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Sample records for highest inhibitory effect

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Urothelium-related Factors.

    PubMed

    Guan, Na N; Gustafsson, Lars E; Svennersten, Karl

    2017-10-01

    The urothelium of the bladder has long been recognized as a protective barrier between detrusor and urine. In recent years, it has become more evident that the urothelium plays a role as an active source of mediators. The urothelium can release neurotransmitters and modulators such as acetylcholine, ATP, nitric oxide, prostaglandins and neuropeptides. They exert both excitatory and inhibitory effects in modulating urinary tract motility. In addition, several studies have reported the existence of an urothelium-derived unknown inhibitory factor in the urinary bladder. By the use of a new serial cascade superfusion bioassay on guinea pig ureter, recent studies confirm that the guinea pig bladder urothelium releases a substance with inhibitory bioactivity, which was resistant to treatment with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and cyclooxygenase inhibitor and to adenosine A1/A2 receptor blockade. Lately, a marked and quickly inactivated novel release of PGD 2 from the bladder urothelium was discovered, together with localization of prostaglandin D synthase therein. PGD 2 was found to have an inhibitory influence on nerve-induced contractions in guinea pig urinary bladder and on spontaneous contractions in the out-flow region. An altered release of excitatory and inhibitory factors is likely to play an important part in bladder motility disturbances, of which the prostanoids are a notable group. Due to the fact that the bladder is relaxed 99% of the time, not only excitatory mechanisms in the bladder are necessary to study, but also inhibitory mechanisms need considerable attention, which will contribute to the discovery of new targets to treat bladder motility disorders. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  2. When is an Inhibitory Synapse Effective?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ning; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    1990-10-01

    Interactions between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs on dendrites determine the level of activity in neurons. Models based on the cable equation predict that silent shunting inhibition can strongly veto the effect of an excitatory input. The cable model assumes that ionic concentrations do not change during the electrical activity, which may not be a valid assumption, especially for small structures such as dendritic spines. We present here an analysis and computer simulations to show that for large Cl^- conductance changes, the more general Nernst-Planck electrodiffusion model predicts that shunting inhibition on spines should be much less effective than that predicted by the cable model. This is a consequence of the large changes in the intracellular ionic concentration of Cl^- that can occur in small structures, which would alter the reversal potential and reduce the driving force for Cl^-. Shunting inhibition should therefore not be effective on spines, but it could be significantly more effective on the dendritic shaft at the base of the spine. In contrast to shunting inhibition, hyperpolarizing synaptic inhibition mediated by K^+ currents can be very effective in reducing the excitatory synaptic potentials on the same spine if the excitatory conductance change is less than 10 nS. We predict that if the inhibitory synapses found on cortical spines are to be effective, then they should be mediated by K^+ through GABA_B receptors.

  3. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes involved in nitrification. The nitrifying bioreactor was operated as a continuous reactor with a 24 h hydraulic retention time. The samples were exposed in batch vessels to cyanide for a period of 12 h. The concentrations of CN- used in the batch assays were 0.03, 0.06, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. There was considerable decrease in SOUR with increasing dosages of CN-. A decrease of more than 50% in nitrification activity was observed at 0.1 mg/L CN-. Based on the RT-qPCR data, there was notable reduction in the transcript levels of amoA and hao for increasing CN- dosage, which corresponded well with the ammonia oxidation activity measured via SOUR. The inhibitory effect of cyanide may be attributed to the affinity of cyanide to bind ferric heme proteins, which disrupt protein structure and function. The correspondence between the relative expression of functional genes and SOUR shown in this study demonstrates the efficacy of RNA based function-specific assays for better understanding of the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. Nitrification is the first step of nitrogen removal is wastewater, and it is susceptible to inhibition by many industrial chemical. We looked at

  4. Inhibitory effect of burdock leaves on elastase and tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Wu, Hsing-Chen; Chiang, Ni-Na; Lee, Chiu-Fang; Huang, Yu-Syuan; Wang, Hui-Yun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chen, Fu-An

    2017-10-01

    Burdock ( Arctium lappa L.) leaves generate a considerable amount of waste following burdock root harvest in Taiwan. To increase the use of burdock leaves, the present study investigated the optimal methods for producing burdock leaf extract (BLE) with high antioxidant polyphenolic content, including drying methods and solvent extraction concentration. In addition, the elastase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of BLE was examined. Burdock leaves were dried by four methods: Shadow drying, oven drying, sun drying and freeze-drying. The extract solution was then subjected to total polyphenol content analysis and the method that produced BLE with the highest amount of total antioxidant components was taken forward for further analysis. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl scavenging, antielastase and antityrosinase activity of the BLE were measured to enable the evaluation of the antioxidant and skin aging-associated enzyme inhibitory activities of BLE. The results indicated that the total polyphenolic content following extraction with ethanol (EtOH) was highest using the freeze-drying method, followed by the oven drying, shadow drying and sun drying methods. BLE yielded a higher polyphenol content and stronger antioxidant activity as the ratio of the aqueous content of the extraction solvent used increased. BLE possesses marked tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activities, with its antielastase activity notably stronger compared with its antityrosinase activity. These results indicate that the concentration of the extraction solvent was associated with the antioxidant and skin aging-associated enzyme inhibitory activity of BLE. The reactive oxygen species scavenging theory of skin aging may explain the tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activity of BLE. In conclusion, the optimal method for obtaining BLE with a high antioxidant polyphenolic content was freeze-drying followed by 30-50% EtOH extraction. In addition, the antielastase and antityrosinase activities of the

  5. Inhibitory effect of burdock leaves on elastase and tyrosinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Wu, Hsing-Chen; Chiang, Ni-Na; Lee, Chiu-Fang; Huang, Yu-Syuan; Wang, Hui-Yun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chen, Fu-An

    2017-01-01

    Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaves generate a considerable amount of waste following burdock root harvest in Taiwan. To increase the use of burdock leaves, the present study investigated the optimal methods for producing burdock leaf extract (BLE) with high antioxidant polyphenolic content, including drying methods and solvent extraction concentration. In addition, the elastase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of BLE was examined. Burdock leaves were dried by four methods: Shadow drying, oven drying, sun drying and freeze-drying. The extract solution was then subjected to total polyphenol content analysis and the method that produced BLE with the highest amount of total antioxidant components was taken forward for further analysis. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl scavenging, antielastase and antityrosinase activity of the BLE were measured to enable the evaluation of the antioxidant and skin aging-associated enzyme inhibitory activities of BLE. The results indicated that the total polyphenolic content following extraction with ethanol (EtOH) was highest using the freeze-drying method, followed by the oven drying, shadow drying and sun drying methods. BLE yielded a higher polyphenol content and stronger antioxidant activity as the ratio of the aqueous content of the extraction solvent used increased. BLE possesses marked tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activities, with its antielastase activity notably stronger compared with its antityrosinase activity. These results indicate that the concentration of the extraction solvent was associated with the antioxidant and skin aging-associated enzyme inhibitory activity of BLE. The reactive oxygen species scavenging theory of skin aging may explain the tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activity of BLE. In conclusion, the optimal method for obtaining BLE with a high antioxidant polyphenolic content was freeze-drying followed by 30–50% EtOH extraction. In addition, the antielastase and antityrosinase activities of the

  6. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Hoçbaç, Sanem; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Asian, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2014-06-01

    Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum), are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2) on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml). Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  7. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Hoçbaç, Sanem; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Asian, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum), are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2) on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml). Conclusion: Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes. PMID:25140204

  8. Chromenylchalcones with inhibitory effects on monoamine oxidase B.

    PubMed

    Jo, Geunhyeong; Ahn, Seunghyun; Kim, Bong-Gyu; Park, Hye Ri; Kim, Young Hwa; Choo, Hyun Ah; Koh, Dongsoo; Chong, Youhoon; Ahn, Joong-Hoon; Lim, Yoongho

    2013-12-15

    Structure-activity relationship (SAR) calculations were used to find monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors by identifying pharmacophores exhibiting high inhibitory activities. Several such chromenylchalcones were designed and synthesized accordingly. Their inhibitory effects on MAO-B were determined using an HPLC-based method and an MAO-B enzyme assay kit. (E)-3-(6-Methoxy-2H-chromen-3-yl)-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one exhibited a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 320 nM. Its molecular-level binding mode with the three-dimensional structure of MAO-B was elucidated using an in silico docking study. The chromenylchalcone scaffold, which is derived from natural products including isoflavonoids and chalcones, had not been previously reported as an MAO-B inhibitor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibitory phonetic priming: Where does the effect come from?

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sophie; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans

    2016-01-01

    Both phonological and phonetic priming studies reveal inhibitory effects that have been interpreted as resulting from lexical competition between the prime and the target. We present a series of phonetic priming experiments that contrasted this lexical locus explanation with that of a prelexical locus by manipulating the lexical status of the prime and the target and the task used. In the related condition of all experiments, spoken targets were preceded by spoken primes that were phonetically similar but shared no phonemes with the target (/bak/-/dεt/). In Experiments 1 and 2, word and nonword primes produced an inhibitory effect of equal size in shadowing and same-different tasks respectively. Experiments 3 and 4 showed robust inhibitory phonetic priming on both word and nonword targets in the shadowing task, but no effect at all in a lexical decision task. Together, these findings show that the inhibitory phonetic priming effect occurs independently of the lexical status of both the prime and the target, and only in tasks that do not necessarily require the activation of lexical representations. Our study thus argues in favour of a prelexical locus for this effect.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Megakaryocytes in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    meeting, Feb. 2010, Seattle, WA) 3. Inhibitory effects of megakaryocytes in prostate cancer bone metastasis. (Oral presentation and Young ...cancer bone metastasis. (Oral presentation and ASBMR-Harold M. Frost Young Investigator Award, Aug. 2009, Sun Valley, ID) 5. Career development...valuable new scientific information and also provided critical career development support for an a spiring young scientist. References Please refer

  11. Effects of acute buspirone administration on inhibitory control and sexual discounting in cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Justin C; Bolin, B Levi; Romanelli, Michael R; Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W

    2017-01-01

    Cocaine users display deficits in inhibitory control and make impulsive choices that may increase risky behavior. Buspirone is an anxiolytic that activates dopaminergic and serotonergic systems and improves impulsive choice (i.e., reduces sexual risk-taking intent) in cocaine users when administered chronically. We evaluated the effects of acutely administered buspirone on inhibitory control and impulsive choice. Eleven subjects with a recent history of cocaine use completed this within-subject, placebo-controlled study. Subjects performed two cued go/no-go and a sexual risk delay-discounting task following oral administration of buspirone (10 and 30 mg), triazolam (0.375 mg; positive control), and placebo (negative control). Physiological and psychomotor performance and subject-rated data were also collected. Buspirone failed to change inhibitory control or impulsive choice; however, slower reaction times were observed at the highest dose tested. Buspirone did not produce subject-rated drug effects but dose-dependently decreased diastolic blood pressure. Triazolam impaired psychomotor performance and increased ratings of positive subject-rated effects (e.g., Like Drug). These findings indicate that acutely administered buspirone has little impact on behavioral measures of inhibitory control and impulsive sexual decision-making. Considering previous findings with chronic dosing, these findings highlight that the behavioral effects of buspirone differ as a function of dosing conditions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Inhibitory effect of propolis on the development of AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Harata, Daichi; Tsuchiya, Yuya; Miyoshi, Tomoyuki; Yanai, Tokuma; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Murakami, Tomoaki

    2018-04-01

    In the several types of amyloidoses, participation of oxidative stresses in the pathogenesis and the effect of antioxidants on amyloidosis have been reported. Meanwhile, the relationship between oxidative stresses and pathogenesis of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is still unclear. In this study, we used an antioxidant, Brazilian propolis, to investigate the inhibitory effects on AA amyloidosis. The results showed that AA deposition was inhibited by administration of propolis. Increased expression of antioxidant markers was detected in molecular biological examinations of mice treated with propolis. Although serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were strongly correlated with the immunoreactive area of AA deposits in the control group, the correlation was weaker in the propolis-treated groups. In addition, there were no changes in SAA levels between the control group and the propolis-treated groups. The results indicate that propolis, an antioxidant, may induce inhibitory effects against AA amyloidosis.

  13. Inhibitory effect of corn silk on skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Lee, Yeonmi; Kim, Sung Soo; Ju, Hyun Min; Baek, Ji Hwoon; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Dong-Hyuk

    2014-03-03

    In this study, the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production was evaluated. This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of corn silk on melanin production in Melan-A cells by measuring melanin production and protein expression. The corn silk extract applied on Melan-A cells at a concentration of 100 ppm decreased melanin production by 37.2% without cytotoxicity. This was a better result than arbutin, a positive whitening agent, which exhibited a 26.8% melanin production inhibitory effect at the same concentration. The corn silk extract did not suppress tyrosinase activity but greatly reduced the expression of tyrosinase in Melan-A cells. In addition, corn silk extract was applied to the human face with hyperpigmentation, and skin color was measured to examine the degree of skin pigment reduction. The application of corn silk extract on faces with hyperpigmentation significantly reduced skin pigmentation without abnormal reactions. Based on the results above, corn silk has good prospects for use as a material for suppressing skin pigmentation.

  14. Probing inhibitory effects of nanocrystalline cellulose: inhibition versus surface charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Male, Keith B.; Leung, Alfred C. W.; Montes, Johnny; Kamen, Amine; Luong, John H. T.

    2012-02-01

    NCC derived from different biomass sources was probed for its plausible cytotoxicity by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). Two different cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast V79, were exposed to NCC and their spreading and viability were monitored and quantified by ECIS. Based on the 50%-inhibition concentration (ECIS50), none of the NCC produced was judged to have any significant cytotoxicity on these two cell lines. However, NCC derived from flax exhibited the most pronounced inhibition on Sf9 compared to hemp and cellulose powder. NCCs from flax and hemp pre-treated with pectate lyase were also less inhibitory than NCCs prepared from untreated flax and hemp. Results also suggested a correlation between the inhibitory effect and the carboxylic acid contents on the NCC.

  15. Assessment of the inhibitory effects of pyrethroids against human carboxylesterases

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Wei

    Pyrethroids are broad-spectrum insecticides that widely used in many countries, while humans may be exposed to these toxins by drinking or eating pesticide-contaminated foods. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of six commonly used pyrethroids against two major human carboxylesterases (CES) including CES1 and CES2. Three optical probe substrates for CES1 (DME, BMBT and DMCB) and a fluorescent probe substrate for CES2 (DDAB) were used to characterize the inhibitory effects of these pyrethroids. The results demonstrated that most of the tested pyrethroids showed moderate to weak inhibitory effects against both CES1 and CES2, but deltamethrin displayed strong inhibitionmore » towards CES1. The IC{sub 50} values of deltamethrin against CES1-mediated BMBT, DME, and DMCB hydrolysis were determined as 1.58 μM, 2.39 μM, and 3.3 μM, respectively. Moreover, deltamethrin was cell membrane permeable and capable of inhibition endogenous CES1 in living cells. Further investigation revealed that deltamethrin inhibited CES1-mediated BMBT hydrolysis via competitive manner but noncompetitively inhibited DME or DMCB hydrolysis. The inhibition behaviors of deltamethrin against CES1 were also studied by molecular docking simulation. The results demonstrated that CES1 had at least two different ligand-binding sites, one was the DME site and another was the BMBT site which was identical to the binding site of deltamethrin. In summary, deltamethrin was a strong reversible inhibitor against CES1 and it could tightly bind on CES1 at the same ligand-binding site as BMBT. These findings are helpful for the deep understanding of the interactions between xenobiotics and CES1. - Highlights: • The inhibitory effects of six commonly used pyrethroids on human carboxylesterases were investigated. • Deltamethrin displayed strong inhibitory effects against human carboxylesterase 1 (CES1). • Deltamethrin was cell membrane permeable and could inhibit intracellular CES1 in

  16. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  17. Effect of Jatropha curcas Peptide Fractions on the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Campos, Maira R.; Peralta-González, Fanny; Castellanos-Ruelas, Arturo; Chel-Guerrero, Luis A.; Betancur-Ancona, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases in humans. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and hypertension. An evaluation was done on the effect of Alcalase hydrolysis of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal on ACE inhibitory activity in the resulting hydrolysate and its purified fractions. Alcalase exhibited broad specificity and produced a protein hydrolysate with a 21.35% degree of hydrolysis and 34.87% ACE inhibition. Ultrafiltration of the hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with increased biological activity (24.46–61.41%). Hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to the peptides' inhibitory potency. The 5–10 and <1 kDa fractions were selected for further fractionation by gel filtration chromatography. ACE inhibitory activity (%) ranged from 22.66 to 45.96% with the 5–10 kDa ultrafiltered fraction and from 36.91 to 55.83% with the <1 kDa ultrafiltered fraction. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was observed in F2 (IC50 = 6.7 μg/mL) from the 5–10 kDa fraction and F1 (IC50 = 4.78 μg/mL) from the <1 kDa fraction. ACE inhibitory fractions from Jatropha kernel have potential applications in alternative hypertension therapies, adding a new application for the Jatropha plant protein fraction and improving the financial viability and sustainability of a Jatropha-based biodiesel industry. PMID:24224169

  18. The inhibitory effect of bovine rumen fluid on Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Chambers, P G; Lysons, R J

    1979-05-01

    The possible fate of Salmonella typhimurium in the rumen was investigated by monitoring rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA), lactate concentrations and pH over periods which included regular feeding and 48 h starvation. Preparations were made containing 50 per cent rumen fluid from the cow or VFA solutions, and then inoculated with S typhimurium. Viable counts before and after incubation for 24 h at 37 degrees C were compared. Incubation in broths with high concentrations of VFA and low pH resulted in a marked decrease in salmonella numbers, while lower VFA concentrations had little or no inhibitory effect on growth.

  19. The inhibitory spillover effect: Controlling the bladder makes better liars *

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Elise; Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Coons, Jennifer; Pineda, Catherine; Echon, Reinalyn

    2015-01-01

    The Inhibitory-Spillover-Effect (ISE) on a deception task was investigated. The ISE occurs when performance in one self-control task facilitates performance in another (simultaneously conducted) self-control task. Deceiving requires increased access to inhibitory control. We hypothesized that inducing liars to control urination urgency (physical inhibition) would facilitate control during deceptive interviews (cognitive inhibition). Participants drank small (low-control) or large (high-control) amounts of water. Next, they lied or told the truth to an interviewer. Third-party observers assessed the presence of behavioral cues and made true/lie judgments. In the high-control, but not the low-control condition, liars displayed significantly fewer behavioral cues to deception, more behavioral cues signaling truth, and provided longer and more complex accounts than truth-tellers. Accuracy detecting liars in the high-control condition was significantly impaired; observers revealed bias toward perceiving liars as truth-tellers. The ISE can operate in complex behaviors. Acts of deception can be facilitated by covert manipulations of self-control. PMID:26366466

  20. Inhibitory effect of alpha-mangostin on Candida biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Jamdee, Kusuma

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of alpha-mangostin on Candida biofilms. Candida species including Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata were tested. Candida biofilms were formed in flat-bottomed 96-well microtiter plates. The metabolic activity of cells within biofilms was quantified using the XTT assay. The results demonstrated that alpha-mangostin showed a significant anti-biofilm effect on both developing biofilms and preformed biofilms of Candida species. It may be concluded that alpha-mangostin could be an anti-biofilm agent against Candida species. Further in vivo investigations are needed to uncover the therapeutic values of this medicinal plant.

  1. Highest permanent human habitation.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine the altitude of the highest permanent human habitation in the hope that this will throw some light on what determines the highest altitude that a community can tolerate indefinitely. A number of places where people have lived at very high altitudes for long periods of time are reviewed. Individuals have lived for as long as 2 yr at an altitude of 5950 m, and there was a miner's camp at 5300 m for several years. The highest permanently inhabited town in the world at the present time appears to be La Rinconada, a mining village of over 7000 people in southern Peru at an altitude of up to 5100 m, which has been in existence for over 40 yr. The altitude of the highest permanent human habitation is determined partly by economic factors, rather than solely by human tolerance to hypoxia.

  2. Inhibitory effects of crude extracts from several plants on postharvest pathogens of citrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Mingfu; Guan, Qinlan; Xu, Shanshan

    2018-04-01

    China is one of the most important origin of citrus. Enormous economic losses was caused by fungal diseases in citrus harvest storage every year. The effective antimicrobial substances of garlic, ginger, celery and pepper were extracted by ethanol extraction and water extraction respectively. The inhibitory effects of the crude extract on Penicillium sp. caused fungal diseases in citrus harvest storage were also determined. The results showed that the extracts of garlic, ginger and celery had inhibitory effect on P. sp., but the extracts of pepper had no inhibitory effect on P. sp.. The garlic ethanol extracts had the best inhibitory effect on P. citrinum.

  3. Inhibitory effect of Spirogyra spp. algal extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Deethae, A; Peerapornpisal, Y; Pekkoh, J; Sangthong, P; Tragoolpua, Y

    2018-06-01

    To determine the antiviral activities of Spirogyra spp. algal extracts against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Spirogyra spp. was extracted using water, ethanol and methanol. Aqueous extract of Spirogyra spp. had the lowest toxicity on Vero cells with the 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC 50 ) of 4363·30 μg ml -1 . As for potent inhibitory effect, the ethanolic extract presented the highest inhibition of viral infection on HSV-1 in the treatment during viral attachment on Vero cells with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) and selective index (SI) values of 164·20 and 2·17 μg ml -1 . However, the methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of HSV-2 when treated during viral attachment with IC 50 and SI values of 75·03 and 3·34 μg ml -1 . The methanolic extract of Spirogyra spp. also demonstrated significant virucidal effects on viral particles. Therefore, anti-HSV activity at various stages of the viral multiplication cycle was shown. The main active compounds in the active fractions of Spirogyra spp. ethanolic extract against HSV were found to be alkaloids, essential oils and terpenoids. The highest anti-HSV activity was obtained from the ethanolic extract of Spirogyra spp. The extract inhibited the HSV viral particles and the inhibition was during the viral attachment and the viral multiplication. Anti-HSV activity of extract of freshwater green macroalga Spirogyra spp. in Thailand was demonstrated. Therefore, anti-HSV product containing the Spirogyra spp. extract should be developed for treatment of HSV infection. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Inhibitory effects of magnolol and honokiol on human calcitonin aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Caiao; Ma, Liang; Zhao, Yudan; Peng, Anlin; Cheng, Biao; Zhou, Qiaoqiao; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid formation is associated with multiple amyloidosis diseases. Human calcitonin (hCT) is a typical amyloidogenic peptide, its aggregation is associated with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC), and also limits its clinical application. Magnolia officinalis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine; its two major polyphenol components, magnolol (Mag) and honokiol (Hon), have displayed multiple functions. Polyphenols like flavonoids and their derivatives have been extensively studied as amyloid inhibitors. However, the anti-amyloidogenic property of a biphenyl backbone containing polyphenols such as Mag and Hon has not been reported. In this study, these two compounds were tested for their effects on hCT aggregation. We found that Mag and Hon both inhibited the amyloid formation of hCT, whereas Mag showed a stronger inhibitory effect; moreover, they both dose-dependently disassembled preformed hCT aggregates. Further immuno-dot blot and dynamic light scattering studies suggested Mag and Hon suppressed the aggregation of hCT both at the oligomerization and the fibrillation stages, while MTT-based and dye-leakage assays demonstrated that Mag and Hon effectively reduced cytotoxicity caused by hCT aggregates. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry indicated Mag and Hon both interact with hCT. Together, our study suggested a potential anti-amyloidogenic property of these two compounds and their structure related derivatives. PMID:26324190

  5. A New Orally Active, Aminothiol Radioprotector-Free of Nausea and Hypotension Side Effects at Its Highest Radioprotective Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Soref, Cheryl M.; Hacker, Timothy A.; Fahl, William E., E-mail: fahl@oncology.wisc.edu

    Purpose: A new aminothiol, PrC-210, was tested for orally conferred radioprotection (rats, mice; 9.0 Gy whole-body, which was otherwise lethal to 100% of the animals) and presence of the debilitating side effects (nausea/vomiting, hypotension/fainting) that restrict use of the current aminothiol, amifostine (Ethyol, WR-2721). Methods and Materials: PrC-210 in water was administered to rats and mice at times before irradiation, and percent-survival was recorded for 60 days. Subcutaneous (SC) amifostine (positive control) or SC PrC-210 was administered to ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and retching/emesis responses were recorded. Intraperitoneal amifostine (positive control) or PrC-210 was administered to arterial cannulated rats tomore » score drug-induced hypotension. Results: Oral PrC-210 conferred 100% survival in rat and mouse models against an otherwise 100% lethal whole-body radiation dose (9.0 Gy). Oral PrC-210, administered by gavage 30-90 min before irradiation, conferred a broad window of radioprotection. The comparison of PrC-210 and amifostine side effects was striking because there was no retching or emesis in 10 ferrets treated with PrC-210 and no induced hypotension in arterial cannulated rats treated with PrC-210. The tested PrC-210 doses were the ferret and rat equivalent doses of the 0.5 maximum tolerated dose (MTD) PrC-210 dose in mice. The human equivalent of this mouse 0.5 MTD PrC-210 dose would likely be the highest PrC-210 dose used in humans. By comparison, the mouse 0.5 MTD amifostine dose, 400 {mu}g/g body weight (equivalent to the human amifostine dose of 910 mg/m{sup 2}), when tested at equivalent ferret and rat doses in the above models produced 100% retching/vomiting in ferrets and 100% incidence of significant, progressive hypotension in rats. Conclusions: The PrC-210 aminothiol, with no detectable nausea/vomiting or hypotension side effects in these preclinical models, is a logical candidate for human drug development to use in

  6. Growth inhibitory effect of shelf life extending agents on Bacillus subtilis IAM 1026.

    PubMed

    Mitsuboshi, Saori; Obitsu, Rie; Muramatsu, Kanako; Furube, Kentaro; Yoshitake, Shigehiro; Kiuchi, Kan

    2007-06-01

    Natural shelf life extending agents and sugar fatty acid esters that might inhibit the growth of B. subtilis IAM 1026 were screened, and the effective agents were as follows: beta-thujaplicin (Hinokitiol) and chitosan, inhibited the growth of IAM 1026 at a concentration of 0.001% ; epsilon-polylysine and M-1695 (a sugar fatty acid ester) at 0.005%; citrus seed extract, thiamin lauryl sulfate, and grapefruit seed extract at 0.01%; CT-1695 and L-1695 (sugar fatty acid esters) at 0.05%; pectin digests and SM-800 (a sugar fatty acid ester) at 0.5%; water pepper seed extract and the sugar fatty acid esters SM-1000 and CE-1695 at 1.0%. The growth inhibitory effects of the agents in custard cream were not necessarily similar to those in liquid culture. The agent that showed the highest inhibitory effect in custard cream was 0.3% beta-thujaplicin, followed by 0.3% epsilon-polylysine.

  7. Inhibitory effects of naphthols on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Fen; Hu, Yong-Hua; Jia, Yu-Long; Li, Zhi-Cong; Guo, Yun-Ji; Chen, Qing-Xi; Lin, He-Tong

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1), a copper-containing multifunctional oxidase, was known to be a key enzyme for biosynthesis in fungi, plants and animals. In this work, the inhibition properties α-naphthol and β-naphthol toward the activity of tyrosinase have been evaluated, and the effects of α-naphthol and β-naphthol on monophenolase and diphenolase activity of tyrosinase have been investigated. The results showed that both α-naphthol and β-naphthol could potently inhibit both monophenolase activity and diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase, and that β-naphthol exhibited stronger inhibitory effect against tyrosinase than α-naphthol. For monophenolase activity, β-naphthol could not only lengthen the lag time but also decrease the steady-state activity, while α-naphthol just only decreased the steady-state activity. For diphenolase activity, both α-naphthol and β-naphthol displayed revisible inhibition. Kinetic analyses showed that both α-naphthol and β-naphthol were competetive inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibitory effect of gold nanoparticles on the D-ribose glycation of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weixi; Cohenford, Menashi A; Frost, Leslie; Seneviratne, Champika; Dain, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by nonenzymatic glycation of proteins is a major contributory factor to the pathophysiology of diabetic conditions including senile dementia and atherosclerosis. This study describes the inhibitory effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the D-ribose glycation of bovine serum albumin (BSA). A combination of analytical methods including ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography, circular dichroism, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry were used to determine the extent of BSA glycation in the presence of citrate reduced spherical GNPs of various sizes and concentrations. GNPs of particle diameters ranging from 2 nm to 20 nm inhibited BSA's AGE formation. The extent of inhibition correlated with the total surface area of the nanoparticles. GNPs of highest total surface area yielded the most inhibition whereas those with the lowest total surface area inhibited the formation of AGEs the least. Additionally, when GNPs' total surface areas were set the same, their antiglycation activities were similar. This inhibitory effect of GNPs on BSA's glycation by D-ribose suggests that colloidal particles may have a therapeutic application for the treatment of diabetes and conditions that promote hyperglycemia.

  9. Inhibitory effect of gold nanoparticles on the D-ribose glycation of bovine serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weixi; Cohenford, Menashi A; Frost, Leslie; Seneviratne, Champika; Dain, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by nonenzymatic glycation of proteins is a major contributory factor to the pathophysiology of diabetic conditions including senile dementia and atherosclerosis. This study describes the inhibitory effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the D-ribose glycation of bovine serum albumin (BSA). A combination of analytical methods including ultraviolet–visible spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography, circular dichroism, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry were used to determine the extent of BSA glycation in the presence of citrate reduced spherical GNPs of various sizes and concentrations. GNPs of particle diameters ranging from 2 nm to 20 nm inhibited BSA’s AGE formation. The extent of inhibition correlated with the total surface area of the nanoparticles. GNPs of highest total surface area yielded the most inhibition whereas those with the lowest total surface area inhibited the formation of AGEs the least. Additionally, when GNPs’ total surface areas were set the same, their antiglycation activities were similar. This inhibitory effect of GNPs on BSA’s glycation by D-ribose suggests that colloidal particles may have a therapeutic application for the treatment of diabetes and conditions that promote hyperglycemia. PMID:25473284

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Respiration Inhibitors on Aflatoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Sakuda, Shohei; Prabowo, Diyan Febri; Takagi, Keiko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Mori, Mihoko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III) and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:24674936

  11. Nucleus reticularis neurons mediate diverse inhibitory effects in thalamus.

    PubMed

    Cox, C L; Huguenard, J R; Prince, D A

    1997-08-05

    Detailed information regarding the contribution of individual gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing inhibitory neurons to the overall synaptic activity of single postsynaptic cells is essential to our understanding of fundamental elements of synaptic integration and operation of neuronal circuits. For example, GABA-containing cells in the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRt) provide major inhibitory innervation of thalamic relay nuclei that is critical to thalamocortical rhythm generation. To investigate the contribution of individual nRt neurons to the strength of this internuclear inhibition, we obtained whole-cell recordings of unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) evoked in ventrobasal thalamocortical (VB) neurons by stimulation of single nRt cells in rat thalamic slices, in conjunction with intracellular biocytin labeling. Two types of monosynaptic IPSCs could be distinguished. "Weak" inhibitory connections were characterized by a significant number of postsynaptic failures in response to presynaptic nRt action potentials and relatively small IPSCs. In contrast, "strong" inhibition was characterized by the absence of postsynaptic failures and significantly larger unitary IPSCs. By using miniature IPSC amplitudes to infer quantal size, we estimated that unitary IPSCs associated with weak inhibition resulted from activation of 1-3 release sites, whereas stronger inhibition would require simultaneous activation of 5-70 release sites. The inhibitory strengths were positively correlated with the density of axonal swellings of the presynaptic nRt neurons, an indicator that characterizes different nRt axonal arborization patterns. These results demonstrate that there is a heterogeneity of inhibitory interactions between nRt and VB neurons, and that variations in gross morphological features of axonal arbors in the central nervous system can be associated with significant differences in postsynaptic response characteristics.

  12. Highest recorded electrical conductivity and microstructure in polypropylene-carbon nanotubes composites and the effect of carbon nanofibers addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Herrera, C. A.; Pérez-González, J.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Romero-Partida, N.; Flores-Vela, A.; Cabañas-Moreno, J. G.

    2018-04-01

    In the last decade, numerous investigations have been devoted to the preparation of polypropylene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PP/MWCNT) nanocomposites having enhanced properties, and in particular, high electrical conductivities (> 1 S cm-1). The present work establishes that the highest electrical conductivity in PP/MWCNT nanocomposites is limited by the amount of nanofiller content which can be incorporated in the polymer matrix, namely, about 20 wt%. This concentration of MWCNT in PP leads to a maximum electrical conductivity slightly lower than 8 S cm-1, but only by assuring an adequate combination of dispersion and spatial distribution of the carbon nanotubes. The realization of such an optimal microstructure depends on the characteristics of the production process of the PP/MWCNT nanocomposites; in our experiments, involving composite fabrication by melt mixing and hot pressing, a second re-processing cycle is shown to increase the electrical conductivity values by up to two orders of magnitude, depending on the MWCNT content of the nanocomposite. A modest increase of the highest electrical conductivity obtained in nanocomposites with 21.5 wt% MWCNT content has been produced by the combined use of carbon nanofibers (CNF) and MWCNT, so that the total nanofiller content was increased to 30 wt% in the nanocomposite with PP—15 wt% MWCNT—15 wt%CNF.

  13. Promotion and computation of inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity of herbal cream by incorporating indigenous medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ram Kumar; Roy, Amit; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jha, Arvind Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Herbal cream imparts a chief role in regulating melanin production of skin. The phytoconstituents present in herbal cream impact biological functions of skin and contribute nutrients required for the healthy skin. In the present study, it was envisaged to prepare three batches of herbal cream (HC1, HC2 and HC3) containing ethanol extracts of Emblica officinalis (fruits), Daucus carota (root), Mangifera indica (leaves), Mentha arvensis (leaves), Terminalia arjuna (bark) and Cucumis sativus (fruits) and investigated the prepared cream for inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity. The herbal cream was formulated by incorporating different ratio of extracts, by using cream base. Each formulation HC1, HC2 and HC3 were segregated into three different formulations (HC1.1, HC1.2, HC1.3, HC2.1, HC2.2, HC2.3, HC3.1, HC3.2 and HC3.3) by incorporating increasing ratio of extract in formulation. The HC3.2 cream produces highest tyrosinase inhibitory effect 65.23 +/- 0.07%, while the HC2.1 exhibited minimum tyrosinase inhibitory effect 26.19 +/- 0.08% compared to other prepared cream. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the formulations demonstrated that the rank order was HC3.2 > HC3.3 > HC1.2 > HC1.3 > HC3.1 > HC1.1 > HC2.3 > HC2.2 > HC2.1. It has been observed from the result that the formulations of antityrosinase activity were not concentrate dependent. This finding suggests that decrease in antityrosinase activity of HC1 and HC3 might be considering that the incompatibility of the higher extract content with the base of cream. The HC3 produce the maximum inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity might be due to higher level of polyphenol and flavonoids present in extracts.

  14. Highest Resolution Gaspra Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  15. Gaspra - Highest Resolution Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  16. Inhibitory effect of artocarpanone from Artocarpus heterophyllus on melanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2006-09-01

    In our previous efforts to find new tyrosinase inhibitory materials, we investigated 44 Indonesian medicinal plants belonging to 24 families. Among those plants, the extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus was one of the strongest inhibitors of tyrosinase activity. By activity-guided fractionation of A. heterophyllus wood extract, we isolated artocarpanone, which inhibited both mushroom tyrosinase activity and melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. This compound is a strong candidate as a remedy for hyperpigmentation in human skin.

  17. Human ACAT inhibitory effects of shikonin derivatives from Lithospermum erythrorhizon.

    PubMed

    An, Sojin; Park, Yong-Dae; Paik, Young-Ki; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Woo Song

    2007-02-15

    Three naphthoquinones were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the CHCl(3) extracts of roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. They were identified as acetylshikonin (1), isobutyrylshikonin (2), and beta-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin (3) on the basis of their spectroscopic analyses. The compounds 1-3 were tested for their inhibitory activities against human ACAT-1 (hACAT-1) or human ACAT-2 (hACAT-2). Compound 2 preferentially inhibited hACAT-2 (IC(50)=57.5microM) than hACAT-1 (32% at 120microM), whereas compounds 1 and 3 showed weak inhibitory activities in both hACAT-1 and -2. To develop more potent hACAT inhibitor, shikonin derivatives (5-11) were synthesized by semi-synthesis of shikonin (4), which was prepared by hydrolysis of 1-3. Among them, compounds 5 and 7 exhibited the strong inhibitory activities against hACAT-1 and -2. Furthermore, we demonstrated that compound 7 behaved as a potent ACAT inhibitor in not only in vitro assay system but also cell-based assay system.

  18. Inhibitory effects of ethyl acetate extract of Teucrium polium on in vitro protein glycoxidation.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Amin; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2007-12-01

    Regarding the involvement of free radicals and oxidative reactions in protein glycoxidation processes, compounds with antioxidant activities have been tested in order to reduce or to stop glycoxidation. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential of several organic fractions of Teucrium polium extract using different model systems including total antioxidant capacity by the phosphomolybdenum method, ferric reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsion system and scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of T. polium possesses the highest antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Given the link between glycation and oxidation, we proposed that the EtOAc fraction might possess significant in vitro antiglycation activities as well. Our data confirmed the inhibitory effect of EtOAc fraction on bovine serum albumin (BSA) glycoxidation measured in terms of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and pentosidine formation as well as protein oxidation markers including protein carbonyl formation (PCO) and loss of protein thiols. Reducing sugars such as ribose and glucose increase fluorescence intensity of glycated BSA in terms of total AGEs and pentosidine during 21 day of exposure. Moreover, sugars cause more PCO formation and also oxidize thiol groups more in glycated than in native BSA. EtOAc extract at different concentrations (10-100 microg/ml) has significantly quenched the fluorescence intensity of glycated BSA. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of EtOAc extract in preventing oxidative protein damages including effect on PCO formation and thiol oxidation which are believe to form under the glycoxidation process. These results clearly demonstrate that, the EtOAc fraction, owning to its antioxidant content, is capable of suppressing the formation of AGEs and protein

  19. Inhibitory effects of Bacillus subtilis on plant pathogens of conservatory in high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chun-Mei; Wang, Xue; Yang, Jia-Li; Zhang, Yue-Hua

    2018-03-01

    Researching the effect of three kinds of Bacillus and their mixed strains inhibitory on common fungal diseases of conservatory vegetables. The results showed that B. megaterium culture medium had a significant inhibition effect on Cucumber Fusarium wilt, and the inhibition rate was up to 84.36%; B. mucilaginosus and B. megaterium sterile superna-tant had an obvious inhibitory effect on brown disease of eggplant, and the inhibition rate as high as 85.49%; B. subtilis sterile supernatant had a good inhibitory effect on the spore germination of C. Fusarium wilt, and the inhibition rate was 76.83%. The results revealed that Bacillus had a significant inhibitory effect on five common fungal pathogens. Three kinds of Bacillus can be used for the prevention and control of common fungal diseases in conservatory vegetables.

  20. Inhibitory effects of 2'-hydroxychalcones on rat lens aldose reductase and rat platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Lim, S S; Jung, S H; Ji, J; Shin, K H; Keum, S R

    2000-11-01

    Inhibitory effects of synthetic 2'-hydroxychalcone derivatives on rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) and on platelet aggregation were investigated for the prevention or the treatment of chronic diabetic complications. 5'-chloro-4,2'-dihydroxychalcone (8) and 5'-chloro-3,2'-dihydroxychalcone (27) exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on rat platelet aggregation induced by ADP (IC50=0.10 and 0.06 mg/ml, respectively) and collagen (IC50=44 and 16 microg/ml, respectively) but showed relatively weak inhibitory activities on RLAR.

  1. Inhibitory effect of chalcone derivatives on recombinant human aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Iwata, S; Nagata, N; Omae, A; Yamaguchi, S; Okada, Y; Shibata, S; Okuyama, T

    1999-03-01

    More than fifty chalcone derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships against human aldose reductase. Certain 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone derivatives inhibited human aldose reductase activities, and 2',4',2, 4-tetrahydroxychalcone and 2',4',2-trihydroxychalcone showed potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 7.4x10(-9) M and 1.6x10(-7) M, respectively. On the other hand, cis-form chalcones, which were isomerized from the original trans-forms by irradiation of daylight in methanol solution, promoted the activity of human aldose reductase.

  2. [Inhibitory effect on Microcystis aeruginosa as well as separation and identification of the allelochemicals of welsh onion].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Yuan; Li, Cheng; Liu, Lu; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-11-01

    To study the inhibition of welsh onion on Microcystis aeruginosa, and separat and identify of the allelochemicals from welsh onion. METHEDS: The inhibitory effect of different concentrations of fistular onion stalk and fistular onion leaf water extracts on M. aeruginosa were studied; besides, separation and identification of the allelochemicals of welsh onion were also studied. Both fistular onion stalk and fistular onion leaf water extracts had, to different degree, inhibitory effect on the growth of M. aeruginosat. Compared with the control group, the fluorescence intensity of fistular onion stalk and fistular onion leaf were lower than the control group in the same period, and the inhibitory effect were more obvious with the increase of the water extract concentrations, to the fifth day, M. aeruginosa almost completely dead of the highest concentration(50 ml/L) of fistular onion stalk water extract treated group, the EC50 of water extract from fistular onion stalk to M. aeruginosa was 12.7 ml/L, equivalent to fresh weight 1.27 g/L. Main allelochemicals in fistular onion stalk includes allyl mercaptan, cyclopentyl mercaptan, and so on. The inhibiting assay on M. aeruginosa showed that the EC50 of allyl mercaptan and cyclopentyl mercaptan respectively were 0.03 and 0.02 g/L. The fistular onion stalk water extracts has very good algicidal effect, allelopathic algal inhibiting substances primarily are sulfocompound, which have the potential to develop into biological algicide.

  3. Effect of Environmental Factors on Intra-Specific Inhibitory Activity of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, John P.; Ratkowsky, David A.; Tamplin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is frequently associated with foods having extended shelf-life due to its inhibitory activity to other bacteria. The quantification of such inhibition interactions affected by various environmental factors is limited. This study investigated the effect of environmental factors relevant to vacuum-packaged beef on inhibition between two model isolates of C. maltaromaticum, D0h and D8c, specifically D8c sensitivity to D0h inhibition and D0h inhibitor production. The effects of temperature (−1, 7, 15, 25 °C), atmosphere (aerobic and anaerobic), pH (5.5, 6, 6.5), lactic acid (0, 25, 50 mM) and glucose (0, 0.56, 5.55 mM) on D8c sensitivity (diameter of an inhibition zone) were measured. The effects of pH, glucose, lactic acid and atmosphere on D0h inhibitor production were measured at 25 °C. Sensitivity of D8c was the highest at 15 °C, under aerobic atmosphere, at higher concentrations of undissociated lactic acid and glucose, and at pH 5.5 (p < 0.001). pH significantly affected D0h inhibitor production (p < 0.001), which was the highest at pH 6.5. The effect of lactic acid depended upon pH level; at relatively low pH (5.5), lactic acid decreased the production rate (arbitrary inhibition unit (AU)/mL/h). This study provides a quantitative description of intra-species interactions, studied in in vitro environments that are relevant to vacuum-packaged beef. PMID:28906433

  4. Effect of steeping temperature on antioxidant and inhibitory activities of green tea extracts against α-amylase, α-glucosidase and intestinal glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuyuan; Ai, Zeyi; Qu, Fengfeng; Chen, Yuqiong; Ni, Dejiang

    2017-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of steeping temperature on the biological activities of green tea, including the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities, and glucose uptake inhibitory activity in Caco-2 cells. Results showed that, with increasing extraction temperature, the polyphenol content increased, which contributed to enhance antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Green tea steeped at 100°C showed the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities with EC 50 or IC 50 values of 6.15μg/mL, 0.09mg/mL, and 6.31mg/mL, respectively. However, the inhibitory potential on glucose uptake did not show an upward trend with increasing extraction temperature. Green tea steeped at 60°C had significantly stronger glucose uptake inhibitory activity (p<0.05). The integrated data suggested that steeping temperature should be considered when evaluating the biological activities of green tea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-C; Lin, C-T; Wu, C-Y; Peng, W-S; Lee, M-J; Tsai, Y-C

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries arises from an imbalance of metabolic activities in dental biofilms developed primarily by Streptococcus mutans. This study was conducted to isolate potential oral probiotics with antagonistic activities against S. mutans biofilm formation from Lactobacillus salivarius, frequently found in human saliva. We analysed 64 L. salivarius strains and found that two, K35 and K43, significantly inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation with inhibitory activities more pronounced than those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a prototypical probiotic that shows anti-caries activity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that co-culture of S. mutans with K35 or K43 resulted in significantly reduced amounts of attached bacteria and network-like structures, typically comprising exopolysaccharides. Spot assay for S. mutans indicated that K35 and K43 strains possessed a stronger bactericidal activity against S. mutans than LGG. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of genes encoding glucosyltransferases, gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD was reduced when S. mutans were co-cultured with K35 or K43. However, LGG activated the expression of gtfB and gtfC, but did not influence the expression of gtfD in the co-culture. A transwell-based biofilm assay indicated that these lactobacilli inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation in a contact-independent manner. In conclusion, we identified two L. salivarius strains with inhibitory activities on the growth and expression of S. mutans virulence genes to reduce its biofilm formation. This is not a general characteristic of the species, so presents a potential strategy for in vivo alteration of plaque biofilm and caries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Lactoferricin B-derived peptides with inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Musoles, Ricardo; López-Díez, José Javier; Torregrosa, Germán; Vallés, Salvador; Alborch, Enrique; Manzanares, Paloma; Salom, Juan B

    2010-10-01

    Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), a key peptidase in the endothelin (ET) system, cleaves inactive big ET-1 to produce active ET-1, which binds to ET(A) receptors to exert its vasoconstrictor and pressor effects. ECE inhibition could be beneficial in the treatment of hypertension. In this study, a set of eight lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-derived peptides, previously characterized in our laboratory as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides, was examined for their inhibitory effects on ECE. In vitro inhibitory effects on ECE activity were assessed using both the synthetic fluorogenic peptide substrate V (FPS V) and the natural substrate big ET-1. To study vasoactive effects, an ex vivo functional assay was developed using isolated rabbit carotid artery segments. With FPS V, only four LfcinB-derived peptides induced inhibition of ECE activity, whereas the eight peptides showed ECE inhibitory effects with big ET-1 as substrate. Regarding the ex vivo assays, six LfcinB-derived peptides showed inhibition of big ET-1-induced, ECE-dependent vasoconstriction. A positive correlation between the inhibitory effects of LfcinB-derived peptides on ECE activity when using big ET-1 and the inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction was shown. ECE-independent vasoconstriction induced by ET-1 was not affected, thus discarding effects of LfcinB-derived peptides on ET(A) receptors or intracellular signal transduction mechanisms. In conclusion, a combined in vitro and ex vivo method to assess the effects of potentially antihypertensive peptides on the ET system has been developed and applied to show the inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction of six LfcinB-derived peptides, five of which were dual vasopeptidase (ACE/ECE) inhibitors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production and free radical scavenging activity of Thai medicinal plants in osteoarthritic knee treatment.

    PubMed

    Anuthakoengkun, Areeya; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Thai medicine plants used for Osteoarthritis of knee (OA) treatment consist of twelve plants such as Crinumn asiaticum, Cleome viscosa, Drypetes roxburghii, Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Plumbago indica, Alpinia galanga, Curcuma aromatica, Globba malaccensis, Zingiber montanum, Zingiber officinale andZingiberzerumbet. They showedhighfrequency in OA formula. To investigate inhibitory effect on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) release from RAW264. 7 cell and free radical scavenging activity usingDPPH assay of these ethanolic plant extracts. Plant materials were extracted by maceration in 95% ethanol. Anti-inflammatory activity were tested on LPS-induced NO production. Free radical scavenging activity was performed by DPPH assay. All of ethanolic extracts exhibited potent inhibitory effect on NO release. The ethanolic extract of Z. zerumbet exhibited the highest inhibitory effect followed by Z. montanum and G. malaccensis, respectively. Except A. galanga and C. viscosa, all extracts possessed more influential than indomethacin (IC50 = 20.32±3.23 μLg/ml), a positive control. The investigation on antioxidant activity suggested that the ethanolic extracts of D. roxburghii, Z. officinale, Z. montanum, C. aromatic, A. galanga, P indica, G malaccensis, P nigrum exhibited antioxidant activity. By means ofD. roxburghii had the highest electron donating activity,followed by Z. officinale. Moreover both extracts were more effective than BHT apositive control (EC50 = 14.04±1.95 μg/ml). Thai medicinal plants had anti-inflammatory activity and could inhibit destruction of articular cartilage that corresponded to the traditional medicine and supported using these medicinal plants for OA treatment.

  8. Effect of inhibitory firing pattern on coherence resonance in random neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haitao; Zhang, Lianghao; Guo, Xinmeng; Wang, Jiang; Cao, Yibin; Liu, Jing

    2018-01-01

    The effect of inhibitory firing patterns on coherence resonance (CR) in random neuronal network is systematically studied. Spiking and bursting are two main types of firing pattern considered in this work. Numerical results show that, irrespective of the inhibitory firing patterns, the regularity of network is maximized by an optimal intensity of external noise, indicating the occurrence of coherence resonance. Moreover, the firing pattern of inhibitory neuron indeed has a significant influence on coherence resonance, but the efficacy is determined by network property. In the network with strong coupling strength but weak inhibition, bursting neurons largely increase the amplitude of resonance, while they can decrease the noise intensity that induced coherence resonance within the neural system of strong inhibition. Different temporal windows of inhibition induced by different inhibitory neurons may account for the above observations. The network structure also plays a constructive role in the coherence resonance. There exists an optimal network topology to maximize the regularity of the neural systems.

  9. Inhibitory effect and mechanism of acarbose combined with gymnemic acid on maltose absorption in rat intestine

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hong; Wang, Le Feng; Imoto, Toshiaki; Hiji, Yasutake

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To compare the combinative and individual effect of acarbose and gymnemic acid (GA) on maltose absorption and hydrolysis in small intestine to determine whether nutrient control in diabetic care can be improved by combination of them. METHODS: The absorption and hydrolysis of maltose were studied by cyclic perfusion of intestinal loops in situ and motility of the intestine was recorded with the intestinal ring in vitro using Wistar rats. RESULTS: The total inhibitory rate of maltose absorption was improved by the combination of GA (0.1 g/L-1.0 g/L) and acarbose (0.1 mmol/L-2.0 mmol/L) throughout their effective duration (P < 0.05, U test of Mann-Whitney), although the improvement only could be seen at a low dosage during the first hour. With the combination, inhibitory duration of acarbose on maltose absorption was prolonged to 3 h and the inhibitory effect onset of GA was fastened to 15 min. GA suppressed the intestinal mobility with a good correlation (r = 0.98) to the inhibitory effect of GA on maltose absorption and the inhibitory effect of 2 mmol/L (high dose) acarbose on maltose hydrolysis was dual modulated by 1 g/L GA in vivo indicating that the combined effects involved the functional alteration of intestinal barriers. CONCLUSION: There are augmented effects of acarbose and GA, which involve pre-cellular and paracellular barriers. Diabetic care can be improved by employing the combination. PMID:11819725

  10. Inhibitory effect of red koji extracts on mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Chen; Chen, Yun-Chen; Ho, Ja-An Annie; Yang, Chung-Shi

    2003-07-16

    Red koji has been recognized as a cholesterol-lowering diet supplement because of it contains fungi metabolites, monacolins, which reduce cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase. In this study, water extracts of red koji were loaded onto a C(18) cartridge, and the acetonitrile eluate was collected as test fraction. Red koji water extracts and its C(18) cartridge acetonitrile eluent had total phenols concentrations of 5.57 and 1.89 mg/g of red koji and condensed tannins concentrations of 2.71 and 1.20 mg/g of red koji, respectively. Both exhibited an antioxidant activity and an inhibitory activity to mushroom tyrosinase. The higher antioxidant activity of the red koji acetonitrile eluent was due to the existence of a high percentage of condensed tannins. The results from the kinetic study for inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase by red koji extracts showed that the compounds in the extracts competitively inhibited the oxidation of tyrosine catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase with an ID(50) of 5.57 mg/mL.

  11. Isolation of proanthocyanidins from red wine, and their inhibitory effects on melanin synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Takahiro; Mori, Shoko; Horikawa, Manabu; Fukui, Yuko

    2018-05-15

    The red wines made from Vitis vinifera were identified as skin-whitening effectors by using in vitro assays. OPCs in the wine were evaluated for tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis. Strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity was observed in fractions with high oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC) content. Among OPC dimers, a strong inhibitory effect on tyrosinase was observed with OPCs which contain (+)-catechin as an upper unit. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect was observed with OPCs which have (-)-epicatechin as upper units. Also, OPC trimers, upper and middle units joined with 4 → 8 bonds, showed stronger effects compared to trimers with 4 → 6 linkages. Interestingly, (-)-epicatechin-(4β → 8)-(-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate, which is a unique component of grapes has potent inhibitory effects on both tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Our data provide structural information about such active compounds. These results suggest that red wines containing OPC, have high melanogenesis inhibitory effect and are supposed to have skin-whitening effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studying the Inhibitory Effect of Quercetin and Thymoquinone on Human Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Activities.

    PubMed

    Elbarbry, Fawzy; Ung, Aimy; Abdelkawy, Khaled

    2018-01-01

    Quercetin (QR) and thymoquinone (TQ) are herbal remedies that are currently extensively used by the general population to prevent and treat various chronic conditions. Therefore, investigating the potential of pharmacokinetic interactions caused by the concomitant use of these herbal remedies and conventional medicine is warranted to ensure patient safety. This study was conducted to determine the inhibitory effect of QR and TQ, two commonly used remedies, on the activities of selected cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes that play an important role in drug metabolism and/or toxicology. The in vitro studies were conducted using fluorescence-based high throughput assays using human c-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP enzymes. For measuring CYP2E1 activity, a validated High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was utilized to measure the formation of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone. The obtained half-maximum inhibitory concentration values with known positive control inhibitors of this study were comparable to the published values indicating accurate experimental techniques. Although QR did not show any significant effect on CYP1A2 and CYP2E1, it exhibited a strong inhibitory effect against CYP2D6 and a moderate effect against CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. On the other hand, TQ demonstrated a strong and a moderate inhibitory effect against CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, respectively. The findings of this study may indicate that consumption of QR or TQ, in the form of food or dietary supplements, with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4 may cause significant herb-drug interactions. Neither QR nor TQ has any significant inhibitory effect on the activity of CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 enzymesBoth QR and TQ have a moderate to strong inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 activityQR has a moderate inhibitory effect on CYP2C19 and a strong inhibitory effect on CYP2D6Both QR and TQ are moderate inhibitors of the CYP2C9 activity. Abbreviations used: ABT: Aminobenztriazole, BZF: 7,8 Benzoflavone, CYP

  13. Effect of inhibitory feedback on correlated firing of spiking neural network.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jinli; Wang, Zhijie

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the properties and mechanisms that generate different forms of correlation is critical for determining their role in cortical processing. Researches on retina, visual cortex, sensory cortex, and computational model have suggested that fast correlation with high temporal precision appears consistent with common input, and correlation on a slow time scale likely involves feedback. Based on feedback spiking neural network model, we investigate the role of inhibitory feedback in shaping correlations on a time scale of 100 ms. Notably, the relationship between the correlation coefficient and inhibitory feedback strength is non-monotonic. Further, computational simulations show how firing rate and oscillatory activity form the basis of the mechanisms underlying this relationship. When the mean firing rate holds unvaried, the correlation coefficient increases monotonically with inhibitory feedback, but the correlation coefficient keeps decreasing when the network has no oscillatory activity. Our findings reveal that two opposing effects of the inhibitory feedback on the firing activity of the network contribute to the non-monotonic relationship between the correlation coefficient and the strength of the inhibitory feedback. The inhibitory feedback affects the correlated firing activity by modulating the intensity and regularity of the spike trains. Finally, the non-monotonic relationship is replicated with varying transmission delay and different spatial network structure, demonstrating the universality of the results.

  14. Plasticity of inhibitory processes and associated far-transfer effects in older adults.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yang; Wang, Jun; Chen, Tianyong; Du, Xin; Zhan, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Inhibition deficit plays a crucial part in cognitive aging; however, few studies have systematically investigated the plasticity of various inhibitory processes among older adults. We studied the plasticity of 3 inhibitory processes (access, deletion, and restraint) and the extent of far transfer of inhibition training to other general cognitive abilities. Thirty-six participants (aged 60 years and above, M = 70.06, SD = 5.53) were randomly assigned to an adaptive training group that received 12 sessions of training covering 3 inhibitory processes or an active control group that received 4 sessions of mental health lectures. Participants in both groups completed pre- and posttest assessments, in which behavioral and electrophysiological measures were used to evaluate potential transfer effects. Direct training gains were observed for trained tasks of all inhibitory processes, but near-transfer effects were only found within untrained tasks associated with deletion at a composite score level. Furthermore, far-transfer effects were demonstrated for fluid intelligence (Gf) but not for working memory or other general cognitive abilities. Near transfer to deletion and far transfer to Gf persisted at a 3-month follow-up assessment session. We discussed differences in plasticity between the 3 inhibitory processes as well as their possible associations with far transfer to Gf. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Inhibitory effect of breast milk on infectivity of live oral rotavirus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung-Sil; Wang, Yuhuan; Shane, Andi L; Nguyen, Trang; Ray, Pratima; Dennehy, Penelope; Baek, Luck Ju; Parashar, Umesh; Glass, Roger I; Jiang, Baoming

    2010-10-01

    Live oral rotavirus vaccines have been less immunogenic and efficacious among children in poor developing countries compared with middle income and industrialized countries for reasons that are not yet completely understood. We assessed whether the neutralizing activity of breast milk could lower the titer of vaccine virus and explain this difference in vitro. Breast milk samples were collected from mothers who were breast-feeding infants 4 to 29 weeks of age (ie, vaccine eligible age) in India (N = 40), Vietnam (N = 77), South Korea (N = 34), and the United States (N = 51). We examined breast milk for rotavirus-specific IgA and neutralizing activity against 3 rotavirus vaccine strains-RV1, RV5 G1, and 116E using enzyme immunoassays. The inhibitory effect of breast milk on RV1 was further examined by a plaque reduction assay. Breast milk from Indian women had the highest IgA and neutralizing titers against all 3 vaccine strains, while lower but comparable median IgA and neutralizing titers were detected in breast milk from Korean and Vietnamese women, and the lowest titers were seen in American women. Neutralizing activity was greatest against the 2 vaccine strains of human origin, RV1 and 116E. This neutralizing activity in one half of the breast milk specimens from Indian women could reduce the effective titer of RV1 by ∼2 logs, of 116E by 1.5 logs, and RV5 G1 strain by ∼1 log more than that of breast milk from American women. The lower immunogenicity and efficacy of rotavirus vaccines in poor developing countries could be explained, in part, by higher titers of IgA and neutralizing activity in breast milk consumed by their infants at the time of immunization that could effectively reduce the potency of the vaccine. Strategies to overcome this negative effect, such as delaying breast-feeding at the time of immunization, should be evaluated.

  16. Effect of clavulanic acid on minimal inhibitory concentrations of 16 antimicrobial agents tested against Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed Central

    Pohlod, D J; Saravolatz, L D; Quinn, E L; Somerville, M M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 15 Legionella pneumophilia isolated were tested against 16 antimicrobial agents used singly and in combination with clavulanic acid. When combined with clavulanic acid, 4 of the 16 antimicrobial agents produced no enhanced effect. However, the minimal inhibitory concentrations of 12 of the antimicrobial agents were reduced by one-half to one-third when in combination with clavulanic acid. These reductions reflected only a one-dilution decrease, however, in the original minimal inhibitory concentrations. Thus, clavulanic acid combinations appear to be only nominally effective beta-lactamase inhibitors against L. pneumophilia. PMID:6969575

  17. Inhibitory effects of Citrus hassaku extract and its flavanone glycosides on melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Hirata, Noriko; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Wakabayashi, Keitaro; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    The 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from the unripe fruit of Citrus hassaku exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The CH-ext showed antioxidant activity, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation of the CH-ext indicated that flavanone glycoside-rich fractions showed potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Further examination revealed that the tyrosinase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the CH-ext were attributable to naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. The CH-ext showed inhibition of melanogenesis without any effects on cell proliferation in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells after glucosamine exposure. The topical application of the CH-ext to the dorsal skin of brownish guinea pigs showed in vivo preventive effects against UVB-induced pigmentation.

  18. Inhibitory effect of the urothelium/lamina propria on female porcine urethral contractility & effect of age.

    PubMed

    Folasire, Oladayo S; Chess-Williams, Russ; Sellers, Donna J

    2017-09-01

    The urethral uroepithelium has been implicated in urethral sensation and maintenance of continence. However, relatively little is known about the function of the urethral urothelium compared with that of the bladder. The aim of the study was to examine the role of the urothelium/lamina propria on contractility of the porcine urethra, along with the influence of nitric oxide, prostaglandins and ageing. Porcine urethral tissues, intact and denuded of urothelium/lamina propria, were mounted in tissue baths and contractions to noradrenaline, phenylephrine and carbachol obtained. Contractions in the presence of Nώ-nitro-l-arginine (100 μmol/L) and indomethacin (10 μmol/L) were examined, along with contractions of tissues from young (6 months) and older (3 years) animals. The urothelium/lamina propria of the urethra significantly inhibited contractions to carbachol, noradrenaline and phenylephrine. This inhibitory effect was not significantly different for the three agonists (58.7±10.3%, 60.4±12.6% and 39.4±12.2% inhibition; n=4-7), and was also observed when denuded tissues were co-incubated with a second tissue with intact urothelium/lamina propria (40.6±7.5% inhibition; n=6). Inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin production did not attenuate the inhibitory effect of the urothelium/lamina propria on noradrenaline contractions. In addition, ageing did not alter the inhibitory effect for either phenylephrine contractions (33.9±2.2% vs 41.0±9.7%, young vs older urethral tissues) or noradrenaline contractions (32.9±11.1% vs 53.7±11.0%). In conclusion the urothelium/lamina propria of the urethra has an inhibitory effect on receptor-mediated urethral contraction. This inhibition is due to the release of a diffusible factor, and the effect is not mediated by nitric oxide or prostaglandins, or affected by age. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Inhibitory effect of naturally occurring flavonoids on the formation of advanced glycation endproducts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Hao; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2005-04-20

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of naturally occurring flavonoids on individual stage of protein glycation in vitro using the model systems of delta-Gluconolactone assay (early stage), BSA-methylglyoxal assay (middle stage), BSA-glucose assay, and G.K. peptide-ribose assay (last stage). In the early stage of protein glycation, luteolin, qucertin, and rutin exhibited significant inhibitory activity on HbA1C formation (p < 0.01), which were more effective than that of aminoguanidine (AG, 10 mM), a well-known inhibitor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). For the middle stage, luteolin and rutin developed more significant inhibitory effect on methylglyoxal-medicated protein modification, and the IC50's were 66.1 and 71.8 microM, respectively. In the last stage of glycation, luteolin was found to be potent inhibitors of both the AGEs formation and the subsequent cross-linking of proteins. In addition, phenyl-tert-butyl-nitron served as a spin-trapping agent, and electron spin resonance (ESR) was used to explore the possible mechanism of the inhibitory effect of flavonoids on glycation. The results indicated that protein glycation was accompanied by oxidative reactions, as the ESR spectra showed a clear-cut radical signal. Statistical analysis showed that inhibitory capability of flavonoids against protein glycation was remarkably related to the scavenging free radicals derived from glycoxidation process (r = 0.79, p < 0.01). Consequently, the inhibitory mechanism of flavonoids against glycation was, at least partly, due to their antioxidant properties.

  20. Eye Gaze and Aging: Selective and Combined Effects of Working Memory and Inhibitory Control.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Trevor J; Smith, Eleanor S; Berry, Donna M

    2017-01-01

    Eye-tracking is increasingly studied as a cognitive and biological marker for the early signs of neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. However, in order to make further progress, a more comprehensive understanding of the age-related effects on eye-tracking is essential. The antisaccade task requires participants to make saccadic eye movements away from a prepotent stimulus. Speculation on the cause of the observed age-related differences in the antisaccade task largely centers around two sources of cognitive dysfunction: inhibitory control (IC) and working memory (WM). The IC account views cognitive slowing and task errors as a direct result of the decline of inhibitory cognitive mechanisms. An alternative theory considers that a deterioration of WM is the cause of these age-related effects on behavior. The current study assessed IC and WM processes underpinning saccadic eye movements in young and older participants. This was achieved with three experimental conditions that systematically varied the extent to which WM and IC were taxed in the antisaccade task: a memory-guided task was used to explore the effect of increasing the WM load; a Go/No-Go task was used to explore the effect of increasing the inhibitory load; a 'standard' antisaccade task retained the standard WM and inhibitory loads. Saccadic eye movements were also examined in a control condition: the standard prosaccade task where the load of WM and IC were minimal or absent. Saccade latencies, error rates and the spatial accuracy of saccades of older participants were compared to the same measures in healthy young controls across the conditions. The results revealed that aging is associated with changes in both IC and WM. Increasing the inhibitory load was associated with increased reaction times in the older group, while the increased WM load and the inhibitory load contributed to an increase in the antisaccade errors. These results reveal that aging is associated with changes in both IC and

  1. Inhibitory effect of soy saponins on the activity of β-lactamases, including New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1.

    PubMed

    Horie, Hitoshi; Chiba, Asuka; Wada, Shigeo

    2018-05-01

    β-Lactamase-producing bacteria encode enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the β-lactam ring. Crude soy saponins were observed to have synergistic effects on the antimicrobial activity of β-lactam antibiotics against β-lactamase-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Furthermore, the activities of β-lactamases derived from Enterobacter cloacae , Escherichia coli , and S. aureus were decreased significantly in the presence of crude soy saponins. This inhibitory effect was also observed against the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), an enzyme whose activity is not inhibited by the current β-lactamase inhibitors. The synergistic effect on the antimicrobial activity of β-lactam antibiotics by crude soy saponins was thought to result from the inhibition the β-lactamase activity. The components of crude soy saponins include several kinds of soyasaponins and soyasapogenols. It was revealed that soyasaponin V has the highest inhibitory activity against NDM-1. The combined use of soy saponins with β-lactam antibiotics is expected to serve as a new therapeutic modality, potentially enhancing the effectiveness of β-lactam antibiotics against infectious diseases caused by β-lactamase-producing bacteria, including those encoding NDM-1.

  2. Determinants of aggressive behavior: Interactive effects of emotional regulation and inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, I-Ju; Chen, Yung Y

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive behavior can be defined as any behavior intended to hurt another person, and it is associated with many individual and social factors. This study examined the relationship between emotional regulation and inhibitory control in predicting aggressive behavior. Seventy-eight participants (40 males) completed self-report measures (Negative Mood Regulation Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire), a stop signal task, and engaged in a modified version of Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) exercise, in which the outcome was used as a measure of direct physical aggression. We used a hierarchical, mixed-model multiple regression analysis test to examine the effects of emotion regulation and inhibitory control on physical reactive aggression. Results indicated an interaction between emotion regulation and inhibitory control on aggression. For participants with low inhibitory control only, there was a significant difference between high and low emotion regulation on aggression, such that low emotion regulation participants registered higher aggression than high emotion regulation participants. This difference was not found among participants with high inhibitory control. These results have implications for refining and targeting training and rehabilitation programs aimed at reducing aggressive behavior.

  3. Potent Inhibitory Effect of Chinese Dietary Spices on Fatty Acid Synthase.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bing; Liang, Yan; Sun, Xuebing; Liu, Xiaoxin; Tian, Weixi; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2015-09-01

    Dietary spices have been adopted in cooking since ancient times to enhance flavor and also as food preservatives and disease remedies. In China, the use of spices and other aromatic plants as food flavoring is an integral part of dietary behavior, but relatively little is known about their functions. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been recognized as a remedy target, and its inhibitors might be applied in disease treatment. The present work was designed to assess the inhibitory activities on FAS of spices extracts in Chinese menu. The in vitro inhibitory activities on FAS of 22 extracts of spices were assessed by spectrophotometrically monitoring oxidation of NADPH at 340 nm. Results showed that 20 spices extracts (90.9 %) exhibited inhibitory activities on FAS, with half inhibition concentration (IC(50)) values ranging from 1.72 to 810.7 μg/ml. Among them, seven spices showed strong inhibitory effect with IC(50) values lower than 10 μg/ml. These findings suggest that a large proportion of the dietary spices studied possess promising inhibitory activities on FAS, and subsequently might be applied in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related human diseases.

  4. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE ON HUMAN NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchloroethylene (PERC) is a volatile organic solvent with a variety of industrial uses. PERC exposure has been shown to cause adverse neurological effects including deficits in vision and memory in exposed individuals. Despite knowledge of these effects, the mechanisms by whi...

  5. GMP reverses the facilitatory effect of glutamate on inhibitory avoidance task in rats.

    PubMed

    Rubin, M A; Jurach, A; da Costa Júnior, E M; Lima, T T; Jiménez-Bernal, R E; Begnini, J; Souza, D O; de Mello, C F

    1996-09-02

    Previous studies have demonstrated that post-training intrahippocampal glutamate administration improves inhibitory avoidance task performance in rats. Antagonism of the agonist actions of glutamate by guanine nucleotides has been shown at the molecular and behavioural level. In the present investigation we demonstrate that intrahippocampal co-administration of GMP (guanosine 5'-monophosphate) reverses the facilitatory effect of glutamate on the inhibitory avoidance learning paradigm and inhibits [3H]glutamate binding in hippocampal synaptic plasma membranes. These results suggest that guanine nucleotides may modulate glutamate actions.

  6. Effects of Neuromodulation on Excitatory-Inhibitory Neural Network Dynamics Depend on Network Connectivity Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Scott; Zochowski, Michal; Booth, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), one of the brain's most potent neuromodulators, can affect intrinsic neuron properties through blockade of an M-type potassium current. The effect of ACh on excitatory and inhibitory cells with this potassium channel modulates their membrane excitability, which in turn affects their tendency to synchronize in networks. Here, we study the resulting changes in dynamics in networks with inter-connected excitatory and inhibitory populations (E-I networks), which are ubiquitous in the brain. Utilizing biophysical models of E-I networks, we analyze how the network connectivity structure in terms of synaptic connectivity alters the influence of ACh on the generation of synchronous excitatory bursting. We investigate networks containing all combinations of excitatory and inhibitory cells with high (Type I properties) or low (Type II properties) modulatory tone. To vary network connectivity structure, we focus on the effects of the strengths of inter-connections between excitatory and inhibitory cells (E-I synapses and I-E synapses), and the strengths of intra-connections among excitatory cells (E-E synapses) and among inhibitory cells (I-I synapses). We show that the presence of ACh may or may not affect the generation of network synchrony depending on the network connectivity. Specifically, strong network inter-connectivity induces synchronous excitatory bursting regardless of the cellular propensity for synchronization, which aligns with predictions of the PING model. However, when a network's intra-connectivity dominates its inter-connectivity, the propensity for synchrony of either inhibitory or excitatory cells can determine the generation of network-wide bursting.

  7. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ON NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.
    A.S. Bale*; P.J. Bushnell; C.A. Meacham; T.J. Shafer
    Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Toluene (TOL...

  8. Selective Attention and Inhibitory Deficits in ADHD: Does Subtype or Comorbidity Modulate Negative Priming Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Verena E.; Neumann, Ewald; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2008-01-01

    Selective attention has durable consequences for behavior and neural activation. Negative priming (NP) effects are assumed to reflect a critical inhibitory component of selective attention. The performance of adolescents with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was assessed across two conceptually based NP tasks within a selective…

  9. Investigations of the inhibitory effects of tocopherol (vitamin E) on free radical deterioration of cellular membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, D.

    1975-01-01

    The inhibitory effects are investigated of d,1-alpha-tocopherol and d,1-alpha-tocopheryl acetate on the free radical deterioration of cellular membranes. The level of toxicity of d,1-alpha-tocopherol and d,1-alpha-tocopheryl acetate in mice is determined.

  10. No Evidence for True Training and Transfer Effects after Inhibitory Control Training in Young Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enge, Sören; Behnke, Alexander; Fleischhauer, Monika; Küttler, Lena; Kliegel, Matthias; Strobel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies reported that training of working memory may improve performance in the trained function and beyond. Other executive functions, however, have been rarely or not yet systematically examined. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of inhibitory control (IC) training to produce true training-related function improvements…

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Autoclaving Whey-Based Medium on Propionic Acid Production by Propionibacterium shermanii.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T M; Bodie, E A; Goodman, N; Schwartz, R D

    1986-02-01

    Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium shermanii was compared in pasteurized and autoclaved whey-based media. Propionic acid production decreased with increasing whey concentration in autoclaved media but not in pasteurized media. Increasing the yeast extract concentration from 5 to 10 g/liter greatly reduced the inhibitory effect of autoclaving.

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Autoclaving Whey-Based Medium on Propionic Acid Production by Propionibacterium shermanii

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Thomas M.; Bodie, Elizabeth A.; Goodman, Nelson; Schwartz, Robert D.

    1986-01-01

    Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium shermanii was compared in pasteurized and autoclaved whey-based media. Propionic acid production decreased with increasing whey concentration in autoclaved media but not in pasteurized media. Increasing the yeast extract concentration from 5 to 10 g/liter greatly reduced the inhibitory effect of autoclaving. PMID:16346998

  13. Inhibitory effects of Broccolini leaf flavonoids on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingfang; Zhang, Xuewu

    2012-01-01

    Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica × Alboglabra) is a hybrid between broccoli and Gai Lan, also known as Chinese broccoli and Chinese kale. The aim of this study was to assess the antitumor activity of Broccolini leaf flavonoids (BLF). Cell growth inhibition was evaluated using a standard colorimetric MTT assay, cellular morphology was observed using phase contrast microscopy and flow cytometry was introduced to further investigate cells apoptosis effect. The results showed that BLF possess a dose-dependent antiproliferative effects on four human cancer cell lines (SW480, HepG2, Hela, and A549) and apoptosis induction activity on SW480 cell line. Thus, the hybrid species Broccolini could be considered as a functional vegetable with potential in assisting for the treatment of four human cancers examined here. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Inhibitory effects of 3-bromopyruvate in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xue; Zhang, Mengxiao; Sun, Yiming; Zhao, Surong; Wei, Yingmei; Zhang, Xudong; Jiang, Chenchen; Liu, Hao

    2015-10-01

    Tumor cells depend on aerobic glycolysis for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, which is therefore targeted by therapeutic agents. The compound 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a strong alkylating agent and hexokinase inhibitor, inhibits tumor cell glycolysis and the production of ATP, causing apoptosis. 3-BrPA induces apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines HNE1 and CNE-2Z, which may be related to its molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3-BrPA on the viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis and other types of programmed cell death in NPC cells in vitro and in vivo. PI staining showed significant apoptosis in NPC cells accompanied by the overproduction of ROS and downregulation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, ΔΨm) by 3-BrPA. However, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced 3-BrPA-induced apoptosis by decreasing ROS and facilitating the recovery of MMP. We elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying 3-BrPA activity and found that it caused mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production, leading to necroptosis of NPC cells. We investigated the effects of the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk, which inhibits apoptosis but promotes death domain receptor (DR)-induced NPC cell necrosis. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) inhibits necroptosis, apparently via a DR signaling pathway and thus abrogates the effects of z-VAD‑fmk. In addition, we demonstrated the effective attenuation of 3-BrPA-induced necrotic cell death by Nec-1. Finally, animal studies proved that 3-BrPA exhibited significant antitumor activity in nude mice. The present study is the first demonstration of 3-BrPA-induced non-apoptotic necroptosis and ROS generation in NPC cells and provides potential strategies for developing agents against apoptosis‑resistant cancers.

  15. Cytotoxic and growth inhibitory effects of the methanol extract Struchium sparganophora Ktze (Asteraceae) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ayinde, B. A.; Agbakwuru, U.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Global research into medicinal plants used in treating tumor-related ailments has become imperative due to the emergence of various forms of cancer diseases. Usually consumed as a vegetable, Struchium sparganophora is indicated in traditional herbal medicine as one of the plants used in treating tumor-related ailments. Materials and Methods: This claim was examined using bench-top assay methods involving the cytotoxicity of the methanol extract of the leaves to tadpoles of Raniceps ranninus at 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/ml. Also, the growth inhibitory effects of the extract on guinea corn radicle at 0.5, 1.0, 2 and 4 mg/ml in addition to evaluation of the phytochemical constituents of the leaves was performed. After 24 h, the crude extract and the chloroform fraction produced the highest cytotoxicity of 96.67 ± 4.71%, each at a concentration of 80 μg/ml, while the aqueous fraction produced 100% cytotoxicity at a concentration of 20 μg/ml. Results: The crude extract had an LC50 of 26 μg/ml, the chloroform fraction had 6.25 while the aqueous fraction had 5 μg/ml. On the inhibition of the guinea corn radicle growth, after 96 h, the controls had an average length of 67.81 ± 2.6 mm, whereas the seeds treated with 4 mg/ml of the crude extract had an average length of 35.83 ±1.75 mm, indicating 47.81% reduction in length. At the same concentration, the chloroform and the aqueous fractions showed 32.51 and 43.81% inhibitions. The plant material was observed to contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids, with no traces of anthracene derivatives. Conclusion: The results suggest the probable use of the plant in preparing recipes for tumor-related ailments. PMID:21120031

  16. α-Glucosidase inhibitory effect of resveratrol and piceatannol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Albert J; Rimando, Agnes M; Mizuno, Cassia S; Mathews, Suresh T

    2017-09-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been shown to inhibit α-glucosidase, an enzyme target of some antidiabetic drugs. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and wine, has been reported to inhibit the activity of yeast α-glucosidase. This triggered our interest to synthesize analogs and determine their effect on mammalian α-glucosidase activity. Using either sucrose or maltose as substrate resveratrol, piceatannol and 3'-hydroxypterostilbene showed strong inhibition of mammalian α-glucosidase activity; pinostilbene, cis-desoxyrhapontigenin and trans-desoxyrhapontigenin had moderate inhibition. Compared to acarbose (IC 50 3-13 μg/ml), piceatannol and resveratrol inhibited mammalian α-glucosidase to a lesser extent (IC 50 14-84 and 111-120 μg/ml, respectively). 3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (IC 50 105-302 μg/ml) was 23-35-fold less potent than acarbose. We investigated the effect of piceatannol and resveratrol on postprandial blood glucose response in high-fat-fed C57Bl/6 mice. Animals administered resveratrol (30 mg/kg body weight [BW]) or piceatannol (14 mg/kg BW) 60 min prior to sucrose or starch loading had a delayed absorption of carbohydrates, resulting in significant lowering of postprandial blood glucose concentrations, similar to the antidiabetic drug acarbose, while no significant effect was observed with the glucose-loaded animals. Our studies demonstrate that the dietary polyphenols resveratrol and piceatannol lower postprandial hyperglycemia and indicate that inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidase activity may be a potential mechanism contributing to their antidiabetic property. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Koch, C; Reichling, J; Schneele, J; Schnitzler, P

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils from anise, hyssop, thyme, ginger, camomile and sandalwood were screened for their inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. Genital herpes is a chronic, persistent infection spreading efficiently and silently as sexually transmitted disease through the population. Antiviral agents currently applied for the treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were determined at 0.016%, 0.0075%, 0.007%, 0.004%, 0.003% and 0.0015% for anise oil, hyssop oil, thyme oil, ginger oil, camomile oil and sandalwood oil, respectively. A clearly dose-dependent virucidal activity against HSV-2 could be demonstrated for all essential oils tested. In order to determine the mode of the inhibitory effect, essential oils were added at different stages during the viral infection cycle. At maximum noncytotoxic concentrations of the essential oils, plaque formation was significantly reduced by more than 90% when HSV-2 was preincubated with hyssop oil, thyme oil or ginger oil. However, no inhibitory effect could be observed when the essential oils were added to the cells prior to infection with HSV-2 or after the adsorption period. These results indicate that essential oils affected HSV-2 mainly before adsorption probably by interacting with the viral envelope. Camomile oil exhibited a high selectivity index and seems to be a promising candidate for topical therapeutic application as virucidal agents for treatment of herpes genitalis.

  18. Lactoferricin-related peptides with inhibitory effects on ACE-dependent vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Centeno, José M; Burguete, María C; Castelló-Ruiz, María; Enrique, María; Vallés, Salvador; Salom, Juan B; Torregrosa, Germán; Marcos, José F; Alborch, Enrique; Manzanares, Paloma

    2006-07-26

    A selection of lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-related peptides with an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect have been examined using in vitro and ex vivo functional assays. Peptides that were analyzed included a set of sequence-related antimicrobial hexapeptides previously reported and two representative LfcinB-derived peptides. In vitro assays using hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) and angiotensin I as substrates allowed us to select two hexapeptides, PACEI32 (Ac-RKWHFW-NH2) and PACEI34 (Ac-RKWLFW-NH2), and also a LfcinB-derived peptide, LfcinB17-31 (Ac-FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA-NH2). Ex vivo functional assays using rabbit carotid arterial segments showed PACEI32 (both D- and L-enantiomers) and LfcinB17-31 have inhibitory effects on ACE-dependent angiotensin I-induced contraction. None of the peptides exhibited in vitro ACE inhibitory activity using bradykinin as the substrate. In conclusion, three bioactive lactoferricin-related peptides exhibit inhibitory effects on both ACE activity and ACE-dependent vasoconstriction with potential to modulate hypertension that deserves further investigation.

  19. Inhibitory effect of magnolol on tumour metastasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Koji; Sakai, Yoshimichi; Nagase, Hisamitsu

    2003-09-01

    It has previously been reported that magnolol, a phenolic compound isolated from Magnolia obovata, inhibited tumour cell invasion in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimetastatic effect of magnolol on tumour metastasis in vivo with experimental and spontaneous metastasis models and to clarify the mechanism. The antimetastatic effects of magnolol were evaluated by an experimental liver and spleen metastasis model using L5178Y-ML25 lymphoma, or an experimental and spontaneous lung metastasis model using B16-BL6 melanoma. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 2 or 10 mg/kg of magnolol significantly suppressed liver and spleen metastasis or lung metastasis. As for the spontaneous lung metastasis model using B16-BL6 melanoma, multiple i.p. administrations of 10 mg/kg of magnolol after and before tumour inoculation significantly suppressed lung metastasis and primary tumour growth. In addition, magnolol significantly inhibited B16-BL6 cell invasion of the reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel, MG) without affecting cell growth. These data from the in vivo experiments suggest that magnolol possesses strong antimetastatic ability and that it may be a lead compound for drug development. The antimetastatic action of magnolol is considered to be due to its ability to inhibit tumour cell invasion. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in pan-fried beef.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Amaro, L Filipe; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2012-06-20

    The inhibitory effect of antioxidant-rich marinades containing beer and white wine (with/without alcohol) alone or mixed with herbs commonly used as meat flavoring (garlic, ginger, thyme, rosemary, and red chili pepper) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) in pan-fried beef was studied. Radical-scavenging activity was evaluated by DPPH assay, before the addition of meat to the marinade (T0) and after 4 h of meat marinating (T4). At T0, wine with herbs possessed the highest scavenging activity (73.5%), followed by wine (72.5%), dealcoholized wine with herbs (53.4%), beer and herbs (41.7%), dealcoholized wine (39.6%), and beer (25.9%). At T4, a decrease in the radical-scavenging activity of all marinades was observed, although with a similar radical-scavenging profile. All of the six marinades under the study reduced the total amount of HAs, keeping meat with good overall sensory quality. Beer marinades were more efficient than white wine marinades, and the addition of herbs provided a superior inhibitory effect, reducing around 90% of HAs. No correlation was observed between radical-scavenging activity of marinades and total or individual HAs formation. Herbs explained around 30% of inhibition of PhIP formation, whereas alcohol increased PhIP formation.

  1. Isolation and identification of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) phenolics with antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Sung; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Sa, Yeo-Jin; Kim, Myong-Jo

    2011-01-12

    This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects from the extract, fractions, and isolated compounds of sea buckthorn leaves. Six compounds, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6''-O-coumaryl) glycoside, 1-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, were isolated from sea buckthorn leaf extracts. The butanol fraction (EC(50) = 1.81 μg/mL) along with quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (EC(50) = 1.86 μg/mL) had a higher DPPH radical-scavenging activity and showed stronger reducing power (OD(700) = 1.83 and 1.78, respectively). The butanol fraction (477 mg GAE/g) contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds and also the most powerful α-glucosidase inhibitory effect (86%) at 5 μg/mL. The results indicate that sea buckthorn leaf extracts could potentially be used for food additives and the development of useful natural compounds.

  2. ATF3 mediates inhibitory effects of ethanol on hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Wei; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Liu, Weiyi; Phillips, Naomi G; Sonntag, Tim; Hao, Ergeng; Lee, Soon; Hai, Tsonwin; Montminy, Marc

    2015-03-03

    Increases in circulating glucagon during fasting maintain glucose balance by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute ethanol intoxication promotes fasting hypoglycemia through an increase in hepatic NADH, which inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by reducing the conversion of lactate to pyruvate. Here we show that acute ethanol exposure also lowers fasting blood glucose concentrations by inhibiting the CREB-mediated activation of the gluconeogenic program in response to glucagon. Ethanol exposure blocked the recruitment of CREB and its coactivator CRTC2 to gluconeogenic promoters by up-regulating ATF3, a transcriptional repressor that also binds to cAMP-responsive elements and thereby down-regulates gluconeogenic genes. Targeted disruption of ATF3 decreased the effects of ethanol in fasted mice and in cultured hepatocytes. These results illustrate how the induction of transcription factors with overlapping specificity can lead to cross-coupling between stress and hormone-sensitive pathways.

  3. ATF3 mediates inhibitory effects of ethanol on hepatic gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wen-Wei; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Liu, Weiyi; Phillips, Naomi G.; Sonntag, Tim; Hao, Ergeng; Lee, Soon; Hai, Tsonwin; Montminy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Increases in circulating glucagon during fasting maintain glucose balance by stimulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute ethanol intoxication promotes fasting hypoglycemia through an increase in hepatic NADH, which inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by reducing the conversion of lactate to pyruvate. Here we show that acute ethanol exposure also lowers fasting blood glucose concentrations by inhibiting the CREB-mediated activation of the gluconeogenic program in response to glucagon. Ethanol exposure blocked the recruitment of CREB and its coactivator CRTC2 to gluconeogenic promoters by up-regulating ATF3, a transcriptional repressor that also binds to cAMP-responsive elements and thereby down-regulates gluconeogenic genes. Targeted disruption of ATF3 decreased the effects of ethanol in fasted mice and in cultured hepatocytes. These results illustrate how the induction of transcription factors with overlapping specificity can lead to cross-coupling between stress and hormone-sensitive pathways. PMID:25730876

  4. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-05

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibitory effects of Physalis angulata on tumor metastasis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Wu, Chi-Rei; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Kumar, K J Senthil; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Cho, Hsin-Ju; Huang, Chun-Yin; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Hong-Zin; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chung, Jing-Gung; Wang, Hui-Min; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2011-06-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELAVENCE: Physalis angulata is well-known in traditional Chinese medicine as a ingredient for various herbal formulation; also, it has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the ability of P. angulata to inhibit tumor metastasis and angiogenesis was investigated. Anti-proliferative activity of ethyl acetate extracts of P. angulata (PA extracts), was determined against human oral squamous carcinoma (HSC-3) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by trypan blue exclusion method. Wound-healing migration, trans-well invasion, Western blotting and chick chorioallantoic membrane assay were carried out to determine the anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects of PA extracts in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that at sub-cytotoxic concentrations of PA extracts (5-15 μg/mL) markedly inhibited the migration and invasion of highly metastatic HSC-3 cells as shown by wound-healing repair assay and trans-well assay. Gelatin zymography assay showed that PA extracts suppressed the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and -2, and urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) in HSC-3 cells. In addition, Western blot analysis confirmed that PA extracts significantly decreased MMP-2 and u-PA protein expression in HSC-3 cells. Notably, PA extracts significantly augmented the expression of their endogenous inhibitors, including tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP-1 and -2), and plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI-1 and -2). Further investigations revealed that non-cytotoxic concentration of PA extracts (5-15 μg/mL) inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, and migration/invasion of HUVECs in vitro. PA extracts also suppressed the activity of MMP-9, but not MMP-2, in HUVECs. Further, we observed, PA extracts strongly suppressed neovessel formation in the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos in vivo. These results strongly support an anti-metastatic and anti

  6. Inhibitory effect of chlorogenic acid on digestion of potato starch.

    PubMed

    Karim, Zida; Holmes, Melvin; Orfila, Caroline

    2017-02-15

    The effect of the chlorogenic acid isomer 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) on digestion of potato starch by porcine pancreatic alpha amylase (PPAA) was investigated using isolated starch and cooked potato tuber as substrates. In vitro digestion was performed on five varieties of potato with varying phenolic content. Co- and pre-incubation of PPAA with 5-CQA significantly reduced PPAA activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of about 2mgmL(-1). Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated that 5-CQA exerts a mixed type inhibition as km increased and Vmax decreased. The total polyphenol content (TPC) of peeled tuber tissue ranged from 320.59 to 528.94mg 100g(-1)dry weight (DW) in raw tubers and 282.03-543.96mg 100g(-1)DW in cooked tubers. With the exception of Désirée, TPC and 5-CQA levels decreased after cooking. Principle component analysis indicated that digestibility is affected by multiple factors including phenolic, dry matter and starch content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory effect of dietary capsaicin on liver fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Shanna; Stradiot, Leslie; Verhulst, Stefaan; Thoen, Lien; Mannaerts, Inge; van Grunsven, Leo A

    2015-06-01

    Virtually all chronic liver injuries result in the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In their activated state, these cells are the main collagen-producing cells implicated in liver fibrosis. Capsaicin (CPS), the active compound of chili peppers, can modulate the activation and migration of HSCs in vitro. Here, we evaluated the potential protective and prophylactic effects of CPS related to cholestatic and hepatotoxic-induced liver fibrosis and its possible underlying mechanism of action. Male Balb/c mice received dietary CPS after 3 days of bile duct ligation (BDL) or before and during carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) injections. Mice receiving dietary CPS after BDL had a significant improvement of liver fibrosis accompanied by a decrease in collagen deposition and downregulation of activation markers in isolated HSCs. In the CCl4 model, dietary CPS inhibited the upregulation of profibrogenic markers. However, CPS could not attenuate the CCl4 -induced fibrosis when it was already established. Furthermore, in vitro CPS treatment inhibited the autophagic process during HSC activation. Dietary CPS has potential benefits in the therapy of cholestatic liver fibrosis and in the prophylaxis of hepatotoxic-induced liver injury. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Inhibitory Effects of Pterodon emarginatus Bean Oil and Extract on Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mendes, V S; Sant'Anna, J B; Oliveira, S C C; Maldonade, Iriani Rodrigues; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    that concentrations superior to 10% (v/v) using AC and 7.5% (v/v) using OE were necessary to eliminate colonies formedAccording to data of MIC, at 2.5% of AC and OE was enough to kill S. aureus The well diffusion technique demonstrated better performance than disc diffusion test for OE and AC extractsHydroalcoholic and oil extracts of sucupira beans had highest effect against Staphylococcus aureus Aqueous extract had no effect on bacterial growth in all microbial methods testedThe sucupira-based extracts is a promising source as herbal drug due to therapeutic value Abbreviations Used: OE: Essencial oil; AC: Hydroalcoholic oil extract; AQ: Aqueous extracts; MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration; MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration; CFU: Colony formed unit.

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Leptin on Pancreatic α-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Tudurí, Eva; Marroquí, Laura; Soriano, Sergi; Ropero, Ana B.; Batista, Thiago M.; Piquer, Sandra; López-Boado, Miguel A.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Gomis, Ramón; Nadal, Angel; Quesada, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Leptin released from adipocytes plays a key role in the control of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. In addition to its central action, leptin directly affects pancreatic β-cells, inhibiting insulin secretion, and, thus, modulating glucose homeostasis. However, despite the importance of glucagon secretion in glucose homeostasis, the role of leptin in α-cell function has not been studied in detail. In the present study, we have investigated this functional interaction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The presence of leptin receptors (ObR) was demonstrated by RT-PCR analysis, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry. Electrical activity was analyzed by patch-clamp and Ca2+ signals by confocal microscopy. Exocytosis and glucagon secretion were assessed using fluorescence methods and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS The expression of several ObR isoforms (a–e) was detected in glucagon-secreting αTC1-9 cells. ObRb, the main isoform involved in leptin signaling, was identified at the protein level in αTC1-9 cells as well as in mouse and human α-cells. The application of leptin (6.25 nmol/l) hyperpolarized the α-cell membrane potential, suppressing the electrical activity induced by 0.5 mmol/l glucose. Additionally, leptin inhibited Ca2+ signaling in αTC1-9 cells and in mouse and human α-cells within intact islets. A similar result occurred with 0.625 nmol/l leptin. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in glucagon secretion from mouse islets and were counteracted by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, wortmannin, suggesting the involvement of this pathway in leptin action. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate that leptin inhibits α-cell function, and, thus, these cells are involved in the adipoinsular communication. PMID:19401420

  10. Acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Fonteles, André Igor; de Moraes, José Fernando Vila Nova; Barros, Jônatas de França

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods: Controlled, randomized study with crossover design. Twenty pubertal individuals underwent two 30-minute sessions: (1) aerobic exercise session performed between 65% and 75% of heart rate reserve, divided into 5 min of warm-up, 20 min at the target intensity and 5 min of cool down; and (2) control session watching a cartoon. Before and after the sessions, the computerized Stroop test-Testinpacs™ was applied to evaluate the inhibitory control. Reaction time (ms) and errors (n) were recorded. Results: The control session reaction time showed no significant difference. On the other hand, the reaction time of the exercise session decreased after the intervention (p<0.001). The number of errors made at the exercise session were lower than in the control session (p=0.011). Additionally, there was a positive association between reaction time (Δ) of the exercise session and age (r 2=0.404, p=0.003). Conclusions: Vigorous aerobic exercise seems to promote acute improvement in the inhibitory control in adolescents. The effect of exercise on the inhibitory control performance was associated with age, showing that it was reduced at older age ranges. PMID:26564328

  11. Trypsin inhibitory activity and gel-enhancing effect of sarcoplasmic proteins from common carp.

    PubMed

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2012-10-01

    Proteinase inhibitory activity of sarcoplasmic protein (SP) extracted from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle and its gel-improving ability were investigated. SPs displayed 89% and 54% inhibitory activity toward trypsin at 40 and 65 °C, respectively. Protein bands with molecular mass of 69, 50, 44, 41, and 35 kDa appeared on trypsin inhibitory activity staining under nonreducing condition when incubated at 40 °C, while 2 protein bands at 54 and 35 kDa were observed at 65 °C. Addition of SP at 0.18 g protein/100 g increased textural properties of threadfin bream surimi gel. However, when SP was added in combination with various CaCl(2) concentrations (0.1% to 0.5%) it did not further improve textural properties as compared to the addition of SP alone. Retention of myosin heavy chain of threadfin bream surimi was greater with the addition of SP. These results indicated that the gel-enhancing effect of common carp SP was due to the inhibitory activity toward endogenous trypsin-like proteinases in threadfin bream surimi. Sarcoplasmic protein from common carp muscle could be used as a functional protein ingredient that minimizes muscle proteolysis and improves textural properties of surimi containing trypsin-like endogenous proteinases. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Improving the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect of Illigera henryi by solid-state fermentation with Clonostachys rogersoniana.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Jiao; Dong, Jian-Wei; Cai, Le; Mei, Rui-Feng; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2017-11-01

    Illigera henryi, an endemic traditional Chinese medicine, contains abundant aporphine alkaloids that possess various bioactivities. In the present study, tubers of I. henryi were fermented by several fungi, and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of non-fermented and fermented I. henryi were measured. The results showed that the fermentation of I. henryi with Clonostachys rogersoniana 828H2 is effective for improving the AChE inhibitory activity. A key biotransformation was found during the C. rogersoniana fermentation for clarifying the improvement of the AChE inhibitory activity of I. henryi: (S)-actinodaphnine (1) was converted to a new 4-hydroxyaporphine alkaloid (4R,6aS)-4-hydroxyactinodaphnine (2) that possessed a stronger AChE inhibitory activity, with an IC 50 value of 17.66±0.06 μM. This paper is the first to report that the pure strain fermentation processing of I. henryi and indicated C. rogersoniana fermentation might be a potential processing method for I. henryi. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strong inhibitory effect of furanoses and sugar lactones on beta-galactosidase Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Huber, R E; Brockbank, R L

    1987-03-24

    Various sugars and their lactones were tested for their inhibition of beta-galactosidase (Escherichia coli). L-Ribose, which in the furanose form has a hydroxyl configuration similar to that of D-galactose at positions equivalent to the 3- and 4-positions of D-galactose, was a very strong inhibitor, and D-lyxose, which in the furanose form also resembles D-galactose, was a much better inhibitor than expected. Structural comparisons prelude the pyranose forms of these sugars from being significant contributors to the inhibition, and inhibition at different temperatures (at which there are different furanose concentrations) strongly supported the conclusion that the furanose form is inhibitory. Studies with sugar derivatives that can only be in the furanose form also supported the conclusion. This is the first report of the inhibitory effect of furanose on beta-galactosidase. Lactones were also inhibitory. Every lactone tested was much more inhibitory than was its parent sugar. D-Galactonolactone was especially good. Experiments indicated that it was D-galactono-1,5-lactone rather than D-galactono-1,4-lactone which was inhibitory. Inhibition of beta-galactosidases from mammalian sources by lactones has been reported previously, but this is the first report of the effect of beta-galactosidase from E. coli. Since furanoses in the envelope form are analogous (in some ways) to half-chair or sofa conformations and since lactones with six-membered rings probably have half-chair or sofa conformations, the results indicate that beta-galactosidase probably destabilizes its substrate into a planar conformation of some type and that the galactose in the transition state may, therefore, also be quite planar.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Incentive effect on inhibitory control in adolescents with early-life stress: an antisaccade study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sven C; Hardin, Michael G; Korelitz, Katherine; Daniele, Teresa; Bemis, Jessica; Dozier, Mary; Peloso, Elizabeth; Maheu, Francoise S; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2012-03-01

    Early-life stress (ES) such as adoption, change of caregiver, or experience of emotional neglect may influence the way in which affected individuals respond to emotional stimuli of positive or negative valence. These modified responses may stem from a direct alteration of how emotional stimuli are coded, and/or the cognitive function implicated in emotion modulation, such as self-regulation or inhibition. These ES effects have been probed on tasks either targeting reward and inhibitory function. Findings revealed deficits in both reward processing and inhibitory control in ES youths. However, no work has yet examined whether incentives can improve automatic response or inhibitory control in ES youths. To determine whether incentives would only improve self-regulated voluntary actions or generalize to automated motoric responses, participants were tested on a mixed eye movement task that included reflex-like prosaccades and voluntary controlled antisaccade eye movements. Seventeen adopted children (10 females, mean age 11.3 years) with a documented history of neglect and 29 typical healthy youths (16 females, mean age 11.9 years) performed the mixed prosaccade/antisaccade task during monetary incentive conditions or during no-incentive conditions. Across both saccade types, ES adolescents responded more slowly than controls. As expected, control participants committed fewer errors on antisaccades during the monetary incentive condition relative to the no-incentive condition. By contrast, ES youths failed to show this incentive-related improvement on inhibitory control. No significant incentive effects were found with prepotent prosaccades trials in either group. Finally, co-morbid psychopathology did not modulate the findings. These data suggest that youths with experience of early stress exhibit deficient modulation of inhibitory control by reward processes, in tandem with a reward-independent deficit in preparation for both automatic and controlled responses

  15. Participation of the mPRα in the inhibitory effect of progesterone on prolactin secretion.

    PubMed

    Camilletti, María Andrea; Ferraris, Jimena; Abeledo-Machado, Alejandra; Converse, Aubrey; Faraoni, Erika; Pisera, Daniel; Gutierrez, Silvina; Thomas, Peter; Díaz-Torga, Graciela

    2018-06-05

    The membrane progesterone receptors (mPRα, -β, -γ, -δ, -ε) are known to mediate rapid non-genomic progesterone functions in different cell types. However, the functions of these receptors in the pituitary have not been reported to date. Here we show that the expression of mPRα was the highest among the mPRs in the rat anterior pituitary gland. Immunostaining of mPRα was detected in somatotrophs, gonadotrophs and lactotrophs. Interestingly, 63% of mPRα-positive cells within the pituitary were lactotrophs suggesting that mPRα is involved in controlling prolactin (PRL) secretion in the pituitary. To test this hypothesis, rat pituitaries were incubated (1h) with either progesterone (P4) or the mPRα specific agonist Org OD 02-0. PRL secretion was then measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results of this experiment revealed that both P4 and Org OD 02-0 decreased PRL secretion. Moreover, results from the GH3 cell line (CCL-82.1 ™ ) showed that P4 and Org OD 02-0 inhibited PRL release, but the nuclear PR agonist R5020 was ineffective. Our investigation of the cellular mechanisms behind mPRα activity indicated that both P4 and Org OD 02-0 decreased cAMP accumulation, while R5020 was ineffective. In addition, the Org OD 02-0-effect on PRL release was blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of Go/Gi proteins. Because TGFβ1 is a potent inhibitor of PRL secretion in lactotrophs, we lastly evaluated whether TGFβ1 was activated by progesterone and whether this effect was mediated by mPRα. Our results showed that P4 and Org OD 02-0, but not R5020 increased active TGFβ1 levels. This effect was not observed when cells were transfected with mPRα-siRNA. Taking together, these data provide new evidence that mPRα mediates the progesterone inhibitory effect on PRL secretion through both: the decreases in cAMP levels and the activation of TGFβ1 in the lactotroph population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Polyacetylene Compounds from Panax ginseng on Neurotrophin Receptor-Mediated Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Aoi; Matsuura, Daisuke; Kanatani, Hirotoshi; Yano, Shingo; Tsunakawa, Mitsuo; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    Neurotrophins play an important role in the control of the hair growth cycle. Therefore, neurotrophin receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential for the treatment of hair growth disorders. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Panax ginseng, a medicinal plant commonly used to treat alopecia, on the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors. In addition, we isolated and characterized the bioactive compounds of P. ginseng extracts. P. ginseng hexane extracts strongly inhibited brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB and β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF)-p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) binding. Furthermore, we identified the following 6 polyacetylene compounds as the bioactive components in P. ginseng hexane extract: panaxynol (1), panaxydol (2), panaxydol chlorohydrin (3), 1,8-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,10-diol (4), panaxytriol (5), and dihydropanaxacol (6). In particular, compounds 4, 5, and 6 significantly inhibited BDNF-TrkB binding in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the structural component mediating the inhibitory effect, we investigated the effects of the hydroxyl moiety in these compounds. We found that the inhibitory effect of panaxytriol (5) was strong, whereas the inhibitory effect of Ac-panaxytriol (7) was relatively weak. Our findings suggest that P. ginseng-derived polyacetylenes with a hydroxyl moiety might provide therapeutic benefits to patients with hair growth disorders such as alopecia by inhibiting the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors. Although saponins have been proposed to be the primary mediators of the effects of P. ginseng on hair growth, this study revealed that polyacetylene compounds exert similar effects.

  17. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    PubMed

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of inhibitory effect of various substances on anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomotaka; Harigaya, Yuhki; Kimura, Yuya; Kuroiwa, Megumi; Kurata, Yuhri; Isaka, Kazuichi; Suwa, Yuichi

    2017-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of 20 substances of various chemical species on the anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) activity of an enrichment culture, predominated by Candidatus Brocadia, was determined systematically by using a 15 N tracer technique. The initial anammox rate was determined during first 25 min with a small-scale anaerobic batch incubation supplemented with possible inhibitors. Although Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ did not inhibit anammox, the remaining 18 substances [Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ , [Formula: see text] , Fe 2+ , 4 amines, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis (2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA), citric acid, nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), 1,4-dioxane, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF)] were inhibitory. Inhibitory effect of NTA, EDDHA, THF, DMF, DMA and amines on anammox was first determined in this study. Inhibitory effects of metals were re-evaluated because chelators, which may interfere inhibitory effect, have been used to dissolve metal salts into assay solution. The relative anammox activities as a function of concentration of each substance were described successfully (R 2  > 0.91) either with a linear inhibition model or with a Michaelis-Menten-based inhibition model. IC 50 values were estimated based on either model, and were compared. The IC 50 values of the 4 chelators (0.06-2.7 mM) and 5 metal ions (0.02-1.09 mM) were significantly lower than those of the 4 amines (10.6-29.1 mM) and 5 organic solvents (3.5-82 mM). Although it did not show any inhibition within 25 min, 0.1 mM Cu 2+ completely inhibited anammox activity in 240 min, suggesting that the inhibitory effect caused by Cu 2+ is time-dependent. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of some antidiabetic plants and spices.

    PubMed

    Perera, Handunge Kumudu Irani; Handuwalage, Charith Sandaruwan

    2015-06-09

    Protein cross-linking which occurs towards the latter part of protein glycation is implicated in the development of chronic diabetic complications. Glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects of nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were evaluated in this study using a novel, simple, electrophoresis based method. Methanol extracts of thirteen plants including nine antidiabetic plants and three spices were used. Lysozyme and fructose were incubated at 37 °C in the presence or absence of different concentrations of plant extracts up to 31 days. Standard glycation inhibitor aminoguanidine and other appropriate controls were included. A recently established sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method was used to detect the products of protein cross-linking in the incubation mixtures. High molecular weight protein products representing the dimer, trimer and tetramer of lysozyme were detected in the presence of fructose. Among the nine antidiabetic plants, seven showed glycation induced protein cross-linking inhibitory effects namely Ficus racemosa (FR) stem bark, Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves, Musa paradisiaca (MP) yam, Phyllanthus debilis (PD) whole plant, Phyllanthus emblica (PE) fruit, Pterocarpus marsupium (PM) latex and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) leaves. Inhibition observed with Coccinia grandis (CG) leaves and Strychnos potatorum (SP) seeds were much low. Leaves of Gymnema lactiferum (GL), the plant without known antidiabetic effects showed the lowest inhibition. All three spices namely Coriandrum sativum (CS) seeds, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) bark and Syzygium aromaticum (SA) flower buds showed cross-link inhibitory effects with higher effects in CS and SA. PD, PE, PM, CS and SA showed almost complete inhibition on the formation of cross-linking with 25 μg/ml extracts. Methanol extracts of PD, PE, PM, CS and SA have shown promising inhibitory effects on glycation induced protein cross-linking.

  20. A subliminal inhibitory mechanism for the negative compatibility effect: a continuous versus threshold mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Chen, Xuhai; Dai, Dongyang; Wang, Yongchun; Wang, Yonghui

    2014-07-01

    The current study investigated the mechanism underlying subliminal inhibition using the negative compatibility effect (NCE) paradigm. We hypothesized that a decrease in prime activation affects the subsequent inhibitory process, delaying onset of inhibition and reducing its strength. Two experiments tested this hypothesis using arrow stimuli as primes and targets. Two different irrelevant masks (i.e., a mask sharing no prime features) were presented in succession in each trial to not only ensure that primes were processed subliminally, but also avoid feature updating between primes and masks. Prime/target compatibility and prime background density were manipulated in Experiment 1. Results showed that under subliminal inhibitory condition, the NCE disappears when the density increases (i.e., pixel density in the prime's background of 25 %) in Experiment 1. However, when we fixed the prime's background at the density of 25 % and manipulated prime/target compatibility as well as inter-stimuli-interval (ISI) between mask and target in Experiment 2, behavioral results showed marginally significant NCEs in the 150-ms ISI condition. Electrophysiological evidence showed the lateralized readiness potential for compatible trials was significantly more positive than that for incompatible trials during the two consecutive time windows (i.e., 400-450 and 450-500 ms) in the 150-ms ISI condition. In addition, the NCE size was significant smaller in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. All of the results support predictions of the continuous subliminal inhibitory mechanism hypothesis which posits that decreases in prime activation strength lead to delay in inhibitory onset and decline in inhibitory strength.

  1. An apple oligogalactan potentiates the growth inhibitory effect of celecoxib on colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhua; Niu, Yinbo; Sun, Yang; Mei, Lin; Zhang, Bangle; Li, Qian; Liu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Jianfa; Mei, Qibing

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have indicated that selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors possess clinically chemopreventive and preclinically anticancer activities. Their long-term use, however, may be limited by the cardiovascular toxicity. This study tried to investigate whether an apple oligogalactan (AOG) could enhance the growth inhibitory effect of celecoxib on colorectal cancer. Caco-2 and HT-29 cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of AOG (0-1 g/L), celecoxib (0-25 μmol/L), and their combination. COX-2 levels were assessed by reverse transcription PCR and Western blot. COX-2 activity was evaluated by measuring prostaglandin E2 concentration. A colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CACC) mouse model was used to determine the effect of the combination in vivo. AOG (0.1-0.5 g/L) could potentiate the inhibitory effect of physiologic doses of celecoxib (5 μmol/L) on cell growth and decrease COX-2 expressions both at RNA and protein levels. In vivo, the combination (2.5% AOG plus 0.04% celecoxib, w/w) prevented against CACC in mice effectively. Our data indicate that AOG could potentiate the growth inhibitory effect of celecoxib on colorectal cancer both in vitro and in vivo through influencing the expression and function of COX-2 and phosphorylation of MAPKs, which suggests a new possible combinatorial strategy in colorectal cancer therapy.

  2. Inhibitory Effect of Long-Chain Fatty Acids on Biogas Production and the Protective Effect of Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Dasa, Kris Triwulan; Westman, Supansa Y.; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Niklasson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of lipid-containing wastes for biogas production is often hampered by the inhibitory effect of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). In this study, the inhibitory effects of LCFAs (palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid) on biogas production as well as the protective effect of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) against LCFAs were examined in thermophilic batch digesters. The results showed that palmitic and oleic acid with concentrations of 3.0 and 4.5 g/L resulted in >50% inhibition on the biogas production, while stearic acid had an even stronger inhibitory effect. The encased cells in the MBR system were able to perform better in the presence of LCFAs. This system exhibited a significantly lower percentage of inhibition than the free cell system, not reaching over 50% at any LCFA concentration tested. PMID:27699172

  3. Inhibitory effect of trans-caryophyllene (TC) on leukocyte-endothelial attachment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Chunfeng; Dai, Xinlun; Ao, Yu; Li, Yumei

    2017-08-15

    trans-Caryophyllene (TC) is a major component found in the essential oils of many spices and foods/medicinal plants. It is a natural sesquiterpene and has been the subject of numerous studies. However, the effects of TC on vascular inflammation remain unknown. In this study, we reported that TC treatment in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) prevented attachment of monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 cells to endothelial cells. In addition, in vivo results indicate that TC inhibited macrophage infiltration to the aortic surface and reduced total serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Importantly, administration of TC could inhibit the induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, our data indicate that the inhibitory effects of TC on the expression of VCAM-1 are mediated by the JAK2/STAT1/IRF-1 pathway. TC is a specific agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R). Importantly, we further verified that the inhibitory effects of TC on the expression of IRF-1 and VCAM-1 are dependent on activation of CB2R. Inhibition of CB2R by either specific inhibitors or RNA interference abolished the inhibitory effects of TC on the expression of IRF-1 and VCAM-1. Our results suggest that TC might have a capacity to suppress the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitory effect of strychnine on acetylcholine receptor activation in bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kuijpers, G A; Vergara, L A; Calvo, S; Yadid, G

    1994-01-01

    1. Strychnine, which is known as a potent and selective antagonist of the inhibitory glycine receptor in the central nervous system, inhibits the nicotinic stimulation of catecholamine release from bovine cultured adrenal chromaffin cells in a concentration-dependent (1-100 microM) manner. At 10 microM nicotine, the IC50 value for strychnine is approximately 30 microM. Strychnine also inhibits the nicotine-induced membrane depolarization and increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. 2. The inhibitory action of strychnine is reversible and is selective for nicotinic stimulation, with no effect observed on secretion elicited by a high external K+ concentration, histamine or angiotensin II. 3. Strychnine competes with nicotine in its effect, but not modify the apparent positive cooperatively of the nicotine binding sites. In the absence of nicotine, strychnine has no effect on catecholamine release. Glycine does not affect catecholamine release nor the inhibitory action of strychnine on this release. 4. These results suggest that strychnine interacts with the agonist binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in chromaffin cells, thus exerting a pharmacological effect independently of the glycine receptor. PMID:7834198

  5. Inhibitory effect of emodin on human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Chen, Yingping; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Yaming

    2015-03-01

    Da Huang (Radix et Rhizoma Rhei) is the dried root or rhizome of Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim ex Balf. or Rheum officinale Braill of family Polygonaceae. It has heat clearing, damp drying, fire purging and toxin removing effects. Because of its definite curative efficacy, it has been widely applied in clinical settings. To study the inhibitory effect of emodin on human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 and its mechanism. MTT assay, flow cytometry and electron microscopy were used to investigate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of emodin on human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721. 12 h, 24 h and 48 h after the action of 20, 40 and 80 umol/L emodin on SMMC-7721 cells, the proliferation of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells was inhibited; the inhibitory effects showed time-and concentration-dependence. 48 h after the action of different concentrations of emodin on SMMC-7721 cells, cells in G2/M phase increased significantly, while the proportion of S phase cells gradually declined. Emodin can inhibit human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721.

  6. The inhibitory effects of sorbate and benzoate against Clostridium perfringens type A isolates.

    PubMed

    Alnoman, Maryam; Udompijitkul, Pathima; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of sorbate and benzoate against Clostridium perfringens type A food poisoning (FP) and non-food-borne (NFB) disease isolates. No significant inhibition of germination of spores of both FP and NFB isolates was observed in rich medium (pH 7.0) supplemented with permissive level of sodium sorbate (0.3% ≈ 0.13 mM undissociated sorbic acid) or sodium benzoate (0.1% ≈ 0.01 mM undissociated benzoic acid) used in foods. However, these levels of sorbate and benzoate effectively arrested outgrowth of germinated C. perfringens spores in rich medium. Lowering the pH of the medium increases the inhibitory effects of sorbate and benzoate against germination of spores of NFB isolates, and outgrowth of spores of both FP and NFB isolates. Furthermore, sorbate and benzoate inhibited vegetative growth of C. perfringens isolates. However, the permissible levels of these organic salts could not control the growth of C. perfringens spores in chicken meat stored under extremely abusive conditions. In summary, although sorbate and benzoate showed inhibitory activities against C. perfringens in the rich medium, no such effect was observed in cooked chicken meat. Therefore, caution should be taken when applying these organic salts into meat products to reduce or eliminate C. perfringens spores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on Babesia and Theileria parasites.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Mohamed Abdo; El-Sayed, Shimaa Abd El-Salam; AbouLaila, Mahmoud; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2017-08-01

    N-acetyl-L-cysteine is known to have antibacterial, antiviral, antimalarial, and antioxidant activities. Therefore, the in vitro inhibitory effect of this hit was evaluated in the present study on the growth of Babesia and Theileria parasites. The in vitro growth of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia divergens, Theileria equi, and Babesia caballi that were tested was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) by micromolar concentrations of N-acetyl-L-cysteine. The inhibitory effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine was synergistically potentiated when used in combination with diminazene aceturate on B. bovis and B. caballi cultures. These results indicate that N-acetyl-L-cysteine might be used as a drug for the treatment of babesiosis, especially when used in combination with diminazene aceturate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibitory effect of vanillin on cellulase activity in hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Qi, Benkun; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-09-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic material produces a wide variety of inhibitory compounds, which strongly inhibit the following enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. Vanillin is a kind of phenolics derived from degradation of lignin. The effect of vanillin on cellulase activity for the hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in detail. The results clearly showed that vanillin can reversibly and non-competitively inhibit the cellulase activity at appropriate concentrations and the value of IC50 was estimated to be 30 g/L. The inhibition kinetics of cellulase by vanillin was studied using HCH-1 model and inhibition constants were determined. Moreover, investigation of three compounds with similar structure of vanillin on cellulase activity demonstrated that aldehyde group and phenolic hydroxyl groups of vanillin had inhibitory effect on cellulase. These results provide valuable and detailed information for understanding the inhibition of lignin derived phenolics on cellulase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibitory effect of resin composite containing S-PRG filler on Streptococcus mutans glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Haruaki; Miki-Oka, Saeki; Mayanagi, Gen; Abiko, Yuki; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Imazato, Satoshi

    2018-03-01

    Resin composites containing surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) fillers have been reported to inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth on their surfaces, and their inhibitory effects were attributed to BO 3 3- and F - ions. The aim of this study was to evaluate S. mutans acid production through glucose metabolism on resin composite containing S-PRG fillers and assess inhibitory effects of BO 3 3- and F - on S. mutans metabolic activities. The pH change through S. mutans acid production on experimental resin composite was periodically measured after the addition of glucose. Inhibitory effects of BO 3 3- or F - solutions on S. mutans metabolism were evaluated by XTT assays and measurement of the acid production rate. The pH of experimental resin containing S-PRG fillers was significantly higher than that of control resin containing silica fillers (p < 0.05). OD 450 values by XTT assays and S. mutans acid production rates significantly decreased in the presence of BO 3 3- and F - compared with the absence of these ions (p < 0.05). pH reduction by S. mutans acid production was inhibited on resin composite containing S-PRG fillers. Moreover, S. mutans glucose metabolism and acid production were inhibited in the presence of low concentrations of BO 3 3- or F - . BO 3 3- or F - released from resin composite containing S-PRG fillers exhibits inhibitory effects on S. mutans metabolism at concentrations lower than those which inhibit bacterial growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Preliminary investigation of the in vitro inhibitory effect of antibiotics on algae of the genus Prototheca].

    PubMed

    Casal, M; Gutierrez, J

    1981-07-10

    We investigated the possible inhibitory action 'in vitro' by antibiotic containing discs against microscopic alga that are potential human pathogens of the genus Prototheca especially P. wickerhamii. The results indicated that inhibitors in vitro included amikacin, colistin, dibecacin, framicetin, gentamycin, kanamycin, lividomycin, neomycin, polymyxin, paromomycin, ribostamycin, sisomycin and tobramycin. We emphasize the interest in the effectiveness at these drugs in a case of human protothecosis.

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Waste Glass Powder on ASR Expansion Induced by Waste Glass Aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuhua; Wang, Shu; Tang, Wan; Hu, Ningning; Wei, Jianpeng

    2015-01-01

    Detailed research is carried out to ascertain the inhibitory effect of waste glass powder (WGP) on alkali-silica reaction (ASR) expansion induced by waste glass aggregate in this paper. The alkali reactivity of waste glass aggregate is examined by two methods in accordance with the China Test Code SL352-2006. The potential of WGP to control the ASR expansion is determined in terms of mean diameter, specific surface area, content of WGP and curing temperature. Two mathematical models are developed to estimate the inhibitory efficiency of WGP. These studies show that there is ASR risk with an ASR expansion rate over 0.2% when the sand contains more than 30% glass aggregate. However, WGP can effectively control the ASR expansion and inhibit the expansion rate induced by the glass aggregate to be under 0.1%. The two mathematical models have good simulation results, which can be used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of WGP on ASR risk. PMID:28793603

  12. Inhibitory effects of toxic compounds on nitrification process for cokes wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Mo; Park, Donghee; Lee, Dae Sung; Park, Jong Moon

    2008-04-15

    Cokes wastewater is one of the most toxic industrial effluents since it contains high concentrations of toxic compounds such as phenols, cyanides and thiocyanate. Although activated sludge process has been adapted to treat this wastewater, nitrification process has been occasionally upset by serious inhibitory effects of toxic compounds. In this study, therefore, we examined inhibitory effects of ammonia, thiocyanate, free cyanide, ferric cyanide, phenol and p-cresol on nitrification in an activated sludge system, and then correlated their threshold concentrations with the full-scale pre-denitrification process for treating cokes wastewater. Ammonia below 350 mg/L did not cause substrate inhibition for nitrifying bacteria. Thiocyanate above 200mg/L seemed to inhibit nitrification, but it was due to the increased loading of ammonia produced from its biodegradation. Free cyanide above 0.2mg/L seriously inhibited nitrification, but ferric cyanide below 100mg/L did not. Phenol and p-cresol significantly inhibited nitrification above 200 mg/L and 100mg/L, respectively. Meantime, activated carbon was added to reduce inhibitory effects of phenol and free cyanide.

  13. Neurofeedback Training Effects on Inhibitory Brain Activation in ADHD: A Matter of Learning?

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Sarah; Wolf, Isabella; Holz, Nathalie; Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Adamo, Nicoletta; Holtmann, Martin; Ruf, Matthias; Banaschewski, Tobias; Hohmann, Sarah; Brandeis, Daniel

    2018-05-15

    Neurofeedback training (NF) is a promising non-pharmacological treatment for ADHD that has been associated with improvement of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms as well as changes in electrophysiological measures. However, the functional localization of neural changes following NF compared to an active control condition, and of successful learning during training (considered to be the critical mechanism for improvement), remains largely unstudied. Children with ADHD (N=16, mean age: 11.81, SD: 1.47) were randomly assigned to either slow cortical potential (SCP, n=8) based NF or biofeedback control training (electromyogram feedback, n=8) and performed a combined Flanker/NoGo task pre- and post-training. Effects of NF, compared to the active control, and of learning in transfer trials (approximating successful transfer to everyday life) were examined with respect to clinical outcome and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes during inhibitory control. After 20 sessions of training, children in the NF group presented reduced ADHD symptoms and increased activation in areas associated with inhibitory control compared to baseline. Subjects who were successful learners (n=9) also showed increased activation in an extensive inhibitory network irrespective of the type of training. Activation increased in an extensive inhibitory network following NF training, and following successful learning through NF and control biofeedback. Although this study was only powered to detect large effects and clearly requires replication in larger samples, the results suggest a crucial role for learning effects in biofeedback trainings. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibitory effects of clotrimazole on TNF-alpha-induced adhesion molecule expression and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Dinesh; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Min-A; Cho, Mi-Yeon; Park, Young-Joon; Choi, Han Gon; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2009-04-01

    Cell adhesion molecules play a pivotal role in chronic inflammation and pathological angiogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of clotrimazole (CLT) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced changes in adhesion molecule expression. CLT dose-dependently inhibited monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expressions in TNF-alpha-stimulated HT29 colonic epithelial cells. This inhibitory action of CLT correlated with a significant reduction in TNF-alpha-induced adhesion of monocytes to HT29 cells, which was comparable to the inhibitory effects of anti-ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 monoclonal antibodies on monocyte-epithelial adhesion. These inhibitory actions of CLT were, at least in part, attributable to the inhibition of redox sensitive NF-kappaB activation, as CLT inhibited TNF-alpha-induced ROS generation as well as NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and activation in HT29 cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced monocyte adhesion was also mimicked by the specific NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). Inflammatory mediators including TNF-alpha have known to promote angiogenesis, which in turn further contributes to inflammatory pathology. Therefore, we additionally evaluated whether CLT modulates TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis using in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The CAM assay showed that CLT dose-dependently attenuated TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis, and the effect was correlated with decreased inflammation of the CAM tissue. In conclusion, our results suggest that CLT can inhibit TNF-alpha-triggered expression of adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and angiogenesis during inflammation.

  15. Titania - Highest Resolution Voyager Picture

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    On Jan. 24, 1986, NASA Voyager 2 returned the highest-resolution picture of Titania, Uranus largest satellite. Abundant impact craters of many sizes pockmark the ancient surface; most prominent features are fault valleys that stretch across Titania. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00039

  16. Inhibitory effect of brazilein on tyrosinase and melanin synthesis: Kinetics and in silico approach.

    PubMed

    Hridya, Hemachandran; Amrita, Anantharaman; Sankari, Mohan; George Priya Doss, C; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan; Gopalakrishnan, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2015-11-01

    In our present study, the inhibitory effect of brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan on tyrosinase activity was investigated through multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques. The result has shown that brazilein reversibly inhibited tyrosinase in a mixed type manner. The interaction of brazilein with the amino acid residues of tyrosinase has been validated through fluorescence quenching studies. Copper interaction studies suggested that brazilein could bind with copper ions of the enzyme. Circular dichroism analysis confirmed that brazilein induced secondary structural changes in tyrosinase. Docking studies further authenticate that brazilein forms hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding with the active site residues of tyrosinase. Moreover, in vitro studies confirmed that the inhibitory mechanism of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis by brazilein in B16F0 melanoma cells. These results suggested that brazilein act as a potential tyrosinase inhibitor and it would contribute as a of novel tyrosinase inhibitor in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ROCK and PRK-2 Mediate the Inhibitory Effect of Y-27632 on Polyglutamine Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jieya; Welch, William J.; Diamond, Marc I.

    2009-01-01

    Polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin (Htt) and the androgen receptor (AR) causes untreatable neurodegenerative diseases. Y-27632, a therapeutic lead, reduces Htt and AR aggregation in cultured cells, and Htt-induced neurodegeneration in Drosophila. Y-27632 inhibits both Rho-associated kinases ROCK and PRK-2, making its precise intracellular target uncertain. Over-expression of either kinase increases Htt and AR aggregation. Three ROCK inhibitors (Y-27632, H-1077, HA-1152), and a specific ROCK inhibitory peptide reduce polyglutamine protein aggregation, as does knockdown of ROCK or PRK-2 by RNAi. RNAi also indicates that each kinase is required for the inhibitory effects of Y-27632 to manifest fully. These two actin regulatory kinases are thus involved in polyglutamine aggregation, and their simultaneous inhibition may be an important therapeutic goal. PMID:18423405

  18. Controlled versus automatic processes: which is dominant to safety? The moderating effect of inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end.

  19. Controlled versus Automatic Processes: Which Is Dominant to Safety? The Moderating Effect of Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end. PMID:24520338

  20. Comparison of the inhibitory effects of tolcapone and entacapone against human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Xia

    2016-06-15

    Tolcapone and entacapone are two potent catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors with a similar skeleton and displaying similar pharmacological activities. However, entacapone is a very safe drug used widely in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, while tolcapone is only in limited use for Parkinson's patients and needs careful monitoring of hepatic functions due to hepatotoxicity. This study aims to investigate and compare the inhibitory effects of entacapone and tolcapone on human UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs), as well as to evaluate the potential risks from the view of drug-drug interactions (DDI). The results demonstrated that both tolcapone and entacapone exhibited inhibitory effects on UGT1A1, UGT1A7,more » UGT1A9 and UGT1A10. In contrast to entacapone, tolcapone exhibited more potent inhibitory effects on UGT1A1, UGT1A7, and UGT1A10, while their inhibitory potentials against UGT1A9 were comparable. It is noteworthy that the inhibition constants (K{sub i}) of tolcapone and entacapone against bilirubin-O-glucuronidation in human liver microsomes (HLM) are determined as 0.68 μM and 30.82 μM, respectively, which means that the inhibition potency of tolcapone on UGT1A1 mediated bilirubin-O-glucuronidation in HLM is much higher than that of entacapone. Furthermore, the potential risks of tolcapone or entacapone via inhibition of human UGT1A1 were quantitatively predicted by the ratio of the areas under the plasma drug concentration-time curve (AUC). The results indicate that tolcapone may result in significant increase in AUC of bilirubin or the drugs primarily metabolized by UGT1A1, while entacapone is unlikely to cause a significant DDI through inhibition of UGT1A1. - Highlights: • Tolcapone and entacapone exhibited preferential inhibition against UGT1A enzymes. • In contrast to entacapone, tolcapone exhibited more potent inhibitory effects on human UGT1A1, 1 A7 and 1 A10. • Tolcapone may lead to significant increase in AUC of bilirubin.

  1. Inhibitory effects of some plant essential oils against Arcobacter butzleri and potential for rosemary oil as a natural food preservative.

    PubMed

    Irkin, Reyhan; Abay, Secil; Aydin, Fuat

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the inhibitory activity of commercially marketed essential oils of mint, rosemary, orange, sage, cinnamon, bay, clove, and cumin against Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter skirrowii and the effects of the essential oil of rosemary against A. butzleri in a cooked minced beef system. Using the disc diffusion method to determine the inhibitory activities of these plant essential oils against strains of Arcobacter, we found that those of rosemary, bay, cinnamon, and clove had strong inhibitory activity against these organisms, whereas the essential oils of cumin, mint, and sage failed to show inhibitory activity against most of the Arcobacter strains tested. The 0.5% (vol/wt) essential oil of rosemary was completely inhibitory against A. butzleri in the cooked minced beef system at 4°C. These essential oils may be further investigated as a natural solution to the food industry by creating an additional barrier (hurdle technology) to inhibit the growth of Arcobacter strains.

  2. Lowest cost due to highest productivity and highest quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenk, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Since global purchasing in the automotive industry has been taken up all around the world there is one main key factor that makes a TB-supplier today successful: Producing highest quality at lowest cost. The fact that Tailored Blanks, which today may reach up to 1/3 of a car body weight, are purchased on the free market but from different steel suppliers, especially in Europe and NAFTA, the philosophy on OEM side has been changing gradually towards tough evaluation criteria. "No risk at the stamping side" calls for top quality Tailored- or Tubular Blank products. Outsourcing Tailored Blanks has been starting in Japan but up to now without any quality request from the OEM side like ISO 13919-1B (welding quality standard in Europe and USA). Increased competition will automatically push the quality level and the ongoing approach to combine high strength steel with Tailored- and Tubular Blanks will ask for even more reliable system concepts which enables to weld narrow seams at highest speed. Beside producing quality, which is the key to reduce one of the most important cost driver "material scrap," in-line quality systems with true and reliable evaluation is going to be a "must" on all weld systems. Traceability of all process related data submitted to interfaces according to customer request in combination with ghost-shift-operation of TB systems are tomorrow's state-of-the-art solutions of Tailored Blank-facilities.

  3. Effect of N-Terminal Acylation on the Activity of Myostatin Inhibitory Peptides.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kentaro; Nakamura, Akari; Rentier, Cédric; Mino, Yusaku; Asari, Tomo; Saga, Yusuke; Taguchi, Akihiro; Yakushiji, Fumika; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2016-04-19

    Inhibition of myostatin, which negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth, is a promising strategy for the treatment of muscle atrophic disorders, such as muscular dystrophy, cachexia and sarcopenia. Recently, we identified peptide A (H-WRQNTRYSRIEAIKIQILSKLRL-NH2 ), the 23-amino-acid minimum myostatin inhibitory peptide derived from mouse myostatin prodomain, and highlighted the importance of its N-terminal tryptophan residue for the effective inhibition. In this study, we synthesized a series of acylated peptide derivatives focused on the tryptophan residue to develop potent myostatin inhibitors. As a result of the investigation, a more potent derivative of peptide A was successfully identified in which the N-terminal tryptophan residue is replaced with a 2-naphthyloxyacetyl moiety to give an inhibitory peptide three times (1.19±0.11 μm) more potent than parent peptide A (3.53±0.25 μm). This peptide could prove useful as a new starting point for the development of improved inhibitory peptides. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Inhibitory effects of chickpea and Tribulus terrestris on lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Pınar; El, Sedef Nehir

    2016-08-15

    The total saponin content and its in vitro bioaccessibilities in Tribulus terrestris and chickpea were determined by a static in vitro digestion method (COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST). Also, in vitro inhibitory effects of the chosen food samples on lipid and starch digestive enzymes were determined by evaluating the lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. The tested T. terrestris and chickpea showed inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 6967 ± 343 and 2885 ± 85.4 μg/ml, respectively) and α-amylase (IC50 343 ± 26.2 and 167 ± 6.12 μg/ml, respectively). The inhibitory activities of T. terrestris and chickpea against lipase were 15.3 ± 2.03 and 9.74 ± 1.09 μg/ml, respectively. The present study provides the first evidence that these food samples (T. terrestris, chickpea) are potent inhibitors of key enzymes in digestion of carbohydrates and lipids in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibitory effect of eupatilin and jaceosidin isolated from Artemisia princeps in IgE-induced hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Bae, Eun-Ah; Park, Eun-Kyung; Shin, Yong-Wook; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Eun-Joo; Chung, Hae-Gon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2007-12-15

    To understand the antiallergic effect of Artemisia princeps (AP), which has been found to show inhibitory activity against degranulation and a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction, eupatilin and jaceosidin, as the active components, were isolated by degranulation-inhibitory activity-guided fractionation, with their antiallergic activity investigated. These isolated components potently inhibited the release of beta-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells induced by the IgE-antigen complex, with IC(50) values of 3.4 and 4.5muM, respectively. Eupatilin and jaceosidin potently inhibited the PCA reaction and scratching behaviors induced by IgE- antigen complex and compound 48/80, respectively. Orally administered jaceosidin more potently inhibited the PCA reaction than that of eupatilin, although the PCA reaction-inhibitory activity of intraperitoneally administered jaceosidin was nearly the same as that of eupatilin. Eupatilin and jaceosidin inhibited the gene expressions of TNF-alpha and IL-4 in RBL-2H3 cells stimulated by IgE-antigen complex. Eupatilin and jaceosidin inhibited the activation of NF-kB. Based on these findings, eupatilin and jaceosidin may be useful for protection from the PCA and itching reactions, which are IgE-mediated representative skin allergic diseases.

  6. Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, Sudha; Ravindran, Remya; Zinjarde, Smita; Bhargava, Shobha; Ravi Kumar, Ameeta

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic α-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA) inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125 μgmL−1), Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1 μgmL−1), isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0 μgmL−1) and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16 μgmL−1). The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49 μgmL−1), isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127 μgmL−1), acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4 μgmL−1) and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511 μgmL−1). Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds. PMID:20953430

  7. Alcohol's acute effect on food intake is mediated by inhibitory control impairments.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Paul; Rose, Abigail; Randall-Smith, Laura; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2016-05-01

    There is a strong association between alcohol misuse and excess weight. Although alcohol is highly calorific and may directly contribute to weight gain, it is also likely to have indirect effects on weight. Indeed, alcohol primes have been found to stimulate appetite and increase energy intake in experimental taste tests. The current study investigated whether the effects of alcohol on energy intake are the result of inhibitory control impairments and whether this effect is moderated by individual differences in dietary restraint. Sixty undergraduate females completed measures of dietary restraint and the Food Craving Questionnaire-State (FCQS). Following this, they were given an alcohol prime (0.6 g of alcohol per kg of body weight) or a placebo drink manipulated to smell and taste alcoholic. Participants then completed another FCQS and a color conflict Stroop to measure inhibitory control. Finally, participants were asked to taste cookies for 15 minutes. Participants in the alcohol condition performed worse on the Stroop (d = .61) and consumed more cookie calories (d = .61) than participants in the placebo condition. Notably, the effect of the experimental condition on the amount of cookies consumed was mediated by Stroop performance (Κ2 = .08), although this effect was not evident under high levels of restraint. There was no effect of experimental condition on any subscale of craving. The current study suggests that increased energy intake after alcohol administration may be the product of inhibitory control impairments. However, the most restrained eaters are able to maintain control over their eating behavior. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Inhibitory Effects of Pterodon emarginatus Bean Oil and Extract on Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, V. S.; Sant'Anna, J. B.; Oliveira, S. C. C.; Maldonade, Iriani Rodrigues; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    diffusion and microdilution) was evaluated on reducing CFUThe results showed by MBC that concentrations superior to 10% (v/v) using AC and 7.5% (v/v) using OE were necessary to eliminate colonies formedAccording to data of MIC, at 2.5% of AC and OE was enough to kill S. aureusThe well diffusion technique demonstrated better performance than disc diffusion test for OE and AC extractsHydroalcoholic and oil extracts of sucupira beans had highest effect against Staphylococcus aureusAqueous extract had no effect on bacterial growth in all microbial methods testedThe sucupira-based extracts is a promising source as herbal drug due to therapeutic value Abbreviations Used: OE: Essencial oil; AC: Hydroalcoholic oil extract; AQ: Aqueous extracts; MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration; MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration; CFU: Colony formed unit. PMID:29263627

  9. Inhibitory effect of Rosa damascena Mill flower essential oil, geraniol and citronellol on rat ileum contraction.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Emami, S

    2013-01-01

    Flower of Rosa damascena Mill is widely used in Iran for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. However, its pharmacological action on ileum contraction has not been studied. In this research we have investigated ileum motility effect of essential oil of flower petals of R. damascena growing in Kashan, Iran, and two of its constituents. The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by a combination of GC and GC/MS. More than 34 compounds have been identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were β-citronellol (23%), nonadecane (16%), geraniol (16%) and heneicosane (5%). A portion of rat isolated ileum was suspended under 1g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37°C and gassed with O2. Effect of the R. damascena essential oil (2.5-160 μg/ml), geraniol (0.2-3.2 μg/ml) and citronellol (0.8-6.4 μg/ml) were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl, acetylcholine (ACh) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) and compared with standard drugs atropine and loperamide. The contractile response of EFS was mediated mainly through the intramural nerve plexuses, because its response was inhibited by loperamide and partially reduced by atropine. The essential oil concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=67 ± 8.4μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=47 ± 10.6 μg/ml). Geraniol (IC50=1.7 ± 0.15 μg/ml for KCl) and citronellol (IC50=2.9 ± 0.3 μg/ml for KCl) also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction and both were more potent than the essential oil. It was concluded that R. damascena essential oil mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions and geraniol and citronellol had a major role in inhibitory effect of the essential.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Apigenin on Losartan Metabolism and CYP2C9 Activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Gong, Yun; Zeng, Da-Li; Chen, Lian-Guo; Lin, Gao-Tong; Huang, Cheng-Ke; Sun, Wei; Chen, Meng-Chun; Hu, Guo-Xin; Chen, Rui-Jie

    2016-01-01

    CYP2C9 is one of the most important phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of apigenin on the metabolism of losartan and human CYP2C9 and rat CYP2C11 activity in vitro. Different concentrations of apigenin were added to a 100 mmol/l Tris-HCl reaction mixture containing 2 pmol/ml recombinant human CYP2C9.1, 0.25 mg/ml human liver microsomes or 0.5 mg/ml rat liver microsomes to determine the half maximal inhibition or a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) on the metabolism of losartan. In addition, diclofenac used as CYP2C9 substrate was performed to determine the effects of apigenin on CYP2C9. The results showed that apigenin has the inhibitory effect on the metabolism of losartan in vitro, the IC50 was 7.61, 4.10 and 11.07 μmol/l on recombinant CYP2C9 microsomes, human liver microsomes and rat liver microsomes, respectively. Meanwhile, apigenin's mode of action on human CYP2C9 activity was competitive for the substrate diclofenac. In contrast to its potent inhibition of CYP2C9 in humans (9.51 μmol/l), apigenin had lesser effects on CYP2C11 in rat (IC50 = 15.51 μmol/l). The observations imply that apigenin has the inhibitory effect on the metabolism of losartan and CYP2C9 activity in vitro. More attention should be paid as to when losartan should be administrated combined with apigenin. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Unraveling the inhibitory effect of dihydromyricetin on heterocyclic aromatic amines formation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Zhao, Yueliang; Wang, Xichang; Fan, Daming; Cheng, Kawing; Wang, Mingfu

    2018-03-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are mutagens and rodent carcinogens. Flavonoids have attracted considerable attention for development into effective inhibitors against the formation of genotoxic HAAs in thermally processed foods. The inhibitory effect of dihydromyricetin (DMY) on the formation of key HAAs, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), was significant. In chemical models, DMY (0.05 mmol, 0.1 mmol, and 0.2 mmol) significantly decreased the amount of PhIP formed (43.0%, 54.7%, and 75.7% respectively). A significant inhibitory effect on the formation of MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx was also observed. Moreover, DMY (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) reduced the generation of PhIP (by 48.0%, 59.0%, and 80.1% respectively) and that of MeIQx (by 45.8%, 62.0%, and 76.7% respectively) in fried beef patties. The results indicate that DMY could be converted into myricetin during thermal processing, and both DMY and myricetin could trap phenylacetaldehyde, a major Strecker aldehyde of phenylalanine, in a similar manner to thus inhibit the generation of PhIP. This study provides valuable information for the development of effective strategies to minimize HAA content in thermally processed foods and also sheds light on the mechanism that accounts for the inhibitory effect. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Harnessing Omics Big Data in Nine Vertebrate Species by Genome-Wide Prioritization of Sequence Variants with the Highest Predicted Deleterious Effect on Protein Function.

    PubMed

    Rozman, Vita; Kunej, Tanja

    2018-05-10

    Harnessing the genomics big data requires innovation in how we extract and interpret biologically relevant variants. Currently, there is no established catalog of prioritized missense variants associated with deleterious protein function phenotypes. We report in this study, to the best of our knowledge, the first genome-wide prioritization of sequence variants with the most deleterious effect on protein function (potentially deleterious variants [pDelVars]) in nine vertebrate species: human, cattle, horse, sheep, pig, dog, rat, mouse, and zebrafish. The analysis was conducted using the Ensembl/BioMart tool. Genes comprising pDelVars in the highest number of examined species were identified using a Python script. Multiple genomic alignments of the selected genes were built to identify interspecies orthologous potentially deleterious variants, which we defined as the "ortho-pDelVars." Genome-wide prioritization revealed that in humans, 0.12% of the known variants are predicted to be deleterious. In seven out of nine examined vertebrate species, the genes encoding the multiple PDZ domain crumbs cell polarity complex component (MPDZ) and the transforming acidic coiled-coil containing protein 2 (TACC2) comprise pDelVars. Five interspecies ortho-pDelVars were identified in three genes. These findings offer new ways to harness genomics big data by facilitating the identification of functional polymorphisms in humans and animal models and thus provide a future basis for optimization of protocols for whole genome prioritization of pDelVars and screening of orthologous sequence variants. The approach presented here can inform various postgenomic applications such as personalized medicine and multiomics study of health interventions (iatromics).

  13. The inhibitory effect of somatostatin peptides on the rat anococcygeus muscle in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Priestley, T.; Woodruff, G. N.

    1988-01-01

    1. Electrically evoked contractions of the rat anococcygeus muscle were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by somatostatin-14 (SS14), -28 (SS28) and two synthetic hexapeptide analogues: L-363,301 (Pro-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Phe) and L-363,586 (N-Me-Ala-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Phe), with pIC50 values of 7.41, 7.38, 7.07 and 8.34, respectively. 2. The inhibitory effects of SS14 were dependent on stimulation frequency and external calcium ion concentration. Calcium behaved as a non-competitive antagonist of SS14, it reduced the maximal inhibitory effect of the peptide and at a concentration of 5.08 mM it significantly affected the pIC50 value. 3. SS14 (3 x 10(-7) M) did not affect the tonic actions of bath-applied noradrenaline in the absence of field stimulation. 4. The effects of SS14 persisted in naloxone (10(-5) M) and were, therefore, not due to an action at opiate receptors. Furthermore, experiments involving the lyophilization of bath contents, showed no evidence to support an indirect mechanism involving the release of an endogenous inhibitory substance. 5. High concentrations (10(-5) M) of SS14 or L-363,301 inhibited the relaxation response evoked by electrical stimulation of guanethidine (3 x 10(-4) M)-treated preparations. 6. These results are consistent with similar actions of SS14 on other smooth muscle preparations and are presumed to reflect a presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release by a direct action on somatostatin receptors. The antagonistic effect of calcium on this response is discussed with reference to a possible role in receptor desensitization. PMID:2900039

  14. Growth-inhibitory effects of the red alga Gelidium amansii on cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue-Hwa; Tu, Ching-Jung; Wu, Hsiao-Ting

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Gelidium amansii, an edible red agar cultivated off the northeast coast of Taiwan, on the growth of two lines of cancer cells, murine hepatoma (Hepa-1) and human leukemia (HL-60) cells, as well as a normal cell line, murine embryo fibroblast cells (NIH-3T3). The potential role of G. amansii on the induction of apoptosis was also examined. The results indicated that all extracts from G. amansii, including phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and methanol extracts from dried algae as well as the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extract from freeze-dried G. amansii agar, inhibited the growth of Hepa-1 and NIH-3T3 cells, but not the growth of HL-60 cells. Annexin V-positive cells were observed in methanol and DMSO extract-treated, but not PBS extract-treated Hepa-1 and NIH-3T3 cells, suggesting that the lipid-soluble extracts of G. amansii induced apoptosis. In summary, extracts of G. amansii from various preparations exhibited antiproliferative effects on Hepa-1 and NIH-3T3 cells, and apoptosis may play a role in the methanol and DMSO extract-induced inhibitory effects. However, the antiproliferative effects of PBS extracts was not through apoptosis. Moreover, the growth-inhibitory effects of G. amansii were not specific to cancer cells.

  15. Inhibitory effects of different ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers on electrically generated and carbachol-induced contractions of porcine and human detrusor muscle.

    PubMed

    Badawi, Jasmin Katrin; Ding, Andrea; Bross, Stephan

    2008-02-01

    The inhibitory effects of different potassium channel openers (PCOs) on electrically generated and carbachol-induced contractions of porcine and human detrusor muscle were examined. PCOs could be an interesting substance class for treatment of detrusor overactivity. Experiments were performed on muscle strips suspended in a tissue bath. Human tissue originated from patients who underwent total cystectomy. The concentration-relaxation curves of the first-generation PCOs cromakalim and pinacidil and the untypical PCO minoxidil were performed using carbachol-precontracted detrusor muscle strips of pigs and humans. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of cromakalim, pinacidil and minoxidil on electrically generated contractions of porcine detrusor muscle were examined. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of the second-generation, bladder-selective PCO ZM 226600 on electrically generated contractions of the human detrusor muscle was determined. Frequency-response curves were performed before and after incubation with one PCO used in two different concentrations. In humans, cromakalim and pinacidil led to a maximum decrease of 73.5 and 68.4% and showed mean pD2 values of 6.65 and 5.5, respectively. In pigs, cromakalim and pinacidil led to a maximum decrease of 90.6 and 93.6% and showed mean pD2 values of 6.39 and 5.01, respectively. Minoxidil did not significantly decrease the precontraction at the highest used concentration in both species. Cromakalim exhibited the biggest inhibitory effect being significant at 10(-5) and 10(-6) M. Pinacidil showed only a significant inhibitory effect at 10(-5) M which was smaller than that of cromakalim. At 3 x 10(-6) M only a very small effect occurred at 1 Hz. Minoxidil did not inhibit the contractions at both examined concentrations except for a very small effect at 1 Hz. In humans, ZM 226600 exhibited at 10(-6) and 10(-5) M a significant inhibitory effect. At 10(-7) M it was only significant at one frequency.

  16. Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects of 2-hydroxy-3-methylcyclopent-2-enone isolated from ribose-histidine Maillard reaction products on aldose reductase and tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Suh, Hong-Won; Lim, Soon Sung

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to better understand the functional properties of ribose and 20 amino acid Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The ABTS + radical scavenging ability of the ribose-20 amino acid MRPs was evaluated. Among the MRPs, ribose-histidine MRPs (RH-MRPs) showed the highest inhibitory activities on the ABTS + radical scavenging ability, aldose reductase (AR), and tyrosinase compared to other MRPs. Functional compounds with antioxidant and AR inhibitory activities have been recognized as an important strategy in the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications, and the search for tyrosinase inhibitors is important for the treatment of hyperpigmentation, development of skin-whitening agents, and use as preservatives in the food industry. On this basis, we sought to isolate and identify compounds with inhibitory activities against AR and tyrosinase. RH-MRPs were heated at 120 °C for 2 h and fractionated using four solvents: methylene chloride (MC), ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water. The highest inhibitions were found in the MC fraction. The two compounds from this fraction were purified by silica gel column and preparative thin layer chromatography, and identified as 2-hydroxy-3-methylcyclopent-2-enone and furan-3-carboxylic acid. AR inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition, and ABTS + scavenging (IC 50 ) of 2-hydroxy-3-methylcyclopent-2-enone were 4.47, 721.91 and 9.81 μg mL -1 , respectively. In this study, inhibitory effects of 2-hydroxy-3-methylcyclopent-2-enone isolated from RH-MRP were demonstrated on AR, tyrosinase, and its antioxidant activity for the first time. RH-MRP and its constituents can be developed as beneficial functional food sources and cosmetic materials and should be investigated further as potential functional food sources.

  17. Cox-2 inhibitory effects of naturally occurring and modified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ringbom, T; Huss, U; Stenholm , A; Flock, S; Skattebøl, L; Perera, P; Bohlin, L

    2001-06-01

    In the search for new cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors, the inhibitory effects of naturally occurring fatty acids and some of their structural derivatives on COX-2-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis were investigated. Among these fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA), myristic acid, and palmitic acid were isolated from a CH(2)Cl(2) extract of the plant Plantago major by bioassay-guided fractionation. Inhibitory effects of other natural, structurally related fatty acids were also investigated: stearic acid, oleic acid, pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Further, the inhibitory effects of these compounds on COX-2- and COX-1-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis was compared with the inhibition of some synthesized analogues of EPA and DHA with ether or thioether functions. The most potent COX-2-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibitor was all-(Z)-5-thia-8,11,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid (2), followed by EPA, DHA, alpha-LNA, LA, (7E,11Z,14Z,17Z)-5-thiaeicosa-7,11,14,17-tetraenoic acid, all-(Z)-3-thia-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoic acid, and (5E,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z)-3-oxaheneicosa-5,9,12,15,18-pentaenoic acid, with IC(50) values ranging from 3.9 to180 microM. The modified compound 2 and alpha-LNA were most selective toward COX-2, with COX-2/COX-1 ratios of 0.2 and 0.1, respectively. This study shows that several of the natural fatty acids as well as all of the semisynthetic thioether-containing fatty acids inhibited COX-2-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis, where alpha-LNA and compound 2 showed selectivity toward COX-2.

  18. The Endocannabinoid System Tonically Regulates Inhibitory Transmission and Depresses the Effect of Ethanol in Central Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Marisa; Cruz, Maureen; Bajo, Michal; Siggins, George R; Parsons, Loren H; Schweitzer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The central amygdala (CeA) has a major role in alcohol dependence and reinforcement, and behavioral and neurochemical evidence suggests a role for the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in ethanol binging and dependence. We used a slice preparation to investigate the physiological role of cannabinoids and their interaction with ethanol on inhibitory synaptic transmission in CeA. Superfusion of the cannabinoid receptor (CB1) agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN2) onto CeA neurons decreased evoked GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect prevented by the CB1 antagonists Rimonabant (SR141716, SR1) and AM251. SR1 or AM251 applied alone augmented IPSPs, revealing a tonic eCB activity that decreased inhibitory transmission in CeA. Paired-pulse analysis suggested a presynaptic CB1 mechanism. Intracellular BAPTA abolished the ability of AM251 to augment IPSPs, demonstrating the eCB-driven nature and postsynaptic origin of the tonic CB1-dependent control of GABA release. Superfusion of ethanol increased IPSPs and addition of WIN2 reversed the ethanol effect. Similarly, previous superfusion of WIN2 prevented subsequent ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission. The ethanol-induced augmentation of IPSPs was additive to CB1 blockade, ruling out a participation of CB1 in the action of acute ethanol. Our study points to an important role of CB1 in CeA in which the eCBs tonically regulate neuronal activity, and suggests a potent mechanism for modulating CeA tone during challenge with ethanol. PMID:20463657

  19. Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Hitokoto, H; Morozumi, S; Wauke, T; Sakai, S; Kurata, H

    1980-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of 29 commercial powdered spices on the growth and toxin production of three species of toxigenic Aspergillus were observed by introducing these materials into culture media for mycotoxin production. Of the 29 samples tested, cloves, star anise seeds, and allspice completely inhibited the fungal growth, whereas most of the others inhibited only the toxin production. Eugenol extracted from cloves and thymol from thyme caused complete inhibition of the growth of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus versicolor at 0.4 mg/ml or less. At a concentration of 2 mg/ml, anethol extracted from star anise seeds inhibited the growth of all the strains. PMID:6769391

  20. Inhibitory effects of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae constituents on human UDP-glucose dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Scoglio, Stefano; Lo Curcio, Valeria; Catalani, Simona; Palma, Francesco; Battistelli, Serafina; Benedetti, Serena

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of the edible microalga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) on human UDP-α-d-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UGDH) activity, a cytosolic enzyme involved both in tumor progression and in phytochemical bioavailability. Both the hydrophilic and ethanolic AFA extracts as well as the constitutive active principles phycocyanin (PC), phycocyanobilin (PCB) and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) were tested. Among AFA components, PCB presented the strongest inhibitory effect on UGDH activity, acting as a competitive inhibitor with respect to UDP-glucose and a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to NAD(+). In preliminary experiments, AFA PCB was also effective in reducing the colony formation capacity of PC-3 prostate cancer cells and FTC-133 thyroid cancer cells. Overall, these findings confirmed that AFA and its active principles are natural compounds with high biological activity. Further studies evaluating the effects of AFA PCB in reducing tumor cell growth and phytochemical glucuronidation are encouraged.

  1. A Rapid Screen for Host-Encoded miRNAs with Inhibitory Effects against Ebola Virus Using a Transcription- and Replication-Competent Virus-Like Particle System.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongyi; Li, Jiaming; Fu, Yingying; Zhao, Zongzheng; Zhang, Chunmao; Li, Nan; Li, Jingjing; Cheng, Hongliang; Jin, Xiaojun; Lu, Bing; Guo, Zhendong; Qian, Jun; Liu, Linna

    2018-05-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may become efficient antiviral agents against the Ebola virus (EBOV) targeting viral genomic RNAs or transcripts. We previously conducted a genome-wide search for differentially expressed miRNAs during viral replication and transcription. In this study, we established a rapid screen for miRNAs with inhibitory effects against EBOV using a tetracistronic transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particle (trVLP) system. This system uses a minigenome comprising an EBOV leader region, luciferase reporter, VP40, GP, VP24, EBOV trailer region, and three noncoding regions from the EBOV genome and can be used to model the life cycle of EBOV under biosafety level (BSL) 2 conditions. Informatic analysis was performed to select up-regulated miRNAs targeting the coding regions of the minigenome with the highest binding energy to perform inhibitory effect screening. Among these miRNAs, miR-150-3p had the most significant inhibitory effect. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and double fluorescence reporter experiments demonstrated that miR-150-3p inhibited the reproduction of trVLPs via the regulation of GP and VP40 expression by directly targeting the coding regions of GP and VP40. This novel, rapid, and convenient screening method will efficiently facilitate the exploration of miRNAs against EBOV under BSL-2 conditions.

  2. Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of Mauritius for possible alpha-amylase inhibitory effects in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kotowaroo, M I; Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H

    2006-03-01

    In this study, seven exotic/indigenous medicinal plants of Mauritius, namely Coix lacryma-jobi (Poaceae), Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Moraceae), Vangueria madagascariensis (Rubiaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae) and Syzigium cumini (Myrtaceae) were studied for possible effects on starch breakdown by alpha-amylase in vitro. The results showed that only Artocarpus heterophyllus significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited alpha-amylase activity in vitro. To confirm the observed effects, a further biochemical assay was undertaken to investigate the effects of Artocarpus heterophyllus on alpha-amylase activity using rat plasma in vitro. It was found that the aqueous leaf extract significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited alpha-amylase activity in rat plasma. The highest inhibitory activity (27.20 +/- 5.00%) was observed at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. However, in both cases dose dependency was not observed. Enzyme kinetic studies using the Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations were performed to establish the type of inhibition involved. In the presence of the plant extract the maximal velocity (Vmax) remained constant (1/150 g / L/s) whereas the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) increased by 5.79 g / L, indicating that the aqueous leaf extract of Artocarpus heterophyllus behaved as a competitive inhibitor. Results from the present study tend to indicate that Artocarpus heterophyllus could act as a 'starch blocker' thereby reducing post-prandial glucose peaks. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Inhibitory effect of extracellular purine nucleotide and nucleoside concentrations on T cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, Monica; Schmetzer, Helga; German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich

    The release of nucleic acids and derivatives after tissue-injury may affect cellular immune-response. We studied the impact of extracellular ribo-, desoxyribonucleotides and nucleosides on T-cell immunity. Peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells (PBMCs) or isolated CD3{sup +}T-cells obtained from 6 healthy donors were stimulated via CD3/CD28 Dynabeads or dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence or absence of pyrimidine-, purine-nucleotides and -nucleosides (range 2–200 µM). Addition of deoxy-, guanosine-triphosphate (dGTP, GTP) and guanosine resulted concentration dependent in a complete, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in a partial inhibition of the induced T-cell-proliferation. Deoxyadenosine-triphosphate (dATP), adenosine and the pyrimidine-ribo- and -deoxyribonucleotides displayed no inhibitory capacity. Inhibitory effects of dGTP andmore » GTP, but not of guanosine and ATP were culture-media-dependent and could be almost abrogated by use of the serum-free lymphocyte-culture-media X-Vivo15 instead of RPMI1640 with standard-supplementation. In contrast to RPMI1640, X-Vivo15 resulted in a significant down-regulation of the cell-surface-located ectonucleotidases CD39 (Ecto-Apyrase) and CD73 (Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase), critical for the extracellular nucleotides-hydrolysis to nucleosides, explaining the loss of inhibition mediated by dGTP and GTP, but not Guanosine. In line with previous findings ATP was found to exert immunosuppressive effects on T-cell-proliferation. Purine-nucleotides, dGTP and GTP displayed a higher inhibitory capacity, but seem to be strictly dependent on the microenvironmental conditions modulating the responsiveness of the respective T-lymphocytes. Further evaluation of experimental and respective clinical settings should anticipate these findings.« less

  4. Identification of benzoquinones in pretreated lignocellulosic feedstocks and inhibitory effects on yeast.

    PubMed

    Stagge, Stefan; Cavka, Adnan; Jönsson, Leif J

    2015-12-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass under acidic conditions gives rise to by-products that inhibit fermenting microorganisms. An analytical procedure for identification of p-benzoquinone (BQ) and 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone (DMBQ) in pretreated biomass was developed, and the inhibitory effects of BQ and DMBQ on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were assessed. The benzoquinones were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Pretreatment liquids examined with regard to the presence of BQ and DMBQ originated from six different lignocellulosic feedstocks covering agricultural residues, hardwood, and softwood, and were produced through impregnation with sulfuric acid or sulfur dioxide at varying pretreatment temperature (165-204 °C) and residence time (6-20 min). BQ was detected in all six pretreatment liquids in concentrations ranging up to 6 mg/l, while DMBQ was detected in four pretreatment liquids in concentrations ranging up to 0.5 mg/l. The result indicates that benzoquinones are ubiquitous as by-products of acid pretreatment of lignocellulose, regardless of feedstock and pretreatment conditions. Fermentation experiments with BQ and DMBQ covered the concentration ranges 2 mg/l to 1 g/l and 20 mg/l to 1 g/l, respectively. Even the lowest BQ concentration tested (2 mg/l) was strongly inhibitory to yeast, while 20 mg/l DMBQ gave a slight negative effect on ethanol formation. This work shows that benzoquinones should be regarded as potent and widespread inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, and that they warrant attention besides more well-studied inhibitory substances, such as aliphatic carboxylic acids, phenols, and furan aldehydes.

  5. Inhibitory effect of ciprofloxacin on β-glucuronidase-mediated deconjugation of mycophenolic acid glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Kodawara, Takaaki; Masuda, Satohiro; Yano, Yoshitaka; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakamura, Toshiaki; Masada, Mikio

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between mycophenolate (MPA) and quinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin is considered to reduce the enterohepatic recycling of MPA, which is biotransformed in the intestine from MPA glucuronide (MPAG) conjugate excreted via the biliary system; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this biotransformation of MPA is still unclear. In this study, an in vitro system was established to evaluate β-glucuronidase-mediated deconjugation and to examine the influence of ciprofloxacin on the enzymatic deconjugation of MPAG and MPA resynthesis. Resynthesis of MPA via deconjugation of MPAG increased in a time-dependent manner from 5 to 60 min in the presence of β-glucuronidase. Ciprofloxacin and phenolphthalein-β-d-glucuronide (PhePG), a typical β-glucuronidase substrate, significantly decreased the production of MPA from MPAG in the β-glucuronidase-mediated deconjugation system. In addition, enoxacin significantly inhibited the production of MPA from MPAG, while levofloxacin and ofloxacin had no inhibitory effect on MPA synthesis. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that ciprofloxacin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on MPA production from MPAG via β-glucuronidase with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) value of 30.4 µm. While PhePG inhibited the β-glucuronidase-mediated production of MPA from MPAG in a competitive manner, ciprofloxacin inhibited MPA synthesis via noncompetitive inhibition. These findings suggest that the reduction in the serum MPA concentration during the co-administration of ciprofloxacin is at least in part due to the decreased enterohepatic circulation of MPA because of noncompetitive inhibition of deconjugation of MPAG by intestinal β-glucuronidase. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Inhibitory effects of selected Turkish spices and oregano components on some foodborne fungi.

    PubMed

    Akgül, A; Kivanç, M

    1988-05-01

    The inhibitory effects of 10 selected Turkish spices, oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol towards growth of 9 foodborne fungi were investigated in culture media with pH 3.5 and 5.5. The antifungal effects of sodium chloride, sorbic acid and sodium benzoate and the combined use of oregano with sodium chloride were also tested under the same conditions for comparison. Of the spices tested, only sodium chloride were also tested under the same conditions for comparison. Of the spices tested, only oregano at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0% (w/v) levels showed effect on all fungi. 8% (w/v) sodium chloride was less effective than oregano. Oregano essential oil, thymol or carvacrol at concentrations of 0.025% and 0.05% completely inhibited the growth of all fungi, showing greater inhibition than sorbic acid at the same concentrations. The combined use of oregano and sodium chloride exhibited a synergistic antifungal effect.

  7. Short communication: Effect of casein haplotype on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of casein haplotype (αS1, β, and κ) on antioxidative and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacities of milk casein from Italian Holstein cows before and following in vitro digestion with gastrointestinal enzymes. The antioxidant capacity was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays, whereas ACE inhibition was determined by ACE-inhibitory assay. The ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of milk casein increased during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Casein haplotype significantly influenced the antioxidative and ACE-inhibitory capacities of digested casein. In particular, BB-A(2)A(1)-AA casein and BB-A(1)A(1)-AA casein showed the highest ACE-inhibitory capacity, BB-A(2)A(2)-AA casein showed the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas BB-A(2)A(2)-BB casein showed the lowest biological capacity. To date, few studies have been done on the effect of casein haplotype on biological capacity of milk casein, thus the present study sets the basis for a new knowledge that could lead to the production of milk with better nutraceutical properties. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibitory effects of Caesalpinia sappan on growth and invasion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang-Ju; Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Jeong, Seung-Il; Cha, Jung-Dan; Kim, Shin-Moo; You, Yong-Ouk

    2004-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia sappan against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and effect of Caesalpinia sappan extract on the invasion of MRSA to human mucosal fibroblasts (HMFs). Chloroform, n-butanol, methanol, and aqueous extracts of the Caesalpinia sappan showed antimicrobial activity against standard methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) as well as MRSA. Methanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan demonstrated a higher inhibitory activity than n-butanol, chloroform, and aqueous extracts. In the checkerboard dilution method, methanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan markedly lowered the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ampicillin and oxacillin against MRSA. To determine whether methanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan inhibits the MRSA invasion to HMFs, the cells were treated with various sub-MIC concentrations of methanol extract and bacterial invasion was assayed. MRSA invasion was notably decreased in the presence of 20-80 microg/ml of Caesalpinia sappan extract compared to the control group. The effect of Caesalpinia sappan extract on MRSA invasion appeared dose-dependent. These results suggest that methanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan may have antimicrobial activity and the potential to restore the effectiveness of beta-lactam antibiotics against MRSA, and inhibit the MRSA invasion to HMFs.

  9. Role of histamine in the inhibitory effects of phycocyanin in experimental models of allergic inflammatory response.

    PubMed Central

    Remirez, D; Ledón, N; González, R

    2002-01-01

    It has recently been reported that phycocyanin, a biliprotein found in the blue-green microalgae Spirulina, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in some animal models of inflammation. Taking into account these findings, we decided to elucidate whether phycocyanin might exert also inhibitory effects in the induced allergic inflammatory response and on histamine release from isolated rat mast cells. In in vivo experiments, phycocyanin (100, 200 and 300mg/kg post-orally (p.o.)) was administered 1 h before the challenge with 1 microg of ovalbumin (OA) in the ear of mice previously sensitized with OA. One hour later, myeloperoxidase activity and ear edema were assessed. Phycocyanin significantly reduced both parameters. In separate experiments, phycocyanin (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) also reduced the blue spot area induced by intradermal injections of histamine, and the histamine releaser compound 48/80 in rat skin. In concordance with the former results, phycocyanin also significantly reduced histamine release induced by compound 48/80 from isolated peritoneal rat mast cells. The inhibitory effects of phycocyanin were dose dependent. Taken together, our results suggest that inhibition of allergic inflammatory response by phycocyanin is mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of histamine release from mast cells. PMID:12061428

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Spices on Biogenic Amine Accumulation during Fish Sauce Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuxia; Qiu, Mengting; Zhao, Dandan; Lu, Fei; Ding, Yuting

    2016-04-01

    The presence of high levels of biogenic amines is detrimental to the quality and safety of fish sauce. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of spices, including garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and star anise extracts, in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines during fish sauce fermentation. The concentrations of biogenic amines, which include histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine, all increased during fish sauce fermentation. When compared with the samples without spices, the garlic and star anise extracts significantly reduced these increases. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for the garlic ethanolic extracts. When compared with controls, the histamine, putrescine, tyramine, and spermidine contents and the overall biogenic amine levels of the garlic extract-treated samples were reduced by 30.49%, 17.65%, 26.03%, 37.20%, and 27.17%, respectively. The garlic, cinnamon, and star anise extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on aerobic bacteria counts. Furthermore, the garlic and star anise extracts showed antimicrobial activity against amine producers. These findings may be helpful for enhancing the safety of fish sauce. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Inhibitory effects of amines from Citrus reticulata on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, XIAN-MEI; CAO, ZHEN-DONG; XIAO, NA; SHEN, QI; LI, JIAN-XIN

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, fatal lung disease for which, thus far, there are no effective treatments. The pericarp of Citrus reticulata, as a traditional herbal drug, has been used for the clinical treatment of lung-related diseases in China for many years. In the present study, the amines from the pericarp of Citrus reticulata were isolated, and their hydrochlorides were prepared. The results of screening using cultured human embryonic lung fibroblasts (hELFs) revealed that, of the amines, 4-methoxyphenethylamine hydrochloride (designated as amine hydrochloride 1) possessed the most potent inhibitory effect. Further in vivo experiments using a rat model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis demonstrated that the oral administration of amine hydrochloride 1 significantly lowered the hydroxyproline content in both serum and lung tissue, and alleviated pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that amine hydrochloride 1 exerted its inhibitory effect against IPF through the downregulation of lung transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 protein expression. Our results demonstrated that amine hydrochloride 1 prevented the development of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Thus, our data suggest that the amines from the pericarp of Citrus reticulata have therapeutic potential for use in the treatment of IPF. PMID:26675886

  12. Inhibitory effects of kale ingestion on metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Teramoto, Sachiyuki; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var acephala DC) is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the cabbage family (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. There are any reports about the effects of kale ingestion on the chemoprevention function and mechanism, but the interactions between kale and drugs have not been researched. We investigated the effects of kale intake on cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism by using cocktail probe drugs, including midazolam (for CYP3A4), caffeine (for CYP1A2), dextromethorphan (for CYP2D6), tolbutamide (for CYP2C9), omeprazole (for CYP2C19), and chlorzoxazone (for CYP2E1). Cocktail drugs were administered into rats treated with kale and cabbage (2000 mg/kg) for a week. The results showed that kale intake induced a significant increase in plasma levels and the AUC of midazolam, caffeine, and dextromethorphan. In addition, the plasma concentration and AUC of omeprazole tended to increase. Additionally, no almost differences in the mRNA expression levels of CYP enzymes in the liver were observed. In conclusion, kale ingestion was considered to have an inhibitory effect on the activities of CYP3A4, 1A2, 2D6, and 2C19 for a reason competitive inhibition than inhibitory changes in the mRNA expressions.

  13. Inhibitory effect of tocotrienol on eukaryotic DNA polymerase {lambda} and angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Shibata, Akira

    2006-01-20

    Tocotrienols, vitamin E compounds that have an unsaturated side chain with three double bonds, selectively inhibited the activity of mammalian DNA polymerase {lambda} (pol {lambda}) in vitro. These compounds did not influence the activities of replicative pols such as {alpha}, {delta}, and {epsilon}, or even the activity of pol {beta} which is thought to have a very similar three-dimensional structure to the pol {beta}-like region of pol {lambda}. Since {delta}-tocotrienol had the strongest inhibitory effect among the four ({alpha}- to {delta}-) tocotrienols, the isomer's structure might be an important factor in the inhibition of pol {lambda}. The inhibitory effect ofmore » {delta}-tocotrienol on both intact pol {lambda} (residues 1-575) and a truncated pol {lambda} lacking the N-terminal BRCA1 C-terminus (BRCT) domain (residues 133-575, del-1 pol {lambda}) was dose-dependent, with 50% inhibition observed at a concentration of 18.4 and 90.1 {mu}M, respectively. However, del-2 pol {lambda} (residues 245-575) containing the C-terminal pol {beta}-like region was unaffected. Tocotrienols also inhibited the proliferation of and formation of tubes by bovine aortic endothelial cells, with {delta}-tocotrienol having the greatest effect. These results indicated that tocotrienols targeted both pol {lambda} and angiogenesis as anti-cancer agents. The relationship between the inhibition of pol {lambda} and anti-angiogenesis by {delta}-tocotrienol was discussed.« less

  14. Inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human heptoma induced by cell-permeable manganese superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hua; Zhang, Na; Liu, Di; Wang, Ping; Ma, Xingyuan

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) belongs to a group of genes whose expression is generally decreased significantly in patients with hepatoma. The proliferation of cancer cells with low expression of MnSOD exhibit high sensitivity to the elevated expression of MnSOD. However, due to the lack of ability to penetrate the cell membrane, the direct use and study of SOD for cancer treatment are largely hampered. In this work, cell penetrating peptide TAT was fused to the N-terminus of MnSOD to facilitate the penetration of MnSOD through cell membranes. Results showed that TAT-MnSOD wt treatment induced evident inhibitory effect on the proliferation of heptoma, with minimal effect on normal cells. It was further demonstrated that both the penetration of cells and enzymatic activity of MnSOD are essential to its inhibitory function, because only TAT-MnSOD wt, not inactive TAT-MnSOD mutant or MnSOD could successfully inhibit cell proliferation and reduce the intra-celluar reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the lower oxidative stress delayed the cell cycle at G2/M and significantly slowed HepG2 cell growth in association with the dephosphorylation of survivin. Our results help in understanding the regulatory effects of MnSOD on cell viability and redox homestasis of heptoma and promise potential applications of TAT-MnSOD wt for clinical cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Thai Essential Oils on Potentially Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Jantapan, Kittika; Poapolathep, Amnart; Imsilp, Kanjana; Poapolathep, Saranya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kumagai, Susumu; Jermnak, Usuma

    2017-01-01

     The antiaflatoxigenic and antifungal activities of essential oils (EOs) of finger root (Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.), pine (Pinus pinaster), rosewood (Aniba rosaedora), Siam benzoin (Styrax tonkinensis), Thai moringa (Moringa oleifera), and ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) were tested for Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in potato dextrose broth. Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) was extracted from culture using a QuEChERS-based extraction procedure and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector. EO of pine showed the greatest inhibition of growth and AFB 1 production of A. parasiticus, followed by EOs of rosewood, finger root, Siam benzoin, and ylang ylang. EO of finger root gave the best inhibitory effects on A. flavus, followed by EOs of rosewood, pine, ylang ylang, and Siam benzoin. EO of Thai moringa did not show any significant inhibition of aflatoxigenic fungi. The antiaflatoxigenic activities of EOs correlated with their antifungal activities in the dosedependent manner. Comparison of the application of the five selected EOs in peanut pods by direct and vapor exposure indicated that the AFB 1 production inhibitory effects of the five EOs by direct exposure were faster and more effective than by vapor exposure. EO of finger root showed the best inhibition of AFB 1 production of A. flavus in peanut pods by direct exposure, followed by EOs of pine, rosewood, ylang ylang, and Siam benzoin.

  16. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Irish seaweed extracts.

    PubMed

    Lordan, Sinéad; Smyth, Thomas J; Soler-Vila, Anna; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2013-12-01

    To date, numerous studies have reported on the antidiabetic properties of various plant extracts through inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes. The objective of this research was to evaluate extracts of seaweeds for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Cold water and ethanol extracts of 15 seaweeds were initially screened and from this, five brown seaweed species were chosen. The cold water and ethanol extracts of Ascophyllum nodosum had the strongest α-amylase inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 53.6 and 44.7 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the extracts of Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus were found to be potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 0.32 and 0.49 μg/ml. The observed effects were associated with the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the extracts, and the concentrations used were below cytotoxic levels. Overall, our findings suggest that brown seaweed extracts may limit the release of simple sugars from the gut and thereby alleviate postprandial hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding

    PubMed Central

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding. PMID:27503800

  18. Inhibitory effects of vitamin K3 on DNA polymerase and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kiminori; Kayashima, Tomoko; Mori, Masaharu; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2008-09-01

    Vitamins play essential roles in cellular reactions and maintain human health. Recent studies have revealed that some vitamins including D3, B6 and K2 and their derivatives have an anti-cancer effect. As a mechanism, their inhibitory effect on cancer-related angiogenesis has been demonstrated. Vitamin K2 (menaquinones) has an anti-cancer effect in particular for hepatic cancer and inhibits angiogenesis. In the current study, we demonstrated that sole vitamin K3 (menadione) selectively inhibits the in vitro activity of eukaryotic DNA polymerase gamma, which is a mitochondrial DNA polymerase, and suppresses angiogenesis in a rat aortic ring model. The anti-angiogenic effect of vitamin K3 has been shown in angiogenesis models using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with regard to HUVEC growth, tube formation on reconstituted basement membrane and chemotaxis. These results suggest that vitamin K3 may be a potential anti-cancer agent like vitamin K2.

  19. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-08-09

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

  20. Effects of oxotremorine and physostigmine on the inhibitory avoidance impairment produced by amitriptyline in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Santiago; Urquiza, Adoración; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Parra, Andrés

    2009-12-28

    We have previously observed that amitriptyline and other antidepressants produce impairing effects on inhibitory avoidance (also called passive avoidance) in mice of both sexes. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the cholinergic system in the inhibitory avoidance impairment produced by acute amitriptyline in male and female CD1 mice. For this purpose, the effects on said task of acute i.p. administration of several doses of amitriptyline, either alone or in combination with the cholinergic agonists oxotremorine and physostigmine, were evaluated. Pre-training administration of 5, 7.5, 10 or 15 mg/kg of amitriptyline produced a significant impairment of inhibitory avoidance in both males and females. When oxotremorine (0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg) was co-administered with amitriptyline, the antidepressant's impairing effect was partially counteracted, although inhibitory avoidance learning was not significant. Physostigmine (0.15, 0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg) counteracted the impairment produced by amitriptyline, as mice treated with both drugs exhibited inhibitory avoidance learning. These results show that the inhibitory avoidance impairment produced by amitriptyline in male and female mice is mediated, at least partially, by the cholinergic system.

  1. Highest Resolution Image of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During its twelfth orbit around Jupiter, on Dec. 16, 1997, NASA's Galileo spacecraft made its closest pass of Jupiter's icy moon Europa, soaring 200 kilometers (124 miles) kilometers above the icy surface. This image was taken near the closest approach point, at a range of 560 kilometers (335 miles) and is the highest resolution picture of Europa that will be obtained by Galileo. The image was taken at a highly oblique angle, providing a vantage point similar to that of someone looking out an airplane window. The features at the bottom of the image are much closer to the viewer than those at the top of the image. Many bright ridges are seen in the picture, with dark material in the low-lying valleys. In the center of the image, the regular ridges and valleys give way to a darker region of jumbled hills, which may be one of the many dark pits observed on the surface of Europa. Smaller dark, circular features seen here are probably impact craters.

    North is to the right of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from that direction. This image, centered at approximately 13 degrees south latitude and 235 degrees west longitude, is approximately 1.8 kilometers (1 mile) wide. The resolution is 6 meters (19 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 by the solid state imaging system camera on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  2. Inhibitory Effect of Crizotinib on Creatinine Uptake by Renal Secretory Transporter OCT2.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Omote, Saki; Tamai, Ikumi

    2017-09-01

    Crizotinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, exhibits some cases of an increase in serum creatinine levels. Creatinine is excreted by not only glomerular filtration but also active secretion by organic cation transporters such as organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2). In the present study, we evaluated in vitro inhibitory effect of crizotinib on OCT2 by directly measuring creatinine uptake by OCT2. Coincubation of crizotinib reduced uptake of [ 14 C]creatinine by cultured HEK293 cells expressing OCT2 (HEK293/OCT2) in a concentration-dependent manner with IC 50 values of 1.58 ± 0.24 μM. Preincubation or both preincubation and coincubation (preincubation/coincubation) with crizotinib showed stronger inhibitory effect on [ 14 C]creatinine uptake compared with that in coincubation alone with IC 50 values of 0.499 ± 0.076 and 0.347 ± 0.040 μM, respectively. These IC 50 values of crizotinib on [ 3 H]N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium acetate uptake by OCT2 were 10-20 times higher than those of [ 14 C]creatinine uptake. Furthermore, preincubation of crizotinib inhibited creatinine uptake by OCT2 in an apparently competitive manner. In conclusion, crizotinib at a clinically relevant concentration has the potential to inhibit creatinine transport by OCT2, suggesting an increase of serum creatinine levels in clinical use. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of drugs of abuse on putative rostromedial tegmental neurons, inhibitory afferents to midbrain dopamine cells.

    PubMed

    Lecca, Salvatore; Melis, Miriam; Luchicchi, Antonio; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Castelli, Maria Paola; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Pistis, Marco

    2011-02-01

    Recent findings have underlined the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a structure located caudally to the ventral tegmental area, as an important site involved in the mechanisms of aversion. RMTg contains γ-aminobutyric acid neurons responding to noxious stimuli, densely innervated by the lateral habenula and providing a major inhibitory projection to reward-encoding midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. One of the key features of drug addiction is the perseverance of drug seeking in spite of negative and unpleasant consequences, likely mediated by response suppression within neural pathways mediating aversion. To investigate whether the RMTg has a function in the mechanisms of addicting drugs, we studied acute effects of morphine, cocaine, the cannabinoid agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN), and nicotine on putative RMTg neurons. We utilized single unit extracellular recordings in anesthetized rats and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices to identify and characterize putative RMTg neurons and their responses to drugs of abuse. Morphine and WIN inhibited both firing rate in vivo and excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked by stimulation of rostral afferents in vitro, whereas cocaine inhibited discharge activity without affecting EPSC amplitude. Conversely, nicotine robustly excited putative RMTg neurons and enhanced EPSCs, an effect mediated by α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our results suggest that activity of RMTg neurons is profoundly influenced by drugs of abuse and, as important inhibitory afferents to midbrain DA neurons, they might take place in the complex interplay between the neural circuits mediating aversion and reward.

  4. Growth inhibitory effects of anthranilic acid and its derivatives against Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takahide; Mizuguchi, Satoru; Honda, Kohsuke

    2012-06-01

    Legionella pneumophila is the principal etiologic agent of Legionnaires' disease. We found that the growth of L. pneumophila was markedly inhibited by its own cell lysate and the inhibitory effect was abolished by heat-treatment of the lysate. The genomic library of L. pneumophila was constructed in Escherichia coli and screened to determine the gene involved in the growth inhibition. A clone harboring the gene encoding anthranilate synthase (TrpE), which is involved in tryptophan biosynthesis, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the growth of L. pneumophila. Anthranilic acid exogenously added also exhibited antibacterial activity against L. pneumophila. A series of single-gene-knockout mutants of L. pneumophila lacking tryptophan synthesis genes were constructed and assessed for their susceptibility to anthranilic acid. Although the growth of mutants deficient in anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase (TrpD) and N-(5'-phosphoribosyl)anthranilate isomerase (TrpF) was not affected by exogenous anthranilic acid, the indole-3-glycerophosphate synthase (TrpC) deficient mutant exhibited an increased susceptibility compared with the parent strain. These observations strongly indicate that 1-(2-carboxyphenylamino)-1'-deoxyribulose-5'-phosphate (CPADR-5'-P), which is an intermediate of tryptophan synthesis from anthranilic acid, is responsible for the growth inhibition of L. pneumophila. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibitory effect of betel quid on the volatility of methyl mercaptan.

    PubMed

    Wang, C K; Chen, S L; Wu, M G

    2001-04-01

    Betel quid, a popular natural masticatory in Taiwan, is mainly composed of fresh areca fruit, Piper betle (leaf or inflorescence), and slaked lime paste. People say that halitosis disappears during betel quid chewing. In this study, the removal of mouth odor during betel quid chewing was discussed by using a model system which measured its inhibition on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Results showed that crude extracts of betel quid (the mixture of areca fruit, Piper betle, and slaked lime paste) and extracts of the mixture of areca fruit and slaked lime paste exhibited marked effects on the volatility of methyl mercaptan, and the inhibition function increased when increasing amounts of slaked lime paste were added. The same condition (increased inhibition) was also found by replacing the slaked lime paste with alkaline salts (calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, or sodium hydroxide). Areca fruit, the major ingredient of betel quid, contained abundant phenolics. However, the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit did not show any inhibitory activity on the volatility of methyl mercaptan. Great inhibitory activity occurred only when the crude phenolic extract of areca fruit was treated with alkali. Further studies by using gel filtration determined that the effect probably came from the oxidative polymerization of phenolics of areca fruit after alkaline treatment.

  6. Dynamic Wnt5a expression in murine hair follicle cycle and its inhibitory effects on follicular.

    PubMed

    Fang, De-Ren; Lv, Zhong-Fa; Qiao, Gang

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the dynamic expression of Wnt family member 5A (Wingless-type MMTV integration Wnt site family, member 5a) in murine hair cycle and its inhibitory effects on follicle in vivo. Situ hybridization in full-thickness skin was used to observe the change of mouse protein expression in different growth stages, and Ad-Wnt5a was injected after defeathering to observe the hair follicle growth in vivo. The Wnt5a mRNA was expressed at birth, and was firstly increased then decreased along with the progress of the hair cycle. It reached the peak in advanced stage of growth cycle (P<0.05). Rhoa and β-catenin expression levels were significantly decreased in three groups. Rac2 expression was significantly up-regulated, and the expression level of Wnt5a, Shh and Frizzled2 was increased, but less significantly than group 2. The expression of Wnt5a mRNA is consistent with change of murine follicle cycle, and has obvious inhibitory effects on the growth of hair follicle in vivo, indicating that it is antagonistic to Wnts pathway and interferes the growth of follicle together. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory effect of bofutsushosan (fang feng tong sheng san) on glucose transporter 5 function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shengli; Satsu, Hideo; Makino, Toshiaki

    2018-03-01

    Bofutsushosan (BTS; fang feng tong sheng san in Chinese) is a formula in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine and Chinese medicine comprising eighteen crude drugs, and is used to treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Fructose is contained in refreshing beverages as high-fructose corn syrup, and is associated with obesity. Fructose is absorbed via glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5) in the intestine. Therefore, the inhibition of GLUT5 is considered to be a target of obesity drugs. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of BTS extract and its constituents on fructose uptake using Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells, i.e., cells stably expressing GLUT5. Boiled water extract of BTS significantly suppressed GLUT5 function in a concentration-dependent manner without cytotoxicities. Among 18 components of BTS, the boiled water extracts of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, the root and rhizome of Saposhnikovia divaricata, and the root of Platycodon grandiflorum exhibited significant inhibitory effects on fructose uptake with IC 50 values of 314, 119 and 475 µg/ml, respectively. Among the constituents of the rhizome of Z. officinale extract, 6-gingerol significantly inhibited GLUT5 with an IC 50 value of 39 µM, while 6-shogaol exhibited a significant but weak inhibition on GLUT5 at 100 µM. One of the mechanisms of action of BTS may be the inhibition of fructose absorption in the intestine, and one of the active components of BTS is the rhizome of Z. officinale and 6-gingerol.

  8. Antiobesity and Antidiabetes Effects of a Cudrania tricuspidata Hydrophilic Extract Presenting PTP1B Inhibitory Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hoon; Lee, Sooung; Chung, Youn Wook; Kim, Byeong Mo; Kim, Hanseul; Kim, Kunhong; Yang, Kyung Mi

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and obesity represent the major health problems and the most age-related metabolic diseases. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has emerged as an important regulator of insulin signal transduction and is regarded as a pharmaceutical target for metabolic disorders. To find novel natural materials presenting therapeutic activities against diabetes and obesity, we screened various herb extracts using a chip screening allowing the determination of PTP1B inhibitory effects of the tested compounds using insulin receptor (IR) as the substrate. Cudrania tricuspidata leaves (CTe) had a strong inhibitory effect on PTP1B activity and substantially inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. CTe was orally administrated to diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice once daily for 3 weeks after which changes in glucose, insulin metabolism, and fat accumulation were examined. Hepatic enzyme markers (aspartate aminotransferase, AST, and alanine aminotransferase, ALT) and total fat mass and triglyceride levels decreased in CTe-treated mice, whereas body weight and total cholesterol concentration slightly decreased. CTe increased the phosphorylation of IRS-1 and Akt in liver tissue. Furthermore, CTe treatment significantly lowered blood glucose levels and improved insulin secretion in DIO mice. Our results strongly suggest that CTe may represent a promising therapeutic substance against diabetes and obesity. PMID:26989693

  9. Two new prenylflavonoids from Epimedii Herba and their inhibitory effects on advanced glycation end-products.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Keisuke; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Yukio; Nagai, Ryoji; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Because inhibitors of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), for example pyridoxamine, significantly inhibit the development of retinopathy and neuropathy in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, treatment with AGE inhibitors is believed to be a potential strategy for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases such as diabetic complications. In the present study, the MeOH extract of Epimedii Herba (EH; aerial parts of Epimedium spp.) was found to inhibit the formation of N (ε) -(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N (ω) -(carboxymethyl)arginine (CMA) during incubation of collagen-derived gelatin with ribose. Furthermore, compounds with inhibitory effects against CML and CMA formation were isolated from EH. Two new prenylflavonoids (compounds 1 and 2) and two known compounds (3 and 4) were found to significantly inhibit the formation of both CML and CMA; compound 4 (epimedokoreanin B) had the strongest inhibitory effect of the isolated compounds. These data suggest that epimedokoreanin B could prevent clinical complications of diabetes by inhibiting AGEs.

  10. Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism of Arctium lappa Extract on NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Koppula, Sushruta; Shim, Do-Wan; In, Eun-Jung; Kwak, Su-Bin; Kim, Myong-Ki; Yu, Sang-Hyeun; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Tae-Bong

    2018-01-01

    Arctium lappa (A. lappa) , Compositae, is considered a potential source of nutrition and is used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Although several studies have shown its biological activities as an anti-inflammatory agent, there have been no reports on A. lappa with regard to regulatory role in inflammasome activation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of A. lappa extract (ALE) on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that ALE inhibited IL-1 β secretion from NLRP3 inflammasome activated bone marrow derived macrophages but not that secreted by NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes activation. Mechanistic studies revealed that ALE suppressed the ATPase activity of purified NLRP3 and reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) generated during NLRP3 activation. Therefore, the inhibitory effect of ALE on NLRP3 inflammasome might be attributed to its ability to inhibit the NLRP3 ATPase function and attenuated the mROS during inflammasome activation. In addition, ALE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase of plasma IL-1 β in mouse peritonitis model. These results provide evidence of novel anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A. lappa , which might be used for therapeutic applications in the treatment of NLRP3 inflammasome-associated inflammatory disorders.

  11. Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism of Arctium lappa Extract on NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Koppula, Sushruta; Shim, Do-Wan; In, Eun-Jung; Kwak, Su-Bin; Yu, Sang-Hyeun

    2018-01-01

    Arctium lappa (A. lappa), Compositae, is considered a potential source of nutrition and is used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Although several studies have shown its biological activities as an anti-inflammatory agent, there have been no reports on A. lappa with regard to regulatory role in inflammasome activation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of A. lappa extract (ALE) on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that ALE inhibited IL-1β secretion from NLRP3 inflammasome activated bone marrow derived macrophages but not that secreted by NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes activation. Mechanistic studies revealed that ALE suppressed the ATPase activity of purified NLRP3 and reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) generated during NLRP3 activation. Therefore, the inhibitory effect of ALE on NLRP3 inflammasome might be attributed to its ability to inhibit the NLRP3 ATPase function and attenuated the mROS during inflammasome activation. In addition, ALE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase of plasma IL-1β in mouse peritonitis model. These results provide evidence of novel anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A. lappa, which might be used for therapeutic applications in the treatment of NLRP3 inflammasome-associated inflammatory disorders. PMID:29576797

  12. Inhibitory effects of patchouli alcohol on stress-induced diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tian-Ran; Huang, Jing-Jing; Huang, Zi-Tong; Cao, Hong-Ying; Tan, Bo

    2018-01-01

    AIM To elucidate the mechanism of patchouli alcohol (PA) in treatment of rat models of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). METHODS We studied the effects of PA on colonic spontaneous motility using its cumulative log concentration (3 × 10−7 mol/L to 1 × 10−4 mol/L). We then determined the responses of the proximal and distal colon segments of rats to the following stimuli: (1) carbachol (1 × 10−9 mol/L to 1 × 10−5 mol/L); (2) neurotransmitter antagonists including Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (10 μmol/L) and (1R*, 2S*)-4-[2-Iodo-6-(methylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl]-2-(phosphonooxy)bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-1-methanol dihydrogen phosphate ester tetraammonium salt (1 μmol/L); (3) agonist α,β-methyleneadenosine 5′-triphosphate trisodium salt (100 μmol/L); and (4) single KCl doses (120 mmol/L). The effects of blockers against antagonist responses were also assessed by pretreatment with PA (100 μmol/L) for 1 min. Electrical-field stimulation (40 V, 2-30 Hz, 0.5 ms pulse duration, and 10 s) was performed to observe nonadrenergic, noncholinergic neurotransmitter release in IBS-D rat colon. The ATP level of Kreb’s solution was also determined. RESULTS PA exerted a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the spontaneous contraction of the colonic longitudinal smooth muscle, and the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) was 41.9 μmol/L. In comparison with the KCl-treated IBS-D group, the contractile response (mg contractions) in the PA + KCl-treated IBS-D group (11.87 ± 3.34) was significantly decreased in the peak tension (P < 0.01). Compared with CCh-treated IBS-D rat colon, the cholinergic contractile response of IBS-D rat colonic smooth muscle (EC50 = 0.94 μmol/L) was significantly decreased by PA (EC50 = 37.43 μmol/L) (P < 0.05). Lack of nitrergic neurotransmitter release in stress-induced IBS-D rats showed contraction effects on colonic smooth muscle. Pretreatment with PA resulted in inhibitory effect on L

  13. Acute effects of alcohol on inhibitory control and simulated driving in DUI offenders.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-06-01

    The public health costs associated with alcohol-related traffic accidents have prompted considerable research aimed at identifying characteristics of individuals who drive under the influence (DUI) in order to improve treatment and prevention strategies. Survey studies consistently show that DUI offenders self-report higher levels of impulsivity compared to their nonoffending counterparts. However, little is known about how individuals with a DUI history respond under alcohol. Inhibitory control is a behavioral component of impulsivity thought to underlie risky drinking and driving behaviors. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display deficits of inhibitory control in response to alcohol and the degree to which alcohol impaired their simulated driving performance. It was hypothesized that DUI offenders would display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance. Young adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically-comparable group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg dose of alcohol and a placebo. Inhibitory control was measured by using a cued go/no-go task. Drivers then completed a driving simulation task that yielded multiple indicators of driving performance, such as within-lane deviation, steering rate, centerline crossings and road edge excursions, and drive speed. Results showed that although DUI offenders self-reported greater levels of impulsivity than did controls, no group differences were observed in the degree to which alcohol impaired inhibitory control and driving performance. The findings point to the need to identify other aspects of behavioral dysfunction underlying the self-reported impulsivity among DUI offenders, and to better understand the specific driving situations that might pose greater risk to DUI offenders. The systematic study of candidate cognitive deficits in DUI offenders will provide important

  14. Acute Modafinil Effects on Attention and Inhibitory Control in Methamphetamine-Dependent Humans*

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Andy C.; Sevak, Rajkumar J.; Monterosso, John R.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Sugar, Catherine A.; London, Edythe D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individuals who are methamphetamine dependent exhibit higher rates of cognitive dysfunction than healthy people who do not use methamphetamine, and this dysfunction may have a negative effect on the success of behavioral treatments for the disorder. Therefore, a medication that improves cognition, such as modafinil (Provigil), may serve as a useful adjunct to behavioral treatments for methamphetamine dependence. Although cognitive-enhancing effects of modafinil have been reported in several populations, little is known about the effects of modafinil in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. We thus sought to evaluate the effects of modafinil on the cognitive performance of methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals. Method: Seventeen healthy subjects and 24 methamphetamine-dependent subjects participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Effects of modafinil (200 mg, single oral dose) were assessed on participants’ performance on tests of inhibitory control, working memory, and processing speed/attention. Results: Across subjects, modafinil improved performance on a test of sustained attention, with no significant improvement on any other cognitive tests. However, within the methamphetamine-dependent group only, participants with a high baseline frequency of methamphetamine use demonstrated a greater effect of modafinil on tests of inhibitory control and processing speed than those participants with low baseline use of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Although modafinil produced limited effects across all participants, methamphetamine-dependent participants with a high baseline use of methamphetamine demonstrated significant cognitive improvement on modafinil relative to those with low baseline methamphetamine use. These results add to the findings from a clinical trial that suggested that modafinil may be particularly useful in methamphetamine-dependent subjects who use the drug frequently. PMID:22051208

  15. Inhibitory effect of aniracetam on N-type calcium current in acutely isolated rat neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Koike, H; Saito, H; Matsuki, N

    1993-04-01

    Effects of aniracetam on whole-cell calcium currents were studied in acutely isolated neuronal cells from postnatal rat ventromedial hypothalamus. There were three types of inward calcium currents, one low-threshold transient current and two high-threshold sustained currents. The nicardipine sensitive L-type current was activated at -20 mV or more depolarized potentials, and the omega-conotoxin sensitive N-type current was recorded at more positive potentials than the L-type. Aniracetam inhibited the N-type current in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the other two types of calcium currents. The effect appeared soon after the addition and lasted for several minutes during washing. Since the N-type current is thought to regulate the release of transmitters, the inhibitory effect may contribute to the nootropic property of aniracetam by modifying the neurotransmission.

  16. Inhibitory effect of fruit extracts on the formation of heterocyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ka-Wing; Wu, Qingli; Zheng, Zong Ping; Peng, Xiaofang; Simon, James E; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu

    2007-12-12

    Natural extracts have attracted considerable attention for development into effective inhibitors against the formation of genotoxic heterocyclic amines (HAs) in processed foods. In this study, four fruit extracts (apple, elderberry, grape seed, and pineapple) were evaluated for their effects on HA formation in fried beef patties. Apple and grape seed extracts were found to be the most effective in both the degree of inhibition in the formation of individual HAs (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-henylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)) and in the reduction of total HA content (approximately 70% relative to the control). Activity-guided analysis of apple extract using model systems (PhIP- and MeIQx-producing models) showed that the proanthocyanidins, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid were responsible for reducing the amount of HAs formed. Proanthocyanidins were identified as the dominant inhibitors because they were strongly active against HA formation in both the PhIP and MeIQx model systems. For phloridzin, the inhibitory effect was observed only on the formation of PhIP. In contrast, chlorogenic acid, although effective against the formation of MeIQx, significantly enhanced the formation of PhIP. This is the first report showing the inhibitory activities of apple phenolics on the formation of heterocyclic amines. The findings provide valuable information for the development of effective strategies to minimize HA content of cooked meats and to identify several new natural products that may have new applications in the food industry.

  17. The inhibitory effects of phenolic Mannich bases on carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Yamali, Cem; Tugrak, Mehtap; Gul, Halise Inci; Tanc, Muhammet; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    Phenolic mono Mannich bases [2-[4-hydroxy-3-(aminomethyl)benzylidene]-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (8-15)] and bis Mannich bases [2-[4-hydroxy-3,5-bis(aminomethyl)benzylidene]-2, 3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one (2-7)] were synthesized starting from 2-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2, 3-dihydro-inden-1-one (1). This study was designed in order to investigate the carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitory properties of a library of compounds incorporating the phenol functional group. All prepared compounds showed a low inhibition percentages on both human (h) isoforms hCA I and hCA II compared to the reference sulfonamide acetazolamide. Mannich bases 2-15 had lower inhibition percentages than the compound 1 on hCA I and hCA II, except compound 14, which is a Mannich base derivative of dipropylamine, which had a similar inhibitory power as compound 1 on hCA II. All compounds synthesized 1-15 were 1.3-1.9 times more effective on hCA II comparing with the effectivenes of the compounds on hCA I.

  18. Flavonoids from Machilus japonica Stems and Their Inhibitory Effects on LDL Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Se-Jin; Park, Hee-Jung; Park, Ji-Hae; Cho, Jin-Gyeong; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Hack-Soo; Byun, Sang-Yo; Baek, Nam-In

    2014-01-01

    Stems of Machilus japonica were extracted with 80% aqueous methanol (MeOH) and the concentrated extract was successively extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), normal butanol (n-BuOH), and water. Six flavonoids were isolated from the EtOAc fraction: (+)-taxifolin, afzelin, (−)-epicatechin, 5,3'-di-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin, 5,7,3'-tri-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin, and 5,7-di-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavan-3-ol. The chemical structures were identified using spectroscopic data including NMR, mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. This is the first report of isolation of these six compounds from M. japonica. The compounds were evaluated for their diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Compounds 1 and 3–6 exhibited DPPH antioxidant activity equivalent with that of ascorbic acid, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.16, 0.21, 0.17, 0.15 and 0.07 mM, respectively. The activity of compound 1 was similar to the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, which had an IC50 value of 1.9 µM, while compounds 3 and 5 showed little activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 5 exhibited LDL antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 2.8, 7.1, and 4.6 µM, respectively. PMID:25229822

  19. The inhibitory effect of natural bioactives on the growth of pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Sun

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory activity of natural products, against growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Salmonella typhimurium (KCCM 11862). Chitosan, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and garlic were used as natural bioactives for antibacterial activity. The testing method was carried out according to the disk diffusion method. All of chitosan, EGCG, and garlic showed inhibitory effect against the growth of E. coli and Salmonella typhi. To evaluate the antibacterial activity of natural products during storage, chicken skins were inoculated with 106 of E. coli or Salmonella typhi. The inoculated chicken skins, treated with 0.5, 1, or 2% natural bioactives, were stored during 8 day at 4℃. The numbers of microorganisms were measured at 8 day. Both chitosan and EGCG showed significant decrease in the number of E. coli and Salmonella typhi in dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). These results suggest that natural bioactives such as chitosan, EGCG may be possible to be used as antimicrobial agents for the improvement of food safety. PMID:20368950

  20. Inhibitory effects of sea buckthorn procyanidins on fatty acid synthase and MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Nie, Fangyuan; Ouyang, Jian; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ma, Xiaofeng

    2014-10-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is overexpressed in many human cancers including breast cancer and is considered to be a promising target for therapy. Sea buckthorn has long been used to treat a variety of maladies. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of sea buckthorn procyanidins (SBPs) isolated from the seeds of sea buckthorn on FAS and FAS overexpressed human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. The FAS activity and FAS inhibition were measured by a spectrophotometer at 340 nm of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) absorption. We found that SBP potently inhibited the activity of FAS with a half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.087 μg/ml. 3-4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,3-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to test the cell viability. SBP reduced MDA-MB-231 cell viability with an IC50 value of 37.5 μg/ml. Hoechst 33258/propidium iodide dual staining and flow cytometric analysis showed that SBP induced MDA-MB-231 cell apoptosis. SBP inhibited intracellular FAS activity with a dose-dependent manner. In addition, sodium palmitate could rescue the cell apoptosis induced by SBP. These results showed that SBP was a promising FAS inhibitor which could induce the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells via inhibiting FAS. These findings suggested that SBP might be useful for preventing or treating breast cancer.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Arctigenin from Fructus Arctii Extract on Melanin Synthesis via Repression of Tyrosinase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hwayong; Song, Kwang Hoon; Jung, Pil Mun; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Mi Yoon; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2013-01-01

    To identify the active compound arctigenin in Fructus Arctii (dried seed of medicinal plant Arctium lappa) and to elucidate the inhibitory mechanism in melanogenesis, we analyzed melanin content and tyrosinase activity on B16BL6 murine melanoma and melan-A cell cultures. Water extracts of Fructus Arctii were shown to inhibit tyrosinase activity in vitro and melanin content in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone-stimulated cells to similar levels as the well-known kojic acid and arbutin, respectively. The active compound arctigenin of Fructus Arctii displayed little or no cytotoxicity at all concentrations examined and decreased the relative melanin content and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Melanogenic inhibitory activity was also identified in vivo with zebrafish embryo. To determine the mechanism of inhibition, the effects of arctigenin on tyrosinase gene expression and tyrosinase promoter activity were examined. Also in addition, in the signaling cascade, arctigenin dose dependently decreased the cAMP level and promoted the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. This result suggests that arctigenin downregulates cAMP and the tyrosinase enzyme through its gene promoter and subsequently upregulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity by increasing phosphorylation in the melanogenesis signaling pathway, which leads to a lower melanin content. PMID:23781272

  2. In silico, in vitro and in vivo analyses of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity and the antidiabetic effect of sodium caseinate hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tzu-Yuan; Hung, Chuan-Chuan; Jao, Chia-Ling; Hsieh, You-Liang; Wu, Si-Xian; Hsu, Kuo-Chiang

    2016-02-01

    The frequency (A), a novel in silico parameter, was developed by calculating the ratio of the number of truncated peptides with Xaa-proline and Xaa-alanine to all peptide fragments from a protein hydrolyzed with a specific protease. The highest in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity (72.7%) was observed in the hydrolysate of sodium caseinate by bromelain (Cas/BRO), and the constituent proteins of bovine casein also had relatively high A values (0.10-0.17) with BRO hydrolysis. 1CBR (the <1 kDa fraction of Cas/BRO) showed the greatest in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity of 77.5% and was used for in vivo test by high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The daily administration of 1CBR for 6 weeks was effective to improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats. The results indicate that the novel in silico method has the potential as a screening tool to predict dietary proteins to generate DPP-IV inhibitory and antidiabetic peptides.

  3. An apple oligogalactan enhances the growth inhibitory effect of 5-fluorouracil on colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhua; Fan, Lei; Niu, Yinbo; Mian, Wenguang; Zhang, Feng; Xie, Ming; Sun, Yang; Mei, Qibing

    2017-06-05

    Treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a clinical challenge, since current therapies are associated with obvious side effects and high expenses. These limitations highlight an urgent need for developing novel and safe treatment strategies. It is suggested that combinatorial strategies could be more effective and much safer than monotherapy in cancer treatment. In our previous study, an apple oligogalactan (AOG) has been found to show beneficial effect on treating CRC. This study tried to investigate whether AOG could enhance the growth inhibitory effect of 5-FU in human CRC cells (HT-29 and SW-620), a mouse model of colitis associated colorectal cancer and a murine model of xenograft tumor. The IC 50 values of 5-FU were 26.70±0.21μM in HT-29 cells and 26.71±2.06μM in SW-620 cells. Pretreatment with 0.05 or 0.1mM AOG down-regulated IC 50 values of 5-FU to 22.44±1.01 or 18.67±1.16μM in HT-29 and 21.21±1.49 or 17.99±1.42μM in SW-620 cells. AOG enhanced 5-FU-induced cell apoptosis and S phase arrest. The combination not only protected ICR mice against intestinal toxicities and carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and dextran sodium sulfate, but also decreased the xenograft tumor size, triggered apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of tumor cells in nude mice. The mechanisms of AOG on enhancing the growth inhibitory effect of 5-FU may be through the influence of TLR-4/NF-κB pathway. Taken together, the combinatorial therapy using AOG and 5-FU is a promising strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitory effect of Disulfiram/copper complex on non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Lincan; Shen, Hongmei; Zhao, Guangqiang

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Disulfiram and copper synergistically inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation. • Lung cancer cell colony formation ability is inhibited by Disulfiram/copper. • Disulfiram/copper increases the sensitivity of cisplatin to lung cancer cells. • Lung cancer stem cells are specifically targeted by Disulfiram/copper complex. - Abstract: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women worldwide. Recently, Disulfiram has been reported to be able to inhibit glioblastoma, prostate, or breast cancer cell proliferation. In this study, the synergistic effect of Disulfiram and copper on NSCLC cell growth was investigated. Inhibition ofmore » cancer cell proliferation was detected by 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT) assay and cell cycle analysis. Liquid colony formation and tumor spheroid formation assays were used to evaluate their effect on cancer cell clonogenicity. Real-time PCR was performed to test the mRNA level of cancer stem cell related genes. We found that Disulfiram or copper alone did not potently inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro. However, the presence of copper significantly enhanced inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell growth, indicating a synergistic effect between Disulfiram and copper. Cell cycle analysis showed that Disulfiram/copper complex caused NSCLC cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Furthermore, Disulfiram/copper significantly increased the sensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells tested by MTT assay. Liquid colony formation assay revealed that copper dramatically increased the inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell colony forming ability. Disulfiram combined with copper significantly attenuated NSCLC cell spheroid formation and recuded the mRNA expression of lung cancer stem cell related genes. Our data suggest that Disulfiram/copper complex alone or combined with other chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC

  5. Interaction of inhibitory and facilitatory effects of conditioning trials on long-term memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Hosono, Shouhei; Matsumoto, Yukihisa

    2016-01-01

    Animals learn through experience and consolidate the memories into long-time storage. Conditioning parameters to induce protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) have been the subject of extensive studies in many animals. Here we found a case in which a conditioning trial inhibits or facilitates LTM formation depending on the intervals from preceding trials. We studied the effects of conditioning parameters on LTM formation in olfactory conditioning of maxillary-palpi extension response with sucrose reward in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. We found, at first, that translation- and transcription-dependent LTM forms 1 h after training, the fastest so far reported in insects. Second, we observed that multiple-trial training with an intertrial interval (ITI) of 20 or 30 sec, often called massed training, is more effective than spaced training for LTM formation, an observation that differs from the results of most studies in other animals. Third, we found that a conditioning trial inhibits LTM formation when the intervals from preceding trials were in the range of 10–16 min. This inhibitory effect is pairing-specific and is not due to decreased motivation for learning (overtraining effect). To our knowledge, no similar inhibition of LTM formation by a conditioning trial has been reported in any animals. We propose a model to account for the effects of trial number and ITIs on LTM formation. Olfactory conditioning in cockroaches should provide pertinent materials in which to study neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying the inhibitory and facilitatory processes for LTM formation. PMID:27918270

  6. Inhibitory effects of pomegranate seed extract on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in beef and chicken meatballs after cooking by four different methods.

    PubMed

    Keşkekoğlu, Hasan; Uren, Ali

    2014-04-01

    Beef and chicken meatballs with a 0.5% (w/w) pomegranate seed extract were cooked using four different cooking methods (oven roasting, pan cooking, charcoal-barbecue, and deep-fat frying) and six heterocyclic aromatic amines; IQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, norharman, and harman were observed. In the beef meatballs, the highest inhibitory effects of pomegranate seed extract on heterocyclic aromatic amines formation were 68% for PhIP, 24% for norharman, 18% for harman, 45% for IQ, and 57% for MeIQx. Total heterocyclic aromatic amine formation was reduced by 39% and 46% in beef meatballs cooked by charcoal-barbecue and deep-fat frying, respectively. In the chicken meatballs, the highest inhibitory effects were 75% for PhIP, 57% for norharman, 28% for harman, 46% for IQ, and 49% for MeIQx. When the pomegranate seed extract was added to the chicken meatballs cooked by deep-fat frying, the total heterocyclic aromatic amine formation was inhibited by 49%, in contrast the total heterocyclic aromatic amine contents after oven roasting increased by 70%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory effects of carbohydrates on histamine release and mast cell disruption by dextran

    PubMed Central

    Beraldo, W. T.; Da Silva, W. dias; Fernandes, A. D. Lemos

    1962-01-01

    Alloxan diabetic rats failed to show the skin reaction (blue spot) evoked by dextran, whereas the effects produced by histamine and compound 48/80 were not altered. When dextran and glucose were injected simultaneously into the skin the reaction was inhibited. In vitro, mast cell alterations produced by dextran occurred simultaneously with histamine release; both processes were inhibited by glucose, other carbohydrates related to glucose, and inhibitors of anaphylaxis. These experiments suggest that dextran releases histamine by a mechanism similar to that found with 48/80 and anaphylaxis in the rat. The inhibitory effect of carbohydrates may be understood on the basis of a competitive mechanism. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:13967594

  8. Inhibitory effects of isatin Mannich bases on carbonic anhydrases, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, Dilan Ozmen; Yamali, Cem; Gul, Halise Inci; Taslimi, Parham; Gulcin, Ilhami; Yanik, Telat; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-12-01

    The effects of isatin Mannich bases incorporating (1-[piperidin-1-yl (P1)/morpholin-4-yl (P2)/N-methylpiperazin-1-yl (P3)]methyl)-1H-indole-2,3-dione) moieties against human (h) carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoenzymes hCA I and hCA II, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes were evaluated. P1-P3 demonstrated impressive inhibition profiles against AChE and BChE and also inhibited both CAs at nanomolar level. These inhibitory effects were more powerful in all cases than the reference compounds used for all these enzymes. This study suggests that isatin Mannich bases P1-P3 are good candidate compounds especially for the development of new cholinesterase inhibitors since they were 2.2-5.9 times better inhibitors than clinically used drug Tacrine.

  9. [Inhibitory effect of benzimidazole derivatives on cholinesterases of animals in the presence of different substrates].

    PubMed

    Basova, N E; Kormilitsyn, B N; Perchenok, A Iu; Rosengart, E V; Saakov, V S; Suvorov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Specifically synthesized group of benzimidazole derivatives possessing varying degrees of delocalization of the positive charge in the cation group of the molecule has been studied in order to search for potential cholinergically active compounds and to study the role of the Coulomb interaction in cholinesterase catalysis. These compounds were reversible inhibitors of cholinesterase (ChE) of human erythrocytes, horse serum, brain of the frog Rana temporaria and visual ganglia of the Pacific squid Todarodes pacificus in the presence of acetylthiocholine iodide and propionylthiocholine iodide as substrates. The differences in the nature of reversible inhibitory effect were observed. The effect of the inhibitor structure and substrate nature, specific for each of the studied inhibitors, on the character of the process of reversible inhibition was found.

  10. Inhibitory effect for proliferation of oral bacteria in dogs by tooth brushing and application of toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Matsukawa, Yuki; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2016-08-01

    To investigate inhibitory effect for oral bacterial proliferation, we divided 12 dogs into 3 groups; scaling alone (C; control group), brushing (B) and application of toothpaste (P). Before scaling (Pre) and at 0 to 8 weeks after scaling (0-8 w), we collected oral bacteria from the dental surface every week and counted them using a bacterial counter. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of oral bacteria for group B relative to Pre and group C, as well as for group P relative to group C at 5-7 w. Consequently, brushing may inhibit an increase in the number of oral bacteria, and toothpaste may be effective at a certain level, although not more than that of brushing.

  11. Evidence for the putative cannabinoid receptor, GPR55, mediated inhibitory effects on intestinal contractility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Gracious R; Lichtman, Aron; Dewey, William L; Akbarali, Hamid I

    2012-01-01

    Background Cannabinoids inhibit intestinal motility via presynaptic cannabinoid receptor type I(CB1) in enteric neurons while cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) receptors are located mainly in immune cells. The recently deorphanized G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR55, has been proposed to be the “third” cannabinoid receptor. Although gene expression of GPR55 is evident in the gut, functional evidence for GPR55 in the gut is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that GPR55 activation inhibits neurogenic contractions in the gut. Methods We assessed the inhibitory effect of the atypical cannabinoid O-1602, a GPR55 agonist, in mouse colon. Isometric tension recordings in colonic tissue strips were used from either wild type, GPR55−/− or CB1−/−/CB2−/−knock-out mice. Results O-1602 inhibited the electrical field-induced contractions in the colon strips from wild type and CB1−/−/CB2−/− in a concentration–dependent manner, suggesting a non-CB1/CB2-receptor mediated prejunctional effect. The concentration–dependent response of O-1602 was significantly inhibited in GPR55−/− mice. O-1602 did not relax colonic strips pre-contracted with high K+ (80 mmol/l), indicating no involvement of Ca2+ channel blockade in O-1602–induced relaxation. However, 10 μmol/l O-1602 partially inhibited the exogenous acetylcholine (10 μmol/l) –induced contractions. Moreover, we also assessed the inhibitory effects of JWH 015, a CB2/GPR55 agonist on neurogenic contractions of mouse ileum. Surprisingly, the effects of JWH015 were independent of the known cannabinoid receptors. Conclusion These findings taken together suggest that activation of GPR55 leads to inhibition of neurogenic contractions in the gut, and are predominantly prejunctional. PMID:22759743

  12. Growth Inhibitory Effects of Adhatoda vasica and Its Potential at Reducing Listeria monocytogenes in Chicken Meat

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shruti; Ahirwal, Laxmi; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Huh, Yun Suk; Han, Young-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of Adhatoda vasica ethanolic leaf extract (AVELE) against Listeria monocytogenes were examined to assess its potential to preserve minimally processed meat products safely. The total phenolic, flavonoid, and alkaloid levels in AVELE were 10.09 ± 4.52 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g, 22.43 ± 1.62 mg of quercetin equivalents/g, and 19.43 ± 3.90 mg/g, respectively. AVELE (1, 5, 10, or 20%) had considerable antibacterial effects against L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 in terms of the inhibitory zones (7.4–13.6 mm), MIC (100 mg/mL or 10% formulated solution), reduced cell viability, potassium ion efflux, and the release of 260-nm absorbing materials and extracellular ATP. AVELE was used as a rinse solution (5, 10, and 20%) for raw chicken breast meat. A 20% rinsing solution applied for 60 min inhibited the L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 counts significantly on raw chicken breast meat. Moreover, L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563 did not grow in the meat sample when the rinse time was increased to 90 min at the same concentration. L. monocytogenes showed a greater reduction to ~3 CFU/g after rinsing with a 10 and 20% AVELE solution for 30 min than with a 5% AVELE solution. The rinsing processes with AVELE produced the final cooked chicken products with higher sensory attribute scores, such as taste, juiciness, and tenderness, compared to the control group along with a decrease in microbial contamination. Chicken meat rinsed with AVELE (rinsing time of 90 min) showed better sensory attribute scores of juiciness and tenderness, as well as the overall sensory quality compared to the untreated group. This research highlights the effectiveness of AVELE against L. monocytogenes NCIM 24563, suggesting that AVELE can be used as an effective antimicrobial marinade and/or a rinse for meat preservation. PMID:28769879

  13. Simultaneous quantification and inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation of the traditional Korean medicine, Leejung-tang

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leejung-tang (LJT) is a traditional Korean herbal medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In this study, we performed quantification analysis of five marker components, liquiritin (1), ginsenoside Rg1 (2), ginsenoside Rb1 (3), glycyrrhizin (4), and 6-gingerol (5) in LJT using a high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC–PDA). In addition, we investigated the inhibitory effect on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by the LJT sample. Methods Compounds 1–5 were separated within 35 min using a Gemini C18 column. The mobile phase used gradient elution with 1.0% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid (A) and 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile (B). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detector was a photodiode array (PDA) set at 203 nm, 254 nm, and 280 nm. The inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation conduct an experiment on thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) assay, and electrophoresis of ApoB fragmentation of LJT. Results Calibration curves of compounds 1–5 showed good linearity (r2 ≥0.9995) in different concentration ranges. The recoveries of compounds 1–5 were in the range of 98.90–103.39%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) below 3.0%. The RSDs (%) of intra-day and inter-day precision were 0.10–1.08% and 0.29–1.87%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of LJT on Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation was defined by TBARS assay (IC50: 165.7 μg/mL) and REM of oxLDL (decrease of 50% at 127.7 μg/mL). Furthermore LJT reduced the fragmentation of ApoB of oxLDL in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions The established HPLC-PDA method will be helpful to improve quality control of LJT. In addition, LJT is a potential LDL oxidation inhibitor. PMID:24383717

  14. Inhibitory effect of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB on plant pathogens Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in planta

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiangling; Zhang, Manrang; Tang, Qian; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. produce secondary metabolites with potential antimicrobial activity for use in agricultural productions. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of X. nematophila TB culture on plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The cell-free filtrate of TB culture showed strong inhibitory effects (>90%) on mycelial growth of both pathogens. The methanol-extracted bioactive compounds (methanol extract) of TB culture also had strong inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and spore germinations of both pathogens. The methanol extract (1000 μg/mL) and cell-free filtrate both showed strong therapeutic and protective effects (>70%) on grey mold both in detached tomato fruits and plants, and leaf scorch in pepper plants. This study demonstrates X. nematophila TB produces antimicrobial metabolites of strong activity on plant pathogens, with great potential for controlling tomato grey mold and pepper leaf scorch and being used in integrated disease control to reduce chemical application. PMID:24599183

  15. Inhibitory effect of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB on plant pathogens Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea in vitro and in planta.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangling; Zhang, Manrang; Tang, Qian; Wang, Yonghong; Zhang, Xing

    2014-03-06

    Entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. produce secondary metabolites with potential antimicrobial activity for use in agricultural productions. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of X. nematophila TB culture on plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The cell-free filtrate of TB culture showed strong inhibitory effects (>90%) on mycelial growth of both pathogens. The methanol-extracted bioactive compounds (methanol extract) of TB culture also had strong inhibitory effects on mycelial growth and spore germinations of both pathogens. The methanol extract (1000 μg/mL) and cell-free filtrate both showed strong therapeutic and protective effects (>70%) on grey mold both in detached tomato fruits and plants, and leaf scorch in pepper plants. This study demonstrates X. nematophila TB produces antimicrobial metabolites of strong activity on plant pathogens, with great potential for controlling tomato grey mold and pepper leaf scorch and being used in integrated disease control to reduce chemical application.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Flavonolignans on the P2Y12 Pathway in Blood Platelets.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Michal; Szelenberger, Rafal; Dziedzic, Angela; Saluk-Bijak, Joanna

    2018-02-10

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is the major platelet agonist, which is important in the shape changes, stability, and growth of the thrombus. Platelet activation by ADP is associated with the G protein-coupled receptors P2Y1 and P2Y12. The pharmacologic blockade of the P2Y12 receptor significantly reduces the risk of peripheral artery disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and vascular death. Recent studies demonstrated the inhibition of ADP-induced blood platelet activation by three major compounds of the flavonolignans group: silybin, silychristin, and silydianin. For this reason, the aim of the current work was to verify the effects of silybin, silychristin, and silydianin on ADP-induced physiological platelets responses, as well as mechanisms of P2Y12-dependent intracellular signal transduction. We evaluated the effect of tested flavonolignans on ADP-induced blood platelets' aggregation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) (using light transmission aggregometry), adhesion to fibrinogen (using the static method), and the secretion of PF-4 (using the ELISA method). Additionally, using the double labeled flow cytometry method, we estimated platelet vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. We demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction of blood platelets' ability to perform ADP-induced aggregation, adhere to fibrinogen, and secrete PF-4 in samples treated with flavonolignans. Additionally, we observed that all of the tested flavonolignans were able to increase VASP phosphorylation in blood platelets samples, which is correlated with P2Y12 receptor inhibition. All of these analyses show that silychristin and silybin have the strongest inhibitory effect on blood platelet activation by ADP, while silydianin also inhibits the ADP pathway, but to a lesser extent. The results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate that silybin, silychristin, and silydianin have inhibitory properties against the P2Y12 receptor and block ADP-induced blood platelet

  17. Enhanced inhibitory synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn mediates antinociceptive effects of TC-2559

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background TC-2559 is a selective α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist and α4β2 nAChR activation has been related to antinociception. The aim of this study is to investigate the analgesic effect of TC-2559 and its underlying spinal mechanisms. Results 1) In vivo bioavailability study: TC-2559 (3 mg/kg) had high absorption rate in rats with maximal total brain concentration reached over 4.6 μM within first 15 min after administration and eliminated rapidly with brain half life of about 20 min after injection. 2) In vivo behavioral experiments: TC-2559 exerts dose dependent antinociceptive effects in both formalin test in mice and chronic constriction injury (CCI) model in rats by activation of α4β2 nAChRs; 3) Whole-cell patch-clamp studies in the superficial dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord slices: perfusion of TC-2559 (2 μM) significantly increased the frequency, but not amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs). The enhancement of sIPSCs was blocked by pre-application of DHβE (2 μM), a selective α4β2 nicotinic receptor antagonist. Neither the frequency nor the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) of spinal dorsal horn neurons were affected by TC-2559. Conclusions Enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn via activation of α4β2 nAChRs may be one of the mechanisms of the antinociceptive effects of TC-2559 on pathological pain models. It provides further evidence to support the notion that selective α4β2 subtype nAChR agonist may be developed as new analgesic drug for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:21816108

  18. Inhibitory effects of Agaricus blazei extracts on human myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chi-Fai; Jiang, Jing-Jing; Leung, Kwok-Nam; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2009-03-18

    Agaricus blazei has been used as an adjuvant in cancer chemotherapy and is found to inhibit the growth of various types of tumor cells. Our study has adopted a systematic and bioassay-guided approach to optimize the extraction of Agaricus blazei for anti-leukemic bioactive components. The tumor-selective growth inhibitory activity of the extracts on leukemic cell lines was evaluated in vitro and in vivo using tumor-bearing nude mice. Agaricus blazei extracts were prepared using different methods. MTT and tritiated thymidine incorporation assays were used to evaluate the in vitro anti-leukemic effects. The most potent extract was further investigated using NB-4 cells-bearing nude mice and mechanistic studies using DNA fragmentation assay and cell death detection ELISA. The JAB80E70 extract showed the most potent tumor-selective growth inhibitory activity against human leukemia NB-4 and K-562 cells. This is the first report of anti-leukemic activity of JAB80E70 in athymic nude mice bearing NB-4 cells. Using DNA fragmentation assays and cell death detection ELISA, JAB80E70 was found to induce apoptosis in NB-4 cells. However, the polysaccharide enriched fractions failed to show significant cytotoxicity on NB-4 cells in vitro. The JAB80E70 extract exhibited potent anti-leukemic effect in vitro and in vivo. The effect can be attributed, at least in part, to the induction of apoptosis. Besides, polysaccharides in Agaricus blazei may not possess direct anti-leukemic activity in vitro.

  19. Inhibitory effect of aqueous dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is an immunosuppressive disease that results in life-threatening opportunistic infections. The general problems in current therapy include the constant emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains, adverse side effects and the unavailability of treatments in developing countries. Natural products from herbs with the abilities to inhibit HIV-1 life cycle at different stages, have served as excellent sources of new anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-HIV-1 activity of aqueous dandelion extract. Methods The pseudotyped HIV-1 virus has been utilized to explore the anti-HIV-1 activity of dandelion, the level of HIV-1 replication was assessed by the percentage of GFP-positive cells. The inhibitory effect of the dandelion extract on reverse transcriptase activity was assessed by the reverse transcriptase assay kit. Results Compared to control values obtained from cells infected without treatment, the level of HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that dandelion extract has a potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity. The identification of HIV-1 antiviral compounds from Taraxacum officinale should be pursued. Conclusions The dandelion extract showed strong activity against HIV-1 RT and inhibited both the HIV-1 vector and the hybrid-MoMuLV/MoMuSV retrovirus replication. These findings provide additional support for the potential therapeutic efficacy of Taraxacum officinale. Extracts from this plant may be regarded as another starting point for the development of an antiretroviral therapy with fewer side effects. PMID:22078030

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Furanic and Phenolic Compounds on Exoelectrogenesis in a Microbial Electrolysis Cell Bioanode

    DOE PAGES

    Zeng, Xiaofei; Borole, Abhijeet P.; Pavlostathis, Spyros G.

    2016-09-09

    Furanic and phenolic compounds are 20 lignocellulose-derived compounds known to inhibit to H2- and ethanol- producing microorganisms in dark fermentation. Bioelectrochemical conversion of furanic and phenolic compounds to electricity or H2 has recently been demonstrated as a productive method to use these compounds. However, potential inhibitory effect of furanic and phenolic compounds on exoelectrogenesis in bioelectrochemical systems is not well understood. This study systematically investigated the inhibitory effect of furfural (FF), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), syringic acid (SA), vanillic acid (VA), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) on exoelectrogenesis in the bioanode of a microbial electrolysis cell. A mixture of these five compounds atmore » an increasing initial total concentration from 0.8 to 8.0 g/L resulted in current decrease up to 91%. The observed inhibition primarily affected exoelectrogenesis, instead of non-exoelectrogenic biotransformation pathways (e.g., fermentation) of the five compounds. Furthermore, the parent compounds at a high concentration, as opposed to their biotransformation products, were responsible for the observed inhibition. Tests with individual compounds show that all five parent compounds contributed to the observed inhibition by the mixture. The IC50 (concentration resulting in 50% current decrease) was estimated as 2.7 g/L for FF, 3.0 g/L for HMF, 1.9 g/L for SA, 2.1 g/L for VA and 2.0 g/L for HBA. Nevertheless, these compounds below their non-inhibitory concentrations jointly resulted in significant inhibition as a mixture. Catechol and phenol, which were persistent biotransformation products of the mixture, inhibited exoelectrogens at high concentrations, but to a lesser extent than the parent compounds. Recovery of exoelectrogenesis from inhibition by all compounds was observed, except for catechol, which resulted in irreversible inhibition. The reversibility of inhibition, as well as the observed difference in recovery

  1. Investigation of hydrazide derivatives inhibitory effect on peroxidase enzyme purified from turnip roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaz, Züleyha; Öztekin, Aykut; Özdemir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Peroxidases (EC: 1.11.1.7) are haem proteins and contain iron (III) protoporphyrin IX (ferriprotoporphyrin IX) as the prosthetic group [1]. They are found in all cells and play a critical role in many biological processes, such as the host-defense mechanism [2]. Peroxidases (PODs) are widely used in clinical biochemistry, enzyme immunoassays, synthesis of various aromatic chemicals, treatment of waste water containing phenolic compounds [3, 4]. In this study, peroxidase enzyme was purified with Para amino benzohydrazide (PABH)-L-Tyrosine Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography to investigate the inhibitory effect of hydrazide derivatives on Turnip (Brassica rapa L.). IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated for the molecules of 6-Amino nicotinic hydrazide, 6-Amino-5-bromo nicotinic hydrazide, 2-Amino-5-hydroxy benzohydrazide, 4-Amino-3-hydroxy benzohydrazide on purified enzyme and inhibition type of these molecules were determined.

  2. Lack of inhibitory effect of cimetidine on caffeine metabolism in children using the caffeine breath test

    PubMed Central

    Parker, A.C.; Pritchard, P.; Preston, T.; Dalzell, A.M.; Choonara, I.

    1997-01-01

    Aims To study the potential drug interaction between cimetidine and caffeine in a group of children who received cimetidine for gastritis. Methods The caffeine breath test was carried out prior to the administration of cimetidine and after 2–3 weeks therapy. The children (n=1) received 300–800 mg cimetidine daily (11–36 mg kg−1 day−1 ). Results There was no significant change in the 2 h cumulative labelled CO2 following the administration of cimetidine (mean values 5.61% before and 4.87% during cimetidine; Student’s t-test P >0.2). Conclusions Cimetidine did not have an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of caffeine in this group of children studied. PMID:9159560

  3. Inhibitory effects of pretreatment with radon on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Teruaki; Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight) after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m(3) radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  4. The inhibitory effect of metals and other ions on acid phosphatase activity from Vigna aconitifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pramod Kumar; Anand, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity of acid phosphatase from Vigna aconitifolia seeds to metal ions, fluoride, and phosphate was examined. All the effectors had different degree of inhibitory effect on the enzyme. Among metal ions, molybdate and ferric ion were observed to be most potent inhibitors and both exhibited mixed type of inhibition. Acid phosphatase activity was inhibited by Cu2+ in a noncompetitive manner. Zn and Mn showed mild inhibition on the enzyme activity. Inhibition kinetics analysis explored molybdate as a potent inhibitor for acid phosphatase in comparison with other effectors used in this study. Fluoride was the next most strong inhibitor for the enzyme activity, and caused a mixed type of inhibition. Phosphate inhibited the enzyme competitively, which demonstrates that inhibition due to phosphate is one of the regulatory factors for enzyme activity.

  5. INHIBITORY EFFECT OF CHITOSAN OLIGOSACCHARIDE ON HUMAN HEPATOMA CELLS IN VITRO.

    PubMed

    Liu, Likun; Xin, Yi; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Ershao; Li, Weiling

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide, the degradation products of chitin, was reported to have a wide range of physiological functions and biological activities. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of Chitosan oligosaccharide on human hepatoma cells. MTT assay was applied to detect cell viability of the human hepatoma cells treated with Chitosan oligosaccharide. Flow cytometric analysis was used to investigate the apoptosis of the human hepatoma cells treated with Chitosan oligosaccharide. We employed western blot to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the apoptosis. Our data indicated that chitosan oligosaccharide dose-dependently inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and induced apoptosis. On the molecular level, chitosan oligosaccharide decreased Bcl-2 and increased Caspase-3 expression which may be related to the apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Our results provide an experimental basis for the clinical development of Chitosan oligosaccharide as a novel anti-hepatoma drug.

  6. INHIBITORY EFFECT OF CHITOSAN OLIGOSACCHARIDE ON HUMAN HEPATOMA CELLS IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Likun; Xin, Yi; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Ershao; Li, Weiling

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chitosan oligosaccharide, the degradation products of chitin, was reported to have a wide range of physiological functions and biological activities. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of Chitosan oligosaccharide on human hepatoma cells Materials and Methods: MTT assay was applied to detect cell viability of the human hepatoma cells treated with Chitosan oligosaccharide. Flow cytometric analysis was used to investigate the apoptosis of the human hepatoma cells treated with Chitosan oligosaccharide. We employed western blot to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the apoptosis. Results: Our data indicated that chitosan oligosaccharide dose-dependently inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and induced apoptosis. On the molecular level, chitosan oligosaccharide decreased Bcl-2 and increased Caspase-3 expression which may be related to the apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Conclusion: Our results provide an experimental basis for the clinical development of Chitosan oligosaccharide as a novel anti-hepatoma drug. PMID:28638890

  7. Inhibitory Effect of a Nucleotide Analog on Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Aravena, Andrea; Vallejos-Vidal, Eva; Cortez-San Martin, Marcelo; Reyes-Lopez, Felipe; Tello, Mario; Mora, Patricia; Sandino, Ana María; Spencer, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    The infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), which belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family, has been responsible for major losses in the salmon industry, with mortalities close to 100% in areas where Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is grown. This work studied the effect of ribavirin (1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,3-triazole-3-carbaxaide), a broad-spectrum antiviral compound with proven ability to inhibit the replicative cycle of the DNA and RNA viruses. The results show that ribavirin was able to inhibit the infectivity of ISAV in in vitro assays. In these assays, a significant inhibition of the replicative viral cycle was observed with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.02 μg/ml and an IC90 of 0.4 μg/ml of ribavirin. After ribavirin treatment, viral proteins were not detectable and a reduction of viral mRNA association with ribosomes was observed. Ribavirin does not affect the levels of EF1a, nor its association with polysomes, suggesting that the inhibition of RNA synthesis occurs specifically for the virus mRNAs and not for cellular mRNAs. Moreover, ribavirin caused a significant reduction in genomic and viral RNA messenger levels. The study of the inhibitory mechanism showed that it was not reversed by the addition of guanosine. Furthermore, in vivo assays showed a reduction in the mortality of Salmo salar by more than 90% in fish infected with ISAV and treated with ribavirin without adverse effects. In fact, these results show that ribavirin is an antiviral that could be used to prevent ISAV replication either in vitro or in vivo. PMID:21653663

  8. The Effect of Inhibitory Control on General Mathematics Achievement and Fraction Comparison in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez, David Maximiliano; Jiménez, Abelino; Bobadilla, Roberto; Reyes, Cristián; Dartnell, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in inhibitory control have been shown to relate to general mathematics achievement, but whether this relation varies for specific areas within mathematics is a question that remains open. Here, we evaluate if inhibitory processes play a specific role in the particular case of fraction comparison, where learners must ignore…

  9. Multilingual Stroop Performance: Effects of Trilingualism and Proficiency on Inhibitory Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Viorica; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Mizrahi, Elena; Kania, Ursula; Cordes, Anne-Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that multilinguals' languages are constantly co-activated and that experience managing this co-activation changes inhibitory control function. The present study examined language interaction and inhibitory control using a colour-word Stroop task. Multilingual participants were tested in their three most proficient…

  10. Inhibitory effect of sour pomegranate sauces on some green vegetables and kisir.

    PubMed

    Karabiyikli, Seniz; Kisla, Duygu

    2012-04-16

    In this study, the antimicrobial effects of both traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples on some green vegetables and also on "kısır" which is a popular and traditional appetizer in Turkey were investigated. The inhibitory effect of the pomegranate products on the naturally existing bacterial microflora of lettuce, spring onion, parsley and kısır were analyzed. Also, all these food samples were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC-43895) and antimicrobial effect of the pomegranate products on the inoculated microflora was detected. All the food samples were treated with pomegranate products for different time periods and the effect of treatment time was investigated. pH and titratable acidity values of the traditional and commercial pomegranate sour sauce samples were detected. The results showed that although the pomegranate products had an antimicrobial effect on the natural bacterial microflora of the food samples, the effect on inoculated food samples was more prominent and additionally the application time was found to be a crucial parameter for both cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibitory Effects of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) Leaves on Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yasukawa, Ken; Okuda, Sakiko; Nobushi, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) leaves exhibited marked antitumour-promoting activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. From the active fraction of the ethanol extract of the gymnema leaves, three triterpenoids were isolated and identified. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear) in mice. The tested compounds showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% inhibitory dose of 50–555 nmol/ear. PMID:24734106

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) Leaves on Tumour Promotion in Two-Stage Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Ken; Okuda, Sakiko; Nobushi, Yasuhito

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of gymnema (Gymnema sylvestre) leaves exhibited marked antitumour-promoting activity in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test in mice using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) as a promoter. From the active fraction of the ethanol extract of the gymnema leaves, three triterpenoids were isolated and identified. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on TPA-induced inflammation (1 µg/ear) in mice. The tested compounds showed marked anti-inflammatory effects, with a 50% inhibitory dose of 50-555 nmol/ear.

  13. Comparison of the acute effects of high-intensity interval training and continuous aerobic walking on inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Kao, Shih-Chun; Westfall, Daniel R; Soneson, Jack; Gurd, Brendon; Hillman, Charles H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) on inhibitory control. The P3 component of the stimulus-locked ERP was collected in 64 young adults during a modified flanker task following 20 min of seated rest, 20 min of CAE, and 9 min of HIIT on separate days in counterbalanced order. Participants exhibited shorter overall reaction time following CAE and HIIT compared to seated rest. Response accuracy improved following HIIT in the task condition requiring greater inhibitory control compared to seated rest and CAE. P3 amplitude was larger following CAE compared to seated rest and HIIT. Decreased P3 amplitude and latency were observed following HIIT compared to seated rest. The current results replicated previous findings indicating the beneficial effect of acute CAE on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of inhibitory control. With a smaller duration and volume of exercise, a single bout of HIIT resulted in additional improvements in inhibitory control, paralleled by a smaller and more efficient P3 component. In sum, the current study demonstrated that CAE and HIIT differentially facilitate inhibitory control and its underlying neuroelectric activation, and that HIIT may be a time-efficient approach for enhancing cognitive health. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Bioaccessibility and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes of carnosic acid in sage and rosemary.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Pınar; El, Sedef Nehir

    2018-04-28

    In this study, the aim was to determine the bioaccessibilities of carnosic acid in sage and rosemary and in vitro inhibitory effects of these samples on lipid and starch digestive enzymes by evaluating the lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition activities. The content of carnosic acid in rosemary (18.72 ± 0.33 mg/g) was found to be higher than that content of that in sage (3.76 ± 0.13 mg/g) (p < 0.05). The carnosic acid bioaccessibilities were found as 45.10 ± 1.88% and 38.32 ± 0.21% in sage and rosemary, respectively. The tested sage and rosemary showed inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (Concentration of inhibitor required to produce a 50% inhibition of the initial rate of reaction - IC 50 88.49 ± 2.35, 76.80 ± 1.68 μg/mL, respectively), α-amylase (IC 50 107.65 ± 12.64, 95.65 ± 2.73 μg/mL, respectively) and lipase (IC 50 6.20 ± 0.63, 4.31 ± 0.62 μg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that carnosic acid standard equivalent inhibition capacities (CAEIC 50 ) for these food samples were determined and these values were in agreement with the IC 50 values. These results show that sage and rosemary are potent inhibitors of lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase digestive enzymes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Contrasting effects of acute and chronic treatment with imipramine and fluoxetine on inhibitory avoidance and escape responses in mice exposed to the elevated T-maze.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Karina Santos; de Carvalho-Netto, Eduardo Ferreira; Monte, Kátia Cristina Da Silva; Acco, Bruno; Nogueira, Paulo José de Campos; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo Luiz

    2009-03-30

    The elevated T-maze (ETM) is an animal model of anxiety-like behavior that assesses two different defensive behavioral tasks in the same animal-acquisition of inhibitory avoidance and latency to escape from an open and elevated arm. In rats, cute and chronic treatments with anxiolytic-like drugs impair avoidance acquisition while only chronic administration of panicolytic-like drugs impairs open arm withdrawal. To date, only the acute effects of anxiolytic/anxiogenic or panicolytic/panicogenic drugs have been tested in the mouse ETM and the results have partially corroborated those found in the rat ETM. This study investigated the effects of acute (a single intraperitoneal injection 30 min before testing) and chronic (daily i.p. injections for 15 consecutive days) treatment with imipramine or fluoxetine, non-selective and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, respectively, on inhibitory avoidance and escape tasks in the mouse ETM. Neither acute nor chronic treatment with imipramine (0, 1, 5 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly changed the behavioral profile of mice in the two ETM tasks. Interestingly, while acute fluoxetine (0, 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg, i.p.) facilitated inhibitory avoidance and impaired escape latency, chronic treatment (0, 5, 20 or 40 mg/kg, i.p.) with this selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) produced an opposite effect, i.e., it impaired inhibitory avoidance acquisition and facilitated open arm withdrawal. Importantly, acute or chronic treatment with imipramine (except at the highest dose that increased locomotion when given acutely) or fluoxetine failed to alter general locomotor activity in mice as assessed in an ETM in which all arms were enclosed by lateral walls (eETM). These results suggest that inhibitory avoidance acquisition is a useful task for the evaluation of acute and chronic effects of SSRI treatment on anxiety in mice. However, as open arm latency was actually increased and reduced by acute and chronic fluoxetine

  16. Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of vinyl and l-ascorbyl phenolates and their inhibitory effects on advanced glycation end products.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    This study successfully established the feasibility of a two-step chemo-enzymatic synthesis of l-ascorbyl phenolates. Intermediate vinyl phenolates were first chemically produced and then underwent trans-esterification with l-ascorbic acid in the presence of Novozyme 435® (Candida Antarctica lipase B) as a catalyst. Twenty vinyl phenolates and 11 ascorbyl phenolates were subjected to in vitro bioassays to investigate their inhibitory activity against advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Among them, vinyl 4-hydroxycinnamate (17VP), vinyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate (18VP), vinyl 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamate (20VP), ascorbyl 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate (18AP) and ascorbyl 3,4-dimethoxycinnamate (19AP) showed 2-10 times stronger inhibitory activities than positive control (aminoguanidine and its precursors). These results indicated that chemo-enzymatically synthesized compounds have AGE inhibitory effect and thus are effective in either preventing or retarding glycation protein formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibitory effects of ethyl pyruvate on platelet aggregation and phosphatidylserine exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjin; Yang, Xinyu; Peng, Minyuan; Li, Can; Mu, Guangfu; Chen, Fangping

    2017-06-03

    Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a stable lipophilic pyruvate derivative. Studies demonstrated that EP shows potent anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant effects. Inflammation and coagulation are closely interacted with platelet activation. However, it is unclear whether EP has anti-platelet effects. Therefore, we investigated the anti-platelet effect of EP in this study in vitro. We found that EP inhibited agonists induced platelets aggregation, ATP release and adhesion to collagen. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that EP inhibited agonist induced platelets PAC-1 binding, as well as P-selectin and CD40L expression. The underlying mechanism of action may involve the inhibition of platelet PI3K/Akt and Protein Kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways. Additionally, EP dose dependently inhibited platelet PS exposure induced by high concentration thrombin. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay and mice platelet count implied that EP may have no toxic effect on platelets. Therefore, we are the first to report that EP has potent anti-platelet activity and attenuates platelet PS exposure in vitro, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of EP on platelets may also play important roles in improvement of inflammation and coagulation disorder in related animal models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxic and inhibitory effects of trichloroethylene aerobic co-metabolism on phenol-grown aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Tay, JooHwa

    2015-04-09

    Aerobic granule, a form of microbial aggregate, exhibits good potential in degrading toxic and recalcitrant substances. In this study, the inhibitory and toxic effects of trichloroethylene (TCE), a model compound for aerobic co-metabolism, on phenol-grown aerobic granules were systematically studied, using respiratory activities after exposure to TCE as indicators. High TCE concentration did not exert positive or negative effects on the subsequent endogenous respiration rate or phenol dependent specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), indicating the absence of solvent stress and induction effect on phenol-hydroxylase. Phenol-grown aerobic granules exhibited a unique response to TCE transformation product toxicity, that small amount of TCE transformation enhanced the subsequent phenol SOUR. Granules that had transformed between 1.3 and 3.7 mg TCE gSS(-1) showed at most 53% increase in the subsequent phenol SOUR, and only when the transformation exceeded 6.6 mg TCE gSS(-1) did the SOUR dropped below that of the control. This enhancing effect was found to sustain throughout several phenol dosages, and TCE transformation below the toxicity threshold also lessened the granules' sensitivity to higher phenol concentration. The unique toxic effect was possibly caused by the granule's compact structure as a protection barrier against the diffusive transformation product(s) of TCE co-metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Inhibitory Effect of Doxycycline on Cisplatin-Sensitive and -Resistant Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bei; Xu, Ming-juan

    2014-01-01

    Background Detecting a new effective and hypotoxic anticancer drug is an emerging new strategy for cancer chemotherapy. Doxycycline (DC) is a kind of antibiotics but also inhibits tumorigenesis. Methods MTT and cell invasion assay, flow cytometry, western-blot analysis and nude mice were used to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of doxycycline on epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Results Doxycycline inhibited the proliferation and invasion of SKOV3 and SKOV3/DDP; induced moderate apoptosis of SKOV3/DDP. CXCR4 expression at both mRNA and protein levels was downregulated in both cell lines when treated with doxycycline. Akt and ERK1/2 were involved in doxycycline effect on cell proliferation of SKOV3 but not of SKOV3/DDP. Akt and EKR1/2 phosphorylation were activated by SDF-1α, which was then inhibited by doxycycline in SKOV3. Pro-caspase-3 expression was significantly higher in SKOV3 than that in SKOV3/DDP which was upregulated when treated with doxycycline. In vivo, doxycycline inhibited peritoneal tumor xenograft and decreased malignant ascites. Conclusion Doxycycline not only has an inhibitory effect on ovarian cancer, but also can increase sensitivity to cisplatin. SDF-1α/CXCR4-regulated Akt and ERK 1/2 activations are probably involved in the antitumor effect of doxycycline on SKOV3 cells, while upregulation of pro-caspase-3 may be the main mechanism involved in SKOV3/DDP cells. PMID:24598933

  20. Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of the feed contaminant deoxynivalenol on glucose absorption in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, W A; Ghareeb, K; Zentek, J

    2014-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a major contaminant of cereals and grains, is of public health concern worldwide and has been shown to reduce the electrogenic transport of glucose. However, the full effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on nutrient absorption are still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether decreased nutrient absorption was due to specific effects on transporter trafficking in the intestine and whether inhibition of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-kinase) affected the electrogenic jejunal transport of glucose. Jejunal mucosa of 6-week-old broiler chickens were mounted in Ussing chambers and treated with DON, wortmannin (a specific inhibitor of PI-3-kinase), DON + wortmannin, phlorizin and cytochalasin B. DON was found to decrease the short-circuit current (Isc) after glucose addition. A similar decline in Isc after glucose addition was observed following pre-application of wortmannin, or phlorizin (Na(+)/glucose co-transporter, SGLT1 inhibitor). The results indicate that DON decreased glucose absorption in the absence of wortmannin or phlorizin but had no additional effect on glucose absorption in their presence. Glucose transport was not affected by cytochalasin B (facilitative glucose transporter, GLUT2 inhibitor). The study provides evidence that the suppressive effect of DON on the electrogenic transport of glucose may be due to an inhibitory activity of the PI3 kinase pathway and intestinal SGLT1. Furthermore, the effect of cytochalasin B on glucose transport in chicken tissues differs from that in mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intense physical exercise potentiates glucose inhibitory effect over food intake of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, Joao Paulo; Kincheski, Grasielle Clotildes; Louzada, Ruy Andrade; Galina, Antônio; Pierucci, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha; Carvalho, Denise P

    2018-06-12

    What is the central question of this study? Physical exercise has emerged as a non-pharmacological treatment for obesity by promoting changes in energy balance. Despite the accumulated knowledge about exercise effects on energy expenditure, the central question of this study is to understand how an acute session of exercise might affect food intake of male Wistar rats. What is the main finding? The main finding of this work is that food intake in male Wistar rats is decreased in the first hour after physical exercise independent of the intensity. Moreover, high-intensity exercise potentiates the anorexic effect of peripheral glucose administration. Obesity has emerged as a critical metabolic disorder in modern society. An adequate lifestyle with good-oriented programs of diet and physical exercise (PE) can prevent or potentially even cure obesity. Additionally, PE might lead to weight loss by increasing energy expenditure and decreasing hunger perception. In this manuscript, we hypothesize that an acute exercise session with different intensities would potentiate the glucose inhibitory effects on food intake in male Wistar rats. Our data show that moderate- (MOD) or high-intensity (HIGH) PE significantly decreased food intake, although no changes in the expression of feeding-related neuropeptide in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus were found. Exercised animals demonstrated a reduced glucose tolerance and increased blood insulin concentration. Intraperitoneal administration of glucose decreased food intake in control animals. In the animals submitted to MOD, the decrease in food intake promoted by glucose was similar to controls; however, an interaction was observed when glucose was injected in the HIGH group, in which food intake was significantly lower than the effect produced by glucose alone. A different pattern of expression was observed for the monocarboxylate transporter isoforms (MCT1, 2 and 4) and the 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2

  2. The moderating role of state inhibitory control in the effect of evaluative conditioning on temptation and unhealthy snacking.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn

    2015-12-01

    The current study sought to test the effect of a brief evaluative conditioning intervention on experienced temptation to indulge, and consumption of, unhealthy snack foods. We expected that a training task associating unhealthy food with negative affect would result in lower experienced temptation across the sample, but would lead to lower snack consumption only among individuals with low state inhibitory control. Undergraduate women (N=134) aged 17-25 years were randomised to complete an evaluative conditioning procedure pairing unhealthy food with either positive or negative affect. Snack consumption was subsequently assessed using a taste-test procedure which offered four snack foods for ad libitum consumption. Participants also reported the strength of their experienced temptation to indulge in the foods presented. Additionally, they completed a Stop Signal Task as a measure of state inhibitory control. As predicted, participants in the food negative condition ate less than those in the food positive condition, but this effect was only observed among individuals with low inhibitory control. The same moderation pattern was observed for the effect of evaluative conditioning on temptation: only participants with low inhibitory control reported feeling less tempted by the snack foods in the food negative condition compared to the food positive condition. In addition, temptation mediated the effect of evaluative conditioning on intake for individuals with low inhibitory control. Findings suggest that evaluative conditioning of unhealthy food stimuli could be especially useful for reducing temptation and consumption of unhealthy snacks in situations where individuals experience low inhibitory control capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory effects of acetylcholine on neurones in the feline nucleus reticularis thalami.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Y; Dingledine, R; Kanazawa, I; Kelly, J S

    1976-10-01

    1. Short iontophoretic pulses of acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited almost every spontaneously active cell encountered in the nucleus reticularis thalami of cats anaesthetized with a mixture of halothane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. On 200 cells the mean current needed to eject an effective inhibitory dose of ACh was 67 +/- 2 nA. When the ACh-evoked inhibition was mimicked by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glycine on the same cell, the current required to release ACh was found to be approximately twice as great as that required to release an equally effective dose of GABA or glycine. 2. ACh inhibitions developed with a latency which was very much shorter than that for ACh excitation in cells of the ventrobasal complex. The latency of the ACh-evoked inhibition was as rapid as the onset and offset of the excitation of the same cells glutamate and their inhibition by GABA or glycine. 3. The firing pattern of ACh-inhibited neurones in the nucleus reticularis was characterized by periods of prolonged, high frequency bursts, and their mean firing frequency was 22 Hz. Raster dot displays and interspike interval histograms showed that whereas ACh suppressed the spikes that occurred between bursts much more readily than those that occurred during bursts, all spikes were equally sensitive to the depressant action of GABA and glycine. Large doses of ACh provoked or exaggerated burst activity. 4. ACh-evoked inhibition was extremely sensitive to blockade by short iontophoretic applications of atropine, which had no effect on the inhibitions evoked on the same cell equipotent doses of GABA or glycine. The ACh-evoked inhibitions were also antagonized by dihydro-beta-erythroidine released with slightly larger currents. When tested on the same cell, small iontophoretic applications of picrotoxin and bicuculline methoiodide blocked the inhibition evoked by GABA but had no effect on that evoked by ACh. Iontophoretic strychnine only rarely affected the inhibition evoked by ACh, while

  4. Inhibitory effects of dietary Spirulina platensis on UVB-induced skin inflammatory responses and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yogianti, Flandiana; Kunisada, Makoto; Nakano, Eiji; Ono, Ryusuke; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Oka, Sugako; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Nishigori, Chikako

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species produced in response to UVR are important in skin tumor development. We have previously reported that deficiency of the Ogg1 gene, encoding the repair enzyme for 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), increases skin tumor incidence in mice upon repetitive UVB exposure and modulation of UVB-induced inflammatory response. Spirulina platensis is used as a human food supplement because it contains abundant nutritional and antioxidant components. Therefore, we investigated the inhibitory effects of S. platensis on UVB-induced skin tumor development in Ogg1 knockout-(KO) mice and the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Dietary S. platensis suppressed tumor induction and development in both genotypes compared with our previous data without S. platensis. Induction of erythema and ear swelling, one of the hallmarks of UVB-induced inflammatory responses, was suppressed in the skin of Ogg1-KO mice and albino hairless mice fed with dietary S. platensis. Compared with untreated mice, S. platensis-administered mice showed significantly reduced 8-oxoG formation in the skin after UVB exposure. Moreover, we found that S. platensis effectively downregulated the signal proteins p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase after UVB exposure especially in Ogg1-KO mice. Our results suggest that S. platensis exerts antitumor effects against UVB irradiation in the skin through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

  5. Robotic investigation on effect of stretch reflex and crossed inhibitory response on bipedal hopping

    PubMed Central

    Rosendo, Andre; Ikemoto, Shuhei; Shimizu, Masahiro; Hosoda, Koh

    2018-01-01

    To maintain balance during dynamic locomotion, the effects of proprioceptive sensory feedback control (e.g. reflexive control) should not be ignored because of its simple sensation and fast reaction time. Scientists have identified the pathways of reflexes; however, it is difficult to investigate their effects during locomotion because locomotion is controlled by a complex neural system and current technology does not allow us to change the control pathways in living humans. To understand these effects, we construct a musculoskeletal bipedal robot, which has similar body structure and dynamics to those of a human. By conducting experiments on this robot, we investigate the effects of reflexes (stretch reflex and crossed inhibitory response) on posture during hopping, a simple and representative bouncing gait with complex dynamics. Through over 300 hopping trials, we confirm that both the stretch reflex and crossed response can contribute to reducing the lateral inclination during hopping. These reflexive pathways do not use any prior knowledge of the dynamic information of the body such as its inclination. Beyond improving the understanding of the human neural system, this study provides roboticists with biomimetic ideas for robot locomotion control. PMID:29593088

  6. Inhibitory effect of D3 dopamine receptors on neuropeptide Y‑induced migration in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xue-Wei; Zhou, Yong-Qiao; Luo, Hao; Zeng, Chunyu

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) serves an important role in hypertension, atherosclerosis and restenosis following angioplasty, which is regulated numerous hormonal and humoral factors, including neuropeptide Y (NPY) and dopamine. Dopamine and NPY are both sympathetic neurotransmitters, and a previous study reported that NPY increased VSMC proliferation, while dopamine receptor inhibited it. Therefore, the authors wondered whether or not there is an inhibitory effect of dopamine receptor on NPY‑mediated VSMC migration. The present study demonstrated that stimulation with NPY dose‑dependence (10‑10‑10‑7M, 24 h) increased VSMC migration, the stimulatory effect of NPY was via the Y1 receptor. This is because, in the presence of the Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (10‑7 M), the stimulatory effect of NPY on VSMC migration was blocked. Activation of the D3 receptor by PD128907 dose‑dependence (10‑11‑10‑8 M) reduced the stimulatory effect of NPY on VSMC migration. The effect of PD128907 was via the D3 receptor, because the inhibitory effect of PD128907 on NPY‑mediated migration was blocked by the D3 receptor antagonist, U99194. The authors' further study suggested that the inhibitory effect of the D3 receptor was via the PKA signaling pathway, in the presence of the PKA inhibitor, 14‑22 (10‑6 M), the inhibitory effect of PD128907 on VSMC migration was blocked. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of PD128907 was imitated by PKA activator, Sp‑cAMP [S], in the presence of Sp‑cAMP [S], the NPY‑mediated stimulatory effect on VSMC migration was abolished. The present study indicated that activation of the D3 receptor inhibits NPY Y1‑mediated migration on VSMCs, PKA is involved in the signaling pathway.

  7. Competition and cooperation among similar representations: toward a unified account of facilitative and inhibitory effects of lexical neighbors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    One of the core principles of how the mind works is the graded, parallel activation of multiple related or similar representations. Parallel activation of multiple representations has been particularly important in the development of theories and models of language processing, where coactivated representations (neighbors) have been shown to exhibit both facilitative and inhibitory effects on word recognition and production. Researchers generally ascribe these effects to interactive activation and competition, but there is no unified explanation for why the effects are facilitative in some cases and inhibitory in others. We present a series of simulations of a simple domain-general interactive activation and competition model that is broadly consistent with more specialized domain-specific models of lexical processing. The results showed that interactive activation and competition can indeed account for the complex pattern of reversals. Critically, the simulations revealed a core computational principle that determines whether neighbor effects are facilitative or inhibitory: strongly active neighbors exert a net inhibitory effect, and weakly active neighbors exert a net facilitative effect.

  8. Inhibitory effects of 3-bromopyruvate on human gastric cancer implant tumors in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Xian, Shu-Lin; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a common malignant tumor. Our previous study demonstrated inhibitory effects of 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) on pleural mesothelioma. Moreover, we found that 3-BrPA could inhibit human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 proliferation in vitro, but whether similar effects might be exerted in vivo have remained unclear. To investigate the effect of 3-BrPA to human gastric cancer implant tumors in nude mice. Animals were randomly divided into 6 groups: 3-BrPA low, medium and high dose groups, PBS negative control group 1 (PH7.4), control group 2 (PH 6.8-7.8) and positive control group receiving 5-FU. The TUNEL method was used to detect apoptosis, and cell morphology and structural changes of tumor tissue were observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). 3-BrPA low, medium, high dose group, and 5-FU group, the tumor volume inhibition rates were 34.5%, 40.2%, 45.1%, 47.3%, tumor volume of experimental group compared with 2 PBS groups (p<0.05), with no significant difference between the high dose and 5-FU groups (p>0.05). TEM showed typical characteristics of apoptosis. TUNEL demonstrated apoptosis indices of 28.7%, 39.7%, 48.7% for the 3-BrPA low, medium, high dose groups, 42.2% for the 5-FU group and 5% and 4.3% for the PBS1 (PH7.4) and PBS2 (PH6.8-7.8) groups. Compared each experimental group with 2 negative control groups, there was significant difference (p<0.05); there was no significant difference between 5-FU group and medium dose group (p>0.05), but there was between the 5-FU and high dose groups (p<0.05). This study indicated that 3-BrPA in vivo has strong inhibitory effects on human gastric cancer implant tumors in nude mice .

  9. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucosemore » absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a

  10. Inhibitory effects of Zengshengping fractions on DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiao-Bing; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiao-Xin; Wu, Hong-Ru; Zhang, Xin-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Zengshengping (ZSP) tablets had inhibitory effects on oral precancerous lesions by reducing the incidence of oral cancer. However, the severe liver toxicity caused by systemic administration of ZSP limits the long-term use of this anti-cancer drug. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tumor inhibitory effects due to the topical application of extracts from ZSP, a Chinese herbal drug, on 7, 12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced oral tumors in hamsters. The study also investigated the anti-cancer mechanisms of the ZSP extracts on oral carcinogenesis. DMBA (0.5%) was applied topically to the buccal pouches of Syrian golden hamsters (6 - 8 weeks old) three times per week for six weeks in order to induce the development of oral tumors. Different fractions of ZSP were either applied topically to the oral tumor lesions or fed orally at varying dosages to animals with oral tumors for 18 weeks. Tumor volume was measured by histopathological examination. Tumor cell proliferation was evaluated by counting BrdU labeled cells and by Western blotting for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein levels. The protein levels of apoptosis marker Caspase-3 and regulator Bcl-2 protein were also measured by Western blotting. Topical application of DMBA to the left pouch of hamsters induced oral tumor formation. Animals treated with DMBA showed a loss in body weight while animals treated with ZSP maintained normal body weights. Both the ZSP n-butanol fraction and water fraction significantly reduced tumor volume by 32.6% (P < 0.01) and 22.9% (P < 0.01) respectively. Topical application of ZSP also markedly decreased the BrdU-positive cell numbers in oral tumor lesions and reduced the expression level of MAPK. In addition, ZSP promoted tumor cell apoptosis by increasing Caspase-3 expression but decreasing Bcl-2 protein production. The n-butanol and water fractions of ZSP are effective at inhibiting tumor cell proliferation and stimulating apoptosis in oral cancer

  11. The inhibitory effects of wine phenolics on lysozyme activity against lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, F; Cappello, M S; Azzolini, M; Tosi, E; Zapparoli, G

    2011-08-15

    The lysozyme of hen's egg white is used in winemaking to control spontaneous lactic acid bacteria (LAB). A total of eight LAB strains, isolated from grape must and wine, were used to assess the inhibitory effects of wine phenolics on lysozyme activity. The presence of phenolics, extracted from grape pomace, in growth medium reduced the mortality rate due to the lysozyme activity. This effect was especially clear in the case of strains belonging to Lactobacillus uvarum, Pediococcus parvulus and Oenococccus oeni, which are more sensitive to lysozyme than L. plantarum and L. hilgardii strains. Cell lysis assays carried out on four strains sensitive to lysozyme and Micrococcus lysodeikticus ATCC 4698, used as a reference strain, confirmed the inhibition of grape pomace phenolics on the muramidase. There was no interference from non-flavonoids, flavanols and flavonol compounds, when they were tested individually, on the lysozyme activity against the strains. Anthocyanins extracted from grape skins slightly inhibited the activity only against M. lysodeikticus. However, proanthocyanidins extracted from seed berries, strongly inhibited the lysozyme. In this extract, dimers were the predominant oligomers of flavan-3-ol. The study demonstrated that the effectiveness of lysozyme against LAB in red winemaking is related to the amount of low molecular weight proanthocyanidins that are released when the grapes are macerating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R P

    2012-10-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides.

  13. Direct Inhibitory Effect of Hypercalcemia on Renal Actions of Parathyroid Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Nama; Singh, Harbans; Reed, Sarah W.; Davis, Bernard B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of calcium on the renal actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were studied in vivo and in vitro. In parathyroidectomized rats, variable levels of blood calcium concentration were induced by intravenous infusion of calcium. The renal responses to the injected PTH, i.e. phosphate and cyclic AMP excretion, were compared in these animals. After PTH injection, the increases of both phosphate and cyclic AMP excretion were less in the calcium-infused animals than in the control group without calcium infusion. There was an inverse correlation between the renal responses to PTH and plasma calcium concentration of 4.2-13.5 mg/100 ml. But calcium had no effect on phosphate excretion induced by infusion of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. In the in vitro experiments, the increase of cyclic AMP concentration in response to PTH was less in renal cortical slices taken from the calcium-infused animals than in ones from the control group without calcium infusion. Calcium also inhibited the activation of renal cortical adenylate cyclase in response to PTH, but calcium had no effect on phosphodiesterase. The data indicate that calcium directly inhibits renal actions of PTH both in vivo and in vitro. Such inhibitory mechanism is probably at or before the step of PTH-dependent cyclic AMP generation in the kidney. PMID:4359938

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Sophorolipid on Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Hyphal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Farazul; Alfatah, Md.; Ganesan, K.; Bhattacharyya, Mani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans causes superficial and life-threatening systemic infections. These are difficult to treat often due to drug resistance, particularly because C. albicans biofilms are inherently resistant to most antifungals. Sophorolipid (SL), a glycolipid biosurfactant, has been shown to have antimicrobial and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. SL was found to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation as well as reduce the viability of preformed biofilms. Moreover, SL, when used along with amphotericin B (AmB) or fluconazole (FLZ), was found to act synergistically against biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. Effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation was further visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which revealed absence of hyphae, typical biofilm architecture and alteration in the morphology of biofilm cells. We also found that SL downregulates the expression of hypha specific genes HWP1, ALS1, ALS3, ECE1 and SAP4, which possibly explains the inhibitory effect of SL on hyphae and biofilm formation. PMID:27030404

  15. The inhibitory effect of vitamin K on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Kim, Min Seuk; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To further understand the correlation between vitamin K and bone metabolism, the effects of vitamins K1, menaquinone-4 (MK-4), and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were comparatively investigated. Vitamin K2 groups (MK-4 and MK-7) were found to significantly inhibit RANKL-medicated osteoclast cell formation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner, without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of specific osteoclast differentiation markers, such as c-Fos, NFATc1, OSCAR, and TRAP, as well as NFATc1 protein expression and TRAP activity in RANKL-treated BMMs were inhibited by vitamin K2, although MK-4 exhibited a significantly greater efficiency compared to MK-7. In contrast, the same dose of vitamin K1 had no inhibitory effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast cell formation, but increased the expression of major osteoclastogenic genes. Interestingly, vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 all strongly inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption (p < 0.01) in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 have anti-osteoporotic properties, while their regulation effects on osteoclastogenesis are somewhat different.

  16. Medium Effects on Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Nylon-3 Polymers against E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heejun; Chakraborty, Saswata; Liu, Runhui; Gellman, Samuel H.; Weisshaar, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against E. coli were measured for three nylon-3 polymers using Luria-Bertani broth (LB), brain-heart infusion broth (BHI), and a chemically defined complete medium (EZRDM). The polymers differ in the ratio of hydrophobic to cationic subunits. The cationic homopolymer is inert against E. coli in BHI and LB, but becomes highly potent in EZRDM. A mixed hydrophobic/cationic polymer with a hydrophobic t-butylbenzoyl group at its N-terminus is effective in BHI, but becomes more effective in EZRDM. Supplementation of EZRDM with the tryptic digest of casein (often found in LB) recapitulates the LB and BHI behavior. Additional evidence suggests that polyanionic peptides present in LB and BHI may form electrostatic complexes with cationic polymers, decreasing activity by diminishing binding to the anionic lipopolysaccharide layer of E. coli. In contrast, two natural antimicrobial peptides show no medium effects. Thus, the use of a chemically defined medium helps to reveal factors that influence antimicrobial potency of cationic polymers and functional differences between these polymers and evolved antimicrobial peptides. PMID:25153714

  17. Analysis of the inhibitory effects of chloropicrin fumigation on nitrification in various soil types.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2017-05-01

    Chloropicrin retards the conversion of ammonia to nitrite during the nitrification process in soil. In our study, the dynamic effect of chloropicrin fumigation on soil nitrification was evaluated in five different soil types to identify relationships between soil properties and the effect of fumigation on nitrification. Chloropicrin significantly inhibited nitrification in all soils; however, the recovery of nitrification varied greatly between the soils. Following chloropicrin fumigation, nitrification recovered to the control level in all soils, except in the acidic Guangxi soil. Nitrification recovered faster in fumigated sandy loam Beijing soil than in the other four fumigated soils. Soil texture and pH were two important factors that influenced chloropicrin's inhibitory effect on nitrification. An S-shaped function was fitted to soil NO 3 - -N content to assess the nitrification recovery tendency in different soils. The time taken to reach maximum nitrification (t max ) ranged from 2.4 to 3.0 weeks in all unfumigated soils. Results demonstrated that t max was greater in all fumigated soils than in untreated soils. Correlation calculations showed that t max was strongly correlated to soil texture. The correlation analysis results indicated that the recovery rate of nitrification after chloropicrin fumigation is much faster in sandy loam soil than silty loam soil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Re-188 Enhances the Inhibitory Effect of Bevacizumab in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Xu, Xiaobo; Li, Xiao; Li, Yanli; Liu, Guobing; Tan, Hui; Shen, Hua; Shi, Hongcheng; Cheng, Dengfeng

    2016-09-30

    The malignant behaviors of solid tumors such as growth, infiltration and metastasis are mainly nourished by tumor neovascularization. Thus, anti-angiogenic therapy is key to controlling tumor progression. Bevacizumab, a humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody, plus chemotherapy or biological therapy can prolong survival for cancer patients, but treatment-related mortality is a concern. To improve inhibitory effect and decrease side-effects on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we used Re-188, which is a β emitting radionuclide, directly labeled with bevacizumab for radioimmunotherapy in a human A549 tumor model. Cytotoxic assay data showed that, after 188 ReO₄ - or 188 Re-bevacizumab at different concentration for 4 and 24 h, a time- and radioactivity does-dependent reduction in cell viability occurred. Also, an apoptosis assay conformed great apoptosis in the 188 Re-bevacizumab group compared with controls and other treatment groups. In vivo, tumor volumes in the 188 Re-bevacizumab (11.1 MBq/mice) group were not reduced but growth was delayed compared with other groups. Thus, 188 Re-bevacizumab enhanced the therapeutic effect of bevacizumab, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC treatment.

  19. Does inhibitory control training transfer?: behavioral and neural effects on an untrained emotion regulation task.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Kathryn G; Kahn, Lauren E; Berkman, Elliot T

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitory control (IC) is a critical neurocognitive skill for successfully navigating challenges across domains. Several studies have attempted to use training to improve neurocognitive skills such as IC, but few have found that training generalizes to performance on non-trained tasks. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effect of IC training on a related but untrained emotion regulation (ER) task with the goal of clarifying how training alters brain function and why its effects typically do not transfer across tasks. We suggest hypotheses for training-related changes in activation relevant to transfer effects: the strength model and several plausible alternatives (shifting priorities, stimulus-response automaticity, scaffolding). Sixty participants completed three weeks of IC training and underwent fMRI scanning before and after. The training produced pre- to post-training changes in neural activation during the ER task in the absence of behavioral changes. Specifically, individuals in the training group demonstrated reduced activation during ER in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus, key regions in the IC neural network. This result is less consistent with the strength model and more consistent with a motivational account. Implications for future work aiming to further pinpoint mechanisms of training transfer are discussed. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Trichosporon ovoides causing Piedra Hair Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Seema; Uniyal, Veena; Bhatt, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    Piedra, is an asymptomatic fungal infection of the hair shaft, resulting in the formation of nodules of different hardness on the infected hair. The infection also known as Trichomycosis nodularis is a superficial fungal infection arising from the pathogen being restricted to the stratum corneum with little or no tissue reaction. The nodules are a concretion of hyphae and fruiting bodies of the fungus. Two varieties of Piedra may be seen, Black Piedra and White Piedra. The fungus Trichosporon ovoides is involved in the occurrence of both types of Piedras. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth of the fungus and to determine whether the antifungal effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. Two screening methods viz. Agar well diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration were adopted for the study. MIC and MFC were determined by tube dilution method. Essential oils from Eucalyptus, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Cymbopogon winterians, Trachyspermum ammi, Zingiber officinalis, Citrus limon, Cinnamomon zeylanicum, Salvia sclarea, Citrus aurantifolia, Melaleuca alternifolia, Citrus aurantium, Citrus bergamia, Pogostemon pathchouli, Cedrus atlantica, Jasminum officinale, Juniperus communis, Abelmoschus moschatus, Cyperus scariosus, Palargonium graveolens, Boswellia carterii, Rosa damascene, Veteveria zizanoides and Commiphora myrrha were evaluated. The essential oils of Cymbopogon winterians, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Melaleuca alternifolia and Eucalyptus globulus were proved to be most effective against the fungus Trichosporon ovoides. PMID:24031963

  1. Inhibitory effects of autolysate of Leuconostoc mesenteroides isolated from kimoto on melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Sayo; Takahashi, Toshinari; Yoshida, Kazutoshi; Mizoguchi, Haruhiko

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of the autolysate of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a lactic acid bacterium isolated from sake mash, on melanogenesis in B16F0 murine melanoma cells and a human skin model. The autolysate: induced a decrease in melanin content in B16F0 murine melanoma cells and a 17%, 36%, 41% and 58% decrease in the human skin model by the application of 0.125, 1.25, 6.25, and 12.5 mg/tissue in total; decreased tyrosinase activity to 71%, 46% and 29% of control in B16F0 cells with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml-medium respectively, but did not inhibit tyrosinase activity under cell-free conditions; decreased amount of tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner from 74% with 0.1 mg/ml to 33% with 0.4 mg/ml; and decreased amount of tyrosinase mRNA to 80-90% with 0.2-0.4 mg/ml-medium. As the decrease in tyrosinase mRNA levels could not fully account for the reduction in protein, we suggest that the autolysate had post-transcriptional effects rather than transcription inhibition. Our results indicate that the autolysate of L. mesenteroides has potential therapeutic use as an effective anti-melanogenic agent. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In Vivo Inhibitory Effect on the Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans by Liverwort Derived Riccardin D

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Ma, Yukui; Zhang, Li; Guo, Feng; Ren, Lei; Yang, Rui; Li, Ying; Lou, Hongxiang

    2012-01-01

    Riccardin D, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl isolated from Chinese liverwort Dumortiera hirsute, has been proved to have inhibitory effect on biofilms formation of Candida albicans in in vitro study. Our present study aims to investigate the in vivo effect and mechanisms of riccardin D against C. albicans biofilms when used alone or in combination with clinical using antifungal agent fluconazole. XTT reduction assay revealed riccardin D had both prophylactic and therapeutic effect against C. albicans biofilms formation in a dose-dependent manner when using a central venous catheter related infective animal model. Scanning electron microscope and laser confocal scanning microscope showed that the morphology of biofilms was altered remarkably after riccardin D treatment, especially hypha growth inhibition. To uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms, quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed to observe the variation of related genes. The downregulation of hypha-specific genes such as ALS1, ALS3, ECE1, EFG1, HWP1 and CDC35 following riccardin D treatment suggested riccardin D inhibited the Ras-cAMP-Efg pathway to retard the hypha formation, then leading to the defect of biofilms maturation. Moreover, riccardin D displayed an increased antifungal activity when administered in combination with fluconazole. Our study provides a potential clinical application to eliminate the biofilms of relevant pathogens. PMID:22545115

  3. Inhibitory effects of antihistamines, diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine, on proton currents in BV2 microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwon; Song, Jin-Ho

    2017-03-05

    Microglial NADPH oxidase is a major source of toxic reactive oxygen species produced during chronic neuroinflammation. Voltage-gated proton channel (H V 1) functions to maintain the intense activity of NADPH oxidase, and channel inhibition alleviates the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemic stroke and multiple sclerosis associated with oxidative neuroinflammation. Antagonists of histamine H 1 receptors have beneficial effects against microglia-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. We examined the effects of the H 1 antihistamines, diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine, on proton currents in BV2 microglial cells recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reduced the proton currents with almost the same potency, yielding IC 50 values of 42 and 43μM, respectively. Histamine did not affect proton currents, excluding the involvement of histamine receptors in their action. Neither drug shifted the voltage-dependence of activation or the reversal potential of the proton currents, even though diphenhydramine slowed the activation and deactivation kinetics. The inhibitory effects of the two antihistamines on proton currents could be utilized to develop therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases and other diseases associated with H V 1 proton channel abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Semiochemicals on the Attraction of an Ambrosia Beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus to Quercivorol.

    PubMed

    Byers, John A; Maoz, Yonatan; Wakarchuk, David; Fefer, Daniela; Levi Zada, Anat

    2018-04-17

    The Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichhoff) species complex includes the polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), an ambrosia beetle infesting avocado limbs, Persea americana Mill. Synthetic quercivorol, a monoterpene alcohol, is known to attract females (males are flightless) over a range of release rates spanning three orders of magnitude. The upper release dose was extended 10-fold using sticky traps baited with quercivorol released at 1× (0.126 mg/day), 10×, and 108× relative rates to obtain a dose-response curve fitting a kinetic formation function. Naturally infested limbs of living avocado trees were wrapped with netting to exclude the possibility of catching emerging beetles on the encircling sticky traps. The results indicate PSHB are significantly attracted to infested limbs. Ethanol released over a 64-fold range (lowest rate of 7.5 mg/day) was moderately inhibitory of PSHB attraction to 1× quercivorol. β-caryophyllene and eucalyptol did not appear to affect attraction at the rates tested. A field test of potential inhibitors of 1× quercivorol was done using ~1 mg/day releases of monoterpene ketones: (-)-(S)-verbenone, (+)-(R)-verbenone, 3-methyl-2-cyclo-hexen-1-one (MCH or seudenone), piperitone, (+)-(S)-carvone, and racemic cryptone. Only piperitone and the two enantiomers of verbenone were strongly inhibitory. A blend of piperitone and verbenone tested together at different distances (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 m) from a 1× quercivorol baited sticky trap became increasingly ineffective in inhibiting the attractant as separation distance increased. Due to the relatively short-range repellency (<1 m), the inhibitors would need to be released from several places on each tree to effectively repel PSHB from avocado trees. Effective attraction radii, EAR, and circular EARc are estimated for the quercivorol baits released at 1×, 10× and 108× rates. Push-pull simulations of moving beetles were performed in 1 ha plots with 2, 4, or 16 traps of 10× EARc and 400

  5. Fermentation of purple Jerusalem artichoke extract to improve the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect in vitro and ameliorate blood glucose in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Lee, Sun Youb; Lim, Soon Sung

    2016-06-01

    Jerusalem artichoke has inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and decreases fasting serum glucose levels, which may be related to its fructan content. The biological activity of fructan can be influenced by the degree of polymerization. Thus, in this study, the inhibitory effects of original and fermented purple Jerusalem artichoke (PJA) on α-glucosidase were compared in vitro. Additionally, the anti-diabetes effect of Lactobacillus plantarum-fermented PJA (LJA) was studied in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus animal model (C57BIKsJ db/db). The water extract of PJA was fermented by L. plantarum, and two strains of Bacillus subtilis to compare their anti-α-glucosidase activities in vitro by α-glucosidase assays. The anti-diabetes effect of LJA was studied in a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus animal model (C57BIKsJ db/db) for seven weeks. During the experiment, food intake, body weight, and fasting blood glucose were measured every week. At the end of the treatment period, several diabetic parameters and the intestinal α-glucosidase activity were measured. The LJA showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. In the in vivo study, it resulted in a significantly lower blood glucose concentration than the control. Serum insulin and HDL cholesterol levels were significantly higher and the concentrations of triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol were significant lower in mice treated with LJA after seven weeks. In addition, the intestinal α-glucosidase activity was partially inhibited. These results suggested that LJA regulates blood glucose and has potential use as a dietary supplement.

  6. Inhibitory effect of hawthorn extract on heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in beef and chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Tengilimoglu-Metin, Mercan Merve; Hamzalioglu, Aytul; Gokmen, Vural; Kizil, Mevlude

    2017-09-01

    This study focused on the inhibitory effect of different levels of hawthorn extract (0, 0.5, and 1%) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in beef and chicken breast cooked by either pan-cooking or oven-cooking. All meat samples were cooked at three different temperatures (150, 200, and 250°C) and the levels of twelve HAAs were assessed (IQ, IQx, MeIQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, harman, norharman, AαC, MeAαC, and Trp-P-2). Varying levels of IQ (up to 4.47ng/g), IQx (up to 0.69ng/g), MeIQ (up to 0.82ng/g), MeIQx (up to 1.01ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (up to 0.10ng/g), 7,8-DiMeIQx (up to 0.23ng/g), PhIP (up to 0.75ng/g), harman (up to 2.15ng/g), norharman (up to 1.08ng/g), AαC (up to 1.86ng/g), MeAαC (up to 0.48ng/g), and Trp-P-2 (up to 12.88ng/g), were detected. Samples cooked at 150°C had very low amounts of HAAs, and the levels of HAAs increased gradually when the cooking temperature rose from 150 to 250°C. The total HAA content in chicken breast and beef ranged between not detectable to 17.60ng/g, and not detectable to 11.38ng/g, respectively. The inhibitory effects of hawthorn extract at 0.5% and 1% on total HAAs levels were found to be 12-100% and 19-97% in chicken breast, respectively, and 42-100% and 20-35% in beef, respectively. This study demonstrated that hawthorn extracts at 0.5% and 1% could mitigate HAA formation, especially at high cooking temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor on Corneal Sensitivity after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis in Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Hose, Stacey; Gongora, Celine; Sinha, Debasish; O'Brien, Terrence

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) on corneal sensitivity after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. A hinged corneal flap (160-µm thick) was created with a microkeratome, and -3.0 diopter excimer laser ablation was performed. Expressions of MIF mRNA in the corneal epithelial cells and surrounding inflammatory cells were analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction at 48 hours after LASIK. After LASIK surgery, the rabbits were topically given either 1) a balanced salt solution (BSS), 2) MIF (100 ng/mL) alone, or 3) a combination of nerve growth factor (NGF, 100 ug/mL), neurotrophine-3 (NT-3, 100 ng/mL), interleukin-6 (IL-6, 5 ng/mL), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, 5 ng/mL) four times a day for three days. Preoperative and postoperative corneal sensitivity at two weeks and at 10 weeks were assessed using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Results Expression of MIF mRNA was 2.5-fold upregulated in the corneal epithelium and 1.5-fold upregulated in the surrounding inflammatory cells as compared with the control eyes. Preoperative baseline corneal sensitivity was 40.56 ± 2.36 mm. At two weeks after LASIK, corneal sensitivity was 9.17 ± 5.57 mm in the BSS treated group, 21.92 ± 2.44 mm in the MIF treated group, and 22.42 ± 1.59 mm in the neuronal growth factors-treated group (MIF vs. BSS, p < 0.0001; neuronal growth factors vs. BSS, p < 0.0001; MIF vs. neuronal growth factors, p = 0.815). At 10 weeks after LASIK, corneal sensitivity was 15.00 ± 9.65, 35.00 ± 5.48, and 29.58 ± 4.31 mm respectively (MIF vs. BSS, p = 0.0001; neuronal growth factors vs. BSS, p = 0.002; MIF vs. neuronal growth factors, p = 0.192). Treatment with MIF alone could achieve as much of an effect on recovery of corneal sensation as treatment with combination of NGF, NT-3, IL-6, and LIF. Conclusions Topically administered MIF plays a significant role in the

  8. Effect of macrophage migration inhibitory factor on corneal sensitivity after laser in situ keratomileusis in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Hyon, Joon Young; Hose, Stacey; Gongora, Celine; Sinha, Debasish; O'Brien, Terrence

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) on corneal sensitivity after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery. New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. A hinged corneal flap (160-µm thick) was created with a microkeratome, and -3.0 diopter excimer laser ablation was performed. Expressions of MIF mRNA in the corneal epithelial cells and surrounding inflammatory cells were analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction at 48 hours after LASIK. After LASIK surgery, the rabbits were topically given either 1) a balanced salt solution (BSS), 2) MIF (100 ng/mL) alone, or 3) a combination of nerve growth factor (NGF, 100 ug/mL), neurotrophine-3 (NT-3, 100 ng/mL), interleukin-6 (IL-6, 5 ng/mL), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, 5 ng/mL) four times a day for three days. Preoperative and postoperative corneal sensitivity at two weeks and at 10 weeks were assessed using the Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Expression of MIF mRNA was 2.5-fold upregulated in the corneal epithelium and 1.5-fold upregulated in the surrounding inflammatory cells as compared with the control eyes. Preoperative baseline corneal sensitivity was 40.56 ± 2.36 mm. At two weeks after LASIK, corneal sensitivity was 9.17 ± 5.57 mm in the BSS treated group, 21.92 ± 2.44 mm in the MIF treated group, and 22.42 ± 1.59 mm in the neuronal growth factors-treated group (MIF vs. BSS, p < 0.0001; neuronal growth factors vs. BSS, p < 0.0001; MIF vs. neuronal growth factors, p = 0.815). At 10 weeks after LASIK, corneal sensitivity was 15.00 ± 9.65, 35.00 ± 5.48, and 29.58 ± 4.31 mm respectively (MIF vs. BSS, p = 0.0001; neuronal growth factors vs. BSS, p = 0.002; MIF vs. neuronal growth factors, p = 0.192). Treatment with MIF alone could achieve as much of an effect on recovery of corneal sensation as treatment with combination of NGF, NT-3, IL-6, and LIF. Topically administered MIF plays a significant role in the early recovery of corneal

  9. Effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurocognitive correlates of inhibitory control success and failure.

    PubMed

    Roos, Leslie E; Beauchamp, Kathryn G; Pears, Katherine C; Fisher, Philip A; Berkman, Elliot T; Capaldi, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with prenatal substance (drug and alcohol) exposure exhibit inhibitory control (IC) deficits and aberrations in associated neural function. Nearly all research to date examines exposure to individual substances, and a minimal amount is known about the effects of heterogeneous exposure-which is more representative of population exposure levels. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated IC (Go/NoGo) in heterogeneously exposed (n = 7) vs. control (n = 7) at-risk adolescents (ages 13-17). The fMRI results indicated multiple IC processing differences consistent with a more immature developmental profile for exposed adolescents (Exposed  >  Nonexposed: NoGo > Go: right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, right cuneus, and left inferior parietal lobe; NoGo > false alarm: occipital lobe; Go > false alarm: right anterior prefrontal cortex). Simple effects suggest exposed adolescents exhibited exaggerated correct trial but decreased incorrect trial activation. Results provide initial evidence that prenatal exposure across substances creates similar patterns of atypical brain activation to IC success and failure.

  10. The effects of stereotype threat and contextual cues on alcohol users' inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Charlotte R; Qureshi, Adam; Monk, Rebecca L; Heim, Derek

    2016-03-01

    Previous research indicates that users of illicit substances exhibit diminished cognitive function under stereotype threat. Advancing this research, the current study aimed to examine the effects of stereotype threat on alcohol users' inhibitory control. It also examined whether drinkers demonstrate a greater approach bias towards alcohol-related relative to neutral stimuli. Fifty-five participants were assigned randomly to a stereotype threat condition, in which they were primed with a negative stereotype linking drinking behavior to cognitive decline, or a non-threat control condition. All participants then completed a modified version of the Cued Go/No-Go Association Test that exposed participants to alcohol-related and neutral pictorial stimuli and sound cues. Stereotype threatened participants demonstrated a speed-accuracy trade off, taking significantly longer to respond to go-trials with equivalent accuracy to the control condition. They also showed reduced response accuracy to both alcohol-related and neutral stimuli in reversed instruction trials. Participants in the control condition were both more accurate and quicker to respond to alcohol-related stimuli compared to neutral stimuli. These results suggest that awareness of negative stereotypes pertaining to alcohol-related impulsivity may have a harmful effect on inhibitive cognitive performance. This may have implications for public health campaigns and for methodological designs with high levels of procedural signaling with respect to not inadvertently inducing stereotype threat and impacting impulsivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in rats by spirulina.

    PubMed

    Kim, H M; Lee, E H; Cho, H H; Moon, Y H

    1998-04-01

    We investigated the effect of spirulina on mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions. Spirulina dose-dependently inhibited the systemic allergic reaction induced by compound 48/80 in rats. Spirulina inhibited compound 48/80-induced allergic reaction 100% with doses of 100-1000 microg/g body weight, i.p. Spirulina (10-1000 microg/g body weight, i.p.) also significantly inhibited local allergic reaction activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE. When rats were pretreated with spirulina at a concentration ranging from 0.01 to 1000 microg/g body weight, i.p., the serum histamine levels were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Spirulina (0.001 to 10 microg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. The level of cyclic AMP in RPMC, when spirulina (10 microg/mL) was added, transiently and significantly increased about 70-fold at 10 sec compared with that of control cells. Moreover, spirulina (10 microg/mL) had a significant inhibitory effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. These results indicate that spirulina inhibits mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in vivo and in vitro.

  12. Inhibitory effect of alliin from Allium sativum on the glycation of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Shehwaz; Younus, Hina

    2017-10-01

    Inhibition of glycation is an important approach for alleviating diabetic complications. Alliin, the most abundant sulphur compound in garlic has been demonstrated to possess antidiabetic activity. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting its antiglycating activity. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of alliin on glucose and methyglyoxal (MG)-induced glycation of an important antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD). Glycation of SOD resulted in a decrease in enzyme activity, fragmentation/cross-linking, reduced cross-reactivity with anti-SOD antibodies, both tertiary and secondary structural changes, and formation of AGEs and fibrils. Alliin offered protection against glucose or MG induced glycation of SOD. The antiglycating potential of alliin appears to be comparable with that of quercetin which is reported to be a potent natural inhibitor of glycation. Alliin has a good antiglycating effect and hence is expected to have therapeutic potential in the prevention of glycation-mediated diabetic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased sink strength offsets the inhibitory effect of sucrose on sugarcane photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rafael V; Machado, Eduardo C; Magalhães Filho, José R; Lobo, Ana Karla M; Martins, Márcio O; Silveira, Joaquim A G; Yin, Xinyou; Struik, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Spraying sucrose inhibits photosynthesis by impairing Rubisco activity and stomatal conductance (g s ), whereas increasing sink demand by partially darkening the plant stimulates sugarcane photosynthesis. We hypothesized that the stimulatory effect of darkness can offset the inhibitory effect of exogenous sucrose on photosynthesis. Source-sink relationship was perturbed in two sugarcane cultivars by imposing partial darkness, spraying a sucrose solution (50mM) and their combination. Five days after the onset of the treatments, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (V cmax ) and the initial slope of A-C i curve (k) were estimated by measuring leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence. Photosynthesis was inhibited by sucrose spraying in both genotypes, through decreases in V cmax , k, g s and ATP production driven by electron transport (J atp ). Photosynthesis of plants subjected to the combination of partial darkness and sucrose spraying was similar to photosynthesis of reference plants for both genotypes. Significant increases in V cmax , g s and J atp and marginal increases in k were noticed when combining partial darkness and sucrose spraying compared with sucrose spraying alone. Our data also revealed that increases in sink strength due to partial darkness offset the inhibition of sugarcane photosynthesis caused by sucrose spraying, enhancing the knowledge on endogenous regulation of sugarcane photosynthesis through the source-sink relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mingshan; Liang, Yaping; Gu, Zumin; Li, Xiuwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost) were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively. PMID:26307964

  15. Binding and Inhibitory Effect of the Dyes Amaranth and Tartrazine on Amyloid Fibrillation in Lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2017-02-16

    Interaction of two food colorant dyes, amaranth and tartrazine, with lysozyme was studied employing multiple biophysical techniques. The dyes exhibited hypochromic changes in the presence of lysozyme. The intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme was quenched by both dyes; amaranth was a more efficient quencher than tartrazine. The equilibrium constant of amaranth was higher than that of tartarzine. From FRET analysis, the binding distances for amaranth and tartrazine were calculated to be 4.51 and 3.93 nm, respectively. The binding was found to be dominated by non-polyelectrolytic forces. Both dyes induced alterations in the microenvironment surrounding the tryptophan and tyrosine residues of the protein, with the alterations being comparatively higher for the tryptophans than the tyrosines. The interaction caused significant loss in the helicity of lysozyme, the change being higher with amaranth. The binding of both dyes was exothermic. The binding of amaranth was enthalpy driven, while that of tartrazine was predominantly entropy driven. Amaranth delayed lysozyme fibrillation at 25 μM, while tartrazine had no effect even at 100 μM. Nevertheless, both dyes had a significant inhibitory effect on fibrillogenesis. The present study explores the potential antiamyloidogenic property of these azo dyes used as food colorants.

  16. Effects of cell penetrating Notch inhibitory peptide conjugated to elastin-like polypeptide on glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Opačak-Bernardi, Teuta; Ryu, Jung Su; Raucher, Drazen

    2017-07-01

    Notch pathway was found to be activated in most glioblastomas (GBMs), underlining the importance of Notch in formation and recurrence of GBM. In this study, a Notch inhibitory peptide, dominant negative MAML (dnMAML), was conjugated to elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) for tumor targeted delivery. ELP is a thermally responsive polypeptide that can be actively and passively targeted to the tumor site by localized application of hyperthermia. This complex was further modified with the addition of a cell penetrating peptide, SynB1, for improved cellular uptake and blood-brain barrier penetration. The SynB1-ELP1-dnMAML was examined for its cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle inhibition and the inhibition of target genes' expression. SynB1-ELP1-dnMAML inhibited the growth of D54 and U251 cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, especially in the presence of hyperthermia. Hyperthermia increased overall uptake of the polypeptide by the cells and enhanced the resulting pharmacological effects of dnMAML, showing the inhibition of targets of Notch pathway such as Hes-1 and Hey-L. These results confirm that dnMAML is an effective Notch inhibitor and combination with ELP may allow thermal targeting of the SynB1-ELP1-dnMAML complex in cancer cells while avoiding the dangers of systemic Notch inhibition.

  17. Effects of support unloading on inhibitory processes in motoneurons pools of postural muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigueva, Tatiana; Zakirova, Albina; Tomilovskaya, Elena

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of support unloading on characteristics of shin extensor muscles (m.soleus and m.gastrocnemius lat.) motor units` (MU) activity evoked by electrical stimulation and intensity of spinal inhibitory processes. Conditions of support unloading were reproduced by "dry" immersion (DI), that it seen to be is the most adequate ground simulation model of weightlessness [Shulzhenko E.B. et al, 1976]. The experiments were performed with participation of 10 healthy men of 20-27 years old. The subjects were divided into 2 groups. In the first one (control group) the subjects stayed in DI for 3 days without any other influences; in the second one (experimental group) in the course of DI the mechanical stimulation of soles’ support zones in the regimen of locomotion was applied daily for 20 min at the beginning of each hour for 6 hours per day [Kozlovskaya I.B., 2007]. MUs’ activity of shin muscles (mm. gastrocnemius lat. and soleus) was recorded with needle concentric electrodes during execution of the task of maintaining a small plantar flexion effort (not stronger than 7% of maximal voluntary contraction force). Single electrical pulses 0,1 ms duration were applied to n.tibialis during spontaneous MU activity. The duration of silent period (SP) following H-reflex response and presence of rebound phenomenon - an increase of MU activity at the end of SP, that is usually observed under normal conditions and reflects trace of inhibitory and excitatory processes in motoneurons pools, were analyzed [Person R.S., 1985]. Experiments were performed before, on the 2nd and 3d day of DI and on the 2nd day after its accomplishment. The Wilcoxon nonparametric criteria were used for statistical data analysis. Exposure to the conditions of support unloading was followed by significant decline of SP duration. The mean of SP duration in shin muscles before DI was 227±31,4 ms. On the 2nd and 3rd days of DI in the control group it

  18. Behavioral and Neural Inhibitory Control Moderates the Effects of Reward Sensitivity on Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Holmes, Christopher; Lee, Jacob; Chiu, Pearl; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    The developmental period of adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimenting with drugs and alcohol. We examined how inhibitory control interacts with reward and punishment sensitivity to predict substance use severity and age of onset among early adolescents. The sample was comprised of 157 early adolescents (13-14 years of age, 52% male). Composite scores for behavioral activation system (BAS), behavioral inhibition system (BIS), and substance use severity and onset were computed using adolescents’ questionnaire data, and inhibitory control was assessed based on adolescents’ behavioral performance and brain imaging during the Multiple Source Interference Task (MSIT). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that for both behavioral performance and neural activity indicators of inhibitory control, high levels of BAS predicted earlier onset of substance use among adolescents with low inhibitory control—but not among adolescents with high inhibitory control. BIS was not related to substance use severity and onset among adolescents. The results support the theoretically hypothesized moderating role of inhibitory control and its associated frontal cortex functioning, and offer new insights into the identification of adolescents with neurobehavioral vulnerabilities to developing maladaptive substance use behaviors. PMID:27580969

  19. Inhibitory effects of furanocoumarin derivatives in Kampo extract medicines on P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Kazunori; Yoneda, Shinji; Hamahata, Yukimi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Shibano, Makio; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Baba, Kimiye; Kakemi, Masawo

    2011-01-01

    Furanocoumarin derivatives, known as components of grapefruit juice, showing inhibitory effects against P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the intestine are also contained in the plants of rutaceae and umbelliferae families, which are used as components of Kampo extract medicines. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of byakangelicol and rivulobirin A, known as furanocoumarins showing P-gp inhibitory effect using Caco-2 monolayer, against P-gp at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. First we studied the membrane permeability of furanocoumarins to clarify whether they can be absorbed from the intestine. Both furanocoumarins showed high permeability through the Caco-2 monolayer, suggesting that they can easily reach the systemic circulation after oral administration. Then, we evaluated the effect of these furanocoumarins on the uptake of calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM), a P-gp substrate, into bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells (BBMEC). Both furanocoumarins significantly increased the uptake amount of calcein-AM into BBMEC by the inhibition of P-gp at the BBB in vitro. Next we also investigated the P-gp inhibitory effect of these furanocoumarins at the rat BBB in vivo using verapamil as a P-gp substrate. Both furanocoumarins increased the B/P ratio of verapamil compared to the control, even under in vivo conditions; however, the extent of the inhibitory effect was much lower than in vitro condition. In conclusion, byakangelicol and rivulobirin A may inhibit P-gp expressed at the BBB even under in vivo conditions. Further studies using Kampo extract medicines under in vivo condition are necessary for safe drug therapy.

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Red Wine on Lipid Oxidation in Fish Oil Emulsion and Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Yulin; Shen, Yixiao; Zhu, Yongchao; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-03-01

    The capabilities of red wine against lipid oxidation and angiogenesis were evaluated by using a fish oil emulsion system and an in vivo zebrafish embryos model, respectively. The red wine contained 12 different antioxidant phenolics which levels were led by anthocyanins (140.46 mg/L), catechin (55.08 mg/L), and gallic acid (46.76 mg/L). The diversity of the phenolics in red wine was greater than the tea, coffee, or white wine selected as a peer control in this study. The total phenolics concentration of red wine was 305.53 mg/L, although the levels of tea, coffee, and white wine were 85.59, 76.85, and 26.57 mg/L, respectively. The activity of red wine in scavenging DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radicals was approximately 4 times higher than the tea and 8 times than the coffee or white wine. The red wine showed the highest capability in preventing long chain PUFA oxidation in the fish oil emulsion. Because of the outstanding antioxidant activity of red wine, the red wine dried extract was used to monitor its inhibitory effect against angiogenesis by using transgenic zebrafish embryos (Tg[fli1:egfp] y1 ) with fluorescent blood vessels. After incubated in 100 μg/mL of the extract solution for 26 h pf, each of the embryos had a lower number of intersegmental vessel than the control embryo. The inhibition rate of red wine extract against growing of angiogenic blood vessel reached 100%. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Inhibitory effects of eugenol on putative nociceptive response in spinal cord preparation isolated from neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Yagura, Saki; Onimaru, Hiroshi; Kanzaki, Koji; Izumizaki, Masahiko

    2018-06-01

    Eugenol is contained in several plants including clove and is thought to exert an analgesic effect. It has been suggested that the slow ventral root potential induced by ipsilateral dorsal root stimulation in the isolated (typically lumbar) spinal cord of newborn rats reflects the nociceptive response, and this in vitro experimental model is useful to assess the actions of analgesics. To further elucidate neuronal mechanisms of eugenol-induced analgesia, we examined the effects of extracellularly applied eugenol on the nociceptive spinal reflex response. To evaluate the effects of eugenol on putative nociceptive responses, the ipsilateral fifth lumbar (L5) dorsal root was stimulated using a glass suction electrode, and the induced reflex responses were recorded from the L5 and twelfth thoracic (Th12) ventral roots in spinal cord preparations (Th10-L5) from newborn rats (postnatal day 0-3). We found that eugenol (0.25-1.0 mM) caused dose-dependent attenuation of the reflex response and also depressed spontaneous ventral root activity. We also found that the slow ventral root potential was further divided into two components: initial and late components. A lower concentration of eugenol selectively depressed the late component. The inhibitory effects by 1.0 mM eugenol were not reversed by 10 µM capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist) or 40 µM HC-030031 (TRPA1 antagonist). The depressive effect of eugenol on the reflex response was also confirmed by optical recordings using voltage-sensitive dye. Our report provides additional evidence on the basic neuronal mechanisms of eugenol to support its clinical use as a potential analgesic treatment.

  2. Effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liping; Tong, Zhongchun; Linghu, Dake; Lin, Yuan; Tao, Rui; Liu, Jun; Tian, Yu; Ni, Longxing

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antimicrobial agents can inhibit bacterial biofilm formation. However, the mechanisms by which antimicrobial agents at sub-MICs inhibit biofilm formation remain unclear. At present, most studies are focused on Gram-negative bacteria; however, the effects of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on Gram-positive bacteria may be more complex. Streptococcus mutans is a major cariogenic bacterium. In this study, the S. mutans growth curve as well as the expression of genes related to S. mutans biofilm formation were evaluated following treatment with 0.5× MIC of chlorhexidine (CHX), tea polyphenols and sodium fluoride (NaF), which are common anticaries agents. The BioFlux system was employed to generate a biofilm under a controlled flow. Morphological changes of the S. mutans biofilm were observed and analysed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results indicated that these three common anticaries agents could significantly upregulate expression of the genes related to S. mutans biofilm formation, and S. mutans exhibited a dense biofilm with an extensive extracellular matrix following treatment with sub-MICs of NaF and CHX. These findings suggest that sub-MICs of anticaries agents favour S. mutans biofilm formation, which might encourage dental caries progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Pretreatment with Radon on Acute Alcohol-Induced Hepatopathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Toyota, Teruaki; Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight) after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. PMID:23213269

  4. Effects of inhibitory GABA-active neurosteroids on cocaine seeking and cocaine taking in rats.

    PubMed

    Schmoutz, Christopher D; Runyon, Scott P; Goeders, Nicholas E

    2014-09-01

    Several compounds that potentiate GABA-induced inhibitory currents also decrease stress, anxiety and addiction-related behaviors. Because of the well-established connection between stress and addiction, compounds that reduce stress-induced responses might be efficacious in treating addiction. Since endogenous neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone may function in a manner similar to benzodiazepines to reduce HPA axis activation and anxiety following stressful stimuli, we hypothesized that exogenously applied neurosteroids would reduce cocaine reinforcement in two animal models. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer cocaine and food under a concurrent alternating operant schedule of reinforcement. Two separate groups of rats were trained to self-administer cocaine or food pellets and were then exposed to similar cue-induced reinstatement paradigms. Both groups of rats were pretreated with various doses of neurosteroids. Allopregnanolone and 3α-hydroxy-3β-methyl-17β-nitro-5α-androstane (R6305-7, a synthetic neurosteroid) were ineffective in selectively decreasing cocaine relative to food self-administration. On the other hand, both allopregnanolone and R6305-7 significantly decreased the cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking, confirmed by one-way ANOVA. These results suggest that neurosteroids may be effective in reducing the relapse to cocaine use without affecting ongoing cocaine self-administration.

  5. BTK blocks the inhibitory effects of MDM2 on p53 activity

    PubMed Central

    Rada, Miran; Althubiti, Mohammad; Ekpenyong-Akiba, Akang E.; Lee, Koon-Guan; Lam, Kong Peng; Fedorova, Olga; Barlev, Nickolai A.; Macip, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    p53 is a tumour suppressor that is activated in response to various types of stress. It is regulated by a complex pattern of over 50 different post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination by the E3 ligase MDM2, which leads to its proteasomal degradation. We have previously reported that expression of Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) induces phosphorylation of p53 at the N-terminus, including Serine 15, and increases its protein levels and activity. The mechanisms involved in this process are not completely understood. Here, we show that BTK also increases MDM2 and is necessary for MDM2 upregulation after DNA damage, consistent with what we have shown for other p53 target genes. Moreover, we found that BTK binds to MDM2 on its PH domain and induces its phosphorylation. This suggested a negative regulation of MDM2 functions by BTK, supported by the fact BTK expression rescued the inhibitory effects of MDM2 on p53 transcriptional activity. Indeed, we observed that BTK mediated the loss of the ubiquitination activity of MDM2, a process that was dependent on the phosphorylation functions of BTK. Our data together shows that the kinase activity of BTK plays an important role in disrupting the MDM2-p53 negative feedback loop by acting at different levels, including binding to and inactivation of MDM2. This study provides a potential mechanism to explain how BTK modulates p53 functions. PMID:29290977

  6. Inhibitory effects of citronellol and geraniol on nitric oxide and prostaglandin E₂production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Wen; Chao, Shiou-Huei; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Ou, Tsang-Yow; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2010-10-01

    Geranium oil has been used traditionally for diarrhea, dermatitis, and intestinal inflammation in East Asia. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of geranium oil's characteristic components, citronellol and geraniol, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Citronellol and geraniol suppressed NO and PGE(2) production in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory efficacy of geraniol was concomitant with decreases in protein and mRNA expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), whereas citronellol inhibited only iNOS enzymatic activity. By adding citronellol and geraniol, the LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA expression levels were significantly attenuated, whereas cytosolic degradation of I κB α and upregulation of NF-κB p65 in the nucleus were reversed. These results suggested that citronellol and geraniol exhibit anti-inflammatory activities, supporting their common use and demonstrating their therapeutic potential for inflammation-associated disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Mechanistic study of intertypic nucleoprotein complex formation and its inhibitory effect toward influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Jaru-Ampornpan, Peera; Subali, Theressa; Bertulfo, Fatima Carla T; Wongthida, Phonphimon; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2015-11-01

    Co-infection of influenza A and B viruses (IAV and IBV) results in marked decreases in IAV replication. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed for this phenomenon. Recently, we reported that IBV nucleoprotein (BNP) alone can suppress IAV replication and proposed an inhibition model in which BNP binds IAV nucleoprotein (ANP) and disrupts IAV polymerase complexes. Here, using mutagenesis and co-immunoprecipitation, we determined the protein motifs mediating the intertypic ANP-BNP complex and showed that it specifically interferes with ANP׳s interaction with the PB2 subunit of the IAV polymerase but not with the other subunit PB1. We further demonstrated that BNP only suppresses growth of IAVs but not other RNA viruses. However, different IAV strains display varied sensitivity toward the BNP׳s inhibitory effect. Together, our data provide mechanistic insights into intertypic nucleoprotein complex formation and highlight the role of BNP as a potential broad-spectrum anti-IAV agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Inhibitory effect of turpentine oil on Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) larvae growth].

    PubMed

    Leyva Silva, Maureen; Marquetti Fernández, Maria del Carmen; Tacoronte González, Juan E; Tiomno Tiomnovay, Olinka; Montada Dorta, Domingo

    2010-01-01

    in the fight for environmental protection, finding out alternative ways to control vectors that are important from the medical viewpoint is a must. Those plants having potent active principles and high chemical stability to act as pesticides can contribute to this end. to evaluate the possible inhibitory effect of photochemically-modified turpentine oil on Aedes aegypti larvae growth. Aedes aegypti larvae of an insecticide-sensitive strain from the insect breeding site located in the Institute of Tropical Medicine were used. During a week after the exposure to the lethal dose causing 90% mortality, the mortality indexes of larvae and pupas were recorded as well as the number of emerged adults and their sex in addition to adults stuck to the exuvias. high larval and pupal mortality was observed in the survivors to the lethal dose causing 90% mortality after one week of the exposure; mortality index was 39.46%. Larvae which managed to grow to become adults amounted to 60.54% of the surviving larvae. Female to male ratio was very similar in the control whereas the exposed group showed a higher number of male adults. On estimating the hatching inhibition percentage, it got 36.47%. the activity of turpentine oil as larvicide and Ae. aegypti growth inhibitor was demonstrated.

  9. Inhibitory effects of OK-432 (Picibanil) on cellular proliferation and adhesive capacity of breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yoshio; Iino, Yuichi; Maemura, Michio; Horiguchi, Jun; Morishita, Yasuo

    2005-02-01

    We investigated the potent inhibitory effects of OK-432 (Picibanil) on both cellular adhesion and cell proliferation of estrogen-dependent (MCF-7) or estrogen-independent (MDA-MB-231) breast carcinoma cells. Cellular proliferation of both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was markedly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, when the carcinoma cells were exposed to OK-432. Cell attachment assay demonstrated that incubation with OK-432 for 24 h reduced integrin-mediated cellular adhesion of both cell types. However, fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis revealed that incubation with OK-432 for 24 h did not decrease the cell surface expressions of any integrins. These results suggest that the binding avidity of integrins is reduced by OK-432 without alteration of the integrin expression. We conclude that OK-432 inhibits integrin-mediated cellular adhesion as well as cell proliferation of breast carcinoma cells regardless of estrogen-dependence, and that these actions of OK-432 contribute to prevention or inhibition of breast carcinoma invasion and metastasis.

  10. Inhibitory effect of leonurine on the formation of advanced glycation end products.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lianqi; Yang, Xin; Peng, Anlin; Wang, Hui; Lei, Xiang; Zheng, Ling; Huang, Kun

    2015-02-01

    Long-term hyperglycemia is a typical symptom of diabetes mellitus (DM) which can cause a high level of protein glycation and lead to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The accumulation of AGEs in turn deteriorates DM and its complications. Insulin, the only hormone that directly decreases blood sugar in vivo, is vulnerable to glycation which causes the loss of its biological activity. In this study, we used a porcine insulin (PI)-methylglyoxal (MGO) model to investigate the inhibitory effect of leonurine (LN), a natural alkaloid extracted from Herba leonuri, on AGE formation. Assays including AGE-specific fluorescence, and fructosamine level and carbonyl group content determination showed that LN can dose-dependently suppress PI glycation. A significantly decreased cross-linking level on the glycated PI was also proven by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. A further liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry study suggested that LN may inhibit PI glycation through trapping MGO and keeping it from reacting with PI. Our results thus indicate that LN is a promising anti-glycation agent for the prevention of diabetes and its complications via inhibiting AGE formation.

  11. Physiological inhibitory effect of ocs in arachidonic acid-rich Parietochloris incisa (trebouxiophyceae, chlorophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Cohen, Zvi; Richmond, Amos

    2002-09-01

    Parietochloris incisa is an arachidonic acid-rich snow green alga. The main physiological profiles, such as ash free dry weight (AFDW), chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and total fatty acids (TFA), in this alga exposed to old culture supernatant (OCS) at the decline phase or its crude ethyl acetate extracts (CEAE) were investigated by using tubular photobioreactors of different diameters. Results showed that both OCS and CEAE had strong inhibitory effect on the above physiological parameters. The longer the culture was exposed to OCS and the more CEAE were added into the algal culture, the more the above physiological properties were inhibited. Arachidonic acid (AA), the dominant component of fatty acids in this alga, was also seriously inhibited with respect to total TFA, AFDW of cell mass, or culture volume, due to a probable reduction of enzymes activities catalyzing chain elongation from C18; 1ω9 to AA. These results incontestably evidenced that some CEAE dissolving substances existing in OCS. like auto-inhibitors, inhibited P. incisa growth through feedback. Hence, any efficient removal of auto-inhibitors from algal culture to decrease their bioactivity could be good for maximal production of desired products like AA.

  12. In vitro inhibitory effects of plant-derived by-products against Cryptosporidium parvum

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Klaus; Kuliberda, Maxime; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Pacher, Thomas; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin; Joachim, Anja; Hadacek, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Disposal of organic plant wastes and by-products from the food or pharmaceutical industries usually involves high costs. In the present study, 42 samples derived from such by-products were screened in vitro against Cryptosporidium parvum, a protozoan parasite that may contaminate drinking water and cause diarrhoea. The novel bioassay was previously established in the microtitre plate format. Human ileocaecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8) cell cultures were seeded with C. parvum oocysts and parasite development was monitored by an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) and microscopic assessment for clusters of secondary infection (CSI). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and potential detrimental effects on the host cells were determined. An ethanolic extract from olive (Olea europaea) pomace, after oil pressing and phenol recovery, reproducibly inhibited C. parvum development (MIC = 250–500 μg mL−1, IC50 = 361 (279–438) μg mL−1, IC90 = 467 (398–615) μg mL−1). Accordingly, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, trans-coniferyl alcohol and oleuropein were selected as reference test compounds, but their contributions to the observed activity of the olive pomace extract were insignificant. The established test system proved to be a fast and efficient assay for identifying anti-cryptosporidial activities in biological waste material and comparison with selected reference compounds. PMID:27627637

  13. Pretreatment of lignocellulose: Formation of inhibitory by-products and strategies for minimizing their effects.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Leif J; Martín, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to advanced biofuels and other commodities through a sugar-platform process involves a pretreatment step enhancing the susceptibility of the cellulose to enzymatic hydrolysis. A side effect of pretreatment is formation of lignocellulose-derived by-products that inhibit microbial and enzymatic biocatalysts. This review provides an overview of the formation of inhibitory by-products from lignocellulosic feedstocks as a consequence of using different pretreatment methods and feedstocks as well as an overview of different strategies used to alleviate problems with inhibitors. As technologies for biorefining of lignocellulose become mature and are transferred from laboratory environments to industrial contexts, the importance of management of inhibition problems is envisaged to increase as issues that become increasingly relevant will include the possibility to use recalcitrant feedstocks, obtaining high product yields and high productivity, minimizing the charges of enzymes and microorganisms, and using high solids loadings to obtain high product titers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibitory effect of interferon-γ on experimental tooth movement in mice.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Haruka; Kitaura, Hideki; Yoshimatsu, Masako; Fujimura, Yuji; Morita, Yukiko; Eguchi, Toshiko; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of interferon (IFN)-γ on experimental tooth movement in mice using a murine experimental tooth movement model. An Ni-Ti closed-coil spring was inserted between the upper-anterior alveolar bones and the upper-left first molars in mice. We evaluated the relationship between local Ifn-γ mRNA levels and orthodontic tooth movement. In other experiments, IFN-γ was injected adjacent to each first molar every other day during tooth movement. After 12 days, the amount of tooth movement was measured. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells at the pressure side of each experimental tooth were counted as osteoclasts. Local Ifn-γ mRNA expression increased with orthodontic tooth movement. The number of TRAP-positive cells increased on the pressure side of the first molar. In contrast, the degree of tooth movement and the number of TRAP-positive cells on the pressure side in IFN-γ-injected mice were less than those of control mice. IFN-γ was induced in experimental tooth movement, and could inhibit mechanical force-loaded osteoclastogenesis and tooth movement. These results suggest that IFN-γ might be useful in controlling orthodontic tooth movement because of its inhibitory action on excessive osteoclastogenesis during this movement.

  15. Discovery of potent HDAC inhibitors based on chlamydocin with inhibitory effects on cell migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shimiao; Li, Xiaohui; Wei, Yingdong; Xiu, Zhilong; Nishino, Norikazu

    2014-03-01

    The histone deacetylase (HDAC) family is a promising drug target class owing to the importance of these enzymes in a variety of cellular processes. Docking studies were conducted to identify novel HDAC inhibitors. Subtle modifications in the recognition domain were introduced into a series of chlamydocin analogues, and the resulting scaffolds were combined with various zinc binding domains. Remarkably, cyclo(L-Asu(NHOH)-L-A3mc6c-L-Phe-D-Pro, compound 1 b), with a methyl group at positions 3 or 5 on the aliphatic ring, exhibited better antiproliferative effects than trichostatin A (TSA) against MCF-7 and K562 cell lines. In addition to cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, cell migration inhibition was observed in cells treated with compound 1 b. Subsequent western blot analysis revealed that the balance between matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) determines the degree of metalloproteinase activity in MCF-7 cells, thereby regulating cell migration. The improved inhibitory activity imparted by altering the hydrophobic substitution pattern at the bulky cap group is a valuable approach in the development of novel HDAC inhibitors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei on Candida biofilm of denture surface.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Gyun; Lee, Sung-Hoon

    2017-04-01

    Candida albicans biofilm is associated with denture-related stomatitis and oral candidiasis of elderly. Probiotics are beneficial bacteria and have antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of various probiotics against C. albicans and the inhibitory effects of probiotics on Candida biofilm on the denture surface. The spent culture media of various probiotics were investigated the antifungal efficacy against C. albicans. Candida biofilm was formed on a denture base resin and was then treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei. Also, the biofilms of L. rhamnosus and L. casei were formed and were sequentially treated with C. albicans. Colony-forming units of C. albicans on the denture surface were counted after spreading on agar plate. The denture base resin was treated with the spent culture media for 30days, after which the denture surface roughness was analyzed with an atomic force microscope. L. rhamnosus and L. casei exhibited stronger antifungal activity than other probiotics. The spent culture medium of L. rhamnosus and L. casei exhibited the antifungal activity against blastoconidia and biofilm of C. albicans. L. rhamnosus and L. casei showed the antifungal activity against Candida biofilm, and the biofilm of L. rhamnosus and L. casei inhibited formation of Candida biofilm on denture surface. Neither of the probiotics affected the surface roughness of the denture base resin. L. rhamnosus and L. casei may be the ideal probiotics for the prevention and treatment of denture-related stomatitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lignan from Thyme Possesses Inhibitory Effect on ASIC3 Channel Current*

    PubMed Central

    Dubinnyi, Maxim A.; Osmakov, Dmitry I.; Koshelev, Sergey G.; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Andreev, Yaroslav A.; Zakaryan, Naira A.; Dyachenko, Igor A.; Bondarenko, Dmitry A.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2012-01-01

    A novel compound was identified in the acidic extract of Thymus armeniacus collected in the Lake Sevan region of Armenia. This compound, named “sevanol,” to our knowledge is the first low molecular weight natural molecule that has a reversible inhibition effect on both the transient and the sustained current of human ASIC3 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Sevanol completely blocked the transient component (IC50 353 ± 23 μm) and partially (∼45%) inhibited the amplitude of the sustained component (IC50 of 234 ± 53 μm). Other types of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) channels were intact to sevanol application, except ASIC1a, which showed more than six times less affinity to it as compared with the inhibitory action on the ASIC3 channel. To elucidate the structure of sevanol, the set of NMR spectra in two solvents (d6-DMSO and D2O) was collected, and the complete chemical structure was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI+-MS) fragmentation. This compound is a new lignan built up of epiphyllic acid and two isocitryl esters in positions 9 and 10. In vivo administration of sevanol (1–10 mg/kg) significantly reversed thermal hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection and reduced response to acid in a writhing test. Thus, we assume the probable considerable role of sevanol in known analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of thyme. PMID:22854960

  18. Characterization of polysaccharides with marked inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation in Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Yong, Yangyang; Xing, Meichun; Gu, Yifan; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2013-09-12

    Mushrooms have a great potential for the production of useful bioactive metabolites. To explore the bioactive compounds from edible mushrooms for interfering with the development of macrophage-derived foam cells, which is recognized as the hallmark of early atherosclerosis, eight types of mushrooms polysaccharides had been selected to be tested. Consequently, different mushrooms polysaccharides displayed diverse component profiles. Of polysaccharides that we tested, the Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide had the strongest inhibitory effect on lipid accumulation. Furthermore, through fractionation of DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100, the polysaccharide from P. eryngii had been successfully purified and identified. By the analysis of IR, GC, and HPLC, the purified polysaccharide was estimated to be 30-38 kDa for the average molecular weight with the monosaccharide composition mainly composed of D-types of mannose, glucose and galactose. Findings presented in this report firstly provide direct evidence, which links the purified polysaccharide moiety with the biological function in foam-cell model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Estimates of the size of inhibitory areas in crowding effects in periphery].

    PubMed

    Bondarko, V M; Danilova, M V; Solnushkin, S D; Chikhman, V N

    2014-01-01

    In psychophysical experiments we studied how surround influences recognition of test objects. The tests were low-contrast Landolt rings of the size 1.1, 1.5 and 2.3 deg. Their centers were located at 13.2 deg from the fixation point. The additional objects were similar Landolt rings or rings without gaps. The distance between the centers of the test and the additional objects varied from 2.2 to 13.2 deg. Inone experiment, the task of the observer was to identify both the test objects and the surrounding objects. In the second experiment the stimulus layout was the same, but'identification of only the test stimulus was required. In both experiments, deterioration of performance was found at all distances between the test objects and the surround, but the deterioration was more significant when the observer carried out the dual task. The data showed that the size of the inhibitory areas in our case does not comply with the Bouma low which states that the size of the interaction areas are equal to half of the eccentricity where the test is presented. Further deterioration of performance in the dual task reveals the contribution of attention into peripheral crowding effects.

  20. Synthesis of 4-(2-substituted hydrazinyl)benzenesulfonamides and their carbonic anhydrase inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Gul, Halise Inci; Kucukoglu, Kaan; Yamali, Cem; Bilginer, Sinan; Yuca, Hafize; Ozturk, Iknur; Taslimi, Parham; Gulcin, Ilhami; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-08-01

    In this study, 4-(2-substituted hydrazinyl)benzenesulfonamides were synthesized by microwave irradiation and their chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)CNMR, and HRMS. Ketones used were: Acetophenone (S1), 4-methylacetophenone (S2), 4-chloroacetophenone (S3), 4-fluoroacetophenone (S4), 4-bromoacetophenone (S5), 4-methoxyacetophenone (S6), 4-nitroacetophenone (S7), 2-acetylthiophene (S8), 2-acetylfuran (S9), 1-indanone (S10), 2-indanone (S11). The compounds S9, S10 and S11 were reported for the first time, while S1-S8 was synthesized by different method than literature reported using microwave irradiation method instead of conventional heating in this study. The inhibitory effects of 4-(2-substituted hydrazinyl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives (S1-S11) against hCA I and II were studied. Cytosolic hCA I and II isoenzymes were potently inhibited by new synthesized sulphonamide derivatives with Kis in the range of 1.79 ± 0.22-2.73 ± 0.08 nM against hCA I and in the range of 1.72 ± 0.58-11.64 ± 5.21 nM against hCA II, respectively.

  1. Leucemia inhibitory factor; investigating the time-dependent effect on viability of vitrified bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Kocyigit, A; Cevik, M

    2017-12-01

    Leucemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is involved in various reproductive processes, including sperm development, regulation of ovulation, as well as blastocyst formation, hatching and implantation in embryos. Moreover, LIF has also been shown significantly to enhance the blastocyst formation rates of bovine embryos, a finding that remains controversial. Our purpose was to investigate time-dependent effect of LIF on bovine embryo culture, especially in terms of addition timing. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in five different groups. In this study, 100 ng/ml LIF was added to the culture medium were as follows; control: SOF alone, group A: at day 0 (fertilization day), group B: at day 4 post-insemination (p.i.), group C: at day 4 to 7 (p.i. before vitrification) and group D: at day 8 (p.i. after thawing). Addition of LIF to the culture medium at day 4 significantly increased the percentage of blastocyst rate when compared day 0, day 4 at 6/7 and control group (41.8% versus 24.3%, 19.7%, 34.6%). In conclusion, the addition of LIF only on day 4 (p.i.) to the culture medium was found to be beneficial for bovine embryonic development based on several measures, including blastocysts rate, re-expansion rate and cellular cryotolerance after vitrification. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. General anesthetics have differential inhibitory effects on gap junction channels and hemichannels in astrocytes and neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinhe; Gangoso, Ester; Yi, Chenju; Jeanson, Tiffany; Kandelman, Stanislas; Mantz, Jean; Giaume, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Astrocytes represent a major non-neuronal cell population actively involved in brain functions and pathologies. They express a large amount of gap junction proteins that allow communication between adjacent glial cells and the formation of glial networks. In addition, these membrane proteins can also operate as hemichannels, through which "gliotransmitters" are released, and thus contribute to neuroglial interaction. There are now reports demonstrating that alterations of astroglial gap junction communication and/or hemichannel activity impact neuronal and synaptic activity. Two decades ago we reported that several general anesthetics inhibited gap junctions in primary cultures of astrocytes (Mantz et al., (1993) Anesthesiology 78(5):892-901). As there are increasing studies investigating neuroglial interactions in anesthetized mice, we here updated this previous study by employing acute cortical slices and by characterizing the effects of general anesthetics on both astroglial gap junctions and hemichannels. As hemichannel activity is not detected in cortical astrocytes under basal conditions, we treated acute slices with the endotoxin LPS or proinflammatory cytokines to induce hemichannel activity in astrocytes, which in turn activated neuronal hemichannels. We studied two extensively used anesthetics, propofol and ketamine, and the more recently developed dexmedetomidine. We report that these drugs have differential inhibitory effects on gap junctional communication and hemichannel activity in astrocytes when used in their respective, clinically relevant concentrations, and that dexmedetomidine appears to be the least effective on both channel functions. In addition, the three anesthetics have similar effects on neuronal hemichannels. Altogether, our observations may contribute to optimizing the selection of anesthetics for in vivo animal studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The Direct Inhibitory Effect of Dutasteride or Finasteride on Androgen Receptor Activity is Cell Line Specific

    PubMed Central

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Halim, Danny; Cheng, Jinrong; Zhang, Huan Yi; Mohler, James L.; Ip, Clement; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Finasteride and dutasteride were developed originally as 5α-reductase inhibitors to block the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). These drugs may possess off-target effects on the androgen receptor (AR) due to their structural similarity to DHT. METHODS A total of 4 human prostate cancer cell models were examined: LNCaP (T877A mutant AR), 22Rv1 (H874Y mutant AR), LAPC4 (wild type AR) and VCaP (wild type AR). Cells were cultured in 10% charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum, either with or without DHT added to the medium. AR activity was evaluated using the ARE-luciferase assay or the expression of AR regulated genes. RESULTS Dutasteride was more potent than finasteride in interfering with DHT-stimulated AR signaling. Disruption of AR function was accompanied by decreased cell growth. Cells that rely on DHT for protection against death were particularly vulnerable to dutasteride. Different prostate cancer cell models exhibited different sensitivities to dutasteride and finasteride. LNCaP was most sensitive, LAPC4 and VCaP were intermediate, while 22Rv1 was least sensitive. Regardless of the AR genotype, if AR was transfected into drug-sensitive cells, AR was inhibited by drug treatment; and if AR was transfected into drug-resistant cells, AR was not inhibited. CONCLUSIONS The direct inhibitory effect of dutasteride or finasteride on AR signaling is cell line specific. Mutations in the ligand binding domain of AR do not appear to play a significant role in influencing the AR antagonistic effect of these drugs. Subcellular constituent is an important factor in determining the drug effect on AR function. PMID:23813737

  4. Inhibitory effects of bee venom on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun-Mi; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Kook, In-Hoon; Kook, Yoon-Bum; Bae, Hyunsu; Lee, Minho; An, Hyo-Jin

    2018-06-01

    Although bee venom (BV) is a toxin that causes bee stings to be painful, it has been widely used clinically for the treatment of certain immune‑associated diseases. BV has been used traditionally for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this regard, the present study analyzed the effect of BV on the regulation of inflammatory mediator production by mast cells and their allergic inflammatory responses in an animal model. HMC‑1 cells were treated with BV prior to stimulation with phorbol‑12‑myristate 13‑acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI). The production of allergy‑associated pro‑inflammatory mediators was examined, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Furthermore, to investigate whether BV exhibits anti‑inflammatory effects associated with anti‑allergic effects in vivo, a compound 48/80‑induced anaphylaxis model was used. BV inhibited histamine release, mRNA expression and production of cytokines in the PMACI‑stimulated HMC‑1 cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of BV on mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK), MAPK kinase, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Akt were demonstrated. The present study also investigated the ability of BV to inhibit compound 48/80‑induced systemic anaphylaxis in vivo. BV protected the mice against compound 48/80‑induced anaphylactic‑associated mortality. Furthermore, BV suppressed the mRNA expression levels of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, and suppressed the activation of MAPK and STAT3 in this model. These results provide novel insights into the possible role of BV as a modulator for mast cell‑mediated allergic inflammatory disorders.

  5. Effects of temperature and medium composition on inhibitory activities of gossypol-related compounds against aflatoxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Mellon, J E; Dowd, M K; Beltz, S B

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effects of temperature and medium composition on growth/aflatoxin inhibitory activities of terpenoids gossypol, gossypolone and apogossypolone against Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 100 μg ml(-1) in a Czapek Dox (Czapek) agar medium at 25, 31 and 37°C. Increased incubation temperature marginally increased growth inhibition caused by these compounds, but reduced the aflatoxin inhibition effected by gossypol. Gossypolone and apogossypolone retained good aflatoxin inhibitory activity against A. flavus and A. parasiticus at higher incubation temperatures. However, increased temperature also significantly reduced aflatoxin production in control cultures. The effects of the terpenoids on fungal growth and aflatoxin production against the same fungi were also determined in Czapek, Czapek with a protein/amino acid addendum and yeast extract sucrose (YES) media. Growth of these fungi in the protein-supplemented Czapek medium or in the YES medium greatly reduced the growth inhibition effects of the terpenoids. Apogossypolone displayed strong anti-aflatoxigenic activity in the Czapek medium, but this activity was significantly reduced in the protein-amended Czapek and YES media. Gossypol, which displayed little to no aflatoxin inhibitory activity in the Czapek medium, did yield significant anti-aflatoxigenic activity in the YES medium. Incubation temperature and media composition are important parameters involved in the regulation of aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. These parameters also affect the potency of growth and aflatoxin inhibitory activities of these gossypol-related compounds against aflatoxigenic fungi. Studies utilizing gossypol-related compounds as inhibitory agents of biological activities should be interpreted with caution due to compound interaction with multiple components of the test system, especially serum proteins. Published [2013]. This article is a

  6. A cyclohexanecarboxamide derivative with inhibitory effects on Schistosoma mansoni cercarial serine protease and penetration of mice skin by the parasite.

    PubMed

    Bahgat, Mahmoud; Aboul-Enein, Mohamed N; El Azzouny, Aida A; Maghraby, Amany; Ruppel, Andreas; Soliman, Wael M

    2009-01-01

    A cyclohexanecarboxamide derivative, N-phenyl-N-[1-(piperidine-1-carbonyl)cyclohexyl] benzamide (MNRC-5), was evaluated for its inhibitory effects on Schistosoma mansoni cercarial serine protease activity and cercarial penetration. MNRC-5 exerted an inhibitory effect on S. mansoni cercarial serine protease at serial concentrations of the specific chromogenic substrate Boc-Val-Leu-Gly-Arg-PNA for such enzyme family and the inhibitory coefficient (Ki) value was deduced. Moreover, topical treatment of mice tails with the most potent inhibitory concentration of MNRC-5 formulated in jojoba oil successfully blocked cercarial penetration as demonstrated by a significant reduction (75%; p < 0.05) in the recovered S. mansoni worms from treated mice in comparison to control ones whose tails were painted with jojoba oil base containing no MNRC-5. In addition, the IgM and IgG reactivities to crude S. mansoni cercarial, worm and egg antigens were generally lower in sera from treated infected mice than untreated infected mice. In conclusion, we report on a new serine protease inhibitor capable for blocking penetration of host skin by S. mansoni cercariae as measured by lowering worm burden and decrease in the levels of both IgM and IgG towards different bilharzial antigens upon topical treatment.

  7. Evaluation of the tannic acid inhibitory effect against the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tintino, Saulo R; Oliveira-Tintino, Cícera D M; Campina, Fábia F; Silva, Raimundo L P; Costa, Maria do S; Menezes, Irwin R A; Calixto-Júnior, João T; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C; Balbino, Valdir Q

    2016-08-01

    During the early periods of antibiotic usage, bacterial infections were considered tamed. However, widespread antibiotic use has promoted the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, including multidrug resistant strains. Active efflux is a mechanism for bacterial resistance to inhibitory substances, known simply as drug efflux pumps. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogenic bacterium responsible for an array of infections. The NorA efflux pump has been shown to be responsible for moderate fluoroquinolone resistance of S. aureus. The inhibition of the efflux pump was assayed using a sub-inhibitory concentration of standard efflux pump inhibitors and tannic acid (MIC/8), where its capacity to decrease the MIC of Ethidium bromide (EtBr) and antibiotics due to the possible inhibitory effect of these substances was observed. The MICs of EtBr and antibiotics were significantly reduced in the presence of tannic acid, indicating the inhibitory effect of this agent against the efflux pumps of both strains causing a three-fold reduction of the MIC when compared with the control. These results indicate the possible usage of tannic acid as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against multidrug resistant bacteria (MDR). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Paula M.; Speranza, Mario; Hampshire, Adam; Bekinschtein, Tristán A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioral inhibition, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioral inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioral inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/NoGo and Stop Signal Tasks (SSTs). Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on performance in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory tasks are scarce and little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and inhibitory control. Here we probed the effect of reward magnitude and context on behavioral inhibition with three modified versions of the widely used SST. The pilot study compared inhibition performance during six blocks alternating neutral feedback, low, medium, and high monetary rewards. Study One compared increasing vs. decreasing rewards, with low, high rewards, and neutral feedback; whilst Study Two compared low and high reward magnitudes alone also in an increasing and decreasing reward design. The reward magnitude effect was not demonstrated in the pilot study, probably due to a learning effect induced by practice in this lengthy task. The reward effect per se was weak but the context (order of reward) was clearly suggested in Study One, and was particularly strongly confirmed in study two. In addition, these findings revealed a “kick start effect” over global performance measures. Specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the

  9. Effect of chronic restraint stress on inhibitory gating in the auditory cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lanlan; Li, Wai; Li, Sibin; Wang, Xuejiao; Qin, Ling

    2017-05-01

    A fundamental adaptive mechanism of auditory function is inhibitory gating (IG), which refers to the attenuation of neural responses to repeated sound stimuli. IG is drastically impaired in individuals with emotional and cognitive impairments (i.e. posttraumatic stress disorder). The objective of this study was to test whether chronic stress impairs the IG of the auditory cortex (AC). We used the standard two-tone stimulus paradigm and examined the parametric qualities of IG in the AC of rats by recording the electrophysiological signals of a single-unit and local field potential (LFP) simultaneously. The main results of this study were that most of the AC neurons showed a weaker response to the second tone than to the first tone, reflecting an IG of the repeated input. A fast negative wave of LFP showed consistent IG across the sampled AC sites, whereas a slow positive wave of LFP had less IG effect. IG was diminished following chronic restraint stress at both, the single-unit and LFP level, due to the increase in response to the second tone. This study provided new evidence that chronic stress disrupts the physiological function of the AC. Lay Summary The effects of chronic stress on IG were investigated by recording both, single-unit spike and LFP activities, in the AC of rats. In normal rats, most of the single-unit and N25 LFP activities in the AC showed an IG effect. IG was diminished following chronic restraint stress at both, the single-unit and LFP level.

  10. Inhibitory effects of opioids on compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves and their chemical structures.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Kotaro; Fujita, Tsugumi; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2008-08-01

    An opioid tramadol more effectively inhibits compound action potentials (CAPs) than its metabolite mono-O-demethyl-tramadol (M1). To address further this issue, we examined the effects of opioids (morphine, codeine, ethylmorphine and dihydrocodeine) and cocaine on CAPs by applying the air-gap method to the frog sciatic nerve. All of the opioids at concentrations less than 10 mM reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP in a reversible and dose-dependent manner. The sequence of the CAP peak amplitude reductions was ethylmorphine>codeine>dihydrocodeine> or = morphine; the effective concentration for half-maximal inhibition (IC(50)) of ethylmorphine was 4.6 mM. All of the CAP inhibitions by opioids were resistant to a non-specific opioid-receptor antagonist naloxone. The CAP peak amplitude reductions produced by morphine, codeine and ethylmorphine were related to their chemical structures in such that this extent enhanced with an increase in the number of -CH(2) in a benzene ring, as seen in the inhibitory actions of tramadol and M1. Cocaine reduced CAP peak amplitudes with an IC(50) value of 0.80 mM. It is concluded that opioids reduce CAP peak amplitudes in a manner being independent of opioid-receptor activation and with an efficacy being much less than that of cocaine. It is suggested that the substituted groups of -OH bound to the benzene ring of morphine, codeine and ethylmorphine as well as of tramadol and M1, the structures of which are quite different from those of the opioids, may play an important role in producing nerve conduction block.

  11. Inhibitory effects of sevoflurane on pacemaking activity of sinoatrial node cells in guinea-pig heart

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Akiko; Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Omatsu-Kanbe, Mariko; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Nosaka, Shuichi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane affects heart rate in clinical settings. The present study investigated the effect of sevoflurane on sinoatrial (SA) node automaticity and its underlying ionic mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Spontaneous action potentials and four ionic currents fundamental for pacemaking, namely, the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (If), T-type and L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa,T and ICa,L, respectively), and slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (IKs), were recorded in isolated guinea-pig SA node cells using perforated and conventional whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Heart rate in guinea-pigs was recorded ex vivo in Langendorff mode and in vivo during sevoflurane inhalation. KEY RESULTS In isolated SA node cells, sevoflurane (0.12–0.71 mM) reduced the firing rate of spontaneous action potentials and its electrical basis, diastolic depolarization rate, in a qualitatively similar concentration-dependent manner. Sevoflurane (0.44 mM) reduced spontaneous firing rate by approximately 25% and decreased If, ICa,T, ICa,L and IKs by 14.4, 31.3, 30.3 and 37.1%, respectively, without significantly affecting voltage dependence of current activation. The negative chronotropic effect of sevoflurane was partly reproduced by a computer simulation of SA node cell electrophysiology. Sevoflurane reduced heart rate in Langendorff-perfused hearts, but not in vivo during sevoflurane inhalation in guinea-pigs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Sevoflurane at clinically relevant concentrations slowed diastolic depolarization and thereby reduced pacemaking activity in SA node cells, at least partly due to its inhibitory effect on If, ICa,T and ICa,L. These findings provide an important electrophysiological basis of alterations in heart rate during sevoflurane anaesthesia in clinical settings. PMID:22356456

  12. Small lytic peptides escape the inhibitory effect of heparan sulfate on the surface of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs), including bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB), display promising anticancer activities. These peptides are unaffected by multidrug resistance mechanisms and have been shown to induce a protective immune response against solid tumors, thus making them interesting candidates for developing novel lead structures for anticancer treatment. Recently, we showed that the anticancer activity by LfcinB was inhibited by the presence of heparan sulfate (HS) on the surface of tumor cells. Based on extensive structure-activity relationship studies performed on LfcinB, shorter and more potent peptides have been constructed. In the present study, we have investigated the anticancer activity of three chemically modified 9-mer peptides and the influence of HS and chondroitin sulfate (CS) on their cytotoxic activity. Methods Various cell lines and red blood cells were used to investigate the anticancer activity and selectivity of the peptides. The cytotoxic effect of the peptides against the different cell lines was measured by use of a colorimetric MTT viability assay. The influence of HS and CS on their cytotoxic activity was evaluated by using HS/CS expressing and HS/CS deficient cell lines. The ability of soluble HS and CS to inhibit the cytotoxic activity of the peptides and the peptides' affinity for HS and CS were also investigated. Results The 9-mer peptides displayed selective anticancer activity. Cells expressing HS/CS were equally or more susceptible to the peptides than cells not expressing HS/CS. The peptides displayed a higher affinity for HS compared to CS, and exogenously added HS inhibited the cytotoxic effect of the peptides. Conclusions In contrast to the previously reported inhibitory effect of HS on LfcinB, the present study shows that the cytotoxic activity of small lytic peptides was increased or not affected by cell surface HS. PMID:21453492

  13. Deviant Peer Behavior and Adolescent Delinquency: Protective Effects of Inhibitory Control, Planning, or Decision Making?

    PubMed

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Forman-Alberti, Alissa B

    2018-05-09

    We examined relations between adolescent perceptions of deviant peer behavior and delinquency as moderated by inhibitory control, planning, and decision making in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development at age 15 (N = 991). Adolescents reported perceptions of deviant peer behavior. Inhibitory control, planning, and decision making were assessed behaviorally. Delinquency was evaluated with a latent variable comprised of parent-guardian perceptions of adolescent delinquency and adolescent self-reports. Only inhibitory control moderated the relationship between deviant peer behavior and delinquency, showing that better inhibition protected against delinquency in contexts of high levels of adolescent perceptions of deviant peer behavior. Findings are discussed in the context of theories of adolescent delinquency and risk taking. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  14. Inhibitory effects of trehalose on fibroblast proliferation and implications for ocular surgery.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kimio; Nakazawa, Mitsuru; Ebina, Yuichi; Sato, Kota; Metoki, Tomomi; Miyagawa, Yasuhiro; Ito, Tadashi

    2010-11-01

    Trehalose is a disaccharide which plays an important role in preserving cells from completely dehydrated circumstances. In this study, we investigated effects of trehalose on proliferative activity of fibroblasts and epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. As in vitro assessment, normal human dermal fibroblasts and normal human epidermal keratinocytes were cultured in media containing various concentrations of trehalose. Growth activities of cells were evaluated with MTT assay and diff-quick™ staining. Expressions of vimentin and α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) changed by trehalose were semiquantitatively measured by Western blot. As an in vivo study, 5% or 10% trehalose was topically instilled onto rabbit eyes after simple conjunctival incision or trabeculectomy. Condition of the surgical wound was evaluated by morphologically and immunohistochemically using isolectin B4 and antibodies specific for vimentin and α-SMA. Intraocular pressures (IOPs) after trabeculectomy were compared between eyes treated with trehalose and 0.04% mitomycin C (MMC). Results obtained by in vitro experiments showed that growth activities of cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes were inhibited by trehalose in a dose-dependent manner. Fibroblasts were strongly inhibited by trehalose concentrations ≧ 5% of trehalose, whereas keratinocytes were less inhibited compared to fibroblasts. Expressions of vimentin and α-SMA were reduced by trehalose. With in vivo experiments, postoperative application of trehalose resulted in less firm adhesion between conjunctiva and sclera compared to controls. Immunohistochemical studies showed reduced staining of isolectin B4, vimentin and α-SMA in conjunctival wounds treated by topical trehalose. Also, after trabeculectomy, IOP remained in a low range during instillation of topical trehalose solution. We concluded that trehalose has inhibitory effects on proliferation of fibroblasts and vascular tissues, partially due to inhibition of

  15. Inhibitory effect of peptide Epitalon on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Khavinson, Vladimir Kh; Popovich, I G; Zabezhinski, Mark A

    2002-09-08

    The effect of synthetic pineal peptide Epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) on colon carcinogenesis was firstly studied in rats. Eighty 2-month-old outbred male LIO rats were subdivided into four groups and were weekly exposed to five subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a single dose of 21 mg/kg body weight. Additionally, 5 days a week, some of the rats were given subcutaneous injections of saline at a dose of 0.1 ml during the whole experiment (group 1, control) or Epitalon at a single dose of 1 microg during the whole experiment (group 2), Epitalon after termination of carcinogen injections (group 3) or during the period of DMH exposure (group 4). Colon carcinomas developed in 90-100% of DMH-treated rats. The number of total colon tumors per rat was 4.1; 2.7; 3.7; 2.9 in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively (the difference in groups 2 and 4 compared with group 1 is significant). In rats from group 2, colon tumors were smaller than in control animals. In group 2, the incidence, as well the multiplicity of tumors in ascending and descending colon, were significantly decreased in comparison with group 1. In group 4, the mean number of tumors per rat was significantly decreased, too. A trend to decrease the number of tumors in the rectum in rats from groups 2, 3 and 4, treated with Epitalon was found. Epitalon inhibited also the development of tumors in jejunum and ileum. Thus, our results demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Epitalon on chemically induced bowel carcinogenesis in rats.

  16. An evaluation of the inhibitory effects against rotavirus infection of edible plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Knipping, Karen; Garssen, Johan; van't Land, Belinda

    2012-07-26

    Rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The developments of specific, potent and accessible antiviral treatments that restrain rotavirus infection remain important to control rotavirus disease. 150 plant extracts with nutritional applications were screened in vitro on MA-104 cells for their antiviral activity against rhesus rotavirus (RRV). One extract (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren) was also tested for its effect on the loss of transepithelial resistance (TER) of Caco-2 cells caused by simian rotavirus (SA-11) infection. Aqueous extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. fruit, Urtica dioica L. root, Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren leaves, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. root and Olea europaea L. leaves were found to have strong significant antiviral activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) < 300 μg/ml. The pure compound 18ß-glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra was found to have the strongest antiviral activity (IC50 46 μM), followed by luteolin and vitexin from Aspalathus linearis (IC50 respectively 116 μM and 129 μM) and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Melissa officinalis (IC50 150 μM). A combination of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and Urtica dioica L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. showed synergy in their anti-viral activities. Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren showed no positive effect on the maintenance of the TER. These results indicate that nutritional intervention with extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren, Urtica dioica L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Olea europaea L. might be useful in the treatment of diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection.

  17. Inhibitory effects of cortisone and hydrocortisone on human Kv1.5 channel currents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Park, Mi-Hyeong; Jo, Su-Hyun

    2015-01-05

    Glucocorticoids are the primary hormones that respond to stress and protect organisms from dangerous situations. The glucocorticoids hydrocortisone and its dormant form, cortisone, affect the cardiovascular system with changes such as increased blood pressure and cardioprotection. Kv1.5 channels play a critical role in the maintenance of cellular membrane potential and are widely expressed in pancreatic β-cells, neurons, myocytes, and smooth muscle cells of the pulmonary vasculature. We examined the electrophysiological effects of both cortisone and hydrocortisone on human Kv1.5 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes using a two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. Both cortisone and hydrocortisone rapidly and irreversibly suppressed the amplitude of Kv1.5 channel current with IC50 values of 50.2±4.2μM and 33.4±3.2μM, respectively, while sustained the current trace shape of Kv1.5 current. The inhibitory effect of cortisone on Kv1.5 decreased progressively from -10mV to +30mV, while hydrocortisone׳s inhibition of the channel did not change across the same voltage range. Both cortisone and hydrocortisone blocked Kv1.5 channel currents in a non-use-dependent manner and neither altered the channel׳s steady-state activation or inactivation curves. These results show that cortisone and hydrocortisone inhibited Kv1.5 channel currents differently, and that Kv1.5 channels were more sensitive to hydrocortisone than to cortisone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibitory effects of β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-ying; Wan, Li-hong; Zheng, Xiao-wei; Shao, Zhen-jun; Chen, Jian; Chen, Xia-jing; Liu, Li-tao; Kuang, Wen-juan; Tan, Xian-shu; Zhou, Li-ming

    2012-05-01

    β,β-Dimethylacrylshikonin is one of the most abundant naphthoquinones in the root extracts of Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc. (Boraginaceae), which have been reported to have antitumor effects. This study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the MTT assay showed that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin inhibited the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells in both dose- and time-dependent manners with its 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) at 48 h being 15.01 ± 0.76 µg/mL. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and Hoechst staining detected the characteristics of cell apoptosis in β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin-treated cells and the apoptotic rates of treated groups were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin could block the cell cycle arrest at G2 phase. Furthermore, β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 but up-regulated that of Bax. The cleaved caspase-3 protein was also detected in treated cells. The experiment in vivo showed that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin significantly suppressed the growth of H(22) transplantable hepatoma, and induced the activation of caspase-3 determined by immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin has significant antitumor effects on hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Inhibitory effect of putranjivain A on allergic inflammation through suppression of mast cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Seung-Bin; Lee, Soyoung

    2014-02-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Putranjivain A (PJA), member of ellagitannin, is known to possess beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether PJA modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. The study was performed in anaphylaxis mouse model and cultured mast cells. PJA inhibited themore » expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunoglobulin E-stimulated mast cells. PJA reduced this expression by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cell. The oral administration of PJA reduced systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis, the release of serum histamine, and the expression of the histamine H{sub 1} receptor. In addition, PJA attenuated the activation of mast cells. PJA inhibited the release of histamine from various types of mast cells by the suppression of intracellular calcium. The inhibitory activity of PJA on the allergic reaction was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate, a known anti-allergic drug. These results suggest that PJA can facilitate the prevention or treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases mediated by mast cells. - Highlights: • PJA reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • PJA inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines. • The effect of PJA on allergic reaction was comparable to the DSCG. • PJA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.« less

  20. Proline-rich proteins moderate the inhibitory effect of tea on iron absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Seon; Miller, Dennis D

    2005-03-01

    Tea inhibits iron absorption in studies in which tea is given with radiolabeled iron to humans as a single dose. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that proline-rich proteins (PRPs) may act as a defense against this effect by forming complexes with tannins, thereby preventing them from inhibiting iron absorption. Two studies were conducted. In study 1, rats were given test solutions containing (59)FeCl(3) in water, tea, or tea + gelatin (T/G). In study 2, the rats were divided into 3 groups and assigned to one of 3 nutritionally complete diets: control, tea (5 g tea tannin/kg diet), or T/G (5 g tea tannin + 60 g gelatin/kg diet). Rats were fed the respective diets for 5 d and then given a single (59)Fe-labeled meal of the diet. Iron absorption was measured by whole-body retention of the (59)Fe over a 2-wk period. Iron absorption in study 1 was lower in the tea group (24 +/- 9.6%, P < 0.05) than in the T/G (42 +/- 19.4%) or water groups (50 +/- 7.5%). In study 2, iron absorption did not differ among the groups. Rats fed the tea diet had dramatic hypertrophy of the parotid salivary glands. Adding gelatin as a proxy for salivary PRPs to the tea eliminated the inhibitory effect of tea on iron absorption. The results suggest that PRPs, whether from salivary glands or diet, can protect against the inhibition of iron absorption by tea.

  1. An evaluation of the inhibitory effects against rotavirus infection of edible plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The developments of specific, potent and accessible antiviral treatments that restrain rotavirus infection remain important to control rotavirus disease. Methods 150 plant extracts with nutritional applications were screened in vitro on MA-104 cells for their antiviral activity against rhesus rotavirus (RRV). One extract (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren) was also tested for its effect on the loss of transepithelial resistance (TER) of Caco-2 cells caused by simian rotavirus (SA-11) infection. Results Aqueous extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. fruit, Urtica dioica L. root, Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren leaves, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. root and Olea europaea L. leaves were found to have strong significant antiviral activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) < 300 μg/ml. The pure compound 18ß-glycyrrhetinic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra was found to have the strongest antiviral activity (IC50 46 μM), followed by luteolin and vitexin from Aspalathus linearis (IC50 respectively 116 μM and 129 μM) and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Melissa officinalis (IC50 150 μM). A combination of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and Urtica dioica L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. showed synergy in their anti-viral activities. Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren showed no positive effect on the maintenance of the TER. Conclusions These results indicate that nutritional intervention with extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren, Urtica dioica L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Olea europaea L. might be useful in the treatment of diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection. PMID:22834653

  2. The inhibitory effects of capillarisin on cell proliferation and invasion of prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chang, Ying-Ling; Yang, Pei-Shan; Hou, Chen-Pang; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Bing-Wei; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2018-04-01

    Capillarisin (Cap), an active component of Artemisia capillaris root extracts, is characterized by its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. Nevertheless, the functions of Cap in prostate cancer have not been fully explored. We evaluated the potential actions of Cap on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of prostate carcinoma cells. Cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were measured by water-soluble tetrazolium-1 and flow cytometry assays. The expression of cyclins, p21, p27, survivin, matrix metallopeptidase (MMP2 and MMP9) were assessed by immunoblotting assays. Effects of Cap on invasion and migration were determined by wound closure and matrigel transmigration assays. The constitutive and interlukin-6 (IL-6)-inducible STAT3 activation of prostate carcinoma cells were determined by immunoblotting and reporter assays. Capillarisin inhibited androgen-independent DU145 and androgen-dependent LNCaP cell growth through the induction of cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase by upregulating p21 and p27 while downregulating expression of cyclin D1, cyclin A and cyclin B. Cap decreased protein expression of survivin, MMP-2, and MMP-9 and therefore blocked the migration and invasion of DU145 cells. Cap suppressed constitutive and IL-6-inducible STAT3 activation in DU145 and LNCaP cells. Our data indicate that Cap blocked cell growth by modulation of p21, p27 and cyclins. The inhibitory effects of Cap on survivin, MMP-2, MMP-9 and STAT3 activation may account for the suppression of invasion in prostate carcinoma cells. Our data suggest that Cap might be a therapeutic agent in treating advanced prostate cancer with constitutive STAT3 or IL-6-inducible STAT3 activation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Lack of inhibitory effect of acetylsalicylic acid and meloxicam on whole blood platelet aggregation in cats.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Curtis J; Brainard, Benjamin M; Reynolds, Lisa R; Al-Nadaf, Sami; Budsberg, Steven C

    2012-02-01

    To determine the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and meloxicam on feline platelet aggregation and associated platelet thromboxane production and serotonin release. Prospective interventional study. University research facility. Eight healthy male castrated domestic short hair cats from a research colony. Oral medications were administered to 8 cats for 14 days in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Treatment groups included: aspirin (ASA) (5 mg/kg q 48 h), meloxicam (0.05 mg/kg q 24 h), and placebo (0.5 mL of water q 24 h). Thromboxane assays (TXB(2) ) and whole blood (impedance) aggregometry (WBA) were performed on samples collected before drug administration, and on days 7, 15, and 17, using adenosine diphosphate (ADP; 10 μM) and collagen (5 μg/mL) as agonists for WBA. Serotonin release was assayed on postaggregation plasma. Oral mucosal bleeding time (OMBT) and complete blood cell counts were measured on days 0 and 15. Neither medication affected WBA at any time point. OMBT decreased in the ASA group relative to baseline. No differences were detected in WBA and OMBT baseline between any groups. No difference was detected in serotonin secretion at any time point. TXB(2) was significantly decreased in the ASA group at all times after initiation of treatment but no change was noted in the meloxicam or placebo groups. At the doses studied, neither meloxicam nor ASA had an inhibitory effect on WBA or OMBT in cats. Thromboxane concentrations were significantly decreased with ASA treatment. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2011.

  4. Inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of branched-chain amino acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Junji; Tokuyama, Emi; Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-11-01

    Nutritional products for patients with liver failure available on the Japanese market contain many branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) such as L-leucine, L-isoleucine, and L-valine, which not only have a bitter taste but also strong, unpleasant odours, leading to low palatability. The palatability of these nutritional products can be significantly improved by the addition of flavoured powders containing various kinds of tastants (sucrose, citric acid, etc.) and odourants (fruit, coffee aromas, etc.). The specific effects of the aroma of flavoured powders have not yet been clearly evaluated. In the present article, the inhibitory effect of aroma on the bitterness of BCAA solutions was examined. The bitterness intensity of a BCAA solution at the same concentration as Aminoleban EN was defined as 3.5 (measured by a previously described gustatory sensation method). The bitterness threshold of a BCAA standard solution without added aroma was estimated to be 1.87, while those of BCAA solutions containing green-tea, coffee, apple, vanilla, or strawberry aromas were 2.02, 1.98, 2.35, 2.40 and 2.87, respectively, when evaluated by the probit method. This shows that the addition of an aroma can elevate the bitterness threshold in human volunteers. The green-tea and coffee aromas predominantly evoked bitterness, while the vanilla aroma predominantly evoked sweetness. Apple and strawberry aromas evoked both sweetness and sourness, with the apple aroma having stronger sourness and the strawberry aroma stronger sweetness. Thus, a 'sweet' aroma suppresses the bitterness of BCAA, with coexisting sourness also participating in the bitterness inhibition.

  5. Inhibitory effects of processed Aconiti tuber on morphine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guiyun; Huang, Wenqi; Zhang, Hui; Li, Qiaobo; Zhou, Jun; Shu, Haihua

    2011-06-14

    Our previous studies indicated that processed Aconiti tuber (PAT), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, had antinociceptive effects and inhibitory effects on morphine tolerance by activation of kappa-opioid receptor (KOR). Preclinical studies also demonstrated that KOR agonists functionally attenuate addictive behaviors of morphine, such as conditioned place preference (CPP). Therefore, we hypothesize that PAT may inhibit morphine-induced CPP in rats. (1) Five groups of rats (n=8 for each group) were alternately subcutaneous (s.c.) injected with morphine 10mg/kg (one group receive normal saline as a control) and normal saline for 8 days and oral co-administrated with distilled water or PAT 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg daily on days 2-9 during CPP training, respectively. (2) Other four groups of rats were randomly s.c. injected with nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 5mg/kg) or normal saline (as a control) 120 min before alternately s.c. with morphine and normal saline and oral co-administrated with distilled water or PAT 3.0 g/kg daily. Each rat was acquired pre-conditioning and post-conditioning CPP data and assayed dynorphin concentrations by radioimmunoassay in rat's nucleus accumbens (NAc) after CPP training. (1) PAT 1.0 or 3.0 g/kg dose-dependently decreased the morphine-induced increase of CPP scores. (2) Nor-BNI completely antagonized the inhibition of PAT on morphine-induced CPP. (3) PAT dose-dependently increased dynorphin content in rats' NAc after CPP training. (1) PAT dose-dependently inhibited morphine-induced CPP. (2) The inhibition of PAT on morphine-induced CPP was probably due to activation of KOR by increasing dynorphin release in rats' NAc. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Indirect latex glove contamination and its inhibitory effect on vinyl polysiloxane polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Kinya; Toyoda, Minoru; Ochiai, Kent T

    2005-05-01

    The inhibitory effect of indirect latex contamination on the polymerization of vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) impression material has been previously reported. However, the transfer of specific elements that cause inhibition has not been confirmed, nor has the removal of such contaminants been reported. This study examined the surfaces of materials commonly used in restorative procedures that were contaminated by indirect latex glove contact and then evaluated for inhibition of polymerization of VPS. The effect of selected cleansing procedures was then studied. Four experimental groups (n = 8) were prepared: (1) clean vinyl gloves (control), (2) clean gingival retraction cords (control), (3) contaminated vinyl gloves, and (4) contaminated gingival retraction cord. Microscopic evaluation of the appearance and the characterization of surface particulate contamination were performed for each. Three cleansing protocols were then evaluated for efficacy in cleaning vinyl glove surfaces contaminated by latex contact (n = 10): (1) brushing with water, (2) brushing with soap/rinsing with water, (3) cleansing with rubbing alcohol. The subsequent degree of VPS polymerization inhibition was evaluated subjectively. A chi-square test was used for data analysis (alpha=.05). Particulate sulfur elements and sulfur-chloride compounds were present on the contaminated substrates. None of the 3 cleansing procedures eliminated polymerization inhibition (P =.33). Residual elemental sulfur remained on all tested surfaces. Particulate sulfur and sulfur-chloride compounds were identified as the particulate contamination that resulted in polymerization inhibition of the tested VPS dental impression material. Removal of these contaminants from the tested vinyl gloves and gingival retraction cord was not possible with the 3 cleansing protocols tested in this study.

  7. Pre- and postjunctional inhibitory effects of fenspiride on guinea-pig bronchi.

    PubMed

    Girard, V; Naline, E; Crambes, O; Malbezin, M; Malmström, R E; Lundberg, J M; Advenier, C

    1997-05-01

    Fenspiride is a drug with potential benefits in the treatment of obstructive airways disease. It has antibronchoconstriction and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this drug on the contractions induced in the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus and perfused lung by electrical field stimulation (EFS) or exogenously added agents. Bronchi were stimulated transmurally in the presence of indomethacin 10(-6) M and propranolol 10(-6) M, and isometric tension was measured. In the perfused lung model calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release was determined in the perfusate fractions as a measure of neuropeptide production. Two successive contractile responses were observed: a rapid cholinergic contraction, followed by a long-lasting contraction due to local release of neuropeptides from C-fibre endings. Fenspiride (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) inhibited the nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) component of the contraction of the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus induced by EFS. Fenspiride significantly affected contractions induced by exogenously added substance P or [Nle10]-NKA(4-10) only at concentrations higher than 10(-3) M. In the guinea-pig perfused lung, fenspiride inhibited low pH- but not capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP. At higher concentrations (10(-4) M to 3x10(-4) M) fenspiride exhibited a significant inhibitory effect both on the cholinergic component of contractile response induced by EFS in the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus and on exogenously added acetylcholine. In conclusion, the result of this study suggests that fenspiride, in moderate concentrations, reduces the release of neuropeptides, including tachykinins, from sensory nerve endings at a prejunctional level. At higher concentrations, postjunctional actions on bronchial smooth muscle are also present.

  8. [Inhibitory effect of apatinib on HCT-116 cells and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Yin, Liang; Wang, Jin; Huang, Feng-Chang; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Xu, Ning; Wen, Zheng-Qi; Li, Wen-Liang; Dong, Jian

    2017-03-20

    To investigate the inhibitory effects of apatinib on colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells in vitro and the signaling pathways involved. The cytotoxicity of different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 µmol/L) of apatinib in HCT-116 cells was assessed by MTT assay, using capecitabine as the positive control. The apoptosis rate of apatinib-treated HCT-116 cells was detected using flow cytometry, and the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 were determined with quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. The effect of apatinib on the expressions of Akt, pAkt, Erk1/2 and pErk1/2 in HCT-116 cells was evaluated using Western blotting. Apatinib significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT-116 cells in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC 50 value of 1.335 µmol/L. Flow cytometric analysis showed that apatinib significantly increased the apoptotic rate of HCT-116 cells dose-dependently. Apatinib induced the expression of the pro-apoptotic genes Bax and caspase-3 at both the mRNA and protein levels while inhibited the expression of the anti- apoptotic gene Bcl-2. The expressions of p-Akt and p-Erk1/2 were decreased in HCT-116 cells after apatinib treatment, but the total protein levels did not undergo obvious changes. Apatinib inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of HCT-116 cells by suppressing the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt in the MAPK/Erk and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

  9. The Effect of Domestication on Inhibitory Control: Wolves and Dogs Compared

    PubMed Central

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory control i.e. blocking an impulsive or prepotent response in favour of a more appropriate alternative, has been suggested to play an important role in cooperative behaviour. Interestingly, while dogs and wolves show a similar social organization, they differ in their intraspecific cooperation tendencies in that wolves rely more heavily on group coordination in regard to hunting and pup-rearing compared to dogs. Hence, based on the ‘canine cooperation’ hypothesis wolves should show better inhibitory control than dogs. On the other hand, through the domestication process, dogs may have been selected for cooperative tendencies towards humans and/or a less reactive temperament, which may in turn have affected their inhibitory control abilities. Hence, based on the latter hypothesis, we would expect dogs to show a higher performance in tasks requiring inhibitory control. To test the predictive value of these alternative hypotheses, in the current study two tasks; the ‘cylinder task’ and the ‘detour task’, which are designed to assess inhibitory control, were used to evaluate the performance of identically raised pack dogs and wolves. Results from the cylinder task showed a significantly poorer performance in wolves than identically-raised pack dogs (and showed that pack-dogs performed similarly to pet dogs with different training experiences), however contrary results emerged in the detour task, with wolves showing a shorter latency to success and less perseverative behaviour at the fence. Results are discussed in relation to previous studies using these paradigms and in terms of the validity of these two methods in assessing inhibitory control. PMID:25714840

  10. The effect of domestication on inhibitory control: wolves and dogs compared.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory control i.e. blocking an impulsive or prepotent response in favour of a more appropriate alternative, has been suggested to play an important role in cooperative behaviour. Interestingly, while dogs and wolves show a similar social organization, they differ in their intraspecific cooperation tendencies in that wolves rely more heavily on group coordination in regard to hunting and pup-rearing compared to dogs. Hence, based on the 'canine cooperation' hypothesis wolves should show better inhibitory control than dogs. On the other hand, through the domestication process, dogs may have been selected for cooperative tendencies towards humans and/or a less reactive temperament, which may in turn have affected their inhibitory control abilities. Hence, based on the latter hypothesis, we would expect dogs to show a higher performance in tasks requiring inhibitory control. To test the predictive value of these alternative hypotheses, in the current study two tasks; the 'cylinder task' and the 'detour task', which are designed to assess inhibitory control, were used to evaluate the performance of identically raised pack dogs and wolves. Results from the cylinder task showed a significantly poorer performance in wolves than identically-raised pack dogs (and showed that pack-dogs performed similarly to pet dogs with different training experiences), however contrary results emerged in the detour task, with wolves showing a shorter latency to success and less perseverative behaviour at the fence. Results are discussed in relation to previous studies using these paradigms and in terms of the validity of these two methods in assessing inhibitory control.

  11. Sex-specific effect of the anabolic steroid, 17α-methyltestosterone, on inhibitory avoidance learning in periadolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Pratts, Keyla; Rosa-González, Dariana; Pérez-Acevedo, Nivia L.; Cintrón-López, Dahima; Barreto-Estrada, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has gained popularity among adolescents in the last decade. However, although it is known that exposure to AAS impairs cognition in adult animal models, the cognitive effects during adolescence remain undetermined. An inhibitory avoidance task (IAT) was used to assess the effect of AAS (17α-methyltestosterone; 17α-meT-7.5 mg/kg) in male and female periadolescent rats. A single injection of 17α-meT immediately before the footshock produced significant impairment of inhibitory avoidance learning in males but not females. Generalized anxiety, locomotion, and risk assessment behaviors (RAB) were not affected. Our results show that exposure to a single pharmacological dose of 17α-meT during periadolescence exerts sex-specific cognitive effects without affecting anxiety. Thus, disruption of the hormonal milieu during this early developmental period might have negative impact on learning and memory. PMID:23792034

  12. [Inhibitory effect of baicalein on the proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma cells and mechanism].

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhibin; Li, Chun; Chen, Zhiwei

    2015-03-01

    To explore the effect of baicalein on the proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma cells and its related mechanism. Osteosarcoma MG-63 cells that were cultured in vitro were respectively treated with 20 μL culture medium (control group), dehydrated alcohol (0 μmol/L baicalein group), 100 and 200 μmol/L baicalein solution for 48 hours. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay. The cell invasion ability was detected using Transwell(TM) invasion assay. The expression of ezrin mRNA was examined by real-time quantitative PCR. The expressions of ezrin protein and p-ezrin protein were measured using Western blotting. Apoptosis index (AI) was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The inhibitory rates of cell proliferation significantly increased in 100 and 200 μmol/L baicalein groups as compared with 0 μmol/L baicalein group. Moreover, that was higher in 200 μmol/L baicalein group than in 100 μmol/L baicalein group. In comparison with control and 0 μmol/L baicalein groups, the mean cell numbers of permeated membrane and levels of ezrin mRNA, ezrin protein and p-ezrin protein gradually decreased, but AI was gradually elevated with the increase of baicalein concentrations, whereas there was no significant difference in these indicators between 0 μmol/L baicalein group and control group. Baicalein can inhibit the proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. The mechanism may be associated with the inhibited expression and activity of ezrin protein and the promoted tumor cell apoptosis.

  13. Kinetic spectrophotometric method for trace determination of thiocyanate based on its inhibitory effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Radhey M.; Kumar, Basant; Asthana, Abhas

    2010-03-01

    A kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of thiocyanate, based on its inhibitory effect on silver(I) catalyzed substitution of cyanide ion, by phenylhydrazine in hexacyanoferrate(II) is described. Thiocyanate ions form strong complexes with silver(I) catalyst which is used as the basis for its determination at trace level. The progress of reaction was monitored, spectrophotometrically, at 488 nm ( λmax of [Fe(CN) 5PhNHNH 2] 3-, complex) under the optimum reaction conditions at: 2.5 × 10 -3 M [Fe(CN) 6] 4-, 1.0 × 10 -3 M [PhNHNH 2], 8.0 × 10 -7 M [Ag +], pH 2.8 ± 0.02, ionic strength ( μ) 0.02 M (KNO 3) and temperature 30 ± 0.1 °C. A linear relationship obtained between absorbance (measured at 488 nm at different times) and inhibitor concentration, under specified conditions, has been used for the determination of [thiocyanate] in the range of 0.8-8.0 × 10 -8 M with a detection limit of 2 × 10 -9 M. The standard deviation and percentage error have been calculated and reported with each datum. A most plausible mechanistic scheme has been proposed for the reaction. The values of equilibrium constants for complex formation between catalyst-inhibitor ( KCI), catalyst-substrate ( Ks) and Michaelis-Menten constant ( Km) have been computed from the kinetic data. The influence of possible interference by major cations and anions on the determination of thiocyanate and their limits has been investigated.

  14. Inhibitory effect of mitomycin C on proliferation of primary cultured fibroblasts from human airway granulation tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Min; Wang, Yu Ling; Pei, Ying Hua

    2013-01-01

    Airway granulation tissue and scar formation pose a challenge because of the high incidence of recurrence after treatment. As an emerging treatment modality, topical application of mitomycin C has potential value in delaying the recurrence of airway obstruction. Several animal and clinical studies have already proven its feasibility and efficacy. However, the ideal dosage has still not been determined. To establish a novel method for culturing primary fibroblasts isolated from human airway granulation tissue, and to investigate the dose-effect of mitomycin C on the fibroblast proliferation in vitro, so as to provide an experimental reference for clinical practitioners. Granulation tissues were collected during the routine bronchoscopy at our department. The primary fibroblasts were obtained by culturing the explanted tissues. The cells were treated with different concentrations of mitomycin C (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg/ml) for 5 min followed by additional 48-hour culture before an MTT assay was performed to measure cell viability. MTT assay showed that mitomycin C reduced cell viability at all tested concentrations. The inhibitory ratios were 10.26, 26.77, 32.88, 64.91 and 80.45% for cells treated with mitomycin C at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg/ml, respectively. Explant culture is a reliable method for culturing primary fibroblasts from human airway granulation tissue, and mitomycin C can inhibit proliferation of the fibroblasts in vitro. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Inhibitory effects of oral Actinomyces on the proliferation, virulence and biofilm formation of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yiqing; Wei, Changlei; Liu, Chuanxia; Li, Duo; Sun, Jun; Huang, Haiyun; Zhou, Hongmei

    2015-09-01

    The pathogenesis of Candida-associated stomatitis involves the dysfunction of flora antagonistic to Candida. Oral Actinomyces species play an important role in regulating the oral microecological balance. The objective of this study was to investigate the antagonism of three oral Actinomyces against Candida albicans. Suspensions, culture supernatants and bacterial lysates of Actinomyces viscosus, Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces odontolyticus were investigated for their actions upon C. albicans. In addition to a commercial strain, six clinical strains of C. albicans were also tested. The proliferation of C. albicans was assessed using a liquid co-cultivation assay. The adhesion, acid protease and extracellular phospholipase activity, hyphae growth, and biofilm formation of C. albicans were measured. The results showed that the suspensions, culture supernatants and cell lysates of 10(8) colony forming units/ml oral Actinomyces significantly inhibited the proliferation of C. albicans (all P<0.001). The culture supernatants exhibited significant antagonistic interactions in terms of adhesion (A. viscosus P<0.001, A. naeslundii P=0.016 and A. odontolyticus P=0.009), acid protease (A. viscosus P=0.035, A. naeslundii P=0.022, A. odontolyticus P<0.001) and phospholipase activities (A. viscosus P=0.011, A. naeslundii P=0.042, A. odontolyticus P=0.021) of Candida, as well as its hyphae growth (A. viscosus P=0.002, A. naeslundii P=0.008, A. odontolyticus P=0.006). Inhibition of C. albicans biofilm formation was also observed. This study provides preliminary evidence that oral Actinomyces have inhibitory effects on the proliferation, adhesion, metabolic enzyme activity, hyphae formation and biofilm development of C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibitory effect of silver diamine fluoride on dentine demineralisation and collagen degradation.

    PubMed

    Mei, May L; Ito, L; Cao, Y; Li, Q L; Lo, Edward C M; Chu, C H

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effects of 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on demineralised dentine. Human dentine blocks were demineralised and allocated to four groups: SF, F, S and W. The blocks in group SF received a topical application of 38% SDF solution (253,900ppm Ag, 44,800ppm F), group F received a 10% sodium fluoride solution (44,800ppm F), group S received a 42% silver nitrate solution (253,900ppm Ag) and group W received deionised water (control). They were subjected to pH cycling using demineralisation solution (pH 5) and remineralisation solution (pH 7) for 8 days. The surface morphology, crystal characteristics, lesion depth and collagen matrix degradation of the specimens were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-CT testing and spectrophotometry with a hydroxyproline assay. The surface morphology under SEM showed evident demineralisation with exposed collagen in groups S and W, but not in group SF. Clusters of granular spherical grains were observed in the cross-sections of specimens in groups SF and F. XRD revealed precipitates of silver chloride in groups SF and S. The mean lesion depths (±SD) of groups SF, F, S and W were 182 ± 32μm, 204 ± 26μm, 259 ± 42μm and 265 ± 40μm, respectively (SDF, F

  17. No evidence for true training and transfer effects after inhibitory control training in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Enge, Sören; Behnke, Alexander; Fleischhauer, Monika; Küttler, Lena; Kliegel, Matthias; Strobel, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies reported that training of working memory may improve performance in the trained function and beyond. Other executive functions, however, have been rarely or not yet systematically examined. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of inhibitory control (IC) training to produce true training-related function improvements in a sample of 122 healthy adults using a randomized, double-blind pretest/posttest/follow-up design. Two groups performed either adaptive (training group) or nonadaptive (active control) versions of go/no-go and stop-signal tasks for 3 weeks. Training gains as well as near-transfer to an untrained Stroop task and far-transfer to psychometric fluid intelligence were explored. Although the adaptive group could substantially improve overall IC task performance after training, no differences to the active control group occurred, neither at posttest nor at follow-up testing. A large decrease in response latency from pre- to posttest (and from pretest to 4 months' follow-up testing) was found when the training group was compared to the passive control group, which, however, does not sufficiently control for possible confounds. Thus, no conclusive evidence was found that this performance increase mirrors a true increase in IC function. The fact that training improvement was mainly related to response latency may indicate that individuals were more focused on performance gains in the prepotent go trials but less on the stop trials to meet the requirements of the tasks as well as possible. The challenges for response inhibition training studies are extensively discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Timing of the inhibitory effect of fruit on return bloom of 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fuentes, Amparo; Mesejo, Carlos; Reig, Carmina; Agustí, Manuel

    2010-08-30

    In Citrus the inhibitory effect of fruit on flower formation is the main cause of alternate bearing. Although there are some studies reporting the effect on flowering of the time of fruit removal in a well-defined stage of fruit development, few have investigated the effect throughout the entire fruit growth stage from early fruitlet growth to fruit maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the phenological fruit developmental stage at which the fruit begins its inhibitory effect on flowering in sweet orange by manual removal of fruits, and the role of carbohydrates and nitrogen in the process. Fruit exerted its inhibitory effect from the time it was close to reaching its maximum weight, namely 90% of its final size (November) in the present experiments, to bud sprouting (April). The reduction in flowering paralleled the reduction in bud sprouting. This reduction was due to a decrease in the number of generative sprouted buds, whereas mixed-typed shoots were largely independent of the time of fruit removal, and vegetative shoots increased in frequency. The number of leaves and/or flowers per sprouted shoot was not significantly modified by fruit load. In 'Valencia' sweet orange, fruit inhibits flowering from the time it completes its growth. Neither soluble sugar content nor starch accumulation in leaves due to fruit removal was related to flowering intensity, but some kind of imbalance in nitrogen metabolism was observed in trees tending to flower scarcely. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The Effect of Placement Instability on Adopted Children's Inhibitory Control Abilities and Oppositional Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Erin E.; Dozier, Mary; Ackerman, John; Sepulveda-Kozakowski, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed relations among placement instability, inhibitory control, and caregiver-rated child behavior. The sample included 33 adopted children who had experienced placement instability, 42 adopted children who had experienced 1 stable placement, and 27 children never placed in foster care. Five- and 6-year-old children completed the…

  20. The inhibitory effects of fluoroquinolones on L-carnitine transport in placental cell line BeWo.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takeshi; Yasuda, Satoru; Osaka, Yuki; Asari, Masaru; Kobayashi, Masaki; Itagaki, Shirou; Iseki, Ken

    2008-03-03

    L-Carnitine plays an important role in lipid metabolism by facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial inner membrane followed by fatty acid beta-oxidation. It is known that members of the OCTN family play an important role in L-carnitine transport in the placenta. Investigation of drug-drug or drug-nutrient interaction in the placenta is important for establishment of safety drug medication during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fluoroquinolones, inhibitors of OCTN2, on L-carnitine transport in the placenta which is known to have a high expression level of OCTN2. We investigated the inhibitory effect of five fluoroquinolones, ciprofloxacin (CPFX), gatifloxacin (GFLX), ofloxacin (OFLX), levofloxacin (LVFX) and grepafloxacin (GPFX), on L-carnitine transport mediated by OCTN2 in placental cell line BeWo cells. We found that all of the fluoroquinolones inhibited L-carnitine transport, GPFX being the strongest inhibitor. We also found that the inhibitory effects of LVFX and GPFX depended on their existence ratio of zwitterionic forms as, we reported previously. Furthermore, we elucidated the LVFX transport mechanism in BeWo cells. LVFX was transported actively by transporters. However, we found that LVFX transport was Na+-independent and l-carnitine had no inhibitory effect on LVFX transport, suggesting that LVFX acts as inhibitor of OCTN2, not as a substrate for OCTN2.

  1. The neurite growth inhibitory effects of soluble TNFα on developing sympathetic neurons are dependent on developmental age.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Aoife M; Collins, Louise M; Wyatt, Sean L; Gutierrez, Humberto; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2014-01-01

    During development, the growth of neural processes is regulated by an array of cellular and molecular mechanisms which influence growth rate, direction and branching. Recently, many members of the TNF superfamily have been shown to be key regulators of neurite growth during development. The founder member of this family, TNFα can both promote and inhibit neurite growth depending on the cellular context. Specifically, transmembrane TNFα promotes neurite growth, while soluble TNFα inhibits it. While the growth promoting effects of TNFα are restricted to a defined developmental window of early postnatal development, whether the growth inhibitory effects of soluble TNFα occur throughout development is unknown. In this study we used the extensively studied, well characterised neurons of the superior cervical ganglion to show that the growth inhibitory effects of soluble TNFα are restricted to a specific period of late embryonic and early postnatal development. Furthermore, we show that this growth inhibitory effect of soluble TNFα requires NF-κB signalling at all developmental stages at which soluble TNFα inhibits neurite growth. These findings raise the possibility that increases in the amount of soluble TNFα in vivo, for example as a result of maternal inflammation, could negatively affect neurite growth in developing neurons at specific stages of development. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds of rice straw formed by saccharification during ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiahui; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Li, Yuhao; Ma, Xiubing; Cui, Shouqing; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Hu, Jiajun; Gao, Min-Tian

    2017-11-01

    In this study, it was found that the type of phenolic acids derived from rice straw was the major factor affecting ethanol fermentation by Pichia stipitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of phenolic acids on ethanol fermentation with rice straw. Different cellulases produced different ratios of free phenolic acids to soluble conjugated phenolic acids, resulting in different fermentation efficiencies. Free phenolic acids exhibited much higher inhibitory effect than conjugated phenolic acids. The flow cytometry results indicated that the damage to cell membranes was the primary mechanism of inhibition of ethanol fermentation by phenolic acids. The removal of free phenolic acids from the hydrolysates increased ethanol productivity by 2.0-fold, indicating that the free phenolic acids would be the major inhibitors formed during saccharification. The integrated process for ethanol and phenolic acids may constitute a new strategy for the production of low-cost ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory effect of acetylshikonin on human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yun; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Li-Ming

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of acetylshikonin on human gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 and its mechanism. METHODS: MTT assay was used to assess the inhibitory effect of acetylshikonin on proliferation of SGC-7901 cells. Apoptosis-inducing effect was determined by flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling with Hoechst staining. Expression of mRNA and protein in Bcl-2 and Bax was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Antitumor effect of acetylshikonin on a mouse SGC-7901 model was also determined. RESULTS: Forty-eight hours after treatment with acetylshikonin, MTT assay showed that acetylshikonin inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of acetylshikonin to SGC-7901 cells was 0.428 ± 0.07 mg/L. Cell shrinkage, nuclear pyknosis and chromatin condensation, which are the characteristics of cell apoptosis, were observed in treated SGC-7901 cells and the percentage of apoptosis increased in a dose-dependent manner. Acetylshikonin down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulated the expression of Bax in the treated SGC-7901 cells compared with the controls. The experiment in vivo showed that 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg of acetylshikonin significantly inhibited the growth of tumor in the mouse SGC-7901 model, with an inhibitory rate of 25.00%-55.76%. CONCLUSION: Acetylshikonin inhibits the growth of SGC-7901 cells in vitro and in vivo by inducing cell apoptosis. PMID:19370777

  4. Theophylline prevents the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on glucose-induced insulin secretion in man.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, D; Cozzolino, D; Salvatore, T; Giunta, R; Torella, R

    1988-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the mechanism by which prostaglandins of the E series inhibit glucose-induced insulin secretion in man. Acute insulin response (mean change 3-10 min) to iv glucose (0.33 g/kg) was decreased by 40% during the infusion of prostaglandin E2 (10 micrograms/min) and glucose disappearance rates were reduced (P less than 0.05). Insulin response to arginine (5 g iv) and tolbutamide (1 g iv) were not affected by the same rate of prostaglandin E2 infusion. The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on glucose-induced insulin secretion was prevented by theophylline (100 mg as a loading dose followed by a 5 mg/min infusion), a drug that increases the intracellular cAMP concentrations by inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity. Our data suggest the involvement of the adenylate cyclase system in the inhibitory action of prostaglandin E2 on glucose-induced insulin secretion in man.

  5. Inhibitory effects of Turkish folk remedies on inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Yeşilada, E; Ustün, O; Sezik, E; Takaishi, Y; Ono, Y; Honda, G

    1997-09-01

    In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 55 extracts or fractions obtained from 10 plant species on interleukin-1 (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) biosynthesis were studied. The following plant materials from Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases which are thought to be inflammatory in nature e.g. rheumatism, fever, infections, edemas or related inflammatory diseases were selected as the subject of this study: Cistus laurifolius leaves, Clematis flammna flowering herbs, Crataegus orientalis roots, Daphne oleoides ssp. oleoides whole plant, Ecbalium elaterium roots, Rosa canina roots, Rubus discolor roots, Rubus hirtus roots, Sambucus ebulus flowers and leaves, Sambucus nigra flowers and leaves. All plants showed inhibitory activity against at least one of these models in various percentages depending upon the concentration, thus supporting the folkloric utilization. Daphne oleoides was found to be the most active plant against the test models.

  6. Diabetes attenuates the inhibitory effects of endomorphin-2, but not endomorphin-1 on gastrointestinal transit in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-lin; Diao, Yu-xiang; Xiang, Qiong; Ren, Yu-kun; Gu, Ning

    2014-09-05

    Diabetes affects the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus to the anus. In the present study, the charcoal meal test was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of endomorphins (EMs) on gastrointestinal transit in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. Significantly delayed gastrointestinal transit was found in both 4 and 8 weeks alloxan-induced diabetes compared to non-diabetes. Moreover, i.c.v. EM-1 and EM-2 dose-dependently delayed gastrointestinal transit in non-diabetes and diabetes. The EM-1-induced inhibitory effects of gastrointestinal transit in 4 weeks diabetes were qualitatively similar to those of non-diabetes. However, at higher doses, the EM-1-induced effects in 8 weeks diabetes were largely enhanced. Different to EM-1, the EM-2-induced inhibition of gastrointestinal transit in diabetic mice was significantly attenuated compared to non-diabetic mice. Moreover, these effects were further decreased in 8 weeks diabetes. The delayed gastrointestinal transit effects caused by EM-1 may be primarily mediated by μ2-opioid receptor in both non-diabetes and 4 weeks diabetes. Interestingly, in 8 weeks diabetes, these effects were mediated by μ2- and δ-receptors. However, the inhibitory effects of EM-2 were mediated by μ1-opioid receptor, which exerted a reduced function in diabetes. Also, poor blood glucose control might result in the attenuated effects of EM-2. Our present results demonstrated that diabetes attenuates the inhibitory effects of EM-2, but not EM-1 on gastrointestinal transit in mice. The different effects of EM-1 and EM-2 on gastrointestinal transit in diabetes may be due to changes of opioid receptor subtypes and their functional responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory effects of constituents of Morinda citrifolia seeds on elastase and tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Fukuhama, Akiko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Fujita, Tadashi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    A 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) from seeds of Morinda citrifolia ("noni" seeds) showed more potent in vitro inhibition of elastase and tyrosinase, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than extracts of M. citrifolia leaves or flesh. Activity-guided fractionation of MCS-ext using in vitro assays led to the isolation of ursolic acid as an active constituent of elastase inhibitory activity. 3,3'-Bisdemethylpinoresinol, americanin A, and quercetin were isolated as active constituents having both tyrosinase inhibitory and radical scavenging activities. Americanin A and quercetin also showed superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. These active compounds were isolated from noni seeds for the first time.

  8. Empirical prediction and validation of antibacterial inhibitory effects of various plant essential oils on common pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akdemir Evrendilek, Gulsun

    2015-06-02

    In this study, fractional compound composition, antioxidant capacity, and phenolic substance content of 14 plant essential oils-anise (Pimpinella anisum), bay leaves (Laurus nobilis), cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Eugenia caryophyllata), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), hop (Humulus lupulus), Istanbul oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum), Izmir oregano (Origanum onites), mint (Mentha piperita), myrtus (Myrtus communis), orange peel (Citrus sinensis), sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymbra spicata), and Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum)--were related to inhibition of 10 bacteria through multiple linear or non-linear (M(N)LR) models-four Gram-positive bacteria of Listeria innocua, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis, and six Gram-negative bacteria of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella oxytoca. A total of 65 compounds with different antioxidant capacity, phenolic substance content and antibacterial properties were detected with 14 plant essential oils. The best-fit M(N)LR models indicated that relative to anise essential oil, the essential oils of oreganos, cinnamon, and thyme had consistently high inhibitory effects, while orange peel essential oil had consistently a low inhibitory effect. Regression analysis indicated that beta-bisabolene (Turkish and Istanbul oreganos), and terpinolene (thyme) were found to be the most inhibitory compounds regardless of the bacteria type tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical force antagonizes the inhibitory effects of RecX on RecA filament formation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Le, Shimin; Chen, Hu; Zhang, Xinghua; Chen, Jin; Patil, K. Neelakanteshwar; Muniyappa, Kalappa; Yan, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Efficient bacterial recombinational DNA repair involves rapid cycles of RecA filament assembly and disassembly. The RecX protein plays a crucial inhibitory role in RecA filament formation and stability. As the broken ends of DNA are tethered during homologous search, RecA filaments assembled at the ends are likely subject to force. In this work, we investigated the interplay between RecX and force on RecA filament formation and stability. Using magnetic tweezers, at single molecular level, we found that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) RecX could catalyze stepwise de-polymerization of preformed MtRecA filament in the presence of ATP hydrolysis at low forces (<7 pN). However, applying larger forces antagonized the inhibitory effects of MtRecX, and a partially de-polymerized MtRecA filament could re-polymerize in the presence of MtRecX, which cannot be explained by previous models. Theoretical analysis of force-dependent conformational free energies of naked ssDNA and RecA nucleoprotein filament suggests that mechanical force stabilizes RecA filament, which provides a possible mechanism for the observation. As the antagonizing effect of force on the inhibitory function of RecX takes place in a physiological range; these findings broadly suggest a potential mechanosensitive regulation during homologous recombination. PMID:25294832

  10. Inhibitory effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor etoricoxib on human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3).

    PubMed

    Honjo, Hiroaki; Uwai, Yuichi; Iwamoto, Kikuo

    2011-04-01

    It is well known that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) delay the elimination of methotrexate. One of the mechanisms is thought to be inhibition of methotrexate uptake via human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3, SLC22A8) in the renal proximal tubule by NSAIDs. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor etoricoxib on hOAT3 by uptake experiments using Xenopus laevis oocytes. The injection of hOAT3 cRNA stimulated the uptake of methotrexate into the oocytes, and its transport was inhibited by etoricoxib. Etoricoxib inhibited estrone sulfate uptake by hOAT3 dose dependently, and the 50% inhibitory concentration was estimated to be 9.8 µM. Eadie-Hofstee plot analysis showed that etoricoxib inhibited hOAT3 in a competitive manner. These findings show that etoricoxib has inhibitory effect on hOAT3, and that the potential is comparable to that of traditional NSAIDs. ©2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  11. Inhibitory effect of isoprenoid-substituted flavonoids isolated from Artocarpus heterophyllus on melanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2006-07-01

    Isoprenoid-substituted flavonoids were isolated from the wood of Artocarpus heterophyllus by means of activity-guided fractionation. Artocarpin (1), cudraflavone C (2), 6-prenylapigenin (3), kuwanon C (4), norartocarpin (5) and albanin A (6) inhibited melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells without inhibiting tyrosinase. A structure-activity investigation indicated that the presence of the isoprenoid-substituted moiety enhanced the inhibitory activity on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells.

  12. Inhibitory effect of flavonoids from citrus plants on Epstein-Barr virus activation and two-stage carcinogenesis of skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Y; Takemura, Y; Ju-ichi, M; Ito, C; Furukawa, H; Kawaii, S; Yano, M; Mou, X Y; Takayasu, J; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H

    2000-06-01

    To search for possible anti-tumor promoters, thirteen flavones (1-13) obtained from the peel of Citrus plants were examined for their inhibitory effects on the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation by a short-term in vitro assay. Of these flavones, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HPT) (13) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the EBV-EA activation induced by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Further, compound 13 exhibited remarkable inhibitory effects on mouse skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test.

  13. Cholinesterase-inhibitory effect and in silico analysis of alkaloids from bulbs of Hieronymiella species.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Javier E; Garro, Adriana; Pigni, Natalia B; Agüero, María Belén; Roitman, German; Slanis, Alberto; Enriz, Ricardo D; Feresin, Gabriela E; Bastida, Jaume; Tapia, Alejandro

    2018-01-15

    In Argentina, the Amaryllidaceae family (59 species) comprises a wide variety of genera, only a few species have been investigated as a potential source of cholinesterases inhibitors to treat Alzheimer disease (AD). To study the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of the basic dichloromethane extracts (E) from Hieronymiella aurea, H. caletensis, H. clidanthoides, H. marginata, and H. speciosa species, as well as the isolated compounds from these plant extracts. AChE and BChE inhibitory activities were evaluated with the Ellman's spectrophotometric method. The alkaloids composition from the E was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The E were successively chromatographed on a silica gel column and permeated on Sephadex LH-20 column to afford the main alkaloids identified by means of spectroscopic data. Additionally, an in silico study was carried out. Nine known alkaloids were isolated from the E of five Hieronymiella species. Galanthamine was identified in all the species by GC-MS standing out H. caletensis with a relative abundance of 9.79% of the total ion current. Strong AChE (IC 50  = 1.84 - 15.40 µg/ml) and moderate BChE (IC50 = 23.74 - 136.40 µg/ml) inhibitory activities were displayed by the extracts. Among the isolated alkaloids, only sanguinine and chlidanthine (galanthamine-type alkaloids) demonstrated inhibitory activity toward both enzymes. The QTAIM study suggests that sanguinine has the strongest affinity towards AChE, attributed to an additional interaction with Ser200 as well as stronger molecular interactions Glu199 and His440.These results allowed us to differentiate the molecular behavior in the active site among alkaloids possessing different in vitro inhibitory activities. Hieronymiella species growing in Argentina represent a rich and widespread source of galanthamine and others AChE and BChE inhibitors alkaloids. Additionally, the new trend towards the use of

  14. Tactile Ranschburg effects: facilitation and inhibitory repetition effects analogous to verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Roe, Daisy; Miles, Christopher; Johnson, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    The present paper examines the effect of within-sequence item repetitions in tactile order memory. Employing an immediate serial recall procedure, participants reconstructed a six-item sequence tapped upon their fingers by moving those fingers in the order of original stimulation. In Experiment 1a, within-sequence repetition of an item separated by two-intervening items resulted in a significant reduction in recall accuracy for that repeated item (i.e., the Ranschburg effect). In Experiment 1b, within-sequence repetition of an adjacent item resulted in significant recall facilitation for that repeated item. These effects mirror those reported for verbal stimuli (e.g., Henson, 1998a . Item repetition in short-term memory: Ranschburg repeated. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24(5), 1162-1181. doi:doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.24.5.1162). These data are the first to demonstrate the Ranschburg effect with non-verbal stimuli and suggest further cross-modal similarities in order memory.

  15. The inhibitory effect of disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs on tumor growth: Different administration routes.

    PubMed

    Fasehee, Hamidreza; Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Ghaffari, Seyed Hamidollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2016-06-01

    The strong anticancer activity of disulfiram is hindered by its rapid degradation in blood system. A novel folate-receptor-targeted poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticle (NP) is developed for encapsulation and delivery of disulfiram into breast cancer tumor using passive (EPR effect) and active (folate receptor) targeting. The anticancer activity of disulfiram and its effect on caspase-3 activity and cell cycle are studied. The administration of encapsulated PLGA NPs using intra-peritoneal, intravenous and intra-tumor routes is investigated using animal model. Disulfiram shows strong cytotoxicity against MCF7 cell line. The activity of caspase-3 inhibited with disulfiram via dose dependent manner while the drug causes cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 and S phase time-dependently. The encapsulated disulfiram shows higher activity in apoptosis induction as compared to free drug. In nontoxic dose of encapsulated disulfiram, the highest and lowest efficacy of NPs in tumor growth inhibition is observed for intravenous injection and intraperitoneal injection. It is suggested that administration of disulfiram by targeted PLGA nanoparticles using intravenous injection would present an alternative therapeutic approach for solid tumor treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Anodal and Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on DLPFC on Modulation of Inhibitory Control in ADHD.

    PubMed

    Soltaninejad, Zahra; Nejati, Vahid; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2015-12-20

    The purpose of this study was to improve the inhibitory control functions through transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Twenty high school students with ADHD symptoms participated in this single-blinded, crossover, sham-controlled study. All the participants were tested during the application of Stroop and Go/No-Go tasks that is used to measure inhibitory control, using 1.5 mA of tDCS for 15 min over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Anodal stimulation on left DLPFC had no effect on interference inhibition during the Stroop task and increased the proportion of correct responses in the "Go stage" of the Go/No-Go test compared with sham condition. Cathodal stimulation on the left DLPFC increased the inhibition accuracy in the inhibition stage during Go/No-Go task in comparison with sham. tDCS over the left DLPFC of adolescents who suffer from ADHD symptoms can improve inhibitory control in prepotent response inhibition. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Growth Inhibitory Effect of Palatine Tonsil-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun-Sung; Lee, Jin-Choon; Lee, Yoon Se; Wang, Soo-Geun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in the development and growth of tumor cells. However, the effect of human MSCs on the growth of human tumors is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to confirm the growth effect of palatine tonsil-derived MSCs (TD-MSCs) on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and to elucidate the mechanism of their action. Methods TD-MSCs were isolated from patient with chronic tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy. Two human HNSCC cell lines (PNUH-12 and SNU-899) were studied and cocultured with isolated palatine tonsil-derived MSC. The growth inhibitory effect of MSCs on HNSCC cell lines was tested through methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The apoptosis induction effect of MSCs on cell lines was assessed with flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Results Palatine tonsil-derived MSCs exhibited a growth inhibitory effect on both cell lines. Cell cycle analysis showed an accumulation of tumor cells predominantly in G0/G1 phase with an increase in concentration of TD-MSCs, which was confirmed by increased mRNA expression of cell cycle negative regulator p21. Apoptosis of tumor cells increased significantly as concentration of cocultured TD-MSCs increased. Additionally, mRNA expression of caspase 3 was upregulated with increased concentration of TD-MSCs. Conclusion TD-MSCs have a potential growth inhibitory effect on HNSCC cell lines in vitro by inducing apoptotic cell death and G1 phase arrest of cell lines. PMID:22737289

  18. Inhibitory effects of acidic pH and confounding effects of moisture content on methane biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Barzgar, Sonya; Hettiaratchi, Joseph Patrick; Pearse, Lauretta; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-12-01

    This study focussed on evaluating the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) on biological oxidation of waste methane (CH 4 ) gas in compost biofilters, Batch experiments were conducted to determine the dependency of maximum methane oxidation rate (V max ) on two main factors; pH and moisture content, as well as their interaction effects. The maximum V max was observed at a pH of 7.2 with decreasing V max values observed with decreasing pH, irrespective of moisture content. Flow-through columns operated at a pH of 4.5 oxidized CH 4 at a flux rate of 53g/m 2 /d compared to 146g/m 2 /d in columns operated at neutral pH. No oxidation activity was observed for columns operated at pH 2.5, and DNA sequencing analysis of samples led to the conclusion that highly acidic conditions were responsible for inhibiting the ability of methanotrophs to oxidize CH 4 . Biofilter columns operated at pH 2.5 contained only 2% methanotrophs (type I) out of the total microbial population, compared to 55% in columns operated at pH 7.5. Overall, changes in the population of methanotrophs with acidification within the biofilters compromised its capacity to oxidize CH 4 which demonstrated that a compost biofilter could not operate efficiently in the presence of high levels of H 2 S. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Triterpenoid saponins from Polaskia chichipe Backbg. and their inhibitory or promotional effects on the melanogenesis of B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Koji; Takahashi, Kunio; Koyama, Kiyotaka; Kinoshita, Kaoru

    2017-10-01

    Five new oleanane-type saponins 1-5 together with a known saponin 6 and a steroidal glycoside 7 were isolated from Polaskia chichipe Backbg., and their structures were determined from their 1D and 2D NMR and HRFABMS spectral data. The six isolated saponins 1-6 were tested for their effects on the melanogenesis of B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. Compound 1 exerted an inhibitory effect at 100 μM whereas compound 3 promoted melanogenesis at the same concentration, even though these two compounds contain the same aglycon structure. The dose-dependent activities of compounds 1 and 3 on melanin synthesis were investigated.

  20. The development of inhibitory control in preschool children: effects of "executive skills" training.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, S M; Livesey, D J

    2000-03-01

    As one of several processes involved in the executive functioning of the cognitive system, inhibitory control plays a significant role in determining how various mental processes work together in the successful performance of a task. Studies of response inhibition have shown that although 3-year-old children have the cognitive capacity to learn the rules required for response control, indicated by the correct verbal response, developmental constraints prevent them from withholding the correct response (Bell & Livesey, 1985; Livesey & Morgan, 1991). Some argue that these abulic dissociations are relative to children's ability to reflect on the rules required for response control (Zelazo, Reznick, & Pinon, 1995). The current study showed that repeated exposure to tasks facilitating the acquisition of increasingly complex rule structures could improve inhibitory control (as measured by a go/no-go discrimination learning task), even in children aged 3 years. These tasks included a variant of Diamond and Boyer's (1989) modified version of the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and a simplification of the change paradigm (Logan & Burkell, 1986). It is argued that experience with these tasks increased the acquisition of complex rules by placing demands on executive processes. This includes response control and other executive functions, such as representational flexibility, the ability to maintain information in working memory, the selective control of attention, and proficiency at error correction. The role of experiential variables in the development of inhibitory control is discussed in terms of the interaction between neural development and appropriate executive task experience in the early years. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Effects of reward and punishment on brain activations associated with inhibitory control in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Luijten, Maartje; O'Connor, David A; Rossiter, Sarah; Franken, Ingmar H A; Hester, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Susceptibility to use of addictive substances may result, in part, from a greater preference for an immediate small reward relative to a larger delayed reward or relative insensitivity to punishment. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined the neural basis of inhibiting an immediately rewarding stimulus to obtain a larger delayed reward in smokers. We also investigated whether punishment could modulate inhibitory control. The Monetary Incentive Go/NoGo (MI-Go/NoGo) task was administered that provided three types of reward outcomes contingent upon inhibitory control performance over rewarding stimuli: inhibition failure was either followed by no monetary reward (neutral condition), a small monetary reward with immediate feedback (reward condition) or immediate monetary punishment (punishment condition). In the reward and punishment conditions, successful inhibitory control resulted in larger delayed rewards. Community sample of smokers in the Melbourne (Australia) area. Nineteen smokers were compared with 17 demographically matched non-smoking controls. Accuracy, reaction times and brain activation associated with the MI-Go/NoGo task. Smokers showed hyperactivation in the right insula (P < 0.01), inferior and middle frontal gyrus (P < 0.01), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (P = 0.001) and inferior parietal lobe (P < 0.01) both during inhibition of an immediately rewarding stimulus to obtain a larger delayed reward, and during inhibition of neutral stimuli. Group differences in brain activity were not significant in the punishment condition in the right insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, most probably as a result of increased activation in non-smoking controls. Compared with non-smokers, smokers showed increased neural activation when resisting immediately rewarding stimuli and may be less sensitive to punishment as a strategy to increase control over rewarding stimuli. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Eudesmanolides from Taraxacum mongolicum and their inhibitory effects on the production of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hee; Choo, Soo-Jin; Ryoo, In-Ja; Ahn, Jong-Seok; Yoo, Ick-Dong

    2011-01-01

    A new eudesmanolide, 1β,3β-dihydroxy-eudesman-11(13)-en-6α,12-olide (1) was isolated and identified from Taraxacum mongolicum, together with two known compounds, 1β,3β-dihydroxyeudesman-6α,12-olide (2) and loliolide (3). The structure of 1 was established by analysis of its physical and spectroscopic data. 1 was found to have an inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production with an IC(50) of 38.9 μM in activated RAW 264.7 cells.

  3. Potent inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the acid production and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of Streptococcus mutans GS5 in the presence of sucrose.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Daijo; Ogawa, Takaaki; Miyake, Minoru; Hasui, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Izumori, Ken; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    We examined and compared the inhibitory effects of D-tagatose on the growth, acid production, and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5, a bacterial strain of Streptococcus mutans, with those of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose and L-tagatose. GS5 was cultured for 12h in a medium containing 10% (w/v) of xylitol, D-psicose, L-psicose, D-tagatose or L-tagatose, and the inhibitory effect of GS5 growth was assessed. Each sugar showed different inhibitory effects on GS5. Both D-tagatose and xylitol significantly inhibited the acid production and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of GS5 in the presence of 1% (w/v) sucrose. However, the inhibitory effect of acid production by D-tagatose was significantly stronger than that of xylitol in presence of sucrose.

  4. Inhibitory effect of 2‑mercaptoethane sulfonate on the formation of Escherichia coli biofilms in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; He, Nianhai; Yu, Jialin; Li, Luquan; Sun, Fengjun; Hu, Ying; Deng, Rui; Zhong, Shiming; Shen, Leilei

    2015-10-01

    The biofilms (BF) formed by Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an important cause of chronic and recurrent infections due to its capacity to persist on medical surfaces and indwelling devices, demonstrating the importance of inhibiting the formation of E. coli BF and reducing BF infection. Although 2‑mercaptoethane sulfonate (MESNA) exhibits a marked mucolytic effect clinically, the effect of MESNA on the inhibition of E. coli BF formation remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether MESNA inhibits the formation of E. coli BF in vitro. The minimum inhibitory concentration of MESNA on E. coli was determined to be 10 mg/ml. Subsequently, the effect of MESNA on BF early adhesion, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and extracellular protein were detected. The effect of a subinhibitory concentration of MESNA on BF formation was evaluated, and the inhibitory potency of MESNA against matured BF was assayed. The results revealed that MESNA inhibited early stage adhesion and formation of the E. coli BF, destroyed the mature BF membrane and reduced the EPS and extracellular proteins levels of the BF. In addition, the present study investigated the effects of MESNA on the expression of EPS‑ and adhesion protein‑associated genes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, which demonstrated that MESNA effectively inhibited the expression of these genes. These results suggested that MESNA possesses anti‑BF formation capability on E. coli in vitro and may be used as a potential reagent for the clinical treatment of E. coli BF‑associated infections.

  5. Papain-like protease (PLpro) inhibitory effects of cinnamic amides from Tribulus terrestris fruits.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeong Hun; Kim, Dae Wook; Curtis-Long, Marcus John; Yuk, Heung Joo; Wang, Yan; Zhuang, Ningning; Lee, Kon Ho; Jeon, Kwon Seok; Park, Ki Hun

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris fruits are well known for their usage in pharmaceutical preparations and food supplements. The methanol extract of T. terrestris fruits showed potent inhibition against the papain-like protease (PLpro), an essential proteolylic enzyme for protection to pathogenic virus and bacteria. Subsequent bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to six cinnamic amides (1-6) and ferulic acid (7). Compound 6 emerged as new compound possessing the very rare carbinolamide motif. These compounds (1-7) were evaluated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) PLpro inhibitory activity to identify their potencies and kinetic behavior. Compounds (1-6) displayed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range 15.8-70.1 µM. The new cinnamic amide 6 was found to be most potent inhibitor with an IC50 of 15.8 µM. In kinetic studies, all inhibitors exhibited mixed type inhibition. Furthermore, the most active PLpro inhibitors (1-6) were proven to be present in the native fruits in high quantities by HPLC chromatogram and liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS).

  6. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos; Allen, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  7. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds. PMID:26078966

  8. Method for Bacterial Growth and Ammonia Production and Effect of Inhibitory Substances in Disposable Absorbent Hygiene Products.

    PubMed

    Forsgren-Brusk, Ulla; Yhlen, Birgitta; Blomqvist, Marie; Larsson, Peter

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pragmatic laboratory method to provide a technique for developing incontinence products better able to reduce malodor when used in the clinical setting. Bacterial growth and bacterially formed ammonia in disposable absorbent incontinence products was measured by adding synthetic urine inoculated with bacteria to test samples cut from the crotch area of the product. The inhibitory effect's of low pH (4.5 and 4.9) and 3 antimicrobial substances-chlorhexidine, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), and thymol-at 2 concentrations each, were studied. From the initial inocula of 3.3 log colony-forming units per milliliter (cfu/mL) at baseline, the bacterial growth of the references increased to 5.0 to 6.0 log cfu/mL at 6 hours for Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Enterococcus faecalis. At 12 hours there was a further increase to 7.0 to 8.9 log cfu/mL. Adjusting the pH of the superabsorbent in the incontinence product from 6.0 to pH 4.5 and pH 4.9 significantly (P < .05) inhibited the bacterial growth rates, in most cases, both at 6 and 12 hours. The effect was most pronounced at pH 4.5. Chlorhexidine had significant (P < .05) inhibitory effect on E. coli and E. faecalis, and at 12 hours also on P. mirabilis. For PHMB and thymol the results varied. At 6 hours, the ammonia concentration in the references (pH 6.0) was 200 to 300 ppm and it was 1500 to 1600 ppm at 8 hours. At pH 4.5, no or little ammonia production was measured at 6 and 8 hours. At pH 4.9, there was a significant reduction (P < .01). Chlorhexidine and PHMB exerted a significant (P < .01 or P < .001) inhibitory effect on ammonia production at both concentrations and at 6 and 8 hours. Thymol 0.003% and 0.03% showed inhibitory effect at both 6 hours (P < .01 or P < .001) and at 8 hours (P < .05 or P < .001). The method described in this study can be used to compare the ability of various disposable absorbent products to inhibit bacterial growth and ammonia

  9. Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Dune Grassland: Neutral Effect of Water Supply and Inhibitory Effect of Nitrogen Addition.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulin; Ning, Zhiying; Cui, Duo; Mao, Wei; Bi, Jingdong; Zhao, Xueyong

    2016-01-01

    The decomposition of plant material in arid ecosystems is considered to be substantially controlled by water and N availability. The responses of litter decomposition to external N and water, however, remain controversial, and the interactive effects of supplementary N and water also have been largely unexamined. A 3.5-year field experiment with supplementary nitrogen and water was conducted to assess the effects of N and water addition on mass loss and nitrogen release in leaves and fine roots of three dominant plant species (i.e., Artemisia halondendron, Setaria viridis, and Phragmites australis) with contrasting substrate chemistry (e.g. N concentration, lignin content in this study) in a desertified dune grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. The treatments included N addition, water addition, combination of N and water, and an untreated control. The decomposition rate in both leaves and roots was related to the initial litter N and lignin concentrations of the three species. However, litter quality did not explain the slower mass loss in roots than in leaves in the present study, and thus warrant further research. Nitrogen addition, either alone or in combination with water, significantly inhibited dry mass loss and N release in the leaves and roots of the three species, whereas water input had little effect on the decomposition of leaf litter and fine roots, suggesting that there was no interactive effect of supplementary N and water on litter decomposition in this system. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that the inhibitory effects of external N on dry mass loss and nitrogen release are relatively strong in high-lignin litter compared with low-lignin litter. These findings suggest that increasing precipitation hardly facilitates ecosystem carbon turnover but atmospheric N deposition can enhance carbon sequestration and nitrogen retention in desertified dune grasslands of northern China. Additionally, litter quality of plant species should be considered

  10. Postantibiotic effect and postantibiotic sub-minimum inhibitory concentration effect of valnemulin against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from swine and chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D H; Yu, Y; Zhou, Y F; Shi, W; Deng, H; Liu, Y H

    2014-02-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) and postantibiotic sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) effect (PA-SME) of valnemulin against Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in vitro using a spectrophotometric technique and classic viable count method. A standard curve was constructed by regression analysis of the number of colonies and the corresponding optical density (OD) at 630 nm of the inoculum. After exposure to valnemulin at different concentrations for an hour, the antibiotic was removed by centrifuging and washing. The PA-SMEs were measured after initial exposure to valnemulin at 4 × the MIC, and then, valnemulin was added to reach corresponding desired concentrations in the resuspended culture. Samples were collected hourly until the culture became turbid. The results were calculated by converting the OD values into the counts of bacteria in accordance with the curve. The MIC of valnemulin against eight strains was identically 0.125 μg ml(-1) . The mean PAEs were 2.12 h (1 × MIC) and 5.06 h (4 × MIC), and the mean PA-SMEs were 6.85 h (0.1 × MIC), 9.12 h (0.2 × MIC) and 10.8 h (0.3 × MIC). The results showed that the strains with identical MICs exhibited different PAEs and PA-SMEs. Valnemulin produced prolonged PAE and PA-SME periods for Staph. aureus, supporting a longer dosing interval while formulating a daily administration dosage. In this study, valnemulin demonstrated prolonged postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects on strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The strains with identical MICs of valnemulin exhibited different PAEs and PA-SMEs. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different species has little impact on the postantibiotic effect of valnemulin. The result suggests a longer dosing interval while formulating a daily administration dosage, and it may play a valuable role of valnemulin in treating Staph. aureus infections in animals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Dune Grassland: Neutral Effect of Water Supply and Inhibitory Effect of Nitrogen Addition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yulin; Ning, Zhiying; Cui, Duo; Mao, Wei; Bi, Jingdong; Zhao, Xueyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The decomposition of plant material in arid ecosystems is considered to be substantially controlled by water and N availability. The responses of litter decomposition to external N and water, however, remain controversial, and the interactive effects of supplementary N and water also have been largely unexamined. Methodology/Principal Findings A 3.5-year field experiment with supplementary nitrogen and water was conducted to assess the effects of N and water addition on mass loss and nitrogen release in leaves and fine roots of three dominant plant species (i.e., Artemisia halondendron, Setaria viridis, and Phragmites australis) with contrasting substrate chemistry (e.g. N concentration, lignin content in this study) in a desertified dune grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. The treatments included N addition, water addition, combination of N and water, and an untreated control. The decomposition rate in both leaves and roots was related to the initial litter N and lignin concentrations of the three species. However, litter quality did not explain the slower mass loss in roots than in leaves in the present study, and thus warrant further research. Nitrogen addition, either alone or in combination with water, significantly inhibited dry mass loss and N release in the leaves and roots of the three species, whereas water input had little effect on the decomposition of leaf litter and fine roots, suggesting that there was no interactive effect of supplementary N and water on litter decomposition in this system. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that the inhibitory effects of external N on dry mass loss and nitrogen release are relatively strong in high-lignin litter compared with low-lignin litter. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that increasing precipitation hardly facilitates ecosystem carbon turnover but atmospheric N deposition can enhance carbon sequestration and nitrogen retention in desertified dune grasslands of northern China

  12. Naloxone decreases the inhibitory effect of alprazolam on the release of adrenocorticotropin/cortisol induced by physical exercise in man.

    PubMed

    Coiro, Vittorio; Volpi, Riccardo; Casti, Amos; Maffei, Maria Ludovica; Stella, Adriano; Volta, Elio; Chiodera, Paolo

    2011-06-01

    • Alprazolam (ALP), a benzodiazepine activating GABAergic receptors, is involved in ACTH secretion. • This study demonstrates a partial opioid influence in the inhibitory effect of ALP on the release of ACTH/cortisol during physical exercise. To establish the possible involvement of alprazolam (ALP) and/or opiates in the mechanism underlying the ACTH/cortisol response to physical exercise. Tests were carried out under basal conditions (exercise control test), exercise plus ALP (50 µg at time -90 min), naloxone (10 mg at time 0) or ALP plus naloxone. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol concentrations were evaluated in blood samples taken before, during and after the bicycle ergometer tests. ACTH and cortisol concentrations rose significantly after physical exercise. Maximum peak at time 15 min (P ≤ 0.01 vs. baseline) for ACTH and at time 30 min (P ≤ 0.01 vs. baseline) for cortisol. In the presence of naloxone, the ACTH and cortisol responses were significantly increased (maximum peak at time 20 min, P ≤ 0.02 vs. control test for ACTH, and at time 30 min (P ≤ 0.01 vs. baseline) for cortisol) whereas they were abolished by ALP. When ALP and naloxone were given together, the inhibitory effect of ALP was partial. These data demonstrate an inhibitory effect of ALP in the regulation of the ACTH/cortisol response to physical exercise in man and suggest that GABAergic receptor activating benzodiazepines and opioids interact in the neuroendocrine secretion of ACTH/cortisol. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Phenolic amides from Tribulus terrestris and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jin Woo; Jang, Hari; Le, Thi Phuong Linh; Kim, Jun Gu; Lee, Moon Soon; Hong, Jin Tae; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2018-02-01

    A new phenolic amide, named cis-terrestriamide (7), together with ten known compounds (1-6, 8-11), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris. The structure of 7 was elucidated on the basis of extensive analyses of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and high resolution mass spectrometry data. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 11 exhibited inhibitory effects on the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC 50 values of 18.7-49.4 μM.

  14. Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitory prodrugs on epigenetic changes and DNA damage response in tumor and heart of glioblastoma xenograft.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, Nataly; Nudelman, Abraham; Rozic, Gabriela; Cutts, Suzanne M; Rephaeli, Ada

    2017-08-01

    The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory prodrugs of butyric (AN7) and valproic (AN446) acids, which release the active acids upon metabolic degradation, were studied examining their differential effects on the viability, HDAC inhibitory activity and the DNA damage response (DDR), in glioblastoma cell and normal human astrocytes (NHAs). In xenografts of glioblastoma, AN7 or AN446 given or the combination of each of them with Dox augmented the anticancer activity of Dox and protected the heart from its toxicity. In order to determine the processes underlying these opposing effects, the changes induced by these treatments on the epigenetic landscape, the DDR, and fibrosis were compared in tumors and hearts of glioblastoma xenografts. The potency of AN7 and AN446 as HDAC inhibitors was correlated with their effects on the viability of the cancer and non-cancer cells. The prodrugs affected the epigenetic landscape and the DDR in a tissue-specific and context-dependent manner. Findings suggest that the selectivity of the prodrugs could be attributed to their different effects on histone modification patterns in normal vs. transformed tissues. Further studies are warranted to substantiate the potential of AN446 as a new anticancer drug for glioblastoma patients.

  15. The inhibitory effect of BIM (I) on L-type Ca²⁺ channels in rat ventricular cells.

    PubMed

    Son, Youn Kyoung; Hong, Da Hye; Choi, Tae-Hoon; Choi, Seong Woo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Sung Joon; Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min; Jung, Won-Kyo; Kim, Dae-Joong; Choi, Il-Whan; Park, Won Sun

    2012-06-22

    We investigated the effect of a specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, bisindolylmaleimide I [BIM (I)], on L-type Ca(2+) channels in rat ventricular myocytes. BIM (I) alone inhibited the L-type Ca(2+) current in a concentration-dependent manner, with a K(d) value of 3.31 ± 0.25 μM, and a Hill coefficient of 2.34 ± 0.23. Inhibition was immediate after applying BIM (I) in the bath solution and then it partially washed out. The steady-state activation curve was not altered by applying 3μ M BIM (I), but the steady-state inactivation curve shifted to a more negative potential with a change in the slope factor. Other PKC inhibitors, PKC-IP and chelerythrine, showed no significant effects either on the L-type Ca(2+) current or on the inhibitory effect of BIM (I) on the L-type Ca(2+) current. The results suggest that the inhibitory effect of BIM (I) on the L-type Ca(2+) current is independent of the PKC pathway. Thus, our results should be considered in studies using BIM (I) to inhibit PKC activity and ion channel modulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Consequence of the antioxidant activities and tyrosinase inhibitory effects of various extracts from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ferulae

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Jae Seong; Cho, Hae Jin; Lee, Tae Soo

    2011-01-01

    This study was initiated to screen the antioxidant activities, tyrosinase inhibitory effects on the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ferulae extracted with acetone, methanol and hot water. The antioxidant activities were performed on β-carotene–linoleic acid, reducing power, DPPH, ferrous ions chelating abilities, and xanthine oxidase. In addition to this, phenolic compounds were also analyzed. The methanolic extract showed the strongest β-carotene–linoleic acid inhibition and high reducing power as compared to other extracts. The scavenging effects on DPPH radicals, the acetonic and methanolic extracts were more effective than hot water extracts. The strongest chelating effect was obtained from the methanolic extract as compared to the tested synthetic antioxidant. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, naringin, resveratrol, naringenin, hesperetin, formononetin and biochanin-A were detected from acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid (5:1) solvent extract. Xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extracts of P. ferulae increased with increasing concentration. The results suggested that consumption of P. ferulae might be beneficial to the antioxidant, xanthine oxidase, and tyrosinase protection system of the human body against oxidative damage and others complications. PMID:23961169

  17. Inhibitory effect of three C-glycosylflavonoids from Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass) on human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Roxana; Leiva, Elba; Cheel, José

    2009-09-30

    This study assessed the inhibitory effect of three C-glycosylflavonoids from Cymbopogon citratus leaves--isoorientin (1), swertiajaponin (2) and isoorientin 2"-Orhamnoside (3)--on human LDL oxidation. Isolated LDL was incubated with compounds 1-3 and the kinetics of lipid peroxidation were assessed by conjugated diene and malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (MDA-TBARS) formation after addition of copper ions. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between the lag time phase of the control and the lag time phase in the presence of the compounds 1 (0.25 microM) and 2 (0.50 microM) were observed. After five hours of incubation all three compounds showed a significant inhibitory effect on MDA-TBARS formation with respect to the control. After six hours of incubation only compound 1 kept a remarkable antioxidant effect. This study demonstrates that isoorientin (1) is an effective inhibitor of in vitro LDL oxidation. As oxidative damage to LDL is a key event in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, the use of this natural antioxidant may be beneficial to prevent or attenuate atherosclerosis.

  18. Inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, alone and in combination with monolaurin, on Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Tepe, Bektas; Kiani, Hossein; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tadrisi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ˚C and 30 ˚C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil and monolaurin were determined using microbroth dilution method and the interactions of essential oil and monolaurin were determined by the evaluation of fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) index. Carvacrol (63.20%) and thymol (15.10%) were found as the main components of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil and monolaurin at pH 7 and 30 ˚C were measured as 312.50 µg mL(-1) and 125.00 µg mL(-1), respectively. Combination of monolaurin and Z. multiflora essential oil were found to act synergistically (FIC index < 0.5) against L. monocytogenes under different pH and temperature conditions. Decrease in the pH and temperature values have increased the anti-listerial activity of monolaurin and the essential oil. The lowest MIC value of monolaurin and essential oil was observed at pH 5 and 5 ˚C. According to our results, the oil alone or in combination with monolaurin at low pH and temperature conditions showed a promising inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes.

  19. Inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols, tocopherol phosphates and tocopherol quinones on growth of colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dolfi, Sonia C.; Yang, Zhihong; Lee, Mao-Jung; Guan, Fei; Hong, Jungil; Yang, Chung S.

    2013-01-01

    Tocopherols are the major source of dietary vitamin E. In this study, the growth inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols, tocopheryl phosphates (TP) and tocopherol quinones (TQ) on human colon cancer HCT116 and HT29 cells were investigated. δ-T was more active than γ-T in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, decreasing cancer cell colony formation and inducing apoptosis; however α-T was rather ineffective. Similarly, the rate of cellular uptake also followed the ranking order δ-T > γ-T ≫ α-T. TP and TQ generally had higher inhibitory activities than their parent compounds. Interestingly, the γ-forms of TP and TQ were more active than the δ-forms in inhibiting cancer cell growth; whereas the α-forms were the least effective. The potencies of γ-TQ and δ-TQ (showing IC50 of ~0.8 and ~2 μM on HCT116 cells after a 72-h incubation, respectively) were >100 and >20 fold higher, respectively, than those of their parent tocopherols. Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by δ-T, γ-TP and γ-TQ was characterized by the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP1 and DNA fragmentation. These studies demonstrated the higher growth inhibitory activity of δ-T than γ-T, the even higher activities of the γ-forms of TP and TQ, and the ineffectiveness of the α-forms of tocopherol and their metabolites against colon cancer cells. PMID:23898832

  20. Inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols, tocopherol phosphates, and tocopherol quinones on growth of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dolfi, Sonia C; Yang, Zhihong; Lee, Mao-Jung; Guan, Fei; Hong, Jungil; Yang, Chung S

    2013-09-11

    Tocopherols are the major source of dietary vitamin E. In this study, the growth inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols (T), tocopheryl phosphates (TP), and tocopherol quinones (TQ) on human colon cancer HCT116 and HT29 cells were investigated. δ-T was more active than γ-T in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, decreasing cancer cell colony formation, and inducing apoptosis; however, α-T was rather ineffective. Similarly, the rate of cellular uptake also followed the ranking order δ-T > γ-T ≫ α-T. TP and TQ generally had higher inhibitory activities than their parent compounds. Interestingly, the γ forms of TP and TQ were more active than the δ forms in inhibiting cancer cell growth, whereas the α forms were the least effective. The potencies of γ-TQ and δ-TQ (showing IC50 values of ∼0.8 and ∼2 μM on HCT116 cells after a 72 h incubation, respectively) were greater than 100-fold and greater than 20-fold higher, respectively, than those of their parent tocopherols. Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by δ-T, γ-TP, and γ-TQ was characterized by the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP1 and DNA fragmentation. These studies demonstrated the higher growth inhibitory activity of δ-T than γ-T, the even higher activities of the γ forms of TP and TQ, and the ineffectiveness of the α forms of tocopherol and their metabolites against colon cancer cells.

  1. Inhibitory effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, alone and in combination with monolaurin, on Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Tepe, Bektas; Kiani, Hossein; Khoshbakht, Rahem; Shirzad Aski, Hesamaddin; Tadrisi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major causes of infections in developing countries. In this study, chemical composition and anti-listerial effect of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. alone and in combination with monolaurin were evaluated at different pH values (5, 6, and 7) and temperatures (5 ˚C and 30 ˚C). Chemical composition of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil and monolaurin were determined using microbroth dilution method and the interactions of essential oil and monolaurin were determined by the evaluation of fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC) index. Carvacrol (63.20%) and thymol (15.10%) were found as the main components of the essential oil. The MIC values of the oil and monolaurin at pH 7 and 30 ˚C were measured as 312.50 µg mL-1 and 125.00 µg mL-1, respectively. Combination of monolaurin and Z. multiflora essential oil were found to act synergistically (FIC index < 0.5) against L. monocytogenes under different pH and temperature conditions. Decrease in the pH and temperature values have increased the anti-listerial activity of monolaurin and the essential oil. The lowest MIC value of monolaurin and essential oil was observed at pH 5 and 5 ˚C. According to our results, the oil alone or in combination with monolaurin at low pH and temperature conditions showed a promising inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes. PMID:27226881

  2. Inhibitory effect of apocarotenoids on the activity of tyrosinase: Multi-spectroscopic and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Anantharaman, Amrita; Hemachandran, Hridya; Priya, Rajendra Rao; Sankari, Mohan; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan; Palanisami, Nallasamy; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    In this present study, the inhibitory mechanism of three selected apocarotenoids (bixin, norbixin and crocin) on the diphenolase activity of tyrosinase has been investigated. The preliminary screening results indicated that apocarotenoids inhibited tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Kinetic analysis revealed that apocarotenoids reversibly inhibited tyrosinase activity. Analysis of fluorescence spectra showed that apocarotenoids quenched the intrinsic fluorescence intensity of the tyrosinase. Further, molecular docking results implied that apocarotenoids were allosterically bound to tyrosinase through hydrophobic interactions. The results of the in vitro studies suggested that higher concentrations of bixin and norbixin inhibited tyrosinase activity in B16F0 melanoma cells. Our results suggested that apocarotenoids could form the basis for the design of novel tyrosinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine digluconate in clinical isolates of Sporothrix schenckii.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Isabel Martins; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Santin, Rosema; dos Reis Gomes, Angelita; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo

    2012-05-01

    The susceptibility of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from clinical cases of canine, feline and human sporotrichosis, and from the environment, was evaluated with 4% sodium hypochlorite and 6.6% chlorhexidine digluconate using the broth microdilution, agar diffusion and direct exposure techniques. The minimal inhibitory concentration was smaller than 0.8% for chlorhexidine digluconate and between 8% and 4% for sodium hypochlorite. Inhibition zones were not found in agar diffusion for sodium hypochlorite, and zones averaging 1.9 mm were found for chlorhexidine digluconate. In the direct exposure test, sodium hypochlorite demonstrated best performance at 20 min of contact, as chlorhexidine digluconate presented little antimicrobial activity. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid extracts on porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro.

    PubMed

    McCue, Patrick P; Shetty, Kalidas

    2004-01-01

    Porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) was allowed to react with herbal extracts containing rosmarinic acid (RA) and purified RA. The derivatized enzyme-phytochemical mixtures obtained were characterized for residual amylase activity. These in vitro experiments showed that the amylase activity was inhibited in the presence of these phytochemicals. The extent of amylase inhibition correlated with increased concentration of RA. RA-containing oregano extracts yielded higher than expected amylase inhibition than similar amount of purified RA, suggesting that other phenolic compounds or phenolic synergies may contribute to additional amylase inhibitory activity. The significance of food-grade, plant-based amylase inhibitors for modulation of diabetes mellitus and other oxidation-linked diseases is hypothesized and discussed.

  5. Chemical constituents of Cichorium intybus and their inhibitory effects against urease and alpha-chymotrypsin enzymes.

    PubMed

    Saied, Sumayya; Shah, Shazia; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ajmal; Marasini, Bishnu P; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2011-08-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Cichorium intybus L. resulted in the isolation and identification of two new natural metabolites, 2,6-di[but-3(E)-en-2-onyl]naphthalene (1), and 3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (2), along with nine known compounds. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques including 1D and 2D NMR. The known compounds were identified as scopoletin (3), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid (5), 4,4'-dihydroxychalcone (6), 6,7-dihydroxycoumarine (7), 1-triacontanol (8), lupeol (9), beta-sitosterol (10), and beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (11). Compounds 4-6 and 8 are reported for the first time from C. intybus. Compounds 2 and 3 showed weak inhibitory activities against urease and alpha-chymotrypsin enzymes, respectively.

  6. Sesquiterpenes from the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guiyang; Zhou, Li; Ma, Jianghao; Wang, Ying; Ding, Liqin; Zhao, Feng; Chen, Lixia; Qiu, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Three new sesquiterpenes including a new elemane-type sesquiterpene, 5βH-elem-1,3,7,8-tetraen-8,12-olide (1), and two new carabrane-type sesquiterpenes, 7α,11-epoxy-6α-methoxy-carabrane-4,8-dione (2) and 8,11-epidioxy-8-hydroxy-4-oxo-6-carabren (3), together with eight known sesquiterpenes (4-11) were isolated from Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analyses. A possible biogenetic scheme for the related compounds was postulated. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Meanwhile, preliminary structure-activity relationships for these compounds are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory effect of nicergoline on superoxide generation by activated rat microglias measured using a simple chemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Tanaka, M; Okamoto, K

    2001-01-05

    We evaluated the effect of nicergoline on superoxide production by rat microglias using a 2-methyl-6-(p-methoxyphenyl)-3, 7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3-one-dependent chemiluminescence assay. Nicergoline dose-dependently inhibited superoxide production by microglias stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or opsonized zymosan, while it had no effect on superoxide production by a hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system. These results indicate that nicergoline does not have a scavenging effect, but has an inhibitory effect on superoxide generation by microglias. Although this drug is commonly used for treating chronic cerebral infarction, it may also have a protective effect on progression of Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease.

  8. An investigation into the inhibitory effect of ultraviolet radiation on Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Leah J; Mildren, Richard P; Moffitt, Michelle; Lauto, Antonio; Morton, C Oliver; Stack, Colin M

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infection of nails, onychomycosis, is predominantly caused by Trichophyton rubrum. This infection is an important public health concern due to its persistent nature and high recurrence rates. Alternative treatments are urgently required. One such alternative is phototherapy involving the action of photothermal or photochemical processes. The aim of this novel study was to assess which wavelengths within the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum were inhibitory and equally important nail transmissible. Initial irradiations of T. rubrum spore suspensions were carried out using a tunable wavelength lamp system (fluence ≤3.1 J/cm(2)) at wavelengths between 280 and 400 nm (UVC to UVA) to evaluate which wavelengths prevented fungal growth. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of defined wavelengths were subsequently chosen with a view to evaluate and potentially implement this technology as a low-cost "in-home" treatment. Our experiments demonstrated that exposure at 280 nm using an LED with a fluence as low as 0.5 J/cm(2) was inhibitory, i.e., no growth following a 2-week incubation (p < 0.05; one-way ANOVA), while exposure to longer wavelengths was not. A key requirement for the use of phototherapy in the treatment of onychomycosis is that it must be nail transmissible. Our results indicate that the treatment with UVC is not feasible given that there is no overlap between the antifungal activity observed at 280 nm and transmission through the nail plate. However, a potential indirect application of this technology could be the decontamination of reservoirs of infection such as the shoes of infected individuals, thus preventing reinfection.

  9. Proanthocyanidin-containing polyphenol extracts from fruits prevent the inhibitory effect of hydrogen sulfide on human colonocyte oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Andriamihaja, Mireille; Lan, Annaïg; Beaumont, Martin; Grauso, Marta; Gotteland, Martin; Pastene, Edgar; Cires, Maria Jose; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2018-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), a metabolic end product synthesized by the microbiota from L-cysteine, has been shown to act at low micromolar concentration as a mineral oxidative substrate in colonocytes while acting as an inhibitor of oxygen consumption at higher luminal concentrations (65 µM and above). From the previous works showing that polyphenols can bind volatile sulfur compounds, we hypothesized that different dietary proanthocyanidin-containing polyphenol (PACs) plant extracts might modulate the inhibitory effect of H 2 S on colonocyte respiration. Using the model of human HT-29 Glc-/+ cell colonocytes, we show here that pre-incubation of 65 µM of the H 2 S donor NaHS with the different polyphenol extracts markedly reduced the inhibitory effect of NaHS on colonocyte oxygen consumption. Our studies on HT-29 Glc-/+ cell respiration performed in the absence or the presence of PACs reveal rapid binding of H 2 S with the sulfide-oxidizing unit and slower binding of H 2 S to the cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV of the respiratory chain). Despite acute inhibition of colonocyte respiration, no measurable effect of NaHS on paracellular permeability was recorded after 24 h treatment using the Caco-2 colonocyte monolayer model. The results are discussed in the context of the binding of excessive bacterial metabolites by unabsorbed dietary compounds and of the capacity of colonocytes to adapt to changing luminal environment.

  10. In vitro effect of subminimal inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the biofilm formation ability of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Maja; Drenjancevic, Domagoj; Harsanji Drenjancevic, Ivana; Bedenic, Branka; Zujic Atalic, Vlasta; Talapko, Jasminka; Vukovic, Dubravka

    2018-02-01

    The ability of A cinetobacter baumannii strains to form biofilm is one of the most important virulence factor which enables bacterial survival in a harsh environment and decreases antibiotic concentration as well. Subminimal inhibitory concentrations (subMICs) of antibiotics may change bacterial ultrastructure or have an influence on some different molecular mechanisms resulting in morphological or physiological changes in bacteria itself. The aim of this study was to determine effects of 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 minimal inhibitory concentrationsof imipenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, rifampicin and colistin on biofilm formation ability of 22 biofilm non-producing and 46 biofilm producing A. baumannii strains (30 weak producing strains and 16 moderate producing strains). Results of this study indicate that 1/2-1/16 MICs of imipenem, azithromycin, and rifampicin can reduce bacterial biofilm formation ability in moderate producing strains (p < 0.05), whereas 1/16 MIC of imipenem and 1/4-1/8 MICs of rifampicin reduce the biofilm formation in weak producing strains (p < 0.05). Statisticaly significant effect was detected among biofilm non-producing strains after their exposure to 1/16 MIC of azithromycin (p = 0.039). SubMICs of ampicillin-sulbactam and colistin did not have any significant effect on biofilm formation among tested A. baumannii strains.

  11. Sex-specific effect of the anabolic steroid, 17α-methyltestosterone, on inhibitory avoidance learning in periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Pratts, Keyla; Rosa-González, Dariana; Pérez-Acevedo, Nivia L; Cintrón-López, Dahima; Barreto-Estrada, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    The illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has gained popularity among adolescents in the last decade. However, although it is known that exposure to AAS impairs cognition in adult animal models, the cognitive effects during adolescence remain undetermined. An inhibitory avoidance task (IAT) was used to assess the effect of AAS (17α-methyltestosterone; 17α-meT--7.5 mg/kg) in male and female periadolescent rats. A single injection of 17α-meT immediately before the footshock produced significant impairment of inhibitory avoidance learning in males but not females. Generalized anxiety, locomotion, and risk assessment behaviors (RAB) were not affected. Our results show that exposure to a single pharmacological dose of 17α-meT during periadolescence exerts sex-specific cognitive effects without affecting anxiety. Thus, disruption of the hormonal milieu during this early developmental period might have negative impact on learning and memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytochemical composition, protective and therapeutic effect on gastric ulcer and α-amylase inhibitory activity of Achillea biebersteinii Afan.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Howaida I; Shalaby, Nagwa M M; Hamed, Manal A; El-Rigal, Nagy Saba; Al-Ghamdi, Samira N; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2016-01-01

    Three sesquiterpene lactones [two germacranolides (micranthin and sintenin) and one guaianolide (4β,10α-dihydroxy-5β,7β,8βH-guaia-1,11(13)dien-12,8α-olide)] and four derivatives of 3-methoxy flavones (santin, quercetagetin-3,6,3'-trimethyl ether, quercetagetin-3,6-dimethyl ether, and 5,7 dihydroxy 3,3',4'-trimethoxy flavone) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of the aerial parts of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae). Evaluation of protective and therapeutic effects of EAE against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats was carried. Antiulcer activity evaluation was done through measuring ulcer indices, stomach acidity, gastric volume and lesion counts. Oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde, glutathione and superoxide dismutase were also estimated. The work was extended to determine the histopathological assessment of the stomach. Gastric ulcer exhibited a significant elevation of the ulcer index and oxidative stress markers. The extract attenuated these increments and recorded protective and therapeutic effects against gastric ulcer. Hyperglycaemia increases the mucosal susceptibility to ulcerogenic stimuli and predisposes gastric ulceration. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory assay was applied to evaluate the post prandial antihyperglycaemia activity. The result showing that the EAE has the ability to reduce starch-induced postprandial glycaemic excursions by virtue of potent intestinal α-amylase inhibitory activity. These findings demonstrated the remarkable potential of A. biebersteinii as valuable source of antiulcer agent with post prandial hyperglycaemia lowering effect.

  13. [Inhibitory effect of kukoamine B on lung inflammatory responses in mice with sepsis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinli; Qin, Weiting; Lyu, Wanghui; Shen, Weichang; Wang, Xu; Sun, Bingwei

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of kukoamine B (KB) on lung inflammatory responses in mice with sepsis and its possible molecular mechanism. Twenty-eight male mice were randomly divided into control group (n=8), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (n=10), and LPS + KB group (n=10). Sepsis model was reproduced by intra-peritoneal injection of 20 mg/kg LPS, while equivalent normal saline was given in control group, and 20 μg/kg KB was injected through caudal vein 4 hours after LPS challenge in LPS + KB group. After 8 hours of LPS challenge, the concentration of LPS in plasma and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the lung tissue were determined. The contents of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) in plasma, alveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue homogenates were assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activation of nuclear factor-ΚB (NF-ΚB) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissue were determined by Western Blot. The pathological changes in lung tissues were observed with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in lung tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Compared with control group, the concentration of LPS in plasma (1 155.650±147.149 kEU/L vs. 31.390±18.859 kEU/L), MPO activity (1.177±0.093 U/g vs. 0.775±0.166 U/g), NF-ΚB activity (gray value: 1.557±0.105 vs. 0.824±0.032) and the expression of iNOS (gray value: 0.650±0.129 vs. 0.392±0.097) were significantly increased in LPS group (all P<0.05). After KB intervention, the concentration of LPS (624.461±149.012 kEU/L), MPO activity (0.919±0.023 U/g), NF-ΚB activity (1.127±0.074) and the expression of iNOS (0.425±0.066) were significantly lowered (all P<0.05). Compared with control group, the contents of TNF-α (47.325±13.864 ng/L vs. 6.534±0.544 ng/L, 13.382±2.231 ng/L vs. 3.748±0.692 ng/L, 31.127±7.399 ng/L vs. 14.948±4.673 ng/L) and IL-1β (74

  14. The Antifungal Inhibitory Concentration Effectiveness Test From Ethanol Seed Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica) Extract Against The Growth Of Candida albicans Patient Isolate With In Vitro Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satria Rakatama, Adam; Pramono, Andri; Yulianti, Retno

    2018-03-01

    Candida albicans are the most frequent cause of Vulvovaginalis Candidiasis infection. Its treatment using antifungal drugs, are oftenly caused side effects. The reduction of C.albicans growth and the reduction of antifungal drugs side effect, were our main purposed. Our study objective is determine the effectiveness of inhibitory power of arabica coffee seed ethanol extract on the growth of C.albicans patient isolates. The type of this research is experimental research. Kirby-bauer method with the Saboraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) media was used in this experiment. Inhibitory zone was observed around the disc, to determine the inhibitory power. The results showed that the inhibitory zone was formed on arabica coffee seed ethanol extract on 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% concentration. Kruskal-Wallis test results (p<0,05) showed that there was a significant difference in mean between the concentration groups tested against the treatment group. The inhibitory zone was formed because of biochemical compound in arabica coffee seed such as caffeine, phenol, alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins. Inhibitory zone in C.albicans patient isolates were smaller compared with C.albicans ATCC 90028 as gold standard. This showed that the virulence of C.albicans from patients isolates were higher. We concluded that arabica coffee seed ethanol extract could inhibiting the growth of C.albicans patient isolates. Optimization of coffee seed ethanol extract to obtain maximum active ingredients still needs to be done. This knowledge is expected to be used for the beginning manufacturer antifungal drug from natural product.

  15. Naloxone decreases the inhibitory effect of alprazolam on the release of adrenocorticotropin/cortisol induced by physical exercise in man

    PubMed Central

    Coiro, Vittorio; Volpi, Riccardo; Casti, Amos; Maffei, Maria Ludovica; Stella, Adriano; Volta, Elio; Chiodera, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To establish the possible involvement of alprazolam (ALP) and/or opiates in the mechanism underlying the ACTH/cortisol response to physical exercise. METHODS Tests were carried out under basal conditions (exercise control test), exercise plus ALP (50 µg at time −90 min), naloxone (10 mg at time 0) or ALP plus naloxone. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol concentrations were evaluated in blood samples taken before, during and after the bicycle ergometer tests. RESULTS ACTH and cortisol concentrations rose significantly after physical exercise. Maximum peak at time 15 min (P≤ 0.01 vs. baseline) for ACTH and at time 30 min (P≤ 0.01 vs. baseline) for cortisol. In the presence of naloxone, the ACTH and cortisol responses were significantly increased (maximum peak at time 20 min, P≤ 0.02 vs. control test for ACTH, and at time 30 min (P≤ 0.01 vs. baseline) for cortisol) whereas they were abolished by ALP. When ALP and naloxone were given together, the inhibitory effect of ALP was partial. CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate an inhibitory effect of ALP in the regulation of the ACTH/cortisol response to physical exercise in man and suggest that GABAergic receptor activating benzodiazepines and opioids interact in the neuroendocrine secretion of ACTH/cortisol. PMID:21564163

  16. Inhibitory effects of wasabi isothiocyanates on chemical mediator release in RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada-Kato, Tomoe; Nagai, Masashi; Ohnishi, Motoko; Yoshida, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Wasabi is a plant of Japanese origin. It belongs to the family Brassicaceae and produces various isothiocyanates (ITCs). To clarify the type I allergies inhibited by wasabi ITCs, we investigated the inhibitory effect on chemical mediator release from dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA)-stimulated RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cells. Allyl ITC (AITC), sec-butyl ITC (s-BuITC), and 3-butenyl ITC (3-BuITC), which have 3 or 4 carbon chains, inhibited histamine release but did not inhibit the release of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) or cysteinyl LTs (CysLTs). 4-Pentenyl ITC (4-PeITC) and 5-hexenyl ITC (5-HeITC), which have 5 or 6 carbon chains and an unsaturated bond at the end, inhibited LTB4 release but did not inhibit the release of histamine or CysLTs. 6-Methylthiohexyl ITC (6-MTITC), 6-methylsulfinylhexyl ITC (6-MSITC), and 6-methylsulfonylhexyl ITC (6-MSFITC), which have a sulfur atom inserted at the end of a 6-carbon chain, inhibited the release of histamine, LTB4, and CysLTs and the elevation in intracellular Ca(2+). These results suggest that wasabi ITCs inhibited type I allergies by inhibiting chemical mediator release and that the inhibitory effects on each chemical mediator were due to differences in the side chain structure of the wasabi ITCs.

  17. The role of GABAergic system on the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on food intake in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Jonaidi, H; Abbassi, L; Yaghoobi, M M; Kaiya, H; Denbow, D M; Kamali, Y; Shojaei, B

    2012-06-27

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide that has a stimulatory effect on food intake in mammals. In contrast, this peptide decreases food intake in neonatal chicks when injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV). In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY) mediates the orexigenic effect of ghrelin whereas in chicks it appears that corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) is partially involved in the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on food intake. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) has a stimulatory effect on food intake in mammals and birds. In this study we investigated whether the anorectic effect of ghrelin is mediated by the GABAergic system. In Experiment 1, 3h-fasted chicks were given an ICV injection of chicken ghrelin and picrotoxin, a GABA(A) receptors antagonist. Picrotoxin decreased food intake compared to the control chicks indicating a stimulatory effect of GABA(A) receptors on food intake. However, picrotoxin did not alter the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on food intake. In Experiment 2, THIP hydrochloride, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, was used in place of picrotoxin. THIP hydrochloride appeared to partially attenuate the decrease in food intake induced by ghrelin at 30 min postinjection. In Experiment 3, the effect of ICV injection of chicken ghrelin on gene expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)(1) and GAD(2), GABA synthesis enzymes in the brain stem including hypothalamus, was investigated. The ICV injection of chicken ghrelin significantly reduced GAD(2) gene expression. These findings suggest that ghrelin may decrease food intake in neonatal chicks by reducing GABA synthesis and thereby GABA release within brain feeding centers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Highest State of Being and Knowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    This paper identifies the most influential paradigmatic individuals in human history, Socrates, Confucius, Buddha, Jesus, Muhammad, and Baha'u'llah, and presents their individual conceptions of the highest state of being and knowing, comparing the commonalities of those conceptualizations. Each proposes a state that might be described as…

  19. Astrophysics at the Highest Energy Frontiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    I discuss recent advances being made in the physics and astrophysics of cosmic rays and cosmic gamma-rays at the highest observed energies as well as the related physics and astrophysics of very high energy cosmic neutrinos. I also discuss the connections between these topics.

  20. Addressing Academic Dishonesty among the Highest Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angela D.; Murdock, Tamera B.; Grotewiel, Morgan M.

    2017-01-01

    Although research shows that higher-achieving students report engaging in cheating behaviors less frequently than lower-achieving students, the cheating rates among this population are still startling. Certain aspects of the context of being a high-achieving student support academic dishonesty. We investigate integrity among the highest achievers…

  1. In vitro inhibitory effects of farnesol and interactions between farnesol and antifungals against biofilms of Candida albicans resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jinping; Qian, Fang; Xu, Wenqian; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wei, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Antifungal resistance is a serious problem in clinical infections. Farnesol, which is a potential antifungal agent against biofilms formed by Candida albicans resistant strains (a fluconazole-resistant isolate derived from SC5314 and two clinical Candida resistant isolates), was investigated in this study. The inhibitory effects of farnesol on biofilms were examined by XTT assay. The morphological changes and biofilm thicknesses were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. Additionally, the checkerboard microdilution method was used to investigate the interactions between farnesol and antifungals (fluconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, terbinafine and 5-flurocytosine) against biofilms. The results showed decreased SMICs of farnesol and thinner biofilms in the farnesol-treated groups, indicating that farnesol inhibited the development of biofilms formed by the resistant strain. Furthermore, there were synergistic effects between farnesol and fluconazole/5-flurocytosine, while there were antagonistic effects between farnesol and terbinafine/itraconazole, respectively, on the biofilms formed by the resistant strains.

  2. Variable inhibitory effect of herbal supplements of different brands on human P450 CYP1A2

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2012-01-01

    Herbal supplements are not governed by the same regulations as prescription drugs, we hypothesize that the content of their active ingredients may vary largely among different manufacturers. This may produce variable therapeutic outcomes. This study aims to examine this hypothesis on commonly used herbal supplements among cancer patients. CYP1A2 has been implicated in the activation of many carcinogens and alteration in its activity may be a mechanism associated with the protective effect of herbal products. Activity of human CYP1A2 was used to determine the effect of four herbal supplements of different brands, namely, black cohosh (BC), ginseng, grape seed extract (GSE) and green tea extract (GTE). The herbal content was extracted with methanol, and extract aliquots were used to determine their effect on CYP1A2. Human liver microsomes, the CYP1A2 probe (7-ethoxyresorufin) and NADPH in buffer were incubated with and without herbal extract. Metabolite (resorufin) formation was monitored by HPLC. Seven BC products caused a mild inhibition of CYP1A2, ranging from 2.4 % by GNC Plus to 21.9 % by Nature's Resource. Among nine ginseng products tested, the inhibitory effect varied from 4.2 % by Imperial to 44.6 % by Solarays. The effect of nine GSE brands also varied, ranging from 1.7 % (Country Life) to 26.5 % (Veg Life). Of twelve GTE products, the inhibitory effect varied from 2.9 % by Henry's to 46.6 % by GNC Plus. It appears that the inhibition of selected herbal supplements on CYP1A2 activity varies considerably among different brands of the products. This may be due to variations in the herbal products' active ingredients content. PMID:27298605

  3. Fluorination Effects on NOS Inhibitory Activity of Pyrazoles Related to Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Carla I; Cabildo, María Pilar; Cornago, María Pilar; Sanz, Dionisia; Claramunt, Rosa M; Torralba, María Carmen; Torres, María Rosario; Elguero, José; García, José A; López, Ana; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2015-08-28

    A series of new (E)-3(5)-[β-(aryl)-ethenyl]-5(3)-phenyl-1H-pyrazoles bearing fluorine atoms at different positions of the aryl group have been synthesized starting from the corresponding β-diketones. All compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, DSC as well as NMR (¹H, (13)C, (19)F and (15)N) spectroscopy in solution and in solid state. Three structures have been solved by X-ray diffraction analysis, confirming the tautomeric forms detected by solid state NMR. The in vitro study of their inhibitory potency and selectivity on the activity of nNOS and eNOS (calcium-calmodulin dependent) as well as iNOS (calcium-calmodulin independent) isoenzymes is presented. A qualitative structure-activity analysis allowed the establishment of a correlation between the presence/ absence of different substituents with the inhibition data proving that fluorine groups enhance the biological activity. (E)-3(5)-[β-(3-Fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethenyl]-5(3)-phenyl-1H-pyrazole (13), is the best inhibitor of iNOS, being also more selective towards the other two isoforms.

  4. Inhibitory effects of thought substitution in the think/no-think task: evidence from independent cues.

    PubMed

    del Prete, Francesco; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Bajo, Maria Teresa; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    When people try not to think about a certain item, they can accomplish this goal by using a thought substitution strategy and think about something else. Research conducted with the think/no-think (TNT) paradigm indicates that such strategy leads subsequently to forgetting the information participants tried not to think about. The present study pursued two goals. First, it investigated the mechanism of forgetting due to thought substitution, contrasting the hypothesis by which forgetting is due to blocking caused by substitutes with the hypothesis that forgetting is due to inhibition (using an independent cue methodology). Second, a boundary condition for forgetting due to thought substitution was examined by creating conditions under which the generation of appropriate substitutes would be impaired. In two experiments, participants completed a TNT task under thought substitution instructions in which either words or pseudo-words were used as original cues and memory was assessed with original and independent cues. The results revealed forgetting in both original and independent cue tests, supporting the inhibitory account of thought substitution, but only when cues were words, and not when they were non-words, pointing to the ineffectiveness of a thought substitution strategy when original cues lack semantic content.

  5. Effect of cortisol on gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jae; Habibi, Hamid R; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic peptides, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), play pivotal roles in the control of reproduction and gonadal maturation in fish. In the present study we tested the possibility that stress-mediated reproductive dysfunction in teleost may involve changes in GnRH and GnIH activity. We studied expression of brain GnIH, GnIH-R, seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), as well as circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. Treatment with cortisol increased GnIH mRNA level, but reduced sbGnRH mRNA and circulating levels of LH and FSH in cinnamon clownfish. Using double immunofluorescence staining, we found expression of both GnIH and GnRH in the diencephalon region of cinnamon clownfish brain. These findings support the hypothesis that cortisol, an indicator of stress, affects reproduction, in part, by increasing GnIH in cinnamon clownfish which contributes to hypothalamic suppression of reproductive function in A. melanopus, a protandrous hermaphroditic fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of leukemia inhibitory factor and forskolin on establishment of rat embryonic stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Masumi; Goto, Teppei; Tamura, Chihiro; Sanbo, Makoto; Hara, Hiromasa; Hochi, Shinichi

    2014-03-07

    This study was designed to investigate whether supplementation of 2i medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and/or forskolin would support establishment of germline-competent rat embryonic stem (ES) cell lines. Due to the higher likelihood of outgrowth rates, supplementation of forskolin with or without LIF contributed to the higher establishment efficiency of ES cell lines in the WDB strain. Germline transmission competency of the chimeric rats was not influenced by the profile of ES cell lines until their establishment. When the LIF/forskolin-supplemented 2i medium was used, the rat strain used as the blastocyst donor, such as the WI strain, was a possible factor negatively influencing the establishment efficiency of ES cell lines. Once ES cell lines were established, all lines were found to be germline-competent by a progeny test in chimeric rats. In conclusion, both LIF and forskolin are not essential but can play a beneficial role in the establishment of "genuine" rat ES cell lines.

  7. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Nicklisch, Sascha C. T.; Rees, Steven D.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T.; Vermeer, Lydia M.; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)–100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  8. Inhibitory effect of phloretin on α-glucosidase: Kinetics, interaction mechanism and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Han, Lin; Fang, Chun; Zhu, Ruixue; Peng, Qiang; Li, Ding; Wang, Min

    2017-02-01

    As the aglycone of phloridzin, phloretin belongs to dihydrochalcone with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities. In this study, multispectroscopic techniques and molecular docking analysis were used to investigate the inhibitory activity and mechanisms of phloretin on α-glucosidase. The results showed that phloretin reversibly inhibited α-glucosidase in a mixed-type manner and the value of IC 50 was 31.26μgL -1 . The intrinsic fluorescence of α-glucosidase was quenched by the interactions with phloretin through a static quenching mechanism and spontaneously formed phloretin-α-glucosidase complex by the driving forces of van der Waals force and hydrogen bond. Atomic force microscope (AFM) studies and FT-IR measurements suggested that the interactions could change the micro-environments and conformation of the enzymes and the molecular docking analysis displayed the exact binding site of phloretin on α-glucosidase. These results indicated that phloretin is a strong α-glucosidase inhibitor, thus could be contribute to the improvement of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure Identification of Triterpene from the Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii with Inhibitory Effects Against Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhaohui; Li, Jiaomei; Cheng, Aiqing; Yu, Wancong; Zhang, Zhijun; Kou, Xiaohong; Zhou, Fengjuan

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women, with approximately 1 million diagnoses annually. Triterpenoids, which have cancer preventive or anti-tumour efficacy towards various tumour cells, may play a role in breast cancer prevention. In our previous study, an acetic ether (EtOAc) fraction from the sporocarp of the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii) exhibited significant tumour cell growth inhibition both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, three pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds (1-3) were isolated from EtOAc extracts using chromatographic separation and were identified using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The compounds were 2, 3, 6, 23-tetrahydroxy-urs-12-en-28 oic acid (1), 2,3,23-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28 oic acid (2) and lupeol (3). All three purified triterpenes showed significant inhibitory activity against breast cancer MCF-7 cell lines in vitro, with the greatest activity exhibited by compound 1, followed by compound 2 and 3. The IC(50) values were 15.71, 48 and 66.89 μM, respectively. Our study may help elucidate the health benefits of P. eryngii mushroom consumption.

  10. α-Glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory effects of an abietane type diterpenoid taxoquinone from Metasequoia glyptostroboides.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Park, Yong-Ha; Na, MinKyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2015-03-26

    Nowadays plant derived natural compounds have gained huge amount of research attention especially in food and medicine industries due to their multitude of biological and therapeutic properties as alternative medicines. In this study, a diterpenoid compound taxoquinone, isolated from Metasequoia glyptostroboides was evaluated for its α-glucosidase and tyrosinase inhibitory efficacy in terms of its potent anti-diabetic and depigmentation potential, respectively. As a result, taxoquinone at the concentration range of 100-3,000 μg/mL and 200-1,000 μg/mL showed potent efficacy on inhibiting α-glucosidase and tyrosinase enzymes by 9.24-51.32% and 11.14-52.32%, respectively. The findings of this study clearly evident potent therapeutic efficacy of an abietane diterpenoid taxoquinone isolated from M. glyptostroboides with a possibility for using it as a novel candidate in food and medicine industry as a natural alternative medicine to prevent diabetes mellitus type-2 related disorders and as a depigmentation agent.

  11. Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy.

  12. Tumor Inhibitory Effect of IRCR201, a Novel Cross-Reactive c-Met Antibody Targeting the PSI Domain.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunkyu; Kim, Donggeon; Kim, Eunmi; Sa, Jason K; Lee, Hee Won; Yu, Suji; Oh, Jiwon; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Yoon, Yeup; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2017-09-13

    Hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR, c-Met) is an essential member of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that is often dysregulated during tumor progression, driving a malignant phenotypic state and modulating important cellular functions including tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis, providing a strong rationale for targeting HGF/c-Met signaling axis in cancer therapy. Based on its protumorigenic potentials, we developed IRCR201, a potent antagonistic antibody targeting the plexin-semaphorin-integrin (PSI) domain of c-Met, using synthetic human antibody phage libraries. We characterized and evaluated the biochemical properties and tumor inhibitory effect of IRCR201 in vitro and in vivo. IRCR201 is a novel fully-human bivalent therapeutic antibody that exhibits cross-reactivity against both human and mouse c-Met proteins with high affinity and specificity. IRCR201 displayed low agonist activity and rapidly depleted total c-Met protein via the lysosomal degradation pathway, inhibiting c-Met-dependent downstream activation and attenuating cellular proliferation in various c-Met-expressing cancer cells. In vivo tumor xenograft models also demonstrated the superior tumor inhibitory responsiveness of IRCR201. Taken together, IRCR201 provides a promising therapeutic agent for c-Met-positive cancer patients through suppressing the c-Met signaling pathway and tumor growth.

  13. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis.

  14. Glycyrrhetinic acid exhibits strong inhibitory effects towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A3 and 2B7.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yin-Peng; Cao, Yun-Feng; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Hu, Cui-Min; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhu, Xu; Hong, Mo; Yang, Lu; Sun, Hong-Zhi

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory effects of liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) by glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid, which are the bioactive ingredients isolated from licorice. The results showed that glycyrrhetinic acid exhibited stronger inhibition towards all the tested UGT isoforms, indicating that the deglycosylation process played an important role in the inhibitory potential towards UGT isoforms. Furthermore, the inhibition kinetic type and parameters were determined for the inhibition of glycyrrhetinic acid towards UGT1A3 and UGT2B7. Data fitting using Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that the inhibition of UGT1A3 and UGT2B7 by glycyrrhetinic acid was best fit to competitive and noncompetitive type, respectively. The second plot using the slopes from Lineweaver-Burk plots versus glycyrrhetinic acid concentrations was employed to calculate the inhibition kinetic parameters (K(i)), and the values were calculated to be 0.2 and 1.7 μM for UGT1A3 and UGT2B7, respectively. All these results remind us the possibility of UGT inhibition-based herb-drug interaction. However, the explanation of these in vitro parameters should be paid more caution due to complicated factors, including the probe substrate-dependent UGT inhibition behaviour, environmental factors affecting the abundance of herbs' ingredients, and individual difference of pharmacokinetic factors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on nitrification process and its eliminating method in a suspended activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuanyuan; Jin, Xibiao; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Yongdi; Chen, Xiurong

    2014-02-01

    Inhibition of nitrification by four typical pollutants (acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, acetonitrile and cyanide) in acrylonitrile wastewater was investigated. The inhibitory effect of cyanide on nitrification was strongest, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.218 mg·gVSS-1 being observed in a municipal activated sludge system. However, the performance of nitrification was recovered when cyanide was completely degraded. The nitrification, which had been inhibited by 4.17 mg·gVSS-1 of free cyanide for 24 h, was recovered to greater than 95% of that without cyanide after 10 days of recovery. To overcome cyanide inhibition, cyanide-degrading bacteria were cultivated in a batch reactor by increasing the influent cyanide concentration in a stepwise manner, which resulted in an increase in the average cyanide degradation rate from 0.14 to 1.01 mg CN-·gVSS-1·h-1 over 20 days. The cultured cyanide-degrading bacteria were shaped like short rods, and the dominant cyanide-degrading bacteria strain was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB by PCR.

  16. Inhibitory effect of the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolC gene on rabdosiin and rosmarinic acid production in Eritrichium sericeum and Lithospermum erythrorhizon transformed cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Bulgakov, Victor P; Veselova, M V; Tchernoded, G K; Kiselev, K V; Fedoreyev, S A; Zhuravlev, Yu N

    2005-06-01

    Rabdosiin and related caffeic acid metabolites have been proposed as active pharmacological agents demonstrating potent anti-HIV and antiallergic activities. We transformed Eritrichium sericeum and Lithospermum erythrorhizon seedlings by the rolC gene, which has been recently described as an activator of plant secondary metabolism. Surprisingly, the rolC-transformed cell cultures of both plants yielded two- to threefold less levels of rabdosiin and rosmarinic acid (RA) than respective control cultures. This result establishes an interesting precedent when the secondary metabolites are differently regulated by a single gene. We show that the rolC gene affects production of rabdosiin and RA irrespective of the methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-mediated and the Ca(2+)-dependent NADPH oxidase pathways. Cantharidin, an inhibitor of serine/threonine phosphatases, partly diminishes the rolC-gene inhibitory effect that indicates involvement of the rolC-gene-mediated signal in plant regulatory controls, mediated by protein phosphatases. We also show that the control MeJA-stimulated E. sericeum root culture produces (-)-rabdosiin up to 3.41% dry weight, representing the highest level of this substance for plant cell cultures reported so far.

  17. Characterization, Purification of Poncirin from Edible Citrus Ougan (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima) and Its Growth Inhibitory Effect on Human Gastric Cancer Cells SGC-7901

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Luo, Fenglei; Zheng, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiukai; Huang, Jianzhen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-01-01

    Poncirin is a bitter flavanone glycoside with various biological activities. Poncirin was isolated from four different tissues (flavedo, albedo, segment membrane, and juice sac) of Ougan fruit (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima). The highest content of poncirin was found in the albedo of Ougan fruit (1.37 mg/g DW). High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with D101 resin chromatography was utilized for the separation and purification of poncirin from the albedo of Ougan fruit. After this two-step purification, poncirin purity increased from 0.14% to 96.56%. The chemical structure of the purified poncirin was identified by both HPLC-PDA and LC-MS. Poncirin showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of the human gastric cancer cells, SGC-7901, in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, poncirin from Ougan fruit, may be beneficial for gastric cancer prevention. The purification method demonstrated here will be useful for further studies on the pharmacological mechanism of poncirin activity, as well as for guiding the consumption of Ougan fruit. PMID:23615464

  18. EF-1 alpha is a target site for an inhibitory effect of quercetin in the peptide elongation process.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, C; Gałasiński, W; Gindzieński, A

    1995-01-01

    The effect of quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) on the polypeptide elongation system isolated from rat liver cells, was investigated. Quercetin inhibited [14C]leucine incorporation into proteins in vitro and the inhibitory effect is being directed towards the elongation factor eEF-1, but not to eEF-2 and ribosomes. Quercetin was found to form a complex with EF-1 alpha, which was inactive in GTP-dependent binding to ribosomes. It can be suggested that quercetin can block the total or the part of the domain of EF-1 alpha structure that is responsible for formation of the ternary complex EF-1 alpha-GTP-[14C]Phe-tRNA and therefore preventing formation of the quaternary complex with ribosomes.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Algal Extracts on Mycelial Growth of the Tomato-Wilt Pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of cyanobacterial extracts of Nostoc commune FA-103 against the tomato-wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In an optimal medium, cell growth, antifungal activity, and antifungal compound production could be increased 2.7-fold, 4.1-fold, and 13.4-fold, respectively. A crude algal extract had a similar effect as mancozeb at the recommended dose, both in laboratory and pot tests. In vitro and in vivo fungal growth, spore sporulation and fungal infection of wilt pathogen in tomato seeds were significantly inhibited by cyanobacterial extracts. Nostoc commune FA-103 extracts have potential for the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. PMID:23997634

  20. Phytochemical Analysis on Quantification and the Inhibitory Effects on Inflammatory Responses from the Fruit of Xanthii fructus

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sae-Rom; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Na-Ri; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Jeong, Soo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Xanthii fructus (Compositae) is a traditional herbal medicine used for treating headache, toothache, pruritus, empyema, and rhinitis. In this study of the quality control of X. fructus, we performed simultaneous analysis of nine marker compounds: Protocatechuic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), caffeic acid (3), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4), ferulic acid (5), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (6), 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7), 1,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (8), and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (9). Materials and Methods: Nine components were separated using reversed-phase SunFire™ C18 analytical column and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. We examined the biological effects of the nine marker compounds by determining their anti-inflammatory activities in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Results: Among the nine marker compounds, eight significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production. 1, 3, 5 had significant inhibitory effects on LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in RAW 264.7 cells. None of the tested marker compounds had a significant effect on interleukin-6 production in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Our data demonstrated that each marker compound from X. fructus exerts anti-inflammatory activity by targeting different inflammation-related pathways such as the TNF-α or PGE2 pathway. Conclusion: Further experiments using in vitro and in vivo models are needed to identify the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of each marker compound. SUMMARY Simultaneous analysis of nine phenylpropanoids in the Xanthii fructus was established using HPLC-PDA system.1,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated TNF-a production.Protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid had significant inhibitory effects on LPS-induced PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:27013799

  1. New benzimidazoles and their antitumor effects with Aurora A kinase and KSP inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Abd El-All, Amira S; Magd-El-Din, Asmaa A; Ragab, Fatma A F; ElHefnawi, Mahmoud; Abdalla, Mohamed M; Galal, Shadia A; El-Rashedy, Ahmed A

    2015-07-01

    A newly synthesized series of anticancer compounds comprising thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine derivatives 6a-q bearing a benzimidazole moiety was produced via a one-pot reaction of N-(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-2-cyanoacetamide 5 with 2-aminothiazole and an appropriate aromatic aldehyde. Compound 7 was obtained via the reaction of 4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2yl)benzenamide 1 with carbon disulphide and methyl iodide in the presence of concentrated aqueous solution of NaOH, then treated with o-phenylenediamine to give N-(4-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-amine 8. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by analytical and spectroscopic measurements (IR, MS, and (1) H NMR). The synthesized products were screened and studied for their in vitro antitumor activity against three human cancer cell lines (namely colorectal cancer cell line HCT116, human liver cancer cell line HepG2, and human ovarian cancer cell line A2780) and their Aurora A kinase and KSP inhibitory activities. All newly synthesized compounds revealed marked results comparable with the standard drug CK0106023. The compounds 6e and 6k of the thiazolopyrimidine derivatives were the most active compounds when tested against the three cell lines in comparison with the standard drug CK0106023, and showed potent dual KSP and Aurora A kinase inhibition. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The inhibitory effect of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus essential oil on some pathogenic fungal isolates

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesembryanthemum edule is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Xhosa traditional healers in the treatment HIV associated diseases such as tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis, mouth infections, ringworm eczema and vaginal infections. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. Methods The essential oil from M. edule was analysed by GC/MS. Concentration ranging from 0.005 - 5 mg/ml of the hydro-distilled essential oil was tested against some fungal strains, using micro-dilution method. The plant minimum inhibitory activity on the fungal strains was determined. Result GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds representing 99.99% of the total essential oil. A total amount of 10.6 and 36.61% constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) was low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes with pick area of 9.28%. Total oil content of diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes detected from the essential oil were 1.43% and 19.24%. The fatty acids and their methyl esters content present in the essential oil extract were found to be 19.25%. Antifungal activity of the essential oil extract tested against the pathogenic fungal, inhibited C. albican, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. neoformans with MICs range of 0.02-0.31 mg/ml. the activity of the essential oil was found competing with nystatin and amphotericin B used as control. Conclusion Having accounted the profile chemical constituent found in M. edule oil and its important antifungal properties, we consider that its essential oil might be useful in pharmaceutical and food industry as natural antibiotic and food preservative. PMID:24885234

  3. From cookies to carrots; the effect of inhibitory control training on children's snack selections.

    PubMed

    Porter, L; Bailey-Jones, C; Priudokaite, G; Allen, S; Wood, K; Stiles, K; Parvin, O; Javaid, M; Verbruggen, F; Lawrence, N S

    2018-05-01

    Children consume too much sugar and not enough fruit and vegetables, increasing their risk of adverse health outcomes. Inhibitory control training (ICT) reduces children's and adults' intake of energy-dense foods in both laboratory and real-life settings. However, no studies have yet examined whether ICT can increase healthy food choice when energy-dense options are also available. We investigated whether a food-specific Go/No-Go task could influence the food choices of children aged 4-11, as measured by a hypothetical food choice task using healthy and unhealthy food images printed on cards. Participants played either an active game (healthy foods = 100% go, unhealthy foods = 100% no-go; Studies 1 & 2), a food control game (both healthy and unhealthy foods = 50% go, 50% no-go; Studies 1 & 2) or a non-food control game (sports equipment = 100% go, technology = 100% no-go; Study 2 only) followed by the choice task. In Study 2, food card choices were also measured before training to examine change in choices. A post-training real food choice task was added to check that choices made in the card-based task were representative of choices made when faced with real healthy and unhealthy foods. Overall, the active group chose the greatest number of healthy food cards. Study 2 confirmed that this was due to increases in healthy food card choice in this group only. Active group participants chose a greater number of healthy foods in the real food choice task compared to children in the non-food control group only. The results are discussed with reference to methodological issues and the development of future healthy eating interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The inhibitory effect of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus essential oil on some pathogenic fungal isolates.

    PubMed

    Omoruyi, Beauty E; Afolayan, Anthony J; Bradley, Graeme

    2014-05-23

    Mesembryanthemum edule is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Xhosa traditional healers in the treatment HIV associated diseases such as tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis, mouth infections, ringworm eczema and vaginal infections. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. The essential oil from M. edule was analysed by GC/MS. Concentration ranging from 0.005-5 mg/ml of the hydro-distilled essential oil was tested against some fungal strains, using micro-dilution method. The plant minimum inhibitory activity on the fungal strains was determined. GC/MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 28 compounds representing 99.99% of the total essential oil. A total amount of 10.6 and 36.61% constituents were obtained as monoterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The amount of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.58%) was low compared to the oxygenated sesquiterpenes with pick area of 9.28%. Total oil content of diterpenes and oxygenated diterpenes detected from the essential oil were 1.43% and 19.24%. The fatty acids and their methyl esters content present in the essential oil extract were found to be 19.25%. Antifungal activity of the essential oil extract tested against the pathogenic fungal, inhibited C. albican, C. krusei, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. neoformans with MICs range of 0.02-0.31 mg/ml. the activity of the essential oil was found competing with nystatin and amphotericin B used as control. Having accounted the profile chemical constituent found in M. edule oil and its important antifungal properties, we consider that its essential oil might be useful in pharmaceutical and food industry as natural antibiotic and food preservative.

  5. [Quantitative evaluation of inhibitory effects of epileptic spikes on theta rhythms in the network of hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortex in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Ge, Man-Ling; Guo, Jun-Dan; Chen, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Ji-Chang; Fu, Xiao-Xuan; Chen, Yu-Min

    2017-02-25

    Epileptic spike is an indicator of hyper-excitability and hyper-synchrony in the neural networks. The inhibitory effects of spikes on theta rhythms (4-8 Hz) might be helpful to understand the mechanism of epileptic damage on the cognitive functions. To quantitatively evaluate the inhibitory effects of spikes on theta rhythms, intracerebral electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings with both sporadic spikes (SSs) and spike-free transient period between adjacent spikes were selected in 4 patients in the status of rapid eyes movement (REM) sleep with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) under the pre-surgical monitoring. The electrodes of hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortex (EC) were employed, since CA3 and EC built up one of key loops to investigate cognition and epilepsy. These SSs occurred only in CA3, only in EC, or in both CA3 and EC synchronously. Theta power was respectively estimated around SSs and during the spike-free transient period by Gabor wavelet transform and Hilbert transform. The intermittent extent was then estimated to represent for the loss of theta rhythms during the spike-free transient period. The following findings were obtained: (1) The prominent rhythms were in theta frequency band; (2) The spikes could transiently reduce theta power, and the inhibitory effect was severer around SSs in both CA3 and EC synchronously than that around either SSs only in EC or SSs only in CA3; (3) During the spike-free transient period, theta rhythms were interrupted with the intermittent theta rhythms left and theta power level continued dropping, implying the inhibitory effect was sustained. Additionally, the intermittent extent of theta rhythms was converged to the inhibitory extent around SSs; (4) The average theta power level during the spike-free transient period might not be in line with the inhibitory extent of theta rhythms around SSs. It was concluded that the SSs had negative effects on theta rhythms transiently and directly, the inhibitory effects aroused by

  6. Antihypertensive Effects, Molecular Docking Study, and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Assay of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides from Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingli; Chen, Xujun; Wu, Junjie; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Lujia; Tang, Ya-Jie; Wei, Dongzhi

    2018-02-14

    The aim of this work is to explore angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and discover the inhibitory mechanism of the peptides. After C. vulgaris proteins were gastrointestinal digested in silico, several ACE inhibitory peptides with C-terminal tryptophan were screened. Among them, two novel noncompetitive ACE inhibitors, Thr-Thr-Trp (TTW) and Val-His-Trp (VHW), exhibited the highest inhibitory activity indicated by IC 50 values 0.61 ± 0.12 and 0.91 ± 0.31 μM, respectively. Both the peptides were demonstrated stable against gastrointestinal digestion and ACE hydrolysis. The peptides were administrated to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) in the dose 5 mg/kg body weight, and VHW could decrease 50 mmHg systolic blood pressure of SHRs (p < 0.05). Molecular docking displayed that both TTW and VHW formed six hydrogen bonds with active site pockets of ACE. Besides, isothermal titration calorimetry assay discovered that VHW could form more stable complex with ACE than TTW. Therefore, VHW was an excellent ACE inhibitor.

  7. Inhibitory effects of polyphenols in leaves of Artemisia princeps PAMP on protein fragmentation by Cu(II)-H2O2 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Toda, Shizuo

    2004-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia princeps PAMP have traditionally been used as teas and foods in Japan. Polyphenols in Artemisia plants have been shown to have inhibitory effects against biological damages. The inhibitory effects of polyphenols in the leaves of A. princeps PAMP were investigated on protein fragmentation induced by Cu(II)-H(2)O(2) in vitro. The total polyphenol content in the leaves of A. princeps PAMP was 4.58%. The condensed tannin content was 0.62% by vanillin assay and 0.14% by proanthrocyanidin assay. The polyphenols in the leaves of A. princeps PAMP inhibited bovine albumin fragmentation by Cu(II)-H(2)O(2). The effects of polyphenols in the leaves of A. princeps PAMP were similar to those of tannic acid, studied as a related polyphenol. These results demonstrated that the leaves of A. princeps PAMP have inhibitory effects on protein fragmentation damage.

  8. [Inhibitory effect and mechanism of tofacitinib on the secretion of cytokines by T cells in human peripheral blood].

    PubMed

    Wu, Kunlun; Zhao, Jun; Wu, Qiongli; Wu, Changyou

    2017-11-01

    Objective To study the inhibitory effect of tofacitinib on the production of cytokines by T cells in human peripheral blood and its mechanism. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and purified T cells were cultured and stimulated with anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 antibodies in the presence or absence of tofacitinib (0.5 μmol/L). The levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the culture supernatants were detected by ELISA, and the expressions of activated molecules CD69 and CD25 on the surface of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, the production of cytokines and the phosphorylation of signal transducers and transcriptional activators STAT1, STAT3, STAT4 in T cells were examined by flow cytometry. At the same time, the proliferation and apoptosis of T cells were observed by 5- (and 6-) carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining and the flow cy tometry with annexin V-FITC/PI, respectively. Results Tofacitinib inhibited the production of IFN-γ, TNF-α and the expression of CD25 on T cells from the peripheral blood. In addition, the proliferation and the phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT3, STAT4 by T cells were also depressed. However, tofacitinib had no effect on the secretion of IL-2, the expression of CD69 and the apoptosis of T cells. Conclusion Tofacitinib can inhibit the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α by T cells in the peripheral blood, and its mechanism might be related to the inhibitory effect of tofacitinib on the activation, proliferation and signal transduction in T cells.

  9. Experimental study on inhibitory effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 and TSA on bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wei; Kang, Yin-Dong; Zhou, Mei-Sheng; Fu, Li-Li; Hua, Zhen-Hao; Wang, Li-Ming

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (MS-275 and TSA) on T24 human bladder cancer cells in vitro, and explore the possible mechanism. The MTT assay was employed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of MS-275 and TSA on T24 cell growth. FCM was used to analyze the variation of T24 cell cycle distribution and the apoptotic ratio after T24 cells were treated with MS-275 and TSA. Histone acetylation level was detected by Western blot. mRNA expression of p21 WAF1/CIP1, cyclin A, and cyclin E was measured by FQ-PCR. Dynamic changes of Bcl-2 and bax expression were detected by FCM. MS-275 and TSA inhibited T24 cell growth in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Treatment with 4 μmol/l MS-275 or 0.4 μmol/l TSA blocked cell cycling in the G0/G1 phase and induced a significant increase in cell apoptosis. MS-275 and TSA significantly increased the level of histone acetylation, induced p21CIP1WAF1 mRNA expression, and inhibited cyclin A mRNA expression, though no significant effect was observed on cyclin E. Bcl-2 expression was down-regulated, while bax expression was up-regulated. HDAC inhibitors can block bladder cancer cell cycle in vitro and induce apoptosis. The molecular mechanism may be associated with increased level of histone acetylation, down-regulation of p21WAF1/CIP1 expression, up-regulation of cyclin A expression, and dynamic change of bcl-2 and bax expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission on motor patterns of human sigmoid colon in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Aulí, M; Martínez, E; Gallego, D; Opazo, A; Espín, F; Martí-Gallostra, M; Jiménez, M; Clavé, P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: To characterize the in vitro motor patterns and the neurotransmitters released by enteric motor neurons (EMNs) in the human sigmoid colon. Experimental approach: Sigmoid circular strips were studied in organ baths. EMNs were stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and through nicotinic ACh receptors. Key results: Strips developed weak spontaneous rhythmic contractions (3.67±0.49 g, 2.54±0.15 min) unaffected by the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 μM). EFS induced strong contractions during (on, 56%) or after electrical stimulus (off, 44%), both abolished by TTX. Nicotine (1–100 μM) inhibited spontaneous contractions. Latency of off-contractions and nicotine responses were reduced by NG-nitro-L-arginine (1 mM) and blocked after further addition of apamin (1 μM) or the P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179 (10 μM) and were unaffected by the P2X antagonist NF279 (10 μM) or α-chymotrypsin (10 U mL−1). Amplitude of on- and off-contractions was reduced by atropine (1 μM) and the selective NK2 receptor antagonist Bz-Ala-Ala-D-Trp-Phe-D-Pro-Pro-Nle-NH2 (1 μM). MRS 2179 reduced the amplitude of EFS on- and off-contractions without altering direct muscular contractions induced by ACh (1 nM–1 mM) or substance P (1 nM–10 μM). Conclusions and implications: Latency of EFS-induced off-contractions and inhibition of spontaneous motility by nicotine are caused by stimulation of inhibitory EMNs coreleasing NO and a purine acting at muscular P2Y1 receptors through apamin-sensitive K+ channels. EFS-induced on- and off-contractions are caused by stimulation of excitatory EMNs coreleasing ACh and tachykinins acting on muscular muscarinic and NK2 receptors. Prejunctional P2Y1 receptors might modulate the activity of excitatory EMNs. P2Y1 and NK2 receptors might be therapeutic targets for colonic motor disorders. PMID:18846038

  11. Effect of Allium sativum and fish collagen on the proteolytic and angiotensin-I converting enzyme-inhibitory activities in cheese and yogurt.

    PubMed

    Shori, A B; Baba, A S; Keow, J N

    2012-12-15

    There is an increasing demand of functional foods in developed countries. Yogurt plays an important role in the management of blood pressure. Several bioactive peptides isolated from Allium sativum or fish collagen have shown antihypertensive activity. Thus, in the present study the effects of A. sativum and/or Fish Collagen (FC) on proteolysis and ACE inhibitory activity in yogurt (0, 7 and 14 day) and cheese (0, 14 and 28 day) were investigated. Proteolytic activities were the highest on day 7 of refrigerated storage in A. sativum-FC-yogurt (337.0 +/- 5.3 microg g(-1)) followed by FC-yogurt (275.3 +/- 2.0 microg g(-1)), A. sativum-yogurt (245.8 +/- 4.2 microg g(-1)) and plain-yogurt (40.4 +/- 1.2 microg g(-1)). On the other hand, proteolytic activities in cheese ripening were the highest (p < 0.05) on day 14 of storage for plain and A. sativum-cheeses (411.4 +/- 4.3 and 528.7 +/- 1.6 microg g(-1), respectively). However, the presence of FC increased the proteolysis to the highest level on day 28 of storage for FC- and A. sativum-FC cheeses (641.2 +/- 0.1 and 1128.4 +/- 4.5 microg g(-1), respectively). In addition, plain- and A. sativum-yogurts with or without FC showed maximal inhibition of ACE on day 7 of storage. Fresh plain- and A. sativum-cheeses showed ACE inhibition (72.3 +/- 7.8 and 50.4 +/- 1.6 % respectively), the presence of FC in both type of cheeses reduced the ACE inhibition to 62.9 +/- 0.8 and 44.5 +/- 5.0%, respectively. However, refrigerated storage increased ACE inhibition in cheeses (p < 0.05 on day 28) in the presence of FC more than in the absence. In conclusion, the presence of FC in A. sativum-yogurt or cheese enhanced the proteolytic activity. Thus, it has potential in the development of an effective dietary strategy for hypertension associated cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Novel whey-derived peptides with inhibitory effect against angiotensin-converting enzyme: in vitro effect and stability to gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Tânia; Contreras, Maria Del Mar; Amorim, Manuela; Pintado, Manuela; Recio, Isidra; Malcata, F Xavier

    2011-05-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis by proteases from the flowers of Cynara cardunculus, and the resulting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory effect was monitored. The whole WPC hydrolysate exhibited an IC(50) value of 52.9 ± 2.9 μg/mL, whereas the associated peptide fraction with molecular weight below 3 kDa scored 23.6 ± 1.1 μg/mL. The latter fraction was submitted to RP-HPLC, and 6 fractions were resolved that exhibited ACE-inhibitory effects. Among the various peptides found, a total of 14 were identified via sequencing with an ion-trap mass spectrometer. Eleven of these peptides were synthesized de novo--to validate their ACE-inhibitory effect, and also to ascertain their stability when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Among them, three novel, highly potent peptides were found, corresponding to α-lactalbumin f(16-26)--with the sequence KGYGGVSLPEW, α-lactalbumin f(97-104) with DKVGINYW, and β-lactoglobulin f(33-42) with DAQSAPLRVY; their IC(50) values were as low as 0.80 ± 0.1, 25.2 ± 1.0 and 13.0 ± 1.0 μg/mL, respectively. None of them remained stable in the presence of gastrointestinal enzymes: they were partially, or even totally hydrolyzed to smaller peptides--yet the observed ACE-inhibitory effects were not severely affected for two of those peptides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibitory Mechanisms in Primary Somatosensory Cortex Mediate the Effects of Peripheral Electrical Stimulation on Tactile Spatial Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kei; Otsuru, Naofumi; Inukai, Yasuto; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Tsuiki, Shota; Sasaki, Ryoki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2018-06-01

    Selective afferent activation can be used to improve somatosensory function, possibly by altering cortical inhibitory circuit activity. Peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) is widely used to induce selective afferent activation, and its effect may depend on PES intensity. Therefore, we investigated the effects of high- and low-intensity PES applied to the right index finger on tactile discrimination performance and cortical sensory-evoked potential paired-pulse depression (SEP-PPD) in 25 neurologically healthy subjects. In Experiment 1, a grating orientation task (GOT) was performed before and immediately after local high- and low-intensity PES (both delivered as 1-s, 20-Hz trains of 0.2-ms electrical pulses at 5-s intervals). In Experiment 2, PPD of SEP components N20/P25_SEP-PPD and N20_SEP-PPD, respectively, were assessed before and immediately after high- and low-intensity PES. Improved GOT discrimination performance after high-intensity PES (reduced discrimination threshold) was associated with lower baseline performance (higher baseline discrimination threshold). Subjects were classified into low and high (baseline) GOT performance groups. Improved GOT discrimination performance in the low GOT performance group was significantly associated with a greater N20_SEP-PPD decrease (weaker PPD). Subjects were also classified into GOT improvement and GOT decrement groups. High-intensity PES decreased N20_SEP-PPD in the GOT improvement group but increased N20_SEP-PPD in the GOT decrement group. Furthermore, a greater decrease in GOT discrimination threshold was significantly associated with a greater N20_SEP-PPD decrease in the GOT improvement group. These results suggest that high-intensity PES can improve sensory perception in subjects with low baseline function by modulating cortical inhibitory circuits in primary somatosensory cortex. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid on pterygium epithelial cells through redox imbalance and induction of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Chu; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2017-07-01

    Pterygium is a common tumor-like ocular disease, which may be related to exposure to chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Although the standard treatment for pterygium is surgical intervention, the recurrence rate of pterygium is high when no effective inhibitory drug is used after surgery. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenol antioxidant with many biological activities, including anti-UV and anti-tumor properties. This study aimed to examine the inhibitory effects of RA on pterygium epithelial cells (PECs). Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to examine the cell cytotoxicity of PECs after RA treatment. A fluorescent probe, DCFH-DA (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate), was stained with PECs to measure intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Antioxidant activity assays were used to measure the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in PECs. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and apoptosis-associated proteins. RA significantly reduced the cell viability of the PECs. Treatment with RA remarkably increased the Nrf2 protein expression levels in the nucleus, HO-1 and NQO1 protein expression levels, and the activities of SOD and CAT. As a result, intracellular ROS levels in PECs were decreased. Additionally, the induction of extrinsic apoptosis on PECs by RA was associated with increasing expressions levels of Fas, Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and caspase 8 protein. Moreover, the induction of intrinsic apoptotic cell death in PECs was confirmed through upregulation of cytochrome c, Bax, caspase 9, and caspase 3 and downregulation of Bcl-2 and pro-caspase 3. Our study demonstrated that RA could inhibit the viability of PECs through regulation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Therefore, RA may have

  15. In vitro characterization of the inhibitory effects of ketoconazole on metabolic activities of cytochrome P-450 in canine hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kuroha, Masanori; Kuze, Yoji; Shimoda, Minoru; Kokue, Eiichi

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate the inhibitory potency of ketoconazole (KTZ) on the metabolic activities of isozymes of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) in dogs. 4 healthy 1-year-old male Beagles. Hepatic microsomes were harvested from 4 dogs after euthanasia. To investigate the effects of KTZ on CYP metabolic activities, 7-ethoxyresorufin, tolbutamide, bufuralol, and midazolam hydrochloride were used as specific substrates for CYP1A1/2, CYP2C21, CYP2D15, and CYP3A12, respectively. The concentrations of metabolites formed by CYP were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, except for the resorufin concentrations that were measured by a fluorometric method. The reaction velocity-substrate concentration data were analyzed to obtain kinetic variables, including maximum reaction velocity, Michaelis-Menten constant, and inhibitory constant (Ki). KTZ competitively inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation; it noncompetitively inhibited tolbutamide methylhydroxylation. Bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation was inhibited slightly by KTZ. The mean Ki values of KTZ were 10.6+/-6.0, 170+/-2.5, and 0.180+/-0.131 microM for 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, tolbutamide methylhydroxylation, and midazolam 4-hydroxylation, respectively. In dogs, KTZ at a therapeutic dose may change the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A12 substrates as a result of inhibition of their biotransformation. Furthermore, no influence of KTZ on the pharmacokinetics of CYP1A1/2, CYP2C21, and CYP2D15 substrates are likely. In clinical practice, adverse drug effects may develop when KTZ is administered concomitantly with a drug that is primarily metabolized by CYP3A12.

  16. The Inhibitory Effect of Ciprofloxacin on the β-Glucuronidase-mediated Deconjugation of the Irinotecan Metabolite SN-38-G.

    PubMed

    Kodawara, Takaaki; Higashi, Takashi; Negoro, Yutaka; Kamitani, Yukio; Igarashi, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kyohei; Tsukamoto, Hitoshi; Yano, Ryoichi; Masada, Mikio; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Toshiaki

    2016-05-01

    The enterohepatic recycling of a drug consists of its biliary excretion and intestinal reabsorption, which is sometimes accompanied by hepatic conjugation and intestinal deconjugation reactions. β-Glucuronidase, an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme, can break the bond between a biliary excreted drug and glucuronic acid. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin can reduce the enterohepatic recycling of glucuronide-conjugated drugs. In this study, we established an in vitro system to evaluate the β-glucuronidase-mediated deconjugation of the irinotecan metabolite SN-38-G to its active SN-38 form and the effect of ciprofloxacin thereon. SN-38 formation increased in a time-dependent manner from 5 to 30 min. in the presence of β-glucuronidase. Ciprofloxacin and phenolphthalein-β-D-glucuronide (PhePG), a typical β-glucuronidase substrate, significantly decreased SN-38-G deconjugation and, hence SN-38 formation. Similarly, the antibiotics enoxacin and gatifloxacin significantly inhibited the conversion of SN-38-G to SN-38, which was not observed for levofloxacin, streptomycin, ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Ciprofloxacin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the β-glucuronidase-mediated conversion of SN-38-G to SN-38 with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) value of 83.8 μM. PhePG and ciprofloxacin afforded the inhibition in a competitive and non-competitive manner, respectively. These findings suggest that the reduction in the serum SN-38 concentration following co-administration of ciprofloxacin during irinotecan treatment is due, at least partly, to the decreased enterohepatic circulation of SN-38 through the non-competitive inhibition of intestinal β-glucuronidase-mediated SN-38-G deconjugation. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  17. The effect of hydromorphone therapy on psychophysical measurements of the descending inhibitory pain systems in patients with chronic radicular pain.

    PubMed

    Suzan, Erica; Treister, Roi; Pud, Dorit; Haddad, May; Eisenberg, Elon

    2015-01-01

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and offset analgesia (OA) are considered to represent paradigms of descending inhibitory pain modulation in humans. This study tested the effects of hydromorphone therapy on descending inhibitory pain modulation, as measured by changes from baseline in the magnitudes of CPM and OA. Prospective evaluation. Institute of Pain Medicine, Rambam Health Care Campus. Patients with chronic radicular pain. Thirty patients received 4 weeks of oral hydromorphone treatment at an individually titrated dose (mean ± standard deviation dose of 11.6 ± 4.8 mg/day). CPM and OA were assessed before and after hydromorphone treatment. CPM was assessed by subtracting the response to a painful phasic heat stimulus administered simultaneously with a conditioning cold pain stimulus, from the response to the same heat stimulus administered alone. The OA paradigm consisted of a three-temperature stimuli train (T1 = 49°C [5 seconds], T2 = 50°C [5 seconds], and T3 = 49°C [20 seconds]). The magnitude of OA was quantified by subtracting minimal pain scores obtained during T3 from the maximal pain scores obtained during T2. CPM scores changed from a baseline of 17.7 ± 20.6 to 21 ± 20.4 following treatment, and OA scores changed from 7.8 ± 20.5 to 9.7 ± 14.6. Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated that these changes were not significant (CPM: P = 0.22; OA: P = 0.44). McNemar test revealed that the percentage of patients who exhibited a change in the direction of CPM or OA in response to hydromorphone treatment was not significant (CPM: P = 0.37; OA: P = 0.48). These results suggest that the descending inhibitory pain modulation, as manifested in humans by CPM and OA, is unlikely to be mediated by hydromorphone therapy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. SVGA AMOLED with world's highest pixel pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor

    2006-05-01

    We present the design and early evaluation results of the world's highest pixel pitch full-color 800x3x600- pixel, active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) color microdisplay for consumer and environmentally demanding applications. The design premises were aimed at improving small area uniformity as well as reducing the pixel size while expanding the functionality found in existing eMagin Corporations' microdisplay products without incurring any power consumption degradation when compared to existing OLED microdisplays produced by eMagin. The initial results of the first silicon prototype presented here demonstrate compliance with all major objectives as well as the validation of a new adaptive gamma correction technique that can operate automatically over temperature.

  19. Comparative study on the inhibitory effects of α-tocopherol and radon on carbon tetrachloride-induced renal damage.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Morii, Yuji; Etani, Reo; Takata, Yuji; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Kawabe, Atsuishi; Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2011 nuclear accident in Fukushima, the effects of low-dose irradiation, especially internal exposure, are at the forefront of everyone's attention. However, low-dose radiation induced various stimulating effects such as activation of antioxidative and immune functions. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the quantitative effects of the activation of antioxidative activities in kidney induced by radon inhalation on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced renal damage. Mice were subjected to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of CCl4 after inhaling approximately 1000 or 2000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h, or immediately after i.p. injection of α-tocopherol (100, 300, or 500 mg/kg bodyweight). In case of renal function, radon inhalation at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m3 has the inhibitory effects similar to α-tocopherol treatment at a dose of 300-500 mg/kg bodyweight. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in kidneys were significantly higher in mice exposed to radon as compared to mice treated with CCl4 alone. These findings suggest that radon inhalation has an antioxidative effect against CCl4-induced renal damage similar to the antioxidative effects of α-tocopherol due to induction of antioxidative functions.

  20. [Relationship between HPLC fingerprint chromatogram and inhibitory effect on respiratory burst of rat PMN of leaves of crataegus].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong-hua; Yu, Bo-yang; Chen, Lan-ying; Liu, Ji-hua; Shao, Feng; Ma, Zhi-lin; Yang, Ming

    2008-08-01

    To study the relationship between HPLC fingerprint chromatogram and inhibitory effect on respiratory burst of rat PMN of leaves of crataegus L. HPLC fingerprint peaks of different species of hawthorn leaves were isolated and used for the effective experiment on the respiratory burst of rat PMN. The mathematic models of the relationship between the area and the effect of fingerprint peaks were established. According to the mathematic models, the HPLC fingerprint were change into bioactive fingerprint (include effective fingerprint and potency fingerprint) with the helps of mathematics, chemometrics, computer program simulation and etc. The chromatogram-effect relationship of leaves of crataegus. on respiratory burst of rat PMN was established. According to this relationship, the activities of fourteen samples of leaves of crataegus. were forecasted. It was positive correlation between the expected value and the practical value. And the correlation coefficients was 0.968 (P < 0.01). An all-around evaluative system, which includes not only chemical identification but also effective evaluation for traditional Chinese medicine was established. It will provide a new idea for study on fingerprint chromatogram of traditional Chinese medicine.

  1. Low-frequency rTMS inhibitory effects in the primary motor cortex: Insights from TMS-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Casula, Elias P; Tarantino, Vincenza; Basso, Demis; Arcara, Giorgio; Marino, Giuliana; Toffolo, Gianna Maria; Rothwell, John C; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S

    2014-09-01

    The neuromodulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have been mostly investigated by peripheral motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). New TMS-compatible EEG systems allow a direct investigation of the stimulation effects through the analysis of TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). We investigated the effects of 1-Hz rTMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) of 15 healthy volunteers on TEP evoked by single pulse TMS over the same area. A second experiment in which rTMS was delivered over the primary visual cortex (V1) of 15 healthy volunteers was conducted to examine the spatial specificity of the effects. Single-pulse TMS evoked four main components: P30, N45, P60 and N100. M1-rTMS resulted in a significant decrease of MEP amplitude and in a significant increase of P60 and N100 amplitude. There was no effect after V1-rTMS. 1-Hz rTMS appears to increase the amount of inhibition following a TMS pulse, as demonstrated by the higher N100 and P60, which are thought to originate from GABAb-mediated inhibitory post-synaptic potentials. Our results confirm the reliability of the TMS-evoked N100 as a marker of cortical inhibition and provide insight into the neuromodulatory effects of 1-Hz rTMS. The present finding could be of relevance for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fertility control of rodent pests: a review of the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tung Thanh; Hinds, Lyn A

    2013-03-01

    Plant extracts can inhibit fertility by adversely affecting, directly or indirectly, reproductive processes ranging from gonadal function and development to gestation. This review focuses on plant extracts that disrupt ovarian function in rodents. Extracts from at least 40 plant species exert some of their disruptive reproductive effects at the ovarian level. Of those, 13 plants induce a reduction in the number and type of ovarian follicles and also cause disruption to the oestrous cycle. Their effects are short term and reversible once treatment ceases. Protection of plant extracts to prevent their degradation before uptake in the gastrointestinal tract could enhance short-term efficacy but would not enhance the longevity of their effects. Identification and further testing of the specific chemicals responsible for reproductive effects would be beneficial. The adoption of a standard protocol for treatment and assessment of the inhibitory effects of potential control agents on reproductive function in rodents is essential. Treatment with higher concentrations of extracts in conjunction with other extracts or with other chemosterilants could have potential complementary effects and lead to more rapid and permanent changes in ovarian function. An orally delivered agent(s) that causes major depletion of all follicle types, and particularly of non-regenerating primordial follicles, could be an ideal fertility control product and serve as an additional tool for population control of pest rodents. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Júri; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 108CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus. PMID:24031939

  4. Long (27-nucleotides) small inhibitory RNAs targeting E6 protein eradicate effectively the cervical cancer cells harboring human papilloma virus.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jun Sik; Lee, Shin-Wha; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Young-Tak

    2015-05-01

    This study was to identify small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs) that are effective in inhibiting growth of cervical cancer cell lines harboring human papilloma virus (HPV) and to examine how siRNAs interact with interferon beta (IFN-β) and thimerosal. The HPV18-positive HeLa and C-4I cell lines were used. Four types of siRNAs were designed according to their target (both E6 and E7 vs. E6 only) and sizes (21- vs. 27-nucleotides); Ex-18E6/21, Ex-18E6/27, Sp-18E6/21, and Sp-18E6/27. Each siRNA-transfected cells were cultured with or without IFN-b and thimerosal and their viability was measured. The viabilities of HPV18-positive tumor cells were reduced by 21- and 27-nucleotide siRNAs in proportion to the siRNA concentrations. Of the two types of siRNAs, the 27-nucleotide siRNA constructs showed greater inhibitory efficacy. Sp-18E6 siRNAs, which selectively downregulates E6 protein only, were more effective than the E6- and E7-targeting Ex-18E6 siRNAs. siRNAs and IFN-β showed the synergistic effect to inhibit HeLa cell survival and the effect was proportional to both siRNA and IFN-β concentrations. Thimerosal in the presence of siRNA exerted a dose-dependent inhibition of C-4I cell survival. Finally, co-treatment with siRNA, IFN-β, and thimerosal induced the most profound decrease in the viability of both cell lines. Long (27-nucleotides) siRNAs targeting E6-E7 mRNAs effectively reduce the viability of HPV18-positive cervical cancer cells and show the synergistic effect in combination with IFN-b and thimerosal. It is necessary to find the rational design of siRNAs and effective co-factors to eradicate particular cervical cancer.

  5. Inhibitory effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 on spinal nociceptive processing in rat pain models.

    PubMed

    Meesawatsom, Pongsatorn; Burston, James; Hathway, Gareth; Bennett, Andrew; Chapman, Victoria

    2016-09-02

    Harnessing the actions of the resolvin pathways has the potential for the treatment of a wide range of conditions associated with overt inflammatory signalling. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) has robust analgesic effects in behavioural models of pain; however, the potential underlying spinal neurophysiological mechanisms contributing to these inhibitory effects in vivo are yet to be determined. This study investigated the acute effects of spinal AT-RvD1 on evoked responses of spinal neurones in vivo in a model of acute inflammatory pain and chronic osteoarthritic (OA) pain and the relevance of alterations in spinal gene expression to these neurophysiological effects. Pain behaviour was assessed in rats with established carrageenan-induced inflammatory or monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA pain, and changes in spinal gene expression of resolvin receptors and relevant enzymatic pathways were examined. At timepoints of established pain behaviour, responses of deep dorsal horn wide dynamic range (WDR) neurones to transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the hind paw were recorded pre- and post direct spinal administration of AT-RvD1 (15 and 150 ng/50 μl). AT-RvD1 (15 ng/50 μl) significantly inhibited WDR neurone responses to electrical stimuli at C- (29 % inhibition) and Aδ-fibre (27 % inhibition) intensities. Both wind-up (53 %) and post-discharge (46 %) responses of WDR neurones in carrageenan-treated animals were significantly inhibited by AT-RvD1, compared to pre-drug response (p < 0.05). These effects were abolished by spinal pre-administration of a formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX) antagonist, butoxy carbonyl-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe (BOC-2) (50 μg/50 μl). AT-RvD1 did not alter evoked WDR neurone responses in non-inflamed or MIA-treated rats. Electrophysiological effects in carrageenan-inflamed rats were accompanied by a significant increase in messenger RNA (mRNA) for chemerin (ChemR23) receptor and 5-lipoxygenase

  6. α-Glucosidase enzyme inhibitory effects and ursolic and oleanolic acid contents of fourteen Anatolian Salvia species.

    PubMed

    Kalaycıoğlu, Zeynep; Uzaşçı, Sesil; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Erim, F Bedia

    2018-06-05

    During the last decade, ursolic and oleanolic acids have been of considerable interest because of their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and potential effects for treatment of type 2 diabetes. A simple and sensitive reversed-phase HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. The optimal mobile phase was selected as 85% acetonitrile solution. The limit of detection of the method for ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were 14 ng mL -1 and 13 ng mL -1 , respectively. The method showed good precision and accuracy with intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.54% and 7.33% for ursolic acid, intra-day and inter-day variations of 0.51% and 5.26% for oleanolic acid, and overall recoveries of 97.8% and 98.5% for ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, respectively. Application of the method to determine the ursolic acid and oleanolic acid contents in the Salvia species revealed both compounds, with varying amounts between 0.21-9.76 mg g -1 ursolic acid and 0.20-12.7 mg g -1 oleanolic acid, respectively, among 14 Salvia species analyzed. Additionally, the plant extracts were analyzed for their inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase. According to the results of this assay, the extracts showed considerable activity on α-glucosidase with IC 50 values from 17.6 to 173 μg mL -1 . A strong negative correlation was detected between the amounts of both acids and IC 50 values of extracts. Anatolian Salvia species have great potential as functional plants in the management of diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antitubercular activity and inhibitory effect on Epstein-Barr virus activation of sterols and polyisoprenepolyols from an edible mushroom, Hypsizigus marmoreus.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Franzblau, Scott Gary; Tokuda, Harukuni; Tagata, Masaaki; Ukiya, Motohiko; Matsuzawa, Tsunetomo; Metori, Koichi; Kimura, Yumiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Yasukawa, Ken

    2005-06-01

    Seven sterols (1-7) and eight polyisoprenepolyols (8-15), isolated from the non-saponifiable lipid fraction of the dichloromethane extract of an edible mushroom, Hypsizigus marmoreus (Buna-shimeji), were tested for their antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA). Six sterols (2-7) and two polyisoprenepolyols (8, 12) showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 1-51 microg/ml, while the others (1, 9-11, 13-15) were inactive (MIC>128 microg/ml). The seven sterols (1-7) and three polyisoprenepolyols (8, 10, 12) were further evaluated for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. Sterols 6 and 7 showed potent inhibitory effects while preserving the high viability of Raji cells.

  8. Effects of leukemia inhibitory factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on free radicals and endogenous stem cell proliferation in a mouse model of cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weihui; Li, Yadan; Lin, Yufeng; Ye, Xue; Zang, Dawei

    2012-07-05

    The present study established a mouse model of cerebral infarction by middle cerebral artery occlusion, and monitored the effect of 25 μg/kg leukemia inhibitory factor and (or) basic fibroblast growth factor administration 2 hours after model establishment. Results showed that following administration, the number of endogenous neural stem cells in the infarct area significantly increased, malondialdehyde content in brain tissue homogenates significantly decreased, nitric oxide content, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity significantly elevated, and mouse motor function significantly improved as confirmed by the rotarod and bar grab tests. In particular, the effect of leukemia inhibitory factor in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor was the most significant. Results indicate that leukemia inhibitory factor and basic fibroblast growth factor can improve the microenvironment after cerebral infarction by altering free radical levels, improving the quantity of endogenous neural stem cells, and promoting neurological function of mice with cerebral infarction.

  9. Inhibitory effect of a redox-silent analogue of tocotrienol on hypoxia adaptation in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Nobuya; Sugahara, Ryosuke; Namiki, Kozue; Sato, Chiaki; Ando, Akira; Sato, Ayami; Virgona, Nantiga; Yano, Tomohiro

    2017-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in Western countries and acquires a malignant phenotype, androgen-independent growth. PCa under hypoxia often has resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, an effective therapy against PCa under hypoxia has not yet been established. In this report, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a redox-silent analogue of tocotrienol on the survival of a human androgen-independent PCa cell line (PC3) under hypoxia. We found that the redox-silent analogue exerted a cytotoxic effect on PC3 cells in a dose-dependent manner irrespective of either hypoxia or normoxia. Moreover, under hypoxia, the analogue dose dependently reduced the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α. In addition, a specific inhibitor toward HIF-1α induced cytotoxicity on PC3 cells, whereas selective inhibition of HIF-2α exerted no effect. Furthermore, suppression of HIFs levels by the analogue in hypoxic PC3 cells was closely associated with the inactivation of Fyn, a member of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase family, as confirmed by the action of a specific inhibitor toward the kinase (PP2). Taken together, these results suggest that the tocotrienol analogue could inhibit the survival of PC3 cells under hypoxia, mainly by the inhibition of Fyn/HIF-1α signaling, and this may lead to the establishment of a new effective therapy for androgen-independent PCa.

  10. Inhibitory effects of Persicariae Rhizoma aqueous extracts on experimental periodontitis and alveolar bone loss in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Jin; Lee, Eun Kyung; Han, Chang Hyun; Lee, Bong Hyo; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Persicariae Rhizoma (PR) is the dried stem parts of Persicaria tinctoria H. Gross (Polygonaceae), and has been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory and detoxifying agent. In the present study, the effects of PR aqueous extracts on ligation-induced experimental periodontitis (EPD) and associated alveolar bone loss in rats were examined. Following the induction of EPD in rats, PR extracts were orally administered once a day for 10 days, and the changes and gains in body weight, alveolar bone loss and total aerobic bacterial counts of buccal gingiva were observed with histopathological analysis. In addition, anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by monitoring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α contents, and anti-oxidant effects were investigated by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Bacterial proliferation, periodontitis and associated alveolar bone loss induced by ligature placement were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by the treatment with PR extracts. The inhibitory effects of 200 mg/kg PR were similar to those of 5 mg/kg indomethacin on ligation-induced periodontitis and associated alveolar bone losses in this study. The results suggest that PR effectively inhibits ligature placement-induced periodontitis and alveolar bone loss in rats via antibacterial, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:27588077

  11. Inhibitory effects of magnolol on voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels of NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chi-Li; Wong, Kar-Lok; Cheng, Ka-Shun; Kuo, Chang-Shin; Chao, Chia-Chia; Tsai, Min-Fan; Leung, Yuk-Man

    2012-05-05

    Magnolol, a polyphenolic compound isolated from Houpu, a Chinese herb from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, has been reported to have in vitro and in vivo neuroprotective effects. In spite of these reported beneficial effects, studies on the direct impact of magnolol on neuronal ion channels have been scarce. Whether magnolol affects voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) and voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels is unknown. Using the whole-cell voltage-clamp method, we studied the effects of magnolol on voltage-gated ion channels in neuronal NG108-15 cells. Magnolol inhibited VGSC channels with mild state-dependence (IC(50) of 15 and 30 μM, at holding potentials of -70 and -100 mV, respectively). No frequency-dependence was observed in magnolol block. Magnolol caused a left-shift of 18 mV in the steady-state inactivation curve but did not affect the voltage-dependence of activation. Magnolol inhibited Kv channels with an IC(50) of 21 μM, and it caused a 20-mV left-shift in the steady-state inactivation curve without affecting the voltage-dependence of activation. In conclusion, magnolol is an inhibitor of both VGSC and Kv channels and these inhibitory effects may in part contribute to some of the reported neuroprotective effects of magnolol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibitory effect of black tea and its combination with acarbose on small intestinal α-glucosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Takashi; Igarashi, Masaki; Yamada, Shogo; Takahashi, Natsuko; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-02-23

    It is said that black tea is effective against type 2 diabetes mellitus because it can help modulate postprandial hyperglycemia. However, the mechanism underlying its therapeutic and preventive effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus is unclear. In this study, we focused on the effect of black tea on the carbohydrate digestion and absorption process in the gastrointestinal tract. We examined whether black tea can modulate postprandial hyperglycemia. The freeze-dried powder of the aqueous extract of black tea leaves (JAT) was used for in vitro studies of α-amylase activity, α-glucosidase activity, and glucose uptake by glucose transporters in Caco-2 cells; ex vivo studies of small intestinal α-glucosidase activity; and in vivo studies of oral sugar tolerance in GK rats, an animal model of nonobese type 2 diabetes mellitus. Half maximal inhibitory concentration values indicated that JAT significantly reduced α-glucosidase activity, but weakly reduced α-amylase activity. Kinetic studies of rat small intestinal α-glucosidase activity revealed that the combination of JAT and the α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, showed a mixed-type inhibition. JAT had no effect on the uptake of 2'-deoxy-d-glucose by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and the uptake of α-methyl-d-glucose by sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1). In the oral sucrose tolerance test in GK rats, JAT reduced plasma glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control group. The hypoglycemic action of JAT was also confirmed: JAT, in combination with acarbose, produced a synergistic inhibitory effect on plasma glucose levels in vivo. In contrast to the oral sucrose tolerance test, JAT showed no effect in the oral glucose tolerance test. JAT was demonstrated to inhibit the degradation of disaccharides into monosaccharides by α-glucosidase in the small intestine. Thereby indirectly preventing the absorption of the dietary source of glucose mediated by SGLT1 and GLUT2 transporters

  13. Identification of lactobacilli with inhibitory effect on biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria on stainless steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ait Ouali, Fatma; Al Kassaa, Imad; Cudennec, Benoit; Abdallah, Marwan; Bendali, Farida; Sadoun, Djamila; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Drider, Djamel

    2014-11-17

    Two hundred and thirty individual clones of microorganisms were recovered from milk tanks and milking machine surfaces at two distinct farms (Bejaja City, Algeria). Of these clones, 130 were identified as lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In addition Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species were identified in the remaining 100 isolates-spoilage isolate. These isolates were assayed for ability to form biofilms. S. aureus, Lactobacillus brevis strains LB1F2, LB14F1 and LB15F1, and Lactobacillus pentosus strains LB2F2 and LB3F2 were identified as the best biofilm formers. Besides, these LAB isolates were able to produce proteinaceous substances with antagonism against the aforementioned spoilage isolates, when grown in MRS or TSB-YE media. During the screening, L. pentosus LB3F2 exhibited the highest antibacterial activity when grown in TSB-YE medium at 30 °C. Additionally, L. pentosus LB3F2 was able to strongly hamper the adhesion of S. aureus SA3 on abiotic surfaces as polystyrene and stainless steel slides. LAB isolates did not show any hemolytic activity and all of them were sensitive to different families of antibiotic tested. It should be pointed out that LB3F2 isolate was not cytotoxic on the intestinal cells but could stimulate their metabolic activity. This report unveiled the potential of LB1F2, LB14F1, LB15F1, LB2F2, and LB3F2 isolates to be used as natural barrier or competitive exclusion organism in the food processing sector as well as a positive biofilm forming bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenformin has a direct inhibitory effect on the ATP-sensitive potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Qadeer; Thomas, Alison; Khambra, Tapsi; Tinker, Andrew

    2010-05-25

    The biguanides, phenformin and metformin, are used in the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus, as well as being routinely used in studies investigating AMPK activity. We used the patch-clamp technique and rubidium flux assays to determine the role of these drugs in ATP-sensitive K+ channel (K(ATP)) regulation in cell lines expressing the cloned components of K(ATP) and the current natively expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Phenformin but not metformin inhibits a number of variants of K(ATP) including the cloned equivalents of currents present in vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle (Kir6.1/SUR2B and Kir6.2/SUR2B) and pancreatic beta-cells (Kir6.2/SUR1). However it does not inhibit the current potentially present in cardiac myocytes (Kir6.2/SUR2A). The highest affinity interaction is seen with Kir6.1/SUR2B (IC50=0.55 mM) and it also inhibits the current in native vascular smooth muscle cells. The extent and rate of inhibition are similar to that seen with the known K(ATP) blocker PNU 37883A. Additionally, phenformin inhibited the current elicited through the Kir6.2DeltaC26 (functional without SUR) channel with an IC50 of 1.78 mM. Phenformin reduced the open probability of Kir6.1/SUR2B channels by approximately 90% in inside-out patches. These findings suggest that phenformin interacts directly with the pore-forming Kir6.0 subunit however the sulphonylurea receptor is able to significantly modulate the affinity. It is likely to block from the intracellular side of the channel in a manner analogous to that of PNU 37883A. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification determined using SOUR and RNA-based gene-specific assays.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, V; Elk, M; Li, X; Santo Domingo, J W

    2016-08-01

    The effect of cyanide (CN(-) ) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying bacterial enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes involved in nitrification. The nitrifying bioreactor was operated as a continuous reactor with a 24 h hydraulic retention time. The samples were exposed in batch vessels to cyanide for a period of 12 h. The concentrations of CN(-) used in the batch assays were 0·03, 0·06, 0·1 and 1·0 mg l(-1) . There was considerable decrease in SOUR with increasing dosages of CN(-) . A decrease of more than 50% in nitrification activity was observed at 0·1 mg l(-1) CN(-) . Based on the RT-qPCR data, there was notable reduction in the transcript levels of amoA and hao for increasing CN(-) dosage, which corresponded well with the ammonia oxidation activity measured via SOUR. The inhibitory effect of cyanide may be attributed to the affinity of cyanide to bind ferric haeme proteins, which disrupt protein structure and function. The correspondence between the relative expression of functional genes and SOUR shown in this study demonstrates the efficacy of RNA-based function-specific assays for better understanding of the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. The effect of cyanide on nitrifying bacteria was characterized by measuring physiological and transcriptional response. Cyanide was inhibitory to nitrification at concentrations that may be found in industrial waste. The RNA-based function-specific assays represent a mechanistic approach for better understanding the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. Moreover, the relative abundance of RNA transcripts can be used to closely track in situ nitrifying bacterial activity which can be used to predict inhibition events, thereby providing a metric to potentially improve performance of

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Medium Molecular Weight Heparinyl Amino Acid Derivatives on Ischemic Paw Edema in Mice.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Seiichi; Toda, Takao; Nakamura, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the radical-scavenging effects of heparin (HE), medium molecular weight heparinyl phenylalanine (MHF), and medium molecular weight heparinyl leucine (MHL) using ischemic paw edema in mice. We also examined the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of mice that were administered these compounds as an index of their side-effects. HE had a preventative effect and significant reduced ischemic paw edema. However, its effect was not dose-dependent and the dose-response curve was bell-shaped. The effective dose of HE also exhibited a prolonged APTT. Pretreatment using MHF and MHL were effective against ischemic paw edema without a prolonged APTT. Remarkably, the action of MHF was not only preventively, but also therapeutically active. These results suggest that MHF and MHL are superior to HE as safe radical scavengers in vivo. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Spectra of Cas A's Highest Velocity Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, Robert A.; Milisavljevic, Dan

    2010-08-01

    The young age and close distance of the Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) make it perhaps our best case study and clearest look at the explosion dynamics of a core-collapse supernova (CCSN). Interestingly, Cas A exhibits two nearly opposing streams of high velocity ejecta or `jets' in its NE and SW regions racing outward at speeds more than twice that of the main shell. The nature of these jets, however, and their possible association with an aspherical supernova explosion mechanism is controversial. A handful of existing low-resolution spectra of outer knots in the NE jet display chemical abundances hinting at an origin from the S-Si-Ca- Ar rich layer deep inside the progenitor. If these abundances could be firmly established in both the NE and SW jets, it would be very strong evidence in support of a highly asymmetrical explosion engine for Cas A's progenitor and, in turn, for CCSNe in general. We request KPNO 4m telescope + MARS time to obtain high quality multi-object spectroscopy of Cas A's highest velocity ejecta to measure their nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, calcium, and argon abundances. These spectra will be analyzed with the metal-rich shock models of J. Raymond and then compared to current sets of CCSN models paying particular attention to knot composition vs. ejection velocity and ejecta mixing.

  18. Inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on cell proliferation and the expression of HIF-1α and P-gp in the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenni; Wang, Yu; Liu, Zhiqing; Wang, Fan; Zhao, Qiu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on cell proliferation and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/P-gp) in the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1, thereby, reversing drug resistance of pancreatic carcinoma and improving its sensitivity to cancer chemotherapy. The human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1 was incubated under hypoxic conditions with different concentrations of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for indicated hours. The effects of EGCG on the mRNA or protein expression of HIF-1α and MDR1 were determined by RT-PCR or western blotting. Cellular proliferation and viability assays were measured using Cell Counting Kit-8. Western blotting revealed that EGCG inhibits the expression of the HIF-1α protein in a dose-dependent manner, while RT-PCR showed that it does not have any effects on HIF-1α mRNA. In addition, EGCG attenuated the mRNA and protein levels of P-gp in a dose-dependent manner, reaching a peak at the highest concentration. Furthermore, EGCG inhibited the proliferation of PANC-1 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The attenuation of HIF-1α and the consequently reduced P-gp could contribute to the inhibitory effects of EGCG on the proliferation of PANC-1 cells.

  19. Comparative study on the inhibitory effects of antioxidant vitamins and radon on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Yamato, Keiko; Teraoka, Junichi; Morii, Yuji; Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that radon inhalation activates anti-oxidative functions and inhibits carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatopathy. It has also been reported that antioxidant vitamins can inhibit CCl4-induced hepatopathy. In the current study, we examined the comparative efficacy of treatment with radon, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on CCl4-induced hepatopathy. Mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 after inhaling approximately 1000 or 2000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h, or immediately after intraperitoneal injection of ascorbic acid (100, 300, or 500 mg/kg bodyweight) or α-tocopherol (100, 300, or 500 mg/kg bodyweight). We estimated the inhibitory effects on CCl4-induced hepatopathy based on hepatic function-associated parameters, oxidative damage-associated parameters and histological changes. The results revealed that the therapeutic effects of radon inhalation were almost equivalent to treatment with ascorbic acid at a dose of 500 mg/kg or α-tocopherol at a dose of 300 mg/kg. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver were significantly higher in mice exposed to radon than in mice treated with CCl4 alone. These findings suggest that radon inhalation has an anti-oxidative effect against CCl4-induced hepatopathy similar to the anti-oxidative effects of ascorbic acid or α-tocopherol due to the induction of anti-oxidative functions. PMID:23111757

  20. inhibitory effects of citral, cinnamaldehyde, and tea polyphenols on mixed biofilm formation by foodborne Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmei; Zhou, Wenyuan; Zhang, Wenyan; Yang, Anlin; Liu, Yanlan; Jiang, Yan; Huang, Shaosong; Su, Jianyu

    2014-06-01

    Biofilms are significant hazards in the food industry. In this study, we investigated the effects of food additive such as citral, cinnamaldehyde, and tea polyphenols on mixed biofilm formation by foodborne Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella serotype Enteritidis. The adhesion rates of mixed strains in sub-MIC of additives were determined by a microtiter plate assay and bacterial communication signal autoinducer 2 (AI-2) production via a bioluminescence reporter Vibrio harveyi BB170. The structure of mixed biofilm was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the disinfectants hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid was tested on the mixed biofilm. Our results demonstrated that citral, cinnamaldehyde, and tea polyphenols were able to significantly inhibit mixed biofilm formation, while citral could reduce the synthesis of AI-2. Conversely, we observed a significant increase in AI-2 mediated by cinnamaldehyde. Tea polyphenols at lower concentrations induced AI-2 synthesis; however, AI-2 synthesis was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations (300 m g/ml). Food additives inhibited the adhesion of mixed bacteria on stainless steel chips and increased the sensitivity of the mixed biofilm to disinfectants. In conclusion, citral, cinnamaldehyde, and tea polyphenols had strong inhibitory effects on mixed biofilm formation and also enhanced the effect of disinfectant on mixed biofilm formation. This study provides a scientific basis for the application of natural food additives to control biofilm formation of foodborne bacteria.

  1. Growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of l-asparaginase from Fusarium culmorum ASP-87 on human leukemia cells (Jurkat).

    PubMed

    Meghavarnam, Anil K; Salah, Maryam; Sreepriya, Meenakshisundaram; Janakiraman, Savitha

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the anticancer properties of l-asparaginase purified from fungal isolate Fusarium culmorum ASP-87 against human T-cell leukemia cell line (Jurkat). The growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of purified l-asparaginase on Jurkat cell lines were investigated by determining its influence on cell viability, colony formation, DNA fragmentation, and cell cycle progression. The results revealed that purified l-asparaginase showed significant decrease in cell survival with IC 50 value of 90 μg/mL (9 IU/mL). The enzyme inhibited colony formation and showed characteristic laddering pattern on agarose gel thereby confirming the induction of apoptosis. Further, cell cycle analysis revealed that the enzyme induced apoptotic cell death by arresting the growth of cells at G 2 -M phase. However, the enzyme did not elicit any toxic effects on human erythrocytes. l-asparaginase purified from F. culmorum ASP-87 showed significant and selective cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on human T-cell leukemic cells in dose-dependent manner. Results of the study give leads for the anticancer effects of fungal l-asparaginase and its potential usefulness in the chemotherapy of leukemia. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  2. A comparison inhibitory effects of cisplatin and MNPs-PEG-cisplatin on the adhesion capacity of bone metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Mohammad Javad; Koohpeima, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2017-10-01

    To date, high mortality in women due to malignancy breast cancer related to the metastasis to the bone is a significant challenge. As, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) conjugated with the biocompatible polymers was employed for the delivery of some hydrophobic anticancer agents, the main aim of the current research was to assess whether cisplatin-loaded MNPs enhanced the anticancer effect of free cisplatin in breast cancer cells. MNPs decorated with PEG were synthesized by an improved coprecipitation technique, and then cisplatin was loaded onto the MNPs via a simple mixing method. Afterward, its morphology, size, chemical structure, magnetic property, hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential, and crystal structure were characterized by scanning and transmittance electron microscopy, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, dynamic light scattering, and X-ray powder diffraction and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy respectively. Additionally, the effects of cisplatin and MNPs-PEG-cisplatin on viability, migration and adhesion capacity of T47D cells were investigated by evaluating α2-integrin and β1-integrin; mRNAs were assessed by real-time RT-PCR. Consequently, the in vitro assay results showed a considerable dose-dependent inhibitory effect of cisplatin and MNPs-PEG-cisplatin on proliferation, migration, and adhesion of T47D cells. Finally, current research was shown that MNPs-PEG-cisplatin strongly increased anticancer effects compared with free cisplatin in the T47D cell line. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Comparative study on the inhibitory effects of antioxidant vitamins and radon on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Yamato, Keiko; Teraoka, Junichi; Morii, Yuji; Sakoda, Akihiro; Ishimori, Yuu; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2012-11-01

    We have previously reported that radon inhalation activates anti-oxidative functions and inhibits carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatopathy. It has also been reported that antioxidant vitamins can inhibit CCl(4)-induced hepatopathy. In the current study, we examined the comparative efficacy of treatment with radon, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on CCl(4)-induced hepatopathy. Mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of CCl(4) after inhaling approximately 1000 or 2000 Bq/m(3) radon for 24 h, or immediately after intraperitoneal injection of ascorbic acid (100, 300, or 500 mg/kg bodyweight) or α-tocopherol (100, 300, or 500 mg/kg bodyweight). We estimated the inhibitory effects on CCl(4)-induced hepatopathy based on hepatic function-associated parameters, oxidative damage-associated parameters and histological changes. The results revealed that the therapeutic effects of radon inhalation were almost equivalent to treatment with ascorbic acid at a dose of 500 mg/kg or α-tocopherol at a dose of 300 mg/kg. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver were significantly higher in mice exposed to radon than in mice treated with CCl(4) alone. These findings suggest that radon inhalation has an anti-oxidative effect against CCl(4)-induced hepatopathy similar to the anti-oxidative effects of ascorbic acid or α-tocopherol due to the induction of anti-oxidative functions.

  4. Mechanistic Study of Inhibitory Effects of Metformin and Atorvastatin in Combination on Prostate Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Shi; Huang, Hua-Rong; Zhang, Lan-Yue; Kim, Seungkee; He, Yan; Li, Dong-Li; Farischon, Chelsea; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi; Du, Zhi-Yun; Goodin, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Metformin is a commonly used drug for the treatment of type II diabetes and atorvastatin is the most prescribed cholesterol-lowering statin. The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms of metformin and atorvastatin in combination on human prostate cancer cells cultured in vitro and grown as xenograft tumor in vivo. Metformin in combination with atorvastatin had stronger effects on growth inhibition and apoptosis in PC-3 cells than either drug alone. The combination also potently inhibited cell migration and the formation of tumorspheres. Metformin and atorvastatin in combination had a potent inhibitory effect on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activity and caused strong decreases in the expression of its downstream anti-apoptotic gene Survivin. Moreover, strong decreases in the levels of phospho-Akt and phosphor-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 were found in the cells treated with the combination. The in vivo study showed that treatment of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with metformin or atorvastatin alone resulted in moderate inhibition of tumor growth while the combination strongly inhibited the growth of the tumors. Results of the present study indicate the combination of metformin and atorvastatin may be an effective strategy for inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer and should be evaluated clinically.

  5. Sildenafil counteracts the inhibitory effect of social subordination on competitive aggression and sexual motivation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Dadomo, Harold; Volpi, Riccardo; Ferrari, Massimiliano; Vignali, Alessandro; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chronic intra-peritoneal administration of 10 mg/kg (t.i.w., for 5 weeks) of sildenafil on competitive aggression, sexual behaviour and body weight gain was tested in CD1 subordinate male mice in two experimental contexts: 1) "low levels of aggression", i.e. housing in dyads of siblings 2) "high levels of aggression", i.e. exposure to a model of chronic psychosocial stress with an unfamiliar mice. Subordinate mice in both experimental contexts were injected with sildenafil or saline. After 2 weeks of sildenafil administration, a subgroup of subordinates exposed to "high levels of aggression" began to counterattack their dominant counterparts at higher rates than saline-injected subordinates. This effect was essentially similar but faster in subordinates subjected to "low levels of aggression". As far as sexual behaviour is concerned, in both experimental contexts, sildenafil-injected subordinated mice showed significant lower latencies to mount a proceptive female when compared to saline-injected subjects. Furthermore, in the "high levels of aggression" context, Sildenafil reduced stress-induced body weight gain. Sildenafil showed no effects in individually housed males serving as controls. In conclusion, chronic Sildenafil treatment counteracts the inhibitory effects of social subordination on male competitive aggression, sexual behaviour and body weight gain. Overall our data suggests that sildenafil could be acting in the central nervous system to modulate sexual and agonistic motivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aging effects in response inhibition: general slowing without decline in inhibitory functioning.

    PubMed

    Yano, Madoka

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has examined aging effects on response inhibition using cognitive interference paradigms such as the Stroop task and the Simon task. Performance in these tasks requires participants to inhibit predominant responses. Reduced response inhibition is reflected by poorer performance in incongruent trials where prepotent responses can interfere with other correct responses, than in congruent trials without such interference (i.e., Stroop or Simon congruency effects). It is unclear whether such effects increase with normal aging. Balota et al. (2010) reported that the Stroop effect can be a useful predictor of conversion to Alzheimer's disease in a healthy control sample. Congruency effects are also subject to trial sequencing: They are smaller following an incongruent trial than following a congruent one. The present study determined whether response inhibition was affected by normal aging using the Simon task, with focus on the influence of normal aging on sequence effects. Forty-three young participants and 14 healthy elderly adults performed the Simon task individually. Results indicated that both age groups showed the same magnitude of Simon effects and sequence effects, although overall response latencies were longer in elderly participants than in young participants. Furthermore, the elderly adults tended to make fewer errors than the younger adults. These findings suggest that normal aging may produce reduced processing speed but it does not affect response inhibition itself.

  7. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of PKC isozymes are mediated by serine/threonine PKC sites of the Cav2.3α1 subunits.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Senthilkumar; Burton, Brittney K; Fields, Blanche L; El, India O; Kamatchi, Ganesan L

    2017-05-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes modulate voltage-gated calcium (Ca v ) currents through Ca v 2.2 and Ca v 2.3 channels by targeting serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphorylation sites of Ca v α 1 subunits. Stimulatory (Thr-422, Ser-2108 and Ser-2132) and inhibitory (Ser-425) sites were identified in the Ca v 2.2α 1 subunits to PKCs βII and ε. In the current study, we investigated if the homologous sites of Ca v 2.3α 1 subunits (stimulatory: Thr-365, Ser-1995 and Ser-2011; inhibitory: Ser-369) behaved in similar manner. Several Ala and Asp mutants were constructed in Ca v 2.3α 1 subunits in such a way that the Ser/Thr sites can be examined in isolation. These mutants or WT Ca v 2.3α 1 along with auxiliary β 1b and α 2 /δ subunits were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the effects of PKCs βII and ε studied on the barium current (I Ba ). Among these sites, stimulatory Thr-365 and Ser-1995 and inhibitory Ser-369 behaved similar to their homologs in Ca v 2.2α 1 subunits. Furthermore PKCs produced neither stimulation nor inhibition when stimulatory Thr-365 or Ser-1995 and inhibitory Ser-369 were present together. However, the PKCs potentiated the I Ba when two stimulatory sites, Thr-365 and Ser-1995 were present together, thus overcoming the inhibitory effect of Ser-369. Taken together net PKC effect may be the difference between the responses of the stimulatory and inhibitory sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin on Syntrophic Fatty Acid-Oxidizing and Methanogenic Cultures and Biogas Reactor Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Harms, Hauke; Sträuber, Heike

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coumarins are widely found in plants as natural constituents having antimicrobial activity. When considering plants that are rich in coumarins for biogas production, adverse effects on microorganisms driving the anaerobic digestion process are expected. Furthermore, coumarin derivatives, like warfarin, which are used as anticoagulating medicines, are found in wastewater, affecting its treatment. Coumarin, the structure common to all coumarins, inhibits the anaerobic digestion process. However, the details of this inhibition are still elusive. Here, we studied the impact of coumarin on acetogenesis and methanogenesis. First, coumarin was applied at four concentrations between 0.25 and 1 g · liter−1 to pure cultures of the methanogens Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanospirillum hungatei, which resulted in up to 25% less methane production. Acetate production of syntrophic propionate- and butyrate-degrading cultures of Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans and Syntrophomonas wolfei was inhibited by 72% at a coumarin concentration of 1 g · liter−1. Coumarin also inhibited acetogenesis and acetoclastic methanogenesis in a complex biogas reactor microbiome. When a coumarin-adapted microbiome was used, acetogenesis and methanogenesis were not inhibited. According to amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and mcrA genes, the communities of the two microbiomes were similar, although Methanoculleus was more abundant and Methanobacterium less abundant in the coumarin-adapted than in the nonadapted microbiome. Our results suggest that well-dosed feeding with coumarin-rich feedstocks to full-scale biogas reactors while keeping the coumarin concentrations below 0.5 g · liter−1 will allow adaptation to coumarins by structural and functional community reorganization and coumarin degradation. IMPORTANCE Coumarins from natural and anthropogenic sources have an inhibitory impact on the anaerobic digestion process. Here, we studied in detail the adverse effects of

  9. Inhibitory control training for appetitive behaviour change: A meta-analytic investigation of mechanisms of action and moderators of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew; Di Lemma, Lisa C G; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Nolan, Sarah; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Field, Matt

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitory control training (ICT) is a novel intervention in which participants learn to associate appetitive cues with inhibition of behaviour. We present a meta-analytic investigation of laboratory studies of ICT for appetitive behaviour change in which we investigate candidate mechanisms of action, individual differences that may moderate its effectiveness, and compare it to other psychological interventions. We conducted random-effects generic inverse variance meta-analysis on data from 14 articles (18 effect sizes in total). Participants who received ICT chose or consumed significantly less food or alcohol compared to control groups (SMD = 0.36, 95% CIs [0.24, 0.47]; Z = 6.18, p < .001; I(2) = 71%). Effect sizes were larger for motor (Go/No-Go and Stop Signal) compared to oculomotor (Antisaccade) ICT. The effects of ICT on behaviour were comparable to those produced by other psychological interventions, and effects of ICT on food intake were greater in participants who were attempting to restrict their food intake. The magnitude of the effect of ICT on behaviour was predicted by the proportion of successful inhibitions but was unrelated to the absolute number of trials in which appetitive cues were paired with the requirement to inhibit, or the contingency between appetitive cues and the requirement to inhibit. The effect of ICT on cue devaluation (primarily assessed with implicit association tests) was not statistically significant. Our analysis confirms the efficacy of ICT for short-term behaviour change in the laboratory, and we have demonstrated that its effectiveness may depend on pairings between appetitive cues and successful inhibition. We highlight the need for further research to translate these findings outside of the laboratory. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibitory effects of CaO/Fe2O3 on arsenic emission during sewage sludge pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Hengda; Hu, Song; Lu, Chaofeng; Wang, Yi; Jiang, Long; Xiang, Jun; Su, Sheng

    2016-10-01

    This work aimed to investigate effects and reaction mechanisms of CaO/Fe2O3 on emission behaviors of arsenic during sewage sludge pyrolysis. The results showed that 24.8-54.2%, 26.4-60.4% and 27.7-63.1% of arsenic escaped from three samples when pyrolysis process happened at 723, 923 and 1123K respectively. And the sludge which contained higher calcium and iron contents released less arsenic than others. External CaO and Fe2O3 were added into the sewage sludge to study their effects on arsenic emissions during pyrolysis, where both of them inhibited arsenic emission effectively, especially at high temperatures. With the help of thermogravimetry analysis and X-ray fluorescence, inhibitory mechanisms of CaO/Fe2O3 on arsenic emission during sewage sludge pyrolysis were studied. CaO could react with As2O3, As2S3 and NaAsO2 to form nonvolatile substances, such as Ca(AsO2)2; while Fe2O3 could react with NaAsO2 to generate certain substances which was stable below 1123K. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibitory effects of soluble algae products (SAP) released by Scenedesmus sp. LX1 on its growth and lipid production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Yu, Yin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Soluble algal products (SAP) accumulated in culture medium via water reuse may affect the growth of microalga during the cultivation. Scenedesmus sp. LX1, a freshwater microalga, was used in this study to investigate the effect of SAP on growth and lipid production of microalga. Under the SAP concentrations of 6.4-25.8 mg L(-1), maximum algal density (K) and maximum growth rate (Rmax) of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were decreased by 50-80% and 35-70% compared with the control group, respectively. The effect of SAP on lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was non-significant. According to hydrophilic-hydrophobic and acid-base properties, SAP was fractionized into six fractions. All of the fractions could inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Organic bases (HIB, HOB) and hydrophilic acids (HIA) showed the strongest inhibition. HIA could also decrease the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by 59.2%. As the inhibitory effect, SAP should be seriously treated before water reuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lack of inhibitory effects of the anti-fibrotic drug imatinib on endothelial cell functions in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Venalis, Paulius; Maurer, Britta; Akhmetshina, Alfiya; Busch, Nicole; Dees, Clara; Stürzl, Michael; Zwerina, Jochen; Jüngel, Astrid; Gay, Steffen; Schett, Georg; Distler, Oliver; Distler, Jörg H W

    2009-10-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is characterized by microangiopathy with progressive loss of capillaries and tissue fibrosis. Imatinib exerts potent anti-fibrotic effects and is currently evaluated in clinical trials. The aim of the present study was to exclude that the anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib are complicated by inhibitory effects on endothelial cell functions, which might augment vascular disease in SSc. Endothelial cells and mice were treated with pharmacologically relevant concentrations of imatinib. The expression of markers of vascular activation was assessed with real-time PCR. Proliferation was analysed with the cell counting experiments and the MTT assay. Apoptosis was quantified with caspase 3 assays, annexin V in vitro and with TUNEL staining in vivo. Migration was studied with scratch and transwell assays. Tube forming was investigated with the matrigel assay. Imatinib did not alter the expression of markers of vascular activation. Imatinib did not increase the percentage of annexin V positive cells or the activity of caspase 3. No reduction in proliferation or metabolic activity of endothelial cells was observed. Imatinib did not affect migration of endothelial cells and did not reduce the formation of capillary tubes. Consistent with the in vitro data, no difference in the number of apoptotic endothelial cells was observed in vivo in mice treated with imatinib. Imatinib does not inhibit activation, viability, proliferation, migration or tube forming of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, treatment with imatinib might not augment further endothelial cell damage in SSc.

  13. Lack of inhibit