns correlated; and iii) for a wide range of Peclet values. Results conducted by Monte Carlo analysis show a complex interplay between the aforementioned parameters, indicating the influence of aquifer properties to temporal LSD evolution. A remarkable collapse of higher order to second-order concentration moments [Yee, 2009] leads to the conclusion that only two concentration moments are required for an accurate description of concentration fluctuations. This explicitly holds for the pure advection case, while in the case of LSD presence the moment deriving function(MDF) is involved to ensure the moment collapse validity. An inspection of the Beta distribution leads to the conclusion that the two-parametric distribution can be used for concentration fluctuation characterization even in cases of high aquifer heterogeneity and/or for different log-conductivity structures, independent of the sampling volume used. Furthermore, the expected mass fraction (EMF) [Heagy & Sullivan, 1996] concept is applied in groundwater transport. In its origin, EMF is function of the concentration but with lower number of realizations needed for its determination, compared to the one point PDF. From practical point of view, EMF excludes

  7. Addition of higher order plate and shell elements into NASTRAN computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanaswami, R.; Goglia, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Two higher order plate elements, the linear strain triangular membrane element and the quintic bending element, along with a shallow shell element, suitable for inclusion into the NASTRAN (NASA Structural Analysis) program are described. Additions to the NASTRAN Theoretical Manual, Users' Manual, Programmers' Manual and the NASTRAN Demonstration Problem Manual, for inclusion of these elements into the NASTRAN program are also presented.

  8. Scaffolding Preservice Teachers' Higher-Order Reasoning during Technology Integration: A Design Research Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yan; Hannafin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing design research to scaffold preservice teachers' higher-order reasoning while solving technology integration problems. Informed by previous iterations, we designed and examined progressively increasing scaffolds that integrated multiple scaffolding functions to facilitate three technology-based lesson design…

  9. Second- and Higher-Order Virial Coefficients Derived from Equations of State for Real Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Derivation of the second- and higher-order virial coefficients for models of the gaseous state is demonstrated by employing a direct differential method and subsequent term-by-term comparison to power series expansions. This communication demonstrates the application of this technique to van der Waals representations of virial coefficients.…

  10. Higher-Order Fertility among Urban Fathers: An Overlooked Issue for a Neglected Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer; Lilja, Emily

    2009-01-01

    The study includes a longitudinal sample of 1,989 fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and examines factors associated with fathering a higher-order birth (three or more children) and compares these factors to those predicting any subsequent birth. Also, the article examines differences by marital status. Logistic regression…

  11. New explicit global asymptotic stability criteria for higher order difference equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Morshedy, Hassan A.

    2007-12-01

    New explicit sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of the zero solution of higher order difference equations are obtained. These criteria can be applied to autonomous and nonautonomous equations. The celebrated Clark asymptotic stability criterion is improved. Also, applications to models from mathematical biology and macroeconomics are given.

  12. Efficient nonlinear generation of high power, higher order, ultrafast "perfect" vortices in green.

    PubMed

    Apurv Chaitanya, N; Jabir, M V; Samanta, G K

    2016-04-01

    We report on efficient nonlinear generation of ultrafast, higher order "perfect" vortices at the green wavelength. Based on Fourier transformation of the higher order Bessel-Gauss (BG) beam generated through the combination of the spiral phase plate and axicon, we have transformed the Gaussian beam of the ultrafast Yb-fiber laser at 1060 nm into perfect vortices of power 4.4 W and order up to 6. Using single-pass second-harmonic generation (SHG) of such vortices in 5 mm long chirped MgO-doped, periodically poled congruent LiNbO3 crystal, we have generated perfect vortices at green wavelength (530 nm) with output power of 1.2 W and vortex order up to 12 at a single-pass conversion efficiency of 27%, independent of the orders. This is the highest single-pass SHG efficiency of any optical beams other than Gaussian beams. Unlike the disintegration of higher order vortices due to spatial walk-off effect in birefringent crystals, here, the use of the quasi-phase-matching process enables generation of high-quality vortices, even at higher orders. The green perfect vortices of all orders have temporal and spectral widths of 507 fs and 1.9 nm, respectively, corresponding to a time-bandwidth product of 1.02.

  13. Helping Kids To Probe and Ponder: Integrating Higher Order Thinking into the General Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Jean A.

    This paper addresses issues in integrating higher order thinking into the general curriculum. Data are based on a series of telephone interviews conducted in April and May 1992 with six leading thinkers in educational reform. They included: (1) Michael Apple, John Bascom Professor of Curriculum, Instruction, and Educational Policy Studies at the…

  14. Variable-Length Computerized Adaptive Testing Using the Higher Order DINA Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models provide profile information about a set of latent binary attributes, whereas item response models yield a summary report on a latent continuous trait. To utilize the advantages of both models, higher order cognitive diagnosis models were developed in which information about both latent binary attributes and latent…

  15. The Relationship Between Higher Order Need Strength and Sensitivity to Environmental Variations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beehr, Terry A.; And Others

    Higher order need strength (HONS) has been shown to moderate the relationship between work role characteristics and some traditional dependent variables in organizations. It was hypothesized that employees with strong HONS might be more sensitive to variability in their work environments than people with weaker HONS. This would happen because…

  16. An Initial Framework for the Language of Higher-Order Thinking Mathematics Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Megan E.; Truxaw, Mary P.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an examination of the language demands of cognitively demanding tasks and proposes an initial framework for the language demands of higher-order mathematics thinking practices. We articulate four categories for this framework: "language of generalisation," "language of comparison," "language of proportional reasoning," and…

  17. Factors Affecting Higher Order Thinking Skills of Students: A Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budsankom, Prayoonsri; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Damrongpanit, Suntorapot; Chuensirimongkol, Jariya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of…

  18. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  19. Computer Game Development: An Instructional Strategy to Promote Higher Order Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayaga, Lakshmi; Coffey, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that games have been effectively used as an instructional strategy to motivate and engage students. This paper presents the use of the process of game development as an instructional strategy to promote higher order thinking skills. An analysis of the various aspects of game development including graphics,…

  20. Encouraging Higher-Order Thinking in General Chemistry by Scaffolding Student Learning Using Marzano's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Santiago; Dubas, Justin M.

    2016-01-01

    An emphasis on higher-order thinking within the curriculum has been a subject of interest in the chemical and STEM literature due to its ability to promote meaningful, transferable learning in students. The systematic use of learning taxonomies could be a practical way to scaffold student learning in order to achieve this goal. This work proposes…

  1. Generalized Flows for Optimal Inference in Higher Order MRF-MAP.

    PubMed

    Arora, Chetan; Banerjee, Subhashis; Kalra, Prem Kumar; Maheshwari, S N

    2015-07-01

    Use of higher order clique potentials in MRF-MAP problems has been limited primarily because of the inefficiencies of the existing algorithmic schemes. We propose a new combinatorial algorithm for computing optimal solutions to 2 label MRF-MAP problems with higher order clique potentials. The algorithm runs in time O(2(k)n(3)) in the worst case (k is size of clique and n is the number of pixels). A special gadget is introduced to model flows in a higher order clique and a technique for building a flow graph is specified. Based on the primal dual structure of the optimization problem, the notions of the capacity of an edge and a cut are generalized to define a flow problem. We show that in this flow graph, when the clique potentials are submodular, the max flow is equal to the min cut, which also is the optimal solution to the problem. We show experimentally that our algorithm provides significantly better solutions in practice and is hundreds of times faster than solution schemes like Dual Decomposition [1], TRWS [2] and Reduction [3], [4], [5]. The framework represents a significant advance in handling higher order problems making optimal inference practical for medium sized cliques.

  2. Media Literacy, Popular Culture, and the Transfer of Higher Order Thinking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann; Heron, Alison H.; Wood, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Contends that by acknowledging the influence of media literacy on adolescents' lives outside the classroom, teachers have a potential source for motivating student interest and eliciting their higher order thinking abilities within the classroom. Specifically addresses merging popular culture with classroom culture and provides a paradigm for…

  3. Development of an Instrument to Measure Higher Order Thinking Skills in Senior High School Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanujaya, Benidiktus

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop an instrument that can be used to measure higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) in mathematics instruction of high school students. This research was conducted using a standard procedure of instrument development, from the development of conceptual definitions, development of operational definitions,…

  4. Developing Higher Order Reading Comprehension Skills in the Learning Disabled Student: A Non-Basal Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sheila

    This practicum study evaluated a non-basal, multidisciplinary, multisensory approach to teaching higher order reading comprehension skills to eight fifth-grade learning-disabled students from low socioeconomic minority group backgrounds. The four comprehension skills were: (1) identifying the main idea; (2) determining cause and effect; (3) making…

  5. Performance-Based Task Assessment of Higher-Order Proficiencies in Redesigned STEM High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Glennie, Elizabeth; Li, Songze

    2017-01-01

    This study explored student abilities in applying conceptual knowledge when presented with structured performance tasks. Specifically, the study gauged proficiency in higher-order applications of students enrolled in earth and environmental science or biology. The student sample was drawn from a Redesigned STEM high school model where a tested…

  6. Nak regulates localization of clathrin sites in higher-order dendrites to promote local dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Kang; Peng, Yu-Huei; Li, Hsun; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lai, Tzu-Ting; Suo, Hsien; Wang, Chien-Hsiang; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Ou, Chan-Yen; Zhou, Xin; Pi, Haiwei; Chang, Henry C; Chien, Cheng-Ting

    2011-10-20

    During development, dendrites arborize in a field several hundred folds of their soma size, a process regulated by intrinsic transcription program and cell adhesion molecule (CAM)-mediated interaction. However, underlying cellular machineries that govern distal higher-order dendrite extension remain largely unknown. Here, we show that Nak, a clathrin adaptor-associated kinase, promotes higher-order dendrite growth through endocytosis. In nak mutants, both the number and length of higher-order dendrites are reduced, which are phenocopied by disruptions of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Nak interacts genetically with components of the endocytic pathway, colocalizes with clathrin puncta, and is required for dendritic localization of clathrin puncta. More importantly, these Nak-containing clathrin structures preferentially localize to branching points and dendritic tips that are undergoing active growth. We present evidence that the Drosophila L1-CAM homolog Neuroglian is a relevant cargo of Nak-dependent internalization, suggesting that localized clathrin-mediated endocytosis of CAMs facilitates the extension of nearby higher-order dendrites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Probabilistic Model of Visual Working Memory: Incorporating Higher Order Regularities into Working Memory Capacity Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Timothy F.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    When remembering a real-world scene, people encode both detailed information about specific objects and higher order information like the overall gist of the scene. However, formal models of change detection, like those used to estimate visual working memory capacity, assume observers encode only a simple memory representation that includes no…

  8. Improving Higher Order Thinking Skills among Freshmen by Teaching Science through Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Kortam, Naji

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-eight freshmen majoring in biology and/or chemistry in an Arab college in Israel, were given a pre-test and a post-test in which they had to identify the control group and design a controlled experiment. During the course an intervention was used. Science was taught by inquiry while using strategies that promote higher-order thinking skills…

  9. Higher Order Cumulant Studies of Ocean Surface Random Fields from Satellite Altimeter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, B.

    1996-01-01

    Higher order statistics, especially 2nd order statistics, have been used to study ocean processes for many years in the past, and occupy an appreciable part of the research literature on physical oceanography. They in turn form part of a much larger field of study in statistical fluid mechanics.

  10. An Evaluation of the Higher Order Thinking Skills Program with Fourth and Fifth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, J. Gordon, Jr.

    The Higher Order Thinking Skills Program (HOTS) is a computer-based program for teaching thinking skills developed by Stanley Pogrow at the University of Arizona. It is now used in over 800 U.S. schools. This study investigated the effects of the HOTS program versus the traditional Chapter 1 program on fourth and fifth grade students'…

  11. Effect of Visual Scaffolding and Animation on Students? Performance on Measures of Higher Order Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwai, Khusro; Munyofu, Mine; Swain, William J; Ausman, Bradley D.; Lin, Huifen; Dwyer, Francis

    2001-01-01

    Animation is being used extensively for instructional purposes; however, it has not been found to be effective on measures of higher order learning (concepts, rules, procedures) within the knowledge acquisition and knowledge integration domains. The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional effectiveness of two visual scaffolding…

  12. Excitation of higher order modes in optical fibers with parabolic index profile.

    PubMed

    Chen, C L

    1988-06-01

    A large number of modes can be supported by multimode fibers. There are applications where higher order modes are preferred. Microbend intensity sensors are good examples. The sensitivity of these sensors is greatly increased if higher order modes are excited. In this work, a simple method to excite higher order modes preferentially is suggested. It consists of thin-film gratings deposited directly onto the fiber end. By controlling the film thickness or transparency of the grating structure, a desired transmission coefficient T(r,Phi) is synthesized. The desired mode can be excited preferentially by incident Gaussian beams without the aid of additional optical components. Binary intensity and binary phase gratings have been studied. Numerical investigation reveals that the phase gratings are more effective for the preferential excitation of higher order modes than the intensity gratings. In fact, by using binary phase gratings and in optimal excitation conditions as much as 81.1, 76.9, 74.6, 73.3, and 72.3% of the power in the incoming, linearly polarized, fundamental Gaussian beam can be converted to LP(02), LP(03), LP(04), LP(05), and LP(06) modes, respectively, excluding Fresnel loss.

  13. Higher Order, Critical Thinking Skills in National Police Academy Course Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Law enforcement requires the officer to invoke reason and critical thinking skills in order to solve intricate problems in real time, on the job. This study examined the course development of a large national organization (State Police Academies) to ascertain what strategies are being used in their courses to promote training for higher order,…

  14. Geometric Hamilton-Jacobi theory for higher-order autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Leonardo; de León, Manuel; Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2014-06-01

    The geometric framework for the Hamilton-Jacobi theory is used to study this theory in the background of higher-order mechanical systems, in both the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms. Thus, we state the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equations in these formalisms and apply our results to analyze some particular physical examples.

  15. How to Assess Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Don't settle for assessing recall and comprehension only when you can use this guide to create assessments for higher-order thinking skills. Assessment expert Susan M. Brookhart brings you up to speed on how to develop and use test questions and other assessments that reveal how well your students can analyze, reason, solve problems, and think…

  16. Scaffolding Preservice Teachers' Higher-Order Reasoning during Technology Integration: A Design Research Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yan; Hannafin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing design research to scaffold preservice teachers' higher-order reasoning while solving technology integration problems. Informed by previous iterations, we designed and examined progressively increasing scaffolds that integrated multiple scaffolding functions to facilitate three technology-based lesson design…

  17. Developing Higher-Order Thinking Skills through the Use of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Connie; King, Jeff; Ruth, Mary Helen; Stary, Erin

    This report describes a program, utilizing both critical and creative thinking skills, to enhance the educational process through the use of technology. The targeted population consisted of fourth grade students in a growing middle class community located in northern Illinois. The lack of higher-order thinking skills was documented through…

  18. Teaching Biotechnology through Case Studies--Can We Improve Higher Order Thinking Skills of Nonscience Majors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit J.; Tal, Revital T.; Tsaushu, Masha

    2003-01-01

    Teaching nonscience majors topics in biotechnology through case studies is the focus of this research. Our "Biotechnology, Environment, and Related Issues" module, developed within the "Science for All" framework, is aimed at elevating the level of students' scientific and technological literacy and their higher order thinking…

  19. Higher-order effects in bandwidth-limited soliton propagation in optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, A.B.; De Angelis, C. ); Nalesso, G.; Santagiustina, M. )

    1994-12-15

    By means of numerical studies and soliton perturbation theory we examine the effects of higher-order linear and nonlinear terms in bandwidth-limited amplified soliton propagation. We show that these effects are responsible for strong reductions of soliton--soliton interaction in such systems.

  20. Higher Order Rule Characterization of Heuristics for Compass and Straight Edge Constructions in Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Joseph M.; And Others

    The research reported in this paper was designed to analyze the incidence of use of higher-order rules by students solving geometric construction problems. A carefully selected set of construction problems was subjected to rigorous a priori analysis by mathematics educators to determine what basic and second-order rules might be used by able high…

  1. The Nature and Development of Teachers' Metastrategic Knowledge in the Context of Teaching Higher Order Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the development of teachers' metastrategic knowledge (MSK), a component of metacognitive knowledge, in the context of higher order thinking. Participants were 14 junior high school and high school science teachers who attended a professional development course. Data collection was carried out by triangulation of several data…

  2. Oscillation of certain higher-order neutral partial functional differential equations.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Nian; Sheng, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the oscillation of certain higher-order neutral partial functional differential equations with the Robin boundary conditions. Some oscillation criteria are established. Two examples are given to illustrate the main results in the end of this paper.

  3. A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia.

  4. Higher-order oligomerization promotes localization of SPOP to liquid nuclear speckles.

    PubMed

    Marzahn, Melissa R; Marada, Suresh; Lee, Jihun; Nourse, Amanda; Kenrick, Sophia; Zhao, Huaying; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Kolaitis, Regina-Maria; Peters, Jennifer L; Pounds, Stanley; Errington, Wesley J; Privé, Gilbert G; Taylor, J Paul; Sharon, Michal; Schuck, Peter; Ogden, Stacey K; Mittag, Tanja

    2016-06-15

    Membrane-less organelles in cells are large, dynamic protein/protein or protein/RNA assemblies that have been reported in some cases to have liquid droplet properties. However, the molecular interactions underlying the recruitment of components are not well understood. Herein, we study how the ability to form higher-order assemblies influences the recruitment of the speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) to nuclear speckles. SPOP, a cullin-3-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) substrate adaptor, self-associates into higher-order oligomers; that is, the number of monomers in an oligomer is broadly distributed and can be large. While wild-type SPOP localizes to liquid nuclear speckles, self-association-deficient SPOP mutants have a diffuse distribution in the nucleus. SPOP oligomerizes through its BTB and BACK domains. We show that BTB-mediated SPOP dimers form linear oligomers via BACK domain dimerization, and we determine the concentration-dependent populations of the resulting oligomeric species. Higher-order oligomerization of SPOP stimulates CRL3(SPOP) ubiquitination efficiency for its physiological substrate Gli3, suggesting that nuclear speckles are hotspots of ubiquitination. Dynamic, higher-order protein self-association may be a general mechanism to concentrate functional components in membrane-less cellular bodies. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  5. Controlling light in Airy and higher-order caustic photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zannotti, Alessandro; Diebel, Falko; Rüschenbaum, Matthias; Denz, Cornelia

    2017-06-01

    Caustics form geometrically stable structures in light and are hierarchically categorized by the catastrophe theory. We embed higher-order cusp and swallowtail catastrophes in paraxial beams and investigate their dynamics. Utilizing high-intensity caustics that propagate on curved trajectories, we realize photonic caustic lattices in photosensitive media, and demonstrate waveguiding with a rich diversity of light guiding paths.

  6. A Probabilistic Model of Visual Working Memory: Incorporating Higher Order Regularities into Working Memory Capacity Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Timothy F.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    When remembering a real-world scene, people encode both detailed information about specific objects and higher order information like the overall gist of the scene. However, formal models of change detection, like those used to estimate visual working memory capacity, assume observers encode only a simple memory representation that includes no…

  7. Higher Order, Critical Thinking Skills in National Police Academy Course Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Law enforcement requires the officer to invoke reason and critical thinking skills in order to solve intricate problems in real time, on the job. This study examined the course development of a large national organization (State Police Academies) to ascertain what strategies are being used in their courses to promote training for higher order,…

  8. The grounding of higher order concepts in action and language: a cognitive robotics model.

    PubMed

    Stramandinoli, Francesca; Marocco, Davide; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-robotic model that uses artificial neural networks for investigating the relations between the development of symbol manipulation capabilities and of sensorimotor knowledge in the humanoid robot iCub. We describe a cognitive robotics model in which the linguistic input provided by the experimenter guides the autonomous organization of the robot's knowledge. In this model, sequences of linguistic inputs lead to the development of higher-order concepts grounded on basic concepts and actions. In particular, we show that higher-order symbolic representations can be indirectly grounded in action primitives directly grounded in sensorimotor experiences. The use of recurrent neural network also permits the learning of higher-order concepts based on temporal sequences of action primitives. Hence, the meaning of a higher-order concept is obtained through the combination of basic sensorimotor knowledge. We argue that such a hierarchical organization of concepts can be a possible account for the acquisition of abstract words in cognitive robots.

  9. Impedance Eduction in Large Ducts Containing Higher-Order Modes and Grazing Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Impedance eduction test data are acquired in ducts with small and large cross-sectional areas at the NASA Langley Research Center. An improved data acquisition system in the large duct has resulted in increased control of the acoustic energy in source modes and more accurate resolution of higher-order duct modes compared to previous tests. Two impedance eduction methods that take advantage of the improved data acquisition to educe the liner impedance in grazing flow are presented. One method measures the axial propagation constant of a dominant mode in the liner test section (by implementing the Kumarsean and Tufts algorithm) and educes the impedance from an exact analytical expression. The second method solves numerically the convected Helmholtz equation and minimizes an objective function to obtain the liner impedance. The two methods are tested first on data synthesized from an exact mode solution and then on measured data. Results show that when the methods are applied to data acquired in the larger duct with a dominant higher-order mode, the same impedance spectra are educed as that obtained in the small duct where only the plane wave mode propagates. This result holds for each higher-order mode in the large duct provided that the higher-order mode is sufficiently attenuated by the liner.

  10. Integrability Test and Travelling-Wave Solutions of Higher-Order Shallow- Water Type Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Mercedes; Molinero, María Celeste; Pickering, Andrew; Prada, Julia

    2010-04-01

    We apply the Weiss-Tabor-Carnevale (WTC) Painlevé test to members of a sequence of higher-order shallow-water type equations. We obtain the result that the equations considered are non-integrable, although compatibility conditions at real resonances are satisfied. We also construct travelling-wave solutions for these and related equations.

  11. Purposely Teaching for the Promotion of Higher-Order Thinking Skills: A Case of Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miri, Barak; Ben-Chaim, David; Zoller, Uri

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal case-study aimed at examining whether purposely teaching for the promotion of higher order thinking skills enhances students' critical thinking (CT), within the framework of science education. Within a pre-, post-, and post-post experimental design, high school students, were divided into three research groups. The experimental…

  12. Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic, and circadian influences on higher-order cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Joseph M.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic, and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood, and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-daylong study that included two 14-daylong 28h forced desynchrony protocols, to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis, and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selective visual attention. Cognitive performance for most measures was impaired immediately after scheduled awakening and improved over the first ~2-4h of wakefulness (sleep inertia); worsened thereafter until scheduled bedtime (sleep homeostasis); and was worst at ~60° and best at ~240° (circadian modulation, with worst and best phases corresponding to ~9AM and ~9PM respectively, in individuals with a habitual waketime of 7AM). The relative influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis, and circadian phase depended on the specific higher-order cognitive function task examined. Inhibitory control appeared to be modulated most strongly by circadian phase, whereas selective visual attention for a spatial-configuration search task was modulated most strongly by sleep inertia. These findings demonstrate that some higher-order cognitive processes are differentially sensitive to different sleep-wake regulatory processes. Differential modulation of cognitive functions by different sleep-wake regulatory processes has important implications for understanding mechanisms contributing to performance impairments during adverse circadian phases, sleep deprivation, and/or upon awakening from sleep. PMID:25773686

  13. Using Higher Order Thinking Questions to Foster Critical Thinking: A Classroom Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jerrold E.; Francis, Alisha L.

    2012-01-01

    To determine if quizzes containing higher order thinking questions are related to critical thinking and test performance when utilised in conjunction with an immersion approach to instruction and effort-based grading, sections of an "Educational Psychology" course were assigned to one of three quizzing conditions. Quizzes contained…

  14. On the Relationship between the Higher-Order Factor Model and the Hierarchical Factor Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yung, Yiu-Fai; Thissen, David; McLeod, Lori D.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the relationship between the higher-order factor model and the hierarchical factor model and shows that the Schmid-Leiman transformation process (J. Schmid and J. Leiman, 1957) produces constrained hierarchical factor solutions. Shows that the two models are not mathematically equivalent unless appropriate direct effects are added. (SLD)

  15. Higher-Order Thinking Development through Adaptive Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiyn, Jamal; Tilchin, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose an approach to organizing Adaptive Problem-Based Learning (PBL) leading to the development of Higher-Order Thinking (HOT) skills and collaborative skills in students. Adaptability of PBL is expressed by changes in fixed instructor assessments caused by the dynamics of developing HOT skills needed for problem solving,…

  16. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  17. Promoting the Use of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills in Qualitative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Justice, Jason

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to promote higher order cognitive skills (HOCS) in a chemistry class using the GOAL (Gather, Organize, Analyze, and Learn) method. Students were assigned four qualitative problems specifically designed to be solved with the method over the course of the semester outside of normal homework and testing. The problems served as a…

  18. Conception of Teaching Higher Order Thinking: Perspectives of Chinese Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Sze-yin Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the higher order thinking (HOT) ability of students is a worldwide educational goal. This has also become a significant objective in the curriculum reforms in Hong Kong, which aims at better preparation of students to meet the challenges of the new era. Cultural aspects are often regarded as salient in determining approaches to teaching.…

  19. Improving Higher Order Thinking Skills among Freshmen by Teaching Science through Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Kortam, Naji

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-eight freshmen majoring in biology and/or chemistry in an Arab college in Israel, were given a pre-test and a post-test in which they had to identify the control group and design a controlled experiment. During the course an intervention was used. Science was taught by inquiry while using strategies that promote higher-order thinking skills…

  20. Parallel higher-order boundary integral electrostatics computation on molecular surfaces with curved triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Weihua

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we present a parallel higher-order boundary integral method to solve the linear Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. In our method, a well-posed boundary integral formulation is used to ensure the fast convergence of Krylov subspace linear solver such as GMRES. The molecular surfaces are first discretized with flat triangles and then converted to curved triangles with the assistance of normal information at vertices. To maintain the desired accuracy, four-point Gauss-Radau quadratures are used on regular triangles and sixteen-point Gauss-Legendre quadratures together with regularization transformations are applied on singular triangles. To speed up our method, we take advantage of the embarrassingly parallel feature of boundary integral formulation, and parallelize the schemes with the message passing interface (MPI) implementation. Numerical tests show significantly improved accuracy and convergence of the proposed higher-order boundary integral Poisson-Boltzmann (HOBI-PB) solver compared with boundary integral PB solver using often-seen centroid collocation on flat triangles. The higher-order accuracy results achieved by present method are important to sensitive solvation analysis of biomolecules, particularly when accurate electrostatic surface potentials are critical in the molecular simulation. In addition, the higher-order boundary integral schemes presented here and their associated parallelization potentially can be applied to solving boundary integral equations in a general sense.